Science.gov

Sample records for action levels established

  1. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD...

  2. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE...

  3. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  4. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  5. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  6. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  7. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  8. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  9. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  10. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  11. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 109.4 Establishment of tolerances... may be established in subpart D of this part to identify a food containing a naturally...

  12. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Establishing affirmative action plans. 1608.4 Section 1608... AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.4 Establishing affirmative action plans. An affirmative action plan or program under this section shall...

  13. SADC establishes a regional action plan.

    PubMed

    Klouda, T

    1997-02-01

    The regional meeting held on AIDS strategy in Lilongwe, Malawi, in December, 1996, made important advances. The 12 countries of the SADC (Southern Africa Development Community) joined the European Union to institute a regional action plan for the reduction of susceptibility of people to HIV because of social, cultural, and environmental factors; the vulnerability of people with HIV infection to social and other difficulties; and the vulnerability of institutions because of the foregoing impacts. At the conference the issues explored were employment, mining, medical drugs, education, and tourism. An employment charter was seen as crucial for the success of AIDS and workplace activities. Facilitation of travel across borders was important for the reduction of susceptibility to HIV infection. Enhancement of regional policies for essential drugs was vital for drugs for the treatment of AIDS. The clarification of the regional role was critical for regional support of national action (strengthening technical and institutional capacities) and for regional joint action such as studies on research, harmonization of data collection on HIV/AIDS; organization of training; development of information and education on HIV/AIDS; facilitation of manufacturing of drugs and condoms; and the development of a regional information and education program about HIV/AIDS. The conference also clarified HIV/AIDS programs in relation to other health and socioeconomic problems. PMID:12292055

  14. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  15. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  16. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  17. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  18. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  19. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2 µg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA exposure,...

  20. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  1. Regulation of androgen action during establishment of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Douglas A; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2016-07-01

    During the establishment of pregnancy, the ovarian-derived hormones progesterone and oestradiol regulate remodelling of the endometrium to promote an environment that is able to support and maintain a successful pregnancy. Decidualisation is characterised by differentiation of endometrial stromal cells that secrete growth factors and cytokines that regulate vascular remodelling and immune cell influx. This differentiation process is critical for reproduction, and inadequate decidualisation is implicated in the aetiology of pregnancy disorders such as foetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. In contrast to progesterone and oestradiol, the role of androgens in regulating endometrial function is poorly understood. Androgen receptors are expressed in the endometrium, and androgens are reported to regulate both the transcriptome and the secretome of endometrial stromal cells. In androgen-target tissues, circulating precursors are activated to mediate local effects, and recent studies report that steroid concentrations detected in endometrial tissue are distinct to those detected in the peripheral circulation. New evidence suggests that decidualisation results in dynamic changes in the expression of androgen biosynthetic enzymes, highlighting a role for pre-receptor regulation of androgen action during the establishment of pregnancy. These results suggest that such enzymes could be future therapeutic targets for the treatment of infertility associated with endometrial dysfunction. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that androgens play a beneficial role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Future studies should be focussed on investigating the safety and efficacy of androgen supplementation with the potential for utilisation of novel therapeutics, such as selective androgen receptor modulators, to improve reproductive outcomes in women. PMID:27067639

  2. 12 CFR 263.82 - Establishment of minimum capital levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels. 263.82... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital...

  3. 12 CFR 263.82 - Establishment of minimum capital levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels. 263.82... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital...

  4. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... three elements: a reasonable self analysis; a reasonable basis for concluding action is appropriate; and reasonable action. (a) Reasonable self analysis. The objective of a self analysis is to determine whether... analysis. The employer may utilize techniques used in order to comply with Executive Order 11246,...

  5. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  6. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  7. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  8. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. 1009.8 Section 1009.8 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL GENERAL STATEMENTS OF POLICY OR INTERPRETATION § 1009.8 Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action. (a) This document states the...

  9. 27 CFR 19.913 - Action on applications to establish small plants.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action on applications to establish small plants. 19.913 Section 19.913 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX... Fuel Use Permits § 19.913 Action on applications to establish small plants. (a) Receipt by...

  10. 37 CFR 3.73 - Establishing right of assignee to take action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... assignee to take action. 3.73 Section 3.73 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights UNITED STATES PATENT AND... by Assignee § 3.73 Establishing right of assignee to take action. (a) The inventor is presumed to be..., unless there is an assignment. (b)(1) In order to request or take action in a patent or trademark...

  11. Establishing a Writing Center on the Secondary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Barbara

    The critical components to be considered when establishing a writing center at the secondary level are facilities, staff, and operation. The term writing center is used because writing center is a more inclusive concept than writing lab, dealing not only with remedial work but also with polishing acquired skills and assisting students with…

  12. 78 FR 68020 - Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry AGENCY: Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: We are advising... the Administrator of the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS). Pursuant to the PPA,...

  13. Establishing level II neonatal services in southwestern Oklahoma.

    PubMed

    McCoy, Michael; Makkar, Abhishek; Foulks, Arlen; Legako, Edward

    2014-01-01

    Historically, Neonatal Services in Oklahoma have relied upon Level III and IV NICUs within the largest metropolitan areas to provide services for premature and other sick newborns. Smaller, regional Level II nurseries have delivered care according to previous American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) Guidelines for Levels of Care. With changing guidelines in perinatal and neonatal care, there has been the need to add to available neonatal resources to continue to allow infants to remain in their home. This article is a description of a partnership between Comanche County Memorial Hospital (CCMH) and the Department of Pediatrics, Neonatal-Perinatal Medicine Section at OU Health Sciences Center (OUHSC) to establish a regional Level II NICU and the planning and implementation required to meet local, state, and national standards. The process, which involved neonatologists, nurse practitioners, nurses, laboratory services, pharmacy services, radiology, and respiratory therapy, resulted in a fully-functioning 8-bed Level II NICU. PMID:25790596

  14. Establishment of dose reference levels for nuclear medicine in Greece.

    PubMed

    Vogiatzi, S; Kipouros, P; Chobis, M

    2011-09-01

    Greek Atomic Energy Commission's Department of Licensing and Inspections conducted a national survey for the establishment of nuclear medicine (NM) dose reference levels (DRLs) for adult patients, in Greece. The administered activities (AAs) (MBq) were collected from 120 NM departments (88 % of total), during on-site inspections for licensing purposes. Factors influencing the image quality were also investigated. The established national DRLs represent the AA value corresponding to the 75th percentile of the AA frequency distributions. In their majority, national DRLs and average AAs are comparable with the ones published in the international literature. In the light of new technologies, there might be potential for reducing the higher values of AAs, in co-operation with the nuclear medicine experts. PMID:21765158

  15. Action Research: Improving Graduate-Level Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Nari

    2012-01-01

    I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…

  16. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental intraoral radiography.

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, G; Koukorava, C; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V; Yakoumakis, E; Tsiklakis, K

    2013-10-01

    Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) is a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures. Establishment of a DRL is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 529 dental intraoral radiographic facilities have been used in order to define DRLs for digital and film imaging modalities, taking into account the region of the mouth to be imaged. Thus, different DRL values have been proposed for minimum (usually incisors), maximum (usually maxillary molars) and average exposure settings, both for film and digital imaging. The results have been compared with similar studies performed in Europe and the USA and are in line with the most recent ones. PMID:23615358

  17. Grand Junction remedial action program. Analysis of currently approved and proposed procedures for establishing eligibility for remedial action. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1980-12-01

    This analysis of the Grand Junction Remedial Action Program has been undertaken at the request of the Department of Energy (DOE) in response to proposals submitted by the Colorado Department of Health (CHD). In essence those proposals are for approval by DOE of alternative procedures for establishing the eligibility of structures for remedial action. Regardless of the preeminence accorded the RPISU method in the regulation, it is appropriate to question the assumption that this method gives better estimates of average long-term exposure than other potential methods of evaluation. The objectives here are to (1) review the reliability of the methods of measurement authorized by 10 CFR 12, i.e. the RPISU 6 sample method for determining RDC and the presumptive tests based on the indoor net average gamma exposure rate; (2) evaluate the reliability of the alternative measurement methods proposed by the CDH for determining eligibility for remedial action; and (3) recommend for DOE approval specific methods and applicable procedures that may be used to determine eligibility for remedial action with at least the same reliability as presently achieved with the RPISU 6 sample method.

  18. Scientists, educators, and national standards: Action at the local level

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This volume contains full papers presented at the Forum entitled Scientists, Educators, and National Standards- Action at the Local Level held April 14-15, 1994. Records for the database have been prepared for the individual reports contained herein.

  19. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  20. ESTABLISHING DIFFERENTIAL IRRIGATION LEVELS USING TEMPERATURE-TIME THRESHOLDS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The requirements of precision crop management or limited water supply requires that either plant water status be varied to optimize crop performance or a continuous level of limited irrigation must be practiced to match irrigation water availability. Canopy temperature (TC) has been used to time ir...

  1. Action recognition depends on observer's level of action control and social personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; de Lange, Floris P; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others' goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors' goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others' behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  2. Vintage-level energy and environmental performance of manufacturing establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Bock, M.J.; Neifer, M.J.; Karlson, S.H.; Ross, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    This report examines the relationship between an industrial plant`s vintage and its energy and environmental performance. Basic questions related to defining vintage and measuring the effects of the manufacturing industry`s vintage distribution of plant-level capacity and energy intensity are explored in general for six energy-intensive sectors (paper, chlorine, nitrogenous fertilizer, aluminum, steel, and cement) at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level and in detail for two sectors (steel and cement). Results show that greenfield (i.e., newly opened) plants in the paper, steel, and cement industries exhibit low fossil fuel intensities. These results are consistent with expectations. New plants in the paper and steel industries, where processes are undergoing electrification, exhibit high electricity intensities. An analysis of a subsector of the steel industry -- minimills that use scrap-based, electric arc furnaces -- reveals a decline in electricity intensity of 6.2 kilowatt-hours per ton for each newer year of installed vintage. This estimate is consistent with those of engineering studies and raises confidence that analyses of vintage effects in other industries could be conducted. When a vintage measure is assigned on the basis of investment data rather than trade association data, the vintage/performance relationship results for the cement industry are reasonably robust; thus, the analysis of vintage and performance could be extended to sectors for which only US Bureau of the Census data are available.

  3. U.S. Homes Above EPA's Radon Action Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents the estimated number of homes with indoor radon levels over EPA's radon action level—the recommended maximum concentration for indoor radon—and the number of homes with operating radon mitigation systems. Radon is a human carcinogen that seeps into base...

  4. The TACO approach to establishing risk-based corrective action objectives for a former industrial facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pope, J.L.; Nienkerk, M.M.

    1999-07-01

    Illinois' Tiered Approach to Corrective Action Objectives (35 Ill Adm Code Part 742) regulations have been used to evaluate site-specific remediation objectives for a site contaminated with methylene chloride. Remediation objectives evaluated through this approach have provided the opportunity to implement a technically feasible cleanup of the site. Site-specific soil cleanup objectives of 24 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) for the unsaturated soils and 2,000 mg/kg for the underlying saturated soils were established. These cleanup objectives were based on the use of a city ordinance prohibiting well installation and groundwater use within one-half mile of the site and did not require the use of an engineered barrier which would have to be maintained throughout the life of the facility. Without the city ordinance and risk-based cleanup objectives, the cleanup objective would have been 0.02 mg/kg, making remediation of the site technically and economically infeasible.

  5. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  6. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  7. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  8. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  9. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan B Exhibit B to Part 906 Parks, Forests, and Public.... B Exhibit B to Part 906—Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action... office of the State Employment Service (or union hiring hall when union labor is required). (6)...

  10. The role of mycorrhization helper bacteria in the establishment and action of ectomycorrhizae associations

    PubMed Central

    Rigamonte, Tatiana Alves; Pylro, Victor Satler; Duarte, Gabriela Frois

    2010-01-01

    More than 95 % short roots of most terrestrial plants are colonized by mycorrhizal fungi as soon as they emerge in the upper soil profiles. The establishment of mycorrhizal association involves profound morphological and physiological changes in root and fungus. It is affected by other rhizospheric microorganisms, specifically by the bacteria. Bacteria may have developed mechanisms of selective interaction with surrounding microorganisms, with neutral or positive effects on mycorrhizal associations, but negative effect on root pathogens in general. Because of the beneficial effect of bacteria on mycorrhizae, the concept of Mycorrhization Helper Bacteria (MHB) was created. Five main actions of MHB on mycorrhizae were proposed: in the receptivity of root to the mycobiont, in root-fungus recognition, in fungal growth, in the modification of rhizospheric soil and in the germination of fungal propagules. MHB appear to develop a gradation of specificity for the mycobiont, but little or no specificity for the host plant in symbiosis. One of the main groups of MHB is the fluorescent Pseudomonas, well represented in diversity and cell density studies of mycorrhizal associations. This review covers the activity of MHB in the establishment of ectomycorrhizae, taking as model the effects of Pseudomonas sp. described in scientific literature. PMID:24031563

  11. Action and perception at the level of synergies.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T

    2007-08-01

    Meeting the challenge of assembling coherent organizations of very many muscles characterizes a functional level of biological movement systems referred to as the level of muscular-articular links or synergies. The present article examines the issues confronting the forming, regulating, and ordering of synergies and the hypothesized principles, both classical and contemporary, which resolve them. A primary goal of the article is to highlight the abstractness of the concepts and tools required to understand the level's action-perception competence. Coverage is given to symmetry groups, task space, order parameters, metastability, biotensegrity, allometric scaling, and impredicative definitions. PMID:17604860

  12. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  13. [Successor establishment in familiy business as field of action in health promotion].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, C; Holzer, M

    2014-10-01

    Successor establishment in familiy business may lead to interpersonal and intrapsychological conflicts and is mostly a transition to retirement. This may have a negative impact on the senior's health. The "Sozialversicherung für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau (SVLFG)" reacts with an intervention of several days duration. Evaluation aim is measuring participants changes in specific activities and confidence on successor establishment and retirement indicating mental health stabilisation. The method comprises a panel of intervention group (I, n=61) and comparison group (V, n=28) randomly selected, structurally similar and parallelised to point of transfer. Retirement activities significantly rise in I (p=0.001, Cohen's d=0.48) and are steady in V (p=0.54) after one year. Level of confidence is equal in both groups and steady but strongly indicating response shift in I. Intervention activates targeted activities and improves confidence at least qualitatively in a field that has hardly been researched. PMID:25001902

  14. Dynamics of the Establishment of Systemic Potyvirus Infection: Independent yet Cumulative Action of Primary Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lafforgue, Guillaume; Tromas, Nicolas; Elena, Santiago F.

    2012-01-01

    In the clinic, farm, or field, for many viruses there is a high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections, indicating that multiple virions have initiated infection and that there can be multiple sites of primary infection within the same host. The dynamic process by which multiple primary infection sites interact with each other and the host is poorly understood, undoubtedly due to its high complexity. In this study, we attempted to unravel the basic interactions underlying this process using a plant RNA virus, as removing the inoculated leaf can instantly and rigorously eliminate all primary infection sites. Effective population size in the inoculated leaf and time of removal of the inoculated leaf were varied in experiments, and it was found that both factors positively influenced if the plant became systemically infected and what proportion of cells in the systemic tissue were infected, as measured by flow cytometry. Fitting of probabilistic models of infection to our data demonstrated that a null model in which the action of each focus is independent of the presence of other foci was better supported than a dependent-action model. The cumulative effect of independently acting foci therefore determined when plants became infected and how many individual cells were infected. There was no evidence for interference between primary infection sites, which is surprising given the planar structure of leaves. By showing that a simple null model is supported, we experimentally confirmed—to our knowledge for the first time—the minimal components that dictate interactions of a conspecific virus population establishing systemic infection. PMID:22993154

  15. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  16. Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Jennifer; Coitinho, Denise; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Pelletier, David; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2008-02-01

    80% of the world's undernourished children live in just 20 countries. Intensified nutrition action in these countries can lead to achievement of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and greatly increase the chances of achieving goals for child and maternal mortality (MDGs 4 and 5). Despite isolated successes in specific countries or for interventions--eg, iodised salt and vitamin A supplementation--most countries with high rates of undernutrition are failing to reach undernourished mothers and children with effective interventions supported by appropriate policies. This paper reports on an assessment of actions addressing undernutrition in the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, drawing on systematic reviews and best-practice reports. Seven key challenges for addressing undernutrition at national level are defined and reported on: getting nutrition on the list of priorities, and keeping it there; doing the right things; not doing the wrong things; acting at scale; reaching those in need; data-based decisionmaking; and building strategic and operational capacity. Interventions with proven effectiveness that are selected by countries should be rapidly implemented at scale. The period from pregnancy to 24 months of age is a crucial window of opportunity for reducing undernutrition and its adverse effects. Programme efforts, as well as monitoring and assessment, should focus on this segment of the continuum of care. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions unlikely to be effective in the context of country or local realities. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions that have not been proven to have a direct effect on undernutrition, such as stand-alone growth monitoring or school feeding programmes. In addition to health and nutrition interventions, economic and social policies addressing poverty, trade, and agriculture that have been associated with rapid improvements in nutritional status should be

  17. Determining Critical Phosphorus Levels for Cool Season Seedlings Established on Calcareous Soil

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Sufficient soil phosphorus (P) is critical for rapid seedling establishment. P-deficient seedlings lack vigor and form low density turf areas which are more susceptible to soil erosion and nutrient loss. A greenhouse study was conducted to determine the critical soil P-levels necessary to establish ...

  18. The QUIPPED Project: Exploring Relevance and Rigor of Action Research Using Established Principles and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christine; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the last in a series of three manuscripts published in the TQR journal over the past few years. This work is part of a larger program of research that has been carried out by a team of researchers detailing various aspects of a three year action research project carried out from 2005 and 2008. This particular paper addresses issues…

  19. 75 FR 47856 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY: Nuclear.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Action Level (EAL... pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The ADAMS accession number for the Draft Emergency Action Level...

  20. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: State Action to Establish SHOP Marketplaces.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sarah J; Lucia, Kevin W; Thomas, Amy

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act seeks to help small employers offer coverage by reforming the small-group market and establishing Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) marketplaces. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to operate their own SHOP marketplaces in 2014, with the federal government operating the SHOP marketplace in 33 states. This brief examines state decisions to enhance the value of SHOP marketplaces for small employers and finds that most have set predictable participation and eligibility requirements and will offer a competitive choice of insurers and plans. States also are seeking to facilitate small employers' shopping experience through online tools and access to personalized assistance. While not all SHOP marketplaces are yet functioning as intended, their establishment offers an opportunity to identify successful strategies for improving the affordability and accessibility of coverage for small employers. PMID:26259258

  1. Atomic-level Snapshot Catches Protein Motor in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Using a state-of-the-art protein crystallography beamline at Berkeley Labs Advanced Light Source, researchers have captured a critical action shapshot of an enzyme that is vital to the survival of all biological cells.

  2. EVALUATION OF LITERATURE ESTABLISHING SCREENING LEVELS FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS/INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific publications often lack key information on experimental design or do not follow appropriate test methods and therefore cannot be used in deriving reliable benchmarks. Risk based soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) are being established for chemicals of concern to terrestr...

  3. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... FR 41612), FDA published a proposal (``the 1993 proposed rule'') to revise the bottled water quality... EPA of a final rule (57 FR 31776; July 17, 1992) that established national primary drinking water... rule published March 26, 1996 (61 FR 13258), FDA maintained its existing allowable level for...

  4. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  5. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  6. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  7. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  8. USING RESPONSES OF OYSTERS IN ESTABLISHING MINIMUM FLOWS AND LEVELS IN THE CALOOSAHATCHEE ESTUARY, FLORIDA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Volety, Aswani K., S. Gregory Tolley and James T. Winstead. 2002. Using Responses of Oysters in Establishing Minimum Flows and Levels in the Caloosahatchee Estuary, Florida (Abstract). Presented at the 6th International Conference on Shellfish Restoration, 20-24 November 2002, Ch...

  9. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  10. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, "why" an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific "how" details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  11. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for select procedures in Pudhuchery, India

    PubMed Central

    Saravanakumar, A.; Vaideki, K.; Govindarajan, K. N.; Jayakumar, S.

    2014-01-01

    Computed tomography (CT) scanner under operating conditions has become a major source of human exposure to diagnostic X-rays. In this context, weighed CT dose index (CTDIw), volumetric CT dose index (CTDIv), and dose length product (DLP) are important parameter to assess procedures in CT imaging as surrogate dose quantities for patient dose optimization. The current work aims to estimate the existing dose level of CT scanner for head, chest, and abdomen procedures in Pudhuchery in south India and establish dose reference level (DRL) for the region. The study was carried out for six CT scanners in six different radiology departments using 100 mm long pencil ionization chamber and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) phantom. From each CT scanner, data pertaining to patient and machine details were collected for 50 head, 50 chest, and 50 abdomen procedures performed over a period of 1 year. The experimental work was carried out using the machine operating parameters used during the procedures. Initially, dose received in the phantom at the center and periphery was measured by five point method. Using these values CTDIw, CTDIv, and DLP were calculated. The DRL is established based on the third quartile value of CTDIv and DLP which is 32 mGy and 925 mGy.cm for head, 12 mGy and 456 mGy.cm for chest, and 16 mGy and 482 mGy.cm for abdomen procedures. These values are well below European Commission Dose Reference Level (EC DRL) and comparable with the third quartile value reported for Tamil Nadu region in India. The present study is the first of its kind to determine the DRL for scanners operating in the Pudhuchery region. Similar studies in other regions of India are necessary in order to establish a National Dose Reference Level. PMID:24600173

  12. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established under section 111(b)(3)(B) of EESA (the... the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions...

  13. Climbing the goal ladder: how upcoming actions increase level of aspiration.

    PubMed

    Koo, Minjung; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2010-07-01

    Pursuing a series of progressive (e.g., professional) goals that form a goal ladder often leads to a trade-off between moving up to a more advanced level and repeating the same goal level. This article investigates how monitoring one's current goal in terms of remaining actions versus completed actions influences the desire to move up the goal ladder. The authors propose that a focus on remaining (vs. completed) actions increases the motivation to move up to a more advanced level, whereas the focus on completed (vs. remaining) actions increases the satisfaction derived from the present level. They find support for these predictions across several goal ladders, ranging from academic and professional ladders to simple, experimental tasks. They further find that individuals strategically attend to information about remaining (vs. completed) actions to prepare to move up the goal ladder. PMID:20565182

  14. Building Effective Middle Level Teams. Turning Points: Recommendations into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Valentine, Jerry W.

    This booklet is the first in a series of monographs developed as a resource for middle-level leaders. It provides practical strategies, procedures, and ideas to enable school leaders to plan and implement programs that will provide opportunities for students to be prepared for high school and beyond. The text focuses on the application of team…

  15. Proposed actions are no actions: re-modeling an ontology design pattern with a realist top-level ontology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) are representational artifacts devised to offer solutions for recurring ontology design problems. They promise to enhance the ontology building process in terms of flexibility, re-usability and expansion, and to make the result of ontology engineering more predictable. In this paper, we analyze ODP repositories and investigate their relation with upper-level ontologies. In particular, we compare the BioTop upper ontology to the Action ODP from the NeOn an ODP repository. In view of the differences in the respective approaches, we investigate whether the Action ODP can be embedded into BioTop. We demonstrate that this requires re-interpreting the meaning of classes of the NeOn Action ODP in the light of the precepts of realist ontologies. Results As a result, the re-design required clarifying the ontological commitment of the ODP classes by assigning them to top-level categories. Thus, ambiguous definitions are avoided. Classes of real entities are clearly distinguished from classes of information artifacts. The proposed approach avoids the commitment to the existence of unclear future entities which underlies the NeOn Action ODP. Our re-design is parsimonious in the sense that existing BioTop content proved to be largely sufficient to define the different types of actions and plans. Conclusions The proposed model demonstrates that an expressive upper-level ontology provides enough resources and expressivity to represent even complex ODPs, here shown with the different flavors of Action as proposed in the NeOn ODP. The advantage of ODP inclusion into a top-level ontology is the given predetermined dependency of each class, an existing backbone structure and well-defined relations. Our comparison shows that the use of some ODPs is more likely to cause problems for ontology developers, rather than to guide them. Besides the structural properties, the explanation of classification results were particularly hard to grasp for

  16. Using Action Research in Middle Level Teacher Education to Evaluate and Deepen Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, Rita; Aydeniz, Mehmet; Rowell, C. Glennon

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of action research in promoting critical reflective thinking among twenty preservice teachers engaged in a year-long middle level program. Data from collaborative discussions, final written documents, presentations, and follow-up surveys revealed that conducting action research (a) engaged them in inquiry into their own…

  17. 42 CFR 493.1816 - Action when deficiencies are not at the condition level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Action when deficiencies are not at the condition level. 493.1816 Section 493.1816 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1816 Action when...

