Science.gov

Sample records for action levels established

  1. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.4 Establishment of tolerances... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  2. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING...

  3. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  4. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  5. Levels of Engagement in Establishing Coaching Relationships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGatha, Maggie

    2008-01-01

    Case studies of two coaches that examine the levels of engagement of each coach as they worked to establish effective coaching relationships were examined in this study. Data were collected during a seven-month period and included: (a) the coaches' reflective journals; (b) pre- and post-surveys from each coach and teacher; (c) audio-recorded…

  6. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  7. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  8. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  9. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  10. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  11. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  12. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  13. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  14. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  15. Regulation of androgen action during establishment of pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Gibson, Douglas A; Simitsidellis, Ioannis; Saunders, Philippa T K

    2016-07-01

    During the establishment of pregnancy, the ovarian-derived hormones progesterone and oestradiol regulate remodelling of the endometrium to promote an environment that is able to support and maintain a successful pregnancy. Decidualisation is characterised by differentiation of endometrial stromal cells that secrete growth factors and cytokines that regulate vascular remodelling and immune cell influx. This differentiation process is critical for reproduction, and inadequate decidualisation is implicated in the aetiology of pregnancy disorders such as foetal growth restriction and preeclampsia. In contrast to progesterone and oestradiol, the role of androgens in regulating endometrial function is poorly understood. Androgen receptors are expressed in the endometrium, and androgens are reported to regulate both the transcriptome and the secretome of endometrial stromal cells. In androgen-target tissues, circulating precursors are activated to mediate local effects, and recent studies report that steroid concentrations detected in endometrial tissue are distinct to those detected in the peripheral circulation. New evidence suggests that decidualisation results in dynamic changes in the expression of androgen biosynthetic enzymes, highlighting a role for pre-receptor regulation of androgen action during the establishment of pregnancy. These results suggest that such enzymes could be future therapeutic targets for the treatment of infertility associated with endometrial dysfunction. In conclusion, these data support the hypothesis that androgens play a beneficial role in regulating the establishment and maintenance of pregnancy. Future studies should be focussed on investigating the safety and efficacy of androgen supplementation with the potential for utilisation of novel therapeutics, such as selective androgen receptor modulators, to improve reproductive outcomes in women.

  16. 12 CFR 263.82 - Establishment of minimum capital levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Maintain Adequate Capital § 263.82 Establishment of minimum capital levels. The Board has established minimum capital levels for state member banks and bank holding companies in its Capital Adequacy... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of minimum capital levels....

  17. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... AFFIRMATIVE ACTION APPROPRIATE UNDER TITLE VII OF THE CIVIL RIGHTS ACT OF 1964, AS AMENDED § 1608.4... reasonable action. (a) Reasonable self analysis. The objective of a self analysis is to determine whether... disparate treatment of previously excluded or restricted groups or leave uncorrected the effects of...

  18. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.

  19. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored. PMID:10483077

  20. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. . Radioisotope Unit)

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK $0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK $120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3]. The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3] was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m[sup [minus]3] for newly built buildings.

  1. Scientists, educators, and national standards: Action at the local level

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This volume contains full papers presented at the Forum entitled Scientists, Educators, and National Standards- Action at the Local Level held April 14-15, 1994. Records for the database have been prepared for the individual reports contained herein.

  2. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  3. Action Recognition Depends on Observer’s Level of Action Control and Social Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; de Lange, Floris P.; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others’ goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual’s movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors’ goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others’ behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  4. Establishment of enzyme immunoassay for measuring serum sultopride levels.

    PubMed

    Someya, T; Shimoda, K; Muratake, T; Nakajima, E; Shirai, A; Funaoka, H; Yashiki, T; Ishii, H; Sunahara, N; Takahashi, S

    2001-06-01

    Measurement of serum sultopride levels was performed using an enzyme immunoassay. Little or no cross-reactivity with metabolites of sultopride and other drugs was found. The results of reproducibility, recovery, and dilution testing were all good enough for clinical use. A comparison between the measurement values of this method (y) with that of high-performance liquid chromatography (x) showed high correlation (n = 211, r = 0.991, p < 0.0001, y = 0.99x + 107.5). In a comparison between the sultopride dose and serum levels in 161 patients, interindividual differences were large (19 times for same doses), implying that the serum level cannot be predicted from the dosage. The method was found to be reliable for serum level measurements of sultopride and useful for monitoring compliance and assessing the optimal dose.

  5. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  6. Vintage-level energy and environmental performance of manufacturing establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Boyd, G.A.; Bock, M.J.; Neifer, M.J.; Karlson, S.H.; Ross, M.H.

    1994-05-01

    This report examines the relationship between an industrial plant`s vintage and its energy and environmental performance. Basic questions related to defining vintage and measuring the effects of the manufacturing industry`s vintage distribution of plant-level capacity and energy intensity are explored in general for six energy-intensive sectors (paper, chlorine, nitrogenous fertilizer, aluminum, steel, and cement) at the four-digit standard industrial classification (SIC) level and in detail for two sectors (steel and cement). Results show that greenfield (i.e., newly opened) plants in the paper, steel, and cement industries exhibit low fossil fuel intensities. These results are consistent with expectations. New plants in the paper and steel industries, where processes are undergoing electrification, exhibit high electricity intensities. An analysis of a subsector of the steel industry -- minimills that use scrap-based, electric arc furnaces -- reveals a decline in electricity intensity of 6.2 kilowatt-hours per ton for each newer year of installed vintage. This estimate is consistent with those of engineering studies and raises confidence that analyses of vintage effects in other industries could be conducted. When a vintage measure is assigned on the basis of investment data rather than trade association data, the vintage/performance relationship results for the cement industry are reasonably robust; thus, the analysis of vintage and performance could be extended to sectors for which only US Bureau of the Census data are available.

  7. The role of monoamines in the actions of established and "novel" antidepressant agents: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Millan, Mark J

    2004-10-01

    Monoaminergic pathways are highly responsive to aversive stimuli and play a crucial role in the control of affect, cognition, endocrine secretion, chronobiotic rhythms, appetite, and motor function, all of which are profoundly disrupted in depressive states. Accordingly, a perturbation of monoaminergic transmission is implicated in the aetiology of depressive disorders, and all clinically available antidepressants increase corticolimbic availability of monoamines. However, their limited efficacy, delayed onset of action, and undesirable side effects underlie ongoing efforts to identify improved therapeutic agents. Sequencing the human genome has raised the hope not only of better symptomatic control of depression, but even of the prevention or cure of depressive states. In the pursuit of these goals, there is currently a tendency to focus on selective ligands of "novel" nonmonoaminergic targets. However, certain classes of novel agent (such as neurokinin(1) receptor antagonists) indirectly modulate the activity of monoaminergic networks. Others may act "downstream" of them, converging onto common cellular substrates controlling gene expression, synaptic plasticity, and neurogenesis. Further, by analogy to the broad-based actions of currently employed drugs, multitarget agents may be better adapted than selective agents to the management of depression-a complex disorder with hereditary, developmental, and environmental origins. It is, thus, important to continue the creative exploration of clinically validated and innovative monoaminergic strategies within a multitarget framework. In this light, drugs combining monoaminergic and nonmonoaminergic mechanisms of action may be of particular interest. The present article provides a critical overview of monoaminergic strategies for the treatment of depressive states, both established and under development, and discusses interactions of novel "nonmonoaminergic" antidepressants with monoaminergic mechanisms.

  8. [Successor establishment in familiy business as field of action in health promotion].

    PubMed

    Hetzel, C; Holzer, M

    2014-10-01

    Successor establishment in familiy business may lead to interpersonal and intrapsychological conflicts and is mostly a transition to retirement. This may have a negative impact on the senior's health. The "Sozialversicherung für Landwirtschaft, Forsten und Gartenbau (SVLFG)" reacts with an intervention of several days duration. Evaluation aim is measuring participants changes in specific activities and confidence on successor establishment and retirement indicating mental health stabilisation. The method comprises a panel of intervention group (I, n=61) and comparison group (V, n=28) randomly selected, structurally similar and parallelised to point of transfer. Retirement activities significantly rise in I (p=0.001, Cohen's d=0.48) and are steady in V (p=0.54) after one year. Level of confidence is equal in both groups and steady but strongly indicating response shift in I. Intervention activates targeted activities and improves confidence at least qualitatively in a field that has hardly been researched.

  9. 77 FR 25721 - Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable Level...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Small Entity Compliance Guide: Bottled Water: Quality... availability of a guidance for industry entitled ``Bottled Water: Quality Standard: Establishing an Allowable... its bottled water standard of quality regulations by establishing an allowable level for...

  10. 12 CFR 263.85 - Establishment of increased capital level for specific institutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... establish a capital level higher than the minimum specified in the Board's Capital Adequacy Guidelines for a... capital levels above those in the Board's Capital Adequacy Guidelines may be necessary and appropriate for... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of increased capital level...

  11. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  12. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... eliminated through commission action. (3) Chronic illness and future injuries. Certain products, although not.... Although not as susceptible to measurements as other product related injuries and illnesses, these risks... predicted future illnesses and injuries and the effectiveness of Commission action in reducing...

  13. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... eliminated through commission action. (3) Chronic illness and future injuries. Certain products, although not.... Although not as susceptible to measurements as other product related injuries and illnesses, these risks... predicted future illnesses and injuries and the effectiveness of Commission action in reducing...

  14. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... eliminated through commission action. (3) Chronic illness and future injuries. Certain products, although not.... Although not as susceptible to measurements as other product related injuries and illnesses, these risks... predicted future illnesses and injuries and the effectiveness of Commission action in reducing...

  15. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... eliminated through commission action. (3) Chronic illness and future injuries. Certain products, although not.... Although not as susceptible to measurements as other product related injuries and illnesses, these risks... predicted future illnesses and injuries and the effectiveness of Commission action in reducing...

  16. 16 CFR 1009.8 - Policy on establishing priorities for Commission action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... eliminated through commission action. (3) Chronic illness and future injuries. Certain products, although not.... Although not as susceptible to measurements as other product related injuries and illnesses, these risks... predicted future illnesses and injuries and the effectiveness of Commission action in reducing...

  17. Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Jennifer; Coitinho, Denise; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Pelletier, David; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2008-02-01

    80% of the world's undernourished children live in just 20 countries. Intensified nutrition action in these countries can lead to achievement of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and greatly increase the chances of achieving goals for child and maternal mortality (MDGs 4 and 5). Despite isolated successes in specific countries or for interventions--eg, iodised salt and vitamin A supplementation--most countries with high rates of undernutrition are failing to reach undernourished mothers and children with effective interventions supported by appropriate policies. This paper reports on an assessment of actions addressing undernutrition in the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, drawing on systematic reviews and best-practice reports. Seven key challenges for addressing undernutrition at national level are defined and reported on: getting nutrition on the list of priorities, and keeping it there; doing the right things; not doing the wrong things; acting at scale; reaching those in need; data-based decisionmaking; and building strategic and operational capacity. Interventions with proven effectiveness that are selected by countries should be rapidly implemented at scale. The period from pregnancy to 24 months of age is a crucial window of opportunity for reducing undernutrition and its adverse effects. Programme efforts, as well as monitoring and assessment, should focus on this segment of the continuum of care. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions unlikely to be effective in the context of country or local realities. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions that have not been proven to have a direct effect on undernutrition, such as stand-alone growth monitoring or school feeding programmes. In addition to health and nutrition interventions, economic and social policies addressing poverty, trade, and agriculture that have been associated with rapid improvements in nutritional status should be

  18. What Is My Role? Establishing Teacher and Youth Worker Responsibilities in Social Action Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Shira Eve

    2013-01-01

    In this research, I analyze the roles of teachers and youth workers from a community-based organization in the context of two high school social action projects. Both the teachers and the youth workers assumed distinct roles while working together during the civic project enactments. The teachers were largely positioned as responsible for…

  19. 78 FR 68020 - Evaluation of Established Plant Pests for Action at Ports of Entry

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Secretary of Agriculture is authorized to take such actions as may be necessary to prevent the introduction... markets), agricultural production, and the environment; The scientific knowledge we have about the...

  20. The QUIPPED Project: Exploring Relevance and Rigor of Action Research Using Established Principles and Criteria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Christine; Paterson, Margo; Medves, Jennifer M.

    2011-01-01

    This paper is the last in a series of three manuscripts published in the TQR journal over the past few years. This work is part of a larger program of research that has been carried out by a team of researchers detailing various aspects of a three year action research project carried out from 2005 and 2008. This particular paper addresses issues…

  1. Atomic-level Snapshot Catches Protein Motor in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Using a state-of-the-art protein crystallography beamline at Berkeley Labs Advanced Light Source, researchers have captured a critical action shapshot of an enzyme that is vital to the survival of all biological cells.

  2. Implementing the Affordable Care Act: State Action to Establish SHOP Marketplaces.

    PubMed

    Dash, Sarah J; Lucia, Kevin W; Thomas, Amy

    2014-03-01

    The Affordable Care Act seeks to help small employers offer coverage by reforming the small-group market and establishing Small Business Health Options Program (SHOP) marketplaces. Seventeen states and the District of Columbia chose to operate their own SHOP marketplaces in 2014, with the federal government operating the SHOP marketplace in 33 states. This brief examines state decisions to enhance the value of SHOP marketplaces for small employers and finds that most have set predictable participation and eligibility requirements and will offer a competitive choice of insurers and plans. States also are seeking to facilitate small employers' shopping experience through online tools and access to personalized assistance. While not all SHOP marketplaces are yet functioning as intended, their establishment offers an opportunity to identify successful strategies for improving the affordability and accessibility of coverage for small employers. PMID:26259258

  3. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, "why" an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific "how" details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety.

  4. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  5. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  6. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  7. 7 CFR 1450.213 - Levels and rates for establishment payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Levels and rates for establishment payments. 1450.213 Section 1450.213 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) COMMODITY CREDIT CORPORATION, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS BIOMASS CROP ASSISTANCE...

  8. EVALUATION OF LITERATURE ESTABLISHING SCREENING LEVELS FOR TERRESTRIAL PLANTS/INVERTEBRATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Scientific publications often lack key information on experimental design or do not follow appropriate test methods and therefore cannot be used in deriving reliable benchmarks. Risk based soil screening levels (Eco-SSLs) are being established for chemicals of concern to terrestr...

  9. Use of sediment serial dilution series to establish biological effect levels and clean-up goals

    SciTech Connect

    Timmer, E.; DeLong, T.; Millard, J.; Dobroski, C.

    1995-12-31

    A sediment serial dilution study was used to determine biological effect levels for two freshwater invertebrates, Chironomus tentans and Hyalella azteca. The sediments for the test were collected from a New England brook which contained elevated levels of lead and polychlorinated aromatic hydrocarbons. The objective of the sediment dilution study was two-fold: (1 ) to provide a site-specific estimation of biological effect levels, thus reducing uncertainties associated with using literature-based values, and (2) to establish clean-up goals specific to this freshwater system.

  10. Radiation reaction at the level of the action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnholtz, Ofek; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight a recently proposed method for the treatment of classical radiative effects, in particular radiation reaction, via effective field theory methods. We emphasize important features of the method and in particular the doubling of fields. We apply the method to two simple systems: a mass-rope system and an electromagnetic charge-field system. For the mass-rope system in 1 + 1 dimensions we derive a double-field effective action for the mass which describes a damped harmonic oscillator. For the EM charge-field system, i.e. the system of an accelerating electric charge in 3 + 1 dimensions, we show a reduction to a 1 + 1 dimensions radial system of an electric dipole source coupled to an electric dipole field (analogous to the mass coupled to the rope). For this system we derive a double-field effective action and reproduce in an analogous way the leading part of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force.

  11. Numeric removal action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. Update 2. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This document is an updated table of numeric action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. It was originally published as an attachment to 9360.1-02 (Oct. 93) which described the new methodology used by OERR to calculate removal action levels (RALs) in drinking water.

  12. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  13. BRC and the concept and establishment of a lower limit for very low-level radioactive wastes

    SciTech Connect

    LeMone, D.V.; Jacobi, L.R. Jr.

    1994-12-31

    Inherent in any discussion or consideration of low-level waste management is the concept of an established lower boundary: the radiometric value below which the waste is no longer considered to be hazardous in a regulatory sense. The most recent attempt to arrive at this value is embodied in a concept known as Below Regulatory Concern (BRC). It was mandated, established, reviewed, and revoked by the Congress through the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in a series of actions extending from August 29, 1985, to August 24, 1993. It actually makes absolutely no difference as to whether we refer to this waste as the politically unacceptable BRC, the older de minimis designation, or the informal, international term Exemptable Waste (EW); the concept is the same. We must establish this boundary. The withdrawal of BRC rule making on the federal level has created the potential for developing major problems in nuclear waste in the areas of economic evaluation, engineering design, and remediation. Additionally, it has left such major waste classification categories as Naturally Occurring Radioactive Material (NORM), Accelerator Produced Radioactive Material (NARM), and Class A Low-Level waste without basic foundations. It is recommended that the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) value for Exemptable Waste (1 mrem/yr or 10 microsieverts/yr) be adopted. This figure could be usefully applied for numerous wastes and waste streams, despite the fact that it is four times less than the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) recommendation and ten times less than the maximum limit originally adopted by the NRC.

  14. 75 FR 6064 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...) frequently asked question (FAQ). This EALFAQ will be used to provide clarification of endorsed Nuclear Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY:...

  15. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document AGENCY:...

  16. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  17. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  18. Reference values and action levels of biological monitoring in occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Ong, C N

    1999-09-01

    The primary objectives of biological monitoring are (1) to prevent health impairment, (2) to assist in the assessment of risk, and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental controls. An efficient way to achieve these objectives would be to enforce the compliance of biological exposure standards at the workplace. However, biological monitoring should be viewed in the total context of control and prevention of work-related diseases, and not merely to comply with permissible standards. Biological monitoring depends very much on the conditions that the chemical is absorbed and how it is metabolised. Genetic diversity could therefore contribute to significant differences in this aspect. Furthermore, many of the reference values established have so far not been fully validated and therefore their usefulness is rather limited. This paper reviews and illustrates using some recent findings to show that biological reference values are influenced not just by the above mentioned issues, but also factors such as (1) health and nutritional status of the exposed population, (2) social and cultural factors, and (3) climatic conditions. Caution has to be taken when considering having an action level for some of the biological reference value. Biological reference values set without considering people, technology, and working conditions would be fraught with difficulties in implementation. PMID:10511254

  19. Establishment of multi-slice computed tomography (MSCT) reference level in Johor, Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, M. K. A.; Hashim, S.; Bakar, K. A.; Muhammad, H.; Sabarudin, A.; Ang, W. C.; Bahruddin, N. A.

    2016-03-01

    Radiation doses from computed tomography (CT) are the highest and most hazardous compared to other imaging modalities. This study aimed to evaluate radiation dose in Johor, Malaysia to patients during computed tomography examinations of the brain, chest and abdomen and to establish the local diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as are present with the current, state- of-art, multi-slice CT scanners. Survey forms were sent to five centres performing CT to obtain data regarding acquisition parameters as well as the dose information from CT consoles. CT- EXPO (Version 2.3.1, Germany) was used to validate the dose information. The proposed DRLs were indicated by rounding the third quartiles of whole dose distributions where mean values of CTDIw (mGy), CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy.cm) were comparable with other reference levels; 63, 63, and 1015 respectively for CT Brain; 15, 14, and 450 respectively for CT thorax and 16, 17, and 590 respectively for CT abdomen. The study revealed that the CT practice and dose output were revolutionised, and must keep up with the pace of introductory technology. We suggest that CTDIvol should be included in current national DRLs, as modern CTs are configured with a higher number of detectors and are independent of pitch factors.

  20. Establishing remediation levels in response to a radiological dispersal event (or dirty bomb).

    SciTech Connect

    Elcock, D.; Klemic, G. A.; Taboas, A. L.; Environmental Assessment; Environmental Measurements Lab.; DOE-CH

    2004-05-01

    The detonation of a radiological dispersal device (RDD) could produce significant social and economic damage, the extent of which would depend largely on how quickly and effectively cleanup levels were established and on public acceptance of those levels. This paper shows that current radiological cleanup laws and regulations, models for converting dose or risk goals to cleanup concentrations, and existing site-specific criteria were not designed specifically for RDD cleanups but, absent changes, would apply by default. The goals and approaches of these legal and methodological structures often conflict; using them in response to terrorism could undermine public confidence, cause delays, and produce unnecessary costs or unacceptable cleanups. RDD cleanups would involve immediate priorities not envisioned in the existing radiological cleanup framework, such as balancing radiation risks with the health, economic, and other societal impacts associated with access to the infrastructure necessary to sustain society (e.g., hospitals, bridges, utilities). To minimize the achievement of terrorism goals, the elements of an RDD cleanup response -- including updating existing legal/regulatory structures to clarify federal authority, goals, and methods for developing RDD cleanup criteria -- must be in place soon; given the complexity of the issues and the potential societal impact, this effort should be expedited.

  1. Establishing the level of cylindrical rotation in boxy/peanut bulges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Molaeinezhad, A.; Falcón-Barroso, J.; Martínez-Valpuesta, I.; Khosroshahi, H. G.; Balcells, M.; Peletier, R. F.

    2016-02-01

    We present SAURON integral-field observations of a sample of 12 mid-to-high-inclination disc galaxies, to unveil hidden bars on the basis of their kinematics, i.e. the correlation between velocity and h3 profiles, and to establish their degree of cylindrical rotation. For the latter, we introduce a method to quantify cylindrical rotation that is robust against inner disc components. We confirm high levels of cylindrical rotation in boxy/peanut bulges, but also observe this feature in a few galaxies with rounder bulges. We suggest that these are also barred galaxies with end-on orientations. Re-analysing published data for our own Galaxy using this new method, we determine that the Milky Way bulge is cylindrically rotating at the same level as the strongest barred galaxy in our sample. Finally, we use self-consistent three-dimensional N-body simulations of bar-unstable discs to study the dependence of cylindrical rotation on the bar's orientation and host galaxy inclination.

  2. Establishing tolerable dungeness crab (Cancer magister) and razor clam (Siliqua patula) domoic acid contaminant levels.

    PubMed Central

    Mariën, K

    1996-01-01

    Domoic acid has been found in razor clams (Siliqua patula) and dungeness crabs (Cancer magister) in Washington State and elsewhere on the West Coast of the United States. Due to toxic effects associated with domoic acid exposure, an effort has been made to establish tolerable domoic acid levels in crabs and clams obtained from commercial harvest and sale and from individual recreational harvesting. To accomplish this, the amount of clams and crabs consumed by populations of concern was determined, a tolerable daily intake (TDI) was developed for individuals most sensitive to effects of this compound, and the TDI was equated with consumption patterns to determine tolerable clam and crab domoic acid levels. Results indicate that the primary health effects associated with domoic acid toxicity can be averted in populations of concern and for others consuming crabs or clams less frequently (or in lesser quantity) if domoic acid contaminant concentration does not exceed 30 mg/kg in the hepatopancreas and viscera of dungeness crabs or 20 mg/kg in clams. PMID:8959413

  3. SU-E-I-33: Establishment of CT Diagnostic Reference Levels in Province Nova Scotia

    SciTech Connect

    Tonkopi, E; Abdolell, M; Duffy, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To evaluate patient radiation dose from the most frequently performed CT examinations and to establish provincial diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) as a tool for protocol optimization. Methods: The study investigated the following CT examinations: head, chest, abdomen/pelvis, and chest/abdomen/pelvis (CAP). Dose data, volume CT dose index (CTDIvol) and dose-length product (DLP), were collected from 15 CT scanners installed during 2004–2014 in 11 hospital sites of Nova Scotia. All scanners had dose modulation options and multislice capability (16–128 detector rows). The sample for each protocol included 15 average size patients (70±20 kg). Provincial DRLs were calculated as the 75th percentile of patient dose distributions. The differences in dose between hospitals were evaluated with a single factor ANOVA statistical test. Generalized linear modeling was used to determine the factors associated with higher radiation dose. A sample of 36 abdominal studies performed on three different scanners was blinded and randomized for an assessment by an experienced radiologist who graded the imaging quality of anatomic structures. Results: Data for 900 patients were collected. The DRLs were proposed using CTDIvol (mGy) and DLP (mGy*cm) values for CT head (67 and 1049, respectively), chest (12 and 393), abdomen/pelvis (16 and 717), and CAP (14 and 1034). These DRLs were lower than the published national data except for the head CTDIvol. The differences between the means of the dose distributions from each scanner were statistically significant (p<0.05) for all examinations. A very weak correlation was found between the dose and the scanner age or the number of slices with Pearson’s correlation coefficients of 0.011–0.315. The blinded analysis of image quality demonstrated no clinically significant difference except for the noise category. Conclusion: Provincial DRLs were established for typical CT examinations. The variations in dose between the hospitals

  4. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... affirmative action policy in advertisements and employment literature. (3) Utilization of minority media in... review of minority, female, Vietnam era veteran, and handcapped employees to identify underutilized...

  5. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... affirmative action policy in advertisements and employment literature. (3) Utilization of minority media in... review of minority, female, Vietnam era veteran, and handcapped employees to identify underutilized...

  6. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks. PMID:26117505

  7. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks.

  8. [An Affirmative Action Program to Redress Past Inequities and to Establish a Policy of Equal Treatment and Equal Opportunity at the University of Wisconsin for All Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin Univ., Madison.

    The Association of Faculty Women's proposals for an affirmative action program were developed by women who have expertise in the areas that are discussed. These areas include: establishment of an office for women; hiring and promotion goals; employment; professional, scientific and specialist academic staff; fringe benefits; university governance;…

  9. 36 CFR Exhibit B to Part 906 - Guidelines for Establishing Strategy To Implement Affirmative Action Personnel Plan

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Personnel Plan The following are suggested as the types of activities to be considered in the development of... affirmative action policy in advertisements and employment literature. (3) Utilization of minority media...

  10. 75 FR 47856 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and endorsed by the NRC related to the development of EALs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY:...

  11. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  12. Final guidance on numeric removal action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to transmit the final OERR methodology and guidance on the calculation of numeric removal action levels (RALs), to assist Superfund personnel in deciding whether to provide alternate sources of drinking water to populations adversely affected by releases of hazardous substances into the environment.

  13. Implementing on-Campus Microteaching to Elicit Preservice Teachers' Reflection on Teaching Actions: Fresh Perspective on an Established Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amobi, Funmi A.; Irwin, Leslie

    2009-01-01

    This article calls for renewed emphasis on the use of on-campus microteaching to facilitate simultaneously preservice teachers' performance of effective teaching skills and their capability to reflect meaningfully on their emergent teaching actions. In making a case for greater focus on the implementation of microteaching in preservice teacher…

  14. Using Readability Formulas to Establish the Grade Level Difficulty of Software.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clariana, Roy B.

    1993-01-01

    Compared the grade level difficulty obtained from seven readability formulas to student reading levels from two national standardized tests to determine which formulas best determined the readability of computer-based text. Found that the Flesch-Kincaid, FOG, and ARI formulas provided the best estimate of reading grade level of computer-based text…

  15. RESEARCH TO ESTABLISH A COLLEGE-LEVEL CURRICULUM IN GLASS. TECHNICAL PROGRESS REPORT, NUMBER 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WILLSON, RICHARD

    THE PURPOSE OF THE RESEARCH IS TO CORRELATE A COLLECTED MASS OF INFORMATION RELATED TO THE ACCEPTED NEED TO ESTABLISH A CURRICULUM FOR TEACHING GLASS AS A FINE ART MATERIAL IN THE UNITED STATES. AN ARTIST OR AN ARCHITECT WHO WISHES TO LEARN THE POTENTIAL USE OF GLASS MUST GO TO EUROPE, AS NO COMPREHENSIVE TEACHING OF GLASS AS A FINE ART EXISTS ON…

  16. 75 FR 45584 - Planning and Establishment of State-Level Exchanges; Request for Comments Regarding Exchange...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-03

    ... website containing standardized comparative information on QHPs; assigning ratings to each QHP offered... certification criteria include, at a minimum: Meeting marketing requirements; ensuring a sufficient choice of... providers? b. What issues need to be considered in establishing appropriate minimum standards for...

  17. Development of action levels for MED/MPD skin-testing units in ultraviolet phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Una M.; O'Hare, Neil J.

    2003-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Phototherapy is commonly used for treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema. Treatment is carried out using UV phototherapy units, exposing all or part of the body for a certain exposure time. Prior to exposure in treatment units, an unaffected area of skin may be tested using UV skin-testing units in order to determine a suitable treatment regime. The exposure time at which barely perceptible erythema has developed is known as the Minimal Erythemal Dose (MED) for UVB therapy and Minimal Phototoxic Dose (MPD) for UVA therapy. This is used to determine the starting dose in the treatment regime. The presence of 'hotspots' and 'coldspots' in UV skin-testing units can result in inaccurate determination of MED/MPD. This could give rise to severe burns during treatment, or in a sub-optimal dose regime being used. Quality assurance protocols for UV phototherapy equipment have recently been developed and these protocols have highlighted the need for action levels for skin-testing units. An action level is a reference value, which is used to determine whether the difference in irradiance output level across a UV unit is acceptable. Current methodologies for skin-testing in Ireland have been characterised and errors introduced during testing have been estimated. Action levels have been developed based on analysis of errors and requirements of skin-testing.

  18. The Development of a Methodology for Establishing Task-Level Performance Standards for Apprentice, Journeyman, and Master Skill Levels in the U.S. Navy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hedge, Jerry W.; Borman, Walter C.; Kubisiak, U. Christean; Bourne, Mark J.

    2007-01-01

    The goal of the project examined here was to establish performance standards for Navy aerographer's mate (AG) enlisted sailors at three skill levels. We used an online expert judgment task and consensus workshop methodology to gather information from subject matter experts on minimal proficiency requirements for each task within each skill level.…

  19. 76 FR 64810 - Beverages: Bottled Water Quality Standard; Establishing an Allowable Level for di(2-ethylhexyl...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... FR 41612), FDA published a proposal (``the 1993 proposed rule'') to revise the bottled water quality... adopting the allowable level for DEHP in the bottled water quality standard as proposed (58 FR 41612... be found in bottled water in levels above the standard. C. Benefits In the Economic Impact...

  20. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information.

  1. Comparing alternative approaches to establishing regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants: DBCP as a case study.

    PubMed Central

    Pease, W; Vandenberg, J; Hooper, K

    1991-01-01

    This paper compares four alternative approaches for deriving regulatory levels for reproductive toxicants by applying them to the available data on the human spermatotoxicant 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane (DBCP). The alternatives examined include the Proposition 65 approach (application of a mandatory 1000-fold uncertainty factor to a no-observed-adverse-effect level [NOAEL]), the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a NOAEL), the Benchmark Dose approach (application of flexible uncertainty factors to a dose associated with a known level of change in a reproductive parameter), and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach (using low-dose linear extrapolation and a model of the relationship between sperm count and infertility). Applied to DBCP, these approaches do not produce substantially different estimates of allowable exposure levels. However, the approaches do have different data requirements and provide different amounts of information on reproductive hazards to risk managers and the public. Neither the Proposition 65 nor the EPA approach provides information about the extent of health risk remaining at a regulatory level. In contrast, the Benchmark Dose approach can provide estimates of the magnitude of sperm count reduction at a regulatory level, and the Quantitative Risk Estimation approach can provide estimates of exposure-induced infertility. PMID:2040244

  2. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  3. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resourced countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group.

  4. Patient grouping for dose surveys and establishment of diagnostic reference levels in paediatric computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Vassileva, J; Rehani, M

    2015-07-01

    There has been confusion in literature on whether paediatric patients should be grouped according to age, weight or other parameters when dealing with dose surveys. The present work aims to suggest a pragmatic approach to achieve reasonable accuracy for performing patient dose surveys in countries with limited resources. The analysis is based on a subset of data collected within the IAEA survey of paediatric computed tomography (CT) doses, involving 82 CT facilities from 32 countries in Asia, Europe, Africa and Latin America. Data for 6115 patients were collected, in 34.5 % of which data for weight were available. The present study suggests that using four age groups, <1, >1-5, >5-10 and >10-15 y, is realistic and pragmatic for dose surveys in less resourced countries and for the establishment of DRLs. To ensure relevant accuracy of results, data for >30 patients in a particular age group should be collected if patient weight is not known. If a smaller sample is used, patient weight should be recorded and the median weight in the sample should be within 5-10 % from the median weight of the sample for which the DRLs were established. Comparison of results from different surveys should always be performed with caution, taking into consideration the way of grouping of paediatric patients. Dose results can be corrected for differences in patient weight/age group. PMID:25836695

  5. Tank 241-C-106 thermal hydraulic analysis to establish the cooling liquid at a minimum level

    SciTech Connect

    Bander, T.J.; Thurgood, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    This report presents the computer simulations used to evaluate whether tank 241-C-106 can be operated at new lower operating liquid levels without significant reduction in th heat removal capability of the tank ventilation system. It is concluded that if the tank is operated with the liquid level between 72 and 74 in. the evaporation of the tank will be similar to what it is for the current operating level of 75 to 79 in. Analyses predict that for both operating limits voids will form during the summer months and disappear during the winter months. The waste temperatures for both operating limits will be close to the same. Installation of a chiller can maintain the highest waste temperatures below the saturation temperature (i.e., no voids will form) year round provided 67% of the original pool surface area is maintained for evaporation

  6. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  7. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  8. Establishing optimal project-level strategies for pavement maintenance and rehabilitation - A framework and case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irfan, Muhammad; Bilal Khurshid, Muhammad; Bai, Qiang; Labi, Samuel; Morin, Thomas L.

