Science.gov

Sample records for action levels pals

  1. Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for phosgene (CG).

    PubMed

    Glass, Dana; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi

    2009-12-01

    The Provisional Advisory Level (PAL) protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. For background on the PAL program and a description of the methodology used in deriving PALs, the reader is referred to accompanying papers in this Supplement. Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in World War I. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality, with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30- and 90-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These inhalation values were also accepted as the 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values because severity of lesions in the key study did not increase when exposures were extended from 4 weeks to 12 weeks. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year PAL 3 values. PMID:19827940

  2. PROVISIONAL ADVISORY LEVELS (PALs) FOR PHOSGENE (CG)

    SciTech Connect

    Glass-Mattie, Dana F; McClanahan, Mark; Koller, Loren; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    The PAL protocol was applied to estimate inhalation exposure limits for phosgene (CG). Data on humans are limited to occupational exposures or accounts from the use of phosgene as a chemical warfare agent in WWI. Animal studies with phosgene show a steep dose-response curve for pulmonary edema and mortality with little species variability in effects. Although immediately upon exposure lacrimation and upper respiratory irritation can occur, the main effect in the target organ, a progressive pulmonary edema, occurs after a latency period of 1-24 hours. PAL estimates were approved by the Expert Consultation Panel for Provisional Advisory Levels in May 2007. Exposure limits for oral exposure to CG are not developed due to insufficient data. PAL estimates for inhalation exposure to CG are presented: The 24-hour PAL values for severity levels 1, 2, and 3 are 0.0017, 0.0033 and 0.022 ppm, respectively. The 30-day PAL values are 0.0006 and 0.0012 ppm for the PAL 1 and 2 values, respectively. These 30-day inhalation values were also accepted as the 90-day and 2-year PAL 1 and 2 values. Data were not available for deriving 30-day, 90-day and 2-year PAL 3 values.

  3. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Synthia; Wood, Carol S

    2009-01-01

    In compliance with Homeland Security Presidential Directive No.8, the US EPA National Homeland Security Research Center, in collaboration with the Department of Energy, is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority toxic industrial chemicals, pesticides, and chemical warfare agents in air and drinking water. The PALs Program will provide exposure levels to assist emergency response decision-making, and to serve as criteria for determining re-use and re-entry into affected areas resulting from transport/storage accidents, natural disasters, and subversive activities. PALs are applicable at federal, state, and local levels, and are intended for use in homeland security efforts, public health, law enforcement, and emergency response, as well as decisions by water utilities, and national and regional EPA offices. PALS have not been promulgated nor have they been formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations when site specific risk assessments are not available. Three levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations of potential drinking water and inhalation exposures for the general public. Draft PALs are evaluated both by an EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this issue, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, phosgene, hydrogen chloride, and hydrogen sulfide.

  4. Health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for homeland security.

    PubMed

    Adeshina, Femi; Sonich-Mullin, Cynthia; Ross, Robert H; Wood, Carol S

    2009-12-01

    The Homeland Security Presidential Directive #8 (HSPD-8) for National Emergency Preparedness was issued to " establish policies to strengthen the preparedness of the United States to prevent and respond to threatened or actual domestic terrorist attacks, major disasters, and other emergencies by requiring a national domestic all- hazards preparedness goal. "In response to HSPD-8 and HSPD-22 (classified) on Domestic Chemical Defense, the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) National Homeland Security Research Center (NHSRC) is developing health-based Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) for priority chemicals (including chemical warfare agents, pesticides, and toxic industrial chemicals) in air and drinking water. PALs are temporary values that will neither be promulgated, nor be formally issued as regulatory guidance. They are intended to be used at the discretion of risk managers in emergency situations. The PAL Program provides advisory exposure levels for chemical agents to assist in emergency planning and response decision-making, and to aid in making informed risk management decisions for evacuation, temporary re-entry into affected areas, and resumed-use of infrastructure, such as water resources. These risk management decisions may be made at the federal, state, and local levels. Three exposure levels (PAL 1, PAL 2, and PAL 3), distinguished by severity of toxic effects, are developed for 24-hour, 30-day, 90-day, and 2-year durations for potential exposure to drinking water and ambient air by the general public. Developed PALs are evaluated both by a US EPA working group, and an external multidisciplinary panel to ensure scientific credibility and wide acceptance. In this Special Issue publication, we present background information on the PAL program, the methodology used in deriving PALs, and the technical support documents for the derivation of PALs for acrylonitrile, hydrogen sulfide, and phosgene. PMID:19814653

  5. Overview of the Standing Operating Procedures (SOP) for the Development of Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs)

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Robert; Bast, Cheryl B; Wood, Carol S; Adeshina, Femi; Ross, Robert Hord

    2009-01-01

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are concentrations in air and drinking water for priority toxic chemicals. This article summarizes the Standing Operating Procedures (SOPs) currently in place for the data-driven development of chemical-specific PALs. To provide consistency and transparency, and to avoid faults of arbitrariness, SOPs were developed for guidance in deriving PAL values. The SOPs for PAL development focus on: 1) data acquisition and analysis, 2) identification of a chemical-specific critical effect, 3) selection of a quantitative point-of-departure (POD), 4) uncertainty analysis and adjustments, 5) exposure duration adjustment and extrapolation, 6) identification of special concerns and issues, and 7) verification, documentation and dissemination of PALs. To avoid uncompromising rigidity in deriving PAL values and to allow for incorporation of new or refined methodologies, the overall procedure is fluid and subject to modification. The purpose of this publication is to provide a summary of these SOPs.

