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Sample records for action levels pals

  1. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  2. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR HYDROGEN SULFIDE (H2S)

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, Thomas C; Dorman, David; Gardner, Donald; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Application of PAL protocols was performed for hydrogen sulfide (H2S) as experimental data permitted. The data base includes human experimental studies, worker exposure evaluations, as well as case studies on acute and repeated exposure. The data base of animal studies is substantial covering multiple species and addressing acute, repeated, and subchronic exposure scenarios. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in November 2006. No reliable data were found on oral exposure, making it impractical to estimate PALs for drinking water. Since H2S exists as a gas, partitioning to air is likely to occur with an environmental release. H2S inhalation PAL values for 24 hr exposure are: PAL 1 = 1.2 ppm; PAL 2 = 7.0 ppm; and PAL 3 = 27 ppm; the 30-d and 90-d inhalation exposure values are: PAL 1 = 0.85 ppm and PAL 2 = 3.0 ppm. PAL 3 values for 30-d and 90-d are not recommended due to insufficient data. Long-term data were insufficient to estimate 2-year inhalation PALs.

  3. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Synthia; Wood, Carol S

    2009-01-01

    In compliance with Homeland Security Presidential Directive No.8, the US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, in collaboration with the Department of Energy, is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents in air and drinking water. The PALs Program will provide exposure levels to assist emergency response decision-making, and to serve as criteria for determining re-use and re-entry into affected areas resulting from transport/storage accidents, natural disasters, and subversive activities. PALs are applicable at federal, state, and local levels, and are intended for use in homeland security efforts, public health, law enforcement, and emergency response, as well as decisions by water utilities, and national and regional EPA offices. PALS have not been promulgated nor have they been formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations when site specific risk assessments are not available. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. Draft PALs are evaluated both by an EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this issue, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

  4. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene.

  5. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene. PMID:19814653

  6. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, SOPs were developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. The SOPs for PAL development focus on: 1) data acquisition and analysis, 2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, 3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), 4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, 5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, 6) identification of special concerns and issues, and 7) verification, documentation and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of these SOPs.

  7. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  8. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  9. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  10. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons.

    PubMed

    Zollinger, Daniel R; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee; Rasband, Matthew N

    2015-07-22

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. Significance statement: This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy.

  11. PALS in mathematics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Mariathy; Mohammed, Siti Rosiah; Bosli, Fazillah; Abdullah, Nurhidayah Masni; Mahat, Aishah; Dasman, Anisah; Tarmuji, Nor Habibah; Ahmad, Salimah

    2014-07-01

    Peer Asissted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a type of cooperative learning where high and low performing students are gathered into a small group to achieve common goals and improve individual's understanding. The objectives of this study are to investigate students' perception about PALS and to identify optional methods to improve the technique for future implementation. The Mengubah Destini Anak Bangsa (MDAB) students selected for this study were from pre diploma level of studies in the Pre-Commerce Program. Cluster sampling was used to randomly select eight out of ten groups. Ninety nine students in the selected group became the respondents. Three groups were identified as Experimental Group (EG) and another five groups as Control Group (CG). A Diagnostic Test was given to all ten groups of students during the first week of class. Students in EG were given instructions using PALS. At the end of the semester, questionnaires were distributed to students in EG and analyzed. This study revealed that students had positive responses to PALS and a few suggestions from students to improve PALS were obtained.

  12. Immediate Impacts of PALS: A School-Wide Multi-Level Programme Targeting Behaviour Problems in Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorlie, Mari-Anne; Ogden, Terje

    2007-01-01

    The article describes the main outcomes of the intervention programme "Positive behaviour, interactions and learning environment in school" (PALS). PALS is an adapted Norwegian version of the School-Wide Positive Behaviour Support model, developed in the United States with school-wide interventions aiming at the prevention of behaviour problems…

  13. PAL: Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The PAL library is a partial re-implementation of Pat Wallace's popular SLALIB library written in C using a Gnu GPL license and layered on top of the IAU's SOFA library (or the BSD-licensed ERFA) where appropriate. PAL attempts to stick to the SLA C API where possible.

  14. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  15. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  16. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  17. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  18. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  19. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  20. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  1. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  2. Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program: Action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Ashwood, J.S.; Ashwood, T.L.

    1991-10-01

    The Active Sites Environmental Monitoring Program (ASEMP) was established at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to provide for early leak detection and to monitor performance of the active low-level waste disposal facilities in Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 and the transuranic waste storage areas in SWSA 5 North. Early leak detection is accomplished by sampling runoff, groundwater, and perched water in burial trenches. Sample results are compared to action levels that represent background contamination by naturally occurring and fallout-derived radionuclides. 15 refs., 3 figs., 12 tabs.

  3. Effective action theory of Andreev level spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galaktionov, Artem V.; Zaikin, Andrei D.

    2015-12-01

    With the aid of the Keldysh effective action technique we develop a microscopic theory describing Andreev level spectroscopy experiments in nontunnel superconducting contacts. We derive an effective impedance of such contacts which accounts for the presence of Andreev levels in the system. At subgap bias voltages and low temperatures, inelastic Cooper pair tunneling is accompanied by transitions between these levels resulting in a set of sharp current peaks. We evaluate the intensities of such peaks, establish their dependence on the external magnetic flux piercing the structure and estimate the thermal broadening of these peaks. We also specifically address the effect of capacitance renormalization in a nontunnel superconducting contact and its impact on both the positions and heights of the current peaks. At overgap bias voltages, the I -V curve is determined by quasiparticle tunneling and contains current steps related to the presence of discrete Andreev states in our system.

  4. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  5. Individually designed PALs vs. power optimized PALs adaptation comparison.

    PubMed

    Muždalo, Nataša Vujko; Mihelčič, Matjaž

    2015-03-01

    The practice shows that in everyday life we encounter ever-growing demand for better visual acuity at all viewing distances. The presbyopic population needs correction to far, near and intermediate distance with different dioptric powers. PAL lenses seem to be a comfortable solution. The object of the present study is the analysis of the factors determining adaptation to progressive addition lenses (PAL) of the first-time users. Only novice test persons were chosen in order to avoid the bias of previously worn particular lens design. For optimal results with this type of lens, several individual parameters must be considered: correct refraction, precise ocular and facial measures, and proper mounting of lenses into the frame. Nevertheless, first time wearers encounter various difficulties in the process of adapting to this type of glasses and adaptation time differs greatly between individual users. The question that arises is how much the individual parameters really affect the ease of adaptation and comfort when wearing progressive glasses. To clarify this, in the present study, the individual PAL lenses--Rodenstock's Impression FreeSign (with inclusion of all parameters related to the user's eye and spectacle frame: prescription, pupillary distance, fitting height, back vertex distance, pantoscopic angle and curvature of the frame) were compared to power optimized PAL--Rodenstock's Multigressiv MyView (respecting only prescription power and pupillary distance). Adaptation process was monitored over a period of four weeks. The collected results represent scores of user's subjective impressions, where the users themselves rated their adaptation to new progressive glasses and the degree of subjective visual impression. The results show that adaptation time to fully individually fit PAL is easier and quickly. The information obtained from users is valuable in everyday optometry practice because along with the manufacturer's specifications, the user's experience can

  6. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  7. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  8. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise.

  9. Agreement of the activPAL3 and activPAL for characterising posture and stepping in adults and children.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-07-01

    Characterisation of physical activity and sedentary behaviour under free-living conditions is becoming increasingly important in light of growing evidence for the health implications of these behaviours. The integrity of long-term follow-up and the ability to compare outcomes between studies is critically dependent on the agreement of outcomes from successive generations of monitors. This study evaluated the agreement of the activPAL and second generation activPAL3 devices. Agreement was assessed in both adults (median 27.6y IQR 22.6) (n=20) and young people (median 12.0y IQR 4.1) (n=8) during standardised and daily living (ADL) test activities. During standardised activities; sedentary duration, upright duration, stepping duration and overall number of steps were all detected within small limits of agreement (≤5%). However, the activPAL characterised more steps during jogging than the activPAL3 (adults +8.36%, young people +6.80%). Also during ADL differences arose due to different posture characterisation in young people and lower step detection in the activPAL than the activPAL3 (adults -20.58%, young people -11.43%). Second-by-second posture analysis demonstrated high levels (>90%) of agreement for all activities between monitors. However, sensitivity (68.7%) and positive predictive value (78.8%) for adult stepping demonstrated disagreement between monitor interpretation of movement patterns during ADL. Agreement between monitor outcomes for standardised activities provides confidence that these outcomes can be considered almost equivalent. However, for characterisation of jogging and smaller movements during ADL, it is likely that significant differences between monitor outcomes will arise. PMID:27318305

  10. A design of PAL with astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yefei; Xiang, Huazhong; Zhu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jiabi

    2015-08-01

    Progressive addition lens (PAL) is designed for those who suffer from myopia and presbyopia to have a clear vision from a far distance to a nearby distance. Additionally there are many people that also suffer from astigmatism and need to be corrected. The cylinder power can't be simply added to the diopter of the PAL directly, because the diopter of the PAL needs to be changed smoothly. A methods has been proposed in this article to solve the problem, the freeform surface height of a PAL without astigmatism and the cylindrical lens surface height for the correction of astigmatism are calculated separately. The both two surface heights were added together, then the final surface is produced and shown with the both properties of PALs and cylindrical lenses used to correct the astigmatism.

  11. Radon action level for high-rise buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, J.K.C.; Tso, M.Y.W.; Ho, C.W. . Radioisotope Unit)

    1999-05-01

    Radon and its progeny are the major contributors to the natural radiation dose received by human beings. Many countries and radiological authorities have recommended radon action levels to limit the indoor radon concentrations, and, hence, the annual doses to the general public. Since the sources of indoor radon and the methods for reducing its concentration are different for different types of buildings, social and economic factors have to be considered when setting the action level. But so far no action levels are specifically recommended for cities that have dwellings and offices all housed in high-rise buildings. In this study, an optimization approach was used to determine an action level for high-rise buildings based on data obtained through previous territory-wide radon surveys. A protection cost of HK $0.044 per unit fresh air change rate per unit volume and a detriment cost of HK $120,000 per person-Sv were used, which gave a minimum total cost at an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3]. The optimization analyses were repeated for different simulated radon distributions and living environment, which resulted in quite significantly different action levels. Finally, an action level of 200 Bq m[sup [minus]3] was recommended for existing buildings and 150 Bq m[sup [minus]3] for newly built buildings.

  12. Scientists, educators, and national standards: Action at the local level

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This volume contains full papers presented at the Forum entitled Scientists, Educators, and National Standards- Action at the Local Level held April 14-15, 1994. Records for the database have been prepared for the individual reports contained herein.

  13. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway.

  14. Stress responses in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) 12. Sequence analysis of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) cDNA clones and appearance of PAL transcripts in elicitor-treated cell cultures and developing plants.

    PubMed

    Gowri, G; Paiva, N L; Dixon, R A

    1991-09-01

    An expression library containing cDNAs derived from transcripts from fungal elicitor-treated alfalfa cell suspension cultures was screened with an antiserum raised against phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) from alfalfa. A single immunoreactive clone was isolated which encoded a full-length PAL cDNA (APAL1) consisting of a 2175 bp open reading frame, 96 bp 5'-untranslated leader and 128 bp 3'-non-coding region. The deduced amino acid sequence was 86.5% similar to that of the PAL2 gene of bean, and encoded a polypeptide of Mr 78,865. A second PAL cDNA species was isolated, whose 3'-untranslated region was 86% identical to that of APAL1. Southern blot analysis indicated that PAL is encoded by a small multigene family in alfalfa. PAL transcript levels were rapidly and massively induced, and preceded increased PAL extractable activity, on exposure of alfalfa suspension cells to elicitor from baker's yeast. PAL transcripts were most abundant in roots, stems and petioles during growth and development of alfalfa seedlings. These studies provide the basis for an examination of the developmental and environmental control of a key enzyme of phenylpropanoid synthesis in a plant species which is readily amenable to stable genetic transformation.

  15. Action Recognition Depends on Observer’s Level of Action Control and Social Personality Traits

    PubMed Central

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D.; de Lange, Floris P.; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others’ goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual’s movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors’ goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others’ behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the “mirroring” and “mentalizing” cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  16. Molecular cloning and promoter analysis of the specific salicylic acid biosynthetic pathway gene phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (AaPAL1) from Artemisia annua.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fu, Xueqing; Hao, Xiaolong; Zhang, Lida; Wang, Luyao; Qian, Hongmei; Zhao, Jingya

    2016-07-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is the key enzyme in the biosynthetic pathway of salicylic acid (SA). In this study, a full-length cDNA of PAL gene (named as AaPAL1) was cloned from Artemisia annua. The gene contains an open reading frame of 2,151 bps encoding 716 amino acids. Comparative and bioinformatics analysis revealed that the polypeptide protein of AaPAL1 was highly homologous to PALs from other plant species. Southern blot analysis revealed that it belonged to a gene family with three members. Quantitative RT-PCR analysis of various tissues of A. annua showed that AaPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the young leaves. A 1160-bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including W-box, TGACG-motif, and TC-rich repeats. Quantitative RT-PCR indicated that AaPAL1 was upregulated by salinity, drought, wounding, and SA stresses, which were corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. AaPAL1 was successfully expressed in Escherichia. coli and the enzyme activity of the purified AaPAL1 was approximately 287.2 U/mg. These results substantiated the involvement of AaPAL1 in the phenylalanine pathway. PMID:26040426

  17. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  18. Preliminary Evidence on the Social Standing of Students with Learning Disabilities in PALS and No-PALS Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Martinez, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    A study collected sociometric data in 39 second- through sixth-grade classrooms, 22 of which were engaged in Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), a form of peer tutoring. Students with learning disabilities in PALS classes were more socially accepted than those in no-PALS classes and enjoyed the same social standing as controls. (Contains…

  19. Logic synthesis strategy based on BDD decomposition and PAL-oriented optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Adam; Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    A new strategy of logic synthesis for PAL-based CPLDs is presented in the paper. This approach consists of an original method of two-stage BDD-based decomposition and a two-level PAL-oriented optimization. The aim of the proposed approach is oriented towards balanced (speed/area) optimization. The first element of the strategy is original PAL-oriented decomposition. This decomposition consists in the sequential search for an input partition providing the feasibility for implementation of the free block in one PAL-based logic block containing a predefined number of product terms. The presented non-standard decomposition provides a means to minimize the area of the implemented circuit and to reduce of the necessary logic blocks in the programmable structure. The second element of the proposed logic synthesis strategy is oriented towards speed optimization. This optimization is based on utilizing tri-state buffers. Results of experiments prove that the presented synthesis strategy is especially effective for CPLD structures, which consist of PAL-based logic blocks containing a low number of product terms.

  20. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored.

  1. An action plan for tobacco control at regional level.

    PubMed

    Edwards, R; Brown, J S; Hodgson, P; Kyle, D; Reed, D; Wallace, B

    1999-07-01

    Smoking is the single biggest preventable cause of death in the UK; killing over 120 000 people each year, contributing to inequalities in health, exacerbating and causing poverty. Smoking has increased steadily among children since 1988 and more recently, among young adults. The current context in the UK is highly favourable for introducing comprehensive tobacco control measures. This paper summarises a regional action plan for tobacco control. Actions at district and regional levels are outlined to establish a comprehensive local tobacco control framework and complement national tobacco control measures. Measures include: a 'SWOT' analysis of current activity; systematic monitoring of smoking prevalence, attitudes to smoking, and the impact of tobacco control interventions; provision of effective smoking cessation support to a minimum standard throughout the health service; increased coverage of smoke-free public places and workplaces; enforcement of legislation on illegal sales to children and against smuggling and selling illegally imported tobacco; paid and unpaid mass media campaigns; and systematic lobbying for fiscal and legislative measures. One of the key components of the plan is the introduction of evidence-based tobacco control strategies at district levels. These should include a performance framework with clear organisational and managerial accountability and employ a co-ordinated, multiagency, partnership approach. Priority groups should be identified. Strategies should seek to engage the public to build support for tobacco control measures. Sufficient time, staff, resources and training must be allocated to tobacco control work and progress towards objectives monitored. PMID:10483077

  2. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  3. Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Jennifer; Coitinho, Denise; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Pelletier, David; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2008-02-01

    80% of the world's undernourished children live in just 20 countries. Intensified nutrition action in these countries can lead to achievement of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and greatly increase the chances of achieving goals for child and maternal mortality (MDGs 4 and 5). Despite isolated successes in specific countries or for interventions--eg, iodised salt and vitamin A supplementation--most countries with high rates of undernutrition are failing to reach undernourished mothers and children with effective interventions supported by appropriate policies. This paper reports on an assessment of actions addressing undernutrition in the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, drawing on systematic reviews and best-practice reports. Seven key challenges for addressing undernutrition at national level are defined and reported on: getting nutrition on the list of priorities, and keeping it there; doing the right things; not doing the wrong things; acting at scale; reaching those in need; data-based decisionmaking; and building strategic and operational capacity. Interventions with proven effectiveness that are selected by countries should be rapidly implemented at scale. The period from pregnancy to 24 months of age is a crucial window of opportunity for reducing undernutrition and its adverse effects. Programme efforts, as well as monitoring and assessment, should focus on this segment of the continuum of care. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions unlikely to be effective in the context of country or local realities. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions that have not been proven to have a direct effect on undernutrition, such as stand-alone growth monitoring or school feeding programmes. In addition to health and nutrition interventions, economic and social policies addressing poverty, trade, and agriculture that have been associated with rapid improvements in nutritional status should be

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  5. [Social change and Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL)].

    PubMed

    Masuyama, Koichi; Isobe, Soichiro

    2010-01-01

    Former Japanese pharmaceutical laws, originally based on the Pharmaceutical Marketing and Handling Regulations enacted in 1874 were in operation for many years before World War II. However, in order to address several drug issues, such as poor drug quality and insufficiences regarding the role of pharmacists during the War, the laws needed to be unified and revised. In this paper, we analyzed the record of discussions held by the Imperial Diet on the bill for the Pharmaceutical Affairs Law (PAL) in 1943. This is also regarded as the origin of the current PAL (LawNo.145 in 1960). Through this analysis, we tried to clarify the relationship between the social change and the role of PAL in society. During the War, the bill was discussed, aiming at the improvement of both human resources who treated drugs, and the quality of drug materials. Diet members discussed three main points, namely, "the duty of pharmacists", "the mission of the Japan Pharmaceutical Association" and "the quality control of pharmaceutical products". Notably, the bill pharmacists are required not only to dispense drugs, a role they had previously, but also to manage drug and food hygiene through the quality control of pharmaceutical products and the inspection of food and drink, in order to improve the public health in Japan. Originally, the law was passed to deal with the extraordinary circumstances during the War, but through our analysis, we found that they proactively improved the role of the law to comply with various drug issues raised during the War, the rapid change of the pharmaceutical hygiene concept and the social transformation. PMID:21032892

  6. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  7. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  8. Phase 1 Trial of Subcutaneous rAvPAL-PEG in Subjects with Phenylketonuria

    PubMed Central

    Longo, Nicola; Harding, Cary O.; Burton, Barbara K.; Grange, Dorothy K.; Vockley, Jerry; Wasserstein, Melissa; Rice, Gregory M.; Musson, Donald G.; Gu, Zhonghua; Sile, Saba

    2014-01-01

    Objective Phenylketonuria is an inherited disease caused by impaired activity of phenylalanine hydroxylase, the enzyme that converts phenylalanine to tyrosine, leading to accumulation of phenylalanine and subsequent neurocognitive dysfunction. A phenylalanine-restricted diet initiated early in life can ameliorate the toxic effects of phenylalanine. However, the diet is onerous and compliance is extremely difficult. Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a prokaryotic enzyme that converts phenylalanine to ammonia and trans-cinnamic acid. This Phase 1, multicenter clinical trial evaluated the safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics and efficacy of rAvPAL-PEG (recombinant Anabaena variabilis PAL produced in E. coli conjugated with polyethylene glycol [PEG] to reduce immunogenicity) in reducing phenylalanine levels in subjects with phenylketonuria. Methods Single subcutaneous injections of rAvPAL-PEG in escalating doses (0·001, 0·003, 0·01, 0·03, and 0·1 mg/kg) were administered to 25 adults with phenylketonuria recruited from those attending metabolic clinics in North America whose blood phenylalanine concentrations were ≥600 μmol/L. Results The most frequently reported adverse events were injection-site reactions and dizziness. Reactions were self-limited without sequelae. During the trial, two subjects had adverse reactions to intramuscular (IM) medroxyprogesterone acetate, a drug containing polyethylene glycol as an excipient. Three subjects developed a generalized skin rash at the highest rAvPAL-PEG dose (0·1 mg/kg). Drug levels peaked ∼5 days after the injection. Treatment was effective in reducing blood phenylalanine in all five subjects receiving the highest dose (0·1 mg/kg, mean percent change of -58 from baseline), with a nadir ∼6 days after injection and inverse correlation between drug and phenylalanine concentrations in plasma. Phenylalanine concentrations returned to near-baseline levels ∼20 days after the single injection. Conclusions

  9. Atomic-level Snapshot Catches Protein Motor in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Using a state-of-the-art protein crystallography beamline at Berkeley Labs Advanced Light Source, researchers have captured a critical action shapshot of an enzyme that is vital to the survival of all biological cells.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations, and step-out sampling to define the extent of

  11. Syntax PAL: a system to improve the written syntax of language-impaired users.

    PubMed

    Morris, C; Newell, A; Booth, L; Ricketts, I; Arnott, J

    1992-01-01

    In our work with children who have difficulty with spelling or with the physical action of writing, we have found a number of children who also have difficulty with written grammar. As an extension of PAL, an existing predictive spelling and typing aid, we have developed a writing aid to help these children with sentence construction. The enhanced system uses the syntax of the initial part of a sentence to enhance the position in the prediction list of syntactically correct words. It was postulated that this would discourage the use of incorrect syntax and encourage the use of correct syntax. In two case studies, the use of Syntax PAL significantly improved the quality and quantity of one child's written output, but had little effect on the other child's work.

  12. Laser-driven shock experiments at PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batani, Dimitri; Stabile, H.; Ravasio, A.; Desai, Tara; Lucchini, G.; Strati, F.; Ullschmied, Jiri; Krousky, E.; Skala, Jiri; Kralikova, Bozena; Pfeifer, Miroslav; Kadlec, Christelle; Mocek, Tomas; Prag, A. R.; Nishimura, Hiroaki; Ochi, Yoshihiro; Zvorykin, Vladimir D.

    2004-04-01

    Here we discuss the results of the experiments performed using the Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS) of wavelength 0.44 μm (3ω of Iodine laser) and energy ~ 250 J in 450 ps (FWHM). Two sets of experiments were carried out, firstly, generation of high quality shocks which were steady in time and uniform in space using Phase Zone Plates (PZP), to establish the scaling laws of shock pressure Vs. laser intensity for aluminum foil target of thickness 8 μm. Our results show a good agreement with the delocalized laser absorption model. Secondly, measurements of the Equation of State of carbon compressed by shocks at megabars of pressure have been realized. Equation of State were obtained for carbon using the impedance mismatch technique. Step targets allowed the simultaneous measurements of shock velocity in two different materials. Aluminum was used as a reference material and relative EOS data for carbon have been obtained up to ~ 14 Mbar pressure.

  13. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, "why" an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific "how" details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety.

  14. Synchronized stress-PALS test on a series of polyester copolymer glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Lei; Yee, Albert F.

    2001-03-01

    Previous work in our group suggests that, in craze nucleation, only when a nanovoid grows to a critical size can it serve as a nucleus for stable craze growth. However, what factors influence this nanovoid growth process remains unclear. A new technique, synchronized stress-PALS test, has been established to study the change in size and intensity of nanovoids when polymer glasses are under stress. A series of glassy copolymers based on poly (ethylene terephthalate) (PET) and poly (1,4-cyclohexylenedimethylene terephthalate) (PCT) were investigated by synchronized stress-PALS at different stress levels. The results suggest that both stress level and chain mobility of the polymers influence nanovoid growth. Based on these experimental results, a craze nucleation model has been proposed. This model, based on thermodynamic and kinetic analysis, show that the craze nucleation process is determined by the modulus, surface energy and chain mobility of polymer glasses.

  15. Radiation reaction at the level of the action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birnholtz, Ofek; Hadar, Shahar; Kol, Barak

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this paper is to highlight a recently proposed method for the treatment of classical radiative effects, in particular radiation reaction, via effective field theory methods. We emphasize important features of the method and in particular the doubling of fields. We apply the method to two simple systems: a mass-rope system and an electromagnetic charge-field system. For the mass-rope system in 1 + 1 dimensions we derive a double-field effective action for the mass which describes a damped harmonic oscillator. For the EM charge-field system, i.e. the system of an accelerating electric charge in 3 + 1 dimensions, we show a reduction to a 1 + 1 dimensions radial system of an electric dipole source coupled to an electric dipole field (analogous to the mass coupled to the rope). For this system we derive a double-field effective action and reproduce in an analogous way the leading part of the Abraham-Lorentz-Dirac force.

  16. Status of the PAL-XFEL undulator program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Dong-Eon; Park, Ki-Hyeon; Kang, Heung-Sik; Ko, In-Soo; Cho, Moo-Hyun; Pflueger, Jochaim

    2015-05-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory (PAL) is developing a 0.1 nm SASE based FEL based on 10 GeV S-band linear accelerator named PAL-XFEL. At the first stage, PAL-XFEL needs two undulator lines for photon source. The hard Xray undulator line requires 18 units of 5 m long hybrid-type conventional planar undulator and soft X-ray line requires 6 units of 5 m long hybrid type planar undulator with additional few EPUs for final polarization control. PAL is developing undulator magnetic structure based on EU-XFEL concepts. The key parameters are min pole gap of 8.3 mm, with period length 26 mm (HXU), 35 mm (SXU), and 5.0 m magnetic length. . In this report, the prototyping, and the development of pole tuning procedure, the impact of the background field error, and the effects of the girder bending on the optical phase error will be presented.

  17. THE PAL 5 STAR STREAM GAPS

    SciTech Connect

    Carlberg, R. G.; Hetherington, Nathan; Grillmair, C. J. E-mail: hetherington@astro.utoronto.ca

    2012-11-20

    Pal 5 is a low-mass, low-velocity-dispersion, globular cluster with spectacular tidal tails. We use the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 8 data to extend the density measurements of the trailing star stream to 23 deg distance from the cluster, at which point the stream runs off the edge of the available sky coverage. The size and the number of gaps in the stream are measured using a filter which approximates the structure of the gaps found in stream simulations. We find 5 gaps that are at least 99% confidence detections with about a dozen gaps at 90% confidence. The statistical significance of a gap is estimated using bootstrap resampling of the control regions on either side of the stream. The density minimum closest to the cluster is likely the result of the epicyclic orbits of the tidal outflow and has been discounted. To create the number of 99% confidence gaps per unit length at the mean age of the stream requires a halo population of nearly a thousand dark matter sub-halos with peak circular velocities above 1 km s{sup -1} within 30 kpc of the galactic center. These numbers are a factor of about three below cold stream simulation at this sub-halo mass or velocity but, given the uncertainties in both measurement and more realistic warm stream modeling, are in substantial agreement with the LCDM prediction.

  18. Numeric removal action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. Update 2. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    This document is an updated table of numeric action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. It was originally published as an attachment to 9360.1-02 (Oct. 93) which described the new methodology used by OERR to calculate removal action levels (RALs) in drinking water.

  19. Sustained action tetracycline preparation--tetrabid-organon blood level study.

    PubMed

    Lucas, C R; Mugglestone, C J; Thomas, D R

    1977-01-01

    A comparison of the plasma levels of tetracycline obtained whilst taking standard therapeutic doses of Tetrabid-Organon was made in twelve healthy volunteers. Two standard production batches were used in the study which was conducted under double-blind conditions. Sampling 12 hours and 8 hours after dosing showed no significant differences in plasma levels, with each batch. Even at these lowest levels satisfactory concentrations were rapidly obtained following initial administration, and were maintained when the drug was given at 12-hourly intervals. No side-effects of the drug were noted.

  20. Ultra Stable Capacitor charging Power Supply of Klystron-Modulator for PAL XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Y. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Jang, S. D.; Suh, J. H.; Oh, J. S.

    2007-01-19

    The PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) 2.5-GeV linac is planed to be converted to a SASE-XFEL facility (PAL XFEL) that supplies coherent X-rays down to 0.3-nm wavelength. The electron beams has to have an emittance of 1.0 mm-mrad, a peak current of 3 kA, and a low energy spread of 1.0 MeV. In order to provide reasonably stable SASE output, the RF stability of 0.02% rms is required for both RF phase and amplitude. This stability is mainly determined by a low level RF drive system and klystron-modulators. The stability level of the modulator has to be improved 10 times better to meet the pulse stability of 0.02%. This is a technologically challenging issue for PAL XFEL. An inverter technology is to be applied to charge the PFN of a new modulator. Therefore, a new inverter system should provide very stable charging performances. This paper presents the development of an ultra stable klystron-modulator with an inverter power.