    2012-05-01

    This article presents a framework and an illustrative example for identifying the optimal pavement maintenance and rehabilitation (M&R) strategy using a mixed-integer nonlinear programming model. The objective function is to maximize the cost-effectiveness expressed as the ratio of the effectiveness to the cost. The constraints for the optimization problem are related to performance, budget, and choice. Two different formulations of effectiveness are derived using treatment-specific performance models for each constituent treatment of the strategy; and cost is expressed in terms of the agency and user costs over the life cycle. The proposed methodology is demonstrated using a case study. Probability distributions are established for the optimization input variables and Monte Carlo simulations are carried out to yield optimal solutions. Using the results of these simulations, M&R strategy contours are developed as a novel tool that can help pavement managers quickly identify the optimal M&R strategy for a given pavement section.

  9. Establishing Junior-Level Colleges in Developing Nations: A Site Selection Process Using Data from Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iaeger, Paula Irene

    2012-01-01

    This research synthesizes data and presents it using mapping software to help to identify potential site locations for community-centered higher education alternatives and more traditional junior-level colleges in Uganda. What factors can be used to quantify one site over another for the location of such an institution and if these factors can be…

  10. SU-E-P-10: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Exam in Computed Tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, M; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-06-15

    Introduction National diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) can be used as a reference dose of radiological examination can provide radiation dose as the basis of patient dose optimization. Local diagnostic reference levels (LDRLs) by periodically view and check doses, more efficiency to improve the way of examination. Therefore, the important first step is establishing a diagnostic reference level. Computed Tomography in Taiwan had been built up the radiation dose limit value,in addition, many studies report shows that CT scan contributed most of the radiation dose in different medical. Therefore, this study was mainly to let everyone understand DRL’s international status. For computed tomography in our hospital to establish diagnostic reference levels. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). Each exam each different body part, we collect 10 patients at least. Carried out the routine examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 60–70 Kg of body weight. There are 25 examinations in this study. Table 1 shows the LDRL of each CT routine examination. Conclusions: Therefore, this study would like to let everyone know DRL’s international status, but also establishment of computed tomography of the local reference levels for our hospital, and providing radiation reference, as a basis for optimizing patient dose.

  11. REAL-TIME INTRAVITAL IMAGING ESTABLISHES TUMOUR-ASSOCIATED MACROPHAGES AS THE EXTRASKELETAL TARGET OF BISPHOSPHONATE ACTION IN CANCER

    PubMed Central

    Junankar, Simon; Shay, Gemma; Jurczyluk, Julie; Ali, Naveid; Down, Jenny; Pocock, Nicholas; Parker, Andrew; Nguyen, Akira; Sun, Shuting; Kashemirov, Boris; McKenna, Charles E.; Croucher, Peter I.; Swarbrick, Alexander; Weilbaecher, Katherine; Phan, Tri Giang; Rogers, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    Recent clinical trials have shown that bisphosphonate drugs improve breast cancer patient survival independent of their anti-resorptive effects on the skeleton. However, since bisphosphonates bind rapidly to bone mineral, the exact mechanisms of their anti-tumour action, particularly on cells outside of bone, remain unknown. Here we used real-time intravital two-photon microscopy to show extensive leakage of fluorescent bisphosphonate from the vasculature in 4T1 mouse mammary tumours, where it initially binds to areas of small, granular microcalcifications that are engulfed by tumour-associated macrophages (TAMs), but not tumour cells. Importantly, we also observed uptake of radiolabeled bisphosphonate in the primary breast tumour of a patient and showed the resected tumour to be infiltrated with TAMs and to contain similar granular microcalcifications. These data represent the first compelling in vivo evidence that bisphosphonates can target cells in tumours outside the skeleton and that their anti-tumour activity is likely to be mediated via TAMs. PMID:25312016

  12. Establishment of alternative potency test for botulinum toxin type A using compound muscle action potential (CMAP) in rats.

    PubMed

    Torii, Yasushi; Goto, Yoshitaka; Nakahira, Shinji; Ginnaga, Akihiro

    2014-11-01

    The biological activity of botulinum toxin type A has been evaluated using the mouse intraperitoneal (ip) LD50 test. This method requires a large number of mice to precisely determine toxin activity, and, as such, poses problems with regard to animal welfare. We previously developed a compound muscle action potential (CMAP) assay using rats as an alternative method to the mouse ip LD50 test. In this study, to evaluate this quantitative method of measuring toxin activity using CMAP, we assessed the parameters necessary for quantitative tests according to ICH Q2 (R1). This assay could be used to evaluate the activity of the toxin, even when inactive toxin was mixed with the sample. To reduce the number of animals needed, this assay was set to measure two samples per animal. Linearity was detected over a range of 0.1-12.8 U/mL, and the measurement range was set at 0.4-6.4 U/mL. The results for accuracy and precision showed low variability. The body weight was selected as a variable factor, but it showed no effect on the CMAP amplitude. In this study, potency tests using the rat CMAP assay of botulinum toxin type A demonstrated that it met the criteria for a quantitative analysis method.

  13. Student Levels of Cognitive Development: Establishing Links between Logical Thinking Skills and Success in Earth Science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steer, D. N.; McConnell, D. A.; Owens, K.

    2003-12-01

    Students in inquiry-based, general education Earth Science courses were found to display a wide range of logical thinking skills that are known indicators of success in science courses. The Group Assessment of Logical Thinking instrument that tests six logical operations was administered on the first day of class and near the end of the course. Such tests can be used to assess a student's overall level of cognitive development (concrete, transitional or formal) and specific logical thinking strengths or weaknesses. Results from paired pre- and post-course logical thinking tests of 393 students indicated that 25% of the incoming students were concrete, 30% were transitional and 45% were formal thinkers. Concrete and transitional thinkers were far more likely to withdraw from or fail the course when compared to their formal thinking peers (35%, 25% and 10% respectively). Differences in scores between genders were significant with 210 females testing at 30% concrete, 35% transitional and 35% formal on the pretest compared to 183 males who tested 15% concrete, 25% transitional and 60% formal. Overall logical thinking scores of students increased significantly in every inquiry-based class with lecture-based classes showing overall lower increases. Post-test data indicated that there were fewer concrete thinkers (16% female, 7% male), little change in the number of transitional thinkers (30% female, 23% male) and more formal thinkers (54% female, 70% male) toward the end of the inquiry-based course. Scores on two of the logical operations, conservation and probability, were sufficient to separate those who received a high grade (A or B in course) from those were unsuccessful (D, F or withdrew). Students who score low in conservation operations (n=46) tend to rely on intuition rather than logic when trying to understand typical Earth System concepts such as plate tectonics, atmospheric processes and climate change. Students who score low in probability skills (n=46) have

  14. Regulatory neutrality is essential to establishing a level playing field for accountable care organizations.

    PubMed

    Bacher, Gary E; Chernew, Michael E; Kessler, Daniel P; Weiner, Stephen M

    2013-08-01

    Accountable care organizations (ACOs) are among the most widely discussed models for encouraging movement away from fee-for-service payment arrangements. Although ACOs have the potential to slow health spending growth and improve quality of care, regulating them poses special challenges. Regulations, particularly those that affect both ACOs and Medicare Advantage plans, could inadvertently favor or disfavor certain kinds of providers or payers. Such favoritism could drive efficient organizations from the market and thus increase costs or reduce quality of and access to care. To avoid this type of outcome, we propose a general principle: Regulation of ACOs should strive to preserve a level playing field among different kinds of organizations seeking the same cost, quality, and access objectives. This is known as regulatory neutrality. We describe the implications of regulatory neutrality in four key areas: antitrust, financial solvency regulation, Medicare governance requirements, and Medicare payment models. We also discuss issues relating to short-term versus long-term perspectives--to promote the goal of regulatory neutrality and allow the most efficient organizations to prevail in the marketplace.

  15. Taking Action: A Cross-Modal Investigation of Discourse-Level Representations

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2012-01-01

    Segmenting stimuli into events and understanding the relations between those events is crucial for understanding the world. For example, on the linguistic level, successful language use requires the ability to recognize semantic coherence relations between events (e.g., causality, similarity). However, relatively little is known about the mental representation of discourse structure. We report two experiments that used a cross-modal priming paradigm to investigate how humans represent the relations between events. Participants repeated a motor action modeled by the experimenter (e.g., rolled a ball toward mini bowling pins to knock them over), and then completed an unrelated sentence-continuation task (e.g., provided a continuation for “Peter scratched John.…”). In two experiments, we tested whether and how the coherence relations represented by the motor actions (e.g., causal events vs. non-causal events) influence participants’ performance in the linguistic task. (A production study was also conducted to explore potential syntactic priming effects.) Our analyses focused on the coherence relations between the prompt sentences and participants’ continuations, as well as the referential shifts in the continuations. As a whole, the results suggest that the mental representations activated by motor actions overlap with the mental representations used during linguistic discourse-level processing, but nevertheless contain fine-grained information about sub-types of causality (reaction vs. consequence). In addition, the findings point to parallels between shifting one’s attention from one-event to another and shifting one’s attention from one referent to another, and indicate that the event structure of causal sequences is conceptualized more like single events than like two distinct events. As a whole, the results point toward common representations activated by motor sequences and discourse-semantic relations, and further our understanding of the mental

  16. Dose Assessment in Computed Tomography Examination and Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels in Mazandaran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Janbabanezhad Toori, A.; Shabestani-Monfared, A.; Deevband, M.R.; Abdi, R.; Nabahati, M.

    2015-01-01

    Background Medical X-rays are the largest man-made source of public exposure to ionizing radiation. While the benefits of Computed Tomography (CT) are well known in accurate diagnosis, those benefits are not risk-free. CT is a device with higher patient dose in comparison with other conventional radiation procedures. Objective This study is aimed at evaluating radiation dose to patients from Computed Tomography (CT) examination in Mazandaran hospitals and defining diagnostic reference level (DRL). Methods Patient-related data on CT protocol for four common CT examinations including brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic were collected. In each center, Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI) measurements were performed using pencil ionization chamber and CT dosimetry phantom according to AAPM report No. 96 for those techniques. Then, Weighted Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDIW), Volume Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI vol) and Dose Length Product (DLP) were calculated. Results The CTDIw for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic ranged (15.6-73), (3.8-25. 8), (4.5-16.3) and (7-16.3), respectively. Values of DLP had a range of (197.4-981), (41.8-184), (131-342.3) and (283.6-486) for brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic, respectively. The 3rd quartile of CTDIW, derived from dose distribution for each examination is the proposed quantity for DRL. The DRLs of brain, sinus, chest and abdomen & pelvic are measured 59.5, 17, 7.8 and 11 mGy, respectively. Conclusion Results of this study demonstrated large scales of dose for the same examination among different centers. For all examinations, our values were lower than international reference doses. PMID:26688796

  17. Competitive interactions between established grasses and woody plant seedlings under elevated CO₂ levels are mediated by soil water availability.

    PubMed

    Manea, A; Leishman, M R

    2015-02-01

    The expansion of woody plants into grasslands has been observed worldwide and is likely to have widespread ecological consequences. One proposal is that woody plant expansion into grasslands is driven in part by the rise in atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We have examined the effect of CO2 concentration on the competitive interactions between established C4 grasses and woody plant seedlings in a model grassland system. Woody plant seedlings were grown in mesocosms together with established C4 grasses in three competition treatments (root competition, shoot competition and root + shoot competition) under ambient and elevated CO2 levels. We found that the growth of the woody plant seedlings was suppressed by competition from grasses, with root and shoot competition having similar competitive effects on growth. In contrast to expectations, woody plant seedling growth was reduced at elevated CO2 levels compared to that at the ambient CO2 level across all competition treatments, with the most plausible explanation being reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms. Reduced light and soil water availability in the elevated CO2 mesocosms was associated with an increased leaf area index of the grasses which offset the reductions in stomatal conductance and increased rainfall interception. The woody plant seedlings also had reduced 'escapability' (stem biomass and stem height) under elevated compared to ambient CO2 levels. Our results suggest that the expansion of woody plants into grasslands in the future will likely be context-dependent, with the establishment success of woody plant seedlings being strongly coupled to the CO2 response of competing grasses and to soil water availability.

  18. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  19. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  20. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Ppp of... - Operating Parameters for Which Monitoring Levels Are Required To Be Established for Process Vent...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Monitoring Levels Are Required To Be Established for Process Vent Streams 7 Table 7 to Subpart PPP of Part 63... Established for Process Vent Streams Control technique Parameters to be monitored Established operating... regeneration stream mass or volumetric flow during carbon bed regeneration cycle; and temperature of the...

  1. Volatile halocarbons in butter: elevated tetrachloroethylene levels in samples obtained in close proximity to dry-cleaning establishments

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, L.J.; Uhler, A.D.

    1988-09-01

    In recent years materials not directly associated with food production, such as polychlorinated and brominated biphenyls, have been found in foods. According to the criteria to evaluate the likelihood for a chemical to contaminate food, the volatile halocarbons (VHCs) were selected as target compounds in an examination for potential contaminants in selected foods. The technique of multiple headspace extraction (MHE) was used in this study to minimize sample handling, and thereby reduce the potential for laboratory contamination and maximize throughput. Recently this laboratory reported findings of several VHCs in margarine, including PCE in four samples at levels above the usual background findings. Those samples had been obtained from a food store located immediately next to a dry-cleaning establishment. Follow-up investigation was conducted to determine the frequency of occurrence and levels of PCE that may be present in fatty foods purchased from stores located both near and distant from dry cleaners. Butter was chosen as a model food because it is a highly uniform product of very high fat content, which would be expected to act as a good absorber of the lipophilic VHCs. This paper presents results of these analyses and correlations between level of VHCs in butter and the proximity to dry cleaners of the food store where the butter was purchased.

  2. Consideration of measurement error when using commercial indoor radon determinations for selecting radon action levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.; Dolan, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of year-long, in-home radon measurement in Colorado from commercial companies applying typical methods indicates that considerable variation in precision exists. This variation can have a substantial impact on any mitigation decisions, either voluntary or mandated by law, especially regarding property sale or exchange. Both long-term exposure (nuclear track greater than 90 days), and short-term (charcoal adsorption 4-7 days) exposure methods were used. In addition, periods of continuous monitoring with a highly calibrated alpha-scintillometer took place for accuracy calibration. The results of duplicate commercial analysis show that typical results are no better than ??25 percent with occasional outliers (up to 5 percent of all analyses) well beyond that limit. Differential seasonal measurements (winter/summer) by short-term methods provide equivalent information to single long-term measurements. Action levels in the U.S. for possible mitigation decisions should be selected so that they consider the measurement variability; specifically, they should reflect a concentration range similar to that adopted by the European Community.

  3. The relationship between the level of cholinesterase in plasma and the action of suxamethonium in animals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbiger, F.; Peck, A. W.

    1970-01-01

    1. The neuromuscular blocking action of suxamethonium, given by intravenous injection, and the effect upon it of iso-OMPA (tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide) in doses which produced marked selective inhibition of cholinesterase in blood were studied in anaesthetized rats and cats, and in mice. 2. In cats experiments were also carried out in which suxamethonium was given by intravenous infusion until an effect which remained constant with time was achieved. From the degree of neuromuscular block (under equilibrium conditions) obtained with different infusion rates the infusion rate for 50% reduction in twitch tension of the indirectly stimulated soleus and gastrocnemius muscles (IR50) was calculated. The effect on it of raising the suxamethonium hydrolysing capacity of blood and of selectively reducing the level of cholinesterase in blood by various doses of iso-OMPA was then investigated. 3. At relevant stages of each experiment cholinesterase activity in blood was determined with butyrylcholine or benzoylcholine and where appropriate with suxamethonium as substrate. 4. The results obtained show that in rats and cats the effectiveness of suxamethonium is unrelated to the level of cholinesterase activity in blood and that raising the suxamethonium hydrolysing capacity in the blood up to 22-fold (in cats) only reduces the IR50 by a factor of 1·6. 5. The enhancement of the effectiveness of suxamethonium in the three species (2- to 3-fold in rats, 2- to 4-fold in mice and 7- to 8-fold in cats under the conditions used for comparison) which follows the administration of iso-OMPA is attributable to inhibition of cholinesterase in the tissues. 6. It is concluded that the results obtained clearly indicate that the species studied do not give information as regards suxamethonium and its metabolism which is applicable to man. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:4322043

  4. Establishing the "Biological Relevance" of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels.

    PubMed

    Gray, Leon Earl; Furr, Johnathan; Tatum-Gibbs, Katoria R; Lambright, Christy; Sampson, Hunter; Hannas, Bethany R; Wilson, Vickie S; Hotchkiss, Andrew; Foster, Paul M D

    2016-01-01

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that relatively large reductions in fetal testosterone (T) levels and testis gene expression may be required to adversely affect reproductive development (Hannas, B. R., Lambright, C. S., Furr, J., Evans, N., Foster, P. M., Gray, E. L., and Wilson, V. S. (2012). Genomic biomarkers of phthalate-induced male reproductive developmental toxicity: a targeted RT-PCR array approach for defining relative potency. Toxicol. Sci. 125, 544-557). The objectives of this study were (1) to model the relationships between changes in fetal male rat plasma testosterone (PT), T levels in the testis (TT), T production (PROD), and testis gene expression with the reproductive malformation rates, and (2) to quantify the "biologically relevant reductions" (BRRs) in fetal T necessary to induce adverse effects in the offspring. In the fetal experiment, Harlan Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed with dipentyl phthalate (DPeP) at 0, 11, 33, 100, and 300 mg/kg/day from gestational days (GD) 14-18 and fetal testicular T, PT levels, and T Prod and gene expression were assessed on GD 18. In the postnatal experiment, rats were dosed with DPeP from GD 8-18 and reproductive development was monitored through adulthood. The dose-response curves for TT levels (ED(50) = 53 mg/kg) and T PROD (ED(50) = 45 mg/kg) were similar, whereas PT was reduced at ED50 = 19 mg/kg. When the reductions in TPROD and Insl3 mRNA were compared with the postnatal effects of in utero DPeP, dose-related reproductive alterations were noted when T PROD and Insl3 mRNA were reduced by >45% and 42%, respectively. The determination of BRR levels may enable risk assessors to utilize fetal endocrine data to help establish points of departure for

  5. Establishment of a structural equation model for ground-level ozone: a case study at an urban roadside site.

    PubMed

    Lin, Kun-Ming; Yu, Tai-Yi; Chang, Len-Fu

    2014-12-01

    This study established a cause-effect relationship between ground-level ozone and latent variables employing partial least-squares analysis at an urban roadside site in four distinct seasons. Two multivariate analytic methods, factor analysis, and cluster analysis were adopted to cite and identify suitable latent variables from 14 observed variables (i.e., meteorological factors, wind and primary air pollutants) in 2008-2010. Analytical results showed that the first six components explained 80.3 % of the variance, and eigenvalues of the first four components were greater than 1. The effectiveness of this model was empirically confirmed with three indicators. Except for surface pressure, factor loadings of observed variables were 0.303-0.910 and reached statistical significance at the 5 % level. Composite reliabilities for latent variables were 0.672-0.812 and average variances were 0.404-0.547, except for latent variable "primary" in spring; thus, discriminant validity and convergent validity were marginally accepted. The developed model is suitable for the assessment of urban roadside surface ozone, considering interactions among meteorological factors, wind factors, and primary air pollutants in each season.

  6. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  7. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs. PMID:25460062

  8. Assessing baseline levels of coral health in a newly established marine protected area in a global scuba diving hotspot.

    PubMed

    Hein, Margaux Y; Lamb, Joleah B; Scott, Chad; Willis, Bette L

    2015-02-01

    While coral reefs are increasingly threatened worldwide, they are also increasingly used for recreational activities. Given the environmental and socio-economic significance of coral reefs, understanding the links between human activities and coral health and evaluating the efficacy of marine protected areas (MPAs) as a management regime to prevent further deterioration are critically important. The aim of this study was to quantify indicators of coral health at sites inside and outside a newly rezoned MPA framework in the dive tourism hotspot of Koh Tao, Thailand. We found that patterns in the health and diversity of coral communities one year on did not reflect the protected status conferred by newly zoned MPAs, but instead reflected past history of recreational use around the island. Sites characterised as past high-use sites had lower mean percent cover of hard corals overall and of corals in the typically disease- and disturbance-susceptible family Acroporidae, but higher mean cover of species in the more weedy family Agariciidae. Past high use sites also had higher mean prevalence of infectious diseases and other indicators of compromised health. Sites within the newly established MPAs are currently subjected to higher levels of environmental and anthropogenic pressures, with sedimentation, algal overgrowth, feeding scars from Drupella snails, and breakage particularly prevalent compared to sites in non-MPA areas. Given the greater prevalence of these factors within protected sites, the capacity of the MPA framework to effectively prevent further deterioration of Koh Tao's reefs is unclear. Nevertheless, our study constitutes a strong baseline for future long-term evaluations of the potential of MPAs to maintain coral health and diversity on highly threatened reefs.

  9. Levels and actions of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions: Sex-specific features.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto C; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids regulate the physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system, exert neuroprotective actions and represent interesting tools for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Sex differences in their levels are detected not only under physiological conditions but are also modified in a sex-dependent way in different pathological alterations such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic encephalopathy, psychiatric disorders and peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, many of these disorders show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. The neuroprotective actions of neuroactive steroids, together with the sex specific regulation of its levels might provide the basis to design sex-specific neuroprotective therapies. Indeed, some experiments here discussed suggest the viability of this approach. PMID:26657814

  10. Setting action levels for drinking water: are we protecting our health or our economy (or our backs!)?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Banks, David

    2004-10-01

    Clean and healthy drinking water is important for life. Drinking water can be drawn from streams, lakes and rivers, directly collected (and stored) from rain, acquired by desalination of ocean water and melting of ice or it can be extracted from groundwater resources. Groundwater may reach the earth's surface in the form of springs or can be extracted via dug or drilled wells; it also contributes significantly to river baseflow. Different water quality issues have to be faced when utilising these different water resources. Some of these are at present largely neglected in water quality regulations. This paper focuses on the inorganic chemical quality of natural groundwater. Possible health effects, the problems of setting meaningful action levels or maximum admissible concentrations (MAC-values) for drinking water, and potential shortcomings in current legislation are discussed. An approach to setting action levels based on transparency, toxicological risk assessment, completeness, and identifiable responsibility is suggested. PMID:15336887

  11. Setting action levels for drinking water: are we protecting our health or our economy (or our backs!)?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Banks, David

    2004-10-01

    Clean and healthy drinking water is important for life. Drinking water can be drawn from streams, lakes and rivers, directly collected (and stored) from rain, acquired by desalination of ocean water and melting of ice or it can be extracted from groundwater resources. Groundwater may reach the earth's surface in the form of springs or can be extracted via dug or drilled wells; it also contributes significantly to river baseflow. Different water quality issues have to be faced when utilising these different water resources. Some of these are at present largely neglected in water quality regulations. This paper focuses on the inorganic chemical quality of natural groundwater. Possible health effects, the problems of setting meaningful action levels or maximum admissible concentrations (MAC-values) for drinking water, and potential shortcomings in current legislation are discussed. An approach to setting action levels based on transparency, toxicological risk assessment, completeness, and identifiable responsibility is suggested.

  12. Pan-Eurasian experiment (PEEX) establishing a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian atmosphere-ecosystem observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lappalainen, Hanna K.; Petäjä, Tuukka; Zaytzeva, Nina; Viisanen, Yrjö; Kotlyakov, Vladimir; Kasimov, Nikolay; Bondur, Valery; Matvienko, Gennady; Zilitinkevich, Sergej; Kulmala, Markku

    2014-05-01

    Pan-Eurasian Experiment (PEEX) is a new multidisciplinary research approach aiming at resolving the major uncertainties in the Earth system science and global sustainability questions in the Arctic and boreal Pan-Eurasian regions (Kulmala et al. 2011). The main goal of PEEX Research agenda is to contribute to solving the scientific questions that are specifically important for the Pan-Eurasian region in the coming years, in particular the global climate change and its consequences to nature and human society. Pan Eurasian region represents one the Earth most extensive areas of boreal forest (taiga) and the largest natural wetlands, thus being a significant source area of trace gas emissions, biogenic aerosol particles, and source and sink area for the greenhouse gas (GHG) exchange in a global scale (Guenther et al. 1995, Timkovsky et al. 2010, Tunved et al. 2006, Glagolev et al. 2010). One of the first activities of the PEEX initiative is to establish a process towards high level Pan-Eurasian Observation Networks. Siberian region is currently lacking a coordinated, coherent ground based atmosphere-ecosystem measurement network, which would be crucial component for observing and predicting the effects of climate change in the Northern Pan- Eurasian region The vision of the Pan-Eurasion network will be based on a hierarchical SMEAR-type (Stations Measuring Atmosphere-Ecosystem Interactions) integrated land-atmosphere observation system (Hari et al. 2009). A suite of stations have been selected for the Preliminary Phase of PEEX Observation network. These Preliminary Phase stations includes the SMEAR-type stations in Finland (SMEAR-I-II-II-IV stations), in Estonia (SMEAR-Järviselja) and in China (SMEAR-Nanjing) and selected stations in Russia and ecosystem station network in China. PEEX observation network will fill in the current observational gap in the Siberian region and bring the Siberian observation setup into international context with the with standardized or

  13. From Planning to Action: Government Initiatives for Improving School-Level Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W., Ed.; Mahlck, Lars O., Ed.; Smulders, Anna E. M., Ed.

    This work examines ways central and regional education ministries can influence practices at the school level. Chapter 1, "Changing What Happens in Schools: Central-Level Initiatives to Improve School Practice," reviews common themes, concerns, problems, and emphases. Chapter 2, "Knowledge Utilization and the Process of Policy Formation: Towards a…

  14. Synapse-Level Determination of Action Potential Duration by K(+) Channel Clustering in Axons.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew J M; DelCanto, Gina; Yu, Jianqing J; Kamasawa, Naomi; Christie, Jason M

    2016-07-20

    In axons, an action potential (AP) is thought to be broadcast as an unwavering binary pulse over its arbor, driving neurotransmission uniformly at release sites. Yet by recording from axons of cerebellar stellate cell (SC) interneurons, we show that AP width varies between presynaptic bouton sites, even within the same axon branch. The varicose geometry of SC boutons alone does not impose differences in spike duration. Rather, axonal patching revealed heterogeneous peak conductance densities of currents mediated mainly by fast-activating Kv3-type potassium channels, with clustered hotspots at boutons and restricted expression at adjoining shafts. Blockade of Kv channels at individual boutons indicates that currents immediately local to a release site direct spike repolarization at that location. Thus, the clustered arrangement and variable expression density of Kv3 channels at boutons are key determinants underlying compartmentalized control of AP width in a near synapse-by-synapse manner, multiplying the signaling capacity of these structures. PMID:27346528

  15. Action Tweets Linked to Reduced County-Level HIV Prevalence in the United States: Online Messages and Structural Determinants.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Chen, Qijia; Schwartz, H Andrew; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects. We explored these opposing hypotheses by regressing county-level HIV prevalence on action language (e.g., work, plan) in over 150 million tweets mapped to US counties. Controlling for demographic and structural predictors of HIV, more active language was associated with lower HIV rates. By leveraging language used on social media to improve existing predictive models of geographic variation in HIV, future targeted HIV-prevention interventions may have a better chance of reaching high-risk communities before outbreaks occur.

  16. Kinemage of action - Proposed reaction mechanism of glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase at an atomic level

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, John L.; Stetefeld, Joerg

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibitors of tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis may be useful antibiotics. {yields} Mechanism of critical enzyme, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase, is presented. {yields} Unique vitamin B6-dependant enzyme traps intermediate in active site. {yields} Molecular dynamics show that a re-orientation of the substrate is required. -- Abstract: Glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase (GSAM), a key enzyme in tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis, performs a unique transamination on a single substrate. The substrate, glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), undergoes a reaction that exchanges the position of an amine and a carbonyl group to produce 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This transamination reaction is unique in the fact that is does not require an external cofactor to act as a nitrogen donor or acceptor in this transamination reaction. One of the other remarkable features of the catalytic mechanism is the release free in the enzyme active site of the intermediate 4,5-diaminovaleric acid (DAVA). The action of a gating loop prevents the escape of DAVA from the active site. In a MD simulation approach, using snapshots provided by X-ray crystallography and protein crystal absorption spectrometry data, the individual catalytic steps in this unique intramolecular transamination have been elucidated.

  17. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  18. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  19. Sildenafil increases serum testosterone levels by a direct action on the testes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M; Bhasin, S; Travison, T G; Davda, M N; Stroh, H; Basaria, S

    2013-11-01

    Phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, such as sildenafil, increase intracavernosal cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, which results in corporal smooth muscle relaxation and penile erection. Here, we determined the effects of sildenafil administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men with erectile dysfunction and low testosterone levels. The Testosterone and Erectile Dysfunction trial (ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00512707) initially administered an optimized dose of sildenafil to 140 men, aged 40-70 years with erectile dysfunction, low serum total testosterone (<11.4 nmol/L; 330 ng/dL) and/or free testosterone (<173 pmol/L; 50 pg/mL) over 3-7 weeks. Sex steroids and gonadotropins were measured at baseline and after sildenafil optimization in a longitudinal study without a separate control group. Serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and oestrogens were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of an optimized dose of sildenafil was associated with mean increases of 3.6 nmol/L (103 ng/dL; p < 0.001) and 110 pmol/L (31.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001) in total and free testosterone levels respectively. This was accompanied by parallel increases in serum DHT (0.17 nmol/L; 4.9 ng/dL; p < 0.001) and oestradiol (14 pmol/L; 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001) and significant suppression of luteinizing hormone (change -1.3 units/L; p = 0.003) levels, suggesting a direct effect at the testicular level. Androstenedione and oestrone increased by 1.3 nmol/L (38 ng/dL; p = 0.011) and 10.7 pmol/L (2.9 pg/mL; p = 0.012), respectively, supporting a possible effect of sildenafil on adrenal steroidogenesis. In conclusion, sildenafil administration was associated with increased testosterone levels likely ascribable to a direct effect on the testis.

  20. Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels.

    PubMed

    Button, Chris; MacLeod, Morven; Sanders, Ross; Coleman, Simon

    2003-09-01

    The analysis of variability both within and between performers can reveal important information about how athletes satisfy situational constraints. Transitory changes in the basketball free-throw shot were examined across different stages in skill development. Six female basketball players were selected, representing a range of playing expertise (pretest: 0-90% baskets scored). Each participant was video recorded performing 30 shots. Contrary to predictions, there was not a clear pattern of a reduction in trajectory variability with increasing skill level. However, improvements in skill level were associated with an increasing amount of intertrial movement consistency from the elbow and wrist joints. It is suggested that the angular motions of the elbow and wrist joints were compensated for each other toward the end of each throw to adapt to subtle changes in release parameters of the ball.

  1. A pilot study exploring the possibility of establishing guidance levels in x-ray directed interventional procedures

    SciTech Connect

    Balter, S.; Miller, D. L.; Vano, E.; Ortiz Lopez, P.; Bernardi, G.; Cotelo, E.; Faulkner, K.; Nowotny, R.; Padovani, R.; Ramirez, A.

    2008-02-15

    This article summarizes the dosimetric results of an International Atomic Energy Agency coordinated research program to investigate the feasibility of adopting guidance levels for invasive coronary artery procedures. The main study collected clinical data from hospitals located in five countries. A total of 2265 coronary angiograms (CA) and 1844 percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) were analyzed. Substudies evaluated the dosimetric performance of 14 fluoroscopes, skin dose maps obtained using film, the quality of CA procedures, and the complexity of PCI procedures. Kerma-area product (P{sub KA}) guidance levels of 50 and 125 Gy cm{sup 2} are suggested for CA and PCI procedures. These levels should be adjusted for the complexity of the procedures performed in a given institution.

  2. Derivation of beryllium guidelines for use in establishing cleanup levels at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Hartmann, H.M.; Avci, H.I.; Ditmars, J.D.

    1992-02-01

    Guideline levels are derived for beryllium in soil and on indoor surfaces at the Peek Street and Sacandaga sites in the state of New York. On the basis of highly conservative assumptions, the soil beryllium concentration that corresponds to a 10{sup {minus} 4} carcinogenic risk level is estimated to be 13 mg/kg at both sites. Calculations indicate that the proposed US Department of Energy guideline of 2 {mu}g/ft{sup 2} for beryllium in dust on indoor surfaces would be sufficiently protective of human health. For occupational protection of workers during cleanup operations, Office of Safety and Health Administration standards for beryllium are referenced and restated.

  3. Premise to Implement a Grading System to Evaluate the Sanitary Level in Food Service Establishments in Milan, Italy

    PubMed Central

    Razzini, Katia

    2015-01-01

    The regulatory framework of the official controls on food safety, the criteria and methods from the planning of interventions in the field of official control to the management of information flows, and the standards described in the operation manual of the local competent authorities drafted by the Lombardy Region (2011) were evaluated. A questionnaire consisting of n. 10 questions with multiple answers draft in partnership with EPAM (the Association of Provincial Public Retail and catering businesses in Milan) to n. 107 Food service establishments of Milan shows that 92% of managers approve the introduction of a grading system. The regulatory framework is planned to support the implementation of risk assignment, unfortunately the attribution of risk category of retail and catering businesses is still different among regions. PMID:27800403

  4. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL... Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.115 Is there more than one option for establishing that an... areas of safety. Available safe egress times would be developed based on analysis of a number of...