  18. A study to establish international diagnostic reference levels for paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M; Kostova-Lefterova, D; Al-Naemi, H M; Al Suwaidi, J S; Arandjic, D; Bashier, E H O; Kodlulovich Renha, S; El-Nachef, L; Aguilar, J G; Gershan, V; Gershkevitsh, E; Gruppetta, E; Hustuc, A; Jauhari, A; Kharita, Mohammad Hassan; Khelassi-Toutaoui, N; Khosravi, H R; Khoury, H; Kralik, I; Mahere, S; Mazuoliene, J; Mora, P; Muhogora, W; Muthuvelu, P; Nikodemova, D; Novak, L; Pallewatte, A; Pekarovič, D; Shaaban, M; Shelly, E; Stepanyan, K; Thelsy, N; Visrutaratna, P; Zaman, A

    2015-07-01

    The article reports results from the largest international dose survey in paediatric computed tomography (CT) in 32 countries and proposes international diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) in terms of computed tomography dose index (CTDI vol) and dose length product (DLP). It also assesses whether mean or median values of individual facilities should be used. A total of 6115 individual patient data were recorded among four age groups: <1 y, >1-5 y, >5-10 y and >10-15 y. CTDIw, CTDI vol and DLP from the CT console were recorded in dedicated forms together with patient data and technical parameters. Statistical analysis was performed, and international DRLs were established at rounded 75th percentile values of distribution of median values from all CT facilities. The study presents evidence in favour of using median rather than mean of patient dose indices as the representative of typical local dose in a facility, and for establishing DRLs as third quartile of median values. International DRLs were established for paediatric CT examinations for routine head, chest and abdomen in the four age groups. DRLs for CTDI vol are similar to the reference values from other published reports, with some differences for chest and abdomen CT. Higher variations were observed between DLP values, based on a survey of whole multi-phase exams. It may be noted that other studies in literature were based on single phase only. DRLs reported in this article can be used in countries without sufficient medical physics support to identify non-optimised practice. Recommendations to improve the accuracy and importance of future surveys are provided. PMID:25836685

  19. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels for dental panoramic radiography in Greece.

    PubMed

    Manousaridis, G; Koukorava, C; Hourdakis, C J; Kamenopoulou, V; Yakoumakis, E; Tsiklakis, K

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the present study was to present the national diagnostic reference levels (DRL) established for panoramic dental examinations in Greece. The establishment of DRL, as a tool for the optimisation of radiological procedures, is a requirement of national regulations. Measurements performed by the Greek Atomic Energy Commission on 90 panoramic systems have been used for the derivation of DRL values. DRL values have been proposed for exposure settings of different patient types (child, small adult and standard adult), both for film and digital imaging. The DRLs for different patient types are grouped in three categories: children, small adults (corresponding to female) and average adults (corresponding to male). Proposed DRLs for these groups are 2.2, 3.3 and 4.1 mGy, respectively. In order to investigate the correlation of DRLs with the available imaging modalities (CR, DR and film), this parameter was taken into account. DR imaging DRL is the lowest at 3.5 mGy, CR imaging the highest at 4.2 mGy and film imaging at 3.7 mGy. In order to facilitate comparison with other studies, kerma-width product values were calculated from Ki, air and field size. PMID:25836684

  20. Estimating the population dose from nuclear medicine examinations towards establishing diagnostic reference levels

    PubMed Central

    Niksirat, Fatemeh; Monfared, Ali Shabestani; Deevband, Mohammad Reza; Amiri, Mehrangiz; Gholami, Amir

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of the Study: This study conducted a review on nuclear medicine (NM) services in Mazandaran Province with a view to establish adult diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) and provide updated data on population radiation exposure resulting from diagnostic NM procedures. Materials and Methods: The data were collected from all centers in all cities of Mazandaran Province in the North of Iran from March 2014 to February 2015. The 75th percentile of the distribution and the average administered activity (AAA) were calculated and the average effective dose per examination, collective effective dose to the population and annual effective dose per capita were estimated using dose conversion factors. The gathered data were analyzed via SPSS (version 18) software using descriptive statistics. Results: Based on the data of this study, the collective effective dose was 95.628 manSv, leading to a mean effective dose of 0.03 mSv per capita. It was also observed that the myocardial perfusion was the most common procedure (50%). The 75th percentile of the distribution of administered activity (AA) represents the DRL. The AAA and the 75th percentile of the distribution of AA are slightly higher than DRL of most European countries. Conclusions: Myocardial perfusion is responsible for most of the collective effective dose and it is better to establish national DRLs for myocardial perfusion and review some DRL values through the participation of NM specialists in the future. PMID:26917891

  1. Establishment of diagnostic reference levels in computed tomography for paediatric patients in Sudan: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Sulieman, A

    2015-07-01

    Paediatric patients are recognised to be at higher risk of developing radiation-induced cancer than adults. The purpose of this pilot study was to evaluate the radiation doses to paediatric patients during computed tomography (CT) procedures in order to propose local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs). A total of 296 patients (aged 6-10 y) were investigated in 8 hospitals equipped with 64-, 16- and dual-slice CT machines. The mean dose length product values were 772, 446 and 178 mGy cm for head, abdomen and chest, respectively. Imaging protocols were not adapted to the patient's weight in certain CT machines. The results confirmed that paediatric patients are exposed to an unnecessary radiation dose. The established DRLs were higher than those available in other countries. This study showed the need for harmonisation of the practice in CT departments and radiation dose optimisation. PMID:25836694

  2. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is making available for comment a proposed revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency Action Levels for Non-Passive Reactors,'' dated September 2012. This document is intended to be used by the industry in the development of an emergency action level (EAL) scheme. The NRC......

  3. Approaches for establishing human health no effect levels for engineered nanomaterials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschberger, K.; Christensen, F. M.

    2011-07-01

    Current Technical Guidance Documents for preparing risk assessments, like the guidance for the implementation of REACH, have limited focus on chemical substances in the particulate form and generally do not focus on substances in the nanoform. Within the ENRHES project a comprehensive and critical scientific review of publicly available health and safety information on four types of nanoparticles was performed. Based on the identified exposure and hazard data, basic human health risk assessment appraisals were carried out for fullerenes, carbon nanotubes, nano-silver and nano-titanium dioxide. These risk assessment appraisals followed the structure of a regulatory risk assessment and if possible and relevant, it was attempted to derive indicative human no-effect levels from key studies by applying assessment factors as suggested in the technical guidance document for REACH. These assessment factors address differences and uncertainty related to exposure features between test animals and humans (time, respiratory volume), other interspecies and intraspecies differences and factors for extrapolation to chronic duration. If required, the severity of effects and the quality of the database can be addressed by additional factors. Recently other procedures for deriving human no-effect levels have been published and these are compared to the ENRHES basic risk assessment appraisals. The main differences were observed in relation to evaluating the differences in animal and human exposure situations and interspecies differences, and in applying assessment factors for intraspecies differences for local effects. The applicability of the REACH guidance for nanomaterials is currently being investigated for possible adaptations, considering the specific behaviour and mode of action of nanomaterials.

  4. Establishing the level of cylindrical rotation in boxy/peanut bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaeinezhad, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Balcells, M.; Peletier, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    We present SAURON integral-field observations of a sample of 12 mid-to-high-inclination disc galaxies, to unveil hidden bars on the basis of their kinematics, i.e. the correlation between velocity and h3 profiles, and to establish their degree of cylindrical rotation. For the latter, we introduce a method to quantify cylindrical rotation that is robust against inner disc components. We confirm high levels of cylindrical rotation in boxy/peanut bulges, but also observe this feature in a few galaxies with rounder bulges. We suggest that these are also barred galaxies with end-on orientations. Re-analysing published data for our own Galaxy using this new method, we determine that the Milky Way bulge is cylindrically rotating at the same level as the strongest barred galaxy in our sample. Finally, we use self-consistent three-dimensional N-body simulations of bar-unstable discs to study the dependence of cylindrical rotation on the bar's orientation and host galaxy inclination.

  5. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  6. SU-E-I-33: Establishment of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels in Province Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopi, E; Abdolell, M; Duffy, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient radiation dose from the most frequently performed CT examinations and to establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a tool for protocol optimization. Methods: The study investigated the following CT examinations: head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP). Dose data, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP), were collected from 15 CT scanners installed during 2004–2014 in 11 hospital sites of Nova Scotia. All scanners had dose modulation options and multislice capability (16–128 detector rows). The sample for each protocol included 15 average size patients (70±20 kg). Provincial DRLs were calculated as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions. The differences in dose between hospitals were evaluated with a single factor ANOVA statistical test. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine the factors associated with higher radiation dose. A sample of 36 abdominal studies performed on three different scanners was blinded and randomized for an assessment by an experienced radiologist who graded the imaging quality of anatomic structures. Results: Data for 900 patients were collected. The DRLs were proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy*cm) values for CT head (67 and 1049, respectively), chest (12 and 393), abdomen/pelvis (16 and 717), and CAP (14 and 1034). These DRLs were lower than the published national data except for the head CTDIvol. The differences between the means of the dose distributions from each scanner were statistically significant (p<0.05) for all examinations. A very weak correlation was found between the dose and the scanner age or the number of slices with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.011–0.315. The blinded analysis of image quality demonstrated no clinically significant difference except for the noise category. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established for typical CT examinations. The variations in dose between the hospitals

  7. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  8. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks. PMID:26117505

  9. Action recognition by mid-level discriminative spatial-temporal volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Sang, Nong

    2013-10-01

    Most of recent work on action recognition in video employ action parts, attributes etc. as mid- and high-level features to represent an action. However, these action parts, attributes subject to some aspects of weak discrimination and being difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present an approach that uses mid-level discriminative Spatial-Temporal Volume to recognize human actions. The spatial-temporal volume is represented by a Feature Graph which is constructed beyond on a local collection of feature points (e.g., cuboids, STIP) located in the corresponding spatial-temporal volume. Firstly, we densely sampling spatial-temporal volumes from training videos and construct a feature graph for each volume. Then, all feature graphs are clustered using spectral cluster method. We regard feature graphs as video words and characterize videos with the bag-of-features framework which we call it the bag-of-feature-graphs framework. While, in the process of clustering, the distance between two feature graphs is computed using an efficient spectral method. Final recognition is accomplished using a linear-SVM classifier. We test our algorithm in a publicly available human action dataset, the experimental results show the effectiveness of our method.

  10. 75 FR 45584 - Planning and Establishment of State-Level Exchanges; Request for Comments Regarding Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND...: Office of Consumer Information and Insurance Oversight, Department of Health and Human Services. ACTION..., 2010. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) invites public comments in advance of...

  11. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  12. Use of screening action levels in risk management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.R.; Hueske, K.L.; Dorries, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    The screening assessment approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory has proved to be a valuable risk management tool in making decisions that are cost-effective, efficient, and defensible. Los Alamos has successfully used screening action levels to prioritize RFI activities, streamline data evaluation, and insure analytical methods are adequately sensitive to be protective of human health.

  13. 5 CFR 351.603 - Actions subsequent to release from competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Release From Competitive Level § 351.603 Actions subsequent to... assignment to another position in accordance with subpart G of this part. If the employee accepts, the... accept an offer under subpart G, the employee shall be furloughed or separated....

  14. 5 CFR 351.603 - Actions subsequent to release from competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Release From Competitive Level § 351.603 Actions subsequent to... assignment to another position in accordance with subpart G of this part. If the employee accepts, the... accept an offer under subpart G, the employee shall be furloughed or separated....

  15. 75 FR 6064 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making available for comment an Emergency Action Level (EAL) frequently asked question (FAQ). This EALFAQ will be used to provide clarification of endorsed Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guidance related to the development of security related EALs. This EALFAQ was developed by the NRC at the request of NEI. The NRC is publishing this preliminary......

  16. Using Readability Formulas to Establish the Grade Level Difficulty of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    Compared the grade level difficulty obtained from seven readability formulas to student reading levels from two national standardized tests to determine which formulas best determined the readability of computer-based text. Found that the Flesch-Kincaid, FOG, and ARI formulas provided the best estimate of reading grade level of computer-based text…

  17. Implementing on-Campus Microteaching to Elicit Preservice Teachers' Reflection on Teaching Actions: Fresh Perspective on an Established Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amobi, Funmi A.; Irwin, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    This article calls for renewed emphasis on the use of on-campus microteaching to facilitate simultaneously preservice teachers' performance of effective teaching skills and their capability to reflect meaningfully on their emergent teaching actions. In making a case for greater focus on the implementation of microteaching in preservice teacher…

  18. The Development of a Methodology for Establishing Task-Level Performance Standards for Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Skill Levels in the U.S. Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Borman, Walter C.; Kubisiak, U. Christean; Bourne, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the project examined here was to establish performance standards for Navy aerographer's mate (AG) enlisted sailors at three skill levels. We used an online expert judgment task and consensus workshop methodology to gather information from subject matter experts on minimal proficiency requirements for each task within each skill level.…

  19. The SE role in establishing, verifying and controlling top-level program requirements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathews, Charles W.

    1993-01-01

    The program objectives and requirements described in the preceding paragraphs emphasize mission demonstrations. Obtaining desired science or applications information is another type of program objective. The program requirements then state the need for specific data, usually specifying a particular instrument or instrument set; the operating conditions under which the data is to be obtained (e.g., orbit altitude, field of view, and pointing accuracy); and the data handling and use. Conversely, a new instrument may be conceived or created with the program objective to establish its use potential. The Multispectral Scanner employed in the Landsat program is an example.

  20. Development of action levels for MED/MPD skin-testing units in ultraviolet phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Una M.; O'Hare, Neil J.

    2003-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Phototherapy is commonly used for treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema. Treatment is carried out using UV phototherapy units, exposing all or part of the body for a certain exposure time. Prior to exposure in treatment units, an unaffected area of skin may be tested using UV skin-testing units in order to determine a suitable treatment regime. The exposure time at which barely perceptible erythema has developed is known as the Minimal Erythemal Dose (MED) for UVB therapy and Minimal Phototoxic Dose (MPD) for UVA therapy. This is used to determine the starting dose in the treatment regime. The presence of 'hotspots' and 'coldspots' in UV skin-testing units can result in inaccurate determination of MED/MPD. This could give rise to severe burns during treatment, or in a sub-optimal dose regime being used. Quality assurance protocols for UV phototherapy equipment have recently been developed and these protocols have highlighted the need for action levels for skin-testing units. An action level is a reference value, which is used to determine whether the difference in irradiance output level across a UV unit is acceptable. Current methodologies for skin-testing in Ireland have been characterised and errors introduced during testing have been estimated. Action levels have been developed based on analysis of errors and requirements of skin-testing.

  1. Postmortem serum erythropoietin levels in establishing the cause of death and survival time at medicolegal autopsy.

    PubMed

    Quan, L; Zhu, B-L; Ishikawa, T; Michiue, T; Zhao, D; Li, D-R; Ogawa, M; Maeda, H

    2008-11-01

    Circulating erythropoietin (EPO) is mainly produced in the kidneys, depending on blood oxygen level. The present study investigated the postmortem serum EPO levels with regard to the cause of death and survival time. Serial medicolegal autopsy cases of postmortem time within 48 h (n = 536) were examined. Serum EPO levels were within the clinical reference range in most cases. Uremic patients with medical administration of an EPO agent (n = 11) showed a markedly high level (140-4,850 mU/ml; median, 1,798 mU/ml). Otherwise, an elevation in serum EPO level (>30 mU/ml) was mainly seen in protracted deaths due to blunt injury and fire fatality, depending on the survival time (r = 0.69, p < 0.0001, and r = 0.45, p < 0.0001, respectively), and in subacute deaths from gastrointestinal bleeding and infectious diseases. However, mildly to moderately elevated serum EPO levels were sporadically found in acute deaths due to mechanical asphyxiation, fire fatality, and acute ischemic heart disease, and in fatal hypothermia cases, especially for elderly subjects. Protracted deaths due to mechanical asphyxiation and ischemic heart disease did not show any survival time-dependent increase in serum EPO level (p > 0.05). EPO was immunohistochemically detected in the tubular epithelia and interstitial cells, showing no evident difference among the causes of death, independent of survival time or serum level. These findings suggest that serum EPO can be used as a marker for investigating anemia and/or hypoxia as a consequence of fatal insult in subacute or prolonged deaths, or a predisposition to traumatic deaths or fatal heart attacks in acute deaths. PMID:18682967

  2. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resourced countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. PMID:25836695

  3. Establishing Junior-Level Colleges in Developing Nations: A Site Selection Process Using Data from Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaeger, Paula Irene

    2012-01-01

    This research synthesizes data and presents it using mapping software to help to identify potential site locations for community-centered higher education alternatives and more traditional junior-level colleges in Uganda. What factors can be used to quantify one site over another for the location of such an institution and if these factors can be…

  4. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  5. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  6. Regulatory neutrality is essential to establishing a level playing field for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Gary E; Chernew, Michael E; Kessler, Daniel P; Weiner, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are among the most widely discussed models for encouraging movement away from fee-for-service payment arrangements. Although ACOs have the potential to slow health spending growth and improve quality of care, regulating them poses special challenges. Regulations, particularly those that affect both ACOs and Medicare Advantage plans, could inadvertently favor or disfavor certain kinds of providers or payers. Such favoritism could drive efficient organizations from the market and thus increase costs or reduce quality of and access to care. To avoid this type of outcome, we propose a general principle: Regulation of ACOs should strive to preserve a level playing field among different kinds of organizations seeking the same cost, quality, and access objectives. This is known as regulatory neutrality. We describe the implications of regulatory neutrality in four key areas: antitrust, financial solvency regulation, Medicare governance requirements, and Medicare payment models. We also discuss issues relating to short-term versus long-term perspectives--to promote the goal of regulatory neutrality and allow the most efficient organizations to prevail in the marketplace. PMID:23918487

  7. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Janbabanezhad Toori, A.; Shabestani-Monfared, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Abdi, R.; Nabahati, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL). Methods Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW), Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) were calculated. Results The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6-73), (3.8-25. 8), (4.5-16.3) and (7-16.3), respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981), (41.8-184), (131-342.3) and (283.6-486) for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses. PMID:26688796

  8. [Comparative antioxidant action on the level of reactive oxygen species in normal and transformed fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Liublinskaia, O G; Kirpichnikova, K M; Gamaleĭ, I A

    2013-01-01

    We studied the changes in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal (3T3) and transformed (3T3-SV40) murine fibroblasts under the antioxidant action for 15 min using fluorescent probe carbo- xy-H2DCFDA. We have shown that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreased ROS level in both cellular types. Another antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), caused the prooxidant effects. Both ALA and DHLA in the concentration range of 0.1-1.25 mM increased ROS level in dose dependent manner in both cellular types. The ability of ALA and DHLA to activate hydrogen peroxide production is discussed. PMID:25509127

  9. The Wingless morphogen gradient is established by the cooperative action of Frizzled and Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycan receptors.

    PubMed

    Baeg, Gyeong-Hun; Selva, Erica M; Goodman, Robyn M; Dasgupta, Ramanuj; Perrimon, Norbert

    2004-12-01

    We have examined the respective contribution of Heparan Sulfate Proteoglycans (HSPGs) and Frizzled (Fz) proteins in the establishment of the Wingless (Wg) morphogen gradient. From the analysis of mutant clones of sulfateless/N-deacetylase-sulphotransferase in the wing imaginal disc, we find that lack of Heparan Sulfate (HS) causes a dramatic reduction of both extracellular and intracellular Wg in receiving cells. Our studies, together with others [Kirkpatrick, C.A., Dimitroff, B.D., Rawson, J.M., Selleck, S.B., 2004. Spatial regulation of Wingless morphogen distribution and signalling by Dally-like protein. Dev. Cell (in press)], reveals that the Glypican molecule Dally-like Protein (Dlp) is associated with both negative and positive roles in Wg short- and long-range signaling, respectively. In addition, analyses of the two Fz proteins indicate that the Fz and DFz2 receptors, in addition to transducing the signal, modulate the slope of the Wg gradient by regulating the amount of extracellular Wg. Taken together, our analysis illustrates how the coordinated activities of HSPGs and Fz/DFz2 shape the Wg morphogen gradient. PMID:15531366

  10. Opportunities for State-Level Action to Reduce Firearm Violence: Proceeding From the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Firearm violence remains an important problem, and a large body of evidence shows that guns used in crime follow generally predictable paths from manufacturer to criminal end user. Policy initiatives based on that evidence have been shown to be effective. A recently published study conducted by a leading policy organization presents new evidence and makes specific recommendations for action by state-level policymakers. Unfortunately, the study's analysis is overly simplified, and the recommendations are therefore misleading. We suggest alternatives that are evidence based. PMID:21778510

  11. Taking Action: A Cross-Modal Investigation of Discourse-Level Representations

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2012-01-01

    Segmenting stimuli into events and understanding the relations between those events is crucial for understanding the world. For example, on the linguistic level, successful language use requires the ability to recognize semantic coherence relations between events (e.g., causality, similarity). However, relatively little is known about the mental representation of discourse structure. We report two experiments that used a cross-modal priming paradigm to investigate how humans represent the relations between events. Participants repeated a motor action modeled by the experimenter (e.g., rolled a ball toward mini bowling pins to knock them over), and then completed an unrelated sentence-continuation task (e.g., provided a continuation for “Peter scratched John.…”). In two experiments, we tested whether and how the coherence relations represented by the motor actions (e.g., causal events vs. non-causal events) influence participants’ performance in the linguistic task. (A production study was also conducted to explore potential syntactic priming effects.) Our analyses focused on the coherence relations between the prompt sentences and participants’ continuations, as well as the referential shifts in the continuations. As a whole, the results suggest that the mental representations activated by motor actions overlap with the mental representations used during linguistic discourse-level processing, but nevertheless contain fine-grained information about sub-types of causality (reaction vs. consequence). In addition, the findings point to parallels between shifting one’s attention from one-event to another and shifting one’s attention from one referent to another, and indicate that the event structure of causal sequences is conceptualized more like single events than like two distinct events. As a whole, the results point toward common representations activated by motor sequences and discourse-semantic relations, and further our understanding of the mental

  12. Ethical issues in using children's blood lead levels as a remedial action objective.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Sue M; Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  13. The study of hydrogen peroxide level under cisplatin action using genetically encoded sensor hyper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, A. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Brilkina, A. A.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Antonova, N. O.; Mishina, N. M.; Shakhova, N. M.; Belousov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the participation of hydrogen peroxide in reaction of cervical cancer cell line HeLa Kyoto on cisplatin action. Determination of hydrogen peroxide level was performed using genetically encoded fluorescent sensor HyPer2. The dependence of cell viability on cisplatin concentration was determined using MTT assay. Mechanisms of cell death as well as HyPer2 reaction was revealed by flow cytometry after 6-hours of incubation with cisplatin in different concentrations. Cisplatin used in low concentrations had no effect on hydrogen peroxide level in HeLa Kyoto cells. Increase of HyPer2 fluorescence was detected only after exposure with cisplatin in high concentration. The reaction was not the consequence of cell death.