  1. Overcoming Obstacles Posed by "NCLB": When Preservice Teachers and Special Needs Children Pen Pal with Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.; Sivret, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a pen pal partnership experience wherein undergraduate teacher education candidates enrolled in a Reading Language Arts Methods course and exchanged a series of 6-8 letters with elementary level children designated as having special needs. The project resulted in a number of benefits for both the children and the teacher…

  2. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses an active quorum sensing regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Elisa V; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Leguina, Ana C; Irazusta, Verónica P; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus colonizes a broad range of host plants. Its plant growth-promoting capability is related to the capacity to perform biological nitrogen fixation, the biosynthesis of siderophores, antimicrobial substances and the solubilization of mineral nutrients. Colonization of and survival in these endophytic niche requires a complex regulatory network. Among these, quorum sensing systems (QS) are signaling mechanisms involved in the control of several genes related to microbial interactions, host colonization and stress survival. G. diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses a QS composed of a luxR and a luxI homolog, and produces eight molecules from the AHL family as QS signals. In this report data are provided showing that glucose concentration modifies the relative levels of these signal molecules. The activity of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 QS is also altered in presence of other carbon sources and under saline stress conditions. Inactivation of the QS system of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 by means of a quorum quenching strategy allowed the identification of extracellular and intracellular proteins under the control of this regulatory mechanism. PMID:24974195

  3. Saccharothrix sp. PAL54, a new chloramphenicol-producing strain isolated from a Saharan soil.

    PubMed

    Aouiche, Adel; Sabaou, Nasserdine; Meklat, Atika; Zitouni, Abdelghani; Bijani, Christian; Mathieu, Florence; Lebrihi, Ahmed

    2012-03-01

    An actinomycete strain designated PAL54, producing an antibacterial substance, was isolated from a Saharan soil in Ghardaïa, Algeria. Morphological and chemical studies indicated that this strain belonged to the genus Saccharothrix. Analysis of the 16S rDNA sequence showed a similarity level ranging between 96.9 and 99.2% within Saccharothrix species, with S. longispora DSM 43749(T), the most closely related. DNA-DNA hybridization confirmed that strain PAL54 belonged to Saccharothrix longispora. It showed very strong activity against pathogenic Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria responsible for nosocomial infections and resistant to multiple antibiotics. Strain PAL54 secreted the antibiotic optimally during mid-stationary and decline phases of growth. One antibacterial compound was isolated from the culture broth and purified by HPLC. The active compound was elucidated by uv-visible and NMR spectroscopy and by mass spectrometry. The results showed that this compound was a D: (-)-threo chloramphenicol. This is the first report of chloramphenicol production by a Saccharothrix species.

  4. AstroPAL: A Mentoring Program for Grad Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Astronomy Peer Advising Leaders program (AstroPAL) provides guidance for incoming grad students from a team of student volunteers who have passed their 2nd year Qualifier Exam. The purpose is to pair first years with a mentor who can help them through some of the stresses or difficulties that come with being a new grad student. AstroPALs and mentees meet privately about once a month in a casual setting to talk about how they're adjusting to the new surroundings, how they're handling the workload, etc. New students can join AstroPAL at any time during their first two years, and can stop receiving guidance once they feel comfortable in the program. Mentees will be assigned an AstroPAL based on preference and availability, and an AstroPAL Liason will always be in place to facilitate mentor reassignments or other issues if necessary. After passing the 2nd year Qualifier Exam, mentees are eligible to serve as mentors to incoming students.

  5. 75 FR 6064 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...) frequently asked question (FAQ). This EALFAQ will be used to provide clarification of endorsed Nuclear Energy... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY:...

  6. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document AGENCY:...

  7. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  8. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  9. A phenylalanine ammonia-lyase ortholog (PkPAL1) from Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex. Benth: molecular cloning, promoter analysis and response to biotic and abiotic elicitors.

    PubMed

    Bhat, Wajid Waheed; Razdan, Sumeer; Rana, Satiander; Dhar, Niha; Wani, Tariq Ahmad; Qazi, Parvaiz; Vishwakarma, Ram; Lattoo, Surrinder K

    2014-09-01

    Picrorhiza kurrooa Royle ex Benth. is a highly reputed medicinal herb utilised in the preparation of a number of herbal drug formulations, principally due to the presence of novel monoterpene iridoid glycosides kenned as picrosides. Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase catalyses an important rate-limiting step in phenylpropanoid pathway and supplies precursors like cinnamic acid, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, etc., to a variety of secondary metabolites including picrosides. The imperilled status of P. kurrooa coupled with lack of information regarding biogenesis of picrosides necessitates deciphering the biosynthetic pathway for picrosides. In the present study, a PAL gene, designated PkPAL1 was isolated from P. kurrooa. The cDNA is 2312 bp in length, consisting of an ORF of 2142 bp encoding for a 713 amino acid protein having a predicted molecular weight of 77.66 kDa and an isoelectric point of pH 6.82. qRT-PCR analysis of various tissues of P. kurrooa showed that PkPAL1 transcript levels were highest in the leaves, consistent with picroside accumulation pattern. Using Genome walking, a 718 bp promoter region was also isolated resulting in identification of distinct cis-regulatory elements including TGA-element, TGACG-motif, CGTCA-motif, etc. qRT-PCR indicated up-regulation of PkPAL1 by methyl jasmonate, salicylic acid, 2,4-dicholorophenoxy acetic acid and UV-B elicitations that corroborated positively with the identified cis-elements within the promoter region. Moreover, altitude was found to have a positive effect on the PkPAL1 transcript levels, driving the expression of PkPAL1 abundantly. Based on docking analysis, we identified eight residues as potentially essential for substrate binding in PkPAL1.

  10. "Playground Pals" and Peer Mediation at Benarty Primary School, Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallacher, Karen

    2011-01-01

    Benarty Primary School is situated in Lochore, Fife, Scotland. The school is proactive in developing self regulation; restorative and nurturing approaches. It aims to build resilience in all of its children, staff and families. Playground Pals have been established at Benarty Primary School since 2009 and as part of that programme, there have been…

  11. Pen-Pal Letters: The Cross-Curricular Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lemkuhl, Michelle

    2002-01-01

    Describes how a first-grade bilingual program in Tucson, Arizona became class pen pals throughout the year with inner-city second graders from Toledo, Ohio. Notes that this would prove beneficial for lessons in reading and writing and would promote their knowledge about their city and state. Discusses how it expanded into cross-curricular lessons…

  12. A Pen Pal Project Connects Preservice Teachers and Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori G.; Oberhauser, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pen pal project that took place between preservice teachers and students in an urban middle school. The purpose of this project was twofold: to expose preservice teachers to the rewards of urban teaching and to expose urban middle school students to adult reading role models. As a result of the project, both goals were…

  13. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Proyecto PAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Castor

    This content analysis schedule for "Proyecto PAL" in San Jose, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic background of…

  14. Project PALS (Parenting and Literacy Skills). Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryan Independent School District, TX.

    Project PALS (Parenting and Literacy Skills) was designed as a model of holistic comprehensive family literacy for those families connected with a Head Start program. Forty-three of an anticipated 75 families were served. Adult students who were referred by Head Start personnel participated in classes in English as a Second Language, Adult Basic…

  15. Accuracy of activPAL Self-Attachment Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kringen, Nina L.; Healy, Genevieve N.; Winkler, Elisabeth A. H.; Clark, Bronwyn K.

    2016-01-01

    This study examined the accuracy of self-attachment of the activPAL activity monitor. A convenience sample of 50 participants self-attached the monitor after being presented with written material only (WMO) and then written and video (WV) instructions; and completed a questionnaire regarding the acceptability of the instructional methods.…

  16. Pen Pal Writing: A Holistic and Socio-Cultural Approach to Adult English Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Serrano, Arlene F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study reports the findings implementing a pen pal letter exchange project between adult English language learners and volunteer native English speakers. The pen pal project was implemented using a holistic and socio-cultural approach to English literacy development. This article presents pen pal writing as an authentic language…

  17. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  18. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people.

  19. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks. PMID:26117505

  20. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks.

  1. 75 FR 47856 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... submitted by the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) and endorsed by the NRC related to the development of EALs... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY:...

  2. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION AND FOOD-PACKAGING...

  3. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... IN ANIMAL FOOD AND FOOD-PACKAGING MATERIAL General Provisions § 509.4 Establishment of tolerances... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  4. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  5. Final guidance on numeric removal action levels for contaminated drinking water sites. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1993-10-01

    The purpose of this memorandum is to transmit the final OERR methodology and guidance on the calculation of numeric removal action levels (RALs), to assist Superfund personnel in deciding whether to provide alternate sources of drinking water to populations adversely affected by releases of hazardous substances into the environment.

  6. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407, Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on Tonopah Test Range (TTR), CAU 407 is located approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and five miles south of Area 3. The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. As a result of these operations, the surface and subsurface soils in the area have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern associated with decontamination activities. In June and July 1998, corrective action investigation activities were performed at CAU 407 (as outlined in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan [CAIP]). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if any analytes were present at the site in concentrations above the preliminary action levels (PALs). The results indicated in the detection of plutonium above the PAL in samples taken from surface and subsurface soil within the exclusion zone, and uranium and americium detected above the PAL in samples taken from surface soil within the exclusion zone. No other COCs were identified above PALs specified in the CAIP. Based on this data, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were defined: (1) to prevent or mitigate human exposure to surface and subsurface soil containing COCs, and (2) to prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. To accomplish these objectives, five CAAs were developed and evaluated. Based on the results of the detailed and comparative analysis of these alternatives, Alternative 3 (Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls With a Surface Cap) was chosen as the preferred alternative. This alternative was

  7. Development of action levels for MED/MPD skin-testing units in ultraviolet phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Una M.; O'Hare, Neil J.

    2003-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Phototherapy is commonly used for treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema. Treatment is carried out using UV phototherapy units, exposing all or part of the body for a certain exposure time. Prior to exposure in treatment units, an unaffected area of skin may be tested using UV skin-testing units in order to determine a suitable treatment regime. The exposure time at which barely perceptible erythema has developed is known as the Minimal Erythemal Dose (MED) for UVB therapy and Minimal Phototoxic Dose (MPD) for UVA therapy. This is used to determine the starting dose in the treatment regime. The presence of 'hotspots' and 'coldspots' in UV skin-testing units can result in inaccurate determination of MED/MPD. This could give rise to severe burns during treatment, or in a sub-optimal dose regime being used. Quality assurance protocols for UV phototherapy equipment have recently been developed and these protocols have highlighted the need for action levels for skin-testing units. An action level is a reference value, which is used to determine whether the difference in irradiance output level across a UV unit is acceptable. Current methodologies for skin-testing in Ireland have been characterised and errors introduced during testing have been estimated. Action levels have been developed based on analysis of errors and requirements of skin-testing.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  9. Essential levels of health information in Europe: an action plan for a coherent and sustainable infrastructure.

    PubMed

    Carinci, Fabrizio

    2015-04-01

    The European Union needs a common health information infrastructure to support policy and governance on a routine basis. A stream of initiatives conducted in Europe during the last decade resulted into several success stories, but did not specify a unified framework that could be broadly implemented on a continental level. The recent debate raised a potential controversy on the different roles and responsibilities of policy makers vs the public health community in the construction of such a pan-European health information system. While institutional bodies shall clarify the statutory conditions under which such an endeavour is to be carried out, researchers should define a common framework for optimal cross-border information exchange. This paper conceptualizes a general solution emerging from past experiences, introducing a governance structure and overarching framework that can be realized through four main action lines, underpinned by the key principle of "Essential Levels of Health Information" for Europe. The proposed information model is amenable to be applied in a consistent manner at both national and EU level. If realized, the four action lines outlined here will allow developing a EU health information infrastructure that would effectively integrate best practices emerging from EU public health initiatives, including projects and joint actions carried out during the last ten years. The proposed approach adds new content to the ongoing debate on the future activity of the European Commission in the area of health information.

  10. Use of the BINP HLS to measure vertical changes in the locations of the building and ground at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Hyo-Jin; Seo, Kwang-Won; Gil, Kye-Hwan; Kim, Seung-Hwan; Kang, Heung-Sik

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free-electron laser (PAL-XFEL), a 4 th generation light source, is currently being installed and will be completed by December 2015 so that users can be supported beginning in 2016. The PAL-XFEL equipment must continuously maintain the bunch-tobunch beam parameters (60 Hz, Energy: 10 GeV, Charge: 200 pC, Bunch Length: 60 fs, Emittance X/Y: 0.481/0.256 mm rad) in order to supply stable photons with the energy and flux appropriate for tests by beamline users. To this end, the PAL-XFEL equipment has to be kept precisely aligned (Linear Accelerator: +/- 100 μm, Undulator: +/- 50 μm). As a part of the process for installing the PAL-XFEL, a GPS-using surface geodetic network is being constructed for precise equipment measurement and alignment, and the installation of a tunnel measurement network inside the buildings is in the preparation stage; additionally, the fiducialization of major equipment is underway. After the PAL-XFEL equipment is optimized and aligned, if the ground and the buildings go through vertical changes during operation, misalignment (and tilt) of the equipment, including various magnets and RF structures, will cause errors in the electron beam's trajectory, which will lead to changes to the beam parameters. For continuous and systemic measurement of vertical changes in the buildings and monitoring of ground sinking and uplifting, the Budker Institute of Nuclear Physics (BINP) Ultrasonic-type Hydrostatic Levelling System (HLS) is to be installed and operated in all sections of the PAL-XFEL for the linear accelerator, the insertion device (undulator) and the beamline. This study will introduce the operation principle, design concept, and advantages (self-calibration) of the HLS and will outline its installation plan and operation plan.

  11. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  12. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  13. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein Pal in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Juliana; MacPherson, Victoria; Barnard, David; Bettinger, John; D'Arcy, Brooke; Surendran, Naveen; Hellman, Judith; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (Pal) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a characteristic bacterial lipoprotein, with an N-terminal lipid moiety anchoring it to the outer membrane. Since its discovery over three decades ago, Pal has been well studied for its participation in the Tol–Pal complex which spans the periplasm and has been proposed to play important roles in bacterial survival, pathogenesis and virulence. Previous studies of Pal place the lipoprotein in the periplasm of E. coli, allowing it to interact with Tol proteins and the peptidoglycan layer. Here, we describe for the first time, a subpopulation of Pal which is present on the cell surface of E. coli. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy detect anti-Pal antibodies on the surface of intact E. coli cells. Interestingly, Pal is surface exposed in an ‘all or nothing’ manner, such that most of the cells contain only internal Pal, with fewer cells ( < 20  %) exhibiting surface Pal. PMID:25808171

  14. Identification of N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 cultured in complex and synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Bertini, Elisa V; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2012-07-01

    The endophytic diazotrophic Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 was originally isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormones secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and phytopathogen antagonism allow its classification as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. The recent genomic sequence of PAL5 unveiled the presence of a quorum sensing (QS) system. QS are regulatory mechanisms that, through the production of signal molecules or autoinducers, permit a microbial population the regulation of the physiology in a coordinated manner. The most studied autoinducers in gram-negative bacteria are the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The usage of biosensor strains evidenced the presence of AHL-like molecules in cultures of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 grown in complex and synthetic media. Analysis of AHLs performed by LC-APCI-MS permitted the identification of eight different signal molecules, including C6-, C8-, C10-, C12- and C14-HSL. Mass spectra confirmed that this diazotrophic strain also synthesizes autoinducers with carbonyl substitutions in the acyl chain. No differences in the profile of AHLs could be determined under both culture conditions. However, although the level of short-chain AHLs was not affected, a decrease of 30% in the production of long-chain AHLs could be measured in synthetic medium. PMID:22350020

  15. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments. PMID:26809283

  16. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments.

  17. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Extension of Comment Period AGENCY: Food and Drug...

  18. 78 FR 42086 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-15

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for Action Level for Arsenic in Apple Juice; A Quantitative Assessment of Inorganic Arsenic in Apple Juice; Availability AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS....

  19. Magnetostriction and palæomagnetism of igneous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John W.; Buddington, A.F.; Balsley, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    IN a recent communication, Stott and Stacey1 report on a “crucial experiment” from which they conclude: “This excellent agreement between the dip and the directions of artificial thermoremanent magnetization of the stressed and unstressed rocks indicates that large systematic errors due to magnetostriction are most improbable in igneous rocks of types normally used for palæomagnetic work”. This experiment was intended to test the proposals2 and measurements3 bearing on the role of magnetostriction in rock magnetism. We present here our reasons for believing that the experiment was not crucial and that the conclusion is not justified.

  20. Construction status of CXI beamline at PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Kim, Bongsoo; Ko, In Soo; Cho, Moohyun

    2015-05-01

    Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) is a research facility currently under construction. It will provide ultra-bright (assuming 1 X 1012 photons/pulse at 12.4 keV) and ultra-short (10-60 femtosecond) X-ray pulses. The CXI (Coherent X-ray Imaging) end-station, which will be constructed for hard X-ray beamline at the PAL-XFEL, is designed to deliver brilliant hard x-rays (2-20 keV) and to measure diffraction signals with forward scattering geometry, mainly. Not only will it offer imaging studies of biological, chemical and physical samples by the "diffract-before-destroy" technique, but will also be helpful in high field hard x-ray physics and material science. The scientific programs are currently aimed at serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) for macromolecular systems and coherent diffraction imaging for bio specimens and nano structures etc. In this paper, we describe the details of the beamline layout, X-ray focusing optics (Kirkpatrick-Baez mirror and Beryllium CRLs) and sample delivery system (liquid jet/LCP sample injector, fixed target system) that will be installed at the CXI beamline.

  1. Stimulant Drug Effects on Touchscreen Automated Paired-Associates Learning (PAL) in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-01-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not…

  2. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in Pal 4 (Frank+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. J.; Hilker, M.; Baumgardt, H.; Cote, P.; Grebel, E. K.; Haghi, H.; Kupper, A. H. W.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2013-04-01

    B and V images centred on Pal 4 were obtained with LRIS on the night of 1999 January 14. On three different nights in 1999 February and March, spectra for 24 candidate red giants in the direction of Pal 4 were obtained using HIRES mounted on the Keck I telescope. (1 data file).

  3. Writing Pal: Feasibility of an Intelligent Writing Strategy Tutor in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2013-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is a novel intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that offers writing strategy instruction, game-based practice, essay writing practice, and formative feedback to developing writers. Compared to more tractable and constrained learning domains for ITS, writing is an ill-defined domain because the features of effective writing are…

  4. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Volunteer Sponsor's Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This handbook was developed for volunteer group leaders participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning). Project BEST-PAL was developed especially for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting, with a primary objective being…

  5. "Aloha", Hoosier! A Pen-Pal Activity in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Raymond; Chan, Kam Chi

    2007-01-01

    Ray, a preservice teacher in Indiana, and Maxine, a 35-year teaching veteran in Hawai'i, set up a pen-pal program for the third grade students in their respective classrooms, 4,000 miles apart. This pen-pal program, used in conjunction with children's literature and community and technology resources, brought about memorable learning experiences.…

  6. Getting to Know You: Cross-Cultural Pen Pals Expand Children's World View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandomo, Hibajene M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author described the Poplar Street-Naledi pen pal project. The goals of this project were to provide elementary school students with a broader view of the world, to increase their social and cultural awareness, to develop content knowledge of where their pen pals live, and to determine the impact of this project on student…

  7. Taking Action: A Cross-Modal Investigation of Discourse-Level Representations

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2012-01-01

    Segmenting stimuli into events and understanding the relations between those events is crucial for understanding the world. For example, on the linguistic level, successful language use requires the ability to recognize semantic coherence relations between events (e.g., causality, similarity). However, relatively little is known about the mental representation of discourse structure. We report two experiments that used a cross-modal priming paradigm to investigate how humans represent the relations between events. Participants repeated a motor action modeled by the experimenter (e.g., rolled a ball toward mini bowling pins to knock them over), and then completed an unrelated sentence-continuation task (e.g., provided a continuation for “Peter scratched John.…”). In two experiments, we tested whether and how the coherence relations represented by the motor actions (e.g., causal events vs. non-causal events) influence participants’ performance in the linguistic task. (A production study was also conducted to explore potential syntactic priming effects.) Our analyses focused on the coherence relations between the prompt sentences and participants’ continuations, as well as the referential shifts in the continuations. As a whole, the results suggest that the mental representations activated by motor actions overlap with the mental representations used during linguistic discourse-level processing, but nevertheless contain fine-grained information about sub-types of causality (reaction vs. consequence). In addition, the findings point to parallels between shifting one’s attention from one-event to another and shifting one’s attention from one referent to another, and indicate that the event structure of causal sequences is conceptualized more like single events than like two distinct events. As a whole, the results point toward common representations activated by motor sequences and discourse-semantic relations, and further our understanding of the mental

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  9. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib; Claussen, Martin; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We will give a short overview of the national climate modelling initiative (PalMod - Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de) on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. PalMod is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes internal to the Earth system to climate variability at different time scales. Third, in order to achieve a higher level of understanding of natural climate variability at time scales of millennia, its governing processes and implications for the future climate, we bring together three different research communities: the Earth system modeling community, the proxy data community and the computational science community. The consortium consists of 18 partners including all major modelling centers within

  10. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years. PMID:22570984

  11. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years.

  12. Cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of PAL31 overexpression in glial cells

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Acute spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to a series of reactive changes and causes severe neurological deficits. A pronounced inflammation contributes to secondary pathology after SCI. Astroglia respond to SCI by proliferating, migrating, and altering phenotype. The impact of reactive gliosis on the pathogenesis of SCI is not fully understood. Our previous study has identified an inflammatory modulating protein, proliferation related acidic leucine-rich protein (PAL31) which is upregulated in the microglia/macrophage of injured cords. Because PAL31 participates in cell cycle progression and reactive astroglia often appears in the injured cord, we aim to examine whether PAL31 is involved in glial modulation after injury. Results Enhanced PAL31 expression was shown not only in microglia/macrophages but also in spinal astroglia after SCI. Cell culture study reveal that overexpression of PAL31 in mixed glial cells or in C6 astroglia significantly reduced LPS/IFNγ stimulation. Further, enhanced PAL31 expression in C6 astroglia protected cells from H2O2 toxicity; however, this did not affect its proliferative activity. The inhibiting effect of PAL31 on LPS/IFNγ stimulation was observed in glia or C6 after co-culture with neuronal cells. The results demonstrated that the overexpressed PAL31 in glial cells protected neuronal damages through inhibiting NF-kB signaling and iNOS. Conclusions Our data suggest that PAL31upregulation might be beneficial after spinal cord injury. Reactive gliosis might become a good target for future therapeutic interventions. PMID:25034417

  13. Identification of Genes Involved in Indole-3-Acetic Acid Biosynthesis by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 Strain Using Transposon Mutagenesis

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigues, Elisete P.; Soares, Cleiton de Paula; Galvão, Patrícia G.; Imada, Eddie L.; Simões-Araújo, Jean L.; Rouws, Luc F. M.; de Oliveira, André L. M.; Vidal, Márcia S.; Baldani, José I.

    2016-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a beneficial nitrogen-fixing endophyte found in association with sugarcane plants and other important crops. Beneficial effects of G. diazotrophicus on sugarcane growth and productivity have been attributed to biological nitrogen fixation process and production of phytohormones especially indole-3-acetic acid (IAA); however, information about the biosynthesis and function of IAA in G. diazotrophicus is still scarce. Therefore, the aim of this work was to identify genes and pathways involved in IAA biosynthesis in this bacterium. In our study, the screening of two independent Tn5 mutant libraries of PAL5T strain using the Salkowski colorimetric assay revealed two mutants (Gdiaa34 and Gdiaa01), which exhibited 95% less indolic compounds than the parental strain when grown in LGIP medium supplemented with L-tryptophan. HPLC chromatograms of the wild-type strain revealed the presence of IAA and of the biosynthetic intermediates indole-3-pyruvic acid (IPyA) and indole-3-lactate (ILA). In contrast, the HPLC profiles of both mutants showed no IAA but only a large peak of non-metabolized tryptophan and low levels of IPyA and ILA were detected. Molecular characterization revealed that Gdiaa01 and Gdiaa34 mutants had unique Tn5 insertions at different sites within the GDI2456 open read frame, which is predicted to encode a L-amino acid oxidase (LAAO). GDI2456 (lao gene) forms a cluster with GDI2455 and GDI2454 ORFs, which are predicted to encode a cytochrome C and an RidA protein, respectively. RT-qPCR showed that transcript levels of lao. cccA, and ridA genes were reduced in the Gdiaa01 as compared to PAL5T. In addition, rice plants inoculated with Gdiaa01 showed significantly smaller root development (length, surface area, number of forks and tips) than those plants inoculated with PAL5T. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that G. diazotrophicus PAL5T produces IAA via the IPyA pathway in cultures supplemented with tryptophan and

  14. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  15. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J; Beale, Michael H; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow.

  16. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  17. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  18. Stimulant drug effects on touchscreen automated paired-associates learning (PAL) in rats.

    PubMed

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not lower doses of amphetamine (0.4; 0.8 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.08; 0.12 mg/kg) decreased PAL performance. Impaired PAL performance induced by methylphenidate, amphetamine, and MK801 most likely reflects compromised cognitive function, e.g., retrieval of learned paired associates. Our data suggest that stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and modafinil might not facilitate performance in hippocampus-related cognitive tasks. PMID:27421894

  19. Reference values and action levels of biological monitoring in occupational exposure.

    PubMed

    Ong, C N

    1999-09-01

    The primary objectives of biological monitoring are (1) to prevent health impairment, (2) to assist in the assessment of risk, and (3) to evaluate the effectiveness of environmental controls. An efficient way to achieve these objectives would be to enforce the compliance of biological exposure standards at the workplace. However, biological monitoring should be viewed in the total context of control and prevention of work-related diseases, and not merely to comply with permissible standards. Biological monitoring depends very much on the conditions that the chemical is absorbed and how it is metabolised. Genetic diversity could therefore contribute to significant differences in this aspect. Furthermore, many of the reference values established have so far not been fully validated and therefore their usefulness is rather limited. This paper reviews and illustrates using some recent findings to show that biological reference values are influenced not just by the above mentioned issues, but also factors such as (1) health and nutritional status of the exposed population, (2) social and cultural factors, and (3) climatic conditions. Caution has to be taken when considering having an action level for some of the biological reference value. Biological reference values set without considering people, technology, and working conditions would be fraught with difficulties in implementation. PMID:10511254

  20. Consideration of measurement error when using commercial indoor radon determinations for selecting radon action levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.; Dolan, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of year-long, in-home radon measurement in Colorado from commercial companies applying typical methods indicates that considerable variation in precision exists. This variation can have a substantial impact on any mitigation decisions, either voluntary or mandated by law, especially regarding property sale or exchange. Both long-term exposure (nuclear track greater than 90 days), and short-term (charcoal adsorption 4-7 days) exposure methods were used. In addition, periods of continuous monitoring with a highly calibrated alpha-scintillometer took place for accuracy calibration. The results of duplicate commercial analysis show that typical results are no better than ??25 percent with occasional outliers (up to 5 percent of all analyses) well beyond that limit. Differential seasonal measurements (winter/summer) by short-term methods provide equivalent information to single long-term measurements. Action levels in the U.S. for possible mitigation decisions should be selected so that they consider the measurement variability; specifically, they should reflect a concentration range similar to that adopted by the European Community.

  1. Structural and thermodynamic characterization of Pal, a phage natural chimeric lysin active against pneumococci.

    PubMed

    Varea, Julio; Monterroso, Begoña; Sáiz, José L; López-Zumel, Consuelo; García, José L; Laynez, José; García, Pedro; Menéndez, Margarita

    2004-10-15

    Pal amidase, encoded by pneumococcal bacteriophage Dp-1, represents one step beyond in the modular evolution of pneumococcal murein hydrolases. It exhibits the choline-binding module attaching pneumococcal lysins to the cell wall, but the catalytic module is different from those present in the amidases coded by the host or other pneumococcal phages. Pal is also an effective antimicrobial agent against Streptococcus pneumoniae that may constitute an alternative to antibiotic prophylaxis. The structural implications of Pal singular structure and their effect on the choline-amidase interactions have been examined by means of several techniques. Pal stability is maximum around pH 8.0 (Tm approximately 50.2 degrees C; DeltaHt = 183 +/- 4 kcal mol(-1)), and its constituting modules fold as two tight interacting cooperative units whose denaturation merges into a single process in the free amidase but may proceed as two well resolved events in the choline-bound state. Choline titration curves reflect low energy ligand-protein interactions and are compatible with two sets of sites. Choline binding strongly stabilizes the cell wall binding module, and the conformational stabilization is transmitted to the catalytic region. Moreover, the high proportion of aggregates formed by the unbound amidase together with choline preferential interaction with Pal dimers suggest the existence of marginally stable regions that would become stabilized through choline-protein interactions without significantly modifying Pal secondary structure. This structural rearrangement may underlie in vitro "conversion" of Pal from the low to the full activity form triggered by choline. The Pal catalytic module secondary structure could denote folding conservation within pneumococcal lytic amidases, but the number of functional choline binding sites is reduced (2-3 sites per monomer) when compared with pneumococcal LytA amidase (4-5 sites per monomer) and displays different intermodular interactions.

  2. Pal 12 - A metal-rich globular cluster in the outer halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. G.; Frogel, J. A.; Persson, S. E.; Zinn, R.

    1980-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations of several stars in the distant globular cluster Pal 12 show that they have CO strengths and heavy element abundances only slightly less than in M 71, one of the more metal-rich globular clusters. Pal 12 thus has a metal abundance near the high end of the range over which globular clusters exist and lies in the outer galactic halo. Its red horizontal branch is not anomalous in view of the abundance that has been found.

  3. The relationship between the level of cholinesterase in plasma and the action of suxamethonium in animals

    PubMed Central

    Hobbiger, F.; Peck, A. W.