  5. 41 CFR 102-80.115 - Is there more than one option for establishing that an equivalent level of safety exists?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System (Continued) FEDERAL... Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.115 Is there more than one option for establishing that an... areas of safety. Available safe egress times would be developed based on analysis of a number of...

  6. Establishing the Biological Relevance of Dipentyl Phthalate Reductions in Fetal Rat Testosterone Production and Plasma and Testis Testosterone Levels

    EPA Science Inventory

    Phthalate esters (PEs) constitute a large class of compounds that are used for many consumer product applications. Many of the C2-C7 di-ortho PEs reduce fetal testicular hormone and gene expression levels in rats resulting in adverse effects seen later in life but it appears that...

  7. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  8. Permissive and Non-permissive Hypercapnia: Mechanisms of Action and Consequences of High Carbon Dioxide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a disease with high mortality, which affects a large numbers of patients whose treatment continues to be debated. It has recently been postulated that hypercapnia can attenuate the inflammatory response during lung injury, which would assign it a specific role within lung protection strategies during mechanical ventilation. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role that high levels of CO2 in the blood play in lung injury. We conclude that, although there are reports that show benefits, the most recent evidence suggests that hypercapnia can be harmful and can contribute to worsening lung damage. PMID:20303638

  9. Comparative efficacy of the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush vs Oral-B CrossAction toothbrush on established plaque and gingivitis: a 6-week clinical study.

    PubMed

    Nathoo, S; Rustogi, K N; Petrone, M E; DeVizio, W; Zhang, Y P; Volpe, A R; Proskin, H M

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this clinical program was to compare the efficacy of the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush and the Oral-B CrossAction Toothbrush (full head, soft bristle) for the control of supragingival plaque and gingivitis. Two independent clinical studies were conducted: Study 1 (repeated 3 times) was a single-use, examiner-blind clinical study designed to measure the removal of plaque after 24 hours of no oral hygiene. Study 2 was a definitive 6-week, examiner-blind clinical study designed to determine plaque and gingivitis efficacy at 3 and 6 weeks. Sixty-one men and women, who had refrained from using oral hygiene procedures for 24 hours, were entered into the study and stratified into 2 balanced groups according to baseline (prebrushing) plaque and gingivitis scores. For Study 1, Modified Navy Plaque Index (Rustogi Refinement) scores were obtained prebrushing and after a 1-minute supervised brushing with the assigned toothbrush and a commercially available toothpaste. On 3 separate occasions, after 24 hours of no oral hygiene, the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush removed significantly more plaque than did the CrossAction Toothbrush. For Study 2, subjects were instructed to brush their teeth twice daily for 1 minute with the assigned toothbrush. Plaque Index scores and Löe-Silness Gingival Index scores were assessed after 3 and 6 weeks. At the 6-week examination, the group using the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush exhibited a statistically significant reduction in both supragingival plaque and gingivitis, compared with the group that used the CrossAction Toothbrush. The results of these clinical studies support the conclusion that the Colgate Actibrush battery-powered toothbrush is clinically superior for the control of both supragingival plaque and gingivitis, as compared with the Oral-B CrossAction manual toothbrush.

  10. Sediment quality assessment and dredged material management in Spain: Part II, analysis of action levels for dredged material management and application to the Bay of Cádiz.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel; Viguri, Javier R; Casado-Martínez, M Carmen; DelValls, T Angel

    2007-10-01

    When sediments are removed from aquatic bottoms, they turn into dredged material that must be managed, taking into account its environmental impact. In Part II of this 2-part paper addressing sediment quality assessment and dredged material management in Spain, legislation and criteria used to regulate dredged material disposal at sea in different European countries are reviewed, as are action levels (ALs) derived by different countries used to evaluate management of dredged sediments from Cádiz Bay located on the South Atlantic coast of Spain. Comparison of ALs established for dredged material disposal by different countries reveals orders of magnitude differences in the values established for the same chemical. In Part I of this 2-part paper, review of different sediment quality guideline (SQG) methods used to support sediment quality assessments indicated a great heterogeneity of SQGs, both with regard to the numeric values for a particular chemical and the number of substances for which SQGs have been derived. The analysis highlighted the absence of SQGs for priority substances identified in current European Union water policy. Here, in Part II, the ALs are applied to dredged sediments from Cádiz Bay (South Atlantic coast of Spain), evidencing that the heterogeneity of ALs implemented in the reviewed countries could determine different management strategies. The application of other measurements such as bioassays might offer information useful in identifying a cost-effective management option in a decision-making framework, especially for dredged material with intermediate chemical concentrations.

  11. Report on Action Research: An Analysis of the Effects of a Six Step Approach to Direct Vocabulary Instruction on Student Achievement at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Goshen Community Schools at the middle school level. During the 2008-2009 school year, six teachers at Goshen Middle School participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which a six step approach to direct vocabulary…

  12. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards established... ensure that these plans do not encourage the manipulation of reported earnings of the TARP recipient...

  13. 31 CFR 30.4 - Q-4: What actions are necessary for a TARP recipient to comply with the standards established...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... or manipulation of earnings)? 30.4 Section 30.4 Money and Finance: Treasury Office of the Secretary... excessive risk or manipulation of earnings)? (a) General rule. To comply with the standards established... ensure that these plans do not encourage the manipulation of reported earnings of the TARP recipient...

  14. Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Wang, Donglin; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo. PMID:27166703

  15. Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Wang, Donglin; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo.

  16. Establishing the level of digitization for wrist and hand radiographs for the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Ostchega, Y; Long, L R; Goh, G H; Hirsch, R; Ma, L D; Scott, W W; Johnson, W; Thoma, G R

    1998-08-01

    In the third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES III) conducted by the National Center for Health Statistics, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, radiographs of the hands and knees were taken of participants 60 years and older as part of the study of arthritis and musculoskeletal conditions. The purpose of the study was to decide the digitizing resolution to be used for these radiographs. A set of wrist and hand radiographs (N = 49) was graded by two radiologists for degree of bone erosions and served as a "gold standard." The radiographs were then digitized at three resolution levels; low-resolution 150 microns (2001 x 1634 x 12 bit matrix); intermediate-resolution 100 microns (3000 x 2400 x 12 bit matrix); and high-resolution 50 microns (4900 x 3000 x 12 bit matrix). A comparison of the digital images versus the gold standard reading was made at the three resolutions by two radiologists. Kappa statistics suggested fair (K > .4) to excellent (K > .75) agreement between the gold standard and the images at all levels. Intraclass correlation coefficient suggested high agreement between readers (ICC > .5), with minimal individual reader effect. Variance component estimates showed that the major contribution (78-83%) to scoring came from variability in the images themselves, not from the readers. The 100 microns resolution was selected over the 150 and 50 microns on the basis of practical considerations such as storage requirements, display time, and easier manipulation of the digital images by the readers.

  17. Resolution of DNA damage at the single-cell level shows largely different actions of X-rays and bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Affentranger, M I; Burkart, W

    1995-02-01

    Both X-rays and the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM) induce DNA strand breaks, predominantly via reactive radicals. To compare the induction of breaks with the two agents in Chinese hamster (CHO-K1) cells, two different alkaline unwinding methods, a 3H tracer-based analysis of large cell populations and an optical adaption allowing measurement of single cells, were applied. Radiation and BLM show qualitatively similar dose responses when the average number of DNA strand breaks is measured in a large cell population. However, the breakage pattern at the single-cell level indicates large discrepancies between the actions of the two agents. Irradiated cells show a uniform distribution of DNA strand breaks over the cell population. Effects of treatment with 30 micrograms x ml-1 BLM for 2 hr vary from practically zero in some cells to high levels of DNA strand breakage in others. Unlike the repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, the repair efficiency of BLM-induced DNA strand breaks, as measured at the single-cell level, varies strongly among cells of the same population. Such heterogeneity at the cellular level potentially reduces BLM's usefulness for tumor therapy because the appearance of BLM-resistant subpopulations may critically impair treatment outcome.

  18. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  19. Establishing a synthetic pathway for high-level production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via β-alanine.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Jensen, Niels B; Blicher, Thomas H; Maury, Jérôme; Sherstyk, Svetlana; Schneider, Konstantin; Lamosa, Pedro; Herrgård, Markus J; Rosenstand, Inger; Öberg, Fredrik; Forster, Jochen; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks into plastic monomers can decrease our fossil dependence and reduce global CO2 emissions. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is a potential chemical building block for sustainable production of superabsorbent polymers and acrylic plastics. With the objective of developing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an efficient cell factory for high-level production of 3HP, we identified the β-alanine biosynthetic route as the most economically attractive according to the metabolic modeling. We engineered and optimized a synthetic pathway for de novo biosynthesis of β-alanine and its subsequent conversion into 3HP using a novel β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase discovered in Bacillus cereus. The final strain produced 3HP at a titer of 13.7±0.3gL(-1) with a 0.14±0.0C-molC-mol(-1) yield on glucose in 80h in controlled fed-batch fermentation in mineral medium at pH 5, and this work therefore lays the basis for developing a process for biological 3HP production.

  20. Survey of computed tomography doses and establishment of national diagnostic reference levels in the Republic of Belarus.

    PubMed

    Kharuzhyk, S A; Matskevich, S A; Filjustin, A E; Bogushevich, E V; Ugolkova, S A

    2010-01-01

    Computed tomography dose index (CTDI) was measured on eight CT scanners at seven public hospitals in the Republic of Belarus. The effective dose was calculated using normalised values of effective dose per dose-length product (DLP) over various body regions. Considerable variations of the dose values were observed. Mean effective doses amounted to 1.4 +/- 0.4 mSv for brain, 2.6 +/- 1.0 mSv for neck, 6.9 +/- 2.2 mSv for thorax, 7.0 +/- 2.3 mSv for abdomen and 8.8 +/- 3.2 mSv for pelvis. Diagnostic reference levels (DRLs) were proposed by calculating the third quartiles of dose value distributions (body region/volume CTDI, mGy/DLP, mGy cm): brain/60/730, neck/55/640, thorax/20/500, abdomen/25/600 and pelvis/25/490. It is evident that the protocols need to be optimised on some of the CT scanners, in view of the fact that these are the first formulated DRLs for the Republic of Belarus.

  1. Establishing a synthetic pathway for high-level production of 3-hydroxypropionic acid in Saccharomyces cerevisiae via β-alanine.

    PubMed

    Borodina, Irina; Kildegaard, Kanchana R; Jensen, Niels B; Blicher, Thomas H; Maury, Jérôme; Sherstyk, Svetlana; Schneider, Konstantin; Lamosa, Pedro; Herrgård, Markus J; Rosenstand, Inger; Öberg, Fredrik; Forster, Jochen; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    Microbial fermentation of renewable feedstocks into plastic monomers can decrease our fossil dependence and reduce global CO2 emissions. 3-Hydroxypropionic acid (3HP) is a potential chemical building block for sustainable production of superabsorbent polymers and acrylic plastics. With the objective of developing Saccharomyces cerevisiae as an efficient cell factory for high-level production of 3HP, we identified the β-alanine biosynthetic route as the most economically attractive according to the metabolic modeling. We engineered and optimized a synthetic pathway for de novo biosynthesis of β-alanine and its subsequent conversion into 3HP using a novel β-alanine-pyruvate aminotransferase discovered in Bacillus cereus. The final strain produced 3HP at a titer of 13.7±0.3gL(-1) with a 0.14±0.0C-molC-mol(-1) yield on glucose in 80h in controlled fed-batch fermentation in mineral medium at pH 5, and this work therefore lays the basis for developing a process for biological 3HP production. PMID:25447643

  2. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  3. Oncological aspects of the biological action of low-level laser radiation: I. Experimental foundation for LLLR use in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Andrei V.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper the results of an experimental-clinical study substantiating the use of low level laser radiation (LLLR) at certain wavelengths for treatment of cancer patients are given. In the first part of this study, with animal experiments, laser action parameters providing reliable renewal and regeneration stimulation are selected. It is shown that, under the effect of LLLR, the speed and quality of regeneration in wounds after tumor removal are changed as well as the intensity of dissemination and tumor growth. A change also occurs in the functional properties of lymphocytes, which have immunological control in the organism. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the contingent of cancer patients for whom LLLR can be recommended was determined.

  4. Complete elimination of established neuroblastoma by synergistic action of gamma-irradiation and DCs treated with rSeV expressing interferon-beta gene.

    PubMed

    Tatsuta, K; Tanaka, S; Tajiri, T; Shibata, S; Komaru, A; Ueda, Y; Inoue, M; Hasegawa, M; Suita, S; Sueishi, K; Taguchi, T; Yonemitsu, Y

    2009-02-01

    Dendritic cell (DC)-based immunotherapy has been investigated as a new therapeutic approach to intractable neuroblastomas; however, only limited clinical effect has been reported. To overcome the relatively low sensitivity of neuroblastomas against immunotherapy, we undertook a preclinical efficacy study to examine murine models to assess the combined effects of gamma-irradiation pretreatment and recombinant Sendai virus (ts-rSeV/dF)-mediated murine interferon-beta (mIFN-beta) gene transfer to DCs using established c1300 neuroblastomas. Similar to intractable neuroblastomas in the clinic, established c1300 tumors were highly resistant to monotherapy with either gamma-irradiation or DCs activated by ts-rSeV/dF without transgene (ts-rSeV/dF-null) that has been shown to be effective against other murine tumors, including B16F10 melanoma. In contrast, immunotherapy using DCs expressing mIFN-beta through ts-rSeV/dF (ts-rSeV/dF-mIFNbeta-DCs) effectively reduced tumor size, and its combination with gamma-irradiation pretreatment dramatically enhanced its antitumor effect, resulting frequently in the complete elimination of established c1300 tumors 7-9 mm in diameter, in a high survival rate among mice, and in the development of protective immunity in the mice against rechallenge by the tumor cells. These results indicate that the combination of ts-rSeV/dF-mIFNbeta-DCs with gamma-irradiation is a hopeful strategy for the treatment of intractable neuroblastomas, warranting further investigation in the clinical setting.

  5. Action potential energetics at the organismal level reveal a trade-off in efficiency at high firing rates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John E; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Moorhead, Mayron J; Perry, Steve F; Markham, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The energetic costs of action potential (AP) production constrain the evolution of neural codes and brain networks. Cellular-level estimates of AP-related costs are typically based on voltage-dependent Na(+) currents that drive active transport by the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to maintain the Na(+) and K(+) ion concentration gradients necessary for AP production. However, these estimates of AP cost have not been verified at the organismal level. Electric signaling in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens requires that specialized cells in an electric organ generate APs with large Na(+) currents at high rates (200-600 Hz). We measured these currents using a voltage-clamp protocol and then estimated the energetic cost at the cellular level using standard methods. We then used this energy-intensive signaling behavior to measure changes in whole-animal energetics for small changes in electric discharge rate. At low rates, the whole-animal measure of AP cost was similar to our cellular-level estimates. However, AP cost increased nonlinearly with increasing firing rates. We show, with a biophysical model, that this nonlinearity can arise from the increasing cost of maintaining AP amplitude at high rates. Our results confirm that estimates of energetic costs based on Na(+) influx are appropriate for low baseline firing rates, but that extrapolating to high firing rates may underestimate true costs in cases in which AP amplitude does not decrease. Moreover, the trade-off between energetic cost and firing rate suggests an additional constraint on the evolution of high-frequency signaling in neuronal systems. PMID:24381281

  6. Developing and establishing the validity and reliability of the perceptions toward Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audit (LOSA) questionnaires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steckel, Richard J.

    Aviation Safety Action Program (ASAP) and Line Operations Safety Audits (LOSA) are voluntary safety reporting programs developed by the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to assist air carriers in discovering and fixing threats, errors and undesired aircraft states during normal flights that could result in a serious or fatal accident. These programs depend on voluntary participation of and reporting by air carrier pilots to be successful. The purpose of the study was to develop and validate a measurement scale to measure U.S. air carrier pilots' perceived benefits and/or barriers to participating in ASAP and LOSA programs. Data from these surveys could be used to make changes to or correct pilot misperceptions of these programs to improve participation and the flow of data. ASAP and LOSA a priori models were developed based on previous research in aviation and healthcare. Sixty thousand ASAP and LOSA paper surveys were sent to 60,000 current U.S. air carrier pilots selected at random from an FAA database of pilot certificates. Two thousand usable ASAP and 1,970 usable LOSA surveys were returned and analyzed using Confirmatory Factor Analysis. Analysis of the data using confirmatory actor analysis and model generation resulted in a five factor ASAP model (Ease of use, Value, Improve, Trust and Risk) and a five factor LOSA model (Value, Improve, Program Trust, Risk and Management Trust). ASAP and LOSA data were not normally distributed, so bootstrapping was used. While both final models exhibited acceptable fit with approximate fit indices, the exact fit hypothesis and the Bollen-Stine p value indicated possible model mis-specification for both ASAP and LOSA models.

  7. Actions of mammalian insulin on a Neurospora variant: effects on intracellular metabolite levels as monitored by P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.J.; McKenzie, M.A.; Jordan, F.; Takahashi, M.; Lenard, J.

    1986-05-01

    Fourier transform P-31 NMR spectroscopy (81 MHz) was used to investigate the biochemical nature of insulin action upon the cell wall-deficient slime mutant of Neurospora crassa. Spectra of oxygenated, living cells (ca.10/sup 9//ml.) in late logarithmic-early stationary phase of growth were accumulated for approximately 20 min. (350-450 pulses). Pronounced differences were seen in the metabolite levels of cells cultured for 18-21 hours in the presence of insulin (100 nM) as compared to cells cultured in its absence. Differences in the insulin-grown cells included higher levels of sugar phosphates, inorganic (cytoplasmic) phosphate, NAD+/NADH and UDP-glucose (UDPG) compared to control cells, in which UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPNAG) was the prominent sugar nucleotide. When 100 mM glucose was administered with insulin immediately prior to measurement, short term effects were seen. There were significant increases of sugar phosphates, inorganic phosphate, NAD+/NADH, phosphodiesters and UDPG relative to the case of glucose addition alone. These results are wholly consistent with the known influence of insulin upon mammalian metabolism: stimulation of glucose uptake, phosphorylation and oxidation, phosphatide synthesis and Pi uptake.

  8. Application of State and Federal Guidelines for Establishing Alternate Soil Clean-Up Levels for the Protection of Groundwater at the Hanford Site

    SciTech Connect

    Leary, K.; McMahon, W.; Hoover, J.

    2008-07-01

    Risk-based soil cleanup levels that are protective of groundwater have been calculated for use in environmental remediation activities at the Hanford Site using vadose zone fate and transport modeling. The determination of soil cleanup levels is important because it involves the technical basis for the levels of contamination that can be left in place, which are protective of human health and the environment. The determination of risk-based soil cleanup levels is an especially important issue at the Hanford Site where site conditions such as a semi-arid climate, and a thick vadose zone of over 100 meters necessitate the use of appropriate risk-based methods. In the absence of an alternative risk-based approach, the cleanup levels default to background, detection limits, or simplistic formulas not intended for applications involving these distinctive site conditions. However, the use of vadose zone fate and transport modeling for risk-based applications such as the determination of soil cleanup levels in the vadose zone are not as well established as modeling for groundwater applications. Thus, the use of models in this manner involves additional challenges for the demonstration of the efficacy of its use for risk-based applications, in accordance with federal and state regulatory requirements and guidelines. An approach has been developed to integrate with federal and state regulatory guidelines in conjunction with the development of the risk-based methodology. Demonstration of integration with these guidelines primarily involves documentation of the objectives of the problem to be solved, the technical basis and rationale associated with the selection of an appropriate risk-based method (e.g., model type and code selection), and documentation associated with the use of the model, e.g., conceptual site model, parameter estimation, uncertainty and assumptions analyses, and model results. (authors)

  9. The inimitable kynurenic acid: the roles of different ionotropic receptors in the action of kynurenic acid at a spinal level.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gabor; Tar, Lilla; Bohar, Zsuzsanna; Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Vecsei, Laszlo; Pardutz, Arpad; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-03-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite that interacts with NMDA, AMPA/kainate and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. The goal of this study was to clarify the roles of these receptors in the action of KYNA at a spinal level by using highly specific receptor antagonists alone or in triple combinations. Chronic osteoarthritis-like joint pain was induced with monosodium-iodoacetate in male Wistar rats. Mechanical allodynia and motor function were quantified. In the first series we determined the dose-response and time course effects of intrathecally administered KYNA (10-100 μg), D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; an NMDA receptor antagonist; 10-200 μg), methyllycaconitine (MLA; an alpha 7 nicotinic receptor antagonist; 100-200 μg) and 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzoquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX; an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; 1-20 μg). In the second series, four different triple combinations of MLA, AP5 and NBQX were investigated. Intrathecal administration of KYNA caused a dose-dependent motor impairment and antinociception. The highly specific NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 caused a motor impairment and antinociception with lower potency. High doses of NBQX resulted in significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment, while only the highest dose of MLA gave rise to significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment. After the coadministration of these ligands as combinations, no potentiation was observed. It may be supposed that the effects of KYNA are primarily due to the inhibition of NMDA receptors at both glycine and phencyclidine (PCP) binding sites, and not to the interactions at the different ionotropic receptors, but the mechanisms behind its high bio-efficiency are still unknown.

  10. Sensitivity of a helical diode array device to delivery errors in IMRT treatment and establishment of tolerance level for pretreatment QA.

    PubMed

    García-Vicente, Feliciano; Fernández, Virginia; Bermúdez, Rocío; Gómez, Alberto; Pérez, Leopoldo; Zapatero, Almudena; Torres, Juan J

    2012-01-05

    The aim of this study is to determine the gantry angle and multileaf collimator (MLC) gap error-detection threshold of a diode helical array with an inserted micro-ionization chamber in order to use this device for the pretreatment quality assurance (QA) of intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) treatments. Implications on the dose-volume histograms (DVHs) of the patient treatments will also be considered for the establishment of a QA protocol with a reasonable tolerance level. Three dynamic IMRT HN (head and neck) and prostate treatments were studied. Random and systematic variations of gantry angle and systematic errors in MLC gap width of the clinical treatments were analyzed in order to establish the detection sensitivity of the array. The associated clinical significance was studied introducing the same errors in the treatment plan based on the patients' computed tomography (CT) and calculating the corresponding DVHs. The Gamma (3%/3 mm) presented a 4% variation in failure rate for a rotation error of 1° for both types of treatment. Both systematic and random errors in gantry rotation angle have little effect on the patients' DVHs. MLC gap width errors of 1 mm and 2 mm in the prostate treatments imply a mean variation in isocenter-measured absorbed dose of 2.1% and 4.1%, respectively. In the case of HN, these errors entail a change in measured isocenter dose of 4.7% and 8.6%, respectively. The variation observed in the DVHs of the patients was, basically, a global displacement of the curves proportional to the isocenter dose variation caused by the gap width error. According to the array sensitivity to the analyzed errors and its implication in patient DVHs, a tolerance of 95% point passing rate for the gamma criterion 3%/2 mm and an agreement of 2% in isocenter absolute dose have been established as tolerance criteria for our pretreatment IMRT QA protocol.

  11. Radiation dose in coronary angiography and intervention: initial results from the establishment of a multi-centre diagnostic reference level in Queensland public hospitals

    SciTech Connect

    Crowhurst, James A; Whitby, Mark; Thiele, David; Halligan, Toni; Westerink, Adam; Crown, Suzanne; Milne, Jillian

    2014-09-15

    Radiation dose to patients undergoing invasive coronary angiography (ICA) is relatively high. Guidelines suggest that a local benchmark or diagnostic reference level (DRL) be established for these procedures. This study sought to create a DRL for ICA procedures in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for all Cardiac Catheter Laboratories in Queensland public hospitals. Data were collected for diagnostic coronary angiography (CA) and single-vessel percutaneous intervention (PCI) procedures. Dose area product (P{sub KA}), skin surface entrance dose (K{sub AR}), fluoroscopy time (FT), and patient height and weight were collected for 3 months. The DRL was set from the 75th percentile of the P{sub KA.} 2590 patients were included in the CA group where the median FT was 3.5 min (inter-quartile range = 2.3–6.1). Median K{sub AR} = 581 mGy (374–876). Median P{sub KA} = 3908 uGym{sup 2} (2489–5865) DRL = 5865 uGym{sup 2}. 947 patients were included in the PCI group where median FT was 11.2 min (7.7–17.4). Median K{sub AR} = 1501 mGy (928–2224). Median P{sub KA} = 8736 uGym{sup 2} (5449–12,900) DRL = 12,900 uGym{sup 2}. This study established a benchmark for radiation dose for diagnostic and interventional coronary angiography in Queensland public facilities.

  12. Therapeutic Action of Fluoxetine is Associated with a Reduction in Prefrontal Cortical miR-1971 Expression Levels in a Mouse Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Herrmann, Leonie; Hagl, Kathrin; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Buell, Dominik R.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as epigenetic modulators of gene expression in psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia and major depression. So far, miRNAs have neither been studied in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nor in PTSD animal models. Here, we present the first study exploring the connection between miRNAs and PTSD. Employing our previously established PTSD mouse model, we assessed miRNA profiles in prefrontal cortices (PFCs) dissected from either fluoxetine or control-treated wildtype C57BL/6N mice 74 days after their subjection to either a single traumatic electric footshock or mock-treatment. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant known to be effective both in PTSD patients and in mice suffering from a PTSD-like syndrome. Screening for differences in the relative expression levels of all potential miRNA target sequences of miRBase 18.0 by pairwise comparison of the PFC miRNA profiles of the four mouse groups mentioned resulted in identification of five miRNA candidate molecules. Validation of these miRNA candidates by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in shocked mice is associated with a significant reduction in mmu-miR-1971 expression. Furthermore, our findings suggest that traumatic stress and fluoxetine interact to cause distinct alterations in the mouse PFC miRNA signature in the long-term. PMID:23847554

  13. Establishing desirable fortificant levels for calcium, iron and zinc in foods for infant and young child feeding: examples from three Asian countries.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Michelle M; Carriquiry, Alicia L; Capanzana, Mario V; Gibson, Rosalind S

    2014-01-01

    We used the World Health Organization's recommended procedures to establish desirable fortificant levels for three problem micronutrients in children's diets, based on dietary data collected earlier from Filipino (n = 1374; 6-36 months), Mongolian (n = 179; 12-36 months) and Cambodian (n = 177; 12-36 months) children. Prevalence of inadequate and excessive intakes of calcium and zinc (via cut-point method) and iron (via full-probability approach) was assessed after adjusting usual intake distributions with pc-side using internal or external within-person variances from Filipino (calcium and iron) and US National Health And Nutrition Examination Survey III (zinc) national surveys. Fortificant levels were determined by repositioning usual intake distributions so that the 2.5th percentile of the targeted populations equalled the estimated average requirement (calcium, zinc) or so that full-probability prevalence was no larger than 2.5% (iron). Prevalence of inadequate intakes was ≥70% for calcium and iron, except Filipino infants (30% for Ca) and Cambodian toddlers (41% for Fe); but <1% for zinc for toddlers in Mongolia and 20% in Cambodia. Prevalence of excessive intakes was <1% for zinc, calcium and iron, except for Mongolian toddlers (11% for Zn). Desirable fortificant levels, although apparently negligible for zinc, were 530-783 mg for calcium and 10.8-22.8 mg for iron (per 100 g). Fortificant levels can be estimated from 24-h recalls, preferably by applying internal within-person variances. Fortification with calcium and iron was necessary, but seemingly not for zinc, despite a high prevalence of low serum zinc, suggesting the need for better defined cut-offs for population risk of zinc deficiency based on dietary zinc intake and/or serum zinc. PMID:22515230

  14. A study for proposal of use of regulatory T cells as a prognostic marker and establishing an optimal threshold level for their expression in chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Dasgupta, Alakananda; Mahapatra, Manoranjan; Saxena, Renu

    2015-06-01

    Although regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been extensively studied in chronic lymphocytic leukemia, there is no uniform guideline or consensus regarding their use as a prognostic marker. This study describes the methodology used to develop an optimal threshold level for Tregs in these patients. Treg levels were assessed in the peripheral blood of 130 patients and 150 controls. Treg frequencies were linked to established prognostic markers as well as overall survival and time to first treatment. The cut-offs for Treg positivity were assessed by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. A cut-off of 5.7% for Treg cell percentage and of 35 cells/μL for absolute Treg cell count were determined as optimal in patients with CLL along with a median Treg percentage of 15.5% used to separate patients with low- and high-risk disease. The experiments presented here will possibly aid in the use of Treg frequencies as a potential prognostic marker in CLL.

  15. Nuc-ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination.

    PubMed

    Ness, Jennifer K; Skiles, Amanda A; Yap, Eng-Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J; Fiser, Andras; Tapinos, Nikos

    2016-06-01

    Nuc-ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc-ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc-ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin-ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de-repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc-ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination-associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol-II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc-ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc-ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc-ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination.

  16. Nuc‐ErbB3 regulates H3K27me3 levels and HMT activity to establish epigenetic repression during peripheral myelination

    PubMed Central

    Ness, Jennifer K.; Skiles, Amanda A.; Yap, Eng‐Hui; Fajardo, Eduardo J.; Fiser, Andras

    2016-01-01

    Nuc‐ErbB3 an alternative transcript from the ErbB3 locus binds to a specific DNA motif and associates with Schwann cell chromatin. Here we generated a nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mouse that lacks nuc‐ErbB3 expression in the nucleus without affecting the neuregulin‐ErbB3 receptor signaling. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit hypermyelination and aberrant myelination at the paranodal region. This phenotype is attributed to de‐repression of myelination associated gene transcription following loss of nuc‐ErbB3 and histone H3K27me3 promoter occupancy. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit reduced association of H3K27me3 with myelination‐associated gene promoters and increased RNA Pol‐II rate of transcription of these genes. In addition, nuc‐ErbB3 directly regulates levels of H3K27me3 in Schwann cells. Nuc‐ErbB3 knockin mice exhibit significant decrease of histone H3K27me3 methyltransferase (HMT) activity and reduced levels of H3K27me3. Collectively, nuc‐ErbB3 is a master transcriptional repressor, which regulates HMT activity to establish a repressive chromatin landscape on promoters of genes during peripheral myelination. GLIA 2016;64:977–992 PMID:27017927

  17. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  18. Top-Level Players' Visual Control of Interceptive Actions: Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H. P.; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of…

  19. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  20. SU-E-P-08: Establishment of Local Diagnostic Reference Levels of Routine Abdomen Exam in Computed Tomography According to Body Weight

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H; Wang, Y; Weng, H

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: The national diagnostic reference levels (NDRLs) is an efficient, concise and powerful standard for optimizing radiation protection of a patient. However, for each hospital the dose-reducing potential of focusing on establishment of local DRLs (LDRLs). A lot of study reported that Computed tomography exam contributed majority radiation dose in different medical modalities, therefore, routine abdomen CT exam was choose in initial pilot study in our study. Besides the mAs of routine abdomen CT exam was decided automatic exposure control by linear attenuation is relate to body shape of patient. In this study we would like to establish the local diagnostic reference levels of routine abdomen exam in computed tomography according to body weight of patient. Methods and Materials: There are two clinical CT scanners (a Toshiba Aquilion and a Siemens Sensation) were performed in this study. For CT examinations the basic recommended dosimetric quantity is the Computed Tomography Dose Index (CTDI). The patient sample involved 82 adult patients of both sexes and divided into three groups by their body weight (50–60 kg, 60–70 kg, 70–80 kg).Carried out the routine abdomen examinations, and all exposure parameters have been collected and the corresponding CTDIv and DLP values have been determined. The average values were compared with the European DRLs. Results: The majority of patients (75%) were between 50–70 Kg of body weight, the numbers of patient in each group of weight were 40–50:7; 50–60:29; 60–70:33; 70–80:13. The LDRLs in each group were 10.81mGy, 14.46mGy, 20.27mGy and 21.04mGy, respectively. The DLP were 477mGy, 630mGy, 887mGy and 959mGy, respectively. No matter which group the LDRLs were lower than European DRLs. Conclusions: We would like to state that this was a pioneer work in local hospital in Chiayi. We hope that this may lead the way to further developments in Taiwan.

  1. A review of background dioxin concentrations in urban/suburban and rural soils across the United States: implications for site assessments and the establishment of soil cleanup levels.

    PubMed

    Urban, Jonathan D; Wikoff, Daniele S; Bunch, Alea T G; Harris, Mark A; Haws, Laurie C

    2014-01-01

    establishing soil screening levels and PRGs that are lower than background concentrations.

  2. Establishing an Appropriate Level of Detail (LoD) for a Building Information Model (BIM) - West Block, Parliament Hill, Ottawa, Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fai, S.; Rafeiro, J.

    2014-05-01

    In 2011, Public Works and Government Services Canada (PWGSC) embarked on a comprehensive rehabilitation of the historically significant West Block of Canada's Parliament Hill. With over 17 thousand square meters of floor space, the West Block is one of the largest projects of its kind in the world. As part of the rehabilitation, PWGSC is working with the Carleton Immersive Media Studio (CIMS) to develop a building information model (BIM) that can serve as maintenance and life-cycle management tool once construction is completed. The scale and complexity of the model have presented many challenges. One of these challenges is determining appropriate levels of detail (LoD). While still a matter of debate in the development of international BIM standards, LoD is further complicated in the context of heritage buildings because we must reconcile the LoD of the BIM with that used in the documentation process (terrestrial laser scan and photogrammetric survey data). In this paper, we will discuss our work to date on establishing appropriate LoD within the West Block BIM that will best serve the end use. To facilitate this, we have developed a single parametric model for gothic pointed arches that can be used for over seventy-five unique window types present in the West Block. Using the AEC (CAN) BIM as a reference, we have developed a workflow to test each of these window types at three distinct levels of detail. We have found that the parametric Gothic arch significantly reduces the amount of time necessary to develop scenarios to test appropriate LoD.