  14. Ethical Issues in Using Children's Blood Lead Levels as a Remedial Action Objective

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  15. Establishing wild-type levels of catalytic activity on natural and artificial (βα)8-barrel protein scaffolds

    PubMed Central

    Claren, Jörg; Malisi, Christoph; Höcker, Birte; Sterner, Reinhard

    2009-01-01

    The generation of high levels of new catalytic activities on natural and artificial protein scaffolds is a major goal of enzyme engineering. Here, we used random mutagenesis and selection in vivo to establish a sugar isomerisation reaction on both a natural (βα)8-barrel enzyme and a catalytically inert chimeric (βα)8-barrel scaffold, which was generated by the recombination of 2 (βα)4-half barrels. The best evolved variants show turnover numbers and substrate affinities that are similar to those of wild-type enzymes catalyzing the same reaction. The determination of the crystal structure of the most proficient variant allowed us to model the substrate sugar in the novel active site and to elucidate the mechanistic basis of the newly established activity. The results demonstrate that natural and inert artificial protein scaffolds can be converted into highly proficient enzymes in the laboratory, and provide insights into the mechanisms of enzyme evolution. PMID:19237570

  16. The Dilemma of High Level Planning in Distributed Agile Software Projects: An Action Research Study in a Danish Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Ann-Dorte

    The chapter reports on an action research study with the aim to design a high level planning process in distributed and co-located software projects based on agile methods. The main contributions are the insight that high level planning process is highly integrated with other project disciplines and specific steps has to be taken to apply the process in distributed projects; and the action research approach is indeed suitable to software process improvements.

  17. Pharmacologic manipulation of the flushing action of cerebrospinal fluid. Effect on CSF diatrizoate levels.

    PubMed

    Harnish, P P; Samuel, K

    1988-12-01

    The continual production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides for the dilution and removal of potentially toxic substances from the central nervous system (CNS). This study quantified changes in the CSF concentration of diatrizoate following pretreatment with various drugs that alter CSF production. Adult rats, pretreated with one of ten drugs or normal saline (control) and anesthetized, received sodium diatrizoate (2 mL/kg, IV). Blood and CSF were sampled 2 hours later, and the diatrizoate concentrations were measured. Serum diatrizoate levels in the control group averaged 144.3 micrograms/mL. There were no significant differences in serum levels between control and pretreated groups. The CSF diatrizoate concentration in the control group averaged 10.8 micrograms/mL. Pretreatment with acetazolamide, ritodrine, or probenecid resulted in a significant increase in the CSF concentration, to 24.7 micrograms/mL or 228% of control in the case of acetazolamide. Pretreatment with salicylate, carbachol, or aminophylline resulted in significantly lower CSF diatrizoate levels than control; 3.2 micrograms/mL (30% of control) for carbachol. Digoxin, furosemide, dibutyryl cAMP, or dexamethasone pretreatments had no significant effect on CSF diatrizoate concentrations. Thus, a wide range of drugs may significantly alter the concentration of diatrizoate in the CNS. Drug-induced changes in the rate of CSF production may be responsible for this action. PMID:2849595

  18. Corrective Action Plan for INEL low-level waste management ES&H vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) activities at INEL include numerous waste generators, storage facilities, three treatment facilities, and one disposal facility. The Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) conducted an assessment of the LLW management program in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 (Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Facilities). Assessment included review of waste generators, liquid effluent treatment, storage facilities and practices, and a disposal facility with vaults and a shallow subsurface burial site. WGAT reviewed relevant documents and conducted tours concerning these LLW operations. The vulnerabilities identified by WGAT were similar to those self-identified by INEL (storage and disposal of LLW). This assessment resulted in the documentation of 8 vulnerabilities and 3 conditions. WGAT assessed the overall LLW/mixed low-level waste (MLLW) management program at INEL as being generally effective. As recommended by DNFSB, a site-specific Corrective Action Plan has been prepared and constitutes the initial site improvement activities.

  19. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  20. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  1. Establishment of a structural equation model for ground-level ozone: a case study at an urban roadside site.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Ming; Yu, Tai-Yi; Chang, Len-Fu

    2014-12-01

    This study established a cause-effect relationship between ground-level ozone and latent variables employing partial least-squares analysis at an urban roadside site in four distinct seasons. Two multivariate analytic methods, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were adopted to cite and identify suitable latent variables from 14 observed variables (i.e., meteorological factors, wind and primary air pollutants) in 2008-2010. Analytical results showed that the first six components explained 80.3 % of the variance, and eigenvalues of the first four components were greater than 1. The effectiveness of this model was empirically confirmed with three indicators. Except for surface pressure, factor loadings of observed variables were 0.303-0.910 and reached statistical significance at the 5 % level. Composite reliabilities for latent variables were 0.672-0.812 and average variances were 0.404-0.547, except for latent variable "primary" in spring; thus, discriminant validity and convergent validity were marginally accepted. The developed model is suitable for the assessment of urban roadside surface ozone, considering interactions among meteorological factors, wind factors, and primary air pollutants in each season. PMID:25145282

  2. Consideration of measurement error when using commercial indoor radon determinations for selecting radon action levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.; Dolan, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of year-long, in-home radon measurement in Colorado from commercial companies applying typical methods indicates that considerable variation in precision exists. This variation can have a substantial impact on any mitigation decisions, either voluntary or mandated by law, especially regarding property sale or exchange. Both long-term exposure (nuclear track greater than 90 days), and short-term (charcoal adsorption 4-7 days) exposure methods were used. In addition, periods of continuous monitoring with a highly calibrated alpha-scintillometer took place for accuracy calibration. The results of duplicate commercial analysis show that typical results are no better than ??25 percent with occasional outliers (up to 5 percent of all analyses) well beyond that limit. Differential seasonal measurements (winter/summer) by short-term methods provide equivalent information to single long-term measurements. Action levels in the U.S. for possible mitigation decisions should be selected so that they consider the measurement variability; specifically, they should reflect a concentration range similar to that adopted by the European Community.

  3. Establishing relationships between chemical health stressors in urban traffic environments: Prediction of toluene concentration levels in European cities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, Ch.; Chourdakis, E.; Michalidou, A. V.; Moussiopoulos, N.; Kelessis, A.; Petrakakis, M.

    2012-08-01

    Health can be impacted in many ways by exposure to chemical stressors in urban areas. Epidemiological research community has established consistent associations between traffic related air pollution and various health outcomes. Nevertheless, many urban environments, due to practical reasons (bulk of equipment) and mainly due to economical constraints, are characterised by the absence of the necessary monitoring infrastructure, for pollutants such as toluene. This chemical stressor is associated with numerous risks to human health, mainly with acute and chronic effects on the central nervous system. Due to the lack of monitoring data, it may be convenient to identify and establish a set of possible empirical relationships between health stressors in order to assess air quality trends of traffic related pollution in an urban area and support decision making. The use of environmental statistics can be meaningful towards this direction. This paper aims at developing and presenting a tractable approach, in order to reliably forecast toluene levels in EU urban environments. Multiple stepwise regression analysis is used for this purpose and a strong statistical relationship is detected mainly between toluene, benzene and CO. The adopted regression models are validated in order to depict their applicability and representativeness. In addition the models are applied to Thessaloniki, Greece, which is considered one of the most polluted cities within Europe. A comparison between available measurements, predictions based on the developed statistical models and air quality modelling output, provides discussion for transferability issues of such statistical relations between cities, but also interesting insights for the specific city. In general the presented results demonstrate that the adopted approach is capable of capturing toluene concentration trends and should be considered as complementary to air quality monitoring.

  4. Issues in Establishing Professional Competency-Based Teaching Standards: An Analysis of Processes Used in Determining Level 3 Classroom Teachers in Western Australia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jasman, Anne M.

    In 1997, the Education Department of Western Australia, in conjunction with the teachers' union, initiated a trial project to establish a career path for teachers. Standards are to be set for the career path for three stages: (1) entry to Level 1; (2) transition from Level 1 to 2; and (3) transition from Level 2 to 3. This paper discusses the…

  5. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... protective of human health and achievable with the use of good manufacturing practices. It also describes FDA...: Action Level'' that appeared in the Federal Register of July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42086). The draft guidance...-1639. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 15, 2013 (78 FR...

  6. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs. PMID:25460062

  7. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  8. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or

  9. 31 CFR 30.8 - Q-8: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-8: What actions are necessary for a... âclawbackâ provision requirement)? 30.8 Section 30.8 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.8 Q-8: What actions...

  10. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary of the Treasury TARP STANDARDS FOR COMPENSATION AND CORPORATE GOVERNANCE § 30.4 Q-4: What actions...

  11. Levels and actions of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions: Sex-specific features.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto C; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids regulate the physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system, exert neuroprotective actions and represent interesting tools for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Sex differences in their levels are detected not only under physiological conditions but are also modified in a sex-dependent way in different pathological alterations such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic encephalopathy, psychiatric disorders and peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, many of these disorders show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. The neuroprotective actions of neuroactive steroids, together with the sex specific regulation of its levels might provide the basis to design sex-specific neuroprotective therapies. Indeed, some experiments here discussed suggest the viability of this approach. PMID:26657814

  12. An fMRI study of joint action-varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in control networks.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Marchant, Jennifer L; Kilner, James; Frith, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    As social agents, humans continually interact with the people around them. Here, motor cooperation was investigated using a paradigm in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, jointly controlled a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, color and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels, from no (each participant controlled one dimension exclusively) to full (each participant controlled half of each dimension) cooperation. Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyri bilaterally, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. As joint performance improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with behavior, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was in the dorso medial frontal cortex, involved in monitoring action outcome. Given the cluster location and condition-related signal change, we propose that this region monitored actions to extract the level of cooperation in order to optimize the joint response. Our results, therefore, indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm involving joint control of a visually presented object with joystick movements, the level of cooperation affected brain networks involved in action control, but not mentalizing. PMID:22715326

  13. Synapse-Level Determination of Action Potential Duration by K(+) Channel Clustering in Axons.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew J M; DelCanto, Gina; Yu, Jianqing J; Kamasawa, Naomi; Christie, Jason M

    2016-07-20

    In axons, an action potential (AP) is thought to be broadcast as an unwavering binary pulse over its arbor, driving neurotransmission uniformly at release sites. Yet by recording from axons of cerebellar stellate cell (SC) interneurons, we show that AP width varies between presynaptic bouton sites, even within the same axon branch. The varicose geometry of SC boutons alone does not impose differences in spike duration. Rather, axonal patching revealed heterogeneous peak conductance densities of currents mediated mainly by fast-activating Kv3-type potassium channels, with clustered hotspots at boutons and restricted expression at adjoining shafts. Blockade of Kv channels at individual boutons indicates that currents immediately local to a release site direct spike repolarization at that location. Thus, the clustered arrangement and variable expression density of Kv3 channels at boutons are key determinants underlying compartmentalized control of AP width in a near synapse-by-synapse manner, multiplying the signaling capacity of these structures. PMID:27346528

  14. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  15. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  16. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  17. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Q-4: What actions are necessary for a... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards...

  18. A pilot study exploring the possibility of establishing guidance levels in x-ray directed interventional procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, S.; Miller, D. L.; Vano, E.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Bernardi, G.; Cotelo, E.; Faulkner, K.; Nowotny, R.; Padovani, R.; Ramirez, A.

    2008-02-15

    This article summarizes the dosimetric results of an International Atomic Energy Agency coordinated research program to investigate the feasibility of adopting guidance levels for invasive coronary artery procedures. The main study collected clinical data from hospitals located in five countries. A total of 2265 coronary angiograms (CA) and 1844 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were analyzed. Substudies evaluated the dosimetric performance of 14 fluoroscopes, skin dose maps obtained using film, the quality of CA procedures, and the complexity of PCI procedures. Kerma-area product (P{sub KA}) guidance levels of 50 and 125 Gy cm{sup 2} are suggested for CA and PCI procedures. These levels should be adjusted for the complexity of the procedures performed in a given institution.

  19. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10{sup {minus} 4} carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 {mu}g/ft{sup 2} for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated.

  20. The Feasibility of Establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research Centers at University-Level Institutions. Final Report, Volume I: Study Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chorness, Maury H.; And Others

    To examine the feasibility of establishing Highway Safety Manpower Development and Research (HSMDR) Centers at university-level institutions which would produce three types of manpower--safety specialists, safety professionals, and research manpower, previous National Highway Safety Bureau research studies and approximately 50 federally funded…

  1. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Jjj of... - Operating Parameters for Which Levels Are Required To Be Established for Continuous and Batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 12 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Operating Parameters for Which Levels Are Required To Be Established for Continuous and Batch Process Vents and Aggregate Batch Vent Streams 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED)...

  2. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  3. Kinemage of action - Proposed reaction mechanism of glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase at an atomic level

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, John L.; Stetefeld, Joerg

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibitors of tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis may be useful antibiotics. {yields} Mechanism of critical enzyme, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase, is presented. {yields} Unique vitamin B6-dependant enzyme traps intermediate in active site. {yields} Molecular dynamics show that a re-orientation of the substrate is required. -- Abstract: Glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase (GSAM), a key enzyme in tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis, performs a unique transamination on a single substrate. The substrate, glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), undergoes a reaction that exchanges the position of an amine and a carbonyl group to produce 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This transamination reaction is unique in the fact that is does not require an external cofactor to act as a nitrogen donor or acceptor in this transamination reaction. One of the other remarkable features of the catalytic mechanism is the release free in the enzyme active site of the intermediate 4,5-diaminovaleric acid (DAVA). The action of a gating loop prevents the escape of DAVA from the active site. In a MD simulation approach, using snapshots provided by X-ray crystallography and protein crystal absorption spectrometry data, the individual catalytic steps in this unique intramolecular transamination have been elucidated.

  4. A State-Level Review of Diversity Initiatives in Congregate Meal Programs Established Under the Older Americans Act.

    PubMed

    Porter, Kristen E; Cahill, Sean

    2015-10-01

    The Older Americans Act (OAA) congregate meal program (CMP) targets those most at risk for nutritional deficiencies, social isolation, and institutionalization. Social minorities (racial, ethnic, cultural, and sexual minorities) are at high risk for all three. This study explores state-level diversity initiatives to welcome these social minorities in CMPs. A national survey was distributed to each State Unit on Aging, all but three states participated. The majority of states (64.6%) target CMPs to a specific racial, ethnic, or cultural minority; five states target sexual minorities (lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender [LGBT]). Negative binomial regression results find state minority population percentage is a significant predictor of the number of diversity initiatives at CMPs. States with LGBT CMPs reported the highest levels of racial/ethnic/cultural diversity initiatives and high levels of statewide LGBT protective policies. Recommendations are suggested that build upon the diversification success of states to further the mission of OAA in reaching high-risk older adults. PMID:25651589

  5. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  6. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  7. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture. PMID:20695718

  8. Critique of the considerations for establishing the tolerable upper intake level for vitamin D: critical need for revision upwards.

    PubMed

    Vieth, Reinhold

    2006-04-01

    The tolerable upper intake level (UL) for vitamin D is 50 mcg/d (2000 iu/d) in North America and in Europe. In the United Kingdom a guidance level exists for vitamin D, 25 mcg/d (1000 iu/d), defined as the dose "of vitamins and minerals that potentially susceptible individuals could take daily on a life-long basis, without medical supervision in reasonable safety." Exposure of skin to sunshine can safely provide an adult with vitamin D in an amount equivalent to an oral dose of 250 mcg/d. The incremental consumption of 1 mcg/d of vitamin D3 raises serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D ] by approximately 1 nmol/L (0.4 microg/L). Published reports suggest toxicity may occur with 25(OH)D concentrations beyond 500 nmol/L (200 microg/L). Older adults are advised to maintain serum 25(OH)D concentrations >75 nmol/L. The preceding numbers indicate that vitamin D3 intake at the UL raises 25(OH)D by approximately 50 nmol/L and that this may be more desirable than harmful. The past decade has produced separate North American, European, and U.K. reports that address UL or guidance-level values for vitamin D. Despite similar well-defined models for risk assessment, each report has failed to adapt its message to new evidence of no adverse effects at higher doses. Inappropriately low UL values, or guidance values, for vitamin D have hindered objective clinical research on vitamin D nutrition, they have hindered our understanding of its role in disease prevention, and restricted the amount of vitamin D in multivitamins and foods to doses too low to benefit public health. PMID:16549491

  9. Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels.

    PubMed

    Button, Chris; MacLeod, Morven; Sanders, Ross; Coleman, Simon

    2003-09-01

    The analysis of variability both within and between performers can reveal important information about how athletes satisfy situational constraints. Transitory changes in the basketball free-throw shot were examined across different stages in skill development. Six female basketball players were selected, representing a range of playing expertise (pretest: 0-90% baskets scored). Each participant was video recorded performing 30 shots. Contrary to predictions, there was not a clear pattern of a reduction in trajectory variability with increasing skill level. However, improvements in skill level were associated with an increasing amount of intertrial movement consistency from the elbow and wrist joints. It is suggested that the angular motions of the elbow and wrist joints were compensated for each other toward the end of each throw to adapt to subtle changes in release parameters of the ball. PMID:14510290

  10. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  11. The action of Clofazimine on the level of lysosomal enzymes of cultured macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Sarracent, J; Finlay, C M

    1982-01-01

    Mouse peritoneal and calf alveolar macrophage cultures were exposed to various concentrations of Clofazimine, 3 (p-chloroanilino)-10-p-Chlorophenyl 2, 10-dihydro-2-isopropylimino, for 120 hr and an increase of four lysosomal enzymes were found with 0 . 3 micrograms/ml of the drug. In mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures, higher concentrations were toxic. Cycloheximide inhibited the lysosomal enzyme activity increase found. No change in enzymatic activity was observed when a lysosomal enriched granular fraction was incubated with various drug concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that Clofazimine at concentrations close to therapeutic serum levels induces de novo synthesis of lysosomal enzymes in macrophage cultures. PMID:7083642

  12. Permissive and Non-permissive Hypercapnia: Mechanisms of Action and Consequences of High Carbon Dioxide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a disease with high mortality, which affects a large numbers of patients whose treatment continues to be debated. It has recently been postulated that hypercapnia can attenuate the inflammatory response during lung injury, which would assign it a specific role within lung protection strategies during mechanical ventilation. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role that high levels of CO2 in the blood play in lung injury. We conclude that, although there are reports that show benefits, the most recent evidence suggests that hypercapnia can be harmful and can contribute to worsening lung damage. PMID:20303638

  13. Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Wang, Donglin; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo. PMID:27166703

  14. A novel class of ethacrynic acid derivatives as promising drug-like potent generation of anticancer agents with established mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Mignani, Serge; El Brahmi, Nabil; El Kazzouli, Saïd; Eloy, Laure; Courilleau, Delphine; Caron, Joachim; Bousmina, Mosto M; Caminade, Anne-Marie; Cresteil, Thierry; Majoral, Jean-Pierre

    2016-10-21

    The well-known diuretic Ethacrynic acid (EA, Edecrin), showing low anti-proliferative activities, was chemically modified at different positions. The new EA derivatives have been tested in vitro in anti-proliferative assays on both tumor KB (epidermal carcinoma) and leukemia HL60 (promyelocytic) cells suitable targets for anticancer activity. Reduction of the α-β double bond of EA completely abolished anti-cancer activities, whereas introduction of either 2-(4-substituted phenyl)ethanamine (series A) or 4-(4-substituted phenyl)piperazine (series B) moieties generated compounds showing moderate to strong anti-proliferative activities against human cancer cell lines. Several substitutions on the phenyl of these two moieties are tolerated. The mechanism of action of the EA derivatives prepared in this study is more complex than the inhibition of glutathione S-transferase π ascribed as unique effect to EA and might help to overcome tumor resistances. PMID:27448922

  15. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  16. Action Tweets Linked to Reduced County-Level HIV Prevalence in the United States: Online Messages and Structural Determinants.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Chen, Qijia; Schwartz, H Andrew; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects. We explored these opposing hypotheses by regressing county-level HIV prevalence on action language (e.g., work, plan) in over 150 million tweets mapped to US counties. Controlling for demographic and structural predictors of HIV, more active language was associated with lower HIV rates. By leveraging language used on social media to improve existing predictive models of geographic variation in HIV, future targeted HIV-prevention interventions may have a better chance of reaching high-risk communities before outbreaks occur. PMID:26650382

  17. Proper Levels of the Arabidopsis Cohesion Establishment Factor CTF7 Are Essential for Embryo and Megagametophyte, But Not Endosperm, Development1[OA

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Ling; Yuan, Li; Xia, Ming; Makaroff, Christopher A.

    2010-01-01

    CTF7 is an essential gene in yeast that is required for the formation of sister chromatid cohesion. While recent studies have provided insights into how sister chromatid cohesion is established, less is known about how specifically CTF7 facilitates the formation of cohesion, and essentially nothing is known about how sister chromatid cohesion is established in plants. In this report, we describe the isolation and characterization of CTF7 from Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana). Arabidopsis CTF7 is similar to Saccharomyces cerevisiae CTF7 in that it lacks an amino-terminal extension, exhibits acetyltransferase activity, and can complement a yeast ctf7 temperature-sensitive mutation. CTF7 transcripts are found throughout the plant, with the highest levels present in buds. Seeds containing T-DNA insertions in CTF7 exhibit mitotic defects in the zygote. Interestingly, the endosperm developed normally in ctf7 seeds, suggesting that CTF7 is not essential for mitosis in endosperm nuclei. Minor defects were observed in female gametophytes of ctf7+/2 plants, and plants that overexpress CTF7 exhibited female gametophyte lethality. Pollen development appeared normal in both CTF7 knockout and overexpression plants. Therefore, proper levels of CTF7 are critical for female gametophyte and embryo development but not for the establishment of mitotic cohesion during microgametogenesis or during endosperm development. PMID:20671110

  18. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-29

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 x{sub zp}. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  19. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  20. A possible approach for setting a mercury risk-based action level based on tribal fish ingestion rates.