    1970-01-01

    1. The neuromuscular blocking action of suxamethonium, given by intravenous injection, and the effect upon it of iso-OMPA (tetraisopropyl pyrophosphoramide) in doses which produced marked selective inhibition of cholinesterase in blood were studied in anaesthetized rats and cats, and in mice. 2. In cats experiments were also carried out in which suxamethonium was given by intravenous infusion until an effect which remained constant with time was achieved. From the degree of neuromuscular block (under equilibrium conditions) obtained with different infusion rates the infusion rate for 50% reduction in twitch tension of the indirectly stimulated soleus and gastrocnemius muscles (IR50) was calculated. The effect on it of raising the suxamethonium hydrolysing capacity of blood and of selectively reducing the level of cholinesterase in blood by various doses of iso-OMPA was then investigated. 3. At relevant stages of each experiment cholinesterase activity in blood was determined with butyrylcholine or benzoylcholine and where appropriate with suxamethonium as substrate. 4. The results obtained show that in rats and cats the effectiveness of suxamethonium is unrelated to the level of cholinesterase activity in blood and that raising the suxamethonium hydrolysing capacity in the blood up to 22-fold (in cats) only reduces the IR50 by a factor of 1·6. 5. The enhancement of the effectiveness of suxamethonium in the three species (2- to 3-fold in rats, 2- to 4-fold in mice and 7- to 8-fold in cats under the conditions used for comparison) which follows the administration of iso-OMPA is attributable to inhibition of cholinesterase in the tissues. 6. It is concluded that the results obtained clearly indicate that the species studied do not give information as regards suxamethonium and its metabolism which is applicable to man. ImagesFIG. 2FIG. 6 PMID:4322043

  4. Laser-driven ablation through fast electrons in PALS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Chodukowski, T.; Demchenko, N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, O.; Skala, J.; Smid, M.; Ullschmied, J.

    2016-03-01

    Energy transfer to shock wave in Al and Cu targets irradiated by a laser pulse with intensity of I≈1-50 PW/cm2 and duration of 250 ps was investigated at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The iodine laser provided energy in the range of 100-600 J at the first and third harmonic frequencies. The focal spot radius of laser beam on the target was varied from 160 to 40 μm. The dominant contribution of fast electron energy transfer into the ablation process was found when using the first harmonic radiation, the focal spot radius of 40-100 μm, and the energy of 300-600 J. The fast electron heating results in the growth of ablation pressure from 60 Mbar at the intensity of 10 PW/cm2 to 180 Mbar at the intensity of 50 PW/cm2 and in the growth of the efficiency of the energy conversion into the shock wave from 2 to 7% under the conditions of 2D ablation.

  5. VE-cadherin interacts with cell polarity protein Pals1 to regulate vascular lumen formation.

    PubMed

    Brinkmann, Benjamin F; Steinbacher, Tim; Hartmann, Christian; Kummer, Daniel; Pajonczyk, Denise; Mirzapourshafiyi, Fatemeh; Nakayama, Masanori; Weide, Thomas; Gerke, Volker; Ebnet, Klaus

    2016-09-15

    Blood vessel tubulogenesis requires the formation of stable cell-to-cell contacts and the establishment of apicobasal polarity of vascular endothelial cells. Cell polarity is regulated by highly conserved cell polarity protein complexes such as the Par3-aPKC-Par6 complex and the CRB3-Pals1-PATJ complex, which are expressed by many different cell types and regulate various aspects of cell polarity. Here we describe a functional interaction of VE-cadherin with the cell polarity protein Pals1. Pals1 directly interacts with VE-cadherin through a membrane-proximal motif in the cytoplasmic domain of VE-cadherin. VE-cadherin clusters Pals1 at cell-cell junctions. Mutating the Pals1-binding motif in VE-cadherin abrogates the ability of VE-cadherin to regulate apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. In a similar way, deletion of the Par3-binding motif at the C-terminus of VE-cadherin impairs apicobasal polarity and vascular lumen formation. Our findings indicate that the biological activity of VE-cadherin in regulating endothelial polarity and vascular lumen formation is mediated through its interaction with the two cell polarity proteins Pals1 and Par3.

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2005-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 552 is being investigated because man-made radionuclides and chemical contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. The CAI will be conducted following the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The DQOs are used to identify the type, amount, and quality of data needed to define the nature and extent of contamination and identify and evaluate the most appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 552. The primary problem statement for the investigation is: ''Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 12-23-05.'' To address this problem statement, the resolution of the following two decision statements is required: (1) The Decision I statement is: ''Is a contaminant present within the CAU at a concentration that could pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment?'' Any site-related contaminant detected at a concentration exceeding the corresponding preliminary action level (PAL), as defined in Section A.1.4.2, will be considered a contaminant of concern (COC). A COC is defined as a site-related constituent that exceeds the screening criteria (PAL). The presence of a contaminant within each CAS is defined as the analytical detection of a COC. (2) The Decision II statement is: ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs.'' This decision will be achieved by the collection of data that are adequate to define the extent of COCs. Decision II samples are used to determine the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination as well as the likelihood of COCs to migrate outside of the site boundaries. The migration pattern can be derived from the Decision

  7. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  8. Isolation of an organic solvent-tolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PAL05 that is able to secrete solvent-stable lipase.

    PubMed

    Anbu, Periasamy; Hur, Byung Ki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, seven lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from salt-enriched and cattle farm soil samples after incubation in toluene- and benzene-enriched media. One strain (PAL05) showed significantly greater lipase activity on spirit blue agar medium and stability in organic solvents. The positive strain (PAL05) was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Lipase production was optimized in a medium containing glycerol as the carbon source and Tween 80 as an inducer (0.5% glycerol+0.5% Tween 80) at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. In addition, the enzyme was moderately halotolerant as it exhibited increased activity in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. Optimized conditions increased the lipase production threefold. Crude lipase retained its activity for 14 days of incubation in the presence of various organic solvents at a level of 25% and 50%. The enzyme was stable at 25% in most solvents; some of the solvents such as hexane, benzene, and ethanol actually stimulated enzyme activity. The organic solvent stability of the lipase produced by the strain PAL05 enables the enzyme to be used as a potential biocatalyst for ester synthesis and other applications in nonaqueous conditions. PMID:24397298

  9. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite.

    PubMed

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-12-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag(+)). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive (Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative (Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications. PMID:27677302

  10. A Convenient Ultraviolet Irradiation Technique for Synthesis of Antibacterial Ag-Pal Nanocomposite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Shuai; Zhang, He; Kang, Lianwei; Li, Xiaoliang; Zhang, Chong; Dong, Yongjie; Qin, Shenjun

    2016-09-01

    In the present work, palygorskite (Pal) was initially subjected to an ion-exchange reaction with silver ions (Pal-Ag+). Subsequently, Ag-Pal nanocomposites were assembled by a convenient ultraviolet irradiation technique, using carbon dots (CDs) derived from wool fiber as the reducing agent. The obtained nanocomposites were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The XRD patterns and UV-vis absorption spectra confirmed the formation of the Ag nanoparticles (NPs). Meanwhile, the TEM images showed that the Ag NPs, which exhibited sizes in the range of 3-7 nm, were located on the surface of the Pal nanofiber structures. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of the nanocomposites was evaluated against Gram-positive ( Staphylococcus aureus) and Gram-negative ( Escherichia coli) bacteria by applying the disc diffusion method and minimum inhibitory concentration test. Owing to their good antibacterial properties, the Ag-Pal nanocomposites are considered to be a promising bactericide with great potential applications.

  11. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity. PMID:25049167

  12. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity.

  13. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  14. Levels and actions of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions: Sex-specific features.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto C; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids regulate the physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system, exert neuroprotective actions and represent interesting tools for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Sex differences in their levels are detected not only under physiological conditions but are also modified in a sex-dependent way in different pathological alterations such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic encephalopathy, psychiatric disorders and peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, many of these disorders show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. The neuroprotective actions of neuroactive steroids, together with the sex specific regulation of its levels might provide the basis to design sex-specific neuroprotective therapies. Indeed, some experiments here discussed suggest the viability of this approach. PMID:26657814

  15. Setting action levels for drinking water: are we protecting our health or our economy (or our backs!)?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Banks, David

    2004-10-01

    Clean and healthy drinking water is important for life. Drinking water can be drawn from streams, lakes and rivers, directly collected (and stored) from rain, acquired by desalination of ocean water and melting of ice or it can be extracted from groundwater resources. Groundwater may reach the earth's surface in the form of springs or can be extracted via dug or drilled wells; it also contributes significantly to river baseflow. Different water quality issues have to be faced when utilising these different water resources. Some of these are at present largely neglected in water quality regulations. This paper focuses on the inorganic chemical quality of natural groundwater. Possible health effects, the problems of setting meaningful action levels or maximum admissible concentrations (MAC-values) for drinking water, and potential shortcomings in current legislation are discussed. An approach to setting action levels based on transparency, toxicological risk assessment, completeness, and identifiable responsibility is suggested. PMID:15336887

  16. Setting action levels for drinking water: are we protecting our health or our economy (or our backs!)?

    PubMed

    Reimann, Clemens; Banks, David

    2004-10-01

    Clean and healthy drinking water is important for life. Drinking water can be drawn from streams, lakes and rivers, directly collected (and stored) from rain, acquired by desalination of ocean water and melting of ice or it can be extracted from groundwater resources. Groundwater may reach the earth's surface in the form of springs or can be extracted via dug or drilled wells; it also contributes significantly to river baseflow. Different water quality issues have to be faced when utilising these different water resources. Some of these are at present largely neglected in water quality regulations. This paper focuses on the inorganic chemical quality of natural groundwater. Possible health effects, the problems of setting meaningful action levels or maximum admissible concentrations (MAC-values) for drinking water, and potential shortcomings in current legislation are discussed. An approach to setting action levels based on transparency, toxicological risk assessment, completeness, and identifiable responsibility is suggested.

  17. PAL: An Object Oriented Data Access Layer for Herschel Data Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, B.; Guest, S.; Huang, M.; Balm, P.; Siddiqui, H.; Bakker, J.; Segovia, J. C.; Saiz, J.; Edwards, K.

    2012-09-01

    The Herschel Ground Segment Product Access Layer (PAL), an object oriented software package that provides a consistent means for accessing Herschel Space Observatory data products, isolates the complexity of underlying storage systems and makes it possible for scientific data analysis scripts to be reused in different environments and over a long period of time as software and hardware evolve. The pluggable design of the PAL makes it easier for users to handle new underlying storage systems and to optimize performance according to different system characteristics.

  18. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

  19. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  20. Problems with McAdams and Pals's (2006) Proposal of a Framework for an Integrative Theory of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). Here, the current author begins with a critique of McAdams and Pals's (April 2006) five principles for a framework for an integrative theory of personality. The…

  1. Philosophy and Adult Educators: An Inquiry into the Philosophy-Practice Link Using the PALS, EOQ, and PAEI.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rachal, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    To explore philosophical predilections, the Principles of Adult Learning Scale (PALS), Educational Orientation Questionnaire, and Philosophy of Adult Education Inventory were administered to 111 adult education graduate students. The overall population was progressive on the PALS and scored close to reported means on the other tests. (SLD)

  2. From Planning to Action: Government Initiatives for Improving School-Level Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chapman, David W., Ed.; Mahlck, Lars O., Ed.; Smulders, Anna E. M., Ed.

    This work examines ways central and regional education ministries can influence practices at the school level. Chapter 1, "Changing What Happens in Schools: Central-Level Initiatives to Improve School Practice," reviews common themes, concerns, problems, and emphases. Chapter 2, "Knowledge Utilization and the Process of Policy Formation: Towards a…

  3. Synapse-Level Determination of Action Potential Duration by K(+) Channel Clustering in Axons.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew J M; DelCanto, Gina; Yu, Jianqing J; Kamasawa, Naomi; Christie, Jason M

    2016-07-20

    In axons, an action potential (AP) is thought to be broadcast as an unwavering binary pulse over its arbor, driving neurotransmission uniformly at release sites. Yet by recording from axons of cerebellar stellate cell (SC) interneurons, we show that AP width varies between presynaptic bouton sites, even within the same axon branch. The varicose geometry of SC boutons alone does not impose differences in spike duration. Rather, axonal patching revealed heterogeneous peak conductance densities of currents mediated mainly by fast-activating Kv3-type potassium channels, with clustered hotspots at boutons and restricted expression at adjoining shafts. Blockade of Kv channels at individual boutons indicates that currents immediately local to a release site direct spike repolarization at that location. Thus, the clustered arrangement and variable expression density of Kv3 channels at boutons are key determinants underlying compartmentalized control of AP width in a near synapse-by-synapse manner, multiplying the signaling capacity of these structures. PMID:27346528

  4. Action Tweets Linked to Reduced County-Level HIV Prevalence in the United States: Online Messages and Structural Determinants.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Chen, Qijia; Schwartz, H Andrew; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects. We explored these opposing hypotheses by regressing county-level HIV prevalence on action language (e.g., work, plan) in over 150 million tweets mapped to US counties. Controlling for demographic and structural predictors of HIV, more active language was associated with lower HIV rates. By leveraging language used on social media to improve existing predictive models of geographic variation in HIV, future targeted HIV-prevention interventions may have a better chance of reaching high-risk communities before outbreaks occur.

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division

  6. RaPAL Bulletin, Numbers 5-13, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RaPAL Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of a 3-year compilation (9 issues) of the RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy) Bulletin. Typical articles are: "Student Involvement in Research" (a report of a workshop by Alex Golightly, Nick Nicola, and Marilyn Stone); part of a dialogue between Paolo Freire and Ira Shor, writer/educators of Brazil and the…

  7. The Crumbs3-Pals1 complex participates in the establishment of polarity in mammalian epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Roh, Michael H; Fan, Shuling; Liu, Chia-Jen; Margolis, Ben

    2003-07-15

    In Drosophila, the Crumbs-Stardust-Discs-lost complex is required during the establishment of polarized epithelia. Embryos that lack a component of this complex or overexpress Crumbs exhibit defects in epithelial morphogenesis. We recently cloned a novel mammalian epithelial Crumbs isoform, Crumbs3 (CRB3). CRB3 exists in a complex at tight junctions (TJs) with Pals1 and PATJ, the mammalian homologues of Stardust and Discs lost, respectively. Here, we observe that overexpression of CRB3 leads to delayed TJ formation in MDCK epithelial cell monolayers and disruption of polarity in MDCK cysts cultured in collagen. Both phenomena require the last four residues of CRB3. Next, we expressed, in MDCK cells, a dominant-negative Myc-Lin-2-Pals1 chimeric protein, where the PDZ domain of Lin-2 was replaced with that of Pals1. TJ and apical polarity defects were also observed in these cells. Collectively, this suggests that the CRB-Pals1 interaction is important for formation of TJs and polarized epithelia. These results provide insight into the function of the mammalian Crumbs complex during TJ formation and epithelial polarization.

  8. The Web Pen Pals Project: Students' Perceptions of a Learning Community in an Online Synchronous Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Joellen; Groenke, Susan; Dunlap, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on data gathered from a five-month phenomenological study of middle school students' perceptions of the effects of computer-based technologies on a learning community in an online synchronous environment. Twenty-four eighth-grade students participated in the Web Pen Pals project, a university-secondary telecollaborative…

  9. An Ethnographic Study of a Key-Pal Project: Learning a Foreign Language through Bilingual Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edasawa, Yasuyo; Kabata, Kaori

    2007-01-01

    This study investigates the effect of a cross-cultural bilingual communication project on students' second language learning. A collaborative key-pal project was conducted between Japanese university students learning English and Canadian university students learning Japanese. Ethnographic data were collected from the students' exchanged messages…

  10. Connecting in Rhizomic Spaces: Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) and E-Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning) project supported research that focused on e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies as part of a pedagogical approach in the context of a tertiary institution. This project responded to a call for a rejuvenation of conventional approaches to pedagogy while teaching an early childhood unit in a large Australian university.…

  11. Polar localization of Escherichia coli chemoreceptors requires an intact Tol–Pal complex

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Thiago M. A.; Lin, Ti-Yu; Rajendran, Madhusudan; Anderson, Samantha M.; Weibel, Douglas B.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Subcellular biomolecular localization is critical for the metabolic and structural properties of the cell. The functional implications of the spatiotemporal distribution of protein complexes during the bacterial cell cycle have long been acknowledged; however, the molecular mechanisms for generating and maintaining their dynamic localization in bacteria are not completely understood. Here we demonstrate that the trans-envelope Tol–Pal complex, a widely conserved component of the cell envelope of Gram-negative bacteria, is required to maintain the polar positioning of chemoreceptor clusters in Escherichia coli. Localization of the chemoreceptors was independent of phospholipid composition of the membrane and the curvature of the cell wall. Instead, our data indicate that chemoreceptors interact with components of the Tol–Pal complex and that this interaction is required to polarly localize chemoreceptor clusters. We found that disruption of the Tol–Pal complex perturbs the polar localization of chemoreceptors, alters cell motility, and affects chemotaxis. We propose that the E. coli Tol–Pal complex restricts mobility of the chemoreceptor clusters at the cell poles and may be involved in regulatory mechanisms that co-ordinate cell division and segregation of the chemosensory machinery. PMID:24720726

  12. Yash Pal Committee Report on Higher Education: Certain Reflections by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumthas, N. S.; Anju Krishnan, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present scenario, Indian higher education is expanding in quantity but compromising with quality. Hats off to Yash Pal Committee, which took this matter into account, worked on it and submitted a report (renovation and rejuvenation of higher education in India) on June 24, 2009 to the Human Resource Ministry. Major attributes of Yash Pal…

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Pal1-I elemental equivalent widths and abundances (Monaco+, 2011)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monaco, L.; Saviane, I.; Correnti, M.; Bonifacio, P.; Geisler, D.

    2010-11-01

    Table A1. reports the line list and atomic parameters adopted for the Palomar 1 giant Pal1-I and the Sun. For the Mn and Co lines we adopted the hyperfine structures (HFS) tabulated by Prochaska et al. (2000AJ....120.2513P). The measured equivalent width and the corresponding abundance obtained for each line are also reported. (1 data file).

  14. Pen Pal Letter Exchanges: Taking First Steps toward Developing Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Mary Alice; Watson, Carol; Park, Eun Soo

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research project that examined pen pal letters exchanged between children in Virginia, USA, and Malawi in Sub-Saharan Africa. The goal was to study the nature of communication between students living in these two very different cultural contexts. The results of this study indicated that there were three primary…

  15. Adaptation of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to Turkish Students: Factorial Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikrikci-Demirtash, R. Nukhet

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this article was conducted to determine psychometric features of scales for Turkish students by adapting the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) developed by Midgley and others (2000) to the Turkish language in order to measure personal and classroom goal orientations. The scales were developed to test…

  16. E-Pals: An Exercise in the Seduction of Student Technophobes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cook, Susan L.

    This paper presents a case study of an "e-pal" experiment which suggests that negative assumptions and orientations toward computer technology for communication purposes can be altered through one-to-one peer relationships. The experiment was conducted through a communication seminar at a small private university in the Northwest. Necessary…

  17. Kinemage of action - Proposed reaction mechanism of glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase at an atomic level

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, John L.; Stetefeld, Joerg

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibitors of tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis may be useful antibiotics. {yields} Mechanism of critical enzyme, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase, is presented. {yields} Unique vitamin B6-dependant enzyme traps intermediate in active site. {yields} Molecular dynamics show that a re-orientation of the substrate is required. -- Abstract: Glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase (GSAM), a key enzyme in tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis, performs a unique transamination on a single substrate. The substrate, glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), undergoes a reaction that exchanges the position of an amine and a carbonyl group to produce 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This transamination reaction is unique in the fact that is does not require an external cofactor to act as a nitrogen donor or acceptor in this transamination reaction. One of the other remarkable features of the catalytic mechanism is the release free in the enzyme active site of the intermediate 4,5-diaminovaleric acid (DAVA). The action of a gating loop prevents the escape of DAVA from the active site. In a MD simulation approach, using snapshots provided by X-ray crystallography and protein crystal absorption spectrometry data, the individual catalytic steps in this unique intramolecular transamination have been elucidated.

  18. StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingan, Jessi

    2008-09-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

  19. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  20. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  1. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  2. Sildenafil increases serum testosterone levels by a direct action on the testes.

    PubMed

    Spitzer, M; Bhasin, S; Travison, T G; Davda, M N; Stroh, H; Basaria, S

    2013-11-01

    Phosphodiesterase-5-inhibitors, such as sildenafil, increase intracavernosal cyclic guanosine monophosphate levels, which results in corporal smooth muscle relaxation and penile erection. Here, we determined the effects of sildenafil administration on the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis in men with erectile dysfunction and low testosterone levels. The Testosterone and Erectile Dysfunction trial (ClinicalTrials.gov # NCT00512707) initially administered an optimized dose of sildenafil to 140 men, aged 40-70 years with erectile dysfunction, low serum total testosterone (<11.4 nmol/L; 330 ng/dL) and/or free testosterone (<173 pmol/L; 50 pg/mL) over 3-7 weeks. Sex steroids and gonadotropins were measured at baseline and after sildenafil optimization in a longitudinal study without a separate control group. Serum testosterone, dihydrotestosterone (DHT) and oestrogens were measured using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Administration of an optimized dose of sildenafil was associated with mean increases of 3.6 nmol/L (103 ng/dL; p < 0.001) and 110 pmol/L (31.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001) in total and free testosterone levels respectively. This was accompanied by parallel increases in serum DHT (0.17 nmol/L; 4.9 ng/dL; p < 0.001) and oestradiol (14 pmol/L; 3.7 pg/mL; p < 0.001) and significant suppression of luteinizing hormone (change -1.3 units/L; p = 0.003) levels, suggesting a direct effect at the testicular level. Androstenedione and oestrone increased by 1.3 nmol/L (38 ng/dL; p = 0.011) and 10.7 pmol/L (2.9 pg/mL; p = 0.012), respectively, supporting a possible effect of sildenafil on adrenal steroidogenesis. In conclusion, sildenafil administration was associated with increased testosterone levels likely ascribable to a direct effect on the testis.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  4. Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels.

    PubMed

    Button, Chris; MacLeod, Morven; Sanders, Ross; Coleman, Simon

    2003-09-01

    The analysis of variability both within and between performers can reveal important information about how athletes satisfy situational constraints. Transitory changes in the basketball free-throw shot were examined across different stages in skill development. Six female basketball players were selected, representing a range of playing expertise (pretest: 0-90% baskets scored). Each participant was video recorded performing 30 shots. Contrary to predictions, there was not a clear pattern of a reduction in trajectory variability with increasing skill level. However, improvements in skill level were associated with an increasing amount of intertrial movement consistency from the elbow and wrist joints. It is suggested that the angular motions of the elbow and wrist joints were compensated for each other toward the end of each throw to adapt to subtle changes in release parameters of the ball.

  5. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  6. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  8. Permissive and Non-permissive Hypercapnia: Mechanisms of Action and Consequences of High Carbon Dioxide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a disease with high mortality, which affects a large numbers of patients whose treatment continues to be debated. It has recently been postulated that hypercapnia can attenuate the inflammatory response during lung injury, which would assign it a specific role within lung protection strategies during mechanical ventilation. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role that high levels of CO2 in the blood play in lung injury. We conclude that, although there are reports that show benefits, the most recent evidence suggests that hypercapnia can be harmful and can contribute to worsening lung damage. PMID:20303638

  9. Expression profiles of key phenylpropanoid genes during Vanilla planifolia pod development reveal a positive correlation between PAL gene expression and vanillin biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Fock-Bastide, Isabelle; Palama, Tony Lionel; Bory, Séverine; Lécolier, Aurélie; Noirot, Michel; Joët, Thierry

    2014-01-01

    In Vanilla planifolia pods, development of flavor precursors is dependent on the phenylpropanoid pathway. The distinctive vanilla aroma is produced by numerous phenolic compounds of which vanillin is the most important. Because of the economic importance of vanilla, vanillin biosynthetic pathways have been extensively studied but agreement has not yet been reached on the processes leading to its accumulation. In order to explore the transcriptional control exerted on these pathways, five key phenylpropanoid genes expressed during pod development were identified and their mRNA accumulation profiles were evaluated during pod development and maturation using quantitative real-time PCR. As a prerequisite for expression analysis using qRT-PCR, five potential reference genes were tested, and two genes encoding Actin and EF1 were shown to be the most stable reference genes for accurate normalization during pod development. For the first time, genes encoding a phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (VpPAL1) and a cinnamate 4-hydroxylase (VpC4H1) were identified in vanilla pods and studied during maturation. Among phenylpropanoid genes, differential regulation was observed from 3 to 8 months after pollination. VpPAL1 was gradually up-regulated, reaching the maximum expression level at maturity. In contrast, genes encoding 4HBS, C4H, OMT2 and OMT3 did not show significant increase in expression levels after the fourth month post-pollination. Expression profiling of these key phenylpropanoid genes is also discussed in light of accumulation patterns for key phenolic compounds. Interestingly, VpPAL1 gene expression was shown to be positively correlated to maturation and vanillin accumulation.

  10. Report on Action Research: An Analysis of the Effects of a Six Step Approach to Direct Vocabulary Instruction on Student Achievement at the Middle School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haystead, Mark W.

    2009-01-01

    This report describes the findings of an analysis of a series of action research projects conducted by Goshen Community Schools at the middle school level. During the 2008-2009 school year, six teachers at Goshen Middle School participated in independent action research studies regarding the extent to which a six step approach to direct vocabulary…

  11. Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Wang, Donglin; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo. PMID:27166703

  12. Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Wang, Donglin; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo.

  13. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs]) were

  14. Resolution of DNA damage at the single-cell level shows largely different actions of X-rays and bleomycin.

    PubMed

    Affentranger, M I; Burkart, W

    1995-02-01

    Both X-rays and the radiomimetic agent bleomycin (BLM) induce DNA strand breaks, predominantly via reactive radicals. To compare the induction of breaks with the two agents in Chinese hamster (CHO-K1) cells, two different alkaline unwinding methods, a 3H tracer-based analysis of large cell populations and an optical adaption allowing measurement of single cells, were applied. Radiation and BLM show qualitatively similar dose responses when the average number of DNA strand breaks is measured in a large cell population. However, the breakage pattern at the single-cell level indicates large discrepancies between the actions of the two agents. Irradiated cells show a uniform distribution of DNA strand breaks over the cell population. Effects of treatment with 30 micrograms x ml-1 BLM for 2 hr vary from practically zero in some cells to high levels of DNA strand breakage in others. Unlike the repair of radiation-induced DNA breaks, the repair efficiency of BLM-induced DNA strand breaks, as measured at the single-cell level, varies strongly among cells of the same population. Such heterogeneity at the cellular level potentially reduces BLM's usefulness for tumor therapy because the appearance of BLM-resistant subpopulations may critically impair treatment outcome.

  15. PALS: A unique probe for the molecular organisation of biopolymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussenova, M.; Alam, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    This short review aims to illustrate the versatility of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) when utilized for the characterization of biopolymers (e.g.: starch, fractionated maltooligomers, gelatin and cellulose derivatives) commonly used for the formulation of pharmaceutical encapsulants. By showing examples from a number of recent PALS studies, we illustrate that this technique can be used to probe the changes in thermodynamic state and molecular packing for a wide range of biopolymer matrices as a function of temperature, matrix composition and water content. This provides a basis for establishing composition-structure-property relationships for these materials, which would eventually enable the rational control of their macroscopic properties and the design of optimal encapsulating matrices and intelligent drug delivery systems.

  16. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as ...

  17. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  18. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  19. Structure and function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal stator protein TolR.

    PubMed

    Wojdyla, Justyna A; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T S; Stansfeld, Phillip J; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-10-30

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62-133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62-133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36-142)). E. coli TolR(36-142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62-133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62-133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60-133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane.

  20. Tol-Pal proteins are critical cell envelope components of Erwinia chrysanthemi affecting cell morphology and virulence.

    PubMed

    Dubuisson, Jean-François; Vianney, Anne; Hugouvieux-Cotte-Pattat, Nicole; Lazzaroni, Jean Claude

    2005-10-01

    The tol-pal genes are necessary for maintaining the outer-membrane integrity of Gram-negative bacteria. These genes were first described in Escherichia coli, and more recently in several other species. They are involved in the pathogenesis of E. coli, Haemophilus ducreyi, Vibrio cholerae and Salmonella enterica. The role of the tol-pal genes in bacterial pathogenesis was investigated in the phytopathogenic enterobacterium Erwinia chrysanthemi, assuming that this organism might be a good model for such a study. The whole Er. chrysanthemi tol-pal region was characterized. Tol-Pal proteins, except TolA, showed high identity scores with their E. coli homologues. Er. chrysanthemi mutants were constructed by introducing a uidA-kan cassette in the ybgC, tolQ, tolA, tolB, pal and ybgF genes. All the mutants were hypersensitive to bile salts. Mutations in tolQ, tolA, tolB and pal were deleterious for the bacteria, which required high concentrations of sugars or osmoprotectants for their viability. Consistent with this observation, they were greatly impaired in their cell morphology and division, which was evidenced by observations of cell filaments, spherical forms, membrane blebbing and mislocalized bacterial septa. Moreover, tol-pal mutants showed a reduced virulence in a potato tuber model and on chicory leaves. This could be explained by a combination of impaired phenotypes in the tol-pal mutants, such as reduced growth and motility and a decreased production of pectate lyases, the major virulence factor of Er. chrysanthemi.

  1. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  2. Oncological aspects of the biological action of low-level laser radiation: I. Experimental foundation for LLLR use in oncology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Andrei V.

    1999-12-01

    In this paper the results of an experimental-clinical study substantiating the use of low level laser radiation (LLLR) at certain wavelengths for treatment of cancer patients are given. In the first part of this study, with animal experiments, laser action parameters providing reliable renewal and regeneration stimulation are selected. It is shown that, under the effect of LLLR, the speed and quality of regeneration in wounds after tumor removal are changed as well as the intensity of dissemination and tumor growth. A change also occurs in the functional properties of lymphocytes, which have immunological control in the organism. On the basis of the experimental data obtained, the contingent of cancer patients for whom LLLR can be recommended was determined.