  3. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality-Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-01-01

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3-6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline's potential for aiding cardiovascular health. PMID:27417628

  4. Application of an in vitro DDASS to evaluate oral absorption of two chemicals simultaneously: establishment of a level A in vitro-in vivo correlation.

    PubMed

    Hou, Jipeng; He, Xin; Xu, Xuefang; Shi, Xiaoyan; Xu, Yanyan; Liu, Changxiao

    2012-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the oral absorption of two chemicals simultaneously using a drug dissolution/absorption simulating system (DDASS), and to establish a correlation between DDASS and in vivo absorption to clarify the prediction of this in vitro model. Ferulic acid (FA) and tetrahydropalmatine (THP), the components of Angelicae Sinensis Radix and Corydalis Yanhusuo Rhizoma, respectively, were chosen as model compounds. Three groups including FA, THP, and FA and THP together (FA + THP) were studied in DDASS. The corresponding in vivo pharmacokinetics study was performed in rats. Then the correlation was analysed between DDASS permeation in vitro and rat absorption data in vivo. A strong level A correlation (r > 0.84) was obtained after a correlation coefficient test (p < 0.05 or 0.01). Moreover, when FA and THP were used together in DDASS, the cumulative permeation of FA increased by 38.5%, while THP permeation decreased by 25.8%. In rats, the area under the concentration-time curve from time to infinity for FA increased 2.6-fold, while THP decreased 19.6%. The changes in rat intestinal permeation modeled by the DDASS were consistent with the absorption changes in rats. We conclude that DDASS is a valid in vitro model to evaluate oral absorption of two drug components simultaneously and reflect the in vivo characteristics of drug absorption accurately.

  5. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-08-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process.

  6. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality-Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    PubMed

    McCarty, Mark F

    2016-07-08

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3-6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline's potential for aiding cardiovascular health.

  7. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine Is a Well Established Mediating Risk Factor for Cardiovascular Morbidity and Mortality—Should Patients with Elevated Levels Be Supplemented with Citrulline?

    PubMed Central

    McCarty, Mark F.

    2016-01-01

    The arginine metabolite asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) is a competitive inhibitor and uncoupler of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), an enzyme that acts in multifarious ways to promote cardiovascular health. This phenomenon likely explains, at least in part, why elevated ADMA has been established as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular events, ventricular hypertrophy, and cardiovascular mortality. Fortunately, the suppressive impact of ADMA on eNOS activity can be offset by increasing intracellular arginine levels with supplemental citrulline. Although the long-term impact of supplemental citrulline on cardiovascular health in patients with elevated ADMA has not yet been studied, shorter-term clinical studies of citrulline administration demonstrate effects suggestive of increased NO synthesis, such as reductions in blood pressure and arterial stiffness, improved endothelium-dependent vasodilation, increased erection hardness, and increased ejection fractions in patients with heart failure. Supplemental citrulline could be a practical option for primary or secondary prevention of cardiovascular events and mortality, as it is inexpensive, has a mild flavor, and is well tolerated in doses (3–6 g daily) that can influence eNOS activity. Large and long-term clinical trials, targeting patients at high risk for cardiovascular events in whom ADMA is elevated, are needed to evaluate citrulline’s potential for aiding cardiovascular health. PMID:27417628

  8. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: Important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting

    PubMed Central

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Yadav, Pragya D.; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S.; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  9. Establishment of Biosafety Level-3 (BSL-3) laboratory: important criteria to consider while designing, constructing, commissioning & operating the facility in Indian setting.

    PubMed

    Mourya, Devendra T; Yadav, Pragya D; Majumdar, Triparna Dutta; Chauhan, Devendra S; Katoch, Vishwa Mohan

    2014-08-01

    Since the enactment of Environmental Protection Act in 1989 and Department of Biotechnology (DBT) guidelines to deal with genetically modified organisms, India has embarked on establishing various levels of biosafety laboratories to deal with highly infectious and pathogenic organisms. Occurrence of outbreaks due to rapidly spreading respiratory and haemorrhagic fever causing viruses has caused an urgency to create a safe laboratory environment. This has thus become a mandate, not only to protect laboratory workers, but also to protect the environment and community. In India, technology and science are progressing rapidly. Several BSL-3 [=high containment] laboratories are in the planning or execution phase, to tackle biosafety issues involved in handling highly infectious disease agents required for basic research and diagnosis. In most of the developing countries, the awareness about biocontainment has increased but planning, designing, constructing and operating BSL-3 laboratories need regular updates about the design and construction of facilities and clear definition of risk groups and their handling which should be in harmony with the latest international practices. This article describes the major steps involved in the process of construction of a BSL-3 laboratory in Indian settings, from freezing the concept of proposal to operationalization phase. The key to success of this kind of project is strong institutional commitment to biosafety norms, adequate fund availability, careful planning and designing, hiring good construction agency, monitoring by experienced consultancy agency and involvement of scientific and engineering personnel with biocontainment experience in the process. PMID:25297350

  10. Forensic facial approximation assessment: can application of different average facial tissue depth data facilitate recognition and establish acceptable level of resemblance?

    PubMed

    Herrera, Lara Maria; Strapasson, Raíssa Ananda Paim; da Silva, Jorge Vicente Lopes; Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff

    2016-09-01

    Facial soft tissue thicknesses (FSTT) are important guidelines for modeling faces from skull. Amid so many FSTT data, Forensic artists have to make a subjective choice of a dataset that best meets their needs. This study investigated the performance of four FSTT datasets in the recognition and resemblance of Brazilian living individuals and the performance of assessors in recognizing people, according to sex and knowledge on Human Anatomy and Forensic Dentistry. Sixteen manual facial approximations (FAs) were constructed using three-dimensional (3D) prototypes of skulls (targets). The American method was chosen for the construction of the faces. One hundred and twenty participants evaluated all FAs by means of recognition and resemblance tests. This study showed higher proportions of recognition by FAs conducted with FSTT data from cadavers compared with those conducted with medical imaging data. Targets were also considered more similar to FAs conducted with FSTT data from cadavers. Nose and face shape, respectively, were considered the most similar regions to targets. The sex of assessors (male and female) and the knowledge on Human Anatomy and Forensic Dentistry did not play a determinant role to reach greater recognition rates. It was possible to conclude that FSTT data obtained from imaging may not facilitate recognition and establish acceptable level of resemblance. Grouping FSTT data by regions of the face, as proposed in this paper, may contribute to more accurate FAs.

  11. Establishing operations

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Jack

    1993-01-01

    The first two books on behavior analysis (Skinner, 1938; Keller & Schoenfeld, 1950) had chapter-length coverage of motivation. The next generation of texts also had chapters on the topic, but by the late 1960s it was no longer being given much treatment in the behavior-analytic literature. The present failure to deal with the topic leaves a gap in our understanding of operant functional relations. A partial solution is to reintroduce the concept of the establishing operation, defined as an environmental event, operation, or stimulus condition that affects an organism by momentarily altering (a) the reinforcing effectiveness of other events and (b) the frequency of occurrence of that part of the organism's repertoire relevant to those events as consequences. Discriminative and motivative variables can be distinguished as follows: The former are related to the differential availability of an effective form of reinforcement given a particular type of behavior; the latter are related to the differential reinforcing effectiveness of environmental events. An important distinction can also be made between unconditioned establishing operations (UEOs), such as food deprivation and painful stimulation, and conditioned establishing operations (CEOs) that depend on the learning history of the organism. One type of CEO is a stimulus that has simply been paired with a UEO and as a result may take on some of the motivative properties of that UEO. The warning stimulus in avoidance procedures is another important type of CEO referred to as reflexive because it establishes its own termination as a form of reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has accomplished such termination. Another CEO is closely related to the concept of conditional conditioned reinforcement and is referred to as a transitive CEO, because it establishes some other stimulus as a form of effective reinforcement and evokes the behavior that has produced that other stimulus. The multiple control of human

  12. Measurement of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in plastic resin pellets from remote islands : Toward establishment of baseline level for International Pellet Watch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takada, H.; Heskett, M.; Yamashita, R.; Yuyama, M.; Itoh, M.; Geok, Y. B.; Ogata, Y.

    2011-12-01

    Plastic resin pellets collected from remote islands in open oceans (Canary, St. Helena, Cocos, Hawaii, Maui Islands and Barbados) were sorted and yellowing polyethylene (PE) pellets were measured for polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane and the degradation products (DDTs), and hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs) by gas chromatograph equipped with mass spectrometer (GC-MS) and with electron capture detector (GC-ECD). PCBs were detected from all the pellet samples, confirming the global dispersion of PCBs. Median concentrations of PCBs (sum of 13 congeners : CB-66, CB-101, CB-110, CB-118, CB-105, CB-149, CB-153, CB-138, CB-128, CB-187, CB-180, CB-170, CB-206) in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet. These were one to three orders of magnitude lower than those observed for pellets from industrialized coastal zones (hundreds ng/g in Los Angeles, Boston, Tokyo; Ogata et al., 2009). Because these remote islands are far (>100 km) from industrialized zones, these concentrations (i.e., 0.1 to 10 ng/g-pellet) can be regarded as global "baseline" level of PCB pollution. Concentrations of DDTs in the remote island pellets ranged from 0.2 to 5.5 ng/g-pellet. At some locations, DDT was dominant over the degradation products (DDE and DDD), suggesting current usage of the pesticides in the islands. HCHs concentrations were 0.4 - 1.8 ng/g-pellet and lower than PCBs and DDTs, except for St. Helena Island at 18.8 ng/g-pellet where the current usage of the pesticides are of concern. The analyses of pellets from the remote islands provided "baseline" level of POPs (PCBs < 10 ng/g-pellet, DDTs < 6 ng/g-pellet, HCHs < 2 ng/g-pellet). However, the present samples were from tropical and subtropical areas. To establish global baseline, especially to understand the effects of global distillation, pellet samples from remote islands in higher latitude regions are necessary. From the eco-toxicological point of view, the fact that sporadic high

  13. Establishing baseline levels of trace elements in blood and skin of bottlenose dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida: implications for non-invasive monitoring.

    PubMed

    Bryan, Colleen E; Christopher, Steven J; Balmer, Brian C; Wells, Randall S

    2007-12-15

    Several major unusual mortality events occurring in recent years have increased the level of concern for the health of bottlenose dolphin populations along the United States Atlantic and Gulf of Mexico coasts. Trace element concentrations were examined in a population of free-ranging dolphins in Sarasota Bay, Florida, in order to develop a benchmark for future comparisons within and between populations. Whole blood (n=51) and skin (n=40) samples were collected through capture and release health assessment events during 2002-2004. Samples were analyzed for Al, V, Cr, Mn, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Rb, Sr, Mo, Cd, and Pb by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) and Hg via atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS). Trace element concentrations (wet mass) in skin were 2 to 45 times greater than blood, except Cu was approximately 1.5 times higher in blood. Statistically strong correlations (p<0.05) were found for V, As, Se, Rb, Sr, and Hg between blood and skin demonstrating that these tissues can be used as effective non-lethal monitoring tools. The strongest correlation was established for Hg (r=0.9689) and concentrations in both blood and skin were above the threshold at which detrimental effects are observed in other vertebrate species. Female dolphins had significantly greater Hg concentrations in blood and skin and Pb concentrations in skin, relative to males. Calves exhibited significantly lower V, As, and Hg concentrations in blood and V and Hg concentrations in skin, relative to other age classes. Rubidium and Cu concentrations in skin were greatest in subadults and calves, respectively. In blood, V, Zn, and As concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Rb and Sr concentrations. In skin, Cu and Zn concentrations were significantly greater in winter, relative to summer, and the opposite trend was observed for Mn, Rb, Cd, and Pb concentrations. The baseline concentrations and trends

  14. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

  15. Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2012 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2013 through 2021.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Paul [R-WI-1

    2011-04-11

    05/25/2011 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 40 - 57. Record Vote Number: 77. (consideration: CR S3331-3332) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  16. Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2013 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2014 through 2022.

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Paul [R-WI-1

    2012-03-23

    05/16/2012 Motion to proceed to consideration of measure rejected in Senate by Yea-Nay Vote. 41 - 58. Record Vote Number: 98. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status Passed HouseHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  17. Establishing the budget for the United States Government for fiscal year 2014 and setting forth appropriate budgetary levels for fiscal years 2015 through 2023.

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Ryan, Paul [R-WI-1

    2013-03-15

    10/16/2013 Ordered held at desk by unanimous consent. Pursuant to the order of 10/16/2013. (All Actions) Notes: Provisions of this budget resolution were included in H.J.RES.59. Tracker: This bill has the status Resolving DifferencesHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. [An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S V; Kovalenko, L P; Tallerova, A V; Gudasheva, T A; Durnev, A D

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of noopept (dipeptide analog of piracetam) upon a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in comparison to the reference drug diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied on a model of acute exudative inflammation induced by carrageenan in outbred rats and concanavalin A (Con A) in CBA mice. The level of cytokines was studied on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model (single administration, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with 5-day administration of noopept at a dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p., before endotoxin injection) in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of noopept led to a significant suppression of the inflammatory response to both carrageenan and Con A. The administration of Con A caused a 16-fold increase in the level of IL-6 interleukin in the blood serum of mice as compared to control. Noopept (5 mg/kg) reduced the level of IL-6 by a factor of 1.8 in the inflammatory response to Con A. The administration of LPS led to pronounced increase in the levels ofpro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood serum of test mice as compared to intact animals. The course administration of noopept (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the level of IL-6 and reduced by half the level of TNF-alpha. PMID:23156084

  19. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels, fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, L.; Cordle, F.

    1986-09-01

    The dangers associated with the consumption of large amounts of methylmercury in fish are well recognized, and there is some evidence to suggest that methylmercury may be the cause of subtle neurological impairments when ingested at even low to moderate levels, particularly the prenatal and early childhood periods. This concern has prompted a continuing assessment of the risk of methylmercury toxicity among fish consumers in the US as well as other countries. The toxicokinetics of methylmercury in humans are reviewed and used to estimate body burdens associated with toxic effects. To determine seafood consumption patterns among the continental US population the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has analyzed data from a diary study commissioned by the Tuna Research Foundation. Mercury residue levels in domestic fish sampled by the FDA were used to determine the level of exposure to methylmercury. Until evidence is presented that substantially lowers the known body burden of methylmercury which causes toxicity, calculations indicate that the current 1.0 ppm regulatory level provides adequate protection for the average fish consumer, for young children, and for a significant number of consumers exceeding the acceptable daily intake. However, additional studies are being carried out in a continuing process to ensure that safe levels of prenatal exposure to mercury residues in fish are maintained.

  20. 42 CFR 493.1814 - Action when deficiencies are at the condition level but do not pose immediate jeopardy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... but do not pose immediate jeopardy. 493.1814 Section 493.1814 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... but do not pose immediate jeopardy. If a laboratory has condition level deficiencies that do not pose... deficiencies that do not pose immediate jeopardy, and the laboratory does not correct the condition...

  1. Establishing Behavioral and Assessment Criteria through the Use of a Behavioral Level System for Dealing with Self Contained EH Elementary School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vogelmann-Peper, Marcella

    This practicum was designed to establish behavioral and assessment criteria for dealing with seriously emotionally disturbed elementary students enrolled in self-contained emotionally handicapped (EH) units. A primary goal was to provide out-of-field EH teachers with an objective tool for continuously assessing students' individual behavioral and…

  2. [Estimation of action of lactoovovegetarian and vegan diets on blood level of atherogenic lipoproteins in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Medkova, I L; Mosiakina, L I; Biriukova, L S

    2002-01-01

    The biochemical status of 72 vegetarians (aged 40-60) was studied; 35 persons kept to a lactoovovegetarian diet and 37 persons followed a vegan diet (vegetable food only). As the results of the investigation showed, almost all of the biochemical parameters of blood tests in the both groups were kept to the physiological norm. A pronounced hypolipidemic effect of both the diets was observed (the total cholesterol level was 5.24 +/- 0.28 mmol/l in the vegetarian group and 3.26 +/- 0.17 mmol/l in the vegan group), some parameters of lipid metabolism in the group of vegan being lower then in the vegetarian group. Thus, the total cholesterol level in the vegan group was lower by 38.7%, the atherogenic coefficient--by 13.8%, the low density cholesterol--by 34.3%, triglicerides--by 28.3%. Although the above mentioned parameters of the vegan group seem to be more satisfactory than those of the vegetarian group, we could not recommend the vegan diet for long periods of time because of deficiency of some nutrients in it. PMID:12462949

  3. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium, which comprises populating the upper energy level to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and thereafter establishing an inverted population by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level such as by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  4. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-11-26

    A method and apparatus are described for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium. The upper energy level is populated to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and an inverted population is established by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level. The depumping may be done by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  5. Switch from excitatory to inhibitory actions of ethanol on dopamine levels after chronic exposure: Role of kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Huggins, Kimberly N; Rose, Jamie H; Jones, Sara R

    2016-11-01

    Acute ethanol exposure is known to stimulate the dopamine system; however, chronic exposure has been shown to downregulate the dopamine system. In rodents, chronic intermittent exposure (CIE) to ethanol also increases negative affect during withdrawal, such as, increases in anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, CIE exposure results in increased ethanol drinking and preference during withdrawal. Previous literature documents reductions in CIE-induced anxiety-, depressive-like behaviors and ethanol intake in response to kappa opioid receptor (KOR) blockade. KORs are located on presynaptic dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and inhibit release, an effect which has been linked to negative affective behaviors. Previous reports show an upregulation in KOR function following extended CIE exposure; however it is not clear whether there is a direct link between KOR upregulation and dopamine downregulation during withdrawal from CIE. This study aimed to examine the effects of KOR modulation on dopamine responses to ethanol of behaving mice exposed to air or ethanol vapor in a repeated intermittent pattern. First, we showed that KORs have a greater response to an agonist after moderate CIE compared to air exposed mice using ex vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Second, using in vivo microdialysis, we showed that, in contrast to the expected increase in extracellular levels of dopamine following an acute ethanol challenge in air exposed mice, CIE exposed mice exhibited a robust decrease in dopamine levels. Third, we showed that blockade of KORs reversed the aberrant inhibitory dopamine response to ethanol in CIE exposed mice while not affecting the air exposed mice demonstrating that inhibition of KORs "rescued" dopamine responses in CIE exposed mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that augmentation of dynorphin/KOR system activity drives the reduction in stimulated (electrical and ethanol) dopamine release in the NAc. Thus, blockade of

  6. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  7. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  8. Increased Cellular NAD+ Level through NQO1 Enzymatic Action Has Protective Effects on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gi-Su; Lee, Su-Bin; Karna, Anjani; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Shen, AiHua; Pandit, Arpana; Lee, SeungHoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a common interstitial lung disease; it is a chronic, progressive, and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Over the last two decades, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis has improved markedly and facilitated the identification of potential targets for novel therapies. However, despite the large number of antifibrotic drugs being described in experimental pre-clinical studies, the translation of these findings into clinical practices has not been accomplished yet. NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by various quinones and thereby elevates the intracellular NAD+ levels. In this study, we examined the effect of increase in cellular NAD+ levels on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. The mice were orally administered with β-lapachone from 3 days before exposure to bleomycin to 1-3 weeks after exposure to bleomycin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for analyzing the infiltration of immune cells. In vitro, A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and β-lapachone to analyze the extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results β-Lapachone strongly attenuated bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, characterized by histological staining, infiltrated immune cells in BALF, inflammatory cytokines, fibrotic score, and TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin accumulation. In addition, β-lapachone showed a protective role in TGF-β1–induced ECM expression and EMT in A549 cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that β-lapachone can protect against bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice and TGF-β1–induced EMT in vitro, by elevating the NAD+/NADH ratio through NQO1 activation. PMID:27790277

  9. Technical Basis for Also Using Health-Risk Assessment to Establish Contaminant Boundaries for Corrective Action Units (CAUs) of the Underground Test Area (UGTA) at the Nevada Test Site (NTS)

    SciTech Connect

    Daniels, J I; Tompson, A F

    2003-12-29

    This technical basis document serves two purposes. First, it provides a detailed discussion of the rationale and procedures suitable for deriving a risk-based contaminant boundary that will protect public health unambiguously, along with examples that are intended as illustrative only to facilitate understanding. Second, it explains the benefits of using such information as the framework for fostering risk communication to educate, inform, and enlighten, and importantly, to fully disclose the goals and structure of contaminant boundaries. To determine a contaminant boundary within a CAU, standards or criteria must be adopted that establish whether groundwater is safe or unsafe for public (and worker) use. For purposes of this discussion, drinking water consumption is considered the pathway of exposure. However, in practice, a realistic land-use scenario must be described and agreed upon before a prospective, realistic risk-based calculation is performed. Otherwise, it will not be clear whether consumption of drinking water is a even appropriate. For example, the future land use that is defined may not even permit access to the contaminated water (e.g., denial of use by law and stewardship; or a lack of accessibility), and in that situation there would be no exposure and no potential health consequences. Taking into consideration that consumption of the groundwater is feasible, the groundwater is deemed unsafe if it contains radionuclide contamination that exceeds the criteria that the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers in establishing regulatory standards for drinking water contaminants, including radionuclides generally (i.e., a target range for lifetime excess-cancer risk that is not to exceed 10{sup -4} [1/10,000] and ideally is less than 10{sup -6} [1/1,000,000]) (see EPA, 2000a). Thus, the maximum contaminant levels (MCLs) for substances in drinking water are considered to be health-protective and generally are derived on the basis

  10. 40 CFR Table 8 to Subpart Jjj of... - Operating Parameters for Which Levels Are Required To Be Established for Continuous and Batch...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY.... 63, Subpt. JJJ, Table 8 Table 8 to Subpart JJJ of Part 63—Operating Parameters for Which Levels...

  11. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  12. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    PubMed

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, <0.08, <0.08, 0.08 and 0.46 microM clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  13. Ambient glucose levels qualify the potency of insulin myogenic actions by regulating SIRT1 and FoxO3a in C2C12 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nedachi, Taku; Kadotani, Akito; Ariga, Miyako; Katagiri, Hideki; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Nutrition availability is one of the major environmental signals influencing cell fate, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, often functioning in concert with other humoral factors, including insulin. Herein, we show that low-serum-induced differentiation of C(2)C(12) myocytes is significantly hampered under low glucose (LG; 5 mM) compared with high glucose (HG; 22.5 mM) conditions, concurrently with nuclear accumulation of SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, and FoxO3a, both of which are implicated in the negative regulation of myogenesis. Intriguingly, insulin appears to exert opposite actions, depending on glucose availability, with regard to the regulation of SIRT1 and FoxO3a abundance, which apparently contributes to modulating the potency of insulin's myogenic action. Namely, insulin exerts a potent myogenic effect in the presence of sufficient glucose, whereas insulin is unable to exert its myogenic action under LG conditions, since insulin evokes massive upregulation of both SIRT1 and FoxO3a in the absence of sufficient ambient glucose. In addition, the hampered differentiation state under LG is significantly restored by sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor, whereas insulin abolished this sirtinol-dependent restoration, indicating that insulin can function as a negative as well as a positive myogenic factor depending on glucose availability. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of ambient glucose levels in the regulation of myogenesis and also in the determination of insulin's myogenic potency, which is achieved, at least in part, through regulation of the cellular contents and localization of SIRT1 and FoxO3a in differentiating C(2)C(12) myocytes.

  14. Efficacy and workload analysis of a fixed vertical couch position technique and a fixed-action-level protocol in whole-breast radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petillion, Saskia; Verhoeven, Karolien; Weltens, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2015-03-08

    Quantification of the setup errors is vital to define appropriate setup margins preventing geographical misses. The no-action-level (NAL) correction protocol reduces the systematic setup errors and, hence, the setup margins. The manual entry of the setup corrections in the record-and-verify software, however, increases the susceptibility of the NAL protocol to human errors. Moreover, the impact of the skin mobility on the anteroposterior patient setup reproducibility in whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) is unknown. In this study, we therefore investigated the potential of fixed vertical couch position-based patient setup in WBRT. The possibility to introduce a threshold for correction of the systematic setup errors was also explored. We measured the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and superior-inferior setup errors during fractions 1-12 and weekly thereafter with tangential angled single modality paired imaging. These setup data were used to simulate the residual setup errors of the NAL protocol, the fixed vertical couch position protocol, and the fixed-action-level protocol with different correction thresholds. Population statistics of the setup errors of 20 breast cancer patients and 20 breast cancer patients with additional regional lymph node (LN) irradiation were calculated to determine the setup margins of each off-line correction protocol. Our data showed the potential of the fixed vertical couch position protocol to restrict the systematic and random anteroposterior residual setup errors to 1.8 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. Compared to the NAL protocol, a correction threshold of 2.5mm reduced the frequency of mediolateral and superior-inferior setup corrections with 40% and 63%, respectively. The implementation of the correction threshold did not deteriorate the accuracy of the off-line setup correction compared to the NAL protocol. The combination of the fixed vertical couch position protocol, for correction of the anteroposterior setup error, and the fixed-action-level

  15. Establishing geochemical background levels of selected trace elements in areas having geochemical anomalies: The case study of the Orbetello lagoon (Tuscany, Italy).

    PubMed

    Romano, Elena; Bergamin, Luisa; Croudace, Ian W; Ausili, Antonella; Maggi, Chiara; Gabellini, Massimo

    2015-07-01

    The determination of background concentration values (BGVs) in areas, characterised by the presence of natural geochemical anomalies and anthropogenic impact, appears essential for a correct pollution assessment. For this purpose, it is necessary to establish a reliable method for determination of local BGVs. The case of the Orbetello lagoon, a geologically complex area characterized by Tertiary volcanism, is illustrated. The vertical concentration profiles of As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb and Zn were studied in four sediment cores. Local BGVs were determined considering exclusively samples not affected by anthropogenic influence, recognized by means of multivariate statistics and radiochronological dating ((137)Cs and (210)Pb). Results showed BGVs well-comparable with mean crustal or shale values for most of the considered elements except for Hg (0.87 mg/kg d.w.) and As (16.87 mg/kg d.w.), due to mineralization present in the catchment basin draining into the lagoon.

  16. Establishing American Colleges Abroad.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, William E.

    1990-01-01

    Describes the growing involvement of U.S. two-year colleges in establishing programs abroad to enable foreign students to complete one or two years of college-level work in their home country before transferring to U.S. universities. Highlights the activities of several community colleges in the Pacific Rim. Identifies conditions basic to future…

  17. Direct measurement of oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1)H NMR. Establishment of a new index for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Karkoula, Evangelia; Skantzari, Angeliki; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2012-11-28

    A new method for direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1)H NMR was developed. The method was applied to the study of 175 monovarietal commercial Greek and California olive oil samples. The main findings were as follows: (1) There was a significant variation concerning the concentrations of oleocanthal and oleacein among the studied samples. Their concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 355 mg/kg and their sum (index D1) from 0 to 501 mg/kg. (2) There are olive varieties that independent of geographic origin and harvest time produce oil that contains both compounds in low levels. (3) There is a positive correlation of a high level of oleocanthal and oleacein in olive oils with the early time of harvest. Although there is a need for more extensive study, a new index for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils, which is a combination of D1 = oleocanthal + oleacein level and D2 = oleocanthal/oleacein ratio, seems to be very useful. PMID:23116297

  18. Direct measurement of oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1)H NMR. Establishment of a new index for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils.

    PubMed

    Karkoula, Evangelia; Skantzari, Angeliki; Melliou, Eleni; Magiatis, Prokopios

    2012-11-28

    A new method for direct measurement of the oleocanthal and oleacein levels in olive oil by quantitative (1)H NMR was developed. The method was applied to the study of 175 monovarietal commercial Greek and California olive oil samples. The main findings were as follows: (1) There was a significant variation concerning the concentrations of oleocanthal and oleacein among the studied samples. Their concentrations ranged from nondetectable to 355 mg/kg and their sum (index D1) from 0 to 501 mg/kg. (2) There are olive varieties that independent of geographic origin and harvest time produce oil that contains both compounds in low levels. (3) There is a positive correlation of a high level of oleocanthal and oleacein in olive oils with the early time of harvest. Although there is a need for more extensive study, a new index for the characterization of extra virgin olive oils, which is a combination of D1 = oleocanthal + oleacein level and D2 = oleocanthal/oleacein ratio, seems to be very useful.

  19. The Effect of Classroom Teachers' Attitudes toward Constructivist Approach on Their Level of Establishing a Constructivist Learning Environment: A Case of Mersin

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uredi, Lutfi

    2013-01-01

    This study aims to determine the attitudes of classroom teachers towards constructivist approach and to analyze the effect of their attitudes towards constructivist approach on their level of creating a constructivist learning environment. For that purpose, relational screening model was used in the research. The research sample included 504…

  20. Toward the establishment of standardized in vitro tests for lipid-based formulations, part 6: effects of varying pancreatin and calcium levels.

    PubMed

    Sassene, Philip; Kleberg, Karen; Williams, Hywel D; Bakala-N'Goma, Jean-Claude; Carrière, Frédéric; Calderone, Marilyn; Jannin, Vincent; Igonin, Annabel; Partheil, Anette; Marchaud, Delphine; Jule, Eduardo; Vertommen, Jan; Maio, Mario; Blundell, Ross; Benameur, Hassan; Porter, Christopher J H; Pouton, Colin W; Müllertz, Anette

    2014-11-01

    The impact of pancreatin and calcium addition on a wide array of lipid-based formulations (LBFs) during in vitro lipolysis, with regard to digestion rates and distribution of the model drug danazol, was investigated. Pancreatin primarily affected the extent of digestion, leaving drug distribution somewhat unaffected. Calcium only affected the extent of digestion slightly but had a major influence on drug distribution, with more drug precipitating at higher calcium levels. This is likely to be caused by a combination of removal of lipolysis products from solution by the formation of calcium soaps and calcium precipitating with bile acids, events known to reduce the solubilizing capacity of LBFs dispersed in biorelevant media. Further, during the digestion of hydrophilic LBFs, like IIIA-LC, the un-ionized-ionized ratio of free fatty acids (FFA) remained unchanged at physiological calcium levels. This makes the titration curves at pH 6.5 representable for digestion. However, caution should be taken when interpreting lipolysis curves of lipophilic LBFs, like I-LC, at pH 6.5, at physiological levels of calcium (1.4 mM); un-ionized-ionized ratio of FFA might change during digestion, rendering the lipolysis curve at pH 6.5 non-representable for the total digestion. The ratio of un-ionized-ionized FFAs can be maintained during digestion by applying non-physiological levels of calcium, resulting in a modified drug distribution with increased drug precipitation. However, as the main objective of the in vitro digestion model is to evaluate drug distribution, which is believed to have an impact on bioavailability in vivo, a physiological level (1.4 mM) of calcium is preferred. PMID:25274609

  1. Nonperturbative renormalization of the axial current in Nf=3 lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and a tree-level improved gauge action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulava, John; Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We nonperturbatively determine the renormalization factor of the axial vector current in lattice QCD with Nf=3 flavors of Wilson-clover fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. The (by now standard) renormalization condition is derived from the massive axial Ward identity, and it is imposed among Schrödinger functional states with large overlap on the lowest lying hadronic state in the pseudoscalar channel, in order to reduce kinematically enhanced cutoff effects. We explore a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of ≈0.09 fm and below. An interpolation formula for ZA(g02) , smoothly connecting the nonperturbative values to the 1-loop expression, is provided together with our final results.

  2. Inclusivity and dementia: health services planning with individuals with dementia: effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners, service providers and funding organizations.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Kyle; Wismer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Historically, Alzheimer societies have identified the care partners of persons with dementia as their central clients. This focus is broadening to include the person with the disease, as well. This paper presents the results of a Canadian research study addressing organizational considerations related to effective inclusion of persons with dementia in planning and decision-making about health services and programs. Our findings suggest that effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners and friends; service organizations and providers; and funding organizations. Additional research is needed to explore the applicability of these findings to other organizations in different localities and to examine emergent themes further. Of these, one that has received little attention to date concerns the potential risks associated with effective inclusion.

  3. Practical Use of the Extended No Action Level (eNAL) Correction Protocol for Breast Cancer Patients With Implanted Surgical Clips

    SciTech Connect

    Penninkhof, Joan; Quint, Sandra; Baaijens, Margreet; Heijmen, Ben; Dirkx, Maarten

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the practical use of the extended No Action Level (eNAL) setup correction protocol for breast cancer patients with surgical clips and evaluate its impact on the setup accuracy of both tumor bed and whole breast during simultaneously integrated boost treatments. Methods and Materials: For 80 patients, two orthogonal planar kilovoltage images and one megavoltage image (for the mediolateral beam) were acquired per fraction throughout the radiotherapy course. For setup correction, the eNAL protocol was applied, based on registration of surgical clips in the lumpectomy cavity. Differences with respect to application of a No Action Level (NAL) protocol or no protocol were quantified for tumor bed and whole breast. The correlation between clip migration during the fractionated treatment and either the method of surgery or the time elapsed from last surgery was investigated. Results: The distance of the clips to their center of mass (COM), averaged over all clips and patients, was reduced by 0.9 {+-} 1.2 mm (mean {+-} 1 SD). Clip migration was similar between the group of patients starting treatment within 100 days after surgery (median, 53 days) and the group starting afterward (median, 163 days) (p = 0.20). Clip migration after conventional breast surgery (closing the breast superficially) or after lumpectomy with partial breast reconstructive techniques (sutured cavity). was not significantly different either (p = 0.22). Application of eNAL on clips resulted in residual systematic errors for the clips' COM of less than 1 mm in each direction, whereas the setup of the breast was within about 2 mm of accuracy. Conclusions: Surgical clips can be safely used for high-accuracy position verification and correction. Given compensation for time trends in the clips' COM throughout the treatment course, eNAL resulted in better setup accuracies for both tumor bed and whole breast than NAL.