    PubMed

    Harper, Barbara L; Harris, Stuart G

    2008-05-01

    Risks from mercury and other contaminants in fish for a large Columbia River dataset are evaluated in this paper for a range of consumption rates. Extensive ethnohistorical, nutritional, recent ethnographic surveys, and other documentation was reviewed to confirm previous determinations that the traditional subsistence fish consumption rate is 500 pounds per capita annually, or 620 g per day (gpd). Lower comtemporary consumption rates for other population subsets are also discussed. The causes of the current suppression of fish consumption are discussed and the cultural, educational, social, and trade and economic impacts of the loss of fish are considered. Action levels for mercury for riverine Tribes in the Columbia Basin are suggested at 0.1 ppm or less based on the combined risk from mercury plus other contaminants, the higher fish consumption rates, the existing cultural deficit due to loss of salmon and other stressors, the health benefits of fish, and the cultural and economic importance of fish. The goal of fish advisories is to reduce fish consumption even further, which shifts the burden of avoiding risk to the very people who already bear the burdens of contaminant exposure, socio-economic impacts and cultural loss. However, because Tribal communities often do not have the choice of giving up more food, income, religion, culture, and heritage in order to avoid contamination, they are forced into choosing between culture and health. Many tribal members choose to incur chemical risk rather than giving up their culture and religion. We believe that lowering the action level for mercury is part of the federal fiduciary responsibility to American Indian Tribes. PMID:17631290

  1. Critical Care staffs' attitudes, confidence levels and educational needs correlate with countries' donation rates: data from the Donor Action database.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Spaight, Caroline; Smits, Jacqueline; Cohen, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate on the impact of Critical Care (CC) staffs' attitudes to donation, their acceptance of the brain death (BD) concept, their confidence with donation-related tasks and educational needs on national donation rates. Donor Action (DA) Hospital Attitude Survey (HAS) data were collected from 19 537 CC staff in 11 countries, including personal attitudes to donation, self-reported knowledge, involvement and comfort levels with donation-related tasks and educational requirements. Countries' donation performance was expressed as Procurement Efficiency Index (PEI) (organs procured and transplanted/deaths from eligible causes). National PEI rates correlated well with CC staffs' average support to donation (R = 0.700, P = 0.014), acceptance of the BD concept (R = 0.742, P = 0.007), confidence levels (R = 0.796, P = 0.002) and average educational requirements with donation-related tasks (R = -0.661, P = 0.025). Nurses reported significantly lower positive attitudes (P < 0.0001), acceptance of the BD concept (P < 0.0001), comfort levels (P < 0.0001) and requested more education (P = 0.0025) than medical staff members. DA's HAS is a powerful, standardized tool to assess CC staffs' attitudes and donation-related skills in different environments. Measures to improve countries' donation performance should focus on guidance and education of CC staff so as to ensure that all practitioners have sufficient knowledge and feel comfortable with donation-related issues. PMID:20210934

  2. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  3. Action Potential Energetics at the Organismal Level Reveal a Trade-Off in Efficiency at High Firing Rates

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Kathleen M.; Moorhead, Mayron J.; Perry, Steve F.; Markham, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic costs of action potential (AP) production constrain the evolution of neural codes and brain networks. Cellular-level estimates of AP-related costs are typically based on voltage-dependent Na+ currents that drive active transport by the Na+/K+ ATPase to maintain the Na+ and K+ ion concentration gradients necessary for AP production. However, these estimates of AP cost have not been verified at the organismal level. Electric signaling in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens requires that specialized cells in an electric organ generate APs with large Na+ currents at high rates (200–600 Hz). We measured these currents using a voltage-clamp protocol and then estimated the energetic cost at the cellular level using standard methods. We then used this energy-intensive signaling behavior to measure changes in whole-animal energetics for small changes in electric discharge rate. At low rates, the whole-animal measure of AP cost was similar to our cellular-level estimates. However, AP cost increased nonlinearly with increasing firing rates. We show, with a biophysical model, that this nonlinearity can arise from the increasing cost of maintaining AP amplitude at high rates. Our results confirm that estimates of energetic costs based on Na+ influx are appropriate for low baseline firing rates, but that extrapolating to high firing rates may underestimate true costs in cases in which AP amplitude does not decrease. Moreover, the trade-off between energetic cost and firing rate suggests an additional constraint on the evolution of high-frequency signaling in neuronal systems. PMID:24381281

  4. Actions of mammalian insulin on a Neurospora variant: effects on intracellular metabolite levels as monitored by P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.J.; McKenzie, M.A.; Jordan, F.; Takahashi, M.; Lenard, J.

    1986-05-01

    Fourier transform P-31 NMR spectroscopy (81 MHz) was used to investigate the biochemical nature of insulin action upon the cell wall-deficient slime mutant of Neurospora crassa. Spectra of oxygenated, living cells (ca.10/sup 9//ml.) in late logarithmic-early stationary phase of growth were accumulated for approximately 20 min. (350-450 pulses). Pronounced differences were seen in the metabolite levels of cells cultured for 18-21 hours in the presence of insulin (100 nM) as compared to cells cultured in its absence. Differences in the insulin-grown cells included higher levels of sugar phosphates, inorganic (cytoplasmic) phosphate, NAD+/NADH and UDP-glucose (UDPG) compared to control cells, in which UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPNAG) was the prominent sugar nucleotide. When 100 mM glucose was administered with insulin immediately prior to measurement, short term effects were seen. There were significant increases of sugar phosphates, inorganic phosphate, NAD+/NADH, phosphodiesters and UDPG relative to the case of glucose addition alone. These results are wholly consistent with the known influence of insulin upon mammalian metabolism: stimulation of glucose uptake, phosphorylation and oxidation, phosphatide synthesis and Pi uptake.

  5. Application of State and Federal Guidelines for Establishing Alternate Soil Clean-Up Levels for the Protection of Groundwater at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, K.; McMahon, W.; Hoover, J.

    2008-07-01

    Risk-based soil cleanup levels that are protective of groundwater have been calculated for use in environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site using vadose zone fate and transport modeling. The determination of soil cleanup levels is important because it involves the technical basis for the levels of contamination that can be left in place, which are protective of human health and the environment. The determination of risk-based soil cleanup levels is an especially important issue at the Hanford Site where site conditions such as a semi-arid climate, and a thick vadose zone of over 100 meters necessitate the use of appropriate risk-based methods. In the absence of an alternative risk-based approach, the cleanup levels default to background, detection limits, or simplistic formulas not intended for applications involving these distinctive site conditions. However, the use of vadose zone fate and transport modeling for risk-based applications such as the determination of soil cleanup levels in the vadose zone are not as well established as modeling for groundwater applications. Thus, the use of models in this manner involves additional challenges for the demonstration of the efficacy of its use for risk-based applications, in accordance with federal and state regulatory requirements and guidelines. An approach has been developed to integrate with federal and state regulatory guidelines in conjunction with the development of the risk-based methodology. Demonstration of integration with these guidelines primarily involves documentation of the objectives of the problem to be solved, the technical basis and rationale associated with the selection of an appropriate risk-based method (e.g., model type and code selection), and documentation associated with the use of the model, e.g., conceptual site model, parameter estimation, uncertainty and assumptions analyses, and model results. (authors)

  6. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  7. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Camerini, Serena; Defez, Roberto; Spena, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato) and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants. PMID:11818033

  8. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  9. Establishing desirable fortificant levels for calcium, iron and zinc in foods for infant and young child feeding: examples from three Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Michelle M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Capanzana, Mario V; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2014-01-01

    We used the World Health Organization's recommended procedures to establish desirable fortificant levels for three problem micronutrients in children's diets, based on dietary data collected earlier from Filipino (n = 1374; 6-36 months), Mongolian (n = 179; 12-36 months) and Cambodian (n = 177; 12-36 months) children. Prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of calcium and zinc (via cut-point method) and iron (via full-probability approach) was assessed after adjusting usual intake distributions with pc-side using internal or external within-person variances from Filipino (calcium and iron) and US National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey III (zinc) national surveys. Fortificant levels were determined by repositioning usual intake distributions so that the 2.5th percentile of the targeted populations equalled the estimated average requirement (calcium, zinc) or so that full-probability prevalence was no larger than 2.5% (iron). Prevalence of inadequate intakes was ≥70% for calcium and iron, except Filipino infants (30% for Ca) and Cambodian toddlers (41% for Fe); but <1% for zinc for toddlers in Mongolia and 20% in Cambodia. Prevalence of excessive intakes was <1% for zinc, calcium and iron, except for Mongolian toddlers (11% for Zn). Desirable fortificant levels, although apparently negligible for zinc, were 530-783 mg for calcium and 10.8-22.8 mg for iron (per 100 g). Fortificant levels can be estimated from 24-h recalls, preferably by applying internal within-person variances. Fortification with calcium and iron was necessary, but seemingly not for zinc, despite a high prevalence of low serum zinc, suggesting the need for better defined cut-offs for population risk of zinc deficiency based on dietary zinc intake and/or serum zinc. PMID:22515230

  10. Nuc-ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination.

    PubMed

    Ness, Jennifer K; Skiles, Amanda A; Yap, Eng-Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J; Fiser, Andras; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Nuc-ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc-ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc-ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin-ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de-repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc-ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination-associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol-II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc-ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc-ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination. PMID:27017927

  11. Therapeutic Action of Fluoxetine is Associated with a Reduction in Prefrontal Cortical miR-1971 Expression Levels in a Mouse Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Herrmann, Leonie; Hagl, Kathrin; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Buell, Dominik R.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as epigenetic modulators of gene expression in psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia and major depression. So far, miRNAs have neither been studied in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nor in PTSD animal models. Here, we present the first study exploring the connection between miRNAs and PTSD. Employing our previously established PTSD mouse model, we assessed miRNA profiles in prefrontal cortices (PFCs) dissected from either fluoxetine or control-treated wildtype C57BL/6N mice 74 days after their subjection to either a single traumatic electric footshock or mock-treatment. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant known to be effective both in PTSD patients and in mice suffering from a PTSD-like syndrome. Screening for differences in the relative expression levels of all potential miRNA target sequences of miRBase 18.0 by pairwise comparison of the PFC miRNA profiles of the four mouse groups mentioned resulted in identification of five miRNA candidate molecules. Validation of these miRNA candidates by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in shocked mice is associated with a significant reduction in mmu-miR-1971 expression. Furthermore, our findings suggest that traumatic stress and fluoxetine interact to cause distinct alterations in the mouse PFC miRNA signature in the long-term. PMID:23847554

  12. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  13. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  14. Establishing an Appropriate Level of Detail (LoD) for a Building Information Model (BIM) - West Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fai, S.; Rafeiro, J.

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation of the historically significant West Block of Canada's Parliament Hill. With over 17 thousand square meters of floor space, the West Block is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. As part of the rehabilitation, PWGSC is working with the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) to develop a building information model (BIM) that can serve as maintenance and life-cycle management tool once construction is completed. The scale and complexity of the model have presented many challenges. One of these challenges is determining appropriate levels of detail (LoD). While still a matter of debate in the development of international BIM standards, LoD is further complicated in the context of heritage buildings because we must reconcile the LoD of the BIM with that used in the documentation process (terrestrial laser scan and photogrammetric survey data). In this paper, we will discuss our work to date on establishing appropriate LoD within the West Block BIM that will best serve the end use. To facilitate this, we have developed a single parametric model for gothic pointed arches that can be used for over seventy-five unique window types present in the West Block. Using the AEC (CAN) BIM as a reference, we have developed a workflow to test each of these window types at three distinct levels of detail. We have found that the parametric Gothic arch significantly reduces the amount of time necessary to develop scenarios to test appropriate LoD.

  15. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality-Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3-6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline's potential for aiding cardiovascular health. PMID:27417628

  16. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  17. Perspective on post-menopausal osteoporosis: establishing an interdisciplinary understanding of the sequence of events from the molecular level to whole bone fractures

    PubMed Central

    McNamara, L. M.

    2010-01-01

    Current drug treatments for post-menopausal osteoporosis cannot eliminate bone fractures, possibly because the mechanisms responsible for bone loss are not fully understood. Although research within various disciplines has significantly advanced the state of knowledge, fundamental findings are not widely understood between different disciplines. For that reason, this paper presents noteworthy experimental findings from discrete disciplines focusing on post-menopausal osteoporosis. These studies have established that, in addition to bone loss, significant changes in bone micro-architecture, tissue composition and micro-damage occur. Cellular processes and molecular signalling pathways governing pathological bone resorption have been identified to a certain extent. Ongoing studies endeavour to determine how such changes are initiated at the onset of oestrogen deficiency. It emerges that, because of the discrete nature of previous research studies, the sequence of events that lead to bone fracture is not fully understood. In this paper, two sequences of multi-scale changes are proposed and the experimental challenges that need to be overcome to fully define this sequence are outlined. Future studies must comprehensively characterize the time sequence of molecular-, cellular- and tissue-level changes to attain a coherent understanding of the events that ultimately lead to bone fracture and inform the future development of treatments for post-menopausal osteoporosis. PMID:19846441

  18. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs < 10 ng/g-pellet, DDTs < 6 ng/g-pellet, HCHs < 2 ng/g-pellet). However, the present samples were from tropical and subtropical areas. To establish global baseline, especially to understand the effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high

  19. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  20. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  1. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  2. Top-Level Players' Visual Control of Interceptive Actions: Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H. P.; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of…

  3. Triennial Growth Symposium--Establishment of the 2012 vitamin D requirements in swine with focus on dietary forms and levels of vitamin D.

    PubMed

    Lauridsen, C

    2014-03-01

    In swine nutrition, little is known about vitamin requirements for reproductive processes and bone health, especially vitamin D. Supplemental vitamin D is usually added to animal feed as cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), which is transported to the liver and hydroxylated to 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25(OH)D3), and this metabolite has become commercially available for swine nutrition. Recently, the official vitamin D requirement for gestating and lactating swine was increased from 200 to 800 IU vitamin D/kg feed. The purpose of the present paper was to review the main findings of a published study, which has contributed to the basis for this establishment, and to put them into context with the existing literature. In this study, a dose-response trial with 4 doses of both vitamin D3 and 25(OH)D3 was performed with breeding swine and consisted of 2 experiments: In Exp.1, 160 gilts from first estrus until d 28 of gestation were fed diets containing 4 concentrations of 1 of 2 vitamin D sources (i.e., 200, 800, 1,400, or 2,000 IU/kg from cholecalciferol or corresponding levels of 5, 20, 35, or 50 μg/kg from 25(OH)D3 [Hy-D]). Concurrently in Exp. 2, the same 8 dietary treatments were fed to 160 multiparous sows from the first day of mating until weaning. Dietary treatments of ≥800 IU/kg feed showed beneficial effects for breeding swine in terms of bone mineral content and ultimate strength, decreased number of still born piglets, and greater vitamin D status in comparison with dietary treatments of 200 IU/kg of feed. In addition, using the Hy·D resulted in greater concentrations of plasma 25(OH)D3 when fed at equal amounts (weight) of vitamin D3 but depended on the level tested. Above 200 IU/kg feed, 25(OH)D3 resulted in greater concentrations in plasma than vitamin D3 and could as such been considered as an equivalent or even more advantageous dietary source of vitamin D. In conclusion, this study, together with other recently published studies, addressed the

  4. Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Paul [R-WI-1

    2013-03-15

    10/16/2013 Ordered held at desk by unanimous consent. Pursuant to the order of 10/16/2013. (All Actions) Notes: Provisions of this budget resolution were included in H.J.RES.59. Tracker: This bill has the status Resolving DifferencesHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  5. Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2012 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2013 through 2021.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Paul [R-WI-1

    2011-04-11

    05/25/2011 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 40 - 57. Record Vote Number: 77. (consideration: CR S3331-3332) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  6. Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2013 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2014 through 2022.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Paul [R-WI-1

    2012-03-23

    05/16/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 41 - 58. Record Vote Number: 98. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

  8. Establishing Behavioral and Assessment Criteria through the Use of a Behavioral Level System for Dealing with Self Contained EH Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to establish behavioral and assessment criteria for dealing with seriously emotionally disturbed elementary students enrolled in self-contained emotionally handicapped (EH) units. A primary goal was to provide out-of-field EH teachers with an objective tool for continuously assessing students' individual behavioral and…

  9. [An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S V; Kovalenko, L P; Tallerova, A V; Gudasheva, T A; Durnev, A D

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of noopept (dipeptide analog of piracetam) upon a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in comparison to the reference drug diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied on a model of acute exudative inflammation induced by carrageenan in outbred rats and concanavalin A (Con A) in CBA mice. The level of cytokines was studied on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model (single administration, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with 5-day administration of noopept at a dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p., before endotoxin injection) in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of noopept led to a significant suppression of the inflammatory response to both carrageenan and Con A. The administration of Con A caused a 16-fold increase in the level of IL-6 interleukin in the blood serum of mice as compared to control. Noopept (5 mg/kg) reduced the level of IL-6 by a factor of 1.8 in the inflammatory response to Con A. The administration of LPS led to pronounced increase in the levels ofpro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood serum of test mice as compared to intact animals. The course administration of noopept (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the level of IL-6 and reduced by half the level of TNF-alpha. PMID:23156084

  10. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels, fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, L.; Cordle, F.

    1986-09-01

    The dangers associated with the consumption of large amounts of methylmercury in fish are well recognized, and there is some evidence to suggest that methylmercury may be the cause of subtle neurological impairments when ingested at even low to moderate levels, particularly the prenatal and early childhood periods. This concern has prompted a continuing assessment of the risk of methylmercury toxicity among fish consumers in the US as well as other countries. The toxicokinetics of methylmercury in humans are reviewed and used to estimate body burdens associated with toxic effects. To determine seafood consumption patterns among the continental US population the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has analyzed data from a diary study commissioned by the Tuna Research Foundation. Mercury residue levels in domestic fish sampled by the FDA were used to determine the level of exposure to methylmercury. Until evidence is presented that substantially lowers the known body burden of methylmercury which causes toxicity, calculations indicate that the current 1.0 ppm regulatory level provides adequate protection for the average fish consumer, for young children, and for a significant number of consumers exceeding the acceptable daily intake. However, additional studies are being carried out in a continuing process to ensure that safe levels of prenatal exposure to mercury residues in fish are maintained.

  11. "Growing Up" through the Middle Level Years: A Case Study in Leadership Actions Necessary to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Melissa Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the journey of a suburban middle level principal, as she led a school through an educational change process. This was a single case study design involving the school leader as principal participant, and the researcher as participant observer. The theoretical model that was developed for this…

  12. Influence of lipid heterogeneity and phase behavior on phospholipase A2 action at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Gudmand, Martin; Rocha, Susana; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Stamou, Dimitrios; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Hofkens, Johan; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-05-19

    We monitored the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) on L- and D-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity and diffusion behavior of single PLA(2) molecules in a heterogeneous lipid environment during active hydrolysis. The experiments showed that enzyme molecules adsorbed and interacted almost exclusively with the fluid region of the DPPC monolayers. Domains of gel state L-DPPC were degraded exclusively from the gel-fluid interface where the buildup of negatively charged hydrolysis products, fatty acid salts, led to changes in the mobility of PLA(2). The mobility of individual enzymes on the monolayers was characterized by single particle tracking. Diffusion coefficients of enzymes adsorbed to the fluid interface were between 3.2 microm(2)/s on the L-DPPC and 4.9 microm(2)/s on the D-DPPC monolayers. In regions enriched with hydrolysis products, the diffusion dropped to approximately 0.2 microm(2)/s. In addition, slower normal and anomalous diffusion modes were seen at the L-DPPC gel domain boundaries where hydrolysis took place. The average residence times of the enzyme in the fluid regions of the monolayer and on the product domain were between approximately 30 and 220 ms. At the gel domains it was below the experimental time resolution, i.e., enzymes were simply reflected from the gel domains back into solution. PMID:20441751

  13. Influence of Lipid Heterogeneity and Phase Behavior on Phospholipase A2 Action at the Single Molecule Level

    PubMed Central

    Gudmand, Martin; Rocha, Susana; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Stamou, Dimitrios; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Hofkens, Johan; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We monitored the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on L- and D-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity and diffusion behavior of single PLA2 molecules in a heterogeneous lipid environment during active hydrolysis. The experiments showed that enzyme molecules adsorbed and interacted almost exclusively with the fluid region of the DPPC monolayers. Domains of gel state L-DPPC were degraded exclusively from the gel-fluid interface where the buildup of negatively charged hydrolysis products, fatty acid salts, led to changes in the mobility of PLA2. The mobility of individual enzymes on the monolayers was characterized by single particle tracking. Diffusion coefficients of enzymes adsorbed to the fluid interface were between 3.2 μm2/s on the L-DPPC and 4.9 μm2/s on the D-DPPC monolayers. In regions enriched with hydrolysis products, the diffusion dropped to ≈0.2 μm2/s. In addition, slower normal and anomalous diffusion modes were seen at the L-DPPC gel domain boundaries where hydrolysis took place. The average residence times of the enzyme in the fluid regions of the monolayer and on the product domain were between ≈30 and 220 ms. At the gel domains it was below the experimental time resolution, i.e., enzymes were simply reflected from the gel domains back into solution. PMID:20441751

  14. Technical Basis for Also Using Health-Risk Assessment to Establish Contaminant Boundaries for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Tompson, A F

    2003-12-29

    This technical basis document serves two purposes. First, it provides a detailed discussion of the rationale and procedures suitable for deriving a risk-based contaminant boundary that will protect public health unambiguously, along with examples that are intended as illustrative only to facilitate understanding. Second, it explains the benefits of using such information as the framework for fostering risk communication to educate, inform, and enlighten, and importantly, to fully disclose the goals and structure of contaminant boundaries. To determine a contaminant boundary within a CAU, standards or criteria must be adopted that establish whether groundwater is safe or unsafe for public (and worker) use. For purposes of this discussion, drinking water consumption is considered the pathway of exposure. However, in practice, a realistic land-use scenario must be described and agreed upon before a prospective, realistic risk-based calculation is performed. Otherwise, it will not be clear whether consumption of drinking water is a even appropriate. For example, the future land use that is defined may not even permit access to the contaminated water (e.g., denial of use by law and stewardship; or a lack of accessibility), and in that situation there would be no exposure and no potential health consequences. Taking into consideration that consumption of the groundwater is feasible, the groundwater is deemed unsafe if it contains radionuclide contamination that exceeds the criteria that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers in establishing regulatory standards for drinking water contaminants, including radionuclides generally (i.e., a target range for lifetime excess-cancer risk that is not to exceed 10{sup -4} [1/10,000] and ideally is less than 10{sup -6} [1/1,000,000]) (see EPA, 2000a). Thus, the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for substances in drinking water are considered to be health-protective and generally are derived on the basis

  15. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium, which comprises populating the upper energy level to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and thereafter establishing an inverted population by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level such as by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  16. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-11-26

    A method and apparatus are described for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium. The upper energy level is populated to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and an inverted population is established by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level. The depumping may be done by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  17. Establishing American Colleges Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growing involvement of U.S. two-year colleges in establishing programs abroad to enable foreign students to complete one or two years of college-level work in their home country before transferring to U.S. universities. Highlights the activities of several community colleges in the Pacific Rim. Identifies conditions basic to future…

  18. [Estimation of action of lactoovovegetarian and vegan diets on blood level of atherogenic lipoproteins in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Medkova, I L; Mosiakina, L I; Biriukova, L S

    2002-01-01

    The biochemical status of 72 vegetarians (aged 40-60) was studied; 35 persons kept to a lactoovovegetarian diet and 37 persons followed a vegan diet (vegetable food only). As the results of the investigation showed, almost all of the biochemical parameters of blood tests in the both groups were kept to the physiological norm. A pronounced hypolipidemic effect of both the diets was observed (the total cholesterol level was 5.24 +/- 0.28 mmol/l in the vegetarian group and 3.26 +/- 0.17 mmol/l in the vegan group), some parameters of lipid metabolism in the group of vegan being lower then in the vegetarian group. Thus, the total cholesterol level in the vegan group was lower by 38.7%, the atherogenic coefficient--by 13.8%, the low density cholesterol--by 34.3%, triglicerides--by 28.3%. Although the above mentioned parameters of the vegan group seem to be more satisfactory than those of the vegetarian group, we could not recommend the vegan diet for long periods of time because of deficiency of some nutrients in it. PMID:12462949

  19. Organization of goal-directed action at a high level of motor skill: the case of stone knapping in India.

    PubMed

    Biryukova, E V; Bril, B

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the relationship between goal achievement and execution variability in craftsmen who have acquired the highest "ultimate" skills of stone knapping. The goal of a knapping movement is defined as the vector of the final velocity of a hammer, crucial for detaching a flake and, consequently, for the shape of the final product. The execution of the movement is defined by the kinematic pattern of the arm (i.e., by the coordination between the joint angles corresponding to the seven arm degrees of freedom). The results show that (a) the direction of final velocity is very stable for all craftsmen, whereas the amount of kinetic energy transmitted to the stone was craftsman specific and (b) the kinematic pattern of the arm was strongly individual and was a reliable sign of the level of skill--the highest level was characterized by the highest flexibility of movement kinematics. We stress the importance of conducting the experiment in natural conditions for better understanding of the relationship among the purpose (the final shape of the stone), the goal, and the execution of the movement. PMID:18698105

  20. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  1. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ((137)Cs and (210)Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon. PMID:25818088

  2. Establishing Proficiency Levels for the Delaware Student Testing Program in Science and Social Studies, Grades 4 & 6. Report and Recommendations to the Delaware State Board of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delaware State Dept. of Education, Dover. Assessment and Accountability Branch.