  3. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  4. Palæomagnetic evidence relevant to a change in the earth's radius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Allan; Doell, Richard R.

    1961-01-01

    INTEREST in the hypothesis that the Earth's radius has increased during geological history has been renewed in recent years because of several sets of independent observations and interpretations. From studies of the deformation of mountain ranges and the distribution of faults and oceans, Carey1 proposes an increase in the Earth's area of 45 per cent since the Palæozoic era. Heezen2 similarly interprets submarine topography as indicating that the oceans may be immense rift valleys formed by a pulling apart of the continents as the Earth expanded. Using a different approach, Egyed3,4 infers a rate of increase of the Earth's radius of 0.4–0.8 mm. per year. This calculation is based on a decrease in the total amount of continental area covered by oceans during the past 400 million years, as determined palæographically. Egyed4 has also pointed out the desirability of using palæomagnetic data to test this hypothesis.

  5. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-06-13

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth.

  6. A Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, David C

    2005-11-15

    This report describes a new electronic atlas of human cerebral cortex that provides a substrate for a wide variety of brain-mapping analyses. The Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas approach involves surface-based and volume-based representations of cortical shape, each available as population averages and as individual subject data. The specific PALS-B12 atlas introduced here is derived from structural MRI volumes of 12 normal young adults. Accurate cortical surface reconstructions were generated for each hemisphere, and the surfaces were inflated, flattened, and mapped to standard spherical configurations using SureFit and Caret software. A target atlas sphere was generated by averaging selected landmark contours from each of the 24 contributing hemispheres. Each individual hemisphere was deformed to this target using landmark-constrained surface registration. The utility of the resultant PALS-B12 atlas was demonstrated using a variety of analyses. (i) Probabilistic maps of sulcal identity were generated using both surface-based registration (SBR) and conventional volume-based registration (VBR). The SBR approach achieved markedly better consistency of sulcal alignment than did VBR. (ii) A method is introduced for 'multi-fiducial mapping' of volume-averaged group data (e.g., fMRI data, probabilistic architectonic maps) onto each individual hemisphere in the atlas, followed by spatial averaging across the individual maps. This yielded a population-average surface representation that circumvents the biases inherent in choosing any single hemisphere as a target. (iii) Surface-based and volume-based morphometry applied to maps of sulcal depth and sulcal identity demonstrated prominent left-right asymmetries in and near the superior temporal sulcus and Sylvian fissure. Moreover, shape variability in the temporal lobe is significantly greater in the left than the right hemisphere. The PALS-B12 atlas has been registered to other surface

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): (1) CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  8. Action potential energetics at the organismal level reveal a trade-off in efficiency at high firing rates.

    PubMed

    Lewis, John E; Gilmour, Kathleen M; Moorhead, Mayron J; Perry, Steve F; Markham, Michael R

    2014-01-01

    The energetic costs of action potential (AP) production constrain the evolution of neural codes and brain networks. Cellular-level estimates of AP-related costs are typically based on voltage-dependent Na(+) currents that drive active transport by the Na(+)/K(+) ATPase to maintain the Na(+) and K(+) ion concentration gradients necessary for AP production. However, these estimates of AP cost have not been verified at the organismal level. Electric signaling in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens requires that specialized cells in an electric organ generate APs with large Na(+) currents at high rates (200-600 Hz). We measured these currents using a voltage-clamp protocol and then estimated the energetic cost at the cellular level using standard methods. We then used this energy-intensive signaling behavior to measure changes in whole-animal energetics for small changes in electric discharge rate. At low rates, the whole-animal measure of AP cost was similar to our cellular-level estimates. However, AP cost increased nonlinearly with increasing firing rates. We show, with a biophysical model, that this nonlinearity can arise from the increasing cost of maintaining AP amplitude at high rates. Our results confirm that estimates of energetic costs based on Na(+) influx are appropriate for low baseline firing rates, but that extrapolating to high firing rates may underestimate true costs in cases in which AP amplitude does not decrease. Moreover, the trade-off between energetic cost and firing rate suggests an additional constraint on the evolution of high-frequency signaling in neuronal systems. PMID:24381281

  9. Actions of mammalian insulin on a Neurospora variant: effects on intracellular metabolite levels as monitored by P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.J.; McKenzie, M.A.; Jordan, F.; Takahashi, M.; Lenard, J.

    1986-05-01

    Fourier transform P-31 NMR spectroscopy (81 MHz) was used to investigate the biochemical nature of insulin action upon the cell wall-deficient slime mutant of Neurospora crassa. Spectra of oxygenated, living cells (ca.10/sup 9//ml.) in late logarithmic-early stationary phase of growth were accumulated for approximately 20 min. (350-450 pulses). Pronounced differences were seen in the metabolite levels of cells cultured for 18-21 hours in the presence of insulin (100 nM) as compared to cells cultured in its absence. Differences in the insulin-grown cells included higher levels of sugar phosphates, inorganic (cytoplasmic) phosphate, NAD+/NADH and UDP-glucose (UDPG) compared to control cells, in which UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPNAG) was the prominent sugar nucleotide. When 100 mM glucose was administered with insulin immediately prior to measurement, short term effects were seen. There were significant increases of sugar phosphates, inorganic phosphate, NAD+/NADH, phosphodiesters and UDPG relative to the case of glucose addition alone. These results are wholly consistent with the known influence of insulin upon mammalian metabolism: stimulation of glucose uptake, phosphorylation and oxidation, phosphatide synthesis and Pi uptake.

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-16

    , beryllium, total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals. Field activities will consist of geophysical and radiological surveys, and collecting soil samples at biased locations by appropriate methods. A two-step data quality objective strategy will be followed: (1) define the nature of contamination at each CAS location by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); and, (2) determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  11. PalC, One of Two Bro1 Domain Proteins in the Fungal pH Signalling Pathway, Localizes to Cortical Structures and Binds Vps32

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Antonio; Hervás-Aguilar, América; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; Vincent, Olivier; Arst, Herbert N; Tilburn, Joan; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    PalC, distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiaeperipheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) component Bro1p and one of six Aspergillus nidulanspH signalling proteins, contains a Bro1 domain. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PalC is recruited to plasma membrane-associated punctate structures upon alkalinization, when pH signalling is active. PalC recruitment to these structures is dependent on the seven transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor and likely pH sensor PalH. PalC is a two-hybrid interactor of the ESCRT-III Vps20/Vps32 subcomplex and binds Vps32 directly. This binding is largely impaired by Pro439Phe, Arg442Ala and Arg442His substitutions in a conserved region mediating interaction of Bro1p with Vps32p, but these substitutions do not prevent cortical punctate localization, indicating Vps32 independence. In contrast, Arg442Δ impairs Vps32 binding and prevents PalC-GFP recruitment to cortical structures. pH signalling involves a plasma membrane complex including the 7-TMD receptor PalH and the arrestin-like PalF and an endosomal membrane complex involving the PalB protease, the transcription factor PacC and the Vps32 binding, Bro1-domain-containing protein PalA. PalC, which localizes to cortical structures and can additionally bind a component of ESCRT-III, has the features required to bridge these two entities. A likely S. cerevisiaeorthologue of PalC has been identified, providing the basis for a unifying hypothesis of gene regulation by ambient pH in ascomycetes. PMID:17696968

  12. Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex.

    PubMed

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Yan, Yan; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-12-01

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb's highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However, the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific Crb-PALS1 complex formation is unclear, as reported interaction between the Crb tail (Crb-CT) and PALS1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is weak and promiscuous. Here we have discovered that the PDZ-Src homolgy 3 (SH3)-Guanylate kinase (GK) tandem of PALS1 binds to Crb-CT with a dissociation constant of 70 nM, which is ∼ 100-fold stronger than the PALS1 PDZ-Crb-CT interaction. The crystal structure of the PALS1 PDZ-SH3-GK-Crb-CT complex reveals that PDZ-SH3-GK forms a structural supramodule with all three domains contributing to the tight binding to Crb. Mutations disrupting the tertiary interactions of the PDZ-SH3-GK supramodule weaken the PALS1-Crb interaction and compromise PALS1-mediated polarity establishment in Madin-Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts. We further show that specific target binding of other members of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) (e.g., CASK binding to neurexin) also requires the presence of their PDZ-SH3-GK tandems.

  13. Maastrichtian-Early Eocene litho-biostratigraphy and palægeography of the northern Gulf of Suez region, Egypt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheibner, C.; Marzouk, A. M.; Kuss, J.

    2001-02-01

    The Maastrichtian-Lower Eocene sediments on both sides of the northern Gulf of Suez can be subdivided into eight formal formations (including one group) and one informal formation that are described in detail. These lithostratigraphic units reflect three different environmental regimes of deposition or non-deposition. The first regime is characterised by uplift and erosion or non-deposition resulting mostly from the uplift of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba structure, a branch of the Syrian Arc Foldbelt. The shallow water carbonate platform and slope deposits of the Late Campanian-Maastrichtian St Anthony Formation and the Paleocene-Lower Eocene Southern Galala and Garra Formations represent the second regime and are found north and south of the Northern Galala/Wadi Araba High. The third regime is represented by basinal chalks, marls and shales of the Maastrichtian Sudr Formation and of the Paleocene-Eocene Dakhla, Tarawan and Esna Formations, the Dakhla/Tarawan/Esna informal formation and the Thebes Group. The distribution and lateral interfingering of the above mentioned environmental regimes reflect different vertical movements, changing basin morphology, sea level changes and progradation of shallow water sediments and is illustrated on 11 palæogeographic maps.

  14. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  15. Neuroprotective role of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Lin; Liu, Ke; Zhao, Juan; Holscher, Christian; Li, Guang-lai; Liu, Yue-ze

    2016-01-01

    The growth factor glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) is neuroprotective in several animal models of neurodegeneration. Here, we analyzed the neuroprotective effects of a novel protease-resistant GLP-1 analogue, (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL, which has advantages over older analogues, such as improvement of hippocampal neurogenesis, glucose homeostasis, and insulin secretion. We established an in vitro model of Parkinson's disease using the mitochondrial stressor rotenone in primary cultured mouse neurons pretreated with (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL. (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL alone did not affect neuronal viability, but prevented the rotenone-induced reduction in cell viability in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL pretreatment prevented rotenone-induced proapoptotic changes manifesting as downregulation of procaspase-3 and Bcl-2 and upregulation of cleaved caspase-3. These results demonstrate that the novel agent (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL shows promise as a drug treatment for Parkinson's disease. PMID:27073388

  16. Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal Stator Protein TolR*

    PubMed Central

    Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V.; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-01-01

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62–133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62–133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36–142)). E. coli TolR(36–142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62–133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62–133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60–133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane. PMID:26354441

  17. (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the Mobius transform of roots of unity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Bruin, Marcel G.

    2005-06-01

    Define for integer m[greater-or-equal, slanted]1 and [alpha] a complex number with [alpha]2,[alpha]m[not equal to]1, the polynomial of degree mwm([alpha];z)=(z+[alpha])m-(1+[alpha]z)m,whose (simple) zeros can be seen as the Mobius transforms of the mth roots of unity.In this paper it will be shown that (0,m) Pal-type interpolation on the zeros of {wn+m([alpha];z),wn([alpha];z)} is regular for all integers and complex numbers [alpha] with [alpha]2,[alpha]m,[alpha]n,[alpha]n+m[not equal to]1.

  18. The inimitable kynurenic acid: the roles of different ionotropic receptors in the action of kynurenic acid at a spinal level.

    PubMed

    Tuboly, Gabor; Tar, Lilla; Bohar, Zsuzsanna; Safrany-Fark, Arpad; Petrovszki, Zita; Kekesi, Gabriella; Vecsei, Laszlo; Pardutz, Arpad; Horvath, Gyongyi

    2015-03-01

    Kynurenic acid (KYNA) is a neuroactive metabolite that interacts with NMDA, AMPA/kainate and alpha 7 nicotinic receptors. The goal of this study was to clarify the roles of these receptors in the action of KYNA at a spinal level by using highly specific receptor antagonists alone or in triple combinations. Chronic osteoarthritis-like joint pain was induced with monosodium-iodoacetate in male Wistar rats. Mechanical allodynia and motor function were quantified. In the first series we determined the dose-response and time course effects of intrathecally administered KYNA (10-100 μg), D-(-)-2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid (AP5; an NMDA receptor antagonist; 10-200 μg), methyllycaconitine (MLA; an alpha 7 nicotinic receptor antagonist; 100-200 μg) and 2,3-dioxo-6-nitro-1,2,3,4-tetrahydrobenzoquinoxaline-7-sulfonamide (NBQX; an AMPA/kainate receptor antagonist; 1-20 μg). In the second series, four different triple combinations of MLA, AP5 and NBQX were investigated. Intrathecal administration of KYNA caused a dose-dependent motor impairment and antinociception. The highly specific NMDA receptor antagonist AP5 caused a motor impairment and antinociception with lower potency. High doses of NBQX resulted in significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment, while only the highest dose of MLA gave rise to significant antinociception with a slight motor impairment. After the coadministration of these ligands as combinations, no potentiation was observed. It may be supposed that the effects of KYNA are primarily due to the inhibition of NMDA receptors at both glycine and phencyclidine (PCP) binding sites, and not to the interactions at the different ionotropic receptors, but the mechanisms behind its high bio-efficiency are still unknown.

  19. Mutational analysis of the Aspergillus ambient pH receptor PalH underscores its potential as a target for antifungal compounds

    PubMed Central

    Lucena‐Agell, Daniel; Hervás‐Aguilar, América; Múnera‐Huertas, Tatiana; Pougovkina, Olga; Rudnicka, Joanna; Galindo, Antonio; Tilburn, Joan; Arst, Herbert N.

    2016-01-01

    Summary The pal/RIM ambient pH signalling pathway is crucial for the ability of pathogenic fungi to infect hosts. The Aspergillus nidulans 7‐TMD receptor PalH senses alkaline pH, subsequently facilitating ubiquitination of the arrestin PalF. Ubiquitinated PalF triggers downstream signalling events. The mechanism(s) by which PalH transduces the alkaline pH signal to PalF is poorly understood. We show that PalH is phosphorylated in a signal dependent manner, resembling mammalian GPCRs, although PalH phosphorylation, in contrast to mammalian GPCRs, is arrestin dependent. A genetic screen revealed that an ambient‐exposed region comprising the extracellular loop connecting TM4‐TM5 and ambient‐proximal residues within TM5 is required for signalling. In contrast, substitution by alanines of four aromatic residues within TM6 and TM7 results in a weak ‘constitutive’ activation of the pathway. Our data support the hypothesis that PalH mechanistically resembles mammalian GPCRs that signal via arrestins, such that the relative positions of individual helices within the heptahelical bundle determines the Pro316‐dependent transition between inactive and active PalH conformations, governed by an ambient‐exposed region including critical Tyr259 that potentially represents an agonist binding site. These findings open the possibility of screening for agonist compounds stabilizing the inactive conformation of PalH, which might act as antifungal drugs against ascomycetes. PMID:27279148

  20. Structural studies of an exopolysaccharide produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    PubMed

    Serrato, Rodrigo V; Meneses, Carlos H S G; Vidal, Marcia S; Santana-Filho, Arquimedes P; Iacomini, Marcello; Sassaki, Guilherme L; Baldani, José I

    2013-10-15

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has been found colonizing several plants. This acid-tolerant bacterium produces phytohormones that promote plant growth and is also able to grow in high-sugar concentrations. It has been demonstrated that exopolysaccharides (EPS), which are produced by strain Pal5 of G. diazotrophicus, play an important role in plant infection. We have investigated the structure of the EPS, which was produced by a strain of Pal5 grown in liquid medium containing mannitol as the sole carbon source. The results reveal an EPS with Glc, Gal, Man in a molar ratio of 6:3:1, respectively. NMR spectroscopy and chemical derivatization have revealed that the EPS structure has 4-O-substituted units of β-glucose, 3-O-substituted units of β-galactose and 2-O-substituted units of α-mannose. Glucose and galactose units linked at C6 were also found. The structure proposed herein is different from EPS produced by other species of Gluconacetobacter published to date.

  1. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  2. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Pádua, Vânia; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Kátia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, André; França, Leonardo; Magalhães, Viviane; Alquéres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simão, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadão, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flávia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, José; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Letícia; Bisch, Paulo; Rössle, Shaila C; Ürményi, Turán; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Krüger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, José Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:19775431

  3. Effects of methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) in cocaine discrimination or self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Stephen J; Fivel, Peter A; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B; Mello, Nancy K

    2013-10-01

    Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine (DA)/norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) release are potential treatment medications for cocaine abuse. Although DA-selective monoamine releasers effectively reduce cocaine abuse, their clinical usefulness is limited by abuse liability. It is hypothesized that increasing 5-HT neurotransmission may reduce the abuse-related effects of DA releasers, but the optimal DA:5-HT release ratio remains to be determined. This study in rhesus monkeys compared the effects of two compounds with differing potency for 5-HT release. Methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) have equal potency for DA release, but PAL-434 has 10-fold higher potency for 5-HT release. In drug discrimination studies, monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine (0.4 mg/kg i.m.) from saline in a two-key, food-reinforced procedure. In drug self-administration studies, a separate group of monkeys was trained to respond for cocaine [0.01 mg/kg/injection (inj)] and food (1 g pellets) under a second order schedule of reinforcement [FR2(VR16:S)]. When responding was stable, methcathinone (0.1–0.56 mg/kg.h i.v.) or PAL-434 (0.32–1.8 mg/kg.h i.v.) was administered chronically (one injection every 20 min for 23 h/d) for 7–10 d. In discrimination studies, both compounds dose-dependently increased cocaine-like responding but with different potencies (cocaine=methcathinone >PAL-434). Chronic treatment with methcathinone or PAL-434 dose-dependently and selectively reduced cocaine self-administration. PAL-434 was about 4-fold and methcathinone about 1.6-fold more potent at decreasing cocaine- over food-maintained responding. These data suggest that compounds with moderate selectivity for DA vs. 5-HT release (8–15-fold) may be effective for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23768644

  4. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  5. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data with and without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B. E.; Panda, B. E.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first two minutes of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  6. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  7. Molecular Characterization of a Recombinant Zea mays Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase (ZmPAL2) and Its Application in trans-Cinnamic Acid Production from L-Phenylalanine.

    PubMed

    Zang, Ying; Jiang, Ting; Cong, Ying; Zheng, Zhaojuan; Ouyang, Jia

    2015-06-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is one of the most extensively studied enzymes with its crucial role in secondary phenylpropanoid metabolism of plants. Recently, its demand has been increased for aromatic chemical production, but its applications in trans-cinnamic acid production were not much explored. In the present study, a putative PAL gene from Zea mays designated as ZmPAL2 was expressed and characterized in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3). The recombinant ZmPAL2 exhibited a high PAL activity (7.14 U/mg) and a weak tyrosine ammonia-lyase activity. The optimal temperature of ZmPAL2 was 55 °C, and the thermal stability results showed that about 50 % of enzyme activity remained after a treatment at 60 °C for 6 h. The recombinant ZmPAL2 is a good candidate for the production of trans-cinnamic acid. The vitro conversion indicated that the recombinant ZmPAL2 could effectively catalyze the L-phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, and the trans-cinnamic acid concentration can reach up to 5 g/l.

  8. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  9. Top-Level Players' Visual Control of Interceptive Actions: Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H. P.; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of…

  10. Body size and physical activity levels of adults on Rarotonga, the Cook Islands.

    PubMed

    Ulijaszek, S J

    2001-09-01

    Few studies of physical activity and energy expenditure have been carried out in the Pacific Region. In this study, the physical activity levels (PALs) of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle by age group and occupation category were determined by a 3 day activity recall diary method. The period of observation included the previous Sunday, as a representative non-working day. A volunteer sample of 332 Cook Islanders aged 22 to 86 years was obtained from the total adult population of Rarotonga. Older adults are significantly less active than younger adults during the working week, but not during the weekend. Males are more physically active than females during the working week, but not on weekends. The mean weekday PAL of males engaged in traditional subsistence or who are unemployed is 1.88, while the mean weekday PAL of females engaged in traditional subsistence or who are housewives is 1.69. Male manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.96, while female manual workers have a weekday PAL of 1.67. The weekday PAL values for those employed in clerical and administrative work are 1.82 (males) and 1.64 (females), while values for professionals are 1.76 (males) and 1.65 (females). Weekday physical activity is negatively associated with age, in nonlinear fashion. The PALs of adult Cook Islanders living a largely modernised lifestyle is lower in older age groups but does not vary by occupation category. PMID:11517738

  11. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  13. Tight junction protein Par6 interacts with an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1/stardust.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Hurd, Toby W; Margolis, Ben

    2004-07-16

    Tight junctions are the structures in mammalian epithelial cells that separate the apical and basolateral membranes and may also be important in the establishment of cell polarity. Two evolutionarily conserved multiprotein complexes, Crumbs-PALS1 (Stardust)-PATJ and Cdc42-Par6-Par3-atypical protein kinase C, have been implicated in the assembly of tight junctions and in polarization of Drosophila melanogaster epithelia. These two complexes have been linked physically and functionally by an interaction between PALS1 and Par6. Here we identify an evolutionarily conserved region in the amino terminus of PALS1 as the Par6 binding site and identify valine and aspartic acid residues in this region as essential for interacting with the PDZ domain of Par6. We have also characterized, in more detail, the amino terminus of Drosophila Stardust and demonstrate that the interaction mechanism between Stardust and Drosophila Par6 is evolutionarily conserved. Par6 interferes with PATJ in binding PALS1, and these two interactions do not appear to function synergistically. Taken together, these results define the molecular mechanisms linking two conserved polarity complexes.

  14. Impact of a Parenting Program in a High-Risk, Multi-Ethnic Community: The PALS Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stephen; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Futh, Annabel; Matias, Carla; Price, Jenny; Doolan, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting programs have been shown to work when delivered to motivated ethnic majority parents in demonstration projects, but comparatively little is known about their impact when delivered to high-risk, multi-ethnic populations by routine local services. Methods: The Primary Age Learning Skills (PALS) trial was a randomized controlled…

  15. Retrieving soil moisture for non-forested areas using PALS radiometer measurements in SMAPVEX12 field campaign

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this paper we investigate retrieval of soil moisture based on L-band brightness temperature under diverse conditions and land cover types. We apply the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) radiometer data collected in the SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) field ex...

  16. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  17. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream-sediment geochemistry in the Grazer Paläozoikum, Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, L.; Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Austrian reconnaissance study of stream-sediment composition — more than 30000 clay-fraction samples collected over an area of 40000 km2 — is summarized in an atlas of regional maps that show the distributions of 35 elements. These maps, rich in information, reveal complicated patterns of element abundance that are difficult to compare on more than a small number of maps at one time. In such a study, multivariate procedures such as simultaneous R-Q mode components analysis may be helpful. They can compress a large number of variables into a much smaller number of independent linear combinations. These composite variables may be mapped and relationships sought between them and geological properties. As an example, R-Q mode components analysis is applied here to the Grazer Paläozoikum, a tectonic unit northeast of the city of Graz, which is composed of diverse lithologies and contains many mineral deposits.

  18. Spin probe dynamics in relation to free volume in crystalline organics from ESR and PALS: Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švajdlenková, H.; Zgardzinska, B.; Lukešová, M.; Bartoš, J.

    2016-01-01

    A joint external probe ESR and PALS study on cyclohexane (CHX) using stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) or ortho-positronium (o-Ps), respectively, is reported. The slow to fast transition of TEMPO occurs at the characteristic ESR temperature T50G coinciding with the solid to solid transition temperature, TSS. Moreover, o-Ps lifetime τ3(T50G) = 2.0 ns is close to an empirical rule τ3(T50G) = 2.17 ± 0.15 ns found for a series of amorphous glass-formers indicating that main transition of the TEMPO connected with the 'rigid' to plastic crystalline state transition in CHX occurs under the similar local free volume condition as in amorphous media.

  19. Regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by Pal-PacC signaling in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, Emi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kimura, Makoto; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. As such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. Ambient pH is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. In the present study, we demonstrate that several Aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by Pal-PacC-mediated pH signaling, as evidenced by the decreased cellulase productivity of the palC mutant and pacC deletants of A. nidulans. The deletion of pacC was observed to result in delayed induction and decreased expression of the cellulase genes based on time course expression analysis. The genome-wide identification of PacC-regulated genes under cellobiose-induced conditions demonstrated that genes expressed in a PacC-dependent manner included 82 % of ClrB (a transcriptional activator of the cellulase genes)-regulated genes, including orthologs of various transporter and β-glucosidase genes considered to be involved in cellobiose uptake or production of stronger inducer molecules. Together with the significant overlap between ClrB- and PacC-regulated genes, the results suggest that PacC-mediated regulation of the cellulase genes involves not only direct regulation by binding to their promoter regions but also indirect regulation via modulation of the expression of genes involved in ClrB-dependent transcriptional activation. Our findings are expected to contribute to the development of more efficient industrial cellulase production methods.

  20. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-11-12

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  1. "Peer-Assisted Learning"(PAL) in the Skills-Lab – an inventory at the medical faculties of the Federal Republic of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Blohm, M.; Lauter, J.; Branchereau, S.; Krautter, M.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Jünger, J.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over multiple years, the didactic concept of „peer-assisted learning“ (PAL) has proved to be valuable for medical education. Particularly in the field of the nowadays widely established Skills-Labs, the assignment of student tutors is both popular and effective. The aim of the underlying study is to assess the current status of PAL programs within German medical faculties’ Skills-Labs regarding their distribution, extent, structure and content based on a nation-wide survey. Methods: All 36 medical faculties in Germany were contacted and asked for their participation (via telephone or in written form) in the survey encompassing 16 central questions as to the structure of established PAL programs. Data obtained were subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: 35 of 36 (97.2%) medical faculties participated in the survey. A PAL program was shown to be established at 33 (91.7%) faculties. However, the results show distinct differences between different faculties with respect to extent and content of the PAL programs. Conclusions: Among German medical Skills-Labs, PAL has been established almost ubiquitously. Further studies on the conception and standardization of training concepts appear to be pivotal for the advancement of PAL in the context of Skills-Labs. PMID:25699102

  2. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on

  4. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

  5. [An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S V; Kovalenko, L P; Tallerova, A V; Gudasheva, T A; Durnev, A D

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of noopept (dipeptide analog of piracetam) upon a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in comparison to the reference drug diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied on a model of acute exudative inflammation induced by carrageenan in outbred rats and concanavalin A (Con A) in CBA mice. The level of cytokines was studied on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model (single administration, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with 5-day administration of noopept at a dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p., before endotoxin injection) in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of noopept led to a significant suppression of the inflammatory response to both carrageenan and Con A. The administration of Con A caused a 16-fold increase in the level of IL-6 interleukin in the blood serum of mice as compared to control. Noopept (5 mg/kg) reduced the level of IL-6 by a factor of 1.8 in the inflammatory response to Con A. The administration of LPS led to pronounced increase in the levels ofpro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood serum of test mice as compared to intact animals. The course administration of noopept (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the level of IL-6 and reduced by half the level of TNF-alpha. PMID:23156084

  6. Characterization of the tol-pal region of Escherichia coli K-12: translational control of tolR expression by TolQ and identification of a new open reading frame downstream of pal encoding a periplasmic protein.

    PubMed Central

    Vianney, A; Muller, M M; Clavel, T; Lazzaroni, J C; Portalier, R; Webster, R E

    1996-01-01

    The TolQ, TolR, TolA, TolB, and Pal proteins appear to function in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane, as well as facilitating the uptake of the group A colicins and the DNA of the infecting filamentous bacteriophages. Sequence data showed that these genes are clustered in a 6-kb segment of DNA with the gene order orf1 tolQ tolR tolA tolB pal orf2 (a newly identified open reading frame encoding a 29-kD9 protein). Like those containing orf1, bacteria containing an insertion mutation in this gene showed no obvious phenotype. Analysis of beta-galactosidase activity from fusion constructs in which the lac operon was fused to various genes in the cluster showed that the genes in this region constitute two separate operons: orf1 tolQRA and tolB pal orf2. In the orf1 tolQRA operon, translation of MR was dependent on translation of the upstream tolQ region. Consistent with this result, no functional ribosome-binding site for TolR synthesis was detected. PMID:8763928

  7. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-12-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying.

  8. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels, fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, L.; Cordle, F.

    1986-09-01

    The dangers associated with the consumption of large amounts of methylmercury in fish are well recognized, and there is some evidence to suggest that methylmercury may be the cause of subtle neurological impairments when ingested at even low to moderate levels, particularly the prenatal and early childhood periods. This concern has prompted a continuing assessment of the risk of methylmercury toxicity among fish consumers in the US as well as other countries. The toxicokinetics of methylmercury in humans are reviewed and used to estimate body burdens associated with toxic effects. To determine seafood consumption patterns among the continental US population the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has analyzed data from a diary study commissioned by the Tuna Research Foundation. Mercury residue levels in domestic fish sampled by the FDA were used to determine the level of exposure to methylmercury. Until evidence is presented that substantially lowers the known body burden of methylmercury which causes toxicity, calculations indicate that the current 1.0 ppm regulatory level provides adequate protection for the average fish consumer, for young children, and for a significant number of consumers exceeding the acceptable daily intake. However, additional studies are being carried out in a continuing process to ensure that safe levels of prenatal exposure to mercury residues in fish are maintained.

  9. Reliability and validity of the Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy-Palliative care (FACIT-Pal) scale.