  4. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  5. Use of community-level data in the National Children’s Study to establish the representativeness of segment selection in the Queens Vanguard Site

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The WHO Multiple Exposures Multiple Effects (MEME) framework identifies community contextual variables as central to the study of childhood health. Here we identify multiple domains of neighborhood context, and key variables describing the dimensions of these domains, for use in the National Children’s Study (NCS) site in Queens. We test whether the neighborhoods selected for NCS recruitment, are representative of the whole of Queens County, and whether there is sufficient variability across neighborhoods for meaningful studies of contextual variables. Methods Nine domains (demographic, socioeconomic, households, birth rated, transit, playground/greenspace, safety and social disorder, land use, and pollution sources) and 53 indicator measures of the domains were identified. Geographic information systems were used to create community-level indicators for US Census tracts containing the 18 study neighborhoods in Queens selected for recruitment, using US Census, New York City Vital Statistics, and other sources of community-level information. Mean and inter-quartile range values for each indicator were compared for Tracts in recruitment and non-recruitment neighborhoods in Queens. Results Across the nine domains, except in a very few instances, the NCS segment-containing tracts (N = 43) were not statistically different from those 597 populated tracts in Queens not containing portions of NCS segments; variability in most indicators was comparable in tracts containing and not containing segments. Conclusions In a diverse urban setting, the NCS segment selection process succeeded in identifying recruitment areas that are, as a whole, representative of Queens County, for a broad range of community-level variables. PMID:22668454

  6. Responding to the deaf in disasters: establishing the need for systematic training for state-level emergency management agencies and community organizations

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Deaf and hard-of-hearing (Deaf/HH) individuals have been underserved before and during emergencies. This paper will assess Deaf/HH related emergency preparedness training needs for state emergency management agencies and deaf-serving community-based organizations (CBOs). Methods Four approaches were used: 1) a literature review; 2) results from 50 key informant (KI) interviews from state and territorial-level emergency management and public health agencies; 3) results from 14 KI interviews with deaf-serving CBOs in the San Francisco Bay Area; and 4) a pilot program evaluation of an emergency responder training serving the Deaf/HH in one urban community. Results Results from literature review and state and territorial level KIs indicate that there is a substantive gap in emergency preparedness training on serving Deaf/HH provided by state agencies. In addition, local KI interviews with 14 deaf-serving CBOs found gaps in training within deaf-serving CBOs. These gaps have implications for preparing for and responding to all-hazards emergencies including weather-related or earthquake-related natural disasters, terrorist attacks, and nuclear-chemical disasters. Conclusion Emergency preparedness trainings specific to responding to or promoting preparedness of the Deaf/HH is rare, even for state agency personnel, and frequently lack standardization, evaluation, or institutionalization in emergency management infrastructure. This has significant policy and research implications. Similarly, CBOs are not adequately trained to serve the needs of their constituents. PMID:23497178

  7. Feeding bovine milks with low or high IgA levels is associated with altered re-establishment of murine intestinal microbiota after antibiotic treatment

    PubMed Central

    Young, Wayne; Cakebread, Julie A.; Haigh, Brendan J.

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are a vital and commonly used therapeutic tool, but their use also results in profound changes in the intestinal microbiota that can, in turn, have significant health consequences. Understanding how the microbiota recovers after antibiotic treatment will help to devise strategies for mitigating the adverse effects of antibiotics. Using a mouse model, we have characterized the changes occurring in the intestinal microbiota immediately after five days exposure to ampicillin, and then at three and fourteen days thereafter. During the fourteen day period of antibiotic recovery, groups of mice were fed either water, cows’ milk containing high levels of IgA, or cows’ milk containing low levels of IgA as their sole source of liquid. Effects on microbiota of feeding milks for 14 days were also assessed in groups of mice that had no ampicillin exposure. Changes in microbiota were measured by high throughput sequencing of the V4 to V6 variable regions of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. As expected, exposure to ampicillin led to profound changes to the types and abundance of bacteria present, along with a loss of diversity. At 14 days following antibiotic exposure, mice fed water had recovered microbiota compositions similar to that prior to antibiotics. However, feeding High-IgA milk to mice that has been exposed to antibiotics was associated with altered microbiota compositions, including increased relative abundance of Lactobacillus and Barnesiella compared to the start of the study. Mice exposed to antibiotics then fed Low-IgA milk also showed increased Barnesiella at day 14. Mice without antibiotic perturbation, showed no change in their microbiota after 14 days of milk feeding. Overall, these findings add to a knowledge platform for optimizing intestinal function after treatment with antibiotics in the human population. PMID:27703861

  8. Network Based Approach in the Establishment of the Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications at the Molecular Level Coupled with Molecular Docking Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rampogu Lemuel, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major metabolic disorders that is currently threatening the world. DM is seen associated with obesity and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In the present paper we tried to evaluate the relationship between the three aliments at the gene level and further performed the molecular docking to identify the common drug for all the three diseases. We have adopted several software programs such as Phenopedia, VennViewer, and CDOCKER to accomplish the objective. Our results revealed six genes that commonly associated and are involved in the signalling pathway. Furthermore, evaluation of common gene association from the selected set of genes projected the presence of SIRT1 in all the three aliments. Therefore, we targeted protein 4KXQ which was produced from the gene SIRT1 and challenged it with eight phytochemicals, adopting the CDOCKER. C1 compound has displayed highest -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy of 43.6905 and 43.3953, respectively. Therefore, this compound is regarded as the most potential lead molecule.

  9. Network Based Approach in the Establishment of the Relationship between Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Its Complications at the Molecular Level Coupled with Molecular Docking Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Rampogu Lemuel, Mary

    2016-01-01

    Diabetes mellitus (DM) is one of the major metabolic disorders that is currently threatening the world. DM is seen associated with obesity and diabetic retinopathy (DR). In the present paper we tried to evaluate the relationship between the three aliments at the gene level and further performed the molecular docking to identify the common drug for all the three diseases. We have adopted several software programs such as Phenopedia, VennViewer, and CDOCKER to accomplish the objective. Our results revealed six genes that commonly associated and are involved in the signalling pathway. Furthermore, evaluation of common gene association from the selected set of genes projected the presence of SIRT1 in all the three aliments. Therefore, we targeted protein 4KXQ which was produced from the gene SIRT1 and challenged it with eight phytochemicals, adopting the CDOCKER. C1 compound has displayed highest -CDOCKER energy and -CDOCKER interaction energy of 43.6905 and 43.3953, respectively. Therefore, this compound is regarded as the most potential lead molecule. PMID:27699170

  10. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  11. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  12. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  13. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  14. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  15. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  16. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  17. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Arnold, Doug L; Gilbert, Mary E; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  18. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  19. Electromyogram power spectrum and features of the superimposed maximal M-wave during voluntary isometric actions in humans at different activation levels.

    PubMed

    Linnamo, V; Strojnik, V; Komi, P V

    2001-11-01

    The frequency characteristics of the electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum, such as the median or the mean power frequency, as well as the duration of the muscle compound action potential response to a single supramaximal electrical stimulus (maximal M-wave) may both be related to the conduction velocity (CV) of the muscle fibre. To investigate this further, we studied in ten male subjects: the EMG of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during maximal isometric knee extensions at 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction and also the maximal M-wave, elicited by a single supramaximal stimulus to the femoral nerve, of the same muscles at rest or superimposed on the same levels of voluntary contraction. The EMG was recorded during the constant force phase of the voluntary contractions, the duration of which was 2.5-4 s, with a 1.5 min pause between contractions. The average EMG (aEMG) and the median frequency (MF) were then calculated. The results indicated that as aEMG increased with increase in force, MF remained unchanged. However, while the amplitude of the M-wave was not affected, the duration of the M-wave was shorter as the force level increased. The duration of the M-wave may be affected by recruitment of faster motor units, by increased firing rate of the active units and by changes in the muscle fibre length. The shorter duration of the M-wave observed at higher force levels was not, however, accompanied by a corresponding increase in MF. The MF could not therefore be used as a parameter to reflect the changes in voluntary muscle activation and CV. When MF was calculated by overlapping the fast Fourier transform (FFT) windows (0.4 s long window moved data point by data point to the right) for 1 s periods of the isometric plateau phase at each force level, the difference between the lowest and the highest MF was quite substantial. These variations suggest that FFT window placement, i.e. which part of the signal is

  20. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  1. Use of the reciprocal calculation procedure for setting workplace emergency action levels for hydrocarbon mixtures and their relationship to lower explosive limits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ron

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning

  2. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  3. Development of linear and threshold no significant risk levels for inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide using systematic review and mode of action considerations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Wikoff, Daniele S; Welsh, Brian; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been characterized as a poorly soluble particulate (PSP) with low toxicity. It is well accepted that low toxicity PSPs such as TiO2 induce lung tumors in rats when deposition overwhelms particle clearance mechanisms. Despite the sensitivity of rats to PSPs and questionable relevance of PSP-induced tumors to humans, TiO2 is listed as a possible human carcinogen by some agencies and regulators. Thus, environmental toxicity criteria for TiO2 are needed for stakeholders to evaluate potential risks from environmental exposure and regulatory compliance. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to characterize the available data and identify candidate datasets upon which toxicity values could be derived. Key to this assessment, a survey of mechanistic data relevant for lung cancer was used to support quantitative inhalation risk assessment approaches. A total of 473 human studies were identified, 7 of which were epidemiological studies that met inclusion criteria to quantitatively characterize carcinogenic endpoints in humans. None of these studies supported derivation of toxicity criteria; therefore, animal data were used to derived safety values for TiO2 using different dose-metrics (regional deposited dose ratios, TiO2 particle surface area lung burden, and volumetric overload of alveolar macrophages), benchmark dose modeling, and different low-dose extrapolation approaches. Based on empirical evidence and mechanistic support for nonlinear mode of action involving particle overload, chronic inflammation and cell proliferation, a no significant risk level (NSRL) of 300 μg/day was derived. By comparison, low-dose linear extrapolation from tumor incidence in the rat lung resulted in an NSRL value of 44 μg/day. These toxicity values should be useful for stakeholders interested in assessing risks from environmental exposure to respirable TiO2.

  4. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  5. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  6. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  7. Item-Level Psychometrics and Predictors of Performance for Spanish/English Bilingual Speakers on "An Object and Action Naming Battery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…

  8. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  9. A Paradigm of Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Peyton, R. Ben

    A paradigm is proposed that would permit curriculum developers and others to specifically plan for training in environmental action as an integral and substantial component in this field. The three-part paradigm identifies and defines specific categories of action. It then identifies and illustrates the levels at which these actions can be taken.…

  10. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1975-01-01

    Citizen participation in the nation's total social, political, economic decisionmaking processes was studied. Impediments are discussed which prevent citizens from taking effective assessment action; these include finance, organization and motivation, and information. The proposal for establishing citizens assessment associations is considered along with implications of citizen assessment action.

  11. Antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the low-basicity derivative of the pyridoindole stobadine, in cell free chemical models and at cellular level.

    PubMed

    Balcerczyk, Aneta; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Drzewinska, Joanna; Piotrowski, Łukasz; Pulaski, Łukasz; Stefek, Milan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the structural analogue of the hexahydropyridoindole antioxidant stobadine. The antiradical activity of SMe1EC2 was found to be higher when compared to stobadine, as determined both in cell-free model systems of AAPH-induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate, and in the cellular system of stimulated macrophages RAW264.7. Analysis of proliferation of HUVEC and HUVEC-ST cells revealed absence of cytotoxic effect of SMe1EC2 at concentrations below 100 µM. The antioxidant activity of SMe1EC2, superior to the parent drug stobadine, is accounted for by both the higher intrinsic free radical scavenging action and by the better bioavailability of the low-basicity SMe1EC2 relative to the high-basicity stobadine.

  12. Action of an electromagnetic pulse on a plasma with a high level of ion-acoustic turbulence. Field diffusion and subdiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, K. N.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-09-15

    Specific features of the interaction of a relatively weak electromagnetic pulse with a nonisothermal current-carrying plasma in which the electron drift velocity is much higher than the ion-acoustic velocity, but lower than the electron thermal velocity, are studied. If the state of the plasma with ion-acoustic turbulence does not change during the pulse action, the field penetrates into the plasma in the ordinary diffusion regime, but the diffusion coefficient in this case is inversely proportional to the anomalous conductivity. If, during the pulse action, the particle temperatures and the current-driving field change due to turbulent heating, the field penetrates into the plasma in the subdiffusion regime. It is shown how the presence of subdiffusion can be detected by measuring the reflected field.

  13. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  14. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  15. Gradations of Emulation Learning in Infants' Imitation of Actions on Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Chi-Tai.; Charman, Tony

    2005-01-01

    This study explored different gradations of emulation in the imitation of actions on objects by 17-month-olds. Experiment 1 established levels of behavioral reproduction following prerecorded video demonstrations similar to those levels following live demonstrations. In Experiment 2, two digitally modified videos, where object movements or body…

  16. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  17. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  18. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment practices do, or tend to, exclude, disadvantage, restrict, or result in adverse impact or... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... other person subject to title VII should be concerned with the effect on its employment practices...

  19. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... career advancement training, both classroom and on-the-job, to employees locked into dead end jobs; and... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... range, interim goals and timetables for the specific job classifications, all of which should take...

  20. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... career advancement training, both classroom and on-the-job, to employees locked into dead end jobs; and... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... range, interim goals and timetables for the specific job classifications, all of which should take...

  1. 29 CFR 1608.4 - Establishing affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... career advancement training, both classroom and on-the-job, to employees locked into dead end jobs; and... amended, and its implementing regulations, including 41 CFR part 60-2 (known as Revised Order 4), or... range, interim goals and timetables for the specific job classifications, all of which should take...

  2. Non-invasive brain stimulation (rTMS and tDCS) in patients with aphasia: mode of action at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Málly, Judit

    2013-09-01

    A high proportion of patients who have suffered a stroke also suffer from aphasia. Approximately half of those affected will remain in this state despite intensive language therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation allows us to directly and focally stimulate areas of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), methods used in the treatment of aphasia, are based on an imbalance of mutual interhemispheric inhibition. In open and sham-controlled studies, a low-frequency, 1Hz stimulation of the non-lesioned hemisphere (the homologue of Broca's area) for a week or more significantly improved spontaneous speech and anomia in patients with non-fluent aphasia. These positive outcomes from rTMS stimulation developed slowly, often over months following treatment, and persisted. Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) developed faster than the low-frequency stimulation, and high-activity enhancement was detected in the left hemisphere after the stimulation of Broca's region. Both types of tDCS stimulation resulted in improved comprehension and reduced anomia, their primary modes of action are distinct, however, both share a common site of action with regard to the balance that occurs between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters (synaptic and non-synaptic). Both types of non-invasive stimulation prepare the lesioned brain for better outcome. PMID:23872450

  3. The shape of action.

    PubMed

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of the joint time courses of these variables showed that looking time and physical change were locally maximal at breakpoints and greater for higher level action units than for lower level units. Even when slideshows were scrambled, breakpoints were regarded longer and were more physically different from ordinary moments, showing that breakpoints are distinct even out of context. Breakpoints are bridges: from one action to another, from one level to another, and from perception to conception.

  4. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    PubMed

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  5. Controlling the level of the sonic boom generated by a flying vehicle by means of cryogenic forcing. 3. Physical justification of the cryogenic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Volkov, V. F.; Kharitonov, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    The influence of the basic factors of cryogenic forcing on formation of the middle zone on the sonic boom and aerodynamic characteristics of the flying vehicle is studied by experimental and numerical methods. Experimental data obtained with alcohol or liquid nitrogen as an injected liquid are used for comparisons; as a result, the total effect of temperature and coolant evaporation can be determined. The influence of temperature is studied by means of numerical simulations of the cryogenic action of distributed injection of air. A comparison of numerical and experimental data reveals the effect of the coolant evaporation process on perturbed flow formation. It is demonstrated that evaporation of the coolant outgoing onto the vehicle surface should be intensified to increase the efficiency of cryogenic forcing (to decrease the coolant flow rate).

  6. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  7. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  8. The Protestant Establishment Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltzell, E. Digby

    1976-01-01

    The author's book, "The Protestant Establishment: Aristocracy and Caste in America", is highly critical of the WASP (White-Anglo-Saxon-Protestant) establishment and proposed the development and need for some sort of upper-class ruling-group. Here is a re-evaluation of his book, now thirteen years old, by the author. (Author/RK)

  9. Neurolepticlike actions of l-methadone: effect on mescaline-induced altered behavior and on tissue levels of mescaline in mice.

    PubMed

    Shah, N S; Hudnall, S D; May, D; Eargle, D; Yates, J

    1979-08-01

    Mice were injected ip with either saline, l-methadone (2.5, 5, 20 mg/kg), perphenazine (1, 10, 15 mg/kg), or chlorprothixene (1.25, 2.5, 15 mg/kg) 30 min prior to mescaline-14C (25 mg/kg). Mescaline-induced behavioral changes such as agitation, excitement, slight increase in ventilation, and fright to sound stimuli were prevented by all doses of three drugs, and head-shaking, scratching, and locomotor-increasing effects by 5 and 20 mg/kg methadone and by all doses of both neuroleptics. Catalepticlike state and moderate to marked hypothermia induced by all doses of chlorprothixene, 10 and 15 mg/kg perphenazine, and 20 mg/kg methadone were not reversed by mescaline. Chlorprothixene (all doses), perphenazine (10, 15 mg/kg), and methadone (5, 20 mg/kg) caused marked retention of mescaline and its deaminated metabolite, 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl acetic acid in both brain and plasma. The fact that relatively higher doses of methadone than neuroleptics are needed to ensure effective antagonism to mescaline action tends to indicate a less specific interaction of the opiate with the neuroleptic/dopamine receptor proposed for central mescaline effects.

  10. Student Perceptions of Science Teacher Actions in Two Culturally Diverse Middle-Level Science Classrooms: A Case Study in the American Deep South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, J. Randy

    The purpose of this study was to give voice to students' perceptions in two science classrooms taught by two white teachers in an urban multicultural middle-level school situated in the American Deep South. Student participants were 35 students of different ethnicities in grades 7 and 8. The theoretical reference used is social contextual, a…

  11. Language and motor cortex response to comprehending accidental and intentional action sentences.

    PubMed

    Kana, Rajesh K; Ammons, Carla J; Doss, Constance F; Waite, Megan E; Kana, Bhumika; Herringshaw, Abbey J; Ver Hoef, Lawrence

    2015-10-01

    Understanding the meaning of others' actions involves mentally simulating those actions by oneself. Embodied theories of language espouse a prominent role for motor simulation in reading comprehension, especially when words, sentences, or narratives portray everyday actions. Inherent in these actions is the level of agency of the actor. Motor cortex activity in response to processing action verbs has been relatively well-established. What has been less explored, however, are: (1) the neural bases of determining whether an action is intentional or accidental (agency); and (2) whether agency influences level of motor simulation. This functional MRI study investigated how language and motor areas of the brain respond to sentences depicting intentional versus accidental action. 25 healthy adults read a series of sentences in the MRI scanner and determined whether the actions described were accidental or intentional. The main results include: (1) left hemisphere language areas (left inferior frontal gyrus, LIFG; left superior temporal gyrus, LSTG), premotor cortex (PM), and presupplementary motor area (pSMA) were strongly activated by both sentence types; (2) processing accidental action, relative to intentional action, elicited greater activity in LIFG, medial prefrontal cortex (MPFC), and left amygdala; no statistically significant activity was found in the opposite contrast; and (3) greater percent signal change was observed in LIFG while processing accidental action and in right precentral gyrus for intentional action. The results of this study support language and motor region involvement in action sentence comprehension in accordance with embodiment theories. Additionally, it provides new insight into the linguistic, integrative, and emotional demands of comprehending accidental action, its underlying neural circuitry, and its relationship to intentionality bias: the predisposition to ascribe purpose to action. PMID:26300387

  12. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  13. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  14. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  15. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  16. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  17. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  18. D-sorbose inhibits disaccharidase activity and demonstrates suppressive action on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Murata-Takenoshita, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yuko; Shimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Sadako

    2014-11-01

    In an attempt to develop D-sorbose as a new sweetener that could help in preventing lifestyle-related diseases, we investigated the inhibitory effect of D-sorbose on disaccharidase activity, using the brush border membrane vesicles of rat small intestines. The inhibitory effect was compared with that of L-sorbose and other rare sugars, and the small intestinal disaccharidases in rats was compared with that of humans as well. In humans and the small intestines of rats, d-sorbose strongly inhibited sucrase activity and weakly inhibited maltase activity. Inhibition by D-sorbose of sucrase activity was similar to that of L-arabinose, and the K(i) of D-sorbose was 7.5 mM. Inhibition by D-sorbose was very strong in comparison with that of L-sorbose (K(i), 60.8 mM), whereas inhibition of d-tagatose was between that of D-sorbose and L-sorbose. The inhibitory mode of D-sorbose for sucrose and maltase was uncompetitive, and that of L-sorbose was competitive. To determine a suppressive effect on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin via inhibition of sucrase activity, sucrose solution with or without D-sorbose was administered to rats. Increments in the blood levels of glucose and insulin were suppressed significantly after administration of sucrose solution with D-sorbose to rats, in comparison to administration of sucrose solution without D-sorbose. In contrast, the suppressive effect of L-sorbose on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin was very weak. These results suggest that D-sorbose may have an inhibitory effect on disaccharidase activity and could be used as a sweetener to suppress the postprandial elevation of blood levels of glucose and insulin. The use of D-sorbose as a sweetener may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  19. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  20. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  1. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.

  2. 75 FR 35766 - Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and Solicitation...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... International Trade Administration Establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee and... establishment of the Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Advisory Committee (the Committee) by the...

  3. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  4. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  5. Operationalizing the Concept of Value--An Action Research-Based Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Naslund, Dag; Olsson, Annika; Karlsson, Sture

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: While the importance of measuring customer satisfaction levels is well established, less research exists on how organizations operationalize such knowledge. The purpose of this paper is to describe an action research (AR) case study resulting in a workshop model to operationalize the concept of value. The model facilitates organizational…

  6. Activity and mechanism of action of HDVD, a novel pyrimidine nucleoside derivative with high levels of selectivity and potency against gammaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Coen, N; Singh, U; Vuyyuru, V; Van den Oord, J J; Balzarini, J; Duraffour, S; Snoeck, R; Cheng, Y C; Chu, C K; Andrei, G

    2013-04-01

    A novel nucleoside analogue, 1-[(2S,4S-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]5-vinylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, or HDVD, was evaluated against a wide variety of herpesviruses and was found to be a highly selective inhibitor of replication of the gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HDVD had also a pronounced inhibitory activity against murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In contrast, replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was weakly inhibited by the compound, and no antiviral activity was determined against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). The HDVD-resistant virus phenotype contained point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV-1, MHV-68, and HVS isolates. These mutations conferred cross-resistance to other TK-dependent drugs, with the exception of an MHV-68 mutant (E358D) that exhibited resistance only to HDVD. HSV-1 and HVS TK-mutants isolated under selective pressure with bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU) also showed reduced sensitivity to HDVD. Oral treatment with HDVD and BVDU was assessed in an intranasal model of MHV-68 infection in BALB/c mice. In contrast to BVDU treatment, HDVD-treated animals showed a reduction in viral DNA loads and diminished viral gene expression during acute viral replication in the lungs in comparison to levels in untreated controls. The valyl ester prodrug of HDVD (USS-02-71-44) suppressed the latent infection in the spleen to a greater extent than HDVD. In the present study, HDVD emerged as a highly potent antiviral with a unique spectrum of activity against herpesviruses, in particular, gammaherpesviruses, and may be of interest in the treatment of virus-associated diseases.

  7. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    PubMed Central

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Material and Methods: This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Findings: The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (P< 0.05). Results: Education and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students. PMID:25767821

  8. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  9. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 546: Injection Well and Surface Releases Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2008-12-01

    Office is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 546. • Corrective Action Unit 546 should be moved from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding final action levels. However, contaminants of concern were presumed to be present in the subsurface soil at CAS 09-20-01. Therefore, the corrective action of close in place was selected as the preferred alternative for this CAS. Potential source material was removed from CAS 06-23-02; therefore, the corrective action of clean closure was selected as the preferred alternative at this CAS.

  11. 40 CFR 300.800 - Establishment of an administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Administrative Record for Selection of Response Action § 300.800 Establishment...

  12. 40 CFR 300.800 - Establishment of an administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Administrative Record for Selection of Response Action § 300.800 Establishment...

  13. 40 CFR 300.800 - Establishment of an administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Administrative Record for Selection of Response Action § 300.800 Establishment...

  14. 40 CFR 300.800 - Establishment of an administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Administrative Record for Selection of Response Action § 300.800 Establishment...

  15. 40 CFR 300.800 - Establishment of an administrative record.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS NATIONAL OIL AND HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES POLLUTION CONTINGENCY PLAN Administrative Record for Selection of Response Action § 300.800 Establishment...

  16. Establishment of Intestinal Bacteriology

    PubMed Central

    MITSUOKA, Tomotari

    2014-01-01

    Research on intestinal bacteria began around the end of the 19th century. During the last 5 decades of the 20th century, research on the intestinal microbiota made rapid progress. At first, in my work, I first developed a method of comprehensive analysis of the intestinal microbiota, and then I established classification and identification methods for intestinal anaerobes. Using these methods I discovered a number of ecological rules governing the intestinal microbiota and the role of the intestinl microbiota in health and disease. Moreover, using germfree animals, it was proven that the intestinal microbiota has a role in carcinogenesis and aging in the host. Thus, a new interdisciplinary field, “intestinal bacteriology” was established. PMID:25032084

  17. 76 FR 36285 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Brunswick, ME

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-22

    ... Executive Order 12866; (2) is not a ``significant rule'' under DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR...: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E... Approach Procedures developed for Brunswick Executive Airport. This enhances the safety and...

  18. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  19. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  20. Consciousness: individuated information in action

    PubMed Central

    Jonkisz, Jakub

    2015-01-01

    Within theoretical and empirical enquiries, many different meanings associated with consciousness have appeared, leaving the term itself quite vague. This makes formulating an abstract and unifying version of the concept of consciousness – the main aim of this article –into an urgent theoretical imperative. It is argued that consciousness, characterized as dually accessible (cognized from the inside and the outside), hierarchically referential (semantically ordered), bodily determined (embedded in the working structures of an organism or conscious system), and useful in action (pragmatically functional), is a graded rather than an all-or-none phenomenon. A gradational approach, however, despite its explanatory advantages, can lead to some counterintuitive consequences and theoretical problems. In most such conceptions consciousness is extended globally (attached to primitive organisms or artificial systems), but also locally (connected to certain lower-level neuronal and bodily processes). For example, according to information integration theory (as introduced recently by Tononi and Koch, 2014), even such simple artificial systems as photodiodes possess miniscule amounts of consciousness. The major challenge for this article, then, is to establish reasonable, empirically justified constraints on how extended the range of a graded consciousness could be. It is argued that conscious systems are limited globally by the ability to individuate information (where individuated information is understood as evolutionarily embedded, socially altered, and private), whereas local limitations should be determined on the basis of a hypothesis about the action-oriented nature of the processes that select states of consciousness. Using these constraints, an abstract concept of consciousness is arrived at, hopefully contributing to a more unified state of play within consciousness studies itself. PMID:26283987

  1. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  2. LIGA Micromachining: Infrastructure Establishment

    SciTech Connect

    Alfredo M. Morales; Barry V. Hess; Dale R. Boehme; Jill M. Hruby; John S. Krafcik; Robert H. Nilson; Stewart K. Griffiths; William D. Bonivert

    1999-02-01

    LIGA is a micromachining technology that uses high energy x-rays from a synchrotron to create patterns with small lateral dimensions in a deep, non-conducting polymeric resist. Typical dimensions for LIGA parts are microns to tens of microns in lateral size, and hundreds of microns to millimeters in depth. Once the resist is patterned, metal is electrodeposited in the features to create metal microparts, or to create a metal mold for subsequent replication. The acronym LIGA comes from the German words for lithography, electroforming, and molding, and the technology has been under worldwide development for more than a decade. over the last five years, a full-service capability to produce metal microparts using the LIGA process has been established at Sandia national Laboratories, California. This report describes the accomplishments made during the past two years in infrastructure establishment funded by a Laboratory Directed Research and Development (LDRD) project entitled ''LIGA Micromachining.'' Specific topics include photoresist processing for LIGA mask making, x-ray scanning equipment, plating bath instrumentation, plating uniformity, and software architecture.

  3. Establishment and Characterization of a Newly Established Diabetic Gerbil Line

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiaohong; Lu, Jing; Wang, Ying; Huo, Xueyun; Li, Zhenkun; Zhang, Shuangyue; Li, Changlong; Guo, Meng; Du, Xiaoyan; Chen, Zhenwen

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We aimed to selectively breed a spontaneous diabetic gerbil when a sub-line of inbred gerbil showed increased blood glucose levels was found recently. Then we investigated the characteristics including the serum insulin, triglyceride, cholesterol, leptin, adiponectin and explored the underlying molecular mechanism for the diabetic phenotype. Methods The spontaneous diabetic line of gerbils was selectively inbreed the sub-line of gerbil by monitoring blood glucose of each animal. The serum insulin, adiponectin, and leptin levels were tested using an ELISA kit. The expression levels of GLUT4, Akt, leptin, adiponectin, and calpain 10 (CAPN10) were tested by western blot and Quantitative Real-time PCR (qPCR) in liver, skeletal muscle, and white adipose. Results Our results show that the percentages of animals with FPG≥5.2 (mmol/l), PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) and both FPG≥5.2 and PG2h≥6.8 (mmol/l) were increased with the number of breeding generations from F0 (21.33%) to F6 (38.46%). These diabetic gerbils exhibited insulin resistance and leptin resistance as well as decreased adiponectin level in the serum. We also observed decreased expression of adiponectin and increased expression of leptin in the skeletal muscle, respectively. Conclusions These results indicate that we have primarily established a spontaneous diabetic gerbil line, and the diabetic phenotypes may have been accounted for by altered expression of leptin and adiponectin. PMID:27427908

  4. State Action Analysis of Tax Expenditures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Robert Clarke

    1977-01-01

    Recent judicial treatment of tax expenditures in both state action and establishment clause cases is analyzed and it is argued that tax expenditures and direct expenditures should be treated as constitutional equivalents. (LBH)

  5. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  6. The role of action readiness in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2015-12-01

    According to many theories of motivation and decision making, the principal driver of human behavior is the valuation of actions. Action value is computed as the difference between stimulus value (the benefits and costs inherent in the stimulus that is the target of the action) and action costs (the effort required to perform the action). In the present work, we propose that action costs are crucially influenced by the readiness to perform a given action. We define action readiness as the ease with which an action may be initiated given the preaction launch state of the individual. An action that has been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a high level of action readiness, whereas an action that has not been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a low level of action readiness. By our account, if action readiness levels are high for a given action, decreased action costs may result in action even when the stimulus value is relatively low. Conversely, if action readiness levels are low for a given action, even action costs that appear negligible can dominate positive stimulus values, resulting in seemingly puzzling instances of inaction. We develop and test these ideas in 3 studies across 233 participants using an image-viewing decision context and a logistic prediction model. PMID:26436428

  7. Establishing effective working relationships.

    PubMed

    Houghton, Trish

    2016-02-24

    This article, the second in a series of 11, provides support and offers advice to new and existing mentors and practice teachers to enable them to progress in their role and develop a portfolio of evidence. In particular, the article discusses how to establish effective working relationships and emphasises the importance of the student-mentor or student-practice teacher relationship. It examines the essential qualities, attributes and characteristics of an effective mentor or practice teacher. The article provides learning activities and suggests ways in which mentors and practice teachers can undertake various self-assessments, enabling them to gather relevant evidence to demonstrate how they can meet and maintain the requirements for these roles as stipulated by the Nursing and Midwifery Council.

  8. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Transcriptomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baudo, María Marcela; Powers, Stephen J.; Mitchell, Rowan A. C.; Shewry, Peter R.

    Regulatory authorities in Western Europe require transgenic crops to be substantially equivalent to conventionally bred forms if they are to be approved for commercial production. One way to establish substantial equivalence is to compare the transcript profiles of developing grain and other tissues of transgenic and conventionally bred lines, in order to identify any unintended effects of the transformation process. We present detailed protocols for transcriptomic comparisons of developing wheat grain and leaf material, and illustrate their use by reference to our own studies of lines transformed to express additional gluten protein genes controlled by their own endosperm-specific promoters. The results show that the transgenes present in these lines (which included those encoding marker genes) did not have any significant unpredicted effects on the expression of endogenous genes and that the transgenic plants were therefore substantially equivalent to the corresponding parental lines.