    This document contains the results of a standard setting conducted in January 2002 on the Delaware Student Testing Program (DSTP) Science and Social Studies tests at grades 4 and 6. Each standard setting process entailed convening four groups, one for each grade level and content area, and each group met for 2 days. At the standard setting judges…

  3. The Effect of Classroom Teachers' Attitudes toward Constructivist Approach on Their Level of Establishing a Constructivist Learning Environment: A Case of Mersin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uredi, Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the attitudes of classroom teachers towards constructivist approach and to analyze the effect of their attitudes towards constructivist approach on their level of creating a constructivist learning environment. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. The research sample included 504…

  4. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  5. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  6. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 6: effects of varying pancreatin and calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Williams, Hywel D; Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Carrière, Frédéric; Calderone, Marilyn; Jannin, Vincent; Igonin, Annabel; Partheil, Anette; Marchaud, Delphine; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Maio, Mario; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-11-01

    The impact of pancreatin and calcium addition on a wide array of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) during in vitro lipolysis, with regard to digestion rates and distribution of the model drug danazol, was investigated. Pancreatin primarily affected the extent of digestion, leaving drug distribution somewhat unaffected. Calcium only affected the extent of digestion slightly but had a major influence on drug distribution, with more drug precipitating at higher calcium levels. This is likely to be caused by a combination of removal of lipolysis products from solution by the formation of calcium soaps and calcium precipitating with bile acids, events known to reduce the solubilizing capacity of LBFs dispersed in biorelevant media. Further, during the digestion of hydrophilic LBFs, like IIIA-LC, the un-ionized-ionized ratio of free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged at physiological calcium levels. This makes the titration curves at pH 6.5 representable for digestion. However, caution should be taken when interpreting lipolysis curves of lipophilic LBFs, like I-LC, at pH 6.5, at physiological levels of calcium (1.4 mM); un-ionized-ionized ratio of FFA might change during digestion, rendering the lipolysis curve at pH 6.5 non-representable for the total digestion. The ratio of un-ionized-ionized FFAs can be maintained during digestion by applying non-physiological levels of calcium, resulting in a modified drug distribution with increased drug precipitation. However, as the main objective of the in vitro digestion model is to evaluate drug distribution, which is believed to have an impact on bioavailability in vivo, a physiological level (1.4 mM) of calcium is preferred. PMID:25274609

  7. Establishment of Elevated Serum Levels of IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as Potential Peripheral Blood Biomarkers in Tubercular Lymphadenitis: A Prospective Observational Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Abhimanyu; Bose, Mridula; Varma-Basil, Mandira; Jain, Ashima; Sethi, Tavpritesh; Tiwari, Pradeep Kumar; Agrawal, Anurag; Banavaliker, Jayant Nagesh; Bhowmick, Kumar Tapas

    2016-01-01

    Background Tubercular lymphadenitis (TL) is the most common form of extra-pulmonary tuberculosis (TB) consisting about 15–20% of all TB cases. The currently available diagnostic modalities for (TL), are invasive and involve a high index of suspicion, having limited accuracy. We hypothesized that TL would have a distinct cytokine signature that would distinguish it from pulmonary TB (PTB), peripheral tubercular lymphadenopathy (LNTB), healthy controls (HC), other lymphadenopathies (LAP) and cancerous LAP. To assess this twelve cytokines (Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF)—α, Interferon (IFN) -γ, Interleukin (IL)-2, IL-12, IL-18, IL-1β, IL-10, IL-6, IL-4, IL-1Receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra), IL-8 and TNF-β, which have a role in pathogenesis of tuberculosis, were tested as potential peripheral blood biomarkers to aid the diagnosis of TL when routine investigations prove to be of limited value. Methods and Findings A prospective observational cohort study carried out during 2010–2013. This was a multi-center study with three participating hospitals in Delhi, India where through random sampling cohorts were established. The subjects were above 15 years of age, HIV-negative with no predisposing ailments to TB (n = 338). The discovery cohort (n = 218) had LNTB (n = 50), PTB (n = 84) and HC (n = 84). The independent validation cohort (n = 120) composed of patients with cancerous LAP (n = 35), other LAP (n = 20) as well as with independent PTB (n = 30), LNTB (n = 15) and HC (n = 20). Eight out of twelve cytokines achieved statistical relevance upon evaluation by pairwise and ROC analysis. Further, variable selection using random forest backward elimination revealed six serum biosignatures including IL-12, IL-4, IL-6, IL-10, IL-8 and TNF-β as optimal for classifying the LNTB status of an individual. For the sake of clinical applicability we further selected a three analyte panel (IL-8, IL-10 and TNF-β) which was subjected to multinomial modeling in the independent

  8. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  9. Mutagenicity assays of leachate from domestic waste landfills in Japan: The establishment of a protocol for measuring mutagenicity levels of leachate

    SciTech Connect

    Omura, Minoru; Inamasu, Takeo, Ishinishi, Noburu )

    1991-04-01

    In modern society, production of industrial and domestic waste is increasing so much that waste disposal has become a serious problem in many countries in terms of both difficulty in obtaining a location for waste disposal and concern for the hazardous effects upon the human-environmental system. In Japan, combustible waste is burned in an incinerator and the cinders are buried in landfills together with incombustible waste. These buried substances are degraded by soil bacteria and the physico-chemical milieu existing underground. This requires a great deal of time. However, leachate from the waste landfill is unceasingly dispersed into the environment throughout the degradation period. It is known that leachate contains various kinds of chemicals both organic and inorganic, resulting from the degradation process. Leachate should therefore be examined from the point of view of both environmental pollution and hazardous effects on human health. In an attempt to evaluate the mutagenicity of leachate, the authors endeavored to establish some methods. They developed a protocol for the preconcentration of mutagens in the leachate and for the examination of the mutagenicity of leachate obtained from waste landfills in Japan using the Salmonella typhimurium/mammalian-microsome system (Ames test).

  10. Metabonomic analysis of the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of four organophosphate pesticides in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Du, Longfei; Li, Sifan; Qi, Lei; Hou, Yurong; Zeng, Yan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2014-05-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) in rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs). The results show that a single pesticide did not elicit a toxic response. The joint toxic action of four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAELs) was evaluated by metabolomic analysis of rat plasma under experimental conditions similar to those of the four single OP pesticides. The pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The mixture of four pesticides showed a joint toxic action at the NOAELs of each pesticide. The 19 metabolites were statistically significantly changed in all the treated groups compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Exposure to OP pesticides resulted in increased lysoPC (15 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (16 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (O-18 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (P-19 : 1(12Z)/0 : 0), lysoPC (18 : 1(9Z)/0 : 0), lysoPC (18 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (20 : 4(5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)/0 : 0), lysoPE (16 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (17 : 0/0 : 0), 4-pyridoxic acid, glutamic acid, glycocholic acid, and arachidonic acid, as well as decreased C16 sphinganine, C17 sphinganine, phytosphingosine, indoleacrylic acid, tryptophan, and iodotyrosine in rat plasma. The results indicate that the mixture of OP pesticides induced oxidative stress, liver and renal dysfunction, disturbed the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, and interfered with the function of the thyroid gland. The present plasma results provided complementarities with our previous metabolomic analysis of the rat urine profile exposed to a mixture of four OP pesticides, and also contributed to the understanding of the mechanism of joint toxic action. PMID:24626741

  11. Use of community-level data in the National Children’s Study to establish the representativeness of segment selection in the Queens Vanguard Site

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The WHO Multiple Exposures Multiple Effects (MEME) framework identifies community contextual variables as central to the study of childhood health. Here we identify multiple domains of neighborhood context, and key variables describing the dimensions of these domains, for use in the National Children’s Study (NCS) site in Queens. We test whether the neighborhoods selected for NCS recruitment, are representative of the whole of Queens County, and whether there is sufficient variability across neighborhoods for meaningful studies of contextual variables. Methods Nine domains (demographic, socioeconomic, households, birth rated, transit, playground/greenspace, safety and social disorder, land use, and pollution sources) and 53 indicator measures of the domains were identified. Geographic information systems were used to create community-level indicators for US Census tracts containing the 18 study neighborhoods in Queens selected for recruitment, using US Census, New York City Vital Statistics, and other sources of community-level information. Mean and inter-quartile range values for each indicator were compared for Tracts in recruitment and non-recruitment neighborhoods in Queens. Results Across the nine domains, except in a very few instances, the NCS segment-containing tracts (N = 43) were not statistically different from those 597 populated tracts in Queens not containing portions of NCS segments; variability in most indicators was comparable in tracts containing and not containing segments. Conclusions In a diverse urban setting, the NCS segment selection process succeeded in identifying recruitment areas that are, as a whole, representative of Queens County, for a broad range of community-level variables. PMID:22668454

  12. Associations of plasma fibrinogen levels with established cardiovascular disease risk factors, inflammatory markers, and other characteristics: individual participant meta-analysis of 154,211 adults in 31 prospective studies: the fibrinogen studies collaboration.

    PubMed

    Kaptoge, S; White, I R; Thompson, S G; Wood, A M; Lewington, S; Lowe, G D O; Danesh, J

    2007-10-15

    Long-term increases in plasma fibrinogen levels of 1 g/liter are associated with an approximate doubling of risk of major cardiovascular disease outcomes, but causality remains uncertain. To quantify cross-sectional associations of fibrinogen levels with established risk factors and other characteristics, the investigators combined individual data on 154,211 apparently healthy adults from 31 prospective studies conducted between 1967 and 2003, using a linear mixed model that included random effects at the cohort level. Fibrinogen levels increased with age and showed continuous, approximately linear relations with several risk markers and slightly curvilinear associations with log triglycerides, albumin, and tobacco and alcohol consumption. Female sex, Black ethnicity, lower socioeconomic status, and alcohol abstinence were each associated with modestly higher fibrinogen levels. Approximately one third of the variation in fibrinogen levels was explained by cohort, age, and sex. An additional 7% was explained by established risk factors (notably, positive associations with smoking and body mass index and an inverse association with high density lipoprotein cholesterol), and a further 10% was explained by inflammatory markers (notably, a positive association with C-reactive protein). The association with body mass index was twice as strong in women as in men, whereas the association with smoking was much stronger in men. These findings substantially advance understanding of the correlates and possible determinants of fibrinogen levels. PMID:17785713

  13. Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) individuals have been underserved before and during emergencies. This paper will assess Deaf/HH related emergency preparedness training needs for state emergency management agencies and deaf-serving community-based organizations (CBOs). Methods Four approaches were used: 1) a literature review; 2) results from 50 key informant (KI) interviews from state and territorial-level emergency management and public health agencies; 3) results from 14 KI interviews with deaf-serving CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area; and 4) a pilot program evaluation of an emergency responder training serving the Deaf/HH in one urban community. Results Results from literature review and state and territorial level KIs indicate that there is a substantive gap in emergency preparedness training on serving Deaf/HH provided by state agencies. In addition, local KI interviews with 14 deaf-serving CBOs found gaps in training within deaf-serving CBOs. These gaps have implications for preparing for and responding to all-hazards emergencies including weather-related or earthquake-related natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and nuclear-chemical disasters. Conclusion Emergency preparedness trainings specific to responding to or promoting preparedness of the Deaf/HH is rare, even for state agency personnel, and frequently lack standardization, evaluation, or institutionalization in emergency management infrastructure. This has significant policy and research implications. Similarly, CBOs are not adequately trained to serve the needs of their constituents. PMID:23497178

  14. Establishing the breeding provenance of a temperate-wintering North American passerine, the Golden-crowned Sparrow, using light-level geolocation.

    PubMed

    Seavy, Nathaniel E; Humple, Diana L; Cormier, Renée L; Gardali, Thomas

    2012-01-01

    The migratory biology and connectivity of passerines remains poorly known, even for those that move primarily within the temperate zone. We used light-level geolocators to describe the migratory geography of a North American temperate migrant passerine. From February to March of 2010, we attached geolocator tags to 33 Golden-crowned Sparrows (Zonotrichia atricapilla) wintering on the central coast of California, USA, and recovered four tags the following winter (October to December 2010). We used a bayesian state-space model to estimate the most likely breeding locations. All four birds spent the breeding season on the coast of the Gulf of Alaska. These locations spanned approximately 1200 kilometers, and none of the individuals bred in the same location. Speed of migration was nearly twice as fast during spring than fall. The return rate of birds tagged the previous season (33%) was similar to that of control birds (39%), but comparing return rates was complicated because 7 of 11 returning birds had lost their tags. For birds that we recaptured before spring migration, we found no significant difference in mass change between tagged and control birds. Our results provide insight into the previously-unknown breeding provenance of a wintering population of Golden-crowned Sparrows and provide more evidence of the contributions that light-level geolocation can make to our understanding of the migratory geography of small passerines. PMID:22506055

  15. Nonperturbative renormalization of the axial current in Nf=3 lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and a tree-level improved gauge action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulava, John; Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We nonperturbatively determine the renormalization factor of the axial vector current in lattice QCD with Nf=3 flavors of Wilson-clover fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. The (by now standard) renormalization condition is derived from the massive axial Ward identity, and it is imposed among Schrödinger functional states with large overlap on the lowest lying hadronic state in the pseudoscalar channel, in order to reduce kinematically enhanced cutoff effects. We explore a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of ≈0.09 fm and below. An interpolation formula for ZA(g02) , smoothly connecting the nonperturbative values to the 1-loop expression, is provided together with our final results.

  16. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  17. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  18. Free heme pool and activity of key enzyme of heme synthesis in the rat liver under action of agents affecting reduced glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Barannik, T V; Inshina, N M; Kaliman, P A

    2005-01-01

    The decrease of GSH level in the rat liver was found to be accompanied by an increase of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation during first hours after HgCl2, phenylhydrazine (Ph) injection or rhabdomyolysis (the coefficient of correlation -0.978). The activity of the key enzyme of heme synthesis--5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) was 2.5-fold increased in the first hours after Ph injection and rhabdomyolysis. Glutathione injection in vivo as well as CdCl2 caused the increase of GSH content and the inhibition of ALAS. The coefficient of correlation for GSH content and ALAS activity under the action of agents altering both these parameters (CdCl2, Ph, GSH injection and rhabdomyolysis) is 0.938. Taking into account the presence of heme regulatory motif with conserved cystein in many proteins, including ALAS and TDO (accession number in SwissProt database AAH61793 and P21643, respectively), the link between alterations of GSH content, ALAS activity and heme saturation of TDO in the rat liver could be proposed. The further experiments should be performed in order to elucidate the mechanisms of GSH level influence on free heme pool formation in the liver cells. PMID:16846079

  19. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  20. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  1. Establishing a Primary Level School of Spanish.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garnett, Norma A.

    La Escuelita, a Warwick (Rhode Island) Spanish language instruction program for children in grades 3 through 6, originated in 1983 in a group-tutoring program and expanded under the auspices of the local Parent-Teacher Association into an after-school activity for all city schoolchildren. The PTA undertook the administrative tasks, and the…

  2. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  3. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  4. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  5. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  6. The development of applied action levels for soil contact: a scenario for the exposure of humans to soil in a residential setting.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual, 1985, was developed by the California Department of Health Services to provide a detailed technical basis for managing uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The Decision Tree describes a process that relies on criteria, Applied Action Levels (AALs) to evaluate and, if necessary, mitigate the impact of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites on the public health and the environment. AALs are developed for individual substances, species, and media of exposure. AALs have been routinely developed for the media of air and water; however, an approach for developing AALs for soil contact was lacking. Given that the air pathway for soil contact is addressed in AALs for air, two routes of exposure, ingestion and dermal contact, are addressed in developing AALs for soil contact. The approach assumes a lifetime of exposure to soil in a residential setting. Age-related changes in exposure are included in the scenario. Exposure to soil due to ingestion and dermal contact are quantitated independently and then integrated in the final exposure scenario. A mass balance approach using four elements is employed to quantitate soil ingestion for a young child. Changes in soil ingestion with age are based on age-related changes in blood lead concentration and mouthing behavior. Dermal exposure to soil was determined from studies that reported skin soil load and from estimates of exposed skin surface area. Age-related changes in the dermal exposure to soil are also based on changes with age of blood lead concentration and mouthing behavior. The estimates of exposure to soil due to ingestion and dermal contact are integrated, and an approach for developing AALs is advanced. AALs are derived by allocating the Maximum Exposure Level as described in the Decision Tree to the average daily exposure to soil. Toxicokinetic considerations for the two routes of exposure must be included in deriving AALs for the soil medium of exposure. PMID:2651104

  7. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Arnold, Doug L; Gilbert, Mary E; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  8. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71) Interferes With Thyroid Hormone Action Independent of Effects on Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F. K.; Gaertner, Dean W.; Arnold, Doug L.; Gilbert, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0–30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  9. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  10. 78 FR 65555 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Salmon, ID AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... the establishment of Class E en route airspace. Class E airspace designations are published...

  11. 78 FR 41838 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace... Federal Register a notice of proposed rulemaking (NPRM) to establish Class E airspace for the Colt,...

  12. 75 FR 65226 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-22

    ... Register a notice of proposed rulemaking to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC (75 FR 52654) Docket... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  13. Use of the reciprocal calculation procedure for setting workplace emergency action levels for hydrocarbon mixtures and their relationship to lower explosive limits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ron

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning

  14. Adult Literacy Action Campaign: Projects around Australia. A Review of State and Territory Level Adult Literacy Projects Funded under the Adult Literacy Action Campaign of the National Policy on Languages. Occasional Paper Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education, Canberra.

    This collection of papers is a review of the adult literacy projects in Australia funded under the 1987-89 Adult Literacy Action Campaign (ALAC) of the National Policy on Languages. Fourteen authors describe various literacy projects and, often, their outcomes. The projects described are grouped in seven areas. On the subject of Literacy Training…

  15. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  16. A service-level action research intervention to improve identification and treatment of cannabis and related mental health issues in young Indigenous Australians: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a service-level action research intervention and evaluation protocol for use in the few services where it is possible to engage young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Methods/Design The protocol is being developed in two services where youth mental health is core business: a primary healthcare centre and a youth service in the Cairns and hinterland region, far north Queensland. The protocol calls first for baseline data to be collected using staff and client surveys; network mapping; and analysis of screening, treatment and referral rates. The protocol's intervention phase is driven by service needs identified from baseline data. Intervention strategies focus on implementing/enhancing cannabis screening instruments and processes in line with current best practice; enhancing networks with external drug and mental health services; developing culturally acceptable training and resources; developing activities aiming to reduce cannabis use in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients using the services. The protocol requires implementation of the multilevel intervention within each service for 1 year, with follow-up data then collected and compared to baseline. Process evaluation identifies the more effective intervention strategies and documents the challenges to be overcome for full implementation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was provided by The James Cook University, Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics Approval Number H5322. Peer

  17. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  18. Quantifying isocenter measurements to establish clinically meaningful thresholds.

    PubMed

    Denton, Travis R; Shields, Lisa B E; Howe, Jonathan N; Spalding, Aaron C

    2015-01-01

    A dataset range of isocenter congruency verification tests have been examined from a statistical perspective for the purpose of establishing tolerance levels that are meaningful, based on the fundamental limitation of linear accelerator isocentricity and the demands of a high-precision stereotactic radiosurgery program. Using a laser-defined isocenter, a total of 149 individual isocenter congruency tests were examined with recorded values for ideal spatial corrections to the isocenter test tool. These spatial corrections were determined from radiation exposures recorded on an electronic portal imaging device (EPID) at various gantry, collimator, and treatment couch combinations. The limitations of establishing an ideal isocenter were quantified from each variable which contributed to uncertainty in isocenter definition. Individual contributors to uncertainty, specifically, daily positioning setup errors, gantry sag, multileaf collimator (MLC) offset, and couch walkout, were isolated from isocenter congruency measurements to determine a clinically meaningful isocenter measurement. Variations in positioning of the test tool constituted, on average, 0.38 mm magnitude of correction. Gantry sag and MLC offset contributed 0.4 and 0.16 mm, respectively. Couch walkout had an average degrading effect to isocenter of 0.72 mm. Considering the magnitude of uncertainty contributed by each uncertainty variable and the nature of their combination, an appropriate schedule action and immediate action level were determined for use in analyzing daily isocenter congruency test results in a stereotactic radiosurgery (SRS) program. The recommendations of this study for this linear accelerator include a schedule action level of 1.25 mm and an immediate action level of 1.50mm, requiring prompt correction response from clinical medical physicists before SRS or stereotactic body radiosurgery (SBRT) is administered. These absolute values were derived from considering relative data from a

  19. Assessment of personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter among children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, as part of Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA).

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Gerald J; Dvonch, Timothy; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Parker, Edith A; Isreal, Barbara A; Marsik, Frank J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Robins, Thomas G; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Sam, Mathew

    2002-01-01

    We report on the research conducted by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) in Detroit, Michigan, to evaluate personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter (PM) among children with asthma living in an urban environment. CAAA is a community-based participatory research collaboration among academia, health agencies, and community-based organizations. CAAA investigates the effects of environmental exposures on the residents of Detroit through a participatory process that engages participants from the affected communities in all aspects of the design and conduct of the research; disseminates the results to all parties involved; and uses the research results to design, in collaboration with all partners, interventions to reduce the identified environmental exposures. The CAAA PM exposure assessment includes four seasonal measurement campaigns each year that are conducted for a 2-week duration each season. In each seasonal measurement period, daily ambient measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm and 10 microm, respectively) are collected at two elementary schools in the eastside and southwest communities of Detroit. Concurrently, indoor measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 are made at the schools as well as inside the homes of a subset of 20 children with asthma. Daily personal exposure measurements of PM10 are also collected for these 20 children with asthma. Results from the first five seasonal assessment periods reveal that mean personal PM10 (68.4 39.2 microg/m(3)) and indoor home PM10 (52.2 30.6 microg/m(3)) exposures are significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the outdoor PM10 concentrations (25.8 11.8 microg/m(3)). The same was also found for PM2.5 (indoor PM2.5 = 34.4 21.7 microg/m(3); outdoor PM2.5 = 15.6 8.2 microg/m(3)). In addition, significant differences (p < 0.05) in community-level exposure to both PM10 and PM2.5 are observed between the two Detroit communities (southwest

  20. Application of the No Action Level (NAL) protocol to correct for prostate motion based on electronic portal imaging of implanted markers

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Hans C.J. de . E-mail: j.deboer@erasmusmc.nl; Os, Marjolein J.H. van; Jansen, Peter P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the No Action Level (NAL) off-line correction protocol in the reduction of systematic prostate displacements as determined from electronic portal images (EPI) using implanted markers. Methods and materials: Four platinum markers, two near the apex and two near the base of the prostate, were implanted for localization purposes in patients who received fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy. During the following course of 25 fractions of external beam radiotherapy, the position of each marker relative to the corresponding position in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) was measured in EPI in 15 patients for on average 17 fractions per patient. These marker positions yield the composite displacements due to both setup error and internal prostate motion, relative to the planning computed tomography scan. As the NAL protocol is highly effective in reducing systematic errors (recurring each fraction) due to setup inaccuracy alone, we investigated its efficacy in reducing systematic composite displacements. The analysis was performed for the center of mass (COM) of the four markers, as well as for the cranial and caudal markers separately. Furthermore, the impact of prostate rotation on the achieved positioning accuracy was determined. Results: In case of no setup corrections, the standard deviations of the systematic composite displacements of the COM were 3-4 mm in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions, and 2 mm in the left-right direction. The corresponding SDs of the random displacements (interfraction fluctuations) were 2-3 mm in each direction. When applying a NAL protocol based on three initial treatment fractions, the SDs of the systematic COM displacements were reduced to 1-2 mm. Displacements at the cranial end of the prostate were slightly larger than at the caudal end, and quantitative analysis showed this originates from left-right axis rotations about the prostate apex. Further analysis revealed

  1. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  2. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  3. Item-Level Psychometrics and Predictors of Performance for Spanish/English Bilingual Speakers on "An Object and Action Naming Battery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…

  4. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  5. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  6. Action of an electromagnetic pulse on a plasma with a high level of ion-acoustic turbulence. Field diffusion and subdiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, K. N.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-09-15

    Specific features of the interaction of a relatively weak electromagnetic pulse with a nonisothermal current-carrying plasma in which the electron drift velocity is much higher than the ion-acoustic velocity, but lower than the electron thermal velocity, are studied. If the state of the plasma with ion-acoustic turbulence does not change during the pulse action, the field penetrates into the plasma in the ordinary diffusion regime, but the diffusion coefficient in this case is inversely proportional to the anomalous conductivity. If, during the pulse action, the particle temperatures and the current-driving field change due to turbulent heating, the field penetrates into the plasma in the subdiffusion regime. It is shown how the presence of subdiffusion can be detected by measuring the reflected field.