    PubMed

    Lyons, Kathleen Doyle; Bakitas, Marie; Hegel, Mark T; Hanscom, Brett; Hull, Jay; Ahles, Tim A

    2009-01-01

    The Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy (FACIT) system provides a general, multidimensional measure of health-related quality of life (FACT-G) that can be augmented with disease or symptom-specific subscales. The 19-item palliative care subscale of the FACIT system has undergone little psychometric evaluation to date. The aim of this paper is to report the internal consistency, factor structure, and construct validity of the instrument using the palliative care subscale (FACIT-Pal). Two hundred fifty-six persons with advanced cancer in a randomized trial testing a palliative care psychoeducational intervention completed the 46-item FACIT-Pal at baseline. Internal consistency was greater than 0.74 for all subscales and the total score. Seventeen of the 19 palliative care subscale items loaded onto the four-factor solution of the established core measure (FACT-G). As hypothesized, total scores were correlated with measures of symptom intensity (r=-0.73, P<0.001) and depression (r=-0.75, P<0.001). The FACIT-Pal was able to discriminate between participants who died within three months of completing the baseline and participants who lived for at least one year after completing the baseline assessment (t=-4.05, P<0.001). The functional well-being subscale discriminated between participants who had a Karnofsky performance score of 70 and below and participants with a Karnofsky performance score of 80 and above (t=3.40, P<0.001). The findings support the internal consistency reliability and validity of the FACIT-Pal as a measure of health-related quality of life for persons with advanced cancer.

  10. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F.; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Foster, Cliff E.; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C.; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Johnson, Eric T.; Willhoit, Megan E.; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  11. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  12. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Cass, Cynthia L; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D; Bukhman, Yury V; Foster, Cliff E; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C; Moskvin, Oleg V; Johnson, Eric T; Willhoit, Megan E; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C

    2015-07-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  13. VizieR Online Data Catalog: CCD photometry of Pal 1 (Borissova+ 1995)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borissova, J.; Spassova, N.

    1997-06-01

    A CCD photometry of the halo cluster Palomar 1 is presented in the Thuan-Gunn photometric system. The principal sequences of the color-magnitude diagrams are delineated in different spectral bands. The color- magnitude diagrams of the cluster show a well defined red horizontal branch, a subgiant branch and a main-sequence down to about two magnitudes below the main sequence turnoff. The giant branch is absent and the brightest stars are the horizontal branch stars. The age of the cluster determined by comparison with the isochrones of Bell & VandenBerg (1987ApJS...63..335B) is consistent with an age in the interval 12-14Gyr. A distance modulus of (m-M)g0=15.38+/-0.15 magnitude and E(g-r)=0.16 has been derived. An estimate of the cluster structural parameters such as core radius and concentration parameter gives rc=1.5pc and c=1.46. A mass estimate of 1.1x103M⊙ and a mass-to-light ratio of 1.79 have been obtained using King's (1966AJ.....71...64K) method. The morphology of color-magnitude diagrams allows Pal 1 to be interpreted as probably a globular cluster rather than an old open one. For a description of the uvgr photometric system, see e.g. (1 data file).

  14. Current status of the CXI beamline at the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jaehyun; Kim, Sangsoo; Nam, Ki-Hyun; Kim, Bongsoo; Ko, In Soo

    2016-09-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory's X-ray free electron laser (PAL-XFEL) is a research facility currently under construction. It will provide ultra-bright (1 × 1012 photons/pulse at 12.4 keV) and ultra-short (10 - 60 femtosecond) X-ray pulses. The CXI (coherent X-ray imaging) hard X-ray experimental station is designed to deliver brilliant hard X-rays (2 - 20.4 keV) and to measure diffraction signals with a forward scattering geometry. It will not only offer imaging studies of biological, chemical and physical samples with the "diffraction-before-destruction" scheme, but also be helpful in high-field hard X-ray physics and material science. The scientific programs are currently aimed at serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) and coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) for bio specimens, nano materials, etc. In this paper, we describe the beamline layout, beam diagnostics, X-ray focusing optics, sample environments and detector system at the CXI experimental hutch.

  15. Passive aquatic listener (PAL): An adoptive underwater acoustic recording system for the marine environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostou, Marios N.; Nystuen, Jeffrey A.; Anagnostou, Emmanouil N.; Papadopoulos, Anastasios; Lykousis, Vassilios

    2011-01-01

    The ambient sound field in the ocean is a combination of natural and manmade sounds. Consequently, the interpretation of the ambient sound field can be used to quantify these processes. In the frequency range from 1 to 50 kHz, the general character of ocean ambient sound is a slowly changing background that is closely associated with local wind speed, interspersed with shorter time scale events such as rain storms, ships and animal calls. At lower frequencies the underwater ambient sound budget includes geologically generated sound activities including underwater volcanic eruptions, seismic and seepage faults that generate bubbles, etc. that can also potentially be classified and quantified. Acoustic data are collected on hydrophones. Hydrophones are simple, robust sensors that can be deployed on most ocean instrumentation systems including surface or sub-surface moorings, bottom mounted systems, drifters, ARGO floats or autonomous underwater platforms. A dedicated oceanic underwater recorder called a passive acoustic listener (PAL) has been developed. A principal issue is to accurately distinguish different sound sources so that they can be quantified as part of a sound budget, and then quantified if appropriate. Based on ongoing data collected from the Poseidon II network the retrieval potential of multi-parameters from underwater sound, including meteorological (i.e., precipitation and winds) and in general geophysical, anthropogenetic (i.e., ships, submarines, etc.) and biological (whales, etc.) sources is presented.

  16. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images.

  17. [An operational remote sensing algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration based on NOAA PAL dataset].

    PubMed

    Hou, Ying-Yu; He, Yan-Bo; Wang, Jian-Lin; Tian, Guo-Liang

    2009-10-01

    Based on the time series 10-day composite NOAA Pathfinder AVHRR Land (PAL) dataset (8 km x 8 km), and by using land surface energy balance equation and "VI-Ts" (vegetation index-land surface temperature) method, a new algorithm of land surface evapotranspiration (ET) was constructed. This new algorithm did not need the support from meteorological observation data, and all of its parameters and variables were directly inversed or derived from remote sensing data. A widely accepted ET model of remote sensing, i. e., SEBS model, was chosen to validate the new algorithm. The validation test showed that both the ET and its seasonal variation trend estimated by SEBS model and our new algorithm accorded well, suggesting that the ET estimated from the new algorithm was reliable, being able to reflect the actual land surface ET. The new ET algorithm of remote sensing was practical and operational, which offered a new approach to study the spatiotemporal variation of ET in continental scale and global scale based on the long-term time series satellite remote sensing images. PMID:20077694

  18. 42 CFR 493.1814 - Action when deficiencies are at the condition level but do not pose immediate jeopardy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... but do not pose immediate jeopardy. 493.1814 Section 493.1814 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE... but do not pose immediate jeopardy. If a laboratory has condition level deficiencies that do not pose... deficiencies that do not pose immediate jeopardy, and the laboratory does not correct the condition...

  19. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove.

    PubMed

    Ivanova, Marina E; Fletcher, Georgina C; O'Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G; Thompson, Barry J; McDonald, Neil Q

    2015-03-01

    Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein-protein interaction.

  20. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    PubMed Central

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-01-01

    Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction. PMID:25760605

  1. [Estimation of action of lactoovovegetarian and vegan diets on blood level of atherogenic lipoproteins in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Medkova, I L; Mosiakina, L I; Biriukova, L S

    2002-01-01

    The biochemical status of 72 vegetarians (aged 40-60) was studied; 35 persons kept to a lactoovovegetarian diet and 37 persons followed a vegan diet (vegetable food only). As the results of the investigation showed, almost all of the biochemical parameters of blood tests in the both groups were kept to the physiological norm. A pronounced hypolipidemic effect of both the diets was observed (the total cholesterol level was 5.24 +/- 0.28 mmol/l in the vegetarian group and 3.26 +/- 0.17 mmol/l in the vegan group), some parameters of lipid metabolism in the group of vegan being lower then in the vegetarian group. Thus, the total cholesterol level in the vegan group was lower by 38.7%, the atherogenic coefficient--by 13.8%, the low density cholesterol--by 34.3%, triglicerides--by 28.3%. Although the above mentioned parameters of the vegan group seem to be more satisfactory than those of the vegetarian group, we could not recommend the vegan diet for long periods of time because of deficiency of some nutrients in it. PMID:12462949

  2. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL. PMID:23239872

  3. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL.

  4. Switch from excitatory to inhibitory actions of ethanol on dopamine levels after chronic exposure: Role of kappa opioid receptors.

    PubMed

    Karkhanis, Anushree N; Huggins, Kimberly N; Rose, Jamie H; Jones, Sara R

    2016-11-01

    Acute ethanol exposure is known to stimulate the dopamine system; however, chronic exposure has been shown to downregulate the dopamine system. In rodents, chronic intermittent exposure (CIE) to ethanol also increases negative affect during withdrawal, such as, increases in anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Moreover, CIE exposure results in increased ethanol drinking and preference during withdrawal. Previous literature documents reductions in CIE-induced anxiety-, depressive-like behaviors and ethanol intake in response to kappa opioid receptor (KOR) blockade. KORs are located on presynaptic dopamine terminals in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and inhibit release, an effect which has been linked to negative affective behaviors. Previous reports show an upregulation in KOR function following extended CIE exposure; however it is not clear whether there is a direct link between KOR upregulation and dopamine downregulation during withdrawal from CIE. This study aimed to examine the effects of KOR modulation on dopamine responses to ethanol of behaving mice exposed to air or ethanol vapor in a repeated intermittent pattern. First, we showed that KORs have a greater response to an agonist after moderate CIE compared to air exposed mice using ex vivo fast scan cyclic voltammetry. Second, using in vivo microdialysis, we showed that, in contrast to the expected increase in extracellular levels of dopamine following an acute ethanol challenge in air exposed mice, CIE exposed mice exhibited a robust decrease in dopamine levels. Third, we showed that blockade of KORs reversed the aberrant inhibitory dopamine response to ethanol in CIE exposed mice while not affecting the air exposed mice demonstrating that inhibition of KORs "rescued" dopamine responses in CIE exposed mice. Taken together, these findings indicate that augmentation of dynorphin/KOR system activity drives the reduction in stimulated (electrical and ethanol) dopamine release in the NAc. Thus, blockade of

  5. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  6. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  7. Increased Cellular NAD+ Level through NQO1 Enzymatic Action Has Protective Effects on Bleomycin-Induced Lung Fibrosis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Gi-Su; Lee, Su-Bin; Karna, Anjani; Kim, Hyung-Jin; Shen, AiHua; Pandit, Arpana; Lee, SeungHoon

    2016-01-01

    Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis is a common interstitial lung disease; it is a chronic, progressive, and fatal lung disease of unknown etiology. Over the last two decades, knowledge about the underlying mechanisms of pulmonary fibrosis has improved markedly and facilitated the identification of potential targets for novel therapies. However, despite the large number of antifibrotic drugs being described in experimental pre-clinical studies, the translation of these findings into clinical practices has not been accomplished yet. NADH:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) is a homodimeric enzyme that catalyzes the oxidation of NADH to NAD+ by various quinones and thereby elevates the intracellular NAD+ levels. In this study, we examined the effect of increase in cellular NAD+ levels on bleomycin-induced lung fibrosis in mice. Methods C57BL/6 mice were treated with intratracheal instillation of bleomycin. The mice were orally administered with β-lapachone from 3 days before exposure to bleomycin to 1-3 weeks after exposure to bleomycin. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) was collected for analyzing the infiltration of immune cells. In vitro, A549 cells were treated with transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and β-lapachone to analyze the extracellular matrix (ECM) and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Results β-Lapachone strongly attenuated bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis, characterized by histological staining, infiltrated immune cells in BALF, inflammatory cytokines, fibrotic score, and TGF-β1, α-smooth muscle actin accumulation. In addition, β-lapachone showed a protective role in TGF-β1–induced ECM expression and EMT in A549 cells. Conclusion Our results suggest that β-lapachone can protect against bleomycin-induced lung inflammation and fibrosis in mice and TGF-β1–induced EMT in vitro, by elevating the NAD+/NADH ratio through NQO1 activation. PMID:27790277

  8. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  9. Comparative actions of clomazone on beta-carotene levels and growth in rice (Oryza sativa) and watergrasses (Echinochloa spp).

    PubMed

    TenBrook, Patti L; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2005-06-01

    Seedlings of rice, early watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively), and late watergrass (thiobencarb-resistant and thiobencarb-susceptible biotypes, R and S, respectively) were hydroponically exposed to clomazone at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 7.9 microM. Whole-plant growth (mg fresh wt) and beta-carotene concentrations (microg g(-1) fresh wt) were measured after a 7-day exposure period. For growth, the no observed effect concentrations (NOECs) were 7.9, 0.21, 0.21, 0.46 and 0.46 microM clomazone for rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), respectively, while the concentrations causing 25% inhibition in response (IC25) were 5.6 (+/-1.6), 0.46 (+/-0.06), 0.42 (+/-0.08), 0.92 (+/-0.45) and 0.79 (+/-0.08) microM clomazone, respectively. Clomazone inhibits beta-carotene synthesis via inhibition of the non-mevalonate isoprenoid synthetic pathway. For assessment of clomazone effects, beta-carotene levels proved to be a more sensitive toxicological endpoint than growth. For rice, early watergrass (R), early watergrass (S), late watergrass (R) and late watergrass (S), the beta-carotene NOECs were 0.21, <0.08, <0.08, 0.08 and 0.46 microM clomazone respectively, while IC25 values were 0.42 (+/-0.26), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.08 (+/-0.02), 0.33 (+/-0.09) and 0.54 (+/-0.15) microM, respectively. No evidence was found that the thiobencarb-resistance mechanisms present in early and late watergrasses impart resistance to clomazone. Due to similar sensitivity between rice and late watergrass, use of clomazone in rice culture will require the use of a safening technique.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations exceeding the PALs

  11. Ambient glucose levels qualify the potency of insulin myogenic actions by regulating SIRT1 and FoxO3a in C2C12 myocytes.

    PubMed

    Nedachi, Taku; Kadotani, Akito; Ariga, Miyako; Katagiri, Hideki; Kanzaki, Makoto

    2008-04-01

    Nutrition availability is one of the major environmental signals influencing cell fate, such as proliferation, differentiation, and apoptosis, often functioning in concert with other humoral factors, including insulin. Herein, we show that low-serum-induced differentiation of C(2)C(12) myocytes is significantly hampered under low glucose (LG; 5 mM) compared with high glucose (HG; 22.5 mM) conditions, concurrently with nuclear accumulation of SIRT1, an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, and FoxO3a, both of which are implicated in the negative regulation of myogenesis. Intriguingly, insulin appears to exert opposite actions, depending on glucose availability, with regard to the regulation of SIRT1 and FoxO3a abundance, which apparently contributes to modulating the potency of insulin's myogenic action. Namely, insulin exerts a potent myogenic effect in the presence of sufficient glucose, whereas insulin is unable to exert its myogenic action under LG conditions, since insulin evokes massive upregulation of both SIRT1 and FoxO3a in the absence of sufficient ambient glucose. In addition, the hampered differentiation state under LG is significantly restored by sirtinol, a SIRT1 inhibitor, whereas insulin abolished this sirtinol-dependent restoration, indicating that insulin can function as a negative as well as a positive myogenic factor depending on glucose availability. Taken together, our data reveal the importance of ambient glucose levels in the regulation of myogenesis and also in the determination of insulin's myogenic potency, which is achieved, at least in part, through regulation of the cellular contents and localization of SIRT1 and FoxO3a in differentiating C(2)C(12) myocytes.

  12. Efficacy and workload analysis of a fixed vertical couch position technique and a fixed-action-level protocol in whole-breast radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Petillion, Saskia; Verhoeven, Karolien; Weltens, Caroline; Van den Heuvel, Frank

    2015-03-08

    Quantification of the setup errors is vital to define appropriate setup margins preventing geographical misses. The no-action-level (NAL) correction protocol reduces the systematic setup errors and, hence, the setup margins. The manual entry of the setup corrections in the record-and-verify software, however, increases the susceptibility of the NAL protocol to human errors. Moreover, the impact of the skin mobility on the anteroposterior patient setup reproducibility in whole-breast radiotherapy (WBRT) is unknown. In this study, we therefore investigated the potential of fixed vertical couch position-based patient setup in WBRT. The possibility to introduce a threshold for correction of the systematic setup errors was also explored. We measured the anteroposterior, mediolateral, and superior-inferior setup errors during fractions 1-12 and weekly thereafter with tangential angled single modality paired imaging. These setup data were used to simulate the residual setup errors of the NAL protocol, the fixed vertical couch position protocol, and the fixed-action-level protocol with different correction thresholds. Population statistics of the setup errors of 20 breast cancer patients and 20 breast cancer patients with additional regional lymph node (LN) irradiation were calculated to determine the setup margins of each off-line correction protocol. Our data showed the potential of the fixed vertical couch position protocol to restrict the systematic and random anteroposterior residual setup errors to 1.8 mm and 2.2 mm, respectively. Compared to the NAL protocol, a correction threshold of 2.5mm reduced the frequency of mediolateral and superior-inferior setup corrections with 40% and 63%, respectively. The implementation of the correction threshold did not deteriorate the accuracy of the off-line setup correction compared to the NAL protocol. The combination of the fixed vertical couch position protocol, for correction of the anteroposterior setup error, and the fixed-action-level

  13. Nonperturbative renormalization of the axial current in Nf=3 lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and a tree-level improved gauge action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulava, John; Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We nonperturbatively determine the renormalization factor of the axial vector current in lattice QCD with Nf=3 flavors of Wilson-clover fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. The (by now standard) renormalization condition is derived from the massive axial Ward identity, and it is imposed among Schrödinger functional states with large overlap on the lowest lying hadronic state in the pseudoscalar channel, in order to reduce kinematically enhanced cutoff effects. We explore a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of ≈0.09 fm and below. An interpolation formula for ZA(g02) , smoothly connecting the nonperturbative values to the 1-loop expression, is provided together with our final results.

  14. Inclusivity and dementia: health services planning with individuals with dementia: effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners, service providers and funding organizations.

    PubMed

    Whitfield, Kyle; Wismer, Susan

    2006-01-01

    Historically, Alzheimer societies have identified the care partners of persons with dementia as their central clients. This focus is broadening to include the person with the disease, as well. This paper presents the results of a Canadian research study addressing organizational considerations related to effective inclusion of persons with dementia in planning and decision-making about health services and programs. Our findings suggest that effective inclusion requires action at multiple levels by individuals with dementia, care partners and friends; service organizations and providers; and funding organizations. Additional research is needed to explore the applicability of these findings to other organizations in different localities and to examine emergent themes further. Of these, one that has received little attention to date concerns the potential risks associated with effective inclusion.

  15. Practical Use of the Extended No Action Level (eNAL) Correction Protocol for Breast Cancer Patients With Implanted Surgical Clips

    SciTech Connect

    Penninkhof, Joan; Quint, Sandra; Baaijens, Margreet; Heijmen, Ben; Dirkx, Maarten

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the practical use of the extended No Action Level (eNAL) setup correction protocol for breast cancer patients with surgical clips and evaluate its impact on the setup accuracy of both tumor bed and whole breast during simultaneously integrated boost treatments. Methods and Materials: For 80 patients, two orthogonal planar kilovoltage images and one megavoltage image (for the mediolateral beam) were acquired per fraction throughout the radiotherapy course. For setup correction, the eNAL protocol was applied, based on registration of surgical clips in the lumpectomy cavity. Differences with respect to application of a No Action Level (NAL) protocol or no protocol were quantified for tumor bed and whole breast. The correlation between clip migration during the fractionated treatment and either the method of surgery or the time elapsed from last surgery was investigated. Results: The distance of the clips to their center of mass (COM), averaged over all clips and patients, was reduced by 0.9 {+-} 1.2 mm (mean {+-} 1 SD). Clip migration was similar between the group of patients starting treatment within 100 days after surgery (median, 53 days) and the group starting afterward (median, 163 days) (p = 0.20). Clip migration after conventional breast surgery (closing the breast superficially) or after lumpectomy with partial breast reconstructive techniques (sutured cavity). was not significantly different either (p = 0.22). Application of eNAL on clips resulted in residual systematic errors for the clips' COM of less than 1 mm in each direction, whereas the setup of the breast was within about 2 mm of accuracy. Conclusions: Surgical clips can be safely used for high-accuracy position verification and correction. Given compensation for time trends in the clips' COM throughout the treatment course, eNAL resulted in better setup accuracies for both tumor bed and whole breast than NAL.

  16. Flexible vs Rigid Epitope Conformations for Diagnostic- and Vaccine-Oriented Applications: Novel Insights from the Burkholderia pseudomallei BPSL2765 Pal3 Epitope.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Peri, Claudio; Quilici, Giacomo; Nithichanon, Arnone; Gaudesi, Davide; Longhi, Renato; Gourlay, Louise; Bolognesi, Martino; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Musco, Giovanna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-03-11

    Peptides seldom retain stable conformations if separated from their native protein structure. In an immunological context, this potentially affects the development of selective peptide-based bioprobes and, from a vaccine perspective, poses inherent limits in the elicitation of cross-reactive antibodies by candidate epitopes. Here, a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole-mediated stapling strategy was used to stabilize the native α-helical fold of the Pal3 peptidic epitope from the protein antigen PalBp (BPSL2765) from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis. Whereas Pal3 shows no propensity to fold outside its native protein context, the engineered peptide (Pal3H) forms a stable α-helix, as assessed by MD, NMR, and CD structural analyses. Importantly, Pal3H shows an enhanced ability to discriminate between melioidosis patient subclasses in immune sera reactivity tests, demonstrating the potential of the stapled peptide for diagnostic purposes. With regard to antibody elicitation and related bactericidal activities, the linear peptide is shown to elicit a higher response. On these bases, we critically discuss the implications of epitope structure engineering for diagnostic- and vaccine-oriented applications. PMID:27623032

  17. Dispersion and interaction of graphene oxide in amorphous and semi-crystalline nano-composites: a PALS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Frans H. J.; Arza, Carlos R.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of dispersion and interaction of Graphene Oxide (GO) in semicrystalline Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) and glassy amorphous Poly(tBP-oda) is explored by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The ortho-Positronium lifetimes which represent the main free volume hole size of both polymers are mainly affected by the large differences in internal stresses built up by the shrinkage of the polymers during their preparation, restricted by the platelet structure of GO. The ortho-Positronium intensities, which represent the ortho-Positronium formation probabilities, suggest a strong dependency of on the dispersion of the nano-particles and their aspect ratio.

  18. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-09-30

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  20. Stress Responses in Alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) (XIV. Changes in the Levels of Phenylpropanoid Pathway Intermediates in Relation to Regulation of L-Phenylalanine Ammonia-Lyase in Elicitor-Treated Cell-Suspension Cultures).

    PubMed Central

    Orr, J. D.; Edwards, R.; Dixon, R. A.

    1993-01-01

    We have used high-resolution gas chromatography to determine the levels of trans-cinnamic acid (CA) and trans-4-coumaric acid (4CA) in alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) cell-suspension cultures to address the role of these phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates as potential negative regulators of phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) in vivo. Exogenous addition of CA to elicitor-treated cultures resulted in rapid increases in endogenous CA, 4CA, and CA-conjugate levels associated with inhibition of the appearance of PAL transcripts. Treatment of elicited cultures with [alpha]-aminooxy-[beta]-phenylpropionic acid (AOPP), a potent and specific inhibitor of PAL activity in vivo, resulted in reductions of CA and 4CA, with concomitant increases in PAL transcripts and extractable enzyme activity. In contrast, treatment with tetcyclacis, an inhibitor of CA 4-hydroxylase, resulted in increased CA and CA-conjugate levels, decreased 4CA levels, and decreased PAL transcript levels and enzyme activity. In tetcyclasis-treated cells, the inhibition of PAL transcript appearance preceded the increase in the levels of free CA and its conjugates. In elicited cells in which the phenylpropanoid pathway was not perturbed by metabolic inhibitors, PAL transcripts accumulated rapidly and transiently, beginning to decline by 2 h postelicitation. Changes in levels of total free or conjugated CA or 4CA did not consistently correlate with these changes in transcript levels. We propose that regulation of PAL transcript levels by endogenous phenylpropanoid pathway intermediates could involve compartmentalized pools that may exist because of the microsomal localization of cinnamic acid 4-hydroxylase. PMID:12231735

  1. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  2. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  3. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  4. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes.

    PubMed

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P

    2015-05-22

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila.

  5. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-08-11

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting.

  6. Localization and Function of Pals1-associated Tight Junction Protein in Drosophila Is Regulated by Two Distinct Apical Complexes*

    PubMed Central

    Sen, Arnab; Sun, Rui; Krahn, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The transmembrane protein Crumbs (Crb) and its intracellular adaptor protein Pals1 (Stardust, Sdt in Drosophila) play a crucial role in the establishment and maintenance of apical-basal polarity in epithelial cells in various organisms. In contrast, the multiple PDZ domain-containing protein Pals1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ), which has been described to form a complex with Crb/Sdt, is not essential for apical basal polarity or for the stability of the Crb/Sdt complex in the Drosophila epidermis. Here we show that, in the embryonic epidermis, Sdt is essential for the correct subcellular localization of PATJ in differentiated epithelial cells but not during cellularization. Consistently, the L27 domain of PATJ is crucial for the correct localization and function of the protein. Our data further indicate that the four PDZ domains of PATJ function, to a large extent, in redundancy, regulating the function of the protein. Interestingly, the PATJ-Sdt heterodimer is not only recruited to the apical cell-cell contacts by binding to Crb but depends on functional Bazooka (Baz). However, biochemical experiments show that PATJ associates with both complexes, the Baz-Sdt and the Crb-Sdt complex, in the mature epithelium of the embryonic epidermis, suggesting a role of these two complexes for the function of PATJ during the development of Drosophila. PMID:25847234

  7. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-08-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting.

  8. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  9. Accuracy of self-reported physical activity levels in obese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Elliott, Sarah A; Baxter, Kimberley A; Davies, Peter S W; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m(2), completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = -0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity.

  10. Accuracy of Self-Reported Physical Activity Levels in Obese Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Elliott, Sarah A.; Baxter, Kimberley A.; Davies, Peter S. W.; Truby, Helen

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. Self-reported measures of habitual physical activity rely completely on the respondent's ability to provide accurate information on their own physical activity behaviours. Our aim was to investigate if obese adolescents could accurately report their physical activity levels (PAL) using self-reported diaries. Methods. Total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labelled water (DLW) and resting energy expenditure (REE) was measured via indirect calorimetry. Activity energy expenditure (AEE) and PAL values were derived from measured TEE and REE. Self-reported, four-day activity diaries were used to calculate daily MET values and averaged to give an estimated PAL value (ePAL). Results. Twenty-two obese adolescents, mean age 13.2 ± 1.8 years, mean BMI 31.3 ± 4.6 kg/m2, completed the study. No significant differences between mean measured and estimated PAL values were observed (1.37 ± 0.13 versus 1.40 ± 0.34, P = 0.74). Bland Altman analysis illustrated a significant relationship (r = −0.76, P < 0.05) between the two methods; thus the bias was not consistent across a range of physical activity levels, with the more inactive overreporting their physical activity. Conclusion. At an individual level, obese adolescents are unlikely to be able to provide an accurate estimation of their own activity. PMID:25247095

  11. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  12. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  13. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  14. Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Metastases Using the EORTC QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL

    SciTech Connect

    Caissie, Amanda; Nguyen, Janet; Chen, Emily; Zhang Liying; Sahgal, Arjun; Clemons, Mark; Kerba, Marc; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Danjoux, Cyril; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Holden, Lori; Danielson, Brita; Chow, Edward

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales. Results: Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at

  15. Association between daily step counts and physical activity level among Korean elementary schoolchildren

    PubMed Central

    PARK, Jonghoon; Ishikawa-Takata, Kazuko; Lee, Sangjik; Kim, Eunkyung; Lim, Kiwon; Kim, Hyungryul; Lee, In-Sook; Tanaka, Shigeho

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of the current study was to investigate steps per day (steps/d) and physical activity level (PAL) in Korean elementary school children having normal weight (normal-weight). We also clarified whether a gender difference exited between steps/d and PAL. [Methods] Children aged 9 to 12 y were recruited from two elementary schools located in different urban districts in Korea. The present study included 33 Korean children, of which 18 were normal-weight boys and 15 were normal-weight girls. During the same 1 week study period under free-living conditions the total energy expenditure (TEE) and step counts were estimated using the doubly labeled water (DLW) method and an accelerometer, respectively. We calculated PAL as the TEE/ resting metabolic rate. [Results] The range of PAL was 1.25 – 1.93 with a mean value of 1.57. None of the variables of energy expenditure was significantly different by sex. However, steps/d were significantly higher in boys than in girls. When adjusting regression analysis by gender, steps/ d were positively associated with PAL among all subjects (r = 0.56, P < 0.01). Furthermore, steps/d were positively associated with PAL in boys (r = 0.68, P < 0.01), but not in girls (r = 0.27, P = 0.34). [Conclusion] Our results suggest that locomotive activity may be the main contributor to the individual PAL differences for elementary school boys, while non-locomotive activity may be the main contributor for elementary school girls. PMID:27757388

  16. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E. C.; Spalding, B. P.; Lee, S. Y.; Hyder, L. K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  17. Sediment quality assessment and dredged material management in Spain: Part II, analysis of action levels for dredged material management and application to the Bay of Cádiz.