  9. Establishing a Presence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCandless, Jeffrey

    2005-01-01

    The basis for this successful collaboration was face-to-face communication. Though it was sometimes stressful being on the road so much, I really learned the importance of being present to work together and ask questions in person. Another measure of success was that in the midst of this project and traveling, my wife and I managed to start a family. My oldest boy got a real kick out of visiting Space Center Houston when he was two to learn all about the "face futtle" which goes way up in the sky. When practical, collocation and face-to-face communication on a project eliminate misunderstandings, establish relationships, make information more easily accessible, and promote a team atmosphere. Compromise is key to balancing both family and career goals. Knowing when to prioritize each is important to success in both aspects.

  10. 75 FR 42 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-04

    ... October 19, 2009 (74 FR 53407), Docket No. FAA- 2009-0602; Airspace Docket No. 09-AEA-13. The FAA uses the... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Spencer, WV AGENCY... that establishes Class E Airspace at Spencer, WV. This action enhances the safety and...

  11. A Low Carbon Development Guide for Local Government Actions in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Zhou, Nan; Price, Lynn; Ohshita, Stephanie

    2011-05-01

    Local level actions are crucial for achieving energy-saving and greenhouse gas emission reduction targets. Yet it is challenging to implement new policies and actions due to a lack of information, funding, and capacity. This is particularly the case in developing countries such as China. Even though national energy intensity and carbon intensity targets have been set, most local governments do not have the knowledge regarding actions to achieve the targets, the cost-effectiveness of policies, the possible impact of policies, or how to design and implement a climate action plan. This paper describes a guidebook that was developed to motivate and provide local governments in China with information to create an action plan to tackle climate change and increase energy efficiency. It provides a simple step-by-step description of how action plans can be established and essential elements to be included - from preparing a GHG emission inventory to implementation of the plan. The guidebook also provides a comprehensive list of successful policies and best practices found internationally and in China to encourage low carbon development in industry, buildings, transportation, electric power generation, agriculture and forestry. This paper also presents indicators that can be used to define low-carbon development, as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of actions taken at an aggregated (city) level, and at a sectoral or end use level. The guidebook can also be used for low carbon development by local governments in other developing countries.

  12. Vitamin D Intake and Serum 25-Hydroxyvitamin D Levels in Korean Adults: Analysis of the 2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV-3) Using a Newly Established Vitamin D Database

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Kyoungok; Cho, Jinah; Ly, Sunyung

    2016-01-01

    Vitamin D is important for maintaining bone health and may prevent various diseases (i.e., cardiovascular disease and cancer). The aim of this study was to estimate vitamin D intakes of Korean adults using the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES, 2009) data and a newly established vitamin D database. KNHANES (2009) participants (n = 4541; 2021 men; 2520 women) aged ≥20 years were included. Dietary vitamin D intake, serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D), and the relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D were evaluated. In men and women, vitamin D intakes were 4.00 ± 0.17 µg/day and 2.6 ± 0.1 µg/day respectively, and serum 25(OH)D concentrations were 19.78 ± 0.33 ng/mL and 17.10 ± 0.26 ng/mL respectively. Serum 25(OH)D concentrations of men aged <50 years and women aged >20 years were under 20 ng/mL. After adjusting for confounding factors, the positive relationship between vitamin D intake and serum 25(OH)D was observed in total subjects (p < 0.05), excluding participants ≥50 years old. The main food sources for vitamin D among Korean adults were fish/shellfish (71.34%) and egg (14.89%). Korean adults should increase their serum 25(OH)D concentrations by increasing vitamin D intake. PMID:27690097

  13. Race Against Antimicrobial Resistance Requires Coordinated Action – An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Premanandh, J.; Samara, B. S.; Mazen, A. N.

    2016-01-01

    Resistance developed by microbes is challenging success stories of treatment of infectious diseases with anti-microbials. Developing new antimicrobials against these resistant organisms does not progress at the same speed. In an effort to address this key issue, this work overviews the role of different stakeholders and discusses preventative and control measures for effective management of available resources. Roles and concerns of physicians, pharmacists and the public are also discussed. More than anything, this situation requires immediate action to establish antimicrobial stewardship program, control over the counter sale and promote public awareness. The paper also confronts the idea of curbing the use of antimicrobials using mass media, while detailing the consequences of non-therapeutic use. The role of policy makers in taking global action is essential to establishing authority or agency for formulating national guidelines and regulations for prudently using antimicrobials. To do this, this paper recommend the establishment of a global fund. In conclusion, the race against resistance is a collective responsibility requiring coordinated action at local, national, regional and international levels to ensure sustained utilization of antimicrobials. PMID:26869998

  14. Yeasts in spa establishments.

    PubMed

    Svorcová, L

    1982-05-01

    It was investigated occurrence of yeasts on bathsurfaces, in sauna rooms, in swimming and therapeutic pool water. The number of yeasts decreased depending on patients age, if the rooms were furnished with bath. The lowest contamination was found after bath of 40-60 years-old women. In the saunas were yeasts not found on the upper benches with temperature above 55 degrees C. Much higher counts on lower benches and wood mats with temperature 35-40 degrees C, on basin walls and bottom-up to 10(4)-10(6)/100 cm2. It was isolated 172 yeast strains. The occurrence of some selected strains is given in Table 7, with the toxic effect of disinfectants. The most strains were resistant to Peracetic acid and Chloramin B. Since most of the isolated and determinated strains were found in contaminated environment or during various diseases, the yeasts of the genus Cryptococcus, Candida, Rhodotorula, Torulopsis and Metschnikowia should not occur in bath establishment, and should be classified among indicators of contamination of environment including water. PMID:7124167

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was calculated based on

  16. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  17. Representing the consequences of intentionally inhibited actions.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Poonian, Simmy; Walsh, Eamonn

    2009-08-25

    The experience of planning an action but then changing our minds and cancelling the action at the last instant is a common one. Here, we instructed participants to prepare voluntary (keypress) actions and sometimes intentionally inhibit them at the last possible moment. Participants could freely choose between left and right hand actions. Keypresses produced either a congruent (80% probability) or an incongruent (20% probability) tone after a short delay. If no voluntary action was made within a defined response window, one of the tones was nevertheless presented a short time later. At the end of the trial, participants judged the time of tone onset. We used an established marker to measure the experience of control, namely the intentional binding of the tone backwards in time towards the action that caused it. Results showed that voluntary actions produced the expected temporal binding of tones back towards the preceding action. In contrast, we found an opposite trend towards repulsion of the tone in intentional inhibition trials. When people intentionally inhibit a planned action, their experience of a subsequent event that was associated with the action is severely affected. Our results suggest that intentional inhibition is a specific cognitive process that strongly influences action prediction and action experience. PMID:19524558

  18. Guam Energy Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Conrad, M. D.; Ness, J. E.

    2013-07-01

    Describes the four near-term strategies selected by the Guam Energy Task Force during action planning workshops conducted in March 2013, and outlines the steps being taken to implement those strategies. Each strategy addresses one of the energy sectors identified in the earlier Guam strategic energy plan as being an essential component of diversifying Guam's fuel sources and reducing fossil energy consumption 20% by 2020. The four energy strategies selected are: (1) expanding public outreach on energy efficiency and conservation, (2) establishing a demand-side management revolving loan program, (3) exploring waste-to-energy options, and (4) influencing the transportation sector via anti-idling legislation, vehicle registration fees, and electric vehicles.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 365 comprises one corrective action site (CAS), CAS 08-23-02, U-8d Contamination Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 365 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with a use restriction (UR). Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18, 2011, through August 2, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 365: Baneberry Contamination Area. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 365 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in supporting the DQO decisions. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present to the southwest of the Baneberry crater. It was also assumed that radionuclide levels present within the crater and fissure exceed the FAL. Corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of establishing a UR and posting warning signs for the crater, fissure, and the area located to the southwest of the crater where soil concentrations exceeded the FAL. These URs were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: (1) No further corrective actions beyond what are described in this document are necessary for CAU 365. (2) A Notice of Completion to

  20. Establishing Substantial Equivalence: Metabolomics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beale, Michael H.; Ward, Jane L.; Baker, John M.

    Modern ‘metabolomic’ methods allow us to compare levels of many structurally diverse compounds in an automated fashion across a large number of samples. This technology is ideally suited to screening of populations of plants, including trials where the aim is the determination of unintended effects introduced by GM. A number of metabolomic methods have been devised for the determination of substantial equivalence. We have developed a methodology, using [1H]-NMR fingerprinting, for metabolomic screening of plants and have applied it to the study of substantial equivalence of field-grown GM wheat. We describe here the principles and detail of that protocol as applied to the analysis of flour generated from field plots of wheat. Particular emphasis is given to the downstream data processing and comparison of spectra by multivariate analysis, from which conclusions regarding metabolome changes due to the GM can be assessed against the background of natural variation due to environment.

  1. Affirmative Action: A Plan for America

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, James R.

    1977-01-01

    Notes that the American Library Association (ALA) has adopted an Equal Employment Opportunity statement which all libraries, hopefully, will use as a guide in establishing affirmative action programs. The ALA Office for Library Personnel Resources will provide assistance to libraries interested in establishing such programs. (Author/JM)

  2. Affirmative Action in Science and Engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Resnik, David B.

    This article examines the legal and moral basis of affirmative action in science and engineering, in light of recent legal rulings by the U.S. Supreme Court. It argues that affirmative action programs can be morally and legally justified on the grounds that they enhance educational experiences and promote creativity, productivity, and success in science and engineering. Affirmative action programs may use race, ethnicity, or gender as one factor among many in decision-making, but they should not treat race, ethnicity, or gender as a decisive factor. Affirmative action programs that establish racial, ethnic or gender quotas are not legally or morally justifiable.

  3. 78 FR 37876 - Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-24

    ..., including fossil-fueled power plants, nuclear plants, hydroelectric dams, and renewable resources; the... Establishment of Regional Energy Resource Council and Solicitation of Nominations for Membership AGENCY: Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA). ACTION: Notice of Establishment of the Regional Energy Resource...

  4. From critical levels to critical loads for ozone: a discussion of a new experimental and modelling approach for establishing flux-response relationships for agricultural crops and native plant species.

    PubMed

    Grünhage, Ludger; Jäger, Hans-Jürgen

    2003-01-01

    Present critical levels for ozone (O3) for protecting vegetation against adverse effects are based on exposure-response relationships mainly derived from open-top chamber experiments and are expressed as an Accumulated exposure Over a Threshold of 40 ppb (AOT40). In that context with a revision of the UN (United Nations)-ECE (Economic Commission for Europe) Gothenburg protocol, AOT40 values should be replaced by flux-oriented quantities, i.e. in the end by critical loads. At present, the database for the derivation of critical loads for O3 is extremely inadequate. Furthermore, the currently available flux-response relationships are also derived from open-top chamber experiments. The use of a relationship for spring wheat in a risk assessment for an agricultural site in Hesse, Germany, demonstrates in principle, the applicability of the critical load concept for O3. Comparisons of diurnal variation of stomatal uptake and AOT40 showed that a major part of toxicologically effective stomatal uptake occurred before noon whereas the AOT40 values were dominated by the O3 concentrations during afternoon. In other words, the AOT40 exposure index do not adequately address the O3 burden during hours when plants are sensitive to O3 uptake. However, due to the differences in radiation, air temperature and humidity between the chamber and the ambient microclimates, a derivation of flux-response relationships from chamber experiments is likely to be questionable, especially for species rich ecosystems: Here, without any changes in the pollution climate, significant modifications of species composition as well as an earlier beginning of the growing season has been previously observed. To overcome the problems associated with chamber-derived flux-response relationships, a new experimental and modelling concept, was developed. The approach, briefly described in this paper, combines methods in air pollution toxicology and micrometeorology. As an analogy to the free-air fumigation

  5. Evidence for a distributed hierarchy of action representation in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Grafton, Scott T.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.

    2007-01-01

    Complex human behavior is organized around temporally distal outcomes. Behavioral studies based on tasks such as normal prehension, multi-step object use and imitation establish the existence of relative hierarchies of motor control. The retrieval errors in apraxia also support the notion of a hierarchical model for representing action in the brain. In this review, three functional brain imaging studies of action observation using the method of repetition suppression are used to identify a putative neural architecture that supports action understanding at the level of kinematics, object centered goals and ultimately, motor outcomes. These results, based on observation, may match a similar functional anatomic hierarchy for action planning and execution. If this is true, then the findings support a functional anatomic model that is distributed across a set of interconnected brain areas that are differentially recruited for different aspects of goal oriented behavior, rather than a homogeneous mirror neuron system for organizing and understanding all behavior. PMID:17706312

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 106: Area 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews and Dawn Peterson

    2011-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit 106 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 05-20-02, Evaporation Pond; (2) 05-23-05, Atmospheric Test Site - Able; (3) 05-45-04, 306 GZ Rad Contaminated Area; (4) 05-45-05, 307 GZ Rad Contaminated Area. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 106 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of clean closure was implemented at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05, while no corrective action was necessary at CASs 05-20-02 and 05-23-05. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 20, 2010, through June 1, 2011, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 106: Areas 5, 11 Frenchman Flat Atmospheric Sites. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides, and investigation of other releases (mechanical displacement and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 106 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL of 25 millirem per year was established based on the Industrial Area exposure scenario (2,250 hours of annual exposure). The only radiological dose exceeding the FAL was at CAS 05-45-05 and was associated with potential source material (PSM). It is also assumed that additional PSM in the form of depleted uranium (DU) and DU-contaminated debris at CASs 05-45-04 and 05-45-05 exceed the FAL. Therefore, corrective actions were undertaken at these CASs that consisted of removing PSM and collecting verification

  7. Action goals influence action-specific perception.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2009-12-01

    We examined the processes that mediate the emergence of action-specific influences on perception that have recently been reported for baseball batting and golf putting (Witt, Linkenauger, Bakdash, & Proffitt, 2008; Witt & Proffitt, 2005). To this end, we used a Schokokusswurfmaschine: Children threw a ball at a target, which, if hit successfully, launched a ball that the children then had to catch. In two experiments, children performed either a throwing-and-catching task or a throwing-only task, in which no ball was launched. After each task, the size of the target or of the ball was estimated. Results indicate that action-specific influences on perceived size occur for objects that are related to the end goal of the action, but not for objects that are related to intermediate action goals. These results suggest that action-specific influences on perception are contingent upon the primary action goals to be achieved.

  8. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  9. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  10. Action Research in EdD Programs in Educational Leadership

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osterman, Karen; Furman, Gail; Sernak, Kathleen

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study gathered information about the use of action research within doctor of education programs in educational leadership and explored faculty understanding of and perspectives on action research. Survey data established that action research is used infrequently to meet dissertation requirements. Contributing factors include lack…

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2010-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 371, Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe, located within Areas 11 and 18 at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 371 comprises two corrective action sites (CASs): • 11-23-05, Pin Stripe Contamination Area • 18-45-01, U-18j-2 Crater (Johnnie Boy) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 371 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at both CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 8, 2009, through February 16, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 371: Johnnie Boy Crater and Pin Stripe. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 371 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface soil. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within the Johnnie Boy crater and the fissure at Pin Stripe. Due to the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken

  12. Diversity experiences predict changes in attitudes toward affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Aberson, Christopher L

    2007-10-01

    The current study examined the role of diversity experiences in promoting changes in attitudes toward affirmative action (AA). Using longitudinal data from a survey of over 1000 college students at admission and in their fourth year, results demonstrated that participation in diversity-related campus activities related to positive changes in attitudes toward affirmative action. This result was consistent across samples of White, African American, and Asian American students. Positive changes in attitudes persisted despite statistical controls for established predictors of attitudes toward AA such as merit and prevalence of discrimination beliefs, and individual-level characteristics such as experiences of discrimination and political liberalism. I discuss the relevance of this finding to the AA literature and to changing attitudes toward AA. PMID:17967096

  13. Ecology and Energy Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these elementary school-level instructional materials are for use as an introduction to existing units of study, supplements to a textbook, or a source of special projects for environmental education. Contents include these six units: Make Your Own Ecology Mini-spinner, Let's Look at a Food Chain, Drip the…

  14. Mirroring and the development of action understanding.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Amanda L; Gerson, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey motor cortex has inspired wide-ranging hypotheses about the potential relationship between action control and social cognition. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that this relationship supports the early development of a critical aspect of social understanding, the ability to analyse others' actions in terms of goals. Recent investigations of infant action understanding have revealed rich connections between motor development and the analysis of goals in others' actions. In particular, infants' own goal-directed actions influence their analysis of others' goals. This evidence indicates that the cognitive systems that drive infants' own actions contribute to their analysis of goals in others' actions. These effects occur at a relatively abstract level of analysis both in terms of the structure infants perceive in others' actions and relevant structure in infants' own actions. Although the neural bases of these effects in infants are not yet well understood, current evidence indicates that connections between action production and action perception in infancy involve the interrelated neural systems at work in generating planned, intelligent action. PMID:24778377

  15. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  16. An Establishment-Level Test of the Statistical Discrimination Hypothesis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomaskovic-Devey, Donald; Skaggs, Sheryl

    1999-01-01

    Analysis of a sample of 306 workers shows that neither the gender nor racial composition of the workplace is associated with productivity. An alternative explanation for lower wages of women and minorities is social closure--the monopolizing of desirable positions by advantaged workers. (SK)

  17. Establishing joint goals through observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Wie, Michael

    1997-09-01

    When interacting with intelligent agents, it is vital to understand something of their intentions. Agents' intentions provide context in spoken deluge, help to define their future plans (and thus actions), and reveal information about their beliefs. We propose a method by which agents' intentions are inferred by observing their actions. Explicit communication among agents is not permitted. The joint intentions framework specifies the behaviors and obligations of agents that share in a cooperative intention. Our work focuses on the creation of such joint intentions through observation and plan recognition. The plan recognition structure uses Bayes nets to reason from observations to actions, and hidden Markov models to reason from sequences of actions to intent.

  18. Establishing Competence: Qualification of Power Plant Personnel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, Colin R.

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the International Atomic Energy Agency's definition of competence for nuclear power plant operations personnel, how competence can be identified with intellectual, physical, and psychological attributes, how levels of competence are determined, how education, training, and experience establish competence, objectives and costs of training…

  19. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... supervisory and non-supervisory, employed by the establishment on a full-time, part-time, or temporary...

  20. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... SHIPMENT OF CARCASSES, PARTS OF CARCASSES, MEAT, AND MEAT FOOD PRODUCTS § 332.3 Requirements for... supervisory and non-supervisory, employed by the establishment on a full-time, part-time, or temporary...

  1. 9 CFR 332.3 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments. 332.3 Section 332.3 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS...

  2. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC. PMID:25929662

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  4. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  5. Androgen actions and the ovary.

    PubMed

    Walters, K A; Allan, C M; Handelsman, D J

    2008-03-01

    Although androgens and the androgen receptor (AR) have defining roles in male reproductive development and function, previously no role in female reproductive physiology beyond testosterone (T) as the precursor in estradiol (E(2)) biosynthesis was firmly established. Understanding the role and specific mechanisms of androgen action via the AR in the ovary has been limited by confusion on how to interpret results from pharmacological studies, because many androgens can be metabolized in vivo and in vitro to steroids that can also exert actions via the estrogen receptor (ESR). Recent genetic studies using mouse models with specific disruption of the Ar gene have highlighted the role that AR-mediated actions play in maintaining female fertility through key roles in the regulation of follicle health, development, and ovulation. Furthermore, these genetic studies have revealed that AR-mediated effects influence age-related female fertility, possibly via mechanisms acting predominantly at the hypothalamic-pituitary axis in a dose-dependent manner. This review focuses on combining the findings from pharmacological studies and novel genetic mouse models to unravel the roles of ovarian androgen actions in relation to female fertility and ovarian aging, as well as creating new insights into the role of androgens in androgen-associated reproductive disorders such as polycystic ovarian syndrome.

  6. 5 CFR 319.203 - Establishment of positions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishment of positions. 319.203 Section 319.203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS EMPLOYMENT IN SENIOR-LEVEL AND SCIENTIFIC AND PROFESSIONAL POSITIONS Position Allocations and Establishment § 319.203 Establishment of positions. (a)...

  7. Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Actions taken in the area of outdoor recreation on Federal, State, local, and private levels are reported in the document. Financing actions are listed according to states, government agencies, and names of private financers. The organization and administration section includes new agencies, personnel, reorganizations, and significant resolutions…

  8. The Challenge of Evaluating Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the benefits claimed for action learning at individual, organisational and inter-organisational levels. It goes on to identify both generic difficulties in evaluating development programmes and action learning specifically. The distinction between formative and summative evaluation is considered and a summative evaluation…

  9. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  10. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  11. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  12. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  13. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  14. Action Sheet 36 Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Kips, R E; Kristo, M J; Hutcheon, I D

    2012-02-24

    Pursuant to the Arrangement between the European Commission DG Joint Research Centre (EC-JRC) and the Department of Energy (DOE) to continue cooperation on research, development, testing, and evaluation of technology, equipment, and procedures in order to improve nuclear material control, accountancy, verification, physical protection, and advanced containment and surveillance technologies for international safeguards, dated 1 September 2008, the IRMM and LLNL established cooperation in a program on the Study of Chemical Changes in Uranium Oxyfluoride Particles under IRMM-LLNL Action Sheet 36. The work under this action sheet had 2 objectives: (1) Achieve a better understanding of the loss of fluorine in UO{sub 2}F{sub 2} particles after exposure to certain environmental conditions; and (2) Provide feedback to the EC-JRC on sample reproducibility and characteristics.

  15. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates.

    PubMed

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-11-25

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play.

  16. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates

    PubMed Central

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R.; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C. Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-01-01

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play. PMID:25385590

  17. Action video game play facilitates the development of better perceptual templates.

    PubMed

    Bejjanki, Vikranth R; Zhang, Ruyuan; Li, Renjie; Pouget, Alexandre; Green, C Shawn; Lu, Zhong-Lin; Bavelier, Daphne

    2014-11-25

    The field of perceptual learning has identified changes in perceptual templates as a powerful mechanism mediating the learning of statistical regularities in our environment. By measuring threshold-vs.-contrast curves using an orientation identification task under varying levels of external noise, the perceptual template model (PTM) allows one to disentangle various sources of signal-to-noise changes that can alter performance. We use the PTM approach to elucidate the mechanism that underlies the wide range of improvements noted after action video game play. We show that action video game players make use of improved perceptual templates compared with nonvideo game players, and we confirm a causal role for action video game play in inducing such improvements through a 50-h training study. Then, by adapting a recent neural model to this task, we demonstrate how such improved perceptual templates can arise from reweighting the connectivity between visual areas. Finally, we establish that action gamers do not enter the perceptual task with improved perceptual templates. Instead, although performance in action gamers is initially indistinguishable from that of nongamers, action gamers more rapidly learn the proper template as they experience the task. Taken together, our results establish for the first time to our knowledge the development of enhanced perceptual templates following action game play. Because such an improvement can facilitate the inference of the proper generative model for the task at hand, unlike perceptual learning that is quite specific, it thus elucidates a general learning mechanism that can account for the various behavioral benefits noted after action game play. PMID:25385590

  18. 9 CFR 381.513 - Requirements for establishments; ineligible establishments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... establishment from a temporary employee agency, professional employee organization, or leasing concern whose... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY..., part-time, or temporary basis whose duties involve handling the poultry products prepared by...

  19. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  20. [Neuroprotective actions of lithium].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Fujimaki, Koichiro; Jeong, Mi Ra; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Christ, Lori; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has long been one of the primary drugs used to treat bipolar mood disorder. However, neither the etiology of this disease nor the therapeutic mechanism(s) of this drug is well understood. Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that lithium has neurotrophic actions. For example chronic lithium treatment increases the volume of gray matter and the content of N-acetyl-aspartate, a cell survival marker, in bipolar mood disorder patients (Moore et al., 2000). Moreover, treatment with this mood-stabilizer suppresses the decrease in the volume of the subgenual pre-frontal cortex found in bipolar patients (Drevets, 2001). To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of lithium, we employed a preparation of cultured cortical neurons prepared form embryonic rats. We found that treatment with therapeutic doses (0.2-1.2 mM) of lithium robustly protects cortical neurons from multiple insults, notably glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. The neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is time-dependent, requiring treatment for 5-6 days for maximal effect, and is associated with a reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. The latter is correlated with a decrease in Tyrosine 1472 phosphorylation levels in the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors and a loss of Src kinase activity which is involved in NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Neither the activity of total tyrosine protein kinase nor that of tyrosine protein phosphatase is affected by this drug, indicating the selectivity of the modulation. Lithium neuroprotection against excitotoxicity is inhibited by a BDNF-neutralizing antibody and K252a, a Trk antagonist. Lithium treatment time-dependently increases the intracellular level of BDNF in cortical neurons and activates its receptor, TrkB. The neuroprotection can be completely blocked by either heterozygous or homozygous knockout of the BDNF gene. These results suggest a central role of BDNF and TrkB in mediating the

  1. Action Recommendation for Cyber Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Rodriguez, Luke R.; Curtis, Darren S.; Oler, Kiri J.; Nordquist, Peter L.; Chen, Pin-Yu; Ray, Indrajit

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an unifying graph-based model for representing the infrastructure, behavior and missions of an enterprise. We describe how the model can be used to achieve resiliency against a wide class of failures and attacks. We introduce an algorithm for recommending resilience establishing actions based on dynamic updates to the models. Without loss of generality, we show the effectiveness of the algorithm for preserving latency based quality of service (QoS). Our models and the recommendation algorithms are implemented in a software framework that we seek to release as an open source framework for simulating resilient cyber systems.

  2. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  3. Action controls dopaminergic enhancement of reward representations

    PubMed Central

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Chowdhury, Rumana; Sharot, Tali; Dayan, Peter; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is widely observed to signal anticipation of future rewards and thus thought to be a key contributor to affectively charged decision making. However, the experiments supporting this view have not dissociated rewards from the actions that lead to, or are occasioned by, them. Here, we manipulated dopamine pharmacologically and examined the effect on a task that explicitly dissociates action and reward value. We show that dopamine enhanced the neural representation of rewarding actions, without significantly affecting the representation of reward value as such. Thus, increasing dopamine levels with levodopa selectively boosted striatal and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental representations associated with actions leading to reward, but not with actions leading to the avoidance of punishment. These findings highlight a key role for dopamine in the generation of appetitively motivated actions. PMID:22529363

  4. Establishing a green lights revolving fund

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    The report details the experiences of the City of Houston in establishing a Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides examples of key documents and guidelines which can be used in other jurisdictions to establish an internal revolving fund to provide continuing monies through recapture of cost savings for an ongoing program of energy improvements in governmental facilities. It provides guidelines on how to establish a continuing source of funds for governmental facility energy improvements. The report provides background information on the ongoing energy improvement programs in the City of Houston, including its participation in the Environmental Protection Agency`s Green Lights Program. It reviews the steps required to establish a Green Lights Revolving Fund, including the administrative, legal, budgetary, accounting, interdepartmental, mayoral, and governing body approvals and actions needed to create a self-sustaining revolving fund devoted to energy improvements. The report also describes two funding sources in addition to the grant seed funds which were used to increase the initial funds available in the Green Lights Revolving Fund. It provides sample documents for modification and use in other jurisdictions that want to use similar funding sources. It reports the initial project submission and selection procedure and criteria, and provides a transferable project application kit based on the criteria specified. It also details a sample repayment memorandum of understanding between departments, which can be used in other governments. Other transferable products provided in the report are sample energy audit summaries which were conducted by qualified, independent staff to determine the accuracy of the departmental project costs and savings payback calculations.

  5. 75 FR 983 - Notice of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council AGENCY: Office of Fossil Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Notice of Re-Establishment of the National Petroleum Council. Pursuant to Section 14(a)(2... Administration, notice is hereby given that the National Petroleum Council has been re-established for a...

  6. 75 FR 16335 - Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-01

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mount Pleasant, SC.... SUMMARY: This action establishes Class E airspace at Mount Pleasant, SC, to accommodate Standard... establishes Class E airspace at Mount Pleasant, SC, to provide controlled airspace extending upward from...

  7. 75 FR 57216 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-20

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bamberg, SC, to accommodate the additional... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC to provide...

  8. 75 FR 52654 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-27

    ... Federal Aviation Administration 14 CFR Part 71 Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Bamberg, SC...: This action proposes to establish Class E Airspace at Bamberg, SC, to accommodate the additional... Federal Regulations (14 CFR) part 71 to establish Class E airspace at Bamberg, SC to provide...

  9. Binding space and time through action.

    PubMed

    Binetti, N; Hagura, N; Fadipe, C; Tomassini, A; Walsh, V; Bestmann, S

    2015-04-22

    Space and time are intimately coupled dimensions in the human brain. Several lines of evidence suggest that space and time are processed by a shared analogue magnitude system. It has been proposed that actions are instrumental in establishing this shared magnitude system. Here we provide evidence in support of this hypothesis, by showing that the interaction between space and time is enhanced when magnitude information is acquired through action. Participants observed increases or decreases in the height of a visual bar (spatial magnitude) while judging whether a simultaneously presented sequence of acoustic tones had accelerated or decelerated (temporal magnitude). In one condition (Action), participants directly controlled the changes in bar height with a hand grip device, whereas in the other (No Action), changes in bar height were externally controlled but matched the spatial/temporal profile of the Action condition. The sign of changes in bar height biased the perceived rate of the tone sequences, where increases in bar height produced apparent increases in tone rate. This effect was amplified when the visual bar was actively controlled in the Action condition, and the strength of the interaction was scaled by the magnitude of the action. Subsequent experiments ruled out that this was simply explained by attentional factors, and additionally showed that a monotonic mapping is also required between grip force and bar height in order to bias the perception of the tones. These data provide support for an instrumental role of action in interfacing spatial and temporal quantities in the brain.

  10. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  11. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 529: Area 25 Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction (UR) Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-23-17, Contaminated Wash (Parcel H). This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level at the time of the initial investigation.

  12. Renewing Professional Organizations and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullen, Carol A.

    2011-01-01

    This account concerns the renewal of established professional organizations though action learning. In order to revitalize one national organization, an executive group of leaders committed to co-leading and co-learning through a friendly, computer-supported governance structure. Manifestations of our work together were an accelerated…

  13. The role of selective attention and action selection in the development of multiple action capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simione, Luca; Nolfi, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we illustrate how the capacity to select the most appropriate actions when handling contexts affording multiple conflicting actions can be solved either through a selective attention strategy (in which the stimuli affording alternative actions are filtered out at the perceptual level through top-down regulation) or at later processing stages through an action selection strategy (through the suppression of the premotor information eliciting alternative actions). By carrying out a series of experiments in which a neuro-robot develops an ability to choose between conflicting actions, we were able to identify the conditions that lead to the development of solutions based on one strategy or another. Overall, the results indicate that the selective attention strategy constitutes the most simple and straightforward mechanism enabling the acquisition of such capacities. Moreover, the characteristics of the adaptive/learning process influence whether the adaptive robot converges towards a selective attention and/or action selection strategy.

  14. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D; Snyder, Adam C; Smith, Matthew A; Urban, Nathaniel N; Kass, Robert E

    2015-10-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or "spikes" nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons' fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron's firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  15. Establishing a Statistical Link between Network Oscillations and Neural Synchrony

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Pengcheng; Burton, Shawn D.; Snyder, Adam C.; Smith, Matthew A.; Urban, Nathaniel N.; Kass, Robert E.

    2015-01-01

    Pairs of active neurons frequently fire action potentials or “spikes” nearly synchronously (i.e., within 5 ms of each other). This spike synchrony may occur by chance, based solely on the neurons’ fluctuating firing patterns, or it may occur too frequently to be explicable by chance alone. When spike synchrony above chances levels is present, it may subserve computation for a specific cognitive process, or it could be an irrelevant byproduct of such computation. Either way, spike synchrony is a feature of neural data that should be explained. A point process regression framework has been developed previously for this purpose, using generalized linear models (GLMs). In this framework, the observed number of synchronous spikes is compared to the number predicted by chance under varying assumptions about the factors that affect each of the individual neuron’s firing-rate functions. An important possible source of spike synchrony is network-wide oscillations, which may provide an essential mechanism of network information flow. To establish the statistical link between spike synchrony and network-wide oscillations, we have integrated oscillatory field potentials into our point process regression framework. We first extended a previously-published model of spike-field association and showed that we could recover phase relationships between oscillatory field potentials and firing rates. We then used this new framework to demonstrate the statistical relationship between oscillatory field potentials and spike synchrony in: 1) simulated neurons, 2) in vitro recordings of hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells, and 3) in vivo recordings of neocortical V4 neurons. Our results provide a rigorous method for establishing a statistical link between network oscillations and neural synchrony. PMID:26465621

  16. Establishing a standardized therapeutic testing protocol for spinal muscular atrophy.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Li-Kai; Tsai, Ming-Shung; Lin, Tzer-Bin; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Li, Hung

    2006-11-01

    Several mice models have been created for spinal muscular atrophy (SMA); however, there is still no standard preclinical testing system for the disease. We previously generated type III-specific SMA model mice, which might be suitable for use as a preclinical therapeutic testing system for SMA. To establish such a system and test its applicability, we first created a testing protocol and then applied it as a means to investigate the use of valproic acid (VPA) as a possible treatment for SMA. These SMA mice revealed tail/ear/foot deformity, muscle atrophy, poorer motor performances, smaller compound muscle action potential and lower spinal motoneuron density at the age of 9 to 12 months in comparison with age-matched wild-type littermate mice. In addition, VPA attenuates motoneuron death, increases spinal SMN protein level and partially normalizes motor function in SMA mice. These results suggest that the testing protocol developed here is well suited for use as a standardized preclinical therapeutic testing system for SMA.