  6. Emerging Voices in a University Pen-Pal Project: Layers of Discovery in Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.; Garan, Elaine M.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how a semester-long pen-pal project enabled 18 participating university language arts students, a class of first graders, their teacher, and the university instructors to become co-learners in meaningful, action research. Discusses insights about writing derived from the children's weekly letters. Presents an assessment rubric charting…

  7. META-ANALYSIS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY LEVEL ( PAL ) DATA FOR U.S. YOUTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper describes analytical research undertaken by EMRB staff to obtain age- and gender-specific distributions of Physical Activity Level (PAL) values for children measured in studies published between 1990-2004 in the clinical nutrition and exercise physiology literatures. ...

  8. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level II Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  9. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Level I Modules.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    These eight learning modules were prepared for parents participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning), which was designed for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting. First, materials for the BEST-PAL volunteer sponsors…

  10. The Polarity Protein Pals1 Regulates Radial Sorting of Axons

    PubMed Central

    Zollinger, Daniel R.; Chang, Kae-Jiun; Baalman, Kelli; Kim, Seonhee

    2015-01-01

    Myelin is essential for rapid and efficient action potential propagation in vertebrates. However, the molecular mechanisms regulating myelination remain incompletely characterized. For example, even before myelination begins in the PNS, Schwann cells must radially sort axons to form 1:1 associations. Schwann cells then ensheathe and wrap axons, and establish polarized, subcellular domains, including apical and basolateral domains, paranodes, and Schmidt-Lanterman incisures. Intriguingly, polarity proteins, such as Pals1/Mpp5, are highly enriched in some of these domains, suggesting that they may regulate the polarity of Schwann cells and myelination. To test this, we generated mice with Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes that lack Pals1. During early development of the PNS, Pals1-deficient mice had impaired radial sorting of axons, delayed myelination, and reduced nerve conduction velocities. Although myelination and conduction velocities eventually recovered, polyaxonal myelination remained a prominent feature of adult Pals1-deficient nerves. Despite the enrichment of Pals1 at paranodes and incisures of control mice, nodes of Ranvier and paranodes were unaffected in Pals1-deficient mice, although we measured a significant increase in the number of incisures. As in other polarized cells, we found that Pals1 interacts with Par3 and loss of Pals1 reduced levels of Par3 in Schwann cells. In the CNS, loss of Pals1 affected neither myelination nor the establishment of polarized membrane domains. These results demonstrate that Schwann cells and oligodendrocytes use distinct mechanisms to control their polarity, and that radial sorting in the PNS is a key polarization event that requires Pals1. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT This paper reveals the role of the canonical polarity protein Pals1 in radial sorting of axons by Schwann cells. Radial sorting is essential for efficient and proper myelination and is disrupted in some types of congenital muscular dystrophy. PMID:26203142

  11. Reader Pals.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayres, Linda; Wainess, Didi

    1989-01-01

    Reader Pals is a cross-age, whole language, independent, daily reading program designed to supplement existing reading curricula and to enrich daily lessons. A younger child is paired with an older child for a year. Program planning and implementation are discussed, and activities based on a dinosaur theme are suggested. (IAH)

  12. PALS in mathematics classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karim, Mariathy; Mohammed, Siti Rosiah; Bosli, Fazillah; Abdullah, Nurhidayah Masni; Mahat, Aishah; Dasman, Anisah; Tarmuji, Nor Habibah; Ahmad, Salimah

    2014-07-01

    Peer Asissted Learning Strategies (PALS) is a type of cooperative learning where high and low performing students are gathered into a small group to achieve common goals and improve individual's understanding. The objectives of this study are to investigate students' perception about PALS and to identify optional methods to improve the technique for future implementation. The Mengubah Destini Anak Bangsa (MDAB) students selected for this study were from pre diploma level of studies in the Pre-Commerce Program. Cluster sampling was used to randomly select eight out of ten groups. Ninety nine students in the selected group became the respondents. Three groups were identified as Experimental Group (EG) and another five groups as Control Group (CG). A Diagnostic Test was given to all ten groups of students during the first week of class. Students in EG were given instructions using PALS. At the end of the semester, questionnaires were distributed to students in EG and analyzed. This study revealed that students had positive responses to PALS and a few suggestions from students to improve PALS were obtained.