    PubMed

    Alvarez-Guerra, Manuel; Viguri, Javier R; Casado-Martínez, M Carmen; DelValls, T Angel

    2007-10-01

    When sediments are removed from aquatic bottoms, they turn into dredged material that must be managed, taking into account its environmental impact. In Part II of this 2-part paper addressing sediment quality assessment and dredged material management in Spain, legislation and criteria used to regulate dredged material disposal at sea in different European countries are reviewed, as are action levels (ALs) derived by different countries used to evaluate management of dredged sediments from Cádiz Bay located on the South Atlantic coast of Spain. Comparison of ALs established for dredged material disposal by different countries reveals orders of magnitude differences in the values established for the same chemical. In Part I of this 2-part paper, review of different sediment quality guideline (SQG) methods used to support sediment quality assessments indicated a great heterogeneity of SQGs, both with regard to the numeric values for a particular chemical and the number of substances for which SQGs have been derived. The analysis highlighted the absence of SQGs for priority substances identified in current European Union water policy. Here, in Part II, the ALs are applied to dredged sediments from Cádiz Bay (South Atlantic coast of Spain), evidencing that the heterogeneity of ALs implemented in the reviewed countries could determine different management strategies. The application of other measurements such as bioassays might offer information useful in identifying a cost-effective management option in a decision-making framework, especially for dredged material with intermediate chemical concentrations.

  18. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Arnold, Doug L; Gilbert, Mary E; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  19. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  20. Electromyogram power spectrum and features of the superimposed maximal M-wave during voluntary isometric actions in humans at different activation levels.

    PubMed

    Linnamo, V; Strojnik, V; Komi, P V

    2001-11-01

    The frequency characteristics of the electromyogram (EMG) power spectrum, such as the median or the mean power frequency, as well as the duration of the muscle compound action potential response to a single supramaximal electrical stimulus (maximal M-wave) may both be related to the conduction velocity (CV) of the muscle fibre. To investigate this further, we studied in ten male subjects: the EMG of the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis and rectus femoris muscles during maximal isometric knee extensions at 40%, 60%, 80% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction and also the maximal M-wave, elicited by a single supramaximal stimulus to the femoral nerve, of the same muscles at rest or superimposed on the same levels of voluntary contraction. The EMG was recorded during the constant force phase of the voluntary contractions, the duration of which was 2.5-4 s, with a 1.5 min pause between contractions. The average EMG (aEMG) and the median frequency (MF) were then calculated. The results indicated that as aEMG increased with increase in force, MF remained unchanged. However, while the amplitude of the M-wave was not affected, the duration of the M-wave was shorter as the force level increased. The duration of the M-wave may be affected by recruitment of faster motor units, by increased firing rate of the active units and by changes in the muscle fibre length. The shorter duration of the M-wave observed at higher force levels was not, however, accompanied by a corresponding increase in MF. The MF could not therefore be used as a parameter to reflect the changes in voluntary muscle activation and CV. When MF was calculated by overlapping the fast Fourier transform (FFT) windows (0.4 s long window moved data point by data point to the right) for 1 s periods of the isometric plateau phase at each force level, the difference between the lowest and the highest MF was quite substantial. These variations suggest that FFT window placement, i.e. which part of the signal is

  1. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 1: Regulatory updates, performance assessment, understanding remedial action efforts

    SciTech Connect

    1989-11-01

    Eighteen papers are presented in this volume. The section on regulatory updates present papers on EPA, NRC, and DOE regulations. The performance assessment section presents studies on disposal facilities at ORNL, Hanford, and the Feed Materials Production Center. The remedial action section papers discuss programs and remedial action activities. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  2. Stress analysis at the interface between Ni-P coating and SiC p/Al substrate of space mirror

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shaowen; Li, Libo; Zhang, Guangyu; Wang, Wuyi; Zhao, Xuezeng

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates the mechanical properties at the interface of the coating-substrate system, which comprises the electroless nickel-phosphorus (Ni-P) coating and the aluminum matrix composite substrate reinforced by the silicon carbide particles (SiC p/Al), and is used for the space mirror. To estimate the adhesion of Ni-P coating on SiC p/Al substrate, the scratch adhesion testing has been performed by drawing a spherically tipped diamond indenter with a radius of 200 μm over the coated surface. The influence of the coating thickness on the interfacial stress induced by the inertial accelerations, temperature gradients and thermal soaks has been evaluated by simulation analysis based on the finite element method. The results of the scratch testing indicate that the adhesion strength of Ni-P coating to SiC p/Al composite is more than 3.0 GPa. Compared the maximum value of the interfacial stress obtained by simulation analysis with results of the scratch testing, it is can be seen that the mirror has enough safety margin. Furthermore, the most significant conclusion that can be drawn from this work is that the coating thickness should not exceed 45 μm in order to ensure the performance and reliability of Ni-P coating and SiC p/Al substrate system for space applications.

  3. "Do You Have a Brother? I Have Two!": The Nature of Questions Asked and Answered in Text-Focused Pen Pal Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Evering, Lea; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Authentic learning experiences are those in which students engage with texts as well as the behaviors of reading and writing within contexts of real-world use beyond traditional academic use. This study provides quantitative analysis of how students (n = 200) engaged with an adult pen pal in a shared literacy experience. Findings indicate that…

  4. Measuring Early Spanish Literacy: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…

  5. Remedial Help in Inclusive Classrooms: Gender Differences in the Enhancement of Mathematics Achievement of Students through PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidoa, Mabel A.; Eskay, Michael; Onwubolu, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the effect of PAL (peer-assisted learning) on students' mathematics performance in Enugu State of Nigeria. It used pre-test and post-test non-randomized control group design. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population was SS II (senior secondary school class II)…

  6. Effects of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants, controlling biosynthesis of a variety of structural and defense compounds including monolignols that polymerize into lignin. Gaps remain in our understanding of how genetic alterations to this pathwa...

  7. Computer simulations of the experiments at RAL, LULI, and PALS carried out under HiPER including those performed at ILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yong-Joo

    2011-06-01

    Comparison of computer simulations applied to the experiments at RAL(UK), LULI(France), PALS(Czech Republic), and ILE(Japan) is given. Temporal evolution of densities, electron temperatures, compression/implosion velocities, are discussed using one dimensional hydrodynamic code (HYADES).

  8. "Did You Like Living in a Trailer? Why or Why Not?": Discourse and the Third Space in a Rural Pen Pal Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppley, Karen; Shannon, Patrick; Gilbert, Lauren K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes efforts in a U.S. teacher education program to raise the teacher candidates' awareness of how place impacts schooling. The preservice teachers and second graders exchanged pen pal letters based on books set in contemporary rural America. The teacher candidates enacted four major discourses in the correspondence: personal,…

  9. Use of the reciprocal calculation procedure for setting workplace emergency action levels for hydrocarbon mixtures and their relationship to lower explosive limits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ron

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning

  10. PALS and DSC measurements in 8 MeV electron irradiated natural rubber filled with different fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arunava; Pan, Sandip; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Sengupta, Asmita

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high energy electron irradiation on the microstructure and thermal properties of natural rubber (NR) filled with different fillers at different concentrations are studied. The samples are irradiated with 8 MeV electron beam to a total dose of 100 KGy. The change in free volume size and specific heat due to addition of fillers and irradiation are studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The Positron lifetime spectra are de-convoluted into two components. The longer lived component (τo-Ps) signifies the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) at free volume site which may be related to the radius of the free volume holes. It is observed that the specific heat (Cp) and free volume size are all affected by both irradiation and addition of fillers.

  11. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247

  12. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  13. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  14. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  15. Therapeutic Action of Fluoxetine is Associated with a Reduction in Prefrontal Cortical miR-1971 Expression Levels in a Mouse Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Herrmann, Leonie; Hagl, Kathrin; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Buell, Dominik R.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as epigenetic modulators of gene expression in psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia and major depression. So far, miRNAs have neither been studied in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nor in PTSD animal models. Here, we present the first study exploring the connection between miRNAs and PTSD. Employing our previously established PTSD mouse model, we assessed miRNA profiles in prefrontal cortices (PFCs) dissected from either fluoxetine or control-treated wildtype C57BL/6N mice 74 days after their subjection to either a single traumatic electric footshock or mock-treatment. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant known to be effective both in PTSD patients and in mice suffering from a PTSD-like syndrome. Screening for differences in the relative expression levels of all potential miRNA target sequences of miRBase 18.0 by pairwise comparison of the PFC miRNA profiles of the four mouse groups mentioned resulted in identification of five miRNA candidate molecules. Validation of these miRNA candidates by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in shocked mice is associated with a significant reduction in mmu-miR-1971 expression. Furthermore, our findings suggest that traumatic stress and fluoxetine interact to cause distinct alterations in the mouse PFC miRNA signature in the long-term. PMID:23847554

  16. Development of linear and threshold no significant risk levels for inhalation exposure to titanium dioxide using systematic review and mode of action considerations.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Chad M; Suh, Mina; Mittal, Liz; Wikoff, Daniele S; Welsh, Brian; Proctor, Deborah M

    2016-10-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been characterized as a poorly soluble particulate (PSP) with low toxicity. It is well accepted that low toxicity PSPs such as TiO2 induce lung tumors in rats when deposition overwhelms particle clearance mechanisms. Despite the sensitivity of rats to PSPs and questionable relevance of PSP-induced tumors to humans, TiO2 is listed as a possible human carcinogen by some agencies and regulators. Thus, environmental toxicity criteria for TiO2 are needed for stakeholders to evaluate potential risks from environmental exposure and regulatory compliance. A systematic review of the literature was conducted to characterize the available data and identify candidate datasets upon which toxicity values could be derived. Key to this assessment, a survey of mechanistic data relevant for lung cancer was used to support quantitative inhalation risk assessment approaches. A total of 473 human studies were identified, 7 of which were epidemiological studies that met inclusion criteria to quantitatively characterize carcinogenic endpoints in humans. None of these studies supported derivation of toxicity criteria; therefore, animal data were used to derived safety values for TiO2 using different dose-metrics (regional deposited dose ratios, TiO2 particle surface area lung burden, and volumetric overload of alveolar macrophages), benchmark dose modeling, and different low-dose extrapolation approaches. Based on empirical evidence and mechanistic support for nonlinear mode of action involving particle overload, chronic inflammation and cell proliferation, a no significant risk level (NSRL) of 300 μg/day was derived. By comparison, low-dose linear extrapolation from tumor incidence in the rat lung resulted in an NSRL value of 44 μg/day. These toxicity values should be useful for stakeholders interested in assessing risks from environmental exposure to respirable TiO2.

  17. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  18. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  19. Structure of Crumbs tail in complex with the PALS1 PDZ–SH3–GK tandem reveals a highly specific assembly mechanism for the apical Crumbs complex

    PubMed Central

    Li, Youjun; Wei, Zhiyi; Yan, Yan; Wan, Qingwen; Du, Quansheng; Zhang, Mingjie

    2014-01-01

    The Crumbs (Crb) complex, formed by Crb, PALS1, and PATJ, is evolutionarily conserved in metazoans and acts as a master cell-growth and -polarity regulator at the apical membranes in polarized epithelia. Crb intracellular functions, including its direct binding to PALS1, are mediated by Crb’s highly conserved 37-residue cytoplasmic tail. However, the mechanistic basis governing the highly specific Crb–PALS1 complex formation is unclear, as reported interaction between the Crb tail (Crb-CT) and PALS1 PSD-95/DLG/ZO-1 (PDZ) domain is weak and promiscuous. Here we have discovered that the PDZ–Src homolgy 3 (SH3)–Guanylate kinase (GK) tandem of PALS1 binds to Crb-CT with a dissociation constant of 70 nM, which is ∼100-fold stronger than the PALS1 PDZ–Crb-CT interaction. The crystal structure of the PALS1 PDZ–SH3–GK–Crb-CT complex reveals that PDZ–SH3–GK forms a structural supramodule with all three domains contributing to the tight binding to Crb. Mutations disrupting the tertiary interactions of the PDZ–SH3–GK supramodule weaken the PALS1–Crb interaction and compromise PALS1-mediated polarity establishment in Madin–Darby canine kidney (MDCK) cysts. We further show that specific target binding of other members of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs) (e.g., CASK binding to neurexin) also requires the presence of their PDZ–SH3–GK tandems. PMID:25385611

  20. Item-Level Psychometrics and Predictors of Performance for Spanish/English Bilingual Speakers on "An Object and Action Naming Battery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…

  1. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  2. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses.

  3. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses.

  4. The Paired Associates Learning (PAL) Test: 30 Years of CANTAB Translational Neuroscience from Laboratory to Bedside in Dementia Research.

    PubMed

    Barnett, Jennifer H; Blackwell, Andrew D; Sahakian, Barbara J; Robbins, Trevor W

    2016-01-01

    The origins and rationale of the Cambridge Neuropsychological Test Automated Battery (CANTAB) as a cross-species translational instrument suitable for use in human neuropsychopharmacological studies are reviewed. We focus on its use for the early assessment and detection of Alzheimer's disease, in particular the Paired Associates Learning (PAL) test. We consider its psychometric properties, neural validation, and utility, including studies on large samples of healthy volunteers, patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and Alzheimer's disease. We demonstrate how it can be applied in cross-species studies using experimental animals to bridge the cross-species translational 'gap'. We also show how the CANTAB PAL has bridged a second translational 'gap' through its application to the early detection of memory problems in primary care clinics, using iPad technology. PMID:27646012

  5. A Paradigm of Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hungerford, Harold R.; Peyton, R. Ben

    A paradigm is proposed that would permit curriculum developers and others to specifically plan for training in environmental action as an integral and substantial component in this field. The three-part paradigm identifies and defines specific categories of action. It then identifies and illustrates the levels at which these actions can be taken.…

  6. Validity of GT3X and Actiheart to estimate sedentary time and breaks using ActivPAL as the reference in free-living conditions.

    PubMed

    Júdice, Pedro B; Santos, Diana A; Hamilton, Marc T; Sardinha, Luís B; Silva, Analiza M

    2015-05-01

    Sedentary time, specifically sitting/reclining, is a risk factor for many non-communicable diseases and premature mortality. Inclinometers have been used as a valid measurement of sedentary time and its patterns; however, there is a lack of information regarding the validity of alternative accelerometry and heart rate methods. The validity of GT3X and Actiheart in estimating changes in daily sedentary time and breaks, during free-living settings, using ActivPAL as the reference was examined. A crossover randomized control trial of an intervention that aimed to reduce ∼3 h/day of sitting time included 10 overweight/obese adults (37-65 years). Participants had a total of 74 valid days for the three devices (29 controls; 45 interventions). For ActivPAL, sedentary time was measured directly based upon posture (sitting/reclining); Actiheart, the presumed MET cutpoint for sedentary time (<1.5 METs) based on accelerometry+heart rate; GT3X, the traditional <100countsmin(-1). A break in sedentary time was defined as when the participants were above the aforementioned cutoffs. GT3X overestimated and Actiheart underestimated sedentary time (bias=135min; bias=-156min, respectively) and both methods overestimated breaks in sedentary time (bias=78; bias=235 breaks, respectively). The GT3X method was in better agreement with the ActivPAL sedentary time (r2=0.70; concordance correlation coefficient (CCC)=0.56) than the Actiheart (r2=0.24; CCC=0.31). The present results highlight the magnitude of potential errors in estimating sedentary time and breaks from common alternative methods other than ActivPAL. Because misclassification errors from the commonly used surrogates are potentially large, this raises concern that alternative methods used in many epidemiological observations may have underestimated the true effects caused by too much sitting (ClinicalTrials.govID:NCT02007681).

  7. Antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the low-basicity derivative of the pyridoindole stobadine, in cell free chemical models and at cellular level.

    PubMed

    Balcerczyk, Aneta; Bartosz, Grzegorz; Drzewinska, Joanna; Piotrowski, Łukasz; Pulaski, Łukasz; Stefek, Milan

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the antioxidant action of SMe1EC2, the structural analogue of the hexahydropyridoindole antioxidant stobadine. The antiradical activity of SMe1EC2 was found to be higher when compared to stobadine, as determined both in cell-free model systems of AAPH-induced oxidation of dihydrorhodamine 123 and 2',7'-dichloro-dihydrofluorescein diacetate, and in the cellular system of stimulated macrophages RAW264.7. Analysis of proliferation of HUVEC and HUVEC-ST cells revealed absence of cytotoxic effect of SMe1EC2 at concentrations below 100 µM. The antioxidant activity of SMe1EC2, superior to the parent drug stobadine, is accounted for by both the higher intrinsic free radical scavenging action and by the better bioavailability of the low-basicity SMe1EC2 relative to the high-basicity stobadine.

  8. Action of an electromagnetic pulse on a plasma with a high level of ion-acoustic turbulence. Field diffusion and subdiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, K. N.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-09-15

    Specific features of the interaction of a relatively weak electromagnetic pulse with a nonisothermal current-carrying plasma in which the electron drift velocity is much higher than the ion-acoustic velocity, but lower than the electron thermal velocity, are studied. If the state of the plasma with ion-acoustic turbulence does not change during the pulse action, the field penetrates into the plasma in the ordinary diffusion regime, but the diffusion coefficient in this case is inversely proportional to the anomalous conductivity. If, during the pulse action, the particle temperatures and the current-driving field change due to turbulent heating, the field penetrates into the plasma in the subdiffusion regime. It is shown how the presence of subdiffusion can be detected by measuring the reflected field.

  9. Separating Hazardous Aerosols from Ambient Aerosols: Role of Fluorescence-Spectral Determination, Aerodynamic Deflector and Pulse Aerodynamic Localizer (PAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yong-Le; Cobler, Patrick J.; Rhodes, Scott A.; Halverson, Justin; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-08-22

    An aerosol deflection technique based on the single-shot UV-laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from a flowing particle is presented as a possible front-end bio-aerosol/hazardous-aerosol sensor/identifier. Cued by the fluorescence spectra, individual flowing bio-aerosol particles (1-10 {micro}m in diameter) have been successfully deflected from a stream of ambient aerosols. The electronics needed to compare the fluorescence spectrum of a particular particle with that of a pre-determined fluorescence spectrum are presented in some detail. The deflected particles, with and without going through a funnel for pulse aerodynamic localization (PAL), were collected onto a substrate for further analyses. To demonstrate how hazardous materials can be deflected, TbCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O (a simulant material for some chemical forms of Uranium Oxide) aerosol particles (2 {micro}m in diameter) mixed with Arizona road dust was separated and deflected with our system.

  10. QUIRKY interacts with STRUBBELIG and PAL OF QUIRKY to regulate cell growth anisotropy during Arabidopsis gynoecium development.

    PubMed

    Trehin, Christophe; Schrempp, Sandra; Chauvet, Aurélie; Berne-Dedieu, Annick; Thierry, Anne-Marie; Faure, Jean-Emmanuel; Negrutiu, Ioan; Morel, Patrice

    2013-12-01

    Organ morphogenesis largely relies on cell division and elongation, which need to be both coordinated between cells and orchestrated with cytoskeleton dynamics. However, components that bridge the biological signals and the effectors that define cell shape remain poorly described. We have addressed this issue through the functional characterisation of QUIRKY (QKY), previously isolated as being involved in the STRUBBELIG (SUB) genetic pathway that controls cell-cell communication and organ morphogenesis in Arabidopsis. QKY encodes a protein containing multiple C2 domains and transmembrane regions, and SUB encodes an atypical LRR-receptor-like kinase. We show that twisting of the gynoecium observed in qky results from the abnormal division pattern and anisotropic growth of clustered cells arranged sporadically along the gynoecium. Moreover, the cortical microtubule (CMT) network of these cells is disorganised. A cross to botero, a katanin mutant in which the normal orientation of CMTs and anisotropic cell expansion are impaired, strongly reduces silique deviation, reinforcing the hypothesis of a role for QKY in CMT-mediated cell growth anisotropy. We also show that QKY is localised at the plasma membrane and functions in a multiprotein complex that includes SUB and PAL OF QUIRKY (POQ), a previously uncharacterised PB1-domain-containing protein that localises both at the plasma membrane and in intracellular compartments. Our data indicate that QKY and its interactors play central roles linking together cell-cell communication and cellular growth.

  11. Polycystin-2 activity is controlled by transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif and PALS1-associated tight junction protein.

    PubMed

    Duning, Kerstin; Rosenbusch, Deike; Schlüter, Marc A; Tian, Yuemin; Kunzelmann, Karl; Meyer, Nina; Schulze, Ulf; Markoff, Arseni; Pavenstädt, Hermann; Weide, Thomas

    2010-10-29

    Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) is the most frequent monogenic cause of kidney failure, characterized by the development of renal cysts. ADPKD is caused by mutations of the polycystin-1 (PC1) or polycystin-2 (PC2) genes. PC2 encodes a Ca(2+)-permeable cation channel, and its dysfunction has been implicated in cyst development. The transcriptional coactivator with PDZ binding motif (TAZ) is required for the integrity of renal cilia. Its absence results in the development of renal cysts in a knock-out mouse model. TAZ directly interacts with PC2, and it has been suggested that another yet unidentified PDZ domain protein may be involved in the TAZ/PC2 interaction. Here we describe a novel interaction of TAZ with the multi-PDZ-containing PALS1-associated tight junction protein (PATJ). TAZ interacts with both the N-terminal PDZ domains 1-3 and the C-terminal PDZ domains 8-10 of PATJ, suggesting two distinct TAZ binding domains. We also show that the C terminus of PC2 strongly interacts with PDZ domains 8-10 and to a weaker extent with PDZ domains 1-3 of PATJ. Finally, we demonstrate that both TAZ and PATJ impair PC2 channel activity when co-expressed with PC2 in oocytes of Xenopus laevis. These results implicate TAZ and PATJ as novel regulatory elements of the PC2 channel and might thus be involved in ADPKD pathology.

  12. High-power test of a new Bethe-hole directional coupler for the PAL XFEL S-band linac RF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Park, Yongjung; Heo, Hoon; Hu, Jinyul; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Hwang, Woonha; Moon, Gun-Young; Lee, Sosung; Lee, Heung-Soo; Noh, Sungju; Oh, Kyoungmin

    2013-11-01

    The directional coupler to be used in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray free electron laser (PAL XFEL) under construction since 2011 must satisfy the conditions for operating at a peak power of 400 MW and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. In these operational conditions of the PAL XFEL, the old Bethe-hole directional coupler that was originally designed to be used in the Pohang Light Source linac is more likely to inflict damages on the ceramic window that cause vacuum leaks. Therefore, for the new Bethe-hole directional coupler, the original design has been modified to use a conventional N-type RF vacuum feedthrough for vacuum sealing instead of the ceramic window. The new Bethe-hole directional coupler is designed by using a finite-difference time-domain simulation. We have fabricated a prototype, and the result of a high-power test indicates that the RF performance of the new DC satisfies the specifications of the PAL XFEL S-band Linac RF system.

  13. High-power test of the new 3-dB power splitter for the PAL XFEL S-band LINAC RF system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joo, Youngdo; Park, Yongjung; Heo, Hoon; Hu, Jinyul; Park, Sung-Soo; Kim, Sang-Hee; Hwang, Woonha; Moon, Gun-Young; Lee, Sosung; Lee, Heung-Soo; Noh, Sungju; Oh, Kyoungmin

    2014-04-01

    The 3-dB power splitter to be used in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ay Free-electron Laser (PAL XFEL), which have been under construction since 2011, must operate at a peak power of 400 MW and a repetition rate of 120 Hz. For these operational conditions of the PAL XFEL, the old 3-dB power splitter that was originally designed to be used in the PLS LINAC will most suffer from RF breakdown. Therefore, for the new 3-dB power splitter, the original design has been modified to reduce the field gradient and the surface current. The new 3-dB power splitter is designed by using a finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulation. We have fabricated a prototype, and the result of a high-power test indicates that the RF performance of the new 3-dB power splitter satisfies the specifications of the PAL XFEL S-band LINAC RF system.

  14. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  15. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  16. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  17. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  18. Non-invasive brain stimulation (rTMS and tDCS) in patients with aphasia: mode of action at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Málly, Judit

    2013-09-01

    A high proportion of patients who have suffered a stroke also suffer from aphasia. Approximately half of those affected will remain in this state despite intensive language therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation allows us to directly and focally stimulate areas of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), methods used in the treatment of aphasia, are based on an imbalance of mutual interhemispheric inhibition. In open and sham-controlled studies, a low-frequency, 1Hz stimulation of the non-lesioned hemisphere (the homologue of Broca's area) for a week or more significantly improved spontaneous speech and anomia in patients with non-fluent aphasia. These positive outcomes from rTMS stimulation developed slowly, often over months following treatment, and persisted. Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) developed faster than the low-frequency stimulation, and high-activity enhancement was detected in the left hemisphere after the stimulation of Broca's region. Both types of tDCS stimulation resulted in improved comprehension and reduced anomia, their primary modes of action are distinct, however, both share a common site of action with regard to the balance that occurs between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters (synaptic and non-synaptic). Both types of non-invasive stimulation prepare the lesioned brain for better outcome. PMID:23872450

  19. The shape of action.

    PubMed

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-11-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of the joint time courses of these variables showed that looking time and physical change were locally maximal at breakpoints and greater for higher level action units than for lower level units. Even when slideshows were scrambled, breakpoints were regarded longer and were more physically different from ordinary moments, showing that breakpoints are distinct even out of context. Breakpoints are bridges: from one action to another, from one level to another, and from perception to conception.

  20. Let’s be pals again: major systematic changes in Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Charles H.J.M.; Page, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the systematic position of genera in the shrimp families Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae has been under debate, with phylogenetic studies suggesting the families are not real family level units. Here, we review the molecular evidence as well as the morphological characters used to distinguish both families, leading to the conclusion that neither family is valid. Further, we studied the structural details of the single morphological character which distinguishes the two subfamilies (Palaemoninae, Pontoniinae) in Palaemonidae, as well as their phylogenetic relationship. As the supposed character distinction plainly does not hold true and supported by the phylogenetic results, the recognition of subfamilies in Palaemonidae is not warranted. As a consequence, all three supra-generic taxa (Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, Pontoniinae) are thus herein formally synonymised with Palaemonidae. PMID:26339545

  1. Application of ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry-based metabonomic techniques to analyze the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of organophosphate pesticides on rat urine profile.

    PubMed

    Du, Longfei; Wang, Hong; Xu, Wei; Zeng, Yan; Hou, Yurong; Zhang, Yuqiu; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2013-07-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) to rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect level (NOAEL). Results show that a single pesticide elicits no toxic response. This study aimed to determine whether chronic exposure to a mixture of the above four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAEL) can lead to joint toxic action in rats using the same technology. Pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The above mixture of the four pesticides showed joint toxic action at the NOAEL of each pesticide. The metabonomic profiles of rats urine were analyzed by ultraperformance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. The 16 metabolites statistically significantly changed in all treated groups compared with the control group. Dimethylphosphate and dimethyldithiophosphate exclusively detected in all treated groups can be used as early, sensitive biomarkers for exposure to a mixture of the OP pesticides. Moreover, exposure to the OP pesticides resulted in increased 7-methylguanine, ribothymidine, cholic acid, 4-pyridoxic acid, kynurenine, and indoxyl sulfate levels, as well as decreased hippuric acid, creatinine, uric acid, gentisic acid, C18-dihydrosphingosine, phytosphingosine, suberic acid, and citric acid. The results indicated that a mixture of OP pesticides induced DNA damage and oxidative stress, disturbed the metabolism of lipids, and interfered with the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Ensuring food safety requires not only the toxicology test data of each pesticide for the calculation of the acceptable daily intake but also the joint toxic action.

  2. Controlling the level of the sonic boom generated by a flying vehicle by means of cryogenic forcing. 3. Physical justification of the cryogenic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Volkov, V. F.; Kharitonov, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    The influence of the basic factors of cryogenic forcing on formation of the middle zone on the sonic boom and aerodynamic characteristics of the flying vehicle is studied by experimental and numerical methods. Experimental data obtained with alcohol or liquid nitrogen as an injected liquid are used for comparisons; as a result, the total effect of temperature and coolant evaporation can be determined. The influence of temperature is studied by means of numerical simulations of the cryogenic action of distributed injection of air. A comparison of numerical and experimental data reveals the effect of the coolant evaporation process on perturbed flow formation. It is demonstrated that evaporation of the coolant outgoing onto the vehicle surface should be intensified to increase the efficiency of cryogenic forcing (to decrease the coolant flow rate).

  3. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  4. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  5. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  6. Neurolepticlike actions of l-methadone: effect on mescaline-induced altered behavior and on tissue levels of mescaline in mice.

    PubMed

    Shah, N S; Hudnall, S D; May, D; Eargle, D; Yates, J

    1979-08-01

    Mice were injected ip with either saline, l-methadone (2.5, 5, 20 mg/kg), perphenazine (1, 10, 15 mg/kg), or chlorprothixene (1.25, 2.5, 15 mg/kg) 30 min prior to mescaline-14C (25 mg/kg). Mescaline-induced behavioral changes such as agitation, excitement, slight increase in ventilation, and fright to sound stimuli were prevented by all doses of three drugs, and head-shaking, scratching, and locomotor-increasing effects by 5 and 20 mg/kg methadone and by all doses of both neuroleptics. Catalepticlike state and moderate to marked hypothermia induced by all doses of chlorprothixene, 10 and 15 mg/kg perphenazine, and 20 mg/kg methadone were not reversed by mescaline. Chlorprothixene (all doses), perphenazine (10, 15 mg/kg), and methadone (5, 20 mg/kg) caused marked retention of mescaline and its deaminated metabolite, 3, 4, 5-trimethoxyphenyl acetic acid in both brain and plasma. The fact that relatively higher doses of methadone than neuroleptics are needed to ensure effective antagonism to mescaline action tends to indicate a less specific interaction of the opiate with the neuroleptic/dopamine receptor proposed for central mescaline effects.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  8. Student Perceptions of Science Teacher Actions in Two Culturally Diverse Middle-Level Science Classrooms: A Case Study in the American Deep South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, J. Randy

    The purpose of this study was to give voice to students' perceptions in two science classrooms taught by two white teachers in an urban multicultural middle-level school situated in the American Deep South. Student participants were 35 students of different ethnicities in grades 7 and 8. The theoretical reference used is social contextual, a…

  9. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  10. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  11. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  12. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  13. Free volume in ionic liquids: a connection of experimentally accessible observables from PALS and PVT experiments with the molecular structure from XRD data.