  17. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  18. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  19. Political action committee for scientists

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richman, Barbara T.

    Spurred by budget proposals that could severely reduce science funding (Eos, March 24, March 3, February 10), seven scientists currently serving as Congressional Science or State Department Fellows recently founded a political action committee (PAC) for scientists. The Science and Technology Political Action Committee (SCITEC-PAC) aims to make scientists more politically aware and better informed about potential legislative actions that affect research. It will also serve to ‘establish a political presence’ with respect to science, said Donald Stein, SCITEC-PAC's chairman.The organization is not a lobbying group, explained Stein, professor of neurology and psychology at Clark University and the University of Massachusetts Medical Center. ‘Lobbyists seek to influence officials by presenting information to them,’ he said, ‘while a PAC tries to influence the outcome of elections through campaign contributions of money, time, and effort in behalf of candidates that share similar goals and aspirations.’ In other words, the PAC will be a vehicle for promoting candidates for federal office who advocate strong support for scientific research and training. In addition, the PAC will develop and study science policy and budget issues and will attempt to stimulate government and private sector interest in these issues.

  20. Salt reduction in Australia: from advocacy to action

    PubMed Central

    Trieu, Kathy; Dunford, Elizabeth; Nowson, Caryl; Jolly, Kellie-Ann; Greenland, Rohan; Reimers, Jenny; Bolam, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Background As part of its endorsement of the World Health Organization’s Global Action Plan to prevent non-communicable diseases, the Federal Government of Australia has committed to a 30% reduction in average population salt intake by 2025. Currently, mean daily salt intake levels are 8-9 g, varying by sex, region and population group. A number of salt reduction initiatives have been established over the last decade, but key elements for a co-ordinated population-level strategy are still missing. The objective of this review is to provide a comprehensive overview of existing population-level salt reduction activities in Australia and identify opportunities for further action. Methods A review of the published literature and stakeholder activities was undertaken to identify and document current activities. The activities were then assessed against a pre-defined framework for salt reduction strategies. Results A range of initiatives were identified from the review. The Australian Division of World Action on Salt and Health (AWASH) was established in 2005 and in 2007 launched its Drop the Salt! Campaign. This united non-governmental organisations (NGOs), health and medical and food industry organisations in a co-ordinated advocacy effort to encourage government to develop a national strategy to reduce salt. Subsequently, in 2010 the Federal Government launched its Food and Health Dialogue (FHD) with a remit to improve the health of the food supply in Australia through voluntary partnerships with food industry, government and non-government public health organisations. The focus of the FHD to date has been on voluntary reformulation of foods, primarily through salt reduction targets. More recently, in December 2014, the government’s Health Star Rating system was launched. This front of pack labelling scheme uses stars to highlight the nutritional profile of packaged foods. Both government initiatives have clear targets or criteria for industry to meet, however

  1. Implantation and Establishment of Pregnancy in Ruminants.

    PubMed

    Spencer, Thomas E; Hansen, Thomas R

    2015-01-01

    The establishment of pregnancy in ruminants occurs during the peri-implantation period and involves the suppression of the endometrial luteolytic mechanism to maintain progesterone production by the corpus luteum (CL). Reciprocal interactions between the elongating conceptus (embryo/fetus and associated extraembryonic membranes) and endometrium culminate in implantation. Antiluteolytic effects of the conceptus are due to the production of interferon tau (IFNT) by the trophoblast that has a paracrine effect to inhibit the upregulation of oxytocin receptors in the endometrial epithelia, thereby disrupting uterine release of luteolytic prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF) pulses. Additionally, IFNT is released into the uterine vein and has endocrine actions to induce ISGs in peripheral tissues. For example, IFNT may induce luteal resistance to PGF, thereby ensuring survival of the CL and maintenance of pregnancy. Survival of the blastocyst and elongation of the conceptus requires embryotrophic factors from the epithelia of the uterus, and those embryotrophic factors are regulated by ovarian progesterone as well as conceptus-derived factors including IFNT and prostaglandins. This review provides new concepts on mechanisms of the establishment of pregnancy and implantation in ruminants with emphasis on conceptus-maternal signaling associated with elongation of the blastocyst and endometrial responses to the presence of a conceptus.

  2. Establishing optimal quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assays for routine diagnosis and tracking of minimal residual disease in JAK2-V617F-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms: a joint European LeukemiaNet/MPN&MPNr-EuroNet (COST action BM0902) study

    PubMed Central

    Jovanovic, J V; Ivey, A; Vannucchi, A M; Lippert, E; Oppliger Leibundgut, E; Cassinat, B; Pallisgaard, N; Maroc, N; Hermouet, S; Nickless, G; Guglielmelli, P; van der Reijden, B A; Jansen, J H; Alpermann, T; Schnittger, S; Bench, A; Tobal, K; Wilkins, B; Cuthill, K; McLornan, D; Yeoman, K; Akiki, S; Bryon, J; Jeffries, S; Jones, A; Percy, M J; Schwemmers, S; Gruender, A; Kelley, T W; Reading, S; Pancrazzi, A; McMullin, M F; Pahl, H L; Cross, N C P; Harrison, C N; Prchal, J T; Chomienne, C; Kiladjian, J J; Barbui, T; Grimwade, D

    2013-01-01

    Reliable detection of JAK2-V617F is critical for accurate diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs); in addition, sensitive mutation-specific assays can be applied to monitor disease response. However, there has been no consistent approach to JAK2-V617F detection, with assays varying markedly in performance, affecting clinical utility. Therefore, we established a network of 12 laboratories from seven countries to systematically evaluate nine different DNA-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, including those in widespread clinical use. Seven quality control rounds involving over 21 500 qPCR reactions were undertaken using centrally distributed cell line dilutions and plasmid controls. The two best-performing assays were tested on normal blood samples (n=100) to evaluate assay specificity, followed by analysis of serial samples from 28 patients transplanted for JAK2-V617F-positive disease. The most sensitive assay, which performed consistently across a range of qPCR platforms, predicted outcome following transplant, with the mutant allele detected a median of 22 weeks (range 6–85 weeks) before relapse. Four of seven patients achieved molecular remission following donor lymphocyte infusion, indicative of a graft vs MPN effect. This study has established a robust, reliable assay for sensitive JAK2-V617F detection, suitable for assessing response in clinical trials, predicting outcome and guiding management of patients undergoing allogeneic transplant. PMID:23860450

  3. Establishing optimal quantitative-polymerase chain reaction assays for routine diagnosis and tracking of minimal residual disease in JAK2-V617F-associated myeloproliferative neoplasms: a joint European LeukemiaNet/MPN&MPNr-EuroNet (COST action BM0902) study.

    PubMed

    Jovanovic, J V; Ivey, A; Vannucchi, A M; Lippert, E; Oppliger Leibundgut, E; Cassinat, B; Pallisgaard, N; Maroc, N; Hermouet, S; Nickless, G; Guglielmelli, P; van der Reijden, B A; Jansen, J H; Alpermann, T; Schnittger, S; Bench, A; Tobal, K; Wilkins, B; Cuthill, K; McLornan, D; Yeoman, K; Akiki, S; Bryon, J; Jeffries, S; Jones, A; Percy, M J; Schwemmers, S; Gruender, A; Kelley, T W; Reading, S; Pancrazzi, A; McMullin, M F; Pahl, H L; Cross, N C P; Harrison, C N; Prchal, J T; Chomienne, C; Kiladjian, J J; Barbui, T; Grimwade, D

    2013-10-01

    Reliable detection of JAK2-V617F is critical for accurate diagnosis of myeloproliferative neoplasms (MPNs); in addition, sensitive mutation-specific assays can be applied to monitor disease response. However, there has been no consistent approach to JAK2-V617F detection, with assays varying markedly in performance, affecting clinical utility. Therefore, we established a network of 12 laboratories from seven countries to systematically evaluate nine different DNA-based quantitative PCR (qPCR) assays, including those in widespread clinical use. Seven quality control rounds involving over 21,500 qPCR reactions were undertaken using centrally distributed cell line dilutions and plasmid controls. The two best-performing assays were tested on normal blood samples (n=100) to evaluate assay specificity, followed by analysis of serial samples from 28 patients transplanted for JAK2-V617F-positive disease. The most sensitive assay, which performed consistently across a range of qPCR platforms, predicted outcome following transplant, with the mutant allele detected a median of 22 weeks (range 6-85 weeks) before relapse. Four of seven patients achieved molecular remission following donor lymphocyte infusion, indicative of a graft vs MPN effect. This study has established a robust, reliable assay for sensitive JAK2-V617F detection, suitable for assessing response in clinical trials, predicting outcome and guiding management of patients undergoing allogeneic transplant. PMID:23860450

  4. [To the mechanisms of antiarrhythmic action of Allapinine].

    PubMed

    Vakhitova, Iu V; Farafontova, E I; Khisamutdinova, R Iu; Iunusov, V M; Cypasheva, I P; Iunusov, M S

    2013-01-01

    Allapinine (lappaconitine hydrobromide) is a drug for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, it shows IC class antiarrhythmics properties. Its action mechanism is associated with blockade of Na(+)-channels with subsequent inhibition of the depolarization rate and, consequently, of the slowing and reducing the excitability of the cardiac conduction system. At the moment, it is not established, what factors are associated with side effects of Allapinine, and therefore it seems important to study the molecular mechanisms of its action. The target genes were identified in a rat model of aconitine-induced arrhythmia using a commercial kit "Rat Neuroscience Ion Channels & Transporters RT2 Profiler PCR Array" (SABioscienses). Comparison of the expression of 84 genes in the experimental (aconitine arrhythmias/Allapinine) and control (aconitine arrhythmias/saline) animals revealed changes in the mRNA level of 18 genes. It has been shown an increase in mRNA levels of genes encoding various types of K(+)-channels (kcna6, kcnj1, kcnj4, kcnq2, kcnq4), Ca(2+)-channel (cacna 1g), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (slc 18a3). Decrease in the mRNA level was observed for genes encoding the Na(+)-channel (scn8a), K(+)-channels (kcne 1, kcns 1), membrane transporters (atp4a, slc6a9). Taken together, it appears that the effect of Allapinine on aconitine--induced arrhythmias is due to modulation of genes encoding Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-channels, conducting ionic currents (I(Na), I(to), I(Ks), I(K1), I(CaT)), which are involved in the formation of different phases of the action potential. The effect of the drug on the mRNA levels of genes encoding the acetylcholine and glycine transporters, suggesting the participation of these neurotransmitters in the mechanisms of anti-arrhythmic properties of the Allapinine. PMID:23844512

  5. [To the mechanisms of antiarrhythmic action of Allapinine].

    PubMed

    Vakhitova, Iu V; Farafontova, E I; Khisamutdinova, R Iu; Iunusov, V M; Cypasheva, I P; Iunusov, M S

    2013-01-01

    Allapinine (lappaconitine hydrobromide) is a drug for the treatment of cardiac arrhythmias, it shows IC class antiarrhythmics properties. Its action mechanism is associated with blockade of Na(+)-channels with subsequent inhibition of the depolarization rate and, consequently, of the slowing and reducing the excitability of the cardiac conduction system. At the moment, it is not established, what factors are associated with side effects of Allapinine, and therefore it seems important to study the molecular mechanisms of its action. The target genes were identified in a rat model of aconitine-induced arrhythmia using a commercial kit "Rat Neuroscience Ion Channels & Transporters RT2 Profiler PCR Array" (SABioscienses). Comparison of the expression of 84 genes in the experimental (aconitine arrhythmias/Allapinine) and control (aconitine arrhythmias/saline) animals revealed changes in the mRNA level of 18 genes. It has been shown an increase in mRNA levels of genes encoding various types of K(+)-channels (kcna6, kcnj1, kcnj4, kcnq2, kcnq4), Ca(2+)-channel (cacna 1g), vesicular acetylcholine transporter (slc 18a3). Decrease in the mRNA level was observed for genes encoding the Na(+)-channel (scn8a), K(+)-channels (kcne 1, kcns 1), membrane transporters (atp4a, slc6a9). Taken together, it appears that the effect of Allapinine on aconitine--induced arrhythmias is due to modulation of genes encoding Na(+)-, K(+)-, Ca(2+)-channels, conducting ionic currents (I(Na), I(to), I(Ks), I(K1), I(CaT)), which are involved in the formation of different phases of the action potential. The effect of the drug on the mRNA levels of genes encoding the acetylcholine and glycine transporters, suggesting the participation of these neurotransmitters in the mechanisms of anti-arrhythmic properties of the Allapinine.

  6. Activated AKT pathway promotes establishment of endometriosis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Tae Hoon; Yu, Yanni; Luo, Lily; Lydon, John P; Jeong, Jae-Wook; Kim, J Julie

    2014-05-01

    The pathogenesis of endometriosis remains unclear, and relatively little is known about the mechanisms that promote establishment and survival of the disease. Previously, we demonstrated that v-akt murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog (AKT) activity was increased in endometriosis tissues and cells from ovarian endometriomas and that this increase promoted cell survival as well as decreased levels of progesterone receptor. The objective of this study was to demonstrate a role for AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions. First, a dose-dependent inhibition of AKT in stromal cells from human ovarian endometriomas (OSIS) as well as endometrial stromal cells from disease-free patients (ESC) with the allosteric AKT inhibitor MK-2206 was demonstrated by decreased levels of phosphorylated (p)(Ser473)-AKT. Levels of the AKT target protein, p(Ser256)-forkhead box O1 were increased in OSIS cells, which decreased with MK-2206 treatment, whereas levels of p(Ser9)-glycogen synthase kinase 3β did not change in response to MK-2206. Although MK-2206 decreased viability of both OSIS and ESC in a dose-dependent manner, proliferation of OSIS cells was differentially decreased significantly compared with ESC. Next, the role of hyperactive AKT in the establishment of ectopic lesions was studied using the bigenic, PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) heterozygous mouse. Autologous implantation of uterine tissues was performed in these mice. After 4 weeks, an average of 4 ± 0.33 lesions per Pten(f/+) mouse and 7.5 ± 0.43 lesions in the PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mouse were found. Histological examination of the lesions showed endometrial tissue-like morphology, which was similar in both the Pten(f/+) and PR(cre/+)Pten(f/+) mice. Treatment of mice with MK-2206 resulted in a significantly decreased number of lesions established. Immunohistochemical staining of ectopic lesions revealed decreased p(Ser473)-AKT and the proliferation marker Ki67 from MK-2206-treated mice compared with vehicle-treated mice

  7. Addendum to the Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & Building 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the March 2000, Corrective Action Decision Document / Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 406: Area 3 Building 03-74 & 03-58 Underground Discharge Points and Corrective Action Unit 429: Area 3 Building 03-55 & Area 9 Building 09-52 Underground Discharge Points (TTR) as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 03-51-001-0355 – Photo Shop UDP, Drains in CAU 429. It should be noted that there are no changes to CAU 406. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data

  8. Action-based effects on music perception.

    PubMed

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M

    2014-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance.

  9. Action-based effects on music perception

    PubMed Central

    Maes, Pieter-Jan; Leman, Marc; Palmer, Caroline; Wanderley, Marcelo M.

    2013-01-01

    The classical, disembodied approach to music cognition conceptualizes action and perception as separate, peripheral processes. In contrast, embodied accounts of music cognition emphasize the central role of the close coupling of action and perception. It is a commonly established fact that perception spurs action tendencies. We present a theoretical framework that captures the ways in which the human motor system and its actions can reciprocally influence the perception of music. The cornerstone of this framework is the common coding theory, postulating a representational overlap in the brain between the planning, the execution, and the perception of movement. The integration of action and perception in so-called internal models is explained as a result of associative learning processes. Characteristic of internal models is that they allow intended or perceived sensory states to be transferred into corresponding motor commands (inverse modeling), and vice versa, to predict the sensory outcomes of planned actions (forward modeling). Embodied accounts typically refer to inverse modeling to explain action effects on music perception (Leman, 2007). We extend this account by pinpointing forward modeling as an alternative mechanism by which action can modulate perception. We provide an extensive overview of recent empirical evidence in support of this idea. Additionally, we demonstrate that motor dysfunctions can cause perceptual disabilities, supporting the main idea of the paper that the human motor system plays a functional role in auditory perception. The finding that music perception is shaped by the human motor system and its actions suggests that the musical mind is highly embodied. However, we advocate for a more radical approach to embodied (music) cognition in the sense that it needs to be considered as a dynamical process, in which aspects of action, perception, introspection, and social interaction are of crucial importance. PMID:24454299

  10. [Hepato- and endothelioprotective action of runihol and ademetionine in experimental liver injury induced by TB drugs in combination with alcohol].

    PubMed

    Sukhanov, D S; Artyushkova, E B; Dudka, V T

    2013-01-01

    Hepato- and endothelioprotective action of runihol and ademetionine in 66 male rats with liver disease induced by essential and second-line antituberculosis drugs in combination with alcohol were studied. One-directed affirmative action study drugs, shown to reduce the level of biochemical markers of cytolysis and cholestasis in conjunction with a significant reduction in symptoms of fatty, hyaline droplet and hydropic degeneration. In this runihol had a more pronounced anticytolitic effect, while under the influence of ademethionine the normalization endothelial dysfunction was established. PMID:24000714

  11. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  12. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  13. Preferential Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derrick A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical rationale for preferential affirmative action presented by Daniel C. Maguire in "A New American Justice." Maintains that self-interest bars present society's acceptance of Maguire's theories of justice, as demonstrated in negative reactions to the Harvard Law Review's affirmative action plan. (MJL)

  14. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  15. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  16. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  17. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  18. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  19. Establishing a Local Education Foundation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pressley, James S.; Markland, Maureen S.

    This paper describes the process of establishing local education foundations for the purpose of raising revenues to supplement, not supplant, existing school programs. Plans to identify funding sources and define the purpose of the foundation tied to student and academic achievement must emerge in order to solicit private individuals or groups,…

  20. Methods for improving PGPR establishment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) are often touted as a useful means to improve crop productivity and sustainability. However, field studies with PGPR inoculants often result in limited PGPR establishment and colonization, highlighting the need to better understand the factors involved in...

  1. Establishing Time for Professional Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Journal of Staff Development, 2013

    2013-01-01

    Time for collaborative learning is an essential resource for educators working to implement college- and career-ready standards. The pages in this article include tools from the workbook "Establishing Time for Professional Learning." The tools support a complete process to help educators effectively find and use time. The following…

  2. Establishing Rapport with Deviant Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berk, Richard A.; Adams, Joseph M.

    1970-01-01

    Techniques recommended for establishing and maintaining rapport with deviant groups focus on overcoming problems of social distance and mistrust. Although based on experience with juvenile delinquents and drug addicts, the suggestions made are held to offer potential for wider applicability. (RJ)

  3. Establishing Community College Honors Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heck, James

    Drawing from a literature review and survey of community colleges with honors programs, this paper presents a series of recommended strategies and tactics for the establishment and continuation of community college honors programs. The recommendations are structured around the five developmental stages of academic innovation identified by S. V.…

  4. On Establishing Underlying Tonal Contrast

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snider, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Phonological field work is largely about establishing contrast in comparable environments. The notion of phonological contrast, however, can be confusing, particularly in its application to tone analysis. Does it mean phonemic contrast in the structuralist sense, or does it mean underlying contrast in the generative sense? Many linguists, in…

  5. 40 CFR 1508.18 - Major Federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....C. 1221 et seq., with no Federal agency control over the subsequent use of such funds. Actions do.... 551 et seq.; treaties and international conventions or agreements; formal documents establishing...

  6. 40 CFR 1508.18 - Major Federal action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ....C. 1221 et seq., with no Federal agency control over the subsequent use of such funds. Actions do.... 551 et seq.; treaties and international conventions or agreements; formal documents establishing...

  7. Do approach-avoidance actions create attitudes?

    PubMed

    Centerbar, David B; Clore, Gerald L

    2006-01-01

    Do approach-avoidance actions create attitudes? Prior influential studies suggested that rudimentary attitudes could be established by simply pairing novel stimuli (Chinese ideographs) with arm flexion (approach) or arm extension (avoidance). In three experiments, we found that approach-avoidance actions alone were insufficient to account for such effects. Instead, we found that these affective influences resulted from the interaction of these actions with a priori differences in stimulus valence. Thus, with negative stimuli, the effect of extension on attitude was more positive than the effect of flexion. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the affect from motivationally compatible or incompatible action can also influence task evaluations. A final experiment, using Chinese ideographs from the original studies, confirmed these findings. Both approach and avoidance actions led to more positive evaluations of the ideographs when the actions were motivationally compatible with the prior valence of the ideographs. The attitudinal impact of approach-avoidance action thus reflects its situated meaning, which depends on the valence of stimuli being approached or avoided.

  8. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  9. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  10. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  11. 23 CFR 771.115 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of actions. 771.115 Section 771.115 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.115 Classes of actions. There are three classes of actions which prescribe the level of documentation required...

  12. 23 CFR 771.115 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of actions. 771.115 Section 771.115 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.115 Classes of actions. There are three classes of actions which prescribe the level of documentation required...

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 367: Area 10 Sedan, Ess and Uncle Unit Craters Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-06-01

    investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is complete and acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. For the primary release, radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were not found to be present in the surface or shallow subsurface soil outside the default contamination boundary. However, it was assumed that radionuclides are present in subsurface media within each of the three craters (Sedan, Ess, and Uncle) due to prompt injection of radionuclides from the tests. Based on the assumption of radiological dose exceeding the FAL, corrective actions were undertaken that consisted of implementing a use restriction and posting warning signs at each crater CAS. These use restrictions were recorded in the FFACO database; the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Facility Information Management System; and the NNSA/NSO CAU/CAS files. With regard to other releases, no contaminants of concern were identified at the mud pits or any of the other release locations, with one exception. Potential source material in the form of lead was found at one location. A corrective action of clean closure was implemented at this location, and verification samples indicated that no further action is necessary. Therefore, NNSA/NSO provides the following recommendations: • A Notice of Completion to NNSA/NSO is requested from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection for closure of CAU 367. • Corrective Action Unit 367 should be promoted from Appendix III to Appendix IV of the FFACO.

  14. Action: A Community-University Partnership for Training Alcoholism Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Skuja, Andris; And Others

    1980-01-01

    The Alcoholism Counseling Training Institute of Nebraska, Inc. (ACTION) was established to provide statewide training for alcoholism counselors to prepare them to meet state certification standards. ACTION is a joint effort by alcoholism service providers and the University of Nebraska psychology department. Issues faced by the program are…

  15. 49 CFR 659.37 - Corrective action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... identified causal and contributing factors are determined by the rail transit agency or oversight agency as... agency. (b) Each corrective action plan should identify the action to be taken by the rail transit agency... oversight agency must establish a process to resolve disputes between itself and the rail transit...

  16. 49 CFR 659.37 - Corrective action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... identified causal and contributing factors are determined by the rail transit agency or oversight agency as... agency. (b) Each corrective action plan should identify the action to be taken by the rail transit agency... oversight agency must establish a process to resolve disputes between itself and the rail transit...

  17. 49 CFR 659.37 - Corrective action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... identified causal and contributing factors are determined by the rail transit agency or oversight agency as... agency. (b) Each corrective action plan should identify the action to be taken by the rail transit agency... oversight agency must establish a process to resolve disputes between itself and the rail transit...

  18. 49 CFR 659.37 - Corrective action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... identified causal and contributing factors are determined by the rail transit agency or oversight agency as... agency. (b) Each corrective action plan should identify the action to be taken by the rail transit agency... oversight agency must establish a process to resolve disputes between itself and the rail transit...

  19. 49 CFR 659.37 - Corrective action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... identified causal and contributing factors are determined by the rail transit agency or oversight agency as... agency. (b) Each corrective action plan should identify the action to be taken by the rail transit agency... oversight agency must establish a process to resolve disputes between itself and the rail transit...

  20. Action Learning in an SME: Appetite Comes with Eating

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hauser, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    This account describes action learning in a small to medium-size enterprise (SME) that operates as a local power utility on an established market that is currently going through a process of radical transformation. The task of the action learning set was to improve the flow of information to employees about the evolving framework in which the…

  1. 29 CFR 1207.2 - Requests for Mediation Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requests for Mediation Board action. 1207.2 Section 1207.2 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) NATIONAL MEDIATION BOARD ESTABLISHMENT OF SPECIAL ADJUSTMENT BOARDS § 1207.2 Requests for Mediation Board action. (a) Requests for the National Mediation...

  2. Developing Healthcare Practice through Action Learning: Individual and Group Journeys

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilson, Valerie; McCormack, Brendan; Ives, Glenice

    2008-01-01

    Action Learning is now a well established strategy for reflective inquiry in healthcare. Whilst a great deal is know about action learning there has been inadequate research on the process of learning that takes place, and the impact that this holds for individuals, groups or organisations. This article reports on the findings of 15-month action…

  3. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  4. 21 CFR 1271.160 - Establishment and maintenance of a quality program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...: (i) Other establishments that are known to have recovered HCT/Ps from the same donor; (ii) Other.... Documentation of corrective actions must include, where appropriate: (i) Identification of the HCT/P...

  5. 78 FR 22916 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and Request for Comments. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  6. 78 FR 22917 - Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NATIONAL SCIENCE FOUNDATION Notice of Intent To Seek Approval To Establish an Information Collection AGENCY: National Science Foundation. ACTION: Notice and request for comments. SUMMARY: The National Science Foundation (NSF)...

  7. 78 FR 38683 - Availability of Guidance: Establishments Guidance for the Selection of a Commercial or Private...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-27

    ... Food Safety and Inspection Service Availability of Guidance: Establishments Guidance for the Selection of a Commercial or Private Microbiological Testing Laboratory AGENCY: Food Safety and Inspection Service, USDA. ACTION: Notice of availability. SUMMARY: The Food Safety and Inspection Service (FSIS)...

  8. 77 FR 133 - Determination of Rates and Terms for Business Establishment Services

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-03

    ... Copyright Royalty Board Determination of Rates and Terms for Business Establishment Services AGENCY: Copyright Royalty Board, Library of Congress. ACTION: Notice announcing commencement of proceeding with request for Petitions to Participate. SUMMARY: The Copyright Royalty Judges are announcing...

  9. Establishing molecular microbiology facilities in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Salman S; Alp, Emine; Ulu-Kilic, Aysegul; Doganay, Mehmet

    2015-01-01

    Microbiology laboratories play an important role in epidemiology and infection control programs. Within microbiology laboratories, molecular microbiology techniques have revolutionized the identification and surveillance of infectious diseases. The combination of excellent sensitivity, specificity, low contamination levels and speed has made molecular techniques appealing methods for the diagnosis of many infectious diseases. In a well-equipped microbiology laboratory, the facility designated for molecular techniques remains indiscrete. However, in most developing countries, poor infrastructure and laboratory mismanagement have precipitated hazardous consequences. The establishment of a molecular microbiology facility within a microbiology laboratory remains fragmented. A high-quality laboratory should include both conventional microbiology methods and molecular microbiology techniques for exceptional performance. Furthermore, it should include appropriate laboratory administration, a well-designed facility, laboratory procedure standardization, a waste management system, a code of practice, equipment installation and laboratory personnel training. This manuscript lays out fundamental issues that need to be addressed when establishing a molecular microbiology facility in developing countries.

  10. Hungarian climate change action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T.; Arpasi, M.; Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T.; Harnos, Z.; Lontay, Z.; Somogyi, Z.; Tajthy, T.

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  11. Students in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Insights on Law & Society, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on important issues surrounding the opening clauses of the First Amendment on the establishment of religion, freedom of speech, and freedom of religion. Includes articles: "Established Churches in Colonial Times,""Establishment Clause: Here's How to Understand it!", "Religious Freedom and Today's Religious Minorities," and "Santa Fe: A…

  12. Decision Making in Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    The importance of decision-making to safety in complex, dynamic environments like mission control centers and offshore installations has been well established. NASA-ARC has a program of research dedicated to fostering safe and effective decision-making in the manned spaceflight environment. Because access to spaceflight is limited, environments with similar characteristics, including aviation and nuclear power plants, serve as analogs from which space-relevant data can be gathered and theories developed. Analyses of aviation accidents cite crew judgement and decision making as causes or contributing factors in over half of all accidents. A similar observation has been made in nuclear power plants. Yet laboratory research on decision making has not proven especially helpful in improving the quality of decisions in these kinds of environments. One reason is that the traditional, analytic decision models are inappropriate to multidimensional, high-risk environments, and do not accurately describe what expert human decision makers do when they make decisions that have consequences. A new model of dynamic, naturalistic decision making is offered that may prove useful for improving decision making in complex, isolated, confined and high-risk environments. Based on analyses of crew performance in full-mission simulators and accident reports, features that define effective decision strategies in abnormal or emergency situations have been identified. These include accurate situation assessment (including time and risk assessment), appreciation of the complexity of the problem, sensitivity to constraints on the decision, timeliness of the response, and use of adequate information. More effective crews also manage their workload to provide themselves with time and resources to make good decisions. In brief, good decisions are appropriate to the demands of the situation. Effective crew decision making and overall performance are mediated by crew communication. Communication

  13. An intact action-perception coupling depends on the integrity of the cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Christensen, Andrea; Giese, Martin A; Sultan, Fahad; Mueller, Oliver M; Goericke, Sophia L; Ilg, Winfried; Timmann, Dagmar

    2014-05-01

    It is widely accepted that action and perception in humans functionally interact on multiple levels. Moreover, areas originally suggested to be predominantly motor-related, as the cerebellum, are also involved in action observation. However, as yet, few studies provided unequivocal evidence that the cerebellum is involved in the action perception coupling (APC), specifically in the integration of motor and multisensory information for perception. We addressed this question studying patients with focal cerebellar lesions in a virtual-reality paradigm measuring the effect of action execution on action perception presenting self-generated movements as point lights. We measured the visual sensitivity to the point light stimuli based on signal detection theory. Compared with healthy controls cerebellar patients showed no beneficial influence of action execution on perception indicating deficits in APC. Applying lesion symptom mapping, we identified distinct areas in the dentate nucleus and the lateral cerebellum of both hemispheres that are causally involved in APC. Lesions of the right ventral dentate, the ipsilateral motor representations (lobules V/VI), and most interestingly the contralateral posterior cerebellum (lobule VII) impede the benefits of motor execution on perception. We conclude that the cerebellum establishes time-dependent multisensory representations on different levels, relevant for motor control as well as supporting action perception. Ipsilateral cerebellar motor representations are thought to support the somatosensory state estimate of ongoing movements, whereas the ventral dentate and the contralateral posterior cerebellum likely support sensorimotor integration in the cerebellar-parietal loops. Both the correct somatosensory as well as the multisensory state representations are vital for an intact APC.

  14. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus.

    PubMed

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  15. Treatment of Established Status Epilepticus

    PubMed Central

    Falco-Walter, Jessica J.; Bleck, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Status epilepticus is the most severe form of epilepsy, with a high mortality rate and high health care costs. Status epilepticus is divided into four stages: early, established, refractory, and super-refractory. While initial treatment with benzodiazepines has become standard of care for early status epilepticus, treatment after benzodiazepine failure (established status epilepticus (ESE)) is incompletely studied. Effective treatment of ESE is critical as morbidity and mortality increases dramatically the longer convulsive status epilepticus persists. Phenytoin/fosphenytoin, valproic acid, levetiracetam, phenobarbital, and lacosamide are the most frequently prescribed antiseizure medications for treatment of ESE. To date there are no class 1 data to support pharmacologic recommendations of one agent over another. We review each of these medications, their pharmacology, the scientific evidence in support and against each in the available literature, adverse effects and safety profiles, dosing recommendations, and limitations of the available evidence. We also discuss future directions including the established status epilepticus treatment trial (ESETT). Substantial further research is urgently needed to identify these patients (particularly those with non-convulsive status epilepticus), elucidate the most efficacious antiseizure treatment with head-to-head randomized prospective trials, and determine whether this differs for convulsive vs. non-convulsive ESE. PMID:27120626

  16. Establishing Final Cleanup Decisions for the Hanford Site River Corridor

    SciTech Connect

    Lerch, J.A.; Sands, J.P.

    2007-07-01

    A major challenge in the River Corridor Closure Contract is establishing final cleanup decisions for the source operable units in the Hanford Site river corridor. Cleanup actions in the river corridor began in 1994 and have been performed in accordance with a 'bias for action' approach adopted by the Tri-Parties - the U.S. Department of Energy, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, and Washington State Department of Ecology. This approach enabled early application of cleanup dollars on actual remediation of contaminated waste sites. Consequently, the regulatory framework authorizing cleanup actions at source operable units in the river corridor consists largely of interim action records of decision, which were supported by qualitative risk assessments. Obtaining final cleanup decisions for the source operable units is necessary to determine whether past cleanup actions in the river corridor are protective of human health and the environment and to identify any course corrections that may be needed to ensure that ongoing and future cleanup actions are protective. Because the cleanup actions are ongoing, it is desirable to establish the final cleanup decisions as early as possible to minimize the impacts of any identified course corrections to the present cleanup approach. Development of a strategy to obtain final cleanup decisions for the source operable units in a manner that is responsive to desires for an integrated approach with the groundwater and Columbia River components while maintaining the ability to evaluate each component on its own merit represents a significant challenge. There are many different options for grouping final cleanup decisions, and each involved party or stakeholder brings slightly different interests that shape the approach. Regardless of the selected approach, there are several specific challenges and issues to be addressed before making final cleanup decisions. A multi-agency and contractor working group has been established to address

  17. Action-Based Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to domain representation and planning that is fundamentally different from traditional methods; an approach based strictly on actions and their interrelationships, rather than on state-based goals and preconditions. In particular, we focus on the action-based planner COLLAGE, describe its methods for plan-construction, and contrast them with more traditional approaches to planning. Experiences with COLLAGE in realistic domains have shown that the action-based approach is not only more natural to use, but can also be more cost-efficient than traditional planning methods.