  7. 77 FR 44120 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-27

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Roundup, MT AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  8. 76 FR 16530 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-24

    ... follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Creighton, NE AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  9. 78 FR 33967 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-06

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  10. 78 FR 41839 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Presidio, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. ] Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Presidio, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  11. 78 FR 65554 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-01

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Rome, OR AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E...

  12. 76 FR 43822 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hearne, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Hearne, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  13. 76 FR 9220 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-17

    ...), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Martinsville, IN AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  14. 78 FR 41837 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-12

    ..., 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71.1 0 2. The incorporation... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  15. 77 FR 68067 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-15

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E. O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Coaldale, NV AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  16. 76 FR 80232 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-23

    ... read as follows: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g); 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Oneonta, AL AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  17. 76 FR 43821 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ranger, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-22

    ... U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389. Sec. 71... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Ranger, TX AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class...

  18. 46 CFR 287.6 - Establishment of fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... the establishment and maintenance of the fund in conformity with the action of the Administration. If... satisfactory in form and substance to the Administration to conform to the action of the Administration as set...) Constructive action not recognized. Constructive deposits, substitutions or withdrawals will not be...

  19. 46 CFR 287.6 - Establishment of fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... the establishment and maintenance of the fund in conformity with the action of the Administration. If... satisfactory in form and substance to the Administration to conform to the action of the Administration as set...) Constructive action not recognized. Constructive deposits, substitutions or withdrawals will not be...

  20. 46 CFR 287.6 - Establishment of fund.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... the establishment and maintenance of the fund in conformity with the action of the Administration. If... satisfactory in form and substance to the Administration to conform to the action of the Administration as set...) Constructive action not recognized. Constructive deposits, substitutions or withdrawals will not be...

  1. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  2. Establishing Criteria in Programmed Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Madson, Gerald Gerhart

    Recent years have seen many attempts to program learning based on many principles ranging from intuition to mathematics. The area of criterion establishment for advancement or conversely additional training at the same or lower levels remains primarily in the realm of intuition. The intuition used is only as good as the experience and background…

  3. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1995-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation needs to be known in order to assess the carcinogenic risks of various UV sources, most notably the different solar UV spectra at ground level under depleting stratospheric ozone. This wavelength dependence cannot be extracted from human data (e.g., from epidemiology); it can, however, be directly obtained from animal experiments. Precise information on the wavelength dependence, the so-called action spectrum, was not available until recently: erythemal or mutagenic action spectra have been used as substitutes. However, experimental data on skin tumors induced in hairless mice (Skh:HR1) with various polychromatic sources have been building up. Our group has found that none of the substitute action spectra yield a statistically acceptable description of our data, and we have, therefore, derived a new action spectrum, dubbed the SCUP action spectrum (SCUP stands for Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia, because the action spectrum also fits experimental data from the former Skin and Cancer Hospital in Philadelphia). The SCUP action spectrum has a maximum at 293 nm, and in the UVA region above 340 nm the relative carcinogenicity per J/m2 drops to about 10(-4) of this maximum. The effects of an ozone depletion on solar UV doses weighted with these different action spectra are compared: the erythemal and SCUP weighted dose come out as least sensitive with a 1.3% and 1.4% increase, respectively, for every 1% decrease in ozone. PMID:7597292

  4. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... Power Co., 401 U.S. 424 (1971). (b) Reasonable basis. If the self analysis shows that one or...

  5. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... be tailored to solve the problems which were identified in the self analysis, see § 1608.4(a),...

  6. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... be tailored to solve the problems which were identified in the self analysis, see § 1608.4(a),...

  7. Determination of the melt level from a real weight signal during computer-assisted crystal growth by the Stepanov (EFG) technique and the use of crucible motion as a control action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossolenko, S. N.; Stryukov, D. O.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2015-06-01

    The current melt level is determined from a real weight signal during computer-assisted crystal growth by the Stepanov technique. No knowledge of the real shape of growing crystals is necessary in this case. A numerical solution to the capillary Laplace equation is used to analyze the use of the motion of a crucible with a melt as a control action that affects the shapes of menisci and growing crystals.

  8. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  9. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  10. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  11. Controlling the level of the sonic boom generated by a flying vehicle by means of cryogenic forcing. 3. Physical justification of the cryogenic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Volkov, V. F.; Kharitonov, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    The influence of the basic factors of cryogenic forcing on formation of the middle zone on the sonic boom and aerodynamic characteristics of the flying vehicle is studied by experimental and numerical methods. Experimental data obtained with alcohol or liquid nitrogen as an injected liquid are used for comparisons; as a result, the total effect of temperature and coolant evaporation can be determined. The influence of temperature is studied by means of numerical simulations of the cryogenic action of distributed injection of air. A comparison of numerical and experimental data reveals the effect of the coolant evaporation process on perturbed flow formation. It is demonstrated that evaporation of the coolant outgoing onto the vehicle surface should be intensified to increase the efficiency of cryogenic forcing (to decrease the coolant flow rate).

  12. Delving into Egocentric Actions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Ye, Zhefan; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the challenging problem of recognizing the camera wearer's actions from videos captured by an egocentric camera. Egocentric videos encode a rich set of signals regarding the camera wearer, including head movement, hand pose and gaze information. We propose to utilize these mid-level egocentric cues for egocentric action recognition. We present a novel set of egocentric features and show how they can be combined with motion and object features. The result is a compact representation with superior performance. In addition, we provide the first systematic evaluation of motion, object and egocentric cues in egocentric action recognition. Our benchmark leads to several surprising findings. These findings uncover the best practices for egocentric actions, with a significant performance boost over all previous state-of-the-art methods on three publicly available datasets. PMID:26973427

  13. Self-inhibiting action of nortriptylin's antidepressive effect at high plasma levels: a randomized double-blind study controlled by plasma concentrations in patients with endogenous depression.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sorensen, P; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-02-01

    Below the toxic plasma level of nortriptyline (NT) an upper therapeutic limit has been postulated in patients with endogenous depression. If so the clinical significance is obvious and a double-blind, randomized study was performed in order to solve this problem. Two groups of patients were controlled at different plasma levels (less than 150 ng/ml and less than 180 ng/ml). The degree of depression was rated weekly. Only about one third (n equals 24) of the patients originally included, were carried through the full protocol, the most prominent reason for drop out beeing spontaneous remission during an initial placebo period. After 4 weeks of NT treatment the majority in the high level group was still depressed, but the difference barely significant (P equals 5.5%). However, a randomized reduction of the plasma level among the patients at the high level resulted in a significant correlation to remission. Evaluation of the total material after 6 weeks of NT treatment demonstrated a strong correlation of high plasma level to poor antidepressive effect of NT. No correlation could be obtained between side-effects, which were few, and plasma level. The non-proteinbound fraction in plasma was found to 7% (SD 1.83) by simultaneous determinations of NT in plasma and CSF in 13 patients. The variation in the proteinbinding was not likely to invalidate the over all results based on total NT determination. A therapeutic plasma range of 50-150 ng/ml is recommended. PMID:766041

  14. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  15. 10 CFR 71.133 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective action. 71.133 Section 71.133 Energy NUCLEAR....133 Corrective action. The licensee, certificate holder, and applicant for a CoC shall establish... determined and corrective action taken to preclude repetition. The identification of the...

  16. 21 CFR 299.4 - Established names for drugs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Established names for drugs. 299.4 Section 299.4...: GENERAL DRUGS; OFFICIAL NAMES AND ESTABLISHED NAMES General Provisions § 299.4 Established names for drugs... name for any drug if he determines that such action is necessary or desirable in the interest...

  17. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  18. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  19. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  20. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  1. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  2. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  3. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  4. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  5. Student Perceptions of Science Teacher Actions in Two Culturally Diverse Middle-Level Science Classrooms: A Case Study in the American Deep South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, J. Randy

    The purpose of this study was to give voice to students' perceptions in two science classrooms taught by two white teachers in an urban multicultural middle-level school situated in the American Deep South. Student participants were 35 students of different ethnicities in grades 7 and 8. The theoretical reference used is social contextual, a…

  6. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  7. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  8. Establishing and Managing Switchgrass

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Care should be taken in selecting switchgrass varieties, using only those specifically adapted to the region of interest. Good establishment practices include using high quality seed, an appropriate seeding rate, a well-prepared seedbed, cultipacking after planting, and both pre- and post-emergence...

  9. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.

  10. THE SENSITIVITY OF CELLS WITH THE VARIOUS LEVEL OF NAD(P)H:QUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE 1 TO CYTOTOXIC ACTION OF QUINONIMINES AND α-TOCOPHEROL SYNTHETIC DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Petrova, G V; Parshykov, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol with shortened to 6 carbon atoms side chain (α-Toc-C6), α-tocopherol succinate (α-TS) and quinonimine 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) on DT-diaphorase activity and viability of rat thymocytes, splenocytes and hepatocytes were investigated. It was shown that the lowest basal activity of the enzyme is inherent in splenocytes. In comparison to splenocytes, DT-diaphorase activity was 1.4 and 5 times higher in thymocytes and hepatocytes, respectively. It was found that the sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxic effect of DCPIP was inversely proportional to the basal level of DT-diaphorase activity and accompanied by its activation with subsequent inhibition at non-toxic and toxic concentrations, respectively. Hepatocytes were least sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of α-Toc-C6. In thymocytes and splenocytes α-Toc-C6 exerts inhibitory effects on DT-diaphorase, whereas in hepatocytes an increased activity of the enzyme was observed, which probably caused their high survival rate. Simultaneous induction of cytochrome P450 enzyme expression by α-Toc-C6 in hepatocytes is also possible. Cytotoxic effect of α-TS does not depend on the basal level of DT-diaphorase activity in cells, is not accompanied by its induction and it is most likely determined by the non-specific esterase activity. PMID:26547963

  11. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  12. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  13. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  14. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  15. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  16. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  17. 48 CFR 1306.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... OF COMMERCE COMPETITION AND ACQUISITION PLANNING COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition... exclude a source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternate source is set...

  18. Operationalizing the Concept of Value--An Action Research-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naslund, Dag; Olsson, Annika; Karlsson, Sture

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: While the importance of measuring customer satisfaction levels is well established, less research exists on how organizations operationalize such knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to describe an action research (AR) case study resulting in a workshop model to operationalize the concept of value. The model facilitates organizational…

  19. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  20. Avulsion in action: Reconstruction and modelling sedimentation pace and upstream flood water levels following a Medieval tidal-river diversion catastrophe (Biesbosch, The Netherlands, 1421-1750 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Cohen, Kim M.

    2010-05-01

    Deltaic land inundated by storm surges may reform by sedimentation from natural or human-induced river diversions. This is a well-known trigger mechanism for creation of new channels in coastal plains and deltas, which may develop into main channels and lead to abandonment of older (avulsion), particularly in the downstream parts of deltas that host tidal rivers. These new channels develop as part of deltaic splay complexes that heal initial diversion scars and fill up flooded basins at a certain pace. We study a case with excellent historical and geological data of a diversion of the river Rhine following catastrophic inundations (1421-1424 AD) into medieval reclaimed land. Numerical modelling of deltaic splay and channel development is combined with reconstructions from historical maps and geological data. This yields detailed insight in pacing of splay sedimentation and changing hydrodynamics in the channel upstream of the diversion in the two centuries following the inundation. The equivalent of the full sand budget of the river Rhine was effectively trapped in the developing splay. The tidal-avulsion splay evolution on aspects is similar to that of fluvial crevassing into flood basins documented for settings lacking 'downstream' tidal control. The typical small-scale delta-lobe avulsion cycles: mouth bar formation, backward sedimentation, upstream avulsion, channel progradation and mouth bar formation are reproduced in the splay-modelling. The pacing of splay development, however, is relatively fast due to the presence of tides and the water depth in the receiving basin. The diversion had a strong upstream impact, in particular on water levels in the feeding river channel at stages of peak flow. For two centuries levels were significantly raised, because bifurcation-imposed reduced transport capacity and associated sedimentation at the diversion site increased hydraulic roughness and hampered flow. These findings have implications regarding flood mitigation

  1. Establishing Successful Faculty Evaluation and Development Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arreola, Raoul A.

    1983-01-01

    Examines obstacles to and errors in establishing faculty evaluation and development programs. Presents 12 guidelines for overcoming obstacles and avoiding errors, including the identification and enlistment of high-level administrative support; responsiveness to faculty concerns; and the establishment of development centers, advisory boards, and…

  2. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  3. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  4. 48 CFR 206.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 206.202 Establishing or maintaining alternative sources. (a) Agencies may use this authority to totally or partially exclude a particular source from a contract action... source to be excluded from the contract action. Include the information at PGI 206.202(b), as...

  5. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    PubMed Central

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Material and Methods: This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Findings: The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (P< 0.05). Results: Education and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students. PMID:25767821

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-12-01

    Office is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 546. • Corrective Action Unit 546 should be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding final action levels. However, contaminants of concern were presumed to be present in the subsurface soil at CAS 09-20-01. Therefore, the corrective action of close in place was selected as the preferred alternative for this CAS. Potential source material was removed from CAS 06-23-02; therefore, the corrective action of clean closure was selected as the preferred alternative at this CAS.

  7. Pockmarks on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar: formation from overpressured shallow contourite gas reservoirs and internal wave action during the last glacial sea-level lowstand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Ricardo; Somoza, Luis; Medialdea, Teresa; González, Francisco Javier; Gimenez-Moreno, Carmen Julia; Pérez-López, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    Integrating novel and published swath bathymetry (3,980 km2), as well as chirp and high-resolution 2D seismic reflection profiles (2,190 km), this study presents the mapping of 436 pockmarks at water depths varying widely between 370 and 1,020 m on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar. On the Atlantic side in the south-eastern Gulf of Cádiz near the Camarinal Sill, 198 newly discovered pockmarks occur in three well localized and separated fields: on the upper slope ( n=14), in the main channel of the Mediterranean outflow water (MOW, n=160), and on the huge contourite levee of the MOW main channel ( n=24) near the well-known TASYO field. These pockmarks vary in diameter from 60 to 919 m, and are sub-circular to irregularly elongated or lobate in shape. Their slope angles on average range from 3° to 25°. On the Mediterranean side of the strait on the Ceuta Drift of the western Alborán Basin, where pockmarks were already known to occur, 238 pockmarks were identified and grouped into three interconnected fields, i.e. a northern ( n=34), a central ( n=61) and a southern field ( n=143). In the latter two fields the pockmarks are mainly sub-circular, ranging from 130 to 400 m in diameter with slope angles averaging 1.5° to 15°. In the northern sector, by contrast, they are elongated up to 1,430 m, probably reflecting MOW activity. Based on seismo-stratigraphic interpretation, it is inferred that most pockmarks formed during and shortly after the last glacial sea-level lowstand, as they are related to the final erosional discontinuity sealed by Holocene transgressive deposits. Combining these findings with other existing knowledge, it is proposed that pockmark formation on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar resulted from gas and/or sediment pore-water venting from overpressured shallow gas reservoirs entrapped in coarse-grained contourites of levee deposits and Pleistocene palaeochannel infillings. Venting was either triggered or promoted by hydraulic pumping

  8. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  9. Epstein-Barr Viruses (EBVs) Deficient in EBV-Encoded RNAs Have Higher Levels of Latent Membrane Protein 2 RNA Expression in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and Efficiently Establish Persistent Infections in Humanized Mice

    PubMed Central

    Gregorovic, Goran; Boulden, Elizabeth A.; Bosshard, Rachel; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Skalsky, Rebecca; Cullen, Bryan R.; Gujer, Cornelia; Rämer, Patrick; Münz, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Functions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBERs) were tested in lymphoblastoid cell lines containing EBER mutants of EBV. Binding of EBER1 to ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) was confirmed. Deletion of EBER1 or EBER2 correlated with increased levels of cytoplasmic EBV LMP2 RNA and with small effects on specific cellular microRNA (miRNA) levels, but protein levels of LMP1 and LMP2A were not affected. Wild-type EBV and EBER deletion EBV had approximately equal abilities to infect immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human hematopoietic system. PMID:26339045

  10. Epstein-Barr Viruses (EBVs) Deficient in EBV-Encoded RNAs Have Higher Levels of Latent Membrane Protein 2 RNA Expression in Lymphoblastoid Cell Lines and Efficiently Establish Persistent Infections in Humanized Mice.

    PubMed

    Gregorovic, Goran; Boulden, Elizabeth A; Bosshard, Rachel; Elgueta Karstegl, Claudio; Skalsky, Rebecca; Cullen, Bryan R; Gujer, Cornelia; Rämer, Patrick; Münz, Christian; Farrell, Paul J

    2015-11-01

    Functions of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-encoded RNAs (EBERs) were tested in lymphoblastoid cell lines containing EBER mutants of EBV. Binding of EBER1 to ribosomal protein L22 (RPL22) was confirmed. Deletion of EBER1 or EBER2 correlated with increased levels of cytoplasmic EBV LMP2 RNA and with small effects on specific cellular microRNA (miRNA) levels, but protein levels of LMP1 and LMP2A were not affected. Wild-type EBV and EBER deletion EBV had approximately equal abilities to infect immunodeficient mice reconstituted with a human hematopoietic system. PMID:26339045

  11. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  12. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Huo, Xueyun; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype. Methods The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10) were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose. Results Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l), PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33%) to F6 (38.46%). These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin. PMID:27427908

  13. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  14. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  15. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council. PMID:26907148

  16. 75 FR 42 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53407), Docket No. FAA- 2009-0602; Airspace Docket No. 09-AEA-13. The FAA uses the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV AGENCY... that establishes Class E Airspace at Spencer, WV. This action enhances the safety and...

  17. 78 FR 38828 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Captiva, FL AGENCY...: History On June 6, 2013, the FAA published a final rule, in the Federal Register establishing Class E... aeronautical data charting service, thereby making this action necessary. The Class E airspace designations...

  18. 77 FR 60660 - Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-04

    ...: Authority: 49 U.S.C. 106(g), 40103, 40113, 40120; E.O. 10854, 24 FR 9565, 3 CFR, 1959-1963 Comp., p. 389... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment Class E Airspace; Kasigluk, AK...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Kasigluk Airport, Kasigluk, AK, to...

  19. 77 FR 16674 - Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-22

    ... Notice No. 121 in the Federal Register on October 14, 2011 (76 FR 63852), proposing to establish the... Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau 27 CFR Part 9 RIN 1513-AB82 Establishment of the Wisconsin Ledge Viticultural Area AGENCY: Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau, Treasury. ACTION: Final rule;...

  20. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  1. Consciousness: individuated information in action.

    PubMed

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness - the main aim of this article -into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  2. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  3. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  4. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  5. Social constraints from an observer's perspective: Coordinated actions make an agent's position more predictable.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jun; Xu, Haokui; Ding, Xiaowei; Liang, Junying; Shui, Rende; Shen, Mowei

    2016-06-01

    Action prediction, a crucial ability to support social activities, is sensitive to the individual goals of expected actions. This article reports a novel finding that the predictions of observed actions for a temporarily invisible agent are influenced, and even enhanced, when this agent has a joint/collective goal to implement coordinated actions with others (i.e., with coordination information). Specifically, we manipulated the coordination information by presenting two chasers and one common target to perform coordinated or individual chases, and subjects were required to predict the expected action (i.e., position) for one chaser after it became momentarily invisible. To control for possible low-level physical properties, we also established some intense paired controls for each type of chase, such as backward replay (Experiment 1), making the chasing target invisible (Experiment 2) and a direct manipulation of the goal-directedness of one chaser's movements to disrupt coordination information (Experiment 3). The results show that the prediction error for invisible chasers depends on whether the second chaser is coordinated with the first, and this effect vanishes when the chasers behaves with exactly the same motions, but without coordination information between them; furthermore, this influence results in enhancing the performance of action prediction. These findings extend the influential factors of action prediction to the level of observed coordination information, implying that the functional characteristic of mutual constraints of coordinated actions can be utilized by vision. PMID:26922896

  6. The role of action readiness in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2015-12-01

    According to many theories of motivation and decision making, the principal driver of human behavior is the valuation of actions. Action value is computed as the difference between stimulus value (the benefits and costs inherent in the stimulus that is the target of the action) and action costs (the effort required to perform the action). In the present work, we propose that action costs are crucially influenced by the readiness to perform a given action. We define action readiness as the ease with which an action may be initiated given the preaction launch state of the individual. An action that has been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a high level of action readiness, whereas an action that has not been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a low level of action readiness. By our account, if action readiness levels are high for a given action, decreased action costs may result in action even when the stimulus value is relatively low. Conversely, if action readiness levels are low for a given action, even action costs that appear negligible can dominate positive stimulus values, resulting in seemingly puzzling instances of inaction. We develop and test these ideas in 3 studies across 233 participants using an image-viewing decision context and a logistic prediction model. PMID:26436428

  7. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  8. Addressing Youth Victimization. Action Plan Update.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osofsky, Joy D.

    The Coordinating Council on Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention published an action plan in 1996 that established eight objectives as the foundation for innovative and effective action by federal, state, and local governments, in partnership with private sector organizations, to reduce juvenile violence and victimization. This bulletin…

  9. NORTH AMERICAN REGIONAL ACTION PLAN ON MERCURY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The North American Regional Action Plan (NARAP) on Mercury is one of a number of action plans that stem from the North American Agreement on Environmental Cooperation between the governments of Canada, Mexico and the United States. That Agreement established the Commission for En...

  10. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  11. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  12. Race Against Antimicrobial Resistance Requires Coordinated Action – An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premanandh, J.; Samara, B. S.; Mazen, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance developed by microbes is challenging success stories of treatment of infectious diseases with anti-microbials. Developing new antimicrobials against these resistant organisms does not progress at the same speed. In an effort to address this key issue, this work overviews the role of different stakeholders and discusses preventative and control measures for effective management of available resources. Roles and concerns of physicians, pharmacists and the public are also discussed. More than anything, this situation requires immediate action to establish antimicrobial stewardship program, control over the counter sale and promote public awareness. The paper also confronts the idea of curbing the use of antimicrobials using mass media, while detailing the consequences of non-therapeutic use. The role of policy makers in taking global action is essential to establishing authority or agency for formulating national guidelines and regulations for prudently using antimicrobials. To do this, this paper recommend the establishment of a global fund. In conclusion, the race against resistance is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated action at local, national, regional and international levels to ensure sustained utilization of antimicrobials. PMID:26869998

  13. Race Against Antimicrobial Resistance Requires Coordinated Action - An Overview.

    PubMed

    Premanandh, J; Samara, B S; Mazen, A N

    2015-01-01

    Resistance developed by microbes is challenging success stories of treatment of infectious diseases with anti-microbials. Developing new antimicrobials against these resistant organisms does not progress at the same speed. In an effort to address this key issue, this work overviews the role of different stakeholders and discusses preventative and control measures for effective management of available resources. Roles and concerns of physicians, pharmacists and the public are also discussed. More than anything, this situation requires immediate action to establish antimicrobial stewardship program, control over the counter sale and promote public awareness. The paper also confronts the idea of curbing the use of antimicrobials using mass media, while detailing the consequences of non-therapeutic use. The role of policy makers in taking global action is essential to establishing authority or agency for formulating national guidelines and regulations for prudently using antimicrobials. To do this, this paper recommend the establishment of a global fund. In conclusion, the race against resistance is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated action at local, national, regional and international levels to ensure sustained utilization of antimicrobials. PMID:26869998

  14. 75 FR 56058 - Establishment of the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee and Intention To Recruit New...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Economics and Statistics Administration Establishment of the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee and Intention To Recruit New Members AGENCY: Economics and Statistics Administration, Commerce. ACTION... establishment of the Federal Economic Statistics Advisory Committee (the ``Committee') within the Economics...