    PubMed

    Beichel, Witali; Yu, Yang; Dlubek, Günter; Krause-Rehberg, Reinhard; Pionteck, Jürgen; Pfefferkorn, Dirk; Bulut, Safak; Bejan, Dana; Friedrich, Christian; Krossing, Ingo

    2013-06-14

    In the current work, free volume concepts, primarily applied to glass formers in the literature, were transferred to ionic liquids (ILs). A series of 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium ([C4MIM](+)) based ILs was investigated by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The phase transition and dynamic properties of the ILs [C4MIM][X] with [X](-) = [Cl](-), [BF4](-), [PF6](-), [OTf](-), [NTf2](-) and [B(hfip)4](-) were reported recently (Yu et al., Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 2012, 14, 6856-6868). In this subsequent work, attention was paid to the connection of the free volume from PALS (here the mean hole volume, ) with the molecular structure, represented by volumes derived from X-ray diffraction (XRD) data. These were the scaled molecular volume Vm,scaled and the van der Waals volume V(vdw). Linear correlations of at the "knee" temperature ((T(k))) with V(m,scaled) and V(vdw) gave good results for the [C4MIM](+) series. Further relationships between volumes from XRD data with the occupied volume Vocc determined from PALS/PVT (Pressure Volume Temperature) measurements and from Sanchez-Lacombe Equation of State (SL-EOS) fits were elaborated (V(occ)(SL-EOS) ≈ 1.63 V(vdw), R(2) = 0.981 and V(occ)(SL-EOS) ≈ 1.12 V(m,scaled), R(2) = 0.980). Finally, the usability of V(m,scaled) was justified in terms of the Cohen-Turnbull (CT) free volume theory. Empirical CT type plots of viscosity and electrical conductivity showed a systematic increase in the critical free volume with molecular size. Such correlations allow descriptions of IL properties with the easily accessible quantity V(m,scaled) within the context of the free volume.

  14. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Moeis, Maelita R. Berlian, Liska Suhandono, Sony Prima, Alex Komalawati, Eli Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-24

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation {sup 325}RLDRD{sup 329} and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  15. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeis, Maelita R.; Berlian, Liska; Suhandono, Sony; Prima, Alex; Komalawati, Eli; Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation 325RLDRD329 and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  16. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  17. PALS (Passive Active L-band System) Radiometer-Based Soil Moisture Retrieval for the SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Bindlish, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Chazanoff, S. L.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Powers, J.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in early January 2015. For pre-launch soil moisture algorithm development and validation, the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June 7-July 19, 2012. Coincident active and passive airborne L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) on 17 days during the experiment. Simultaneously with the PALS measurements, soil moisture ground truth data were collected manually. The vegetation and surface roughness were sampled on non-flight days. The SMAP mission will produce surface (top 5 cm) soil moisture products a) using a combination of its L-band radiometer and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements, b) using the radiometer measurement only, and c) using the SAR measurements only. The SMAPVEX12 data are being utilized for the development and testing of the algorithms applied for generating these soil moisture products. This talk will focus on presenting results of retrieving surface soil moisture using the PALS radiometer. The issues that this retrieval faces are very similar to those faced by the global algorithm using the SMAP radiometer. However, the different spatial resolution of the two observations has to be accounted for in the analysis. The PALS 3 dB footprint in the experiment was on the order of 1 km, whereas the SMAP radiometer has a footprint of about 40 km. In this talk forward modeled brightness temperature over the manually sampled fields and the retrieved soil moisture over the entire experiment domain are presented and discussed. In order to provide a retrieval product similar to that of the SMAP passive algorithm, various ancillary information had to be obtained for the SMAPVEX12 domain. In many cases there are multiple options on how to choose and reprocess these data

  18. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  19. D-sorbose inhibits disaccharidase activity and demonstrates suppressive action on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin in the rat.

    PubMed

    Oku, Tsuneyuki; Murata-Takenoshita, Yoko; Yamazaki, Yuko; Shimura, Fumio; Nakamura, Sadako

    2014-11-01

    In an attempt to develop D-sorbose as a new sweetener that could help in preventing lifestyle-related diseases, we investigated the inhibitory effect of D-sorbose on disaccharidase activity, using the brush border membrane vesicles of rat small intestines. The inhibitory effect was compared with that of L-sorbose and other rare sugars, and the small intestinal disaccharidases in rats was compared with that of humans as well. In humans and the small intestines of rats, d-sorbose strongly inhibited sucrase activity and weakly inhibited maltase activity. Inhibition by D-sorbose of sucrase activity was similar to that of L-arabinose, and the K(i) of D-sorbose was 7.5 mM. Inhibition by D-sorbose was very strong in comparison with that of L-sorbose (K(i), 60.8 mM), whereas inhibition of d-tagatose was between that of D-sorbose and L-sorbose. The inhibitory mode of D-sorbose for sucrose and maltase was uncompetitive, and that of L-sorbose was competitive. To determine a suppressive effect on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin via inhibition of sucrase activity, sucrose solution with or without D-sorbose was administered to rats. Increments in the blood levels of glucose and insulin were suppressed significantly after administration of sucrose solution with D-sorbose to rats, in comparison to administration of sucrose solution without D-sorbose. In contrast, the suppressive effect of L-sorbose on postprandial blood levels of glucose and insulin was very weak. These results suggest that D-sorbose may have an inhibitory effect on disaccharidase activity and could be used as a sweetener to suppress the postprandial elevation of blood levels of glucose and insulin. The use of D-sorbose as a sweetener may contribute to the prevention of lifestyle-related diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.

  20. Effect of curing agent polarity on water absorption and free volume in epoxy resin studied by PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junjun; Gong, Jing; Gong, Zhenli; Yan, Xiaoli; Wang, Bo; Wu, Qili; Li, Shanjun

    2010-07-01

    Microstructure and water absorption were systematically studied by positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS), gravimetric measurements and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) for epoxy resins DER331 (E51) cured with three different kinds of amine curing agents DDS, DDM and MOCA. Experimental results indicated that the water absorption as a function of immersed time could be well fitted to Fick's second law. Based on the gravimetric measurement, we found that the equilibrium water sorption M∞ and the diffusion coefficients D of the epoxy resins have an order: E51-DDS > E51-DDM > E51-MOCA, which indicated that the curing agent plays an important role in determining the content of the water absorbed. Positron experimental results showed that the o-Ps lifetime dramatically decreased with the immersed time from 0 to 6 h, which suggested that water molecules were filled into free-volume holes and the interaction between the water-polymer decreased the mobility of molecular chains. In order to deeply discern the influence of water absorption upon the free volume, the continuous lifetime analysis, i.e. the maximum entropy lifetime method (MELT) was employed to obtain the distributions of the ortho-positronium (o-Ps) lifetime and the of the free-volume holes. From MELT analyses, we found the existences of two the long-lived components ( τ3 and τ4), which indicated that two kinds of different o-Ps states exist. The shorter long-lived component ( τ3) is related to the segmental packing density in local ordered region. Compared to dry sample, two peaks of the o-Ps lifetime and the free-volume hole in the wet samples all drift to low values, especially, this drifts is more marked for the water sorption occurring at higher temperature 75 °C. This fact suggested that when the epoxy resin is in the glassy state, the interaction between the water and matrix restricts the motion of segmental chains and prevents from the free-volume hole swelling.

  1. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  2. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  3. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.

  4. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants.

  5. Dynamic changes in catechin levels and catechin biosynthesis-related gene expression in albino tea plants (Camellia sinensis L.).

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ligui; Li, Juan; Li, Yinhua; Yuan, Ling; Liu, Shuoqian; Huang, Jian'an; Liu, Zhonghua

    2013-10-01

    Tea (Camellia sinensis (L.) O. Kuntze) leaves are a major source of flavonoids that mainly belong to the flavan-3-ols or catechins and are implicated in a wide range of health benefits. Although the catechins in tea leaves were identified long ago, the regulatory mechanisms governing catechin biosynthesis remain unclear. In the present work, the dynamic changes of catechin levels and the expression profiles of catechin-related genes in albino tea plants were intensively examined. The amounts of most catechins decreased to their lowest levels in the albino phase, when epigallocatechingallate was the highest of the catechins compared to all catechins, and catechin the lowest. Enzyme assays indicated that phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) activity was positively correlated with the concentration of catechins (r = 0.673). Gene expression profiling by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction showed that the transcript abundance of flavonoid biosynthetic genes followed a tightly regulated biphasic pattern, and was affected by albinism. These genes (PAL, C4H, 4CL, CHS, CHI, F3H, FLS, F3'H, F3'5'H, DFR, LAR, ANS and ANR) encode enzymes in flavonoid biosynthesis. The expression levels of PAL, F3H and FLS were correlated with the concentration of catechins and the correlation coefficients were -0.683, 0.687 and -0.602, respectively. Therefore, these results indicate that PAL might be a core regulator in the control of catechin biosynthesis in albino tea plants. PMID:23911731

  6. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  7. Effective learning techniques for military applications using the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) enhanced Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMonica, Peter; Dziegiel, Roger; Liuzzi, Raymond; Hepler, James

    2009-05-01

    The Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) Program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort that is advancing technologies in the area of cognitive learning by developing cognitive assistants to support military users, such as commanders and decision makers. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Information Directorate leveraged several core PAL components and applied them to the Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS) so that users of this system can have automated features, such as task learning, intelligent clustering, and entity extraction. WebTAS is a modular software toolset that supports fusion of large amounts of disparate data sets, visualization, project organization and management, pattern analysis and activity prediction, and includes various presentation aids. WebTAS is predominantly used by analysts within the intelligence community and with the addition of these automated features, many transition opportunities exist for this integrated technology. Further, AFRL completed an extensive test and evaluation of this integrated software to determine its effectiveness for military applications in terms of timeliness and situation awareness, and these findings and conclusions, as well as future work, will be presented in this report.

  8. A novel design of dual-channel optical system of star-tracker based on non-blind area PAL system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yujie; Bai, Jian

    2016-07-01

    Star-tracker plays an important role in satellite navigation. Considering the satellites on near-Earth orbit, the system usually has two optical systems: one for observing the profile of Earth and the other for capturing the positions of stars. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel kind of dual-channel optical observation system of star-tracker with non-blind area PAL imaging system based on dichroic filter, which can combine both different observation channels into an integrated structure and realize the feature of miniaturization. According to the practical usage of star-tracker and the features of dichroic filter, we set the ultraviolet band as the PAL channel to observe the Earth with the FOV ranging from 40°-60°, and set the visible band as the front imaging channel to capture the stars far away from this system with the FOV ranging from 0°-20°. Consequently, the rays of both channels are converged on the same image plane, improving the efficiency of pixels of detector and reducing the weight and size of whole star-tracker system.

  9. Application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) to study the nanostructure in amphiphile self-assembly materials: phytantriol cubosomes and hexosomes.

    PubMed

    Dong, Aurelia W; Fong, Celesta; Waddington, Lynne J; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2015-01-21

    Self-assembled amphiphile nanostructures of colloidal dimensions such as cubosomes and hexosomes are of interest as delivery vectors in pharmaceutical and nanomedicine applications. Translation would be assisted through a better of understanding of the effects of drug loading on the internal nanostructure, and the relationship between this nanostructure and drug release profile. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) is sensitive to local microviscosity and is used as an in situ molecular probe to examine the Q2 (cubosome) → H2 (hexosome) → L2 phase transitions of the pharmaceutically relevant phytantriol-water system in the presence of a model hydrophobic drug, vitamin E acetate (VitEA). It is shown that the ortho-positronium lifetime (τ) is sensitive to molecular packing and mobility and this has been correlated with the rheological properties of individual lyotropic liquid crystalline mesophases. Characteristic PALS lifetimes for L2 (τ4∼ 4 ns) ∼ H2 (τ4∼ 4 ns) > Q(2 Pn3m) (τ4∼ 2.2 ns) are observed for the phytantriol-water system, with the addition of VitEA yielding a gradual increase in τ from τ∼ 2.2 ns for cubosomes to τ∼ 3.5 ns for hexosomes. The dynamic chain packing at higher temperatures and in the L2 and H2 phases is qualitatively less "viscous", consistent with rheological measurements. This information offers increased understanding of the relationship between internal nanostructure and species permeability.

  10. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  11. Activity and mechanism of action of HDVD, a novel pyrimidine nucleoside derivative with high levels of selectivity and potency against gammaherpesviruses.

    PubMed

    Coen, N; Singh, U; Vuyyuru, V; Van den Oord, J J; Balzarini, J; Duraffour, S; Snoeck, R; Cheng, Y C; Chu, C K; Andrei, G

    2013-04-01

    A novel nucleoside analogue, 1-[(2S,4S-2-(hydroxymethyl)-1,3-dioxolan-4-yl]5-vinylpyrimidine-2,4(1H,3H)-dione, or HDVD, was evaluated against a wide variety of herpesviruses and was found to be a highly selective inhibitor of replication of the gammaherpesviruses Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV). HDVD had also a pronounced inhibitory activity against murine herpesvirus 68 (MHV-68) and herpes simplex virus 1 (HSV-1). In contrast, replication of herpesvirus saimiri (HVS), HSV-2, and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) was weakly inhibited by the compound, and no antiviral activity was determined against human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) and rhesus rhadinovirus (RRV). The HDVD-resistant virus phenotype contained point mutations in the viral thymidine kinase (TK) of HSV-1, MHV-68, and HVS isolates. These mutations conferred cross-resistance to other TK-dependent drugs, with the exception of an MHV-68 mutant (E358D) that exhibited resistance only to HDVD. HSV-1 and HVS TK-mutants isolated under selective pressure with bromovinyldeoxyuridine (BVDU) also showed reduced sensitivity to HDVD. Oral treatment with HDVD and BVDU was assessed in an intranasal model of MHV-68 infection in BALB/c mice. In contrast to BVDU treatment, HDVD-treated animals showed a reduction in viral DNA loads and diminished viral gene expression during acute viral replication in the lungs in comparison to levels in untreated controls. The valyl ester prodrug of HDVD (USS-02-71-44) suppressed the latent infection in the spleen to a greater extent than HDVD. In the present study, HDVD emerged as a highly potent antiviral with a unique spectrum of activity against herpesviruses, in particular, gammaherpesviruses, and may be of interest in the treatment of virus-associated diseases.

  12. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    PubMed Central

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Material and Methods: This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Findings: The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (P< 0.05). Results: Education and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students. PMID:25767821

  13. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  14. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  15. Anticlockwise or clockwise? A dynamic Perception-Action-Laterality model for directionality bias in visuospatial functioning.

    PubMed

    Karim, A K M Rezaul; Proulx, Michael J; Likova, Lora T

    2016-09-01

    Orientation bias and directionality bias are two fundamental functional characteristics of the visual system. Reviewing the relevant literature in visual psychophysics and visual neuroscience we propose here a three-stage model of directionality bias in visuospatial functioning. We call this model the 'Perception-Action-Laterality' (PAL) hypothesis. We analyzed the research findings for a wide range of visuospatial tasks, showing that there are two major directionality trends in perceptual preference: clockwise versus anticlockwise. It appears these preferences are combinatorial, such that a majority of people fall in the first category demonstrating a preference for stimuli/objects arranged from left-to-right rather than from right-to-left, while people in the second category show an opposite trend. These perceptual biases can guide sensorimotor integration and action, creating two corresponding turner groups in the population. In support of PAL, we propose another model explaining the origins of the biases - how the neurogenetic factors and the cultural factors interact in a biased competition framework to determine the direction and extent of biases. This dynamic model can explain not only the two major categories of biases in terms of direction and strength, but also the unbiased, unreliably biased or mildly biased cases in visuosptial functioning. PMID:27350096

  16. Estimation of Physical Activity Levels Using Cell Phone Questionnaires: A Comparison With Accelerometry for Evaluation of Between-Subject and Within-Subject Variations

    PubMed Central

    Bexelius, Christin; Sandin, Sven; Trolle Lagerros, Ylva; Litton, Jan-Eric

    2011-01-01

    Background Physical activity promotes health and longevity. Further elaboration of the role of physical activity for human health in epidemiological studies on large samples requires accurate methods that are easy to use, cheap, and possible to repeat. The use of telecommunication technologies such as cell phones is highly interesting in this respect. In an earlier report, we showed that physical activity level (PAL) assessed using a cell phone procedure agreed well with corresponding estimates obtained using the doubly labeled water method. However, our earlier study indicated high within-subject variation in relation to between-subject variations in PAL using cell phones, but we could not assess if this was a true variation of PAL or an artifact of the cell phone technique. Objective Our objective was to compare within- and between-subject variations in PAL by means of cell phones with corresponding estimates using an accelerometer. In addition, we compared the agreement of daily PAL values obtained using the cell phone questionnaire with corresponding data obtained using an accelerometer. Methods PAL was measured both with the cell phone questionnaire and with a triaxial accelerometer daily during a 2-week study period in 21 healthy Swedish women (20 to 45 years of age and BMI from 17.7 kg/m2 to 33.6 kg/m2). The results were evaluated by fitting linear mixed effect models and descriptive statistics and graphs. Results With the accelerometer, 57% (95% confidence interval [CI] 40%-66%) of the variation was within subjects, while with the cell phone, within-subject variation was 76% (95% CI 59%-83%). The day-to-day variations in PAL observed using the cell phone questions agreed well with the corresponding accelerometer results. Conclusions Both the cell phone questionnaire and the accelerometer showed high within-subject variations. Furthermore, day-to-day variations in PAL within subjects assessed using the cell phone agreed well with corresponding accelerometer

  17. Year-round high physical activity levels in agropastoralists of Bolivian Andes: results from repeated measurements of DLW method in peak and slack seasons of agricultural activities.

    PubMed

    Kashiwazaki, Hiroshi; Uenishi, Kazuhiro; Kobayashi, Toshio; Rivera, Jose Orias; Coward, William A; Wright, Antony

    2009-01-01

    By the repeated use of the doubly labeled water method (DLW), this study aimed to investigate (1) the extent of changes in energy expenditure and physical activity level (PAL) in response to increased agricultural work demands, and (2) whether the seasonal work demands induce the changes in the fairly equitable division of work and similarity of energy needs between men and women observed in our previous study (Phase 1 study; Kashiwazaki et al., 1995: Am J Clin Nutr 62: 901-910). In a rural small agropastoral community of the Bolivian Andes, we made the follow-up study (Phase 2, 14 adults; a time of high agricultural activity) of the Phase 1 study (12 adults; a time of low agricultural activity). In the Phase 2 study, both men and women showed very high PAL (mean+/-SD), but there was no significant difference by sex (men; 2.18 +/- 0.23 (age; 64 +/- 11 years, n = 7), women; 2.26 +/- 0.25 (63 +/- 10 years, n = 7)). The increase of PAL by 11% (P = 0.023) in the Phase 2 was equally occurred in both men and women. The factorial approach underestimated PAL significantly by approximately 15% (P < 0.05). High PAL throughout the year ranging on average 2.0 and 2.2 was attributable to everyday tasks for subsistence and domestic works undertaking over 9-11 h (men spent 2.7 h on agricultural work and 4.7 h on animal herding, whereas women spent 7.3 h almost exclusively on animal herding). The seasonal increase in PAL was statistically significant, but it was smaller than those anticipated from published reports. A flexible division of labor played an important role in the equitable energetic increase in both men and women.

  18. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  19. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  20. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  1. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  2. The role of action readiness in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2015-12-01

    According to many theories of motivation and decision making, the principal driver of human behavior is the valuation of actions. Action value is computed as the difference between stimulus value (the benefits and costs inherent in the stimulus that is the target of the action) and action costs (the effort required to perform the action). In the present work, we propose that action costs are crucially influenced by the readiness to perform a given action. We define action readiness as the ease with which an action may be initiated given the preaction launch state of the individual. An action that has been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a high level of action readiness, whereas an action that has not been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a low level of action readiness. By our account, if action readiness levels are high for a given action, decreased action costs may result in action even when the stimulus value is relatively low. Conversely, if action readiness levels are low for a given action, even action costs that appear negligible can dominate positive stimulus values, resulting in seemingly puzzling instances of inaction. We develop and test these ideas in 3 studies across 233 participants using an image-viewing decision context and a logistic prediction model. PMID:26436428

  3. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present. PMID:25808296

  4. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present.

  5. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  6. Action goals influence action-specific perception.

    PubMed

    Cañal-Bruland, Rouwen; van der Kamp, John

    2009-12-01

    We examined the processes that mediate the emergence of action-specific influences on perception that have recently been reported for baseball batting and golf putting (Witt, Linkenauger, Bakdash, & Proffitt, 2008; Witt & Proffitt, 2005). To this end, we used a Schokokusswurfmaschine: Children threw a ball at a target, which, if hit successfully, launched a ball that the children then had to catch. In two experiments, children performed either a throwing-and-catching task or a throwing-only task, in which no ball was launched. After each task, the size of the target or of the ball was estimated. Results indicate that action-specific influences on perceived size occur for objects that are related to the end goal of the action, but not for objects that are related to intermediate action goals. These results suggest that action-specific influences on perception are contingent upon the primary action goals to be achieved.

  7. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  8. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  9. Allogenic and authigenic clays of the Lower Palæozoic sandstones of the Naqus Formation at Gebel Gunna, central Sinai, Egypt: their recognition and geological significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wanas, H. A.; Soliman, H. E.

    2001-01-01

    The Lower Palæozoic Naqus Formation of Gebel Gunna in the Sinai Peninsula is conformably underlain by the Araba Formation and unconformably overlain by the Cenomanian Malha Formation. It consists mainly of fine- to medium-grained pebbly sandstones with a few siltstone and granulestone interbeds. Petrographical, X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscope and chemical analyses of the sandstones revealed that they are mainly quartzarenite, containing allogenic and authigenic clays. The allogenic clays were found in small amounts. Such clays exhibit some of the characteristic features of infiltration clay coats. The clays coat a few grain surfaces and form meniscus-shaped pore bridges at points of grain contact. In addition, the clays were observed on the surfaces of crystalline authigenic minerals and in-filled elongated pores of partially dissolved feldspar grains. The recorded authigenic clays are mainly kaolinite with a minor amount of illite. The kaolinite exhibits three morphological habits: vermicular, blocky and fan-shaped. The vermicular kaolinite is dominant and was interpreted to have formed by dissolution of feldspar grains. The blocky kaolinite was observed with a textural relationship, indicating that it was neomorphosed after vermicular kaolinite. The fan-shaped kaolinite was found to be a result of mica alteration. Study of both allogenic and authigenic clays has helped in understanding the sedimentological history of the studied sandstones. The sandstones were deposited in a braided stream, buried at depth of about 1-3 km, and afterwards subjected to surface exposure.

  10. Ecology and Energy Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these elementary school-level instructional materials are for use as an introduction to existing units of study, supplements to a textbook, or a source of special projects for environmental education. Contents include these six units: Make Your Own Ecology Mini-spinner, Let's Look at a Food Chain, Drip the…

  11. Mirroring and the development of action understanding.

    PubMed

    Woodward, Amanda L; Gerson, Sarah A

    2014-01-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey motor cortex has inspired wide-ranging hypotheses about the potential relationship between action control and social cognition. In this paper, we consider the hypothesis that this relationship supports the early development of a critical aspect of social understanding, the ability to analyse others' actions in terms of goals. Recent investigations of infant action understanding have revealed rich connections between motor development and the analysis of goals in others' actions. In particular, infants' own goal-directed actions influence their analysis of others' goals. This evidence indicates that the cognitive systems that drive infants' own actions contribute to their analysis of goals in others' actions. These effects occur at a relatively abstract level of analysis both in terms of the structure infants perceive in others' actions and relevant structure in infants' own actions. Although the neural bases of these effects in infants are not yet well understood, current evidence indicates that connections between action production and action perception in infancy involve the interrelated neural systems at work in generating planned, intelligent action. PMID:24778377

  12. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  13. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels.

    PubMed

    Shankaran, Harish; Adeshina, Femi; Teeguarden, Justin G

    2013-12-15

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl - a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management - to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F=1 and t90<1 min indicating complete and rapid absorption. The F value ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 for oral and various transmucosal routes. Oral Fentanyl was absorbed the slowest (t90~300 min); the absorption of intranasal Fentanyl was relatively rapid (t90~20-40 min); and the various oral transmucosal routes had intermediate absorption rates (t90~160-300 min). Based on these results, for inhalation exposures, we assumed that all of the Fentanyl inhaled from the air during each breath directly, and instantaneously enters the arterial circulation. We present model predictions of Fentanyl blood concentrations in oral and inhalation scenarios relevant for PAL development, and provide an analytical expression that can be used to extrapolate between oral and inhalation routes for the derivation of PALs.

  14. Binding Action and Emotion in Social Understanding

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, Francesca; Ebisch, Sjoerd J. H.; Costantini, Marcello; Salone, Anatolia; Arciero, Giampiero; Mazzola, Viridiana; Ferro, Filippo Maria; Romani, Gian Luca; Gallese, Vittorio

    2013-01-01

    In social life actions are tightly linked with emotions. The integration of affective- and action-related information has to be considered as a fundamental component of appropriate social understanding. The present functional magnetic resonance imaging study aimed at investigating whether an emotion (Happiness, Anger or Neutral) dynamically expressed by an observed agent modulates brain activity underlying the perception of his grasping action. As control stimuli, participants observed the same agent either only expressing an emotion or only performing a grasping action. Our results showed that the observation of an action embedded in an emotional context (agent’s facial expression), compared with the observation of the same action embedded in a neutral context, elicits higher neural response at the level of motor frontal cortices, temporal and occipital cortices, bilaterally. Particularly, the dynamic facial expression of anger modulates the re-enactment of a motor representation of the observed action. This is supported by the evidence that observing actions embedded in the context of anger, but not happiness, compared with a neutral context, elicits stronger activity in the bilateral pre-central gyrus and inferior frontal gyrus, besides the pre-supplementary motor area, a region playing a central role in motor control. Angry faces not only seem to modulate the simulation of actions, but may also trigger motor reaction. These findings suggest that emotions exert a modulatory role on action observation in different cortical areas involved in action processing. PMID:23349792

  15. Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Actions taken in the area of outdoor recreation on Federal, State, local, and private levels are reported in the document. Financing actions are listed according to states, government agencies, and names of private financers. The organization and administration section includes new agencies, personnel, reorganizations, and significant resolutions…

  16. The Challenge of Evaluating Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the benefits claimed for action learning at individual, organisational and inter-organisational levels. It goes on to identify both generic difficulties in evaluating development programmes and action learning specifically. The distinction between formative and summative evaluation is considered and a summative evaluation…

  17. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  18. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  19. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  20. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  1. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  2. Evaluation of CHROM-Pal medium for the isolation and direct identification of Candida dubliniensis in primary cultures from the oral cavity.

    PubMed

    Sahand, Ismail H; Maza, José L; Eraso, Elena; Montejo, Miguel; Moragues, María D; Aguirre, José M; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2009-11-01

    Candida albicans is the species most frequently isolated from oral specimens, but the recovery of other Candida species such as Candida dubliniensis is increasing. Differentiation of C. dubliniensis from C. albicans requires special tests and both species are misidentified in some studies. CHROM-Pal (CH-P) is a novel chromogenic medium used in our laboratory for differentiation between C. albicans and C. dubliniensis on the basis of colony colour and morphology, and chlamydospore production. The performance of CH-P and CHROMagar Candida (CAC) was compared for primary isolation and presumptive identification of yeasts from oral specimens from human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected individuals. The identification of Candida species on both media was compared with two reference identification methods (API ID 32 C and multiplex PCR). A total of 137/205 oral swabs (66.8 %) plated onto CH-P and CAC media were positive by culture and resulted in the growth of 171 isolates of Candida species on CH-P, whilst only 159 isolates grew on CAC. C. albicans was the most frequently isolated species in both groups of patients, followed by Candida parapsilosis in the HIV-negative group, and by C. dubliniensis in the HIV-infected group. The other Candida species isolated were Candida guilliermondii, Candida glabrata, Candida krusei, Candida tropicalis, Candida famata, Candida rugosa, Candida kefyr, Candida pelliculosa and Candida pulcherrima. The sensitivity and specificity for identifying C. albicans, C. krusei, C. tropicalis and C. dubliniensis on CH-P were over 98.5 %, always equal to or higher than those obtained when CAC was used. CH-P is a simple reliable medium for primary isolation and presumptive identification of yeast isolates from oral samples. The ability of CH-P to discriminate between C. dubliniensis and C. albicans was significantly higher (P <0.05) than that of CAC.

  3. Vertical distribution of optical parameters of aerosol, evaluation of rain rate and rain drop size by using the pal system, at guwahati

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devi, M.; Barbara, A. K.; Baishya, R.; Takeuchi, N.