  18. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  19. Dynamic response of CFRP plates under the action of random acoustic loading

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. G.; Mousley, R. F.

    Acoustic fatigue design procedures for metallic, stiffened skin, and plate-type structures have been well established and validated in the past for aircraft structures. The advent of CFRP and its use in aircraft has necessitated reappraisal of dynamic design techniques. Experimental and theoretical studies of CFRP plates under the action of random acoustic loading are discussed. Attention is given to the nature and levels of the dynamic strains induced in terms of statistical properties and relative modal contributions, the latter being important in consideration of using simple single mode formulas for dynamic response prediction. The effects of high levels of excitation, up to 160 dB, which can produce nonlinear responses are discussed. The case of forced response of plates under the action of combined static in-plane compressive loading and acoustic excitation is also considered.

  20. Evaluation of growth hormone (GH) action in mice: discovery of GH receptor antagonists and clinical indications.

    PubMed

    Kopchick, John J; List, Edward O; Kelder, Bruce; Gosney, Elahu S; Berryman, Darlene E

    2014-04-01

    The discovery of a growth hormone receptor antagonist (GHA) was initially established via expression of mutated GH genes in transgenic mice. Following this discovery, development of the compound resulted in a drug termed pegvisomant, which has been approved for use in patients with acromegaly. Pegvisomant treatment in a dose dependent manner results in normalization of IGF-1 levels in most patients. Thus, it is a very efficacious and safe drug. Since the GH/IGF-1 axis has been implicated in the progression of several types of cancers, many have suggested the use of pegvisomant as an anti-cancer therapeutic. In this manuscript, we will review the use of mouse strains that possess elevated or depressed levels of GH action for unraveling many of GH actions. Additionally, we will describe experiments in which the GHA was discovered, review results of pegvisomant's preclinical and clinical trials, and provide data suggesting pegvisomant's therapeutic value in selected types of cancer. PMID:24035867

  1. Conceptualizing Indicator Domains for Evaluating Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…

  2. Outdoor Recreation Action: Federal, State, Local, Private.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, George M., Ed.

    This booklet reports on outdoor recreation actions taken at the federal, state, local, and private levels. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and the financing of outdoor recreation on all levels are discussed. New agencies, personnel, reorganizations, resolutions, and recommendations for the organization and administration of outdoor recreation…

  3. 15 CFR 10.4 - Establishment of the Standard Review Committee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... THE DEVELOPMENT OF VOLUNTARY PRODUCT STANDARDS § 10.4 Establishment of the Standard Review Committee... of producers, distributors, and users or consumers of product for which a standard is sought or any... shall be required to approve any actions taken by the committee except for the action of recommending...

  4. Planning actions in robot automated operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.

    1988-01-01

    Action planning in robot automated operations requires intelligent task level programming. Invoking intelligence necessiates a typical blackboard based architecture, where, a plan is a vector between the start frame and the goal frame. This vector is composed of partially ordered bases. A partial ordering of bases presents good and bad sides in action planning. Partial ordering demands the use of a temporal data base management system.

  5. Insulin action on the liver in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, A D; Moore, M C; Sindelar, D K; Edgerton, D S

    2007-11-01

    Insulin has a potent inhibitory effect on hepatic glucose production by direct action at hepatic receptors. The hormone also inhibits glucose production by suppressing both lipolysis in the fat cell and secretion of glucagon by the alpha-cell. Neural sensing of insulin levels appears to participate in control of hepatic glucose production in rodents, but a role for brain insulin sensing has not been documented in dogs or humans. The primary effect of insulin on the liver is its direct action.

  6. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 165: Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Mark J

    2013-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 165: Area 25 and 26 Dry Well and Washdown Areas, Nevada Test Site, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications To Remove Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order dated September 2013. The Use Restriction Removal document was approved by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection on October 16, 2013. The approval of the UR Removal document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR removals. In conformance with the UR Removal document, this addendum consists of: This page that refers the reader to the UR Removal document for additional information The cover, title, and signature pages of the UR Removal document The NDEP approval letter The corresponding section of the UR Removal document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-20-01, Lab Drain Dry Well. This UR was established as part of FFACO corrective actions and was based on the presence of tetrachloroethene contamination at concentrations greater than the action level established at the time of the initial investigation. Although total petroleum hydrocarbon diesel-range organics contamination at concentrations greater than the NDEP action level was present at the site, no hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO exceeded the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Region 9 preliminary remediation goals established at the time of the initial investigation.

  7. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  8. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  9. The Action Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubenow, Gerald C.

    1972-01-01

    A description of the Serrano vs. Priest class action suit in California, challenging the system of financing education through property taxes; author touches upon the possibilities for the courts becoming change agents in the struggle for social reform. (SP)

  10. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  11. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  12. Technology in action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    In keeping with the NASA Administrator's announcement that technology transfer will become a fundamental mission of NASA, the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has initiated new programs to reach the heartland of U.S. industry. The Center has continued to expand its already well-established outreach program aimed at helping American business, industry, and academia at the grassroots level. The goal is to ensure that America regains and maintains its proper place of leadership among the world's technologically developed nations. MSFC's national goal is to enhance America's competitiveness in the world marketplace, fortify the value of the dollar, and ensure technological breakthroughs by American laboratories benefit taxpayers and industries. The Technology Utilization (TU) Office at MSFC believes a number of measures are possible to slow, then halt, and ultimately reverse the erosion of American technological leadership. MSFC's TU Office is reaching out to American industry on an increasingly broadening scope, facilitating the transfer of NASA derived technologies to American businesses, industries, educational institutions, and individuals. There are many valid approaches to achieving this goal. Some, such as the National Technology Initiative, begin at the top and work down through America's top corporate structure. Others, such as the technology transfer program that MSFC has implemented, begin at the one-on-one, grassroots level -- working with small and medium-sized firms that form the bulk of American industry. What can be done by one NASA center is, admittedly, limited. But by extrapolating this one-on-one approach to the more than 700 Federal laboratories, a great deal can be accomplished. This report contains an examination of outreach and in reach programs, problem statements programs, applications projects, new technology reporting, new technology administration, and the need for increased resources to further facilitate technology transfer.

  13. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  14. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  15. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick and Sloop, Christy

    2011-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD)/Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 372, Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters, located within Areas 18 and 20 at the Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Corrective Action Unit 372 comprises four corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-45-02, Little Feller I Surface Crater • 18-45-03, Little Feller II Surface Crater • 20-23-01, U-20k Contamination Area • 20-45-01, U-20L Crater (Cabriolet) The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 372 based on the implementation of the corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls at all CASs. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 9, 2009, through December 10, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 372: Area 20 Cabriolet/Palanquin Unit Craters. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigation of the primary release of radionuclides and investigation of other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 372 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on a data quality assessment. This assessment demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Investigation results were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. A radiological dose FAL was established of 25 millirem per year based on the Remote Work Area exposure scenario (336 hours of annual exposure). Radiological doses exceeding the FAL were found to be present at all four CASs. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present within the Little Feller I and Cabriolet high

  17. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  18. Establishing nuclear facility drill programs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    The purpose of DOE Handbook, Establishing Nuclear Facility Drill Programs, is to provide DOE contractor organizations with guidance for development or modification of drill programs that both train on and evaluate facility training and procedures dealing with a variety of abnormal and emergency operating situations likely to occur at a facility. The handbook focuses on conducting drills as part of a training and qualification program (typically within a single facility), and is not intended to included responses of personnel beyond the site boundary, e.g. Local or State Emergency Management, Law Enforcement, etc. Each facility is expected to develop its own facility specific scenarios, and should not limit them to equipment failures but should include personnel injuries and other likely events. A well-developed and consistently administered drill program can effectively provide training and evaluation of facility operating personnel in controlling abnormal and emergency operating situations. To ensure the drills are meeting their intended purpose they should have evaluation criteria for evaluating the knowledge and skills of the facility operating personnel. Training and evaluation of staff skills and knowledge such as component and system interrelationship, reasoning and judgment, team interactions, and communications can be accomplished with drills. The appendices to this Handbook contain both models and additional guidance for establishing drill programs at the Department`s nuclear facilities.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada with ROTC 1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Patrick Matthews

    2011-07-01

    Corrective Action Unit 374 comprises five corrective action sites (CASs): • 18-22-05, Drum • 18-22-06, Drums (20) • 18-22-08, Drum • 18-23-01, Danny Boy Contamination Area • 20-45-03, U-20u Crater (Schooner) The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 374 based on the implementation of corrective actions. The corrective action of closure in place with administrative controls was implemented at CASs 18-23-01 and 20-45-03, and a corrective action of removing potential source material (PSM) was conducted at CAS 20-45-03. The other CASs require no further action; however, best management practices of removing PSM and drums at CAS 18-22-06, and removing drums at CAS 18-22-08 were performed. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from May 4 through October 6, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 374: Area 20 Schooner Unit Crater, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The approach for the CAI was divided into two facets: investigating the primary release of radionuclides and investigating other releases (migration in washes and chemical releases). The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process. The CAU 374 dataset of investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the dataset is acceptable for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Radiological doses exceeding the FAL of 25 millirem per year were found to be present in the surface soil that was sampled. It is assumed that radionuclide levels present in subsurface media within the craters and ejecta fields (default contamination boundaries) at the Danny Boy and

  20. 5 CFR 9701.707 - Appeals of mandatory removal actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... employee may appeal such actions to the Mandatory Removal Panel (MRP) established under § 9701.708. (b) Procedures. (1) The MRP will establish procedures for the fair, impartial, and expeditious assignment and... other matters as may be necessary to ensure the operation of the MRP. (2) The MRP will conduct a...

  1. Partners in Action & Learning 1994-1995 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Exley, Robert J.; And Others

    The Partners in Action and Learning Program at Florida's Miami-Dade Community College (M-DCC) was established in 1994 to aid the integration of service learning into the college's general education curricula. Goals for the first year of the program included the establishment of service-learning centers at MDCC's Homestead and Medical Center…

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  3. Clinical actionability enhanced through deep targeted sequencing of solid tumors

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Ken; Meric-Bernstam, Funda; Zhao, Hao; Zhang, Qingxiu; Ezzeddine, Nader; Tang, Lin-ya; Qi, Yuan; Mao, Yong; Chen, Tenghui; Chong, Zechen; Zhou, Wanding; Zheng, Xiaofeng; Johnson, Amber; Aldape, Kenneth D.; Routbort, Mark J.; Luthra, Rajyalakshmi; Kopetz, Scott; Davies, Michael A.; de Groot, John; Moulder, Stacy; Vinod, Ravi; Farhangfar, Carol J.; Shaw, Kenna Mills; Mendelsohn, John; Mills, Gordon B.; Eterovic, Agda Karina

    2015-01-01

    Background Further advances of targeted cancer therapy require comprehensive in-depth profiling of somatic mutations that are present in subpopulations of tumor cells in a clinical tumor sample. However, it is unclear to what extent such intra-tumor heterogeneity is present and whether it may affect clinical decision making. To unravel this challenge, we established a deep targeted sequencing platform to identify potentially actionable DNA alterations in tumor samples. Methods We assayed 515 FFPE tumor samples and matched germline (475 patients) from 11 disease sites by capturing and sequencing all the exons in 201 cancer related genes. Mutations, indels and copy number data were reported. Results We obtained a 1000-fold average sequencing depth and identified 4794 non-synonymous mutations in the samples analyzed, which 15.2% were present at less than 10% allele frequency. Most of these low level mutations occurred at known oncogenic hotspots and are likely functional. Identifying low level mutations improved identification of mutations in actionable genes in 118 (24.84%) patients, among which 47 (9.8%) would otherwise be unactionable. In addition, acquiring ultra-high depth also ensured a low false discovery rate (less than 2.2%) from FFPE samples. Conclusion Our results were as accurate as a commercially available CLIA-compliant hotspot panel, but allowed the detection of a higher number of mutations in actionable genes. Our study revealed the critical importance of acquiring and utilizing high depth in profiling clinical tumor samples and presented a very useful platform for implementing routine sequencing in a cancer care institution. PMID:25626406

  4. Action video game modifies visual selective attention.

    PubMed

    Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2003-05-29

    As video-game playing has become a ubiquitous activity in today's society, it is worth considering its potential consequences on perceptual and motor skills. It is well known that exposing an organism to an altered visual environment often results in modification of the visual system of the organism. The field of perceptual learning provides many examples of training-induced increases in performance. But perceptual learning, when it occurs, tends to be specific to the trained task; that is, generalization to new tasks is rarely found. Here we show, by contrast, that action-video-game playing is capable of altering a range of visual skills. Four experiments establish changes in different aspects of visual attention in habitual video-game players as compared with non-video-game players. In a fifth experiment, non-players trained on an action video game show marked improvement from their pre-training abilities, thereby establishing the role of playing in this effect.

  5. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  6. Updates on artemisinin: an insight to mode of actions and strategies for enhanced global production.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Neha; Pandey-Rai, Shashi

    2016-01-01

    Application of traditional Chinese drug, artemisinin, originally derived from Artemisia annua L., in malaria therapy has now been globally accepted. Artemisinin and its derivatives, with their established safety records, form the first line of malaria treatment via artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). In addition to its antimalarial effects, artemisinin has recently been evaluated in terms of its antitumour, antibacterial, antiviral, antileishmanial, antischistosomiatic, herbicidal and other properties. However, low levels of artemisinin in plants have emerged various conventional, transgenic and nontransgenic approaches for enhanced production of the drug. According to WHO (2014), approximately 3.2 billion people are at risk of this disease. However, unfortunately, artemisinin availability is still facing its short supply. To fulfil artemisinin's global demand, no single method alone is reliable, and there is a need to collectively use conventional and advanced approaches for its higher production. Further, it is the unique structure of artemisinin that makes it a potential drug not only against malaria but to other diseases as well. Execution of its action through multiple mechanisms is probably the reason behind its wide spectrum of action. Unfortunately, due to clues for developing artemisinin resistance in malaria parasites, it has become desirable to explore all possible modes of action of artemisinin so that new generation antimalarial drugs can be developed in future. The present review provides a comprehensive updates on artemisinin modes of action and strategies for enhanced artemisinin production at global level. PMID:25813833

  7. An Indirect Action Contributes to C-Fos Induction in Paraventricular Hypothalamic Nucleus by Neuropeptide Y

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Shengjie; Dakshinamoorthy, Janani; Kim, Eun Ran; Xu, Yong; Huang, Cheng; Tong, Qingchun

    2016-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) is a well-established orexigenic peptide and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVH) is one major brain site that mediates the orexigenic action of NPY. NPY induces abundant expression of C-Fos, an indicator for neuronal activation, in the PVH, which has been used extensively to examine the underlying NPY orexigenic neural pathways. However, PVH C-Fos induction is in discordance with the abundant expression of NPY receptors, a group of inhibitory Gi protein coupled receptors in the PVH, and with the overall role of PVH neurons in feeding inhibition, suggesting a mechanism of indirect action. Here we showed that the ability of NPY on C-Fos induction in the PVH was blunted in conditions of insulin deficiency and fasting, a condition associated with a high level of NPY and a low level of insulin. Moreover, insulin insufficiency blunted C-Fos induction in the PVH by fasting-induced re-feeding, and insulin and NPY induced c-Fos induction in the same group of PVH neurons. Finally, NPY produced normal C-Fos induction in the PVH with disruption of GABA-A receptors. Thus, our results revealed that PVH C-Fos induction by NPY is mediated by an indirect action, which is at least partially mediated by insulin action, but not GABA-A receptors. PMID:26813148

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  9. 78 FR 73752 - Proposed Establishment of Class E Airspace; Mansfield, OH

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ...: This action proposes to establish Class E airspace at Mansfield, OH. A Class E surface area is... CFR), Part 71 by establishing Class E airspace designated as a surface area within a 4.4-mile radius... 6002: Class E Airspace Designated as Surface Areas * * * * * AGL OH E2 Mansfield, OH Mansfield...

  10. 75 FR 1595 - Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and Solicitation of Nominations for Members

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE National Institute of Standards and Technology Establishment of NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and.... ACTION: Notice of establishment of the NIST Smart Grid Advisory Committee and solicitation of...

  11. 77 FR 47091 - Notice of Re-Establishment of the Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committees

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Re-Establishment of the Secure Rural Schools Resource Advisory Committees AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice is published in... the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) has re-established the Bureau of Land ] Management's...

  12. 75 FR 7626 - Notice of Establishment of the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-22

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Establishment of the Dominguez-Escalante National Conservation Area Advisory Council (Colorado) AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This.... Notice is hereby given that the Secretary of the Interior (Secretary) has established the Bureau of...

  13. 78 FR 45555 - Notice of Establishment of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-29

    ... Fish and Wildlife Service Notice of Establishment of the Advisory Council on Wildlife Trafficking AGENCY: U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice of establishment and request for... Director, International Affairs, U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service, 4401 N. Fairfax Drive, Arlington, VA...

  14. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  15. Action recognition in the visual periphery.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Laura; Bülthoff, Isabelle; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing whether the gestures of somebody mean a greeting or a threat is crucial for social interactions. In real life, action recognition occurs over the entire visual field. In contrast, much of the previous research on action recognition has primarily focused on central vision. Here our goal is to examine what can be perceived about an action outside of foveal vision. Specifically, we probed the valence as well as first level and second level recognition of social actions (handshake, hugging, waving, punching, slapping, and kicking) at 0° (fovea/fixation), 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of eccentricity with dynamic (Experiment 1) and dynamic and static (Experiment 2) actions. To assess peripheral vision under conditions of good ecological validity, these actions were carried out by a life-size human stick figure on a large screen. In both experiments, recognition performance was surprisingly high (more than 66% correct) up to 30° of eccentricity for all recognition tasks and followed a nonlinear decline with increasing eccentricities. PMID:26913625

  16. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2008-03-01

    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  17. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  18. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  19. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  20. Challenges in establishing LLW disposal capacity: Pennsylvania`s perspective

    SciTech Connect

    Dornsife, W.P.; Saraka, L.J.

    1989-11-01

    Even though Pennsylvania is host state for the Compact, state implementing legislation was non-existent until early 1988. In February of 1998 Governor Casey signed the Los-Level Radioactive Waste Disposal Act (Act) into law. The Act incorporates three years of Departmental work and interaction with the legislature, a Public Advisory Committee on Low-Level Waste, many interest groups and the general public. It is a comprehensive Act that: provides the Department with broad powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program; requires development phase; and establishes benefits and guarantees for communities affected by the establishment and operation of a low-level waste site. The Department considers that its powers and duties to manage, license and regulate a low-level waste disposal program begins with interpreting the provisions established by the Act. Interpretation will establish how the Department intends to implement its authority. The Department is communicating interpretations through various methods such as regulation, policy, and written or verbal guidance. Interpretations typically require a mix of technical, policy, and social solutions to clarify concepts established by law. This paper identifies select items established by law that require technical solutions. Its purpose is to share some creative approaches for solving unmanageable legislature requirements.

  1. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 398: Area 25 Spill Sites as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the UR for CAS 25-25-17, Subsurface Hydraulic Oil Spill. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove the UR because contamination is not present at the site above

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the September 2006, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 214: Bunkers and Storage Areas as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 25-23-01, Contaminated Materials • CAS 25-23-19, Radioactive Material Storage These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to remove

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada, Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation that no further corrective action is needed for CAU 105 based on the implementation of the corrective actions. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 22, 2012, through May 23, 2013, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 105: Area 2 Yucca Flat Atmospheric Test Sites; and in accordance with the Soils Activity Quality Assurance Plan, which establishes requirements, technical planning, and general quality practices.

  4. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y.; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M.

    2016-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO) for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Rats were fed (12 weeks) diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group). EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA) but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA) in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%–24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05) episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73%) and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s) than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit. PMID:26742064

  5. Protective action of low-intensity laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals (experimental study in vitro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1997-12-01

    The study of a possible cytotoxic effect of different doses of low-insensitive laser radiation and protective action of low-intensive laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals was carried out by means of the alternative method of investigation in vitro on cell cultura Hela. It was established that the investigated doses of low-intensive laser radiation had not produced any toxic effect on cell culture Hela, so the mentioned doses were not cytotoxic. It was revealed that laser radiation reduced the level of the cytotoxic effect of the studied metal salts on the cell culture, and possessed the protective action against the toxic effect of metals. This action has a clear-cut dose- related character.

  6. From the 1996 groundwater action programme to the 2006 groundwater directive--what have we done, what have we learnt, what is the way ahead?

    PubMed

    Quevauviller, Philippe

    2008-04-01

    The need for action to avoid long term deterioration of fresh water quantity and quality was recognised by the Ministerial Seminar on groundwater held at The Hague in November 1991, which underlined the need to establish a programme of actions to be implemented by the year 2000 at national and Community level, aiming at sustainable management and protection of water resources. These discussions resulted in a communication from the European Commission in 1996 about a "Groundwater Action Programme" (GWAP). In parallel, a wide consultation had started on the need to streamline EU water policies, which led to the adoption of the Water Framework Directive in December 2000, later complemented by a "daughter" groundwater directive adopted in December 2006. This paper recalls the orientations of the GWAP and studies whether and how recommended actions have been tackled by the actual EU regulatory framework.

  7. Results of the post remedial action survey of areas 4 through 10 at the former Kellex site in Jersey City, New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, C.; Berven, B.A.; Cottrell, W.D.; Goldsmith, W.A.

    1982-01-01

    A post remedial action survey was conducted at the former Kellex Corporation Research Facility in Jersey City, New Jersey. The Kellex facility was involved in the Manhattan Project, particularly in the area of engineering research in gaseous diffusion for uranium enrichment. As a result of those operations, this site was included by the US Department of Energy (DOE) in their Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). During comprehensive radiological surveys conducted by Oak Ridge National Laboratory in the summer of 1979, ten areas were located with levels of radionuclides in soil in excess of DOE criteria. This report describes the results of radiological surveys conducted in seven of these locations (Areas 4 to 10) following remedial action. Results of these surveys indicate that remedial action was successful in reducing radioactive contamination in these areas to criteria values established by DOE. 7 references, 19 figures, 31 tables.

  8. Establishing operations and reinforcement effects.

    PubMed

    Vollmer, T R; Iwata, B A

    1991-01-01

    Positive reinforcement procedures have had a major impact on educational programs for the developmentally disabled; nevertheless, variation in reinforcer effectiveness both within and across individuals is a common phenomenon. This study examined one class of variables--establishing operations--that might influence the effectiveness of reinforcers. Five developmentally disabled adult males participated. Responding on one of two motor tasks--switch closure or block placement--was assessed during baseline, satiation, and deprivation conditions with respect to three classes of consequences: small food items, music, and social praise. Deprivation and satiation conditions were constructed so as not to alter significantly the normal course of events in a subject's day. For example, food deprivation entailed scheduling sessions just prior to a subject's regular lunch, and social deprivation involved limiting a subject's access to social interaction for 15 minutes, during which time the subject had access to an assortment of other activities. Results showed that each stimulus class functioned as reinforcement with different degrees of effectiveness during satiation versus deprivation conditions. These results are discussed in light of previous research on enhancement of reinforcer efficacy as well as the assessment and identification of functional reinforcers, and implications are presented for future research and client habilitation. PMID:1890048

  9. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  10. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  11. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  12. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  13. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  14. From Intuition to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of principals intuitively believe that the arts belong in schools and in every child's life. Now is the time to take action on your intuition--and become an instructional leader for the arts, just as you are for every core subject. Arts-engaged principals share strategies for becoming instructional leaders for the arts.

  15. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  16. Action Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  17. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  18. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  19. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  20. Promoting Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, John

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a lesson on the extinction process allowing students to better understand why and how species become endangered before they attempt to take action on this problem. Provides background information and describes several suggested methodologies, evaluation and enrichment ideas, six resources, and two references. (LZ)

  1. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  2. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  3. Literacy Portfolios in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.

    Intended for new and experienced teachers in grades K-8, this book takes readers through a process of thinking about how to put portfolios into action. The book models a process for making decisions about the type of portfolio, what to place in it, how to structure the interactions with it, and how to use it to evaluate student progress and report…

  4. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  5. Programs for Urban Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board of Young Men's Christian Associations, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains descriptions of 150 urban action programs being conducted by Young Men's Christian Associations throughout the United States. Planning principles are included to assist those who wish to adapt the programs to local situations: involvement of people in planning; use of local indigenous leadership; planning in collaboration…

  6. Affirmative Action Fallout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  7. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  8. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  9. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  10. Youth Paeticipation in Community Action: Report of a Demonstration Training Project.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cassidy, Rosalind

    Reporting a 1966 1-year demonstration project involving youth in community action, this pamphlet shows how the 24 community action programs in this California project selected and trained personnel, selected and trained youth trainees, established the needs of respective communities, set about to match these needs, and evaluated their action. The…

  11. Deactivation in the Sensorimotor Area during Observation of a Human Agent Performing Robotic Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Sotaro

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that several motor areas, called the mirror-neuron system (MNS), are activated when an individual observes other's actions. However, whether the MNS responds similarly to robotic actions compared with human actions is still controversial. The present study investigated whether and how the motor area activity is influenced by…

  12. [IT network establishment for neuropatients].

    PubMed

    Abe, Koji; Uchiyama, Shinichiro; Matsubara, Etsuro; Muramatsu, Shin-Ichi; Atsuta, Naoki; Kitagawa, Kazuo; Iguchi, Yasuyuki; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Kaji, Ryuji; Terao, Yasuo

    2013-01-01

    On March 11, 2011, big earthquake and subsequent gigantic tsunami killed more than 20,000 peoples in Tohoku area of Japan. Neurological patients were one such victim because they are usually very vulnerable to such a huge tragedy due to their physical disability including artificial ventilator-support. On occasion of the last tsunami, most cases showed "all or nothing" to lose life or to survive, and there were only a little cases who needed emergency surgical treatment. In the very early period, some neurological patients required electric power to keep their lifesupportive ventilator at evacuation house or even at home. In a week to a couple of months, many neurological patients needed continuous supply of their daily drugs which are essential to keep themselves in steady physical conditions and even for keeping their life.Japanese Neurological Society (JNS) began to establish an emergent assistant network system from January 2012 in an attempt of supplying materials, drugs and energy power to neurological patients who require both under a very early period after any natural or political disaster and a later period. For example, JNS is going to apply IT system to connect distant but safer hospitals which accept emergent patients from the center of disastrous place. JNS may also send emergency medical team to the disastrous place to save neurological patients by passing necessary medicine and materials or moving patients to safer hospitals. JNS will make such a tentative program public on our website to collect many other constructive opinions from general member of the society and neurological patients. After getting those opinions, JNS made up the exact team for this purpose after general meeting of JNS on this May 2012.Based on this team, disaster-mimic trial will be performed in Tokyo, Shizuoka, and Kochi where the next big disaster is going to hit the cities. PMID:24291913

  13. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  14. Establishing diversity in the dopaminergic system.

    PubMed

    Bodea, Gabriela O; Blaess, Sandra

    2015-12-21

    Midbrain dopaminergic neurons (MbDNs) modulate cognitive processes, regulate voluntary movement, and encode reward prediction errors and aversive stimuli. While the degeneration of MbDNs underlies the motor defects in Parkinson's disease, imbalances in dopamine levels are associated with neuropsychiatric disorders such as depression, schizophrenia and substance abuse. In recent years, progress has been made in understanding how MbDNs, which constitute a relatively small neuronal population in the brain, can contribute to such diverse functions and dysfunctions. In particular, important insights have been gained regarding the distinct molecular, neurochemical and network properties of MbDNs. How this diversity of MbDNs is established during brain development is only starting to be unraveled. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge on the diversity in MbDN progenitors and differentiated MbDNs in the developing rodent brain. We discuss the signaling pathways, transcription factors and transmembrane receptors that contribute to setting up these diverse MbDN subpopulations. A better insight into the processes that establish diversity in MbDNs will ultimately improve the understanding of the architecture and function of the dopaminergic system in the adult brain. PMID:26431946

  15. Bisphosphonates inactivate human EGFRs to exert antitumor actions.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tony; Stachnik, Agnes; Iqbal, Jameel; Sgobba, Miriam; Gupta, Yogesh; Lu, Ping; Colaianni, Graziana; Ji, Yaoting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Kim, Se-Min; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Peng; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Sangodkar, Jaya; Bailey, Jack; Latif, Yathin; Mujtaba, Shiraz; Epstein, Solomon; Davies, Terry F; Bian, Zhuan; Zallone, Alberta; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Haider, Shozeb; New, Maria I; Sun, Li; Narla, Goutham; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed medicines for osteoporosis and skeletal metastases. The drugs have also been shown to reduce cancer progression, but only in certain patient subgroups, suggesting that there is a molecular entity that mediates bisphosphonate action on tumor cells. Using connectivity mapping, we identified human epidermal growth factor receptors (human EGFR or HER) as a potential new molecular entity for bisphosphonate action. Protein thermal shift and cell-free kinase assays, together with computational modeling, demonstrated that N-containing bisphosphonates directly bind to the kinase domain of HER1/2 to cause a global reduction in downstream signaling. By doing so, the drugs kill lung, breast, and colon cancer cells that are driven by activating mutations or overexpression of HER1. Knocking down HER isoforms thus abrogates cell killing by bisphosphonates, establishing complete HER dependence and ruling out a significant role for other receptor tyrosine kinases or the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase. Consistent with this finding, colon cancer cells expressing low levels of HER do not respond to bisphosphonates. The results suggest that bisphosphonates can potentially be repurposed for the prevention and therapy of HER family-driven cancers. PMID:25453081

  16. Bisphosphonates inactivate human EGFRs to exert antitumor actions.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Tony; Stachnik, Agnes; Iqbal, Jameel; Sgobba, Miriam; Gupta, Yogesh; Lu, Ping; Colaianni, Graziana; Ji, Yaoting; Zhu, Ling-Ling; Kim, Se-Min; Li, Jianhua; Liu, Peng; Izadmehr, Sudeh; Sangodkar, Jaya; Bailey, Jack; Latif, Yathin; Mujtaba, Shiraz; Epstein, Solomon; Davies, Terry F; Bian, Zhuan; Zallone, Alberta; Aggarwal, Aneel K; Haider, Shozeb; New, Maria I; Sun, Li; Narla, Goutham; Zaidi, Mone

    2014-12-16

    Bisphosphonates are the most commonly prescribed medicines for osteoporosis and skeletal metastases. The drugs have also been shown to reduce cancer progression, but only in certain patient subgroups, suggesting that there is a molecular entity that mediates bisphosphonate action on tumor cells. Using connectivity mapping, we identified human epidermal growth factor receptors (human EGFR or HER) as a potential new molecular entity for bisphosphonate action. Protein thermal shift and cell-free kinase assays, together with computational modeling, demonstrated that N-containing bisphosphonates directly bind to the kinase domain of HER1/2 to cause a global reduction in downstream signaling. By doing so, the drugs kill lung, breast, and colon cancer cells that are driven by activating mutations or overexpression of HER1. Knocking down HER isoforms thus abrogates cell killing by bisphosphonates, establishing complete HER dependence and ruling out a significant role for other receptor tyrosine kinases or the enzyme farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase. Consistent with this finding, colon cancer cells expressing low levels of HER do not respond to bisphosphonates. The results suggest that bisphosphonates can potentially be repurposed for the prevention and therapy of HER family-driven cancers.

  17. Myeloid cells as target of fingolimod action in multiple sclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Di Dario, Marco; Colombo, Emanuela; Govi, Chiara; De Feo, Donatella; Messina, Maria José; Romeo, Marzia; Sangalli, Francesca; Moiola, Lucia; Rodegher, Mariaemma; Martino, Gianvito; Martinelli, Vittorio; Comi, Giancarlo

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To track the effects of fingolimod, an approved drug for multiple sclerosis (MS), on the activation of myeloid cells from the periphery to the CNS. Methods: In vitro and ex vivo immunologic studies coupled with flow cytometry were performed to evaluate the action of fingolimod on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)–induced expression of activation markers in human monocytes from healthy participants, participants with untreated MS, and participants with fingolimod-treated MS. In vivo administration of fingolimod during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) was established to verify the activation state of splenic, CNS infiltrating, and CNS resident myeloid cells ex vivo at flow cytometer. Results: We found that in vitro exposure of human monocytes to fingolimod inhibited LPS-induced CD25 and CD150 expression and tumor necrosis factor–α (TNF-α) secretion without altering immune cell survival. Further, EAE treatment with fingolimod led to reduced amounts of TNF-α produced by myeloid cells in vivo in the spleen and CNS. Finally, while displaying normal induction of CD25 and CD150 levels at high LPS concentration, monocytes from patients with fingolimod-treated MS showed significantly higher activation threshold at suboptimal LPS stimulation than controls. Conclusions: The inhibition of myeloid cell activation may be part of the immunosuppressive action of fingolimod and take place in the periphery and in the CNS. PMID:26587553

  18. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

    2014-12-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html. We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions. PMID:24584971

  19. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...

  20. 20 CFR 801.101 - Establishment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Establishment. 801.101 Section 801.101... Establishment and Authority of the Board § 801.101 Establishment. By Pub. L. 92-576, 82 Stat. 1251, in an... was established effective November 26, 1972, a Benefits Review Board, which is composed of...