  15. 76 FR 2801 - Revocation and Establishment of Compulsory Reporting Points; Alaska

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-18

    ...This action removes and establishes high altitude Alaskan compulsory reporting points in the vicinity of the United States (U.S.) and Canadian border. Specifically, the FAA is removing BORAN and establishing the TOVAD reporting...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was calculated based on

  17. 75 FR 69889 - Extension of Deadline for Action on the Second Section 126 Petition From New Jersey

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-16

    ... NAAQS on June 2, 2010 (75 FR 35520). Specifically, EPA established the new 1-hour SO 2 NAAQS at a level... and the ] current deadline for a response to that petition is January 12, 2011 (75 FR 39633). II... ``significant regulatory action'' under the terms of Executive Order (EO) 12866 (58 FR 51735, October 4,...

  18. Representing the consequences of intentionally inhibited actions.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Poonian, Simmy; Walsh, Eamonn

    2009-08-25

    The experience of planning an action but then changing our minds and cancelling the action at the last instant is a common one. Here, we instructed participants to prepare voluntary (keypress) actions and sometimes intentionally inhibit them at the last possible moment. Participants could freely choose between left and right hand actions. Keypresses produced either a congruent (80% probability) or an incongruent (20% probability) tone after a short delay. If no voluntary action was made within a defined response window, one of the tones was nevertheless presented a short time later. At the end of the trial, participants judged the time of tone onset. We used an established marker to measure the experience of control, namely the intentional binding of the tone backwards in time towards the action that caused it. Results showed that voluntary actions produced the expected temporal binding of tones back towards the preceding action. In contrast, we found an opposite trend towards repulsion of the tone in intentional inhibition trials. When people intentionally inhibit a planned action, their experience of a subsequent event that was associated with the action is severely affected. Our results suggest that intentional inhibition is a specific cognitive process that strongly influences action prediction and action experience. PMID:19524558

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  20. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  1. Guam Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  2. 40 CFR 258.58 - Implementation of the corrective action program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... action program. 258.58 Section 258.58 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Action § 258.58 Implementation of the corrective action program. (a) Based on the schedule established...) Establish and implement a corrective action ground-water monitoring program that: (i) At a minimum, meet...

  3. PROTECTING CONFIDENTIALITY IN ESTABLISHMENT SURVEYS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This invited chapter for an International Monograph on Survey Methods inEstablishment Surveys summarizes methods for protecting respondent confidentiality in establishment surveys and includes open research problems and an extensive bibliography. t will be summarized in an invite...

  4. Action Research in Graduate Management Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Chad; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortun

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that action research, as distinguished from traditional research, has a role in graduate management education. It is suggested that the former is more appropriate for developing managerial competencies. Differences between master's-level and doctoral-level action research projects are noted, and related issues for curriculum design…

  5. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2001, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 321: Area 22 Weather Station Fuel Storage as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 22-99-05, Fuel Storage Area. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because

  6. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  7. Adiponectin Action: A Combination of Endocrine and Autocrine/Paracrine Effects

    PubMed Central

    Dadson, Keith; Liu, Ying; Sweeney, Gary

    2011-01-01

    The widespread physiological actions of adiponectin have now been well characterized as clinical studies and works in animal models have established strong correlations between circulating adiponectin level and various disease-related outcomes. Thus, conventional thinking attributes many of adiponectin’s beneficial effects to endocrine actions of adipose-derived adiponectin. However, it is now clear that several tissues can themselves produce adiponectin and there is growing evidence that locally produced adiponectin can mediate functionally important autocrine or paracrine effects. In this review article we discuss regulation of adiponectin production, its mechanism of action via receptor isoforms and signaling pathways, and its principal physiological effects (i.e., metabolic and cardiovascular). The role of endocrine actions of adiponectin and changes in local production of adiponectin or its receptors in whole body physiology is discussed. PMID:22649379

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 106: Area 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Dawn Peterson

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 106 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 05-20-02, Evaporation Pond; (2) 05-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site - Able; (3) 05-45-04, 306 GZ Rad Contaminated Area; (4) 05-45-05, 307 GZ Rad Contaminated Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 106 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of clean closure was implemented at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05, while no corrective action was necessary at CASs 05-20-02 and 05-23-05. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 20, 2010, through June 1, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 106: Areas 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (mechanical displacement and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 106 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Industrial Area exposure scenario (2,250 hours of annual exposure). The only radiological dose exceeding the FAL was at CAS 05-45-05 and was associated with potential source material (PSM). It is also assumed that additional PSM in the form of depleted uranium (DU) and DU-contaminated debris at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05 exceed the FAL. Therefore, corrective actions were undertaken at these CASs that consisted of removing PSM and collecting verification

  9. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  10. An Affirmative Action Plan Response to Office of Civil Rights Enforcement Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Ned A., Jr.

    The affirmative action concept developed out of case law as the courts decided passive attempts at desegregating schools failed to achieve results and out of civil rights legislation as administrative agencies adopted the court-established standards. A major challenge of affirmative action plans is to prevent court-approved goals from becoming…

  11. Action Research in EdD Programs in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Karen; Furman, Gail; Sernak, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study gathered information about the use of action research within doctor of education programs in educational leadership and explored faculty understanding of and perspectives on action research. Survey data established that action research is used infrequently to meet dissertation requirements. Contributing factors include lack…

  12. 41 CFR 60-1.40 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Affirmative action... written affirmative action program for each of its establishments, if it has 50 or more employees and: (i... each nonconstruction subcontractor to develop and maintain a written affirmative action program...

  13. 41 CFR 60-1.40 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Affirmative action... written affirmative action program for each of its establishments, if it has 50 or more employees and: (i... each nonconstruction subcontractor to develop and maintain a written affirmative action program...

  14. 41 CFR 60-1.40 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Affirmative action... written affirmative action program for each of its establishments, if it has 50 or more employees and: (i... each nonconstruction subcontractor to develop and maintain a written affirmative action program...

  15. 41 CFR 60-1.40 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Affirmative action... written affirmative action program for each of its establishments, if it has 50 or more employees and: (i... each nonconstruction subcontractor to develop and maintain a written affirmative action program...

  16. 41 CFR 60-1.40 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 1 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Affirmative action... written affirmative action program for each of its establishments, if it has 50 or more employees and: (i... each nonconstruction subcontractor to develop and maintain a written affirmative action program...

  17. 21 CFR 820.100 - Corrective and preventive action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Corrective and preventive action. 820.100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Corrective and Preventive Action § 820.100 Corrective and preventive action. (a) Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for...

  18. 21 CFR 820.100 - Corrective and preventive action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Corrective and preventive action. 820.100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Corrective and Preventive Action § 820.100 Corrective and preventive action. (a) Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for...

  19. 21 CFR 820.100 - Corrective and preventive action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Corrective and preventive action. 820.100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Corrective and Preventive Action § 820.100 Corrective and preventive action. (a) Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for...

  20. 21 CFR 820.100 - Corrective and preventive action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Corrective and preventive action. 820.100 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES QUALITY SYSTEM REGULATION Corrective and Preventive Action § 820.100 Corrective and preventive action. (a) Each manufacturer shall establish and maintain procedures for...

  1. An Establishment-Level Test of the Statistical Discrimination Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Skaggs, Sheryl

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of a sample of 306 workers shows that neither the gender nor racial composition of the workplace is associated with productivity. An alternative explanation for lower wages of women and minorities is social closure--the monopolizing of desirable positions by advantaged workers. (SK)

  2. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... whose duties involve handling the meat or meat food products prepared by the establishment are counted... involve handling the meat or meat food products prepared by the establishment are counted when...

  3. 9 CFR 381.513 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments. 381.513 Section 381.513 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION...

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 371, Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe, located within Areas 11 and 18 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 comprises two corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 371 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at both CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 8, 2009, through February 16, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 371 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface soil. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within the Johnnie Boy crater and the fissure at Pin Stripe. Due to the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken

  5. Diversity experiences predict changes in attitudes toward affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Aberson, Christopher L

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined the role of diversity experiences in promoting changes in attitudes toward affirmative action (AA). Using longitudinal data from a survey of over 1000 college students at admission and in their fourth year, results demonstrated that participation in diversity-related campus activities related to positive changes in attitudes toward affirmative action. This result was consistent across samples of White, African American, and Asian American students. Positive changes in attitudes persisted despite statistical controls for established predictors of attitudes toward AA such as merit and prevalence of discrimination beliefs, and individual-level characteristics such as experiences of discrimination and political liberalism. I discuss the relevance of this finding to the AA literature and to changing attitudes toward AA. PMID:17967096

  6. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  7. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  8. 5 CFR 319.203 - Establishment of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of positions. 319.203 Section 319.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.203 Establishment of positions. (a)...

  9. 29 CFR 30.4 - Affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... these regulations, sponsors are expected to make appropriate adjustments in goal levels. See 29 CFR 30.8... affirmative action plan. (b) Definition of affirmative action. Affirmative action is not mere passive... affirmative action plan must also include adequate provision for outreach and positive recruitment that...

  10. Ecology and Energy Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these elementary school-level instructional materials are for use as an introduction to existing units of study, supplements to a textbook, or a source of special projects for environmental education. Contents include these six units: Make Your Own Ecology Mini-spinner, Let's Look at a Food Chain, Drip the…

  11. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  12. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  13. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  14. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  15. 48 CFR 3006.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... contract action award under the authority of (FAR) 48 CFR 6.202(a). Submit D&F in the format per (HSAR) 48 CFR 3001.704. ... COMPETITION REQUIREMENTS Full and Open Competition After Exclusion of Sources 3006.202 Establishing...

  16. 76 FR 60713 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bumpass, VA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-30

    ... Airspace at Bumpass, VA, to accommodate the new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures serving Lake Anna... establish Class E airspace at Bumpass, VA (76 FR 45479) Docket No. FAA-2011-0377. Interested parties were... for Lake Anna Airport. This action is necessary for the safety and management of IFR operations at...

  17. 48 CFR 6.202 - Establishing or maintaining alternative sources.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... particular source from a contract action in order to establish or maintain an alternative source or sources...) Increase or maintain competition and likely result in reduced overall costs for the acquisition, or for any anticipated acquisition; (2) Be in the interest of national defense in having a facility (or a...

  18. Small-Group Discourse: Establishing a Communication-Rich Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    Establishing a communication-rich classroom can be difficult. This article describes the process and findings of a practitioner action research study addressing the question of how teachers can interact with their students while they are working in groups to encourage and enhance student-to-student communication. Recommended research-based teacher…

  19. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC. PMID:25929662

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  1. Objects tell us what action we can expect: dissociating brain areas for retrieval and exploitation of action knowledge during action observation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Ricarda I.; Wurm, Moritz F.; Wittmann, Marco K.; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2014-01-01

    Objects are reminiscent of actions often performed with them: knife and apple remind us on peeling the apple or cutting it. Mnemonic representations of object-related actions (action codes) evoked by the sight of an object may constrain and hence facilitate recognition of unrolling actions. The present fMRI study investigated if and how action codes influence brain activation during action observation. The average number of action codes (NAC) of 51 sets of objects was rated by a group of n = 24 participants. In an fMRI study, different volunteers were asked to recognize actions performed with the same objects presented in short videos. To disentangle areas reflecting the storage of action codes from those exploiting them, we showed object-compatible and object-incompatible (pantomime) actions. Areas storing action codes were considered to positively co-vary with NAC in both object-compatible and object-incompatible action; due to its role in tool-related tasks, we here hypothesized left anterior inferior parietal cortex (aIPL). In contrast, areas exploiting action codes were expected to show this correlation only in object-compatible but not incompatible action, as only object-compatible actions match one of the active action codes. For this interaction, we hypothesized ventrolateral premotor cortex (PMv) to join aIPL due to its role in biasing competition in IPL. We found left anterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to co-vary with NAC. In addition to these areas, action codes increased activity in object-compatible action in bilateral PMv, right IPS, and lateral occipital cortex (LO). Findings suggest that during action observation, the brain derives possible actions from perceived objects, and uses this information to shape action recognition. In particular, the number of expectable actions quantifies the activity level at PMv, IPL, and pMTG, but only PMv reflects their biased competition while observed action unfolds

  2. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  3. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates.

    PubMed

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-11-25

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play. PMID:25385590

  4. The Challenge of Evaluating Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the benefits claimed for action learning at individual, organisational and inter-organisational levels. It goes on to identify both generic difficulties in evaluating development programmes and action learning specifically. The distinction between formative and summative evaluation is considered and a summative evaluation…

  5. Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Actions taken in the area of outdoor recreation on Federal, State, local, and private levels are reported in the document. Financing actions are listed according to states, government agencies, and names of private financers. The organization and administration section includes new agencies, personnel, reorganizations, and significant resolutions…

  6. 75 FR 80044 - Notice of Establishment of the White House Council for Community Solutions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-21

    ... COMMUNITY SERVICE Notice of Establishment of the White House Council for Community Solutions AGENCY: Corporation for National and Community Service (CNCS). ACTION: Notice of establishment of the White House....S.C. Appendix 2), the Chief Executive Officer, CNCS, announces the establishment of the White...

  7. 75 FR 983 - Notice of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council. Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2... Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been re-established for a...

  8. Preparing Teachers to Create a Mainstream Science Classroom Conducive to the Needs of English-Language Learners: A Feminist Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buck, Gayle; Mast, Colette; Ehlers, Nancy; Franklin, Elizabeth

    2005-01-01

    A feminist action research team, which consisted of a science educator, an English-language learner (ELL) educator, a first-year science teacher, and a graduate assistant, set a goal to work together to explore the process a beginning teacher goes through to establish a classroom conducive to the needs of middle-level ELL learners. The guiding…

  9. Action Sheet 36 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kips, R E; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2012-02-24

    Pursuant to the Arrangement between the European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to continue cooperation on research, development, testing, and evaluation of technology, equipment, and procedures in order to improve nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards, dated 1 September 2008, the IRMM and LLNL established cooperation in a program on the Study of Chemical Changes in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles under IRMM-LLNL Action Sheet 36. The work under this action sheet had 2 objectives: (1) Achieve a better understanding of the loss of fluorine in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} particles after exposure to certain environmental conditions; and (2) Provide feedback to the EC-JRC on sample reproducibility and characteristics.

  10. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  11. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  12. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  13. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  14. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  15. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D; Snyder, Adam C; Smith, Matthew A; Urban, Nathaniel N; Kass, Robert E

    2015-10-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or "spikes" nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons' fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron's firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  16. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D.; Snyder, Adam C.; Smith, Matthew A.; Urban, Nathaniel N.; Kass, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or “spikes” nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons’ fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron’s firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  17. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  18. Action Recommendation for Cyber Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Rodriguez, Luke R.; Curtis, Darren S.; Oler, Kiri J.; Nordquist, Peter L.; Chen, Pin-Yu; Ray, Indrajit

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an unifying graph-based model for representing the infrastructure, behavior and missions of an enterprise. We describe how the model can be used to achieve resiliency against a wide class of failures and attacks. We introduce an algorithm for recommending resilience establishing actions based on dynamic updates to the models. Without loss of generality, we show the effectiveness of the algorithm for preserving latency based quality of service (QoS). Our models and the recommendation algorithms are implemented in a software framework that we seek to release as an open source framework for simulating resilient cyber systems.

  19. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  20. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  1. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  2. Establishing a Suicide Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, John A.

    1986-01-01

    Outlines important considerations for establishing suicide prevention programs in high schools. Teenage suicide rate has doubled since 1970. To deal with this crisis schools must develop procedures for detecting potential victims and for helping students and staff cope after a suicide. Schools must not be afraid to talk about suicide; avoiding the…

  3. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  4. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Killion, Joyce

    2013-01-01

    Finding time for job-embedded professional learning is one of the most frequently cited challenges with implementing the Common Core State Standards (CCSS). With "Establishing Time for Professional Learning," practitioners and education leaders use tools to identify current allocations of time for professional learning, analyze how that…

  5. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  6. Establishing a Personal Teacher Identity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schaefer, Rita

    1993-01-01

    Discusses identity as the development of functional and intellectual independence and as an involvement in such aspects of life as intimacy, sexuality, and vocation that give one a sense of belonging to the world. Suggests that establishing identity is an on-going process. Describes the Montessori professional's identity as director or directress,…

  7. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  8. How to Establish Instructional Priorities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, C. E.

    Establishing instructional priorities in public schools is a worthwhile and important process. Because time and money are insufficient to increase staffing in schools, setting priorities is a necessary component of successful managing. Steps to be taken in setting instructional priorities are as follows: (1) Adopt a statement of mission describing…

  9. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  10. Establishing optimal quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assays for routine diagnosis and tracking of minimal residual disease in JAK2-V617F-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms: a joint European LeukemiaNet/MPN&MPNr-EuroNet (COST action BM0902) study

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, J V; Ivey, A; Vannucchi, A M; Lippert, E; Oppliger Leibundgut, E; Cassinat, B; Pallisgaard, N; Maroc, N; Hermouet, S; Nickless, G; Guglielmelli, P; van der Reijden, B A; Jansen, J H; Alpermann, T; Schnittger, S; Bench, A; Tobal, K; Wilkins, B; Cuthill, K; McLornan, D; Yeoman, K; Akiki, S; Bryon, J; Jeffries, S; Jones, A; Percy, M J; Schwemmers, S; Gruender, A; Kelley, T W; Reading, S; Pancrazzi, A; McMullin, M F; Pahl, H L; Cross, N C P; Harrison, C N; Prchal, J T; Chomienne, C; Kiladjian, J J; Barbui, T; Grimwade, D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable detection of JAK2-V617F is critical for accurate diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs); in addition, sensitive mutation-specific assays can be applied to monitor disease response. However, there has been no consistent approach to JAK2-V617F detection, with assays varying markedly in performance, affecting clinical utility. Therefore, we established a network of 12 laboratories from seven countries to systematically evaluate nine different DNA-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, including those in widespread clinical use. Seven quality control rounds involving over 21 500 qPCR reactions were undertaken using centrally distributed cell line dilutions and plasmid controls. The two best-performing assays were tested on normal blood samples (n=100) to evaluate assay specificity, followed by analysis of serial samples from 28 patients transplanted for JAK2-V617F-positive disease. The most sensitive assay, which performed consistently across a range of qPCR platforms, predicted outcome following transplant, with the mutant allele detected a median of 22 weeks (range 6–85 weeks) before relapse. Four of seven patients achieved molecular remission following donor lymphocyte infusion, indicative of a graft vs MPN effect. This study has established a robust, reliable assay for sensitive JAK2-V617F detection, suitable for assessing response in clinical trials, predicting outcome and guiding management of patients undergoing allogeneic transplant. PMID:23860450

  11. Teen Drinking Prevention Program. Event Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (DHHS/PHS), Rockville, MD. Center for Substance Abuse Prevention.

    Underage drinking presents a serious health risk not only to young people themselves but to entire communities. This program guide is designed to help communities establish their own underage drinking prevention programs. Community norms, actions, and attitudes toward alcohol affect young people, as do the ways in which alcohol is promoted.…

  12. 40 CFR 192.04 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Corrective action. If the groundwater concentration limits established for disposal sites under provisions of..., in any case, as a minimum shall: (a) Conform with the groundwater provisions of § 192.02(c)(3), and (b) Clean up groundwater in conformance with subpart B, modified as appropriate to apply to...

  13. Tackling the urban health divide though enabling intersectoral action on malnutrition in Chile and Kenya.

    PubMed

    Pridmore, Pat; Carr-Hill, Roy; Amuyunzu-Nyamongo, Mary; Lang'o, Daniel; McCowan, Tristan; Charnes, Gabriela

    2015-04-01

    As momentum grows for a sustainable urbanisation goal in the post-2015 development agenda, this paper reports on an action research study that sought to tackle the urban health divide by enabling intersectoral action on social determinants at the local level. The study was located in the cities of Mombasa in Kenya and Valparaíso in Chile, and the impact of the intervention on child nutrition was evaluated using a controlled design. The findings showed that an action research process using the social educational process known as PLA could effectively build the capacity of multisectoral teams to take coordinated action which in turn built the capacity of communities to sustain them. The impact on child nutrition was inconclusive and needed to be interpreted within the context of economic collapse in the intervention area. Four factors were found to have been crucial for creating the enabling environment for effective intersectoral action (i) supportive government policy (ii) broad participation and capacity building (iii) involving policy makers as advisors and establishing the credibility of the research and (iii) strengthening community action. If lessons learned from this study can be adapted and applied in other contexts then they could have a significant economic and societal impact on health and nutrition equity in informal urban settlements. PMID:25758598

  14. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. Methods A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. Results A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government’s Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however

  15. [To the mechanisms of antiarrhythmic action of Allapinine].

    PubMed

    Vakhitova, Iu V; Farafontova, E I; Khisamutdinova, R Iu; Iunusov, V M; Cypasheva, I P; Iunusov, M S

    2013-01-01

    Allapinine (lappaconitine hydrobromide) is a drug for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, it shows IC class antiarrhythmics properties. Its action mechanism is associated with blockade of Na(+)-channels with subsequent inhibition of the depolarization rate and, consequently, of the slowing and reducing the excitability of the cardiac conduction system. At the moment, it is not established, what factors are associated with side effects of Allapinine, and therefore it seems important to study the molecular mechanisms of its action. The target genes were identified in a rat model of aconitine-induced arrhythmia using a commercial kit "Rat Neuroscience Ion Channels & Transporters RT2 Profiler PCR Array" (SABioscienses). Comparison of the expression of 84 genes in the experimental (aconitine arrhythmias/Allapinine) and control (aconitine arrhythmias/saline) animals revealed changes in the mRNA level of 18 genes. It has been shown an increase in mRNA levels of genes encoding various types of K(+)-channels (kcna6, kcnj1, kcnj4, kcnq2, kcnq4), Ca(2+)-channel (cacna 1g), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (slc 18a3). Decrease in the mRNA level was observed for genes encoding the Na(+)-channel (scn8a), K(+)-channels (kcne 1, kcns 1), membrane transporters (atp4a, slc6a9). Taken together, it appears that the effect of Allapinine on aconitine--induced arrhythmias is due to modulation of genes encoding Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-channels, conducting ionic currents (I(Na), I(to), I(Ks), I(K1), I(CaT)), which are involved in the formation of different phases of the action potential. The effect of the drug on the mRNA levels of genes encoding the acetylcholine and glycine transporters, suggesting the participation of these neurotransmitters in the mechanisms of anti-arrhythmic properties of the Allapinine. PMID:23844512

  16. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  17. Multicomponent analysis using established techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dillehay, David L.

    1991-04-01

    Recent environmental concerns have greatly increased the need, application and scope of real-time continuous emission monitoring systems. New techniques like Fourier Transform Infrared have been applied with limited success for this application. However, the use of well-tried and established techniques (Gas Filter Correlation and Single Beam Dual Wavelength) combined with sophisticated microprocessor technology have produced reliable monitoring systems with increased measurement accuracy.