    The paper gives in brief, the features of a Portable Automated Lidar (PAL) set up, fabricated and operated at Guwahati (260N and 920 E) a subtropical station, for monitoring of aerosol, cloud and precipitation features and then describes the method adopted for profiling of aerosol and determination of rain rate as well as drop sizes with coupled observation from distrometer and radiosonde. The PAL generates 532 nm laser pulses of 10 ns duration of high repetition rate of 1-2 kHz. The backscattered signals from atmospheric constituents collected by a telescope of diameter 20 cm., and amplified with a Photo Multiplier Tube (PMT), are then processed in Lab View environment by a software for, extracting aerosol and cloud features. For checking and correcting the alignment affected by temperature, provisions are also introduced for easy adjustment of horizontal and vertical axes. In this approach we have evaluated system constant C, from the lidar backscattered signal itself, for an assumed lidar ratio as a first approach, and with extinction co-efficient determined experimentally. Here, the lidar is put for probing the atmosphere horizontally, when we may assume the atmosphere to be homogeneous along the FOV of the lidar. However, as horizontal in-homogeneity of the atmosphere cannot be ruled out, the paper illustrates the type of profiles adopted for such analysis and the lidar being situated in a semi rural area, a methodical screening approach adopted for selection of echograms free from shoot and fossil burning by product is described. Once the backscatter power with distance is known from the selected lidar outputs, σ is evaluated from the slope of the profile associating ``ratio of backscatter power to transmitter power'' with distance r. The methods taken up for realization of β value and then determination of C are elaborated in the paper. The lidar ratio S, is assumed from reported results as a first reference value. This parameter S is then checked for its

  4. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  5. [Neuroprotective actions of lithium].

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Ryota; Fujimaki, Koichiro; Jeong, Mi Ra; Senatorov, Vladimir V; Christ, Lori; Leeds, Peter; Chuang, De-Maw; Takeda, Masatoshi

    2003-01-01

    Lithium has long been one of the primary drugs used to treat bipolar mood disorder. However, neither the etiology of this disease nor the therapeutic mechanism(s) of this drug is well understood. Several lines of clinical evidence suggest that lithium has neurotrophic actions. For example chronic lithium treatment increases the volume of gray matter and the content of N-acetyl-aspartate, a cell survival marker, in bipolar mood disorder patients (Moore et al., 2000). Moreover, treatment with this mood-stabilizer suppresses the decrease in the volume of the subgenual pre-frontal cortex found in bipolar patients (Drevets, 2001). To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the neuroprotective and neurotrophic actions of lithium, we employed a preparation of cultured cortical neurons prepared form embryonic rats. We found that treatment with therapeutic doses (0.2-1.2 mM) of lithium robustly protects cortical neurons from multiple insults, notably glutamate-induced excitotoxicity. The neuroprotection against glutamate excitotoxicity is time-dependent, requiring treatment for 5-6 days for maximal effect, and is associated with a reduction in NMDA receptor-mediated Ca2+ influx. The latter is correlated with a decrease in Tyrosine 1472 phosphorylation levels in the NR2B subunit of NMDA receptors and a loss of Src kinase activity which is involved in NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation. Neither the activity of total tyrosine protein kinase nor that of tyrosine protein phosphatase is affected by this drug, indicating the selectivity of the modulation. Lithium neuroprotection against excitotoxicity is inhibited by a BDNF-neutralizing antibody and K252a, a Trk antagonist. Lithium treatment time-dependently increases the intracellular level of BDNF in cortical neurons and activates its receptor, TrkB. The neuroprotection can be completely blocked by either heterozygous or homozygous knockout of the BDNF gene. These results suggest a central role of BDNF and TrkB in mediating the

  6. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  7. Action controls dopaminergic enhancement of reward representations

    PubMed Central

    Guitart-Masip, Marc; Chowdhury, Rumana; Sharot, Tali; Dayan, Peter; Duzel, Emrah; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2012-01-01

    Dopamine is widely observed to signal anticipation of future rewards and thus thought to be a key contributor to affectively charged decision making. However, the experiments supporting this view have not dissociated rewards from the actions that lead to, or are occasioned by, them. Here, we manipulated dopamine pharmacologically and examined the effect on a task that explicitly dissociates action and reward value. We show that dopamine enhanced the neural representation of rewarding actions, without significantly affecting the representation of reward value as such. Thus, increasing dopamine levels with levodopa selectively boosted striatal and substantia nigra/ventral tegmental representations associated with actions leading to reward, but not with actions leading to the avoidance of punishment. These findings highlight a key role for dopamine in the generation of appetitively motivated actions. PMID:22529363

  8. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  9. The role of selective attention and action selection in the development of multiple action capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simione, Luca; Nolfi, Stefano

    2014-10-01

    In this paper we illustrate how the capacity to select the most appropriate actions when handling contexts affording multiple conflicting actions can be solved either through a selective attention strategy (in which the stimuli affording alternative actions are filtered out at the perceptual level through top-down regulation) or at later processing stages through an action selection strategy (through the suppression of the premotor information eliciting alternative actions). By carrying out a series of experiments in which a neuro-robot develops an ability to choose between conflicting actions, we were able to identify the conditions that lead to the development of solutions based on one strategy or another. Overall, the results indicate that the selective attention strategy constitutes the most simple and straightforward mechanism enabling the acquisition of such capacities. Moreover, the characteristics of the adaptive/learning process influence whether the adaptive robot converges towards a selective attention and/or action selection strategy.

  10. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  11. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  12. Errata Sheet for the Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-12-21

    On Page 6, in Section 2.1.1.4, fourth paragraph, third sentence, ''FAL'' should be ''PAL''. The sentence should read, ''TPH was also present at concentrations above the PAL in all three wax samples that were analyzed for TPH''.

  13. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  14. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  15. Preferential Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Derrick A., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    Discusses the philosophical rationale for preferential affirmative action presented by Daniel C. Maguire in "A New American Justice." Maintains that self-interest bars present society's acceptance of Maguire's theories of justice, as demonstrated in negative reactions to the Harvard Law Review's affirmative action plan. (MJL)

  16. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  17. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  18. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  19. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  20. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  1. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  2. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  3. Science - Image in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavidovique, Bertrand; Lo Bosco, Giosue'

    pt. A. Information: data organization and communication. Statistical information: a Bayesian perspective / R. B. Stern, C. A. de B. Pereira. Multi-a(ge)nt graph patrolling and partitioning / Y. Elor, A. M. Bruckstein. The role of noise in brain function / S. Roy, R. Llinas. F-granulation, generalized rough entropy and image analysis / S. K. Pal. Fast redshift clustering with the Baire (ultra) metric / F. Murtagh, P. Contreras. Interactive classification oriented superresolution of multispectral images / P. Ruiz ... [et al.]. Blind processing in astrophysical data analysis / E. Salerno, L. Bedini. The extinction map of the orion molecular cloud / G. Scandariato (best student's paper), I. Pagano, M. Robberto -- pt. B. System: structure and behaviour. Common grounds: the role of perception in science and the nature of transitions / G. Bernroider. Looking the world from inside: intrinsic geometry of complex systems / L. Boi. The butterfly and the photon: new perspectives on unpredictability, and the notion of casual reality, in quantum physics / T. N. Palmer. Self-replicated wave patterns in neural networks with complex threshold / V. I. Nekorkin. A local explication of causation / G. Boniolo, R. Faraldo, A. Saggion. Evolving complexity, cognition, and consciousness / H. Liljenstrom. Self-assembly, modularity and physical complexity / S. E. Ahnert. The category of topological thermodynamics / R. M. Kiehn. Anti-phase spiking patterns / M. P. Igaev, A. S. Dmitrichev, V. I. Nekorkin -- pt. C. Data/system representation. Reality, models and representations: the case of galaxies, intelligence and avatars / J-C. Heudin. Astronomical images and data mining in the international virtual observatory context / F. Pasian, M. Brescia, G. Longo. Dame: a web oriented infrastructure for scientific data mining and exploration / S. Cavuoti ... [et al.]. Galactic phase spaces / D. Chakrabarty. From data to images: a shape based approach for fluorescence tomography / O. Dorn, K. E. Prieto

  4. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  5. 23 CFR 771.115 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Classes of actions. 771.115 Section 771.115 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.115 Classes of actions. There are three classes of actions which prescribe the level of documentation required...

  6. 23 CFR 771.115 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Classes of actions. 771.115 Section 771.115 Highways FEDERAL HIGHWAY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION RIGHT-OF-WAY AND ENVIRONMENT ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND RELATED PROCEDURES § 771.115 Classes of actions. There are three classes of actions which prescribe the level of documentation required...

  7. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  8. Hungarian climate change action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T.; Arpasi, M.; Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T.; Harnos, Z.; Lontay, Z.; Somogyi, Z.; Tajthy, T.

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  9. Action-Based Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansky, Amy L.; Lum, Henry Jr. (Technical Monitor)

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents an approach to domain representation and planning that is fundamentally different from traditional methods; an approach based strictly on actions and their interrelationships, rather than on state-based goals and preconditions. In particular, we focus on the action-based planner COLLAGE, describe its methods for plan-construction, and contrast them with more traditional approaches to planning. Experiences with COLLAGE in realistic domains have shown that the action-based approach is not only more natural to use, but can also be more cost-efficient than traditional planning methods.

  10. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  11. Conceptualizing Indicator Domains for Evaluating Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…

  12. Outdoor Recreation Action: Federal, State, Local, Private.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyle, George M., Ed.

    This booklet reports on outdoor recreation actions taken at the federal, state, local, and private levels. The Land and Water Conservation Fund and the financing of outdoor recreation on all levels are discussed. New agencies, personnel, reorganizations, resolutions, and recommendations for the organization and administration of outdoor recreation…

  13. Planning actions in robot automated operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.

    1988-01-01

    Action planning in robot automated operations requires intelligent task level programming. Invoking intelligence necessiates a typical blackboard based architecture, where, a plan is a vector between the start frame and the goal frame. This vector is composed of partially ordered bases. A partial ordering of bases presents good and bad sides in action planning. Partial ordering demands the use of a temporal data base management system.

  14. Insulin action on the liver in vivo.

    PubMed

    Cherrington, A D; Moore, M C; Sindelar, D K; Edgerton, D S

    2007-11-01

    Insulin has a potent inhibitory effect on hepatic glucose production by direct action at hepatic receptors. The hormone also inhibits glucose production by suppressing both lipolysis in the fat cell and secretion of glucagon by the alpha-cell. Neural sensing of insulin levels appears to participate in control of hepatic glucose production in rodents, but a role for brain insulin sensing has not been documented in dogs or humans. The primary effect of insulin on the liver is its direct action.

  15. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  16. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  17. The Action Lawyers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubenow, Gerald C.

    1972-01-01

    A description of the Serrano vs. Priest class action suit in California, challenging the system of financing education through property taxes; author touches upon the possibilities for the courts becoming change agents in the struggle for social reform. (SP)

  18. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand.

  19. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  20. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  1. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  2. Action, agency and responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frith, Chris D

    2014-03-01

    In a series of experiments Marc Jeannerod revealed that we have very little awareness of the details and causes of our actions. We are, however, vividly aware of being in control of our actions and this gives us a sense of responsibility. These feelings arise, first, from intentional binding which creates a perception of agency, linking an intentional action to its outcome and, second, from the counterfactual reasoning that we could have chosen some other action. These feelings of responsibility play a critical role in creating social cohesion since they allow people to be held to account for deliberate antisocial behaviour. Jeannerod's studies also showed that we are unaware of how little we know about our actions and so are happy to make up stories about the nature and causes of our behaviour. These stories often do not correspond with the underlying cognitive and neural processes, but they can be changed through instructions and through discussion with others. Our experience of responsibility for action emerges during our upbringing through exposure to our culture. This creates consensus about the causes of behaviour, but not necessarily accuracy. PMID:24036357

  3. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium, which comprises populating the upper energy level to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and thereafter establishing an inverted population by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level such as by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  4. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-11-26

    A method and apparatus are described for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium. The upper energy level is populated to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and an inverted population is established by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level. The depumping may be done by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  5. Palliative patients cared for at home by PAMINO-trained and other GPs – health-related quality of life as measured by QLQ-C15-PAL and POS

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To maintain patients’ quality of life is one of the major goals in palliative home care provided by general practitioners (GPs). GPs need adequate training to care for palliative patients. The paper seeks to evaluate whether a specific training in Germany (PAMINO) has any improving impact on the care of palliative patients and their health-related quality of life. Methods From September 2007 until June 2009, GPs and their palliative care patients with cancer participated in a study to evaluate palliative courses for GPs offered by a regional palliative care initiative (PAMINO). For a period of six months at most or until death, patients were asked monthly to judge their quality of life on the Quality of Life Questionnaire Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) of the European Organization for Research and Treatment of Cancer (EORTC) and on the Palliative Care Outcome Scale (POS). The ‘Overall quality of life’ scale of the QLQ-C15-PAL takes values between 0 and 100 with higher values indicating a higher quality of life. The POS sum scale takes values between 0 and 40 with higher values indicating worse care outcomes. Patients cared for by PAMINO-trained GPs and patients cared for by other GPs (control group) are compared using t-tests for differences in group means. Results One hundred patients participated in the study; 96 patients filled out the questionnaires at least once. On the QLQ-C15-PAL, mean quality of life of the patient groups of PAMINO-trained and other GPs were 37.7 (SD = 25.5) and 39.4 (SD = 26.3) (p = .76), respectively. On the POS, respective mean values of 13.6 (SD = 5.8) and 12.0 (SD = 6.5) (p = .26) were given. Patients cared for by a PAMINO-trained GP did not report better quality of life and care outcomes than patients cared for by other general practitioners. Conclusions Patients cared for by PAMINO-trained and other GPs in our study did not report differences in quality of life. Quality of life and care

  6. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  7. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Adeshina, Femi; Teeguarden, Justin G.

    2013-12-15

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl – a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management – to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F = 1 and t90 < 1 min indicating complete and rapid absorption. The F value ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 for oral and various transmucosal routes. Oral Fentanyl was absorbed the slowest (t90 ∼ 300 min); the absorption of intranasal Fentanyl was relatively rapid (t90 ∼ 20–40 min); and the various oral transmucosal routes had intermediate absorption rates (t90 ∼ 160–300 min). Based on these results, for inhalation exposures, we assumed that all of the Fentanyl inhaled from the air during each breath directly, and instantaneously enters the arterial circulation. We present model predictions of Fentanyl blood concentrations in oral and inhalation scenarios relevant for PAL development, and provide an analytical expression that can be used to extrapolate between oral and inhalation routes for the derivation of PALs. - Highlights: • We develop a Fentanyl PBPK model for relating external dose to internal levels. • We calibrate the model to oral and inhalation exposures using > 50 human datasets. • Model predictions are in good agreement with the available

  8. Precambrian oxygen levels estimated from the biochemistry and physiology of early eukaryotes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runnegar, Bruce

    1991-12-01

    Recent work on the biochemistry of living organisms has shown that the organelles which eukaryotic cells use for photosynthesis and aerobic respiration are of bacterial origin, and that they were imported by eubacterial endosymbionts some time after the existence of the last common ancestor of all modern eukaryotes. However, all living eukaryotes need a certain amount of molecular oxygen for the biosynthesis of vital compounds such as the sterols that are used to stiffen cell membranes. It follows that some dissolved oxygen must have been available to the ancestral "anaerobic" eukaryotes before they acquired their organelles. A minimum age for the first occurrence of such organisms is given by the discovery of modified sterols (steranes) in organic-rich sedimentary rocks about 1.7 Ga old from the McArthur Basin of northern Australia. Fully organelled eukaryotes need even more oxygen if they are to use their mitochondria for aerobic respiration. Some of the oldest fossils that are likely to be the remains of photosynthetic eukaryotes are also from the McArthur Basin. If these sizeable, unicellular algae had functional mitochondria as well as chloroplasts, the oxygen concentration of surface waters some 1.6-1.8 Ga ago is unlikely to have been less than that required for aerobic respiration (> - 0.01 PAL). The oldest convincing megascopic eukaryote, Grypania spiralis, is found ˜1.4 Ga-old strata in China, India, and the U.S.A. Grypania was a corkscrew-shaped "alga" up to 2 mm in diameter and 0.6 m in length which seems to have lived attached to the sea floor. Unless Grypania used oxygen produced by its own chloroplasts, it should have needed between a hundredth and tenth of the present atmospheric level of oxygen (0.01-0.1 PAL O 2) to survive. A similar atmospheric oxygen concentration may have been more than enough to sustain the sheet-like animals of the Ediacara fauna. However, it is possible that their extraordinary geometry was an adaptation to low oxygen levels

  9. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  10. Action recognition in the visual periphery.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Laura; Bülthoff, Isabelle; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing whether the gestures of somebody mean a greeting or a threat is crucial for social interactions. In real life, action recognition occurs over the entire visual field. In contrast, much of the previous research on action recognition has primarily focused on central vision. Here our goal is to examine what can be perceived about an action outside of foveal vision. Specifically, we probed the valence as well as first level and second level recognition of social actions (handshake, hugging, waving, punching, slapping, and kicking) at 0° (fovea/fixation), 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of eccentricity with dynamic (Experiment 1) and dynamic and static (Experiment 2) actions. To assess peripheral vision under conditions of good ecological validity, these actions were carried out by a life-size human stick figure on a large screen. In both experiments, recognition performance was surprisingly high (more than 66% correct) up to 30° of eccentricity for all recognition tasks and followed a nonlinear decline with increasing eccentricities. PMID:26913625

  11. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2008-03-01

    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  12. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  13. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  14. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  15. Correlation of Gas Permeability in a Metal-Organic Framework MIL-101(Cr)–Polysulfone Mixed-Matrix Membrane with Free Volume Measurements by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    PubMed Central

    Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Koschine, Tönjes; Staudt, Claudia; Raetzke, Klaus; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermally stable particles of the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) were incorporated into a polysulfone (PSF) matrix to produce mixed-matrix or composite membranes with excellent dispersion of MIL-101 particles and good adhesion within the polymer matrix. Pure gas (O2, N2, CO2 and CH4) permeation tests showed a significant increase of gas permeabilities of the mixed-matrix membranes without any loss in selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) indicated that the increased gas permeability is due to the free volume in the PSF polymer and the added large free volume inside the MIL-101 particles. The trend of the gas transport properties of the composite membranes could be reproduced by a Maxwell model. PMID:24957061

  16. Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. PMID:22205868

  17. Evaluating the consistency of the 1982-1999 NDVI trends in the Iberian Peninsula across four time-series derived from the AVHRR sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II.

    PubMed

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations' carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982-1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast.

  18. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y.; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M.

    2016-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO) for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Rats were fed (12 weeks) diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group). EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA) but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA) in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%–24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05) episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73%) and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s) than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit. PMID:26742064

  19. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  20. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  1. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  2. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  3. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  4. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  5. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  6. From Intuition to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of principals intuitively believe that the arts belong in schools and in every child's life. Now is the time to take action on your intuition--and become an instructional leader for the arts, just as you are for every core subject. Arts-engaged principals share strategies for becoming instructional leaders for the arts.

  7. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  8. Action Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  9. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  10. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  11. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  12. Promoting Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, John

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a lesson on the extinction process allowing students to better understand why and how species become endangered before they attempt to take action on this problem. Provides background information and describes several suggested methodologies, evaluation and enrichment ideas, six resources, and two references. (LZ)

  13. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  14. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  15. Literacy Portfolios in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valencia, Sheila W.

    Intended for new and experienced teachers in grades K-8, this book takes readers through a process of thinking about how to put portfolios into action. The book models a process for making decisions about the type of portfolio, what to place in it, how to structure the interactions with it, and how to use it to evaluate student progress and report…

  16. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  17. Programs for Urban Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Board of Young Men's Christian Associations, New York, NY.

    This booklet contains descriptions of 150 urban action programs being conducted by Young Men's Christian Associations throughout the United States. Planning principles are included to assist those who wish to adapt the programs to local situations: involvement of people in planning; use of local indigenous leadership; planning in collaboration…

  18. Affirmative Action Fallout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  19. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  20. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  1. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  2. Effects and action mechanisms of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the growth and cephalotaxine production of Cephalotaxus mannii suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Cheng; Jiang, Xuan-Xian; Long, Xiao-Juan

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effects of NaF on the growth and cephalotaxine production of Cephalotaxus mannii suspension cells, NaF was added into the C mannii cell suspension cultures at day 15 of culture time. It is documented that NaF suppressed cell growth but enhanced cephalotaxine production. The largest yield obtained of cephalotaxine reached to 9.57mg/L when the cultures were treated with an appropriate dosage of 15mg/L NaF, which was 3.7 times that of the control cultures (2.58mg/L). Additionally, NaF markedly enhanced the activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and reduced the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) of cells. It was also found that NaF weakened the oxidative damage of cell membrane and led to lower content of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in NaF-treated cells compared with the control cells. The MDA content of NaF-treated cells decreased 91% compared to the controls. Although lower membrane lipid peroxidation in NaF-treated cells, its membrane permeability was higher than the control cells and showed a high product secret rate. What is more, NaF boosted the activity of phenylalanine ammonium-lyse (PAL), but did not burst a peak of PAL activity in the time curve of PAL activity. These results indicated NaF acted as an inhibitor of the Enbden Parnas (EMP) pathway, not as an elicitor to promote cephalotaxine production.

  3. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  4. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

    2014-12-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html. We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions. PMID:24584971

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996; as amended March 2010). CAU 562 consists of 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. Site characterization activities were performed in 2009 and 2010, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 562. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized. (1) CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot, will be clean closed by removing shot. (2) CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain, will be clean closed by removing paint and contaminated soil. As a best management practice (BMP), asbestos tile will be removed. (3) CAS 02-59-01, Septic System, will be clean closed by removing septic tank contents. As a BMP, the septic tank will be removed. (4) CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required; however, as a BMP, the concrete drain will be removed. (5) CAS 02-60-02, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. As a BMP, the drain grates and drain pipe will be removed. (6) CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. As a BMP, the steam cleaning sump grate and outfall pipe will be removed. (7) CAS 02-60-04, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. (8) CAS 02-60-05, French Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. (9) CAS 02-60-06, French Drain, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required. (10) CAS 02-60-07, French Drain, requires no further action. The french drain identified in historical documentation was not located during corrective action investigation

  6. Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kochukhova, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Eighteen- and 25-month-old human toddlers' ability to manually solve a puzzle and their ability to anticipate the goal during observation of similar actions were investigated. Results demonstrate that goal anticipation during action observation is dependent on manual ability, both on a group level (only 25-month-olds solved the manual task and anticipated the goal during observation) and individually within the older age group (r (xy) = 0.53). These findings suggests a connection between manual ability and the ability to anticipate the goal of others' actions in toddlers, in accordance with the direct matching hypothesis. PMID:20041233

  7. ANTIDEPRESSANT ACTIONS OF HDAC INHIBITORS

    PubMed Central

    Covington, Herbert E.; Maze, Ian; LaPlant, Quincey C.; Vialou, Vincent F.; Yoshinori, Ohnishi N.; Berton, Olivier; Fass, Dan M.; Renthal, William; Rush, Augustus J.; Wu, Emma Y.; Ghose, Subroto; Krishnan, Vaishnav; Russo, Scott J.; Tamminga, Carol; Haggarty, Stephen J.; Nestler, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Persistent symptoms of depression suggest the involvement of stable molecular adaptations in brain, which may be reflected at the level of chromatin remodeling. We find that chronic social defeat stress in mice causes a transient decrease, followed by a persistent increase, in levels of acetylated histone H3 in the nucleus accumbens, an important limbic brain region. This persistent increase in H3 acetylation is associated with decreased levels of histone deacetylase 2 (HDAC2) in the nucleus accumbens. Similar effects were observed in the nucleus accumbens of depressed humans studied postmortem. These changes in H3 acetylation and HDAC2 expression mediate long-lasting positive neuronal adaptations, since infusion of HDAC inhibitors into the nucleus accumbens, which increases histone acetylation, exerts robust antidepressant-like effects in the social defeat paradigm and other behavioral assays. HDAC inhibitor (MS-275) infusion also reverses the effects of chronic defeat stress on global patterns of gene expression in the nucleus accumbens, as determined by microarray analysis, with striking similarities to the effects of the standard antidepressant, fluoxetine. Stress-regulated genes whose expression is normalized selectively by MS-275 may provide promising targets for the future development of novel antidepressant treatments. Together, these findings provide new insight into the underlying molecular mechanisms of depression and antidepressant action, and support the antidepressant potential of HDAC inhibitors and perhaps other agents that act at the level of chromatin structure. PMID:19759294

  8. Science education and everyday action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Wendy Renee Sherman

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation addresses three related tasks and issues in the larger field of science education. The first is to review of the several uses of "everydayness" at play in the science education literature, and in the education and social science literatures more generally. Four broad iterations of everydayness were found in science education, and these were traced and analyzed to develop their similarities, and contradictions. It was concluded that despite tendencies in science education research to suppose a fundamental demarcation either between professional science and everyday life, or between schools and everyday life, all social affairs, including professional science and activity in schools, are continuous with everyday life, and consist fundamentally in everyday, ordinary mundane actions which are ordered and organized by the participants to those social activities and occasions. The second task for this dissertation was to conduct a naturalistic, descriptive study of undergraduate-level physics laboratory activities from the analytic perspective of ethnomethodology. The study findings are presented as closely-detailed analysis of the students' methods of following their instructions and 'fitting' their observed results to a known scientific concept or principle during the enactment of their classroom laboratory activities. Based on the descriptions of students' practical work in following instructions and 'fitting'. The characterization of school science labs as an "experiment-demonstration hybrid" is developed. The third task of this dissertation was to synthesize the literature review and field study findings in order to clarify what science educators could productively mean by "everydayness", and to suggest what understandings of science education the study of everyday action recommends. It is argued that the significance of the 'experiment-demo hybrid' characterization must be seen in terms of an alternate program for science education research, which

  9. Positive Action. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Positive Action," a K-12 program, aims to promote a positive self-concept, character development, healthy behavior, and social-emotional skills and to reduce disruptive and problem behavior. The curricula for elementary and middle school students each have seven units per kit, with nine kits per grade level. The high school curriculum has six…

  10. 10 CFR 72.172 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Corrective action. 72.172 Section 72.172 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance §...

  11. 10 CFR 72.172 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Corrective action. 72.172 Section 72.172 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance §...

  12. 10 CFR 72.172 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Corrective action. 72.172 Section 72.172 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance §...

  13. A Model for Action Oriented Structured Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    George, Robert J.

    This presentation describes an experiential group design which can be employed with large, diverse populations. It is especially applicable at the university level. The design encourages self-clarification and self-confrontation on personalized issues and culminates in an individual commitment to action. Techniques such as "life space" drawings…

  14. Academic Corrective Action from a Legal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collura, Frank J.

    1997-01-01

    In cases of cheating, plagiarism, or violations of the law in dental education, a very high level of due process is required. University counsel can help administrators determine whether an accused student is professionally suited to dentistry by characterizing as many corrective actions as possible as academic under the rubric of "suitability to…

  15. 10 CFR 72.172 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Corrective action. 72.172 Section 72.172 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSING REQUIREMENTS FOR THE INDEPENDENT STORAGE OF SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL, HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTE, AND REACTOR-RELATED GREATER THAN CLASS C WASTE Quality Assurance §...

  16. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  17. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  18. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  19. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  20. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  1. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  2. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  3. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  4. Epigenetic Modifications and Plant Hormone Action.

    PubMed

    Yamamuro, Chizuko; Zhu, Jian-Kang; Yang, Zhenbiao

    2016-01-01

    The action of phytohormones in plants requires the spatiotemporal regulation of their accumulation and responses at various levels. Recent studies reveal an emerging relationship between the function of phytohormones and epigenetic modifications. In particular, evidence suggests that auxin biosynthesis, transport, and signal transduction is modulated by microRNAs and epigenetic factors such as histone modification, chromatin remodeling, and DNA methylation. Furthermore, some phytohormones have been shown to affect epigenetic modifications. These findings are shedding light on the mode of action of phytohormones and are opening up a new avenue of research on phytohormones as well as on the mechanisms regulating epigenetic modifications.

  5. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  6. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  7. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  8. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  9. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  10. 10 CFR 1021.400 - Level of NEPA review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Level of NEPA review. 1021.400 Section 1021.400 Energy... Classes of Actions § 1021.400 Level of NEPA review. (a) This subpart identifies DOE actions that normally... proceed with the level of NEPA review indicated for that class of actions, unless there are...

  11. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  12. An Action Framework for Population Education on the Eve of the Twenty-First Century.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Population Education in Asia and the Pacific Newsletter and Forum, 1994

    1994-01-01

    Presents an action framework for population education in four sections: (1) policies, programming, and institutional coordination; (2) conceptualization and content at different levels of education; (3) strategies for the development of educational action; and (4) logistic support activities. Foresees two levels of action: direct within the…

  13. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  14. 41 CFR 60-250.43 - Affirmative action policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment, including the executive level. Such action shall apply to all employment activities set forth in... Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT... shall take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment qualified special disabled...

  15. 41 CFR 60-300.43 - Affirmative action policy.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... employment, including the executive level. Such action shall apply to all employment activities set forth in... Public Contracts OFFICE OF FEDERAL CONTRACT COMPLIANCE PROGRAMS, EQUAL EMPLOYMENT OPPORTUNITY, DEPARTMENT... shall take affirmative action to employ and advance in employment qualified disabled veterans,...

  16. Paving the Path to Success. Data for Action 2014. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    At the federal level, leaders can promote policies that reduce burdens on states, encourage collaboration across agencies, and help build the capacity of stakeholders to use data while ensuring the privacy of student information. The annual "Data for Action" survey measures states' progress toward achieving the 10 State Actions to Ensure…

  17. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  18. Rethinking Actions: Implementation and Association

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word “action”—one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the fronto-parietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others’ actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. PMID:26352170

  19. Must Affirmative Action Be Divisive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Solomon Andhil

    1975-01-01

    Affirmative action is seen as causing dissension and cleavages in the civil rights coalition. Requisites suggested for winning support for affirmative action are thorough knowledge of its rationale and components, assuring whites they will not be pushed out of jobs, and a continued emphasis on the urgency for affirmative action. (Author/AM)

  20. Developing an Action Concept Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-01-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for…