  18. 78 FR 37876 - Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office TENNESSEE VALLEY AUTHORITY...: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership. SUMMARY: Pursuant to the Tennessee Valley...

  19. 77 FR 49832 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  20. 78 FR 22916 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  1. [Hepato- and endothelioprotective action of runihol and ademetionine in experimental liver injury induced by TB drugs in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, D S; Artyushkova, E B; Dudka, V T

    2013-01-01

    Hepato- and endothelioprotective action of runihol and ademetionine in 66 male rats with liver disease induced by essential and second-line antituberculosis drugs in combination with alcohol were studied. One-directed affirmative action study drugs, shown to reduce the level of biochemical markers of cytolysis and cholestasis in conjunction with a significant reduction in symptoms of fatty, hyaline droplet and hydropic degeneration. In this runihol had a more pronounced anticytolitic effect, while under the influence of ademethionine the normalization endothelial dysfunction was established. PMID:24000714

  2. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  3. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  4. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  5. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  6. Action-based effects on music perception

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  7. Action-based effects on music perception.

    PubMed

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  8. 78 FR 78794 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Flagstaff, AZ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-27

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at the Flagstaff VHF Omni-Directional Radio Range/Distance Measuring Equipment (VOR/DME) navigation aid, Flagstaff, AZ, to facilitate vectoring of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) aircraft under control of Albuquerque Air Route Traffic Control Center (ARTCC). The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft......

  9. 76 FR 77386 - Amendment to and Establishment of Restricted Areas; Warren Grove, NJ

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-13

    ...This action establishes two new restricted areas at the Warren Grove Range, NJ. In addition, the using agency for all Warren Grove restricted areas is updated to reflect the current organization tasked with that responsibility. The FAA is taking this action to provide the airspace needed for realistic military training so that aircrews can acquire and maintain proficiency in high altitude......

  10. 78 FR 6262 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Immokalee, FL

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Immokalee, FL, to accommodate the Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) Standard Instrument Approach Procedures at Big Cypress Airfield. This action would enhance the safety and airspace management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations at the...

  11. 78 FR 65239 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brevig Mission, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Brevig Mission Airport, Brevig Mission, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at the...

  12. 76 FR 28382 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Nephi, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Nephi Municipal Airport, Nephi, UT. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate aircraft using a new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at Nephi Municipal Airport, Nephi, UT. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at the......

  13. 78 FR 31430 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Wagner, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-24

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Wagner, SD. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Wagner Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  14. 78 FR 65237 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Central, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Central Airport, Central, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures at the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at Central Airport, Central,...

  15. 78 FR 25233 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mahnomen, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Mahnomen, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Mahnomen County Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  16. 77 FR 71368 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Tecumseh, NE

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Tecumseh, NE. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Tecumseh Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  17. 78 FR 25232 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Parkston, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Parkston, SD. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Parkston Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  18. 78 FR 25234 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Walker, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Walker, MN. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Walker Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  19. 78 FR 25231 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Colt, AR

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Colt, AR. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Delta Regional Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  20. 78 FR 49985 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Sisseton, SD

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-16

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Sisseton, SD. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Sisseton Municipal Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  1. 78 FR 25229 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Stockton, KS

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Stockton, KS. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAP) at Rooks County Regional Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  2. 77 FR 71365 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Beeville, TX

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-30

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Beeville, TX. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate new Standard Instrument Approach Procedures (SIAPs) at Chase Field Industrial Airport. The FAA is taking this action to enhance the safety and management of Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations for SIAPs at the...

  3. 78 FR 65238 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Eagle, AK

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-31

    ...This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Eagle Airport, Eagle, AK. Controlled airspace is necessary to accommodate the new Area Navigation (RNAV) Global Positioning System (GPS) standard instrument approach procedures developed for the airport. The FAA is proposing this action to enhance the safety and management of aircraft operations at Eagle Airport, Eagle,...

  4. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  5. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  6. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  7. Affirmative Action in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Natan

    This paper examines issues of equality, discrimination, affirmative action, and preferential treatment in Israel. An introduction provides a broad outline of topics addressed in the paper: the status of the Jewish sector, with treatment of Jewish immigrants to serve as an example of affirmative action; the policies of the state in relation to the…

  8. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  9. Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  10. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  11. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  12. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  13. Affirmative Action Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    All campuses and units of the University and Community College System of Nevada annually submit data to the Chancellor's Office on affirmative action. This report provides tables of affirmative action data for students enrolled during fall 1992 and professional and classified staff employed during 1992. First, student data is provided on gender…

  14. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  15. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  16. [Procedures for establishing professional liability].

    PubMed

    Budić, Nikolina

    2008-01-01

    All the greater exposure to the procedures for determining liability for the conduct of medical activity points to the need that members of the Croatian Medical Chamber know the basis for establishing liability. Therefore, it is necessary to expose the reasons why the doctors are professionals and what kind of responsibility can be determined, in which procedures it is implemented, and what are the types of possible sanctions. Croatian Medical Chamber has a special role is, as it at the same time protects the rights and represents the interests of doctors, and enforces disciplinary proceedings. PMID:19146187

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. For the primary release, radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface or shallow subsurface soil outside the default contamination boundary. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within each of the three craters (Sedan, Ess, and Uncle) due to prompt injection of radionuclides from the tests. Based on the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of implementing a use restriction and posting warning signs at each crater CAS. These use restrictions were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. With regard to other releases, no contaminants of concern were identified at the mud pits or any of the other release locations, with one exception. Potential source material in the form of lead was found at one location. A corrective action of clean closure was implemented at this location, and verification samples indicated that no further action is necessary. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: • A Notice of Completion to NNSA/NSO is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 367. • Corrective Action Unit 367 should be promoted from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  18. Developing Healthcare Practice through Action Learning: Individual and Group Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; McCormack, Brendan; Ives, Glenice

    2008-01-01

    Action Learning is now a well established strategy for reflective inquiry in healthcare. Whilst a great deal is know about action learning there has been inadequate research on the process of learning that takes place, and the impact that this holds for individuals, groups or organisations. This article reports on the findings of 15-month action…

  19. 36 CFR 805.5 - Typical classes of action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROCEDURES FOR IMPLEMENTATION OF NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY ACT § 805.5 Typical classes of action. (a) Section 1507.3(c)(2) (40 CFR 1507.3(c)(2)) in conjunction with § 1508.4 requires agencies to establish... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Typical classes of action....

  20. 18 CFR 39.12 - Review of state action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... RELIABILITY ORGANIZATION; AND PROCEDURES FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT, APPROVAL, AND ENFORCEMENT OF ELECTRIC RELIABILITY STANDARDS § 39.12 Review of state action. (a) Nothing in this section shall be construed to preempt any authority of any state to take action to ensure the safety, adequacy, and reliability...

  1. Action Learning in an SME: Appetite Comes with Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This account describes action learning in a small to medium-size enterprise (SME) that operates as a local power utility on an established market that is currently going through a process of radical transformation. The task of the action learning set was to improve the flow of information to employees about the evolving framework in which the…

  2. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  3. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  4. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  5. Establishing a SCADA system budget

    SciTech Connect

    Senftleber, A.

    1997-05-01

    Replacement of a SCADA system is an infrequent occurrence. In fact, most SCADA systems last ten to fifteen years. Even if the personnel that implemented the current system have made it through corporate downsizing, the whole nature of SCADA has changed. No longer is SCADA that isolated system in the corner. It now affects virtually every aspect of the company from operations, to field maintenance, government regulatory compliance, environmental protection, to customer/in-house data access and revenue accounting, to name just a few. In addition to this immense corporate operational impact, for most oil and gas companies, today`s SCADA systems also represent a significant capital investment. How then does one establish an appropriate budget to acquire a new SCADA system? This paper highlights the key elements of successful SCADA budgets, identifying both buy-out and in-house components. Vendor topics include estimating hardware, software (including applications), project services, and life cycle costs. Company-side estimates cover facility and communication modifications and the cost of labor and expenses to support the project from initiation (e.g., requirements gathering, specification writing, etc.) through commissioning (e.g., Site Acceptance Testing, cut-over, etc.), and all activities in-between (e.g., vendor support, training, Factory Acceptance Testing, etc.). Other issues discussed include the handling of project reserves, establishing cash flow, and estimating taxes.

  6. An intact action-perception coupling depends on the integrity of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Andrea; Giese, Martin A; Sultan, Fahad; Mueller, Oliver M; Goericke, Sophia L; Ilg, Winfried; Timmann, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that action and perception in humans functionally interact on multiple levels. Moreover, areas originally suggested to be predominantly motor-related, as the cerebellum, are also involved in action observation. However, as yet, few studies provided unequivocal evidence that the cerebellum is involved in the action perception coupling (APC), specifically in the integration of motor and multisensory information for perception. We addressed this question studying patients with focal cerebellar lesions in a virtual-reality paradigm measuring the effect of action execution on action perception presenting self-generated movements as point lights. We measured the visual sensitivity to the point light stimuli based on signal detection theory. Compared with healthy controls cerebellar patients showed no beneficial influence of action execution on perception indicating deficits in APC. Applying lesion symptom mapping, we identified distinct areas in the dentate nucleus and the lateral cerebellum of both hemispheres that are causally involved in APC. Lesions of the right ventral dentate, the ipsilateral motor representations (lobules V/VI), and most interestingly the contralateral posterior cerebellum (lobule VII) impede the benefits of motor execution on perception. We conclude that the cerebellum establishes time-dependent multisensory representations on different levels, relevant for motor control as well as supporting action perception. Ipsilateral cerebellar motor representations are thought to support the somatosensory state estimate of ongoing movements, whereas the ventral dentate and the contralateral posterior cerebellum likely support sensorimotor integration in the cerebellar-parietal loops. Both the correct somatosensory as well as the multisensory state representations are vital for an intact APC. PMID:24806697

  7. Dynamic response of CFRP plates under the action of random acoustic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. G.; Mousley, R. F.

    Acoustic fatigue design procedures for metallic, stiffened skin, and plate-type structures have been well established and validated in the past for aircraft structures. The advent of CFRP and its use in aircraft has necessitated reappraisal of dynamic design techniques. Experimental and theoretical studies of CFRP plates under the action of random acoustic loading are discussed. Attention is given to the nature and levels of the dynamic strains induced in terms of statistical properties and relative modal contributions, the latter being important in consideration of using simple single mode formulas for dynamic response prediction. The effects of high levels of excitation, up to 160 dB, which can produce nonlinear responses are discussed. The case of forced response of plates under the action of combined static in-plane compressive loading and acoustic excitation is also considered.

  8. Evaluation of growth hormone (GH) action in mice: discovery of GH receptor antagonists and clinical indications.

    PubMed

    Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S; Berryman, Darlene E

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of a growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) was initially established via expression of mutated GH genes in transgenic mice. Following this discovery, development of the compound resulted in a drug termed pegvisomant, which has been approved for use in patients with acromegaly. Pegvisomant treatment in a dose dependent manner results in normalization of IGF-1 levels in most patients. Thus, it is a very efficacious and safe drug. Since the GH/IGF-1 axis has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancers, many have suggested the use of pegvisomant as an anti-cancer therapeutic. In this manuscript, we will review the use of mouse strains that possess elevated or depressed levels of GH action for unraveling many of GH actions. Additionally, we will describe experiments in which the GHA was discovered, review results of pegvisomant's preclinical and clinical trials, and provide data suggesting pegvisomant's therapeutic value in selected types of cancer. PMID:24035867

  9. Hungarian climate change action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T.; Arpasi, M.; Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T.; Harnos, Z.; Lontay, Z.; Somogyi, Z.; Tajthy, T.

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  10. 41 CFR 60-741.44 - Required contents of affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... establish meaningful contacts with appropriate social service agencies, organizations of and for individuals..., recreational and social activities. (v) Measure the contractor's compliance with the affirmative action...

  11. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  12. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 165: Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 165: Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well. This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of tetrachloroethene contamination at concentrations greater than the action level established at the time of the initial investigation. Although total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level was present at the site, no hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 preliminary remediation goals established at the time of the initial investigation.

  13. Students in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on important issues surrounding the opening clauses of the First Amendment on the establishment of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. Includes articles: "Established Churches in Colonial Times,""Establishment Clause: Here's How to Understand it!", "Religious Freedom and Today's Religious Minorities," and "Santa Fe: A…

  14. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  15. Conceptualizing Indicator Domains for Evaluating Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…

  16. Planning actions in robot automated operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.

    1988-01-01

    Action planning in robot automated operations requires intelligent task level programming. Invoking intelligence necessiates a typical blackboard based architecture, where, a plan is a vector between the start frame and the goal frame. This vector is composed of partially ordered bases. A partial ordering of bases presents good and bad sides in action planning. Partial ordering demands the use of a temporal data base management system.

  17. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  18. Corrective Action Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The glossary of technical terms was prepared to facilitate the use of the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) issued by OSWER on November 14, 1986. The CAP presents model scopes of work for all phases of a corrective action program, including the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI), Corrective Measures Study (CMS), Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI), and interim measures. The Corrective Action Glossary includes brief definitions of the technical terms used in the CAP and explains how they are used. In addition, expected ranges (where applicable) are provided. Parameters or terms not discussed in the CAP, but commonly associated with site investigations or remediations are also included.

  19. Establishing a Book Publishing Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ciofalo, Andrew

    Addressing the need to prepare college graduates for careers in book publishing, this report examines the necessity and structure of a book publishing curriculum at the undergraduate level at Loyola College in Maryland. A 1977 bulletin by the American Association of Publishers (AAP) cited a lack of awareness of publishing as a possible career, and…

  20. Toxic action/toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    ,Z-muconaldehyde forms cyclic products containing a pyrrole residue linked to purine. Increased HbCO concentrations reduce the O2-carrying capacity of the blood, and the changed shape of the O2-Hb dissociation curve parallels disturbance in O2 unloading. CN- acts on electron transport and paralyses respiration. In telodrin poisoning, preconvulsive glutamine formation abstracts tricarboxylic acid intermediates incommensurately with normal cerebral respiration. Antigen-antibody complexing depletes the antibody titre, available against infection. At high doses of Cd, Cd-thionein filtered through the kidneys is reabsorbed and tubular lesions produced. Some organophosphate insecticides promote irreversible acetylcholinesterase phosphorylation and blockade nerve function, and others react with neurotoxic esterase to cause delayed neuropathy. The evidence for Paraquat pulmonary poisoning suggests a radical mechanism involving three interrelated cyclic reaction stages. The action of N- and O8 (O substituent in 6-position of the purine) demethylases explains deletion mechanisms for DNA-alkyl adducts. DNA-directed synthesis in the presence of ultimate carcinogens provides for an estimation of misincorporations, which implicate the same transversions as those found by direct mutagenicity testing. Chemical carcinogens recognize tissue-sensitive cells and modify their heritable genetic complement. Oncoproteins encoded by activated oncogenes signal the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. The importance of the H-ras oncogene and p53 tumour-suppressor gene is stressed. Antidotal action is analysed; for example, parenteral glutamine administration to telodrin-intoxicated rats restores the depleted cerebral glutamate level and prevents seizures. Glutamate acts as anticonvulsant in petit mal epilepsy. In general, therefore, the reaction of the toxicant-related substance with the relevant target-tissue macromolecule accounts for the biochemical/biological events at a cellular level a PMID

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  3. A switch from low to high Shh activity regulates establishment of limb progenitors and signaling centers.

    PubMed

    Zhulyn, Olena; Li, Danyi; Deimling, Steven; Vakili, Niki Alizadeh; Mo, Rong; Puviindran, Vijitha; Chen, Miao-Hsueh; Chuang, Pao-Tien; Hopyan, Sevan; Hui, Chi-chung

    2014-04-28

    The patterning and growth of the embryonic vertebrate limb is dependent on Sonic hedgehog (Shh), a morphogen that regulates the activity of Gli transcription factors. However, Shh expression is not observed during the first 12 hr of limb development. During this phase, the limb bud is prepatterned into anterior and posterior regions through the antagonistic actions of transcription factors Gli3 and Hand2. We demonstrate that precocious activation of Shh signaling during this early phase interferes with the Gli3-dependent specification of anterior progenitors, disturbing establishment of signaling centers and normal outgrowth of the limb. Our findings illustrate that limb development requires a sweet spot in the level and timing of pathway activation that allows for the Shh-dependent expansion of posterior progenitors without interfering with early prepatterning functions of Gli3/Gli3R or specification of anterior progenitors. PMID:24726283

  4. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  5. 75 FR 48409 - Establishment of the Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... Surface Transportation Board Establishment of the Toxic by Inhalation Hazard Common Carrier Transportation Advisory Committee AGENCY: Surface Transportation Board. ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Toxic by... the Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), 5 U.S.C. app., the Surface Transportation Board...

  6. Technology in action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In keeping with the NASA Administrator's announcement that technology transfer will become a fundamental mission of NASA, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has initiated new programs to reach the heartland of U.S. industry. The Center has continued to expand its already well-established outreach program aimed at helping American business, industry, and academia at the grassroots level. The goal is to ensure that America regains and maintains its proper place of leadership among the world's technologically developed nations. MSFC's national goal is to enhance America's competitiveness in the world marketplace, fortify the value of the dollar, and ensure technological breakthroughs by American laboratories benefit taxpayers and industries. The Technology Utilization (TU) Office at MSFC believes a number of measures are possible to slow, then halt, and ultimately reverse the erosion of American technological leadership. MSFC's TU Office is reaching out to American industry on an increasingly broadening scope, facilitating the transfer of NASA derived technologies to American businesses, industries, educational institutions, and individuals. There are many valid approaches to achieving this goal. Some, such as the National Technology Initiative, begin at the top and work down through America's top corporate structure. Others, such as the technology transfer program that MSFC has implemented, begin at the one-on-one, grassroots level -- working with small and medium-sized firms that form the bulk of American industry. What can be done by one NASA center is, admittedly, limited. But by extrapolating this one-on-one approach to the more than 700 Federal laboratories, a great deal can be accomplished. This report contains an examination of outreach and in reach programs, problem statements programs, applications projects, new technology reporting, new technology administration, and the need for increased resources to further facilitate technology transfer.

  7. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  8. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Caregiver Action Network Toggle navigation Toolbox Forum Volunteers Donate About Us Join National Family Caregivers ... for caring for a loved one Family Caregiver Forum Share and talk with other caregivers Rare Disease ...

  9. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  10. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  11. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises five corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 374 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at CASs 18-23-01 and 20-45-03, and a corrective action of removing potential source material (PSM) was conducted at CAS 20-45-03. The other CASs require no further action; however, best management practices of removing PSM and drums at CAS 18-22-06, and removing drums at CAS 18-22-08 were performed. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 4 through October 6, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigating the primary release of radionuclides and investigating other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 374 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were found to be present in the surface soil that was sampled. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present in subsurface media within the craters and ejecta fields (default contamination boundaries) at the Danny Boy and

  13. Galileons from Lovelock actions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Van Doorsselaere, Jos

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate how, for an arbitrary number of dimensions, the Galileon actions and their covariant generalizations can be obtained through a standard Kaluza-Klein compactification of higher-dimensional Lovelock gravity. In this setup, the dilaton takes on the role of the Galileon. In addition, such compactifications uncover other more general Galilean actions, producing purely second-order equations in the weak-field limit, now both for the Galileon and the metric perturbations.

  14. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  15. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  16. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system. PMID:10858918

  17. Institute for Rock Magnetism established

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, Subir K.

    There is a new focal point for cooperative research in advanced rock magnetism. The University of Minnesota in Minneapolis has established an Institute for Rock Magnetism (IRM) that will provide free access to modern equipment and encourage visiting fellows to focus on important topics in rock magnetism and related interdisciplinary research. Funding for the first three years has been secured from the National Science Foundation, the W.M. Keck Foundation, and the University of Minnesota.In the fall of 1986, the Geomagnetism and Paleomagnetism (GP) section of the AGU held a workshop at Asilomar, Calif., to pinpoint important and emerging research areas in paleomagnetism and rock magnetism, and the means by which to achieve them. In a report of this workshop published by the AGU in September 1987, two urgent needs were set forth. The first was for interdisciplinary research involving rock magnetism, and mineralogy, petrology, sedimentology, and the like. The second need was to ease the access of rock magnetists and paleomagnetists around the country to the latest equipment in modern magnetics technology, such as magneto-optics or electronoptics. Three years after the publication of the report, we announced the opening of these facilities at the GP section of the AGU Fall 1990 Meeting. A classified advertisement inviting applications for visiting fellowships was published in the January 22, 1991, issue of Eos.

  18. Protecting drinkable water: an analysis of action plans and stakeholders' networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascuel-Odoux, Chantal; Menard, Marjorie

    2015-04-01

    Since WFD the policy for protecting drinkable water has been enhanced in France. This policy establish the main components and the different steps for protecting drinkable water, and ask for defining and implementing an action plan for each contributing catchment. Despite ambitious objectives, the local implementation is difficult. Firstly there is a high diversity of stakeholders involved with local authorities, which are mainly: water agencies, agricultural chambers and consultants, authorities at regional and departmental levels. Most of the local authorities do not feel qualified enough for carrying out such a policy, as they are not really used to deal with technical and political issues related to agricultural diffuse pollutions. As a consequence assessed action plans are based on regulation and/or agri-environmental measures. More ambitious and complementary measures can be included, but without any support measure nor accurate objectives for their implementation. In the end, action plans reflect more a formal implementation of protection approaches than a search for efficiency by defining ambitious measures and the setting-up a consistent support scheme. The way stakeholders' networks mobilize knowledge have been analyzed based on ten case studies located in three different regions. Three local authorities profiles are defined: (1) the "passive" ones, not really convinced of the necessity to undertake actions against diffuse pollutions and/or having low level of knowledge to support local reflexion, that delegate project management; (2) the local authorities that support local protection approach but that, for different reasons, do not search for an effective action plan, and that only consider an improvement approach; (3) the local authorities that more rarely, aim at efficient actions, motivated by the urgent need of action for preserving threatened resources. According to these profiles, local authorities and their project coordinators will be looking

  19. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  20. Clinical actionability enhanced through deep targeted sequencing of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Zhao, Hao; Zhang, Qingxiu; Ezzeddine, Nader; Tang, Lin-ya; Qi, Yuan; Mao, Yong; Chen, Tenghui; Chong, Zechen; Zhou, Wanding; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Johnson, Amber; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Routbort, Mark J.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; de Groot, John; Moulder, Stacy; Vinod, Ravi; Farhangfar, Carol J.; Shaw, Kenna Mills; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.; Eterovic, Agda Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Further advances of targeted cancer therapy require comprehensive in-depth profiling of somatic mutations that are present in subpopulations of tumor cells in a clinical tumor sample. However, it is unclear to what extent such intra-tumor heterogeneity is present and whether it may affect clinical decision making. To unravel this challenge, we established a deep targeted sequencing platform to identify potentially actionable DNA alterations in tumor samples. Methods We assayed 515 FFPE tumor samples and matched germline (475 patients) from 11 disease sites by capturing and sequencing all the exons in 201 cancer related genes. Mutations, indels and copy number data were reported. Results We obtained a 1000-fold average sequencing depth and identified 4794 non-synonymous mutations in the samples analyzed, which 15.2% were present at less than 10% allele frequency. Most of these low level mutations occurred at known oncogenic hotspots and are likely functional. Identifying low level mutations improved identification of mutations in actionable genes in 118 (24.84%) patients, among which 47 (9.8%) would otherwise be unactionable. In addition, acquiring ultra-high depth also ensured a low false discovery rate (less than 2.2%) from FFPE samples. Conclusion Our results were as accurate as a commercially available CLIA-compliant hotspot panel, but allowed the detection of a higher number of mutations in actionable genes. Our study revealed the critical importance of acquiring and utilizing high depth in profiling clinical tumor samples and presented a very useful platform for implementing routine sequencing in a cancer care institution. PMID:25626406