  13. PAL: Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2016-06-01

    The PAL library is a partial re-implementation of Pat Wallace's popular SLALIB library written in C using a Gnu GPL license and layered on top of the IAU's SOFA library (or the BSD-licensed ERFA) where appropriate. PAL attempts to stick to the SLA C API where possible.

  14. 30 CFR 62.120 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action level. 62.120 Section 62.120 Mineral... OCCUPATIONAL NOISE EXPOSURE § 62.120 Action level. If during any work shift a miner's noise exposure equals or exceeds the action level the mine operator must enroll the miner in a hearing conservation program...

  15. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2...

  16. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  17. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  18. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level... monitoring. (b) If an airborne concentration of beryllium is at or above the action level, the...

  19. 10 CFR 850.23 - Action level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Action level. 850.23 Section 850.23 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CHRONIC BERYLLIUM DISEASE PREVENTION PROGRAM Specific Program Requirements § 850.23 Action level. (a) The responsible employer must include in its CBDPP an action level that is no greater than 0.2 µg/m3, calculated as an 8-hour TWA exposure,...

  20. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  1. Novel anti-melanogenic hexapeptoids, PAL-10 and PAL-12.

    PubMed

    Lee, Miri; Park, Hyeonji; Jeon, Sea Wha; Bang, JeongKyu; Chung, Ka Young; Choi, Dal Woong; Kim, EunJoo; Lim, Kyung-Min

    2015-04-01

    Diverse compound sources are being explored for de-pigmentation activities to develop novel therapeutic agents or functional cosmetic ingredients for hyper-pigmentation disorders. Peptoids are a class of peptidomimetics whose side chains are appended to the nitrogen atom of the peptide backbone, instead of α-carbon. Peptoids are more durable against proteolysis and are being actively investigated in drug discovery, but rarely studied as cosmetic ingredients. Here, we demonstrated that new hexa-peptoids, PAL-10 and PAL-12, can inhibit melanogenesis in B16F10 melanoma cells, a 3D pigmented human skin model (Neoderm(®)-ME, Tegoscience Co) and zebrafish. Anti-melanogenic effects of PAL-10 or PAL-12 as compared with arbutin, a positive control in B16F10 cells, Neoderm(®)-ME and zebrafish were statistically significant and concentration-dependent anti-melanogenic effects were manifested as determined by image, histology, and melanin contents. Anti-melanogenic effects of PAL-10 appeared to be from enzymatic inhibition of tyrosinase while mRNA expression of melanogenic enzymes was not affected. In conclusion, we demonstrated that PAL-10 and PAL-12 can be used as a new cosmetic ingredient with strong brightening efficacies. PMID:25753002

  2. PAL: A Positional Astronomy Library

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jenness, T.; Berry, D. S.

    2013-10-01

    PAL is a new positional astronomy library written in C that attempts to retain the SLALIB API but is distributed with an open source GPL license. The library depends on the IAU SOFA library wherever a SOFA routine exists and uses the most recent nutation and precession models. Currently about 100 of the 200 SLALIB routines are available. Interfaces are also available from Perl and Python. PAL is freely available via github.

  3. Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert F.

    2006-02-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) oversees numerous sites on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and other locations in the State of Nevada that have been impacted by activities related to the development and testing of nuclear devices and by other activities. NNSA/NSO is responsible for protecting members of the public, including site workers, from harmful exposure to both chemical and radiological contaminants at these sites as they remediate these sites. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) is the primary state agency responsible for protection of human health and the environment with respect to chemical and radiological wastes. In 1996 the DOE, U.S. Department of Defense, and the State of Nevada entered into an agreement known as the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Appendix VI to the FFACO describes the strategy employed to plan, implement, and complete environmental corrective action activities at NTS and other locations in the state of Nevada. One of the categories of corrective action units (CAUs) is Industrial Sites, which consists of approximately 1,150 locations that may require some level of investigation and corrective action. To evaluate the need for the extent of corrective action at a particular site, NNSA/NSO assesses the potential impacts to receptors by comparing measurements of contaminant concentrations to risk-based (chemical) and dose-based (radionuclide) standards (action levels). Preliminary action levels (PALs) are established as part of the data quality objective (DQO) process, and are presented in one or more FFACO documents generated as part of the corrective action process. This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process NNSA/NSO Industrial Sites Project uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process establishes final action levels (FALs) based on the risk

  4. Status of PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kang, H.-S.; Kim, K.-W.; Ko, I. S.

    2015-05-01

    The PAL-XFEL, a 0.1-nm hard X-ray FEL facility consisting of a 10-GeV S-band linac, is being constructed in Pohang, South Korea. Its building construction was completed at the end of 2014. The major procurement contracts were complete for the critical components of S-band linac modules and undulators. The installation of linac, undulator, and beam line will be completed by 2015. The commissioning will get started in January 2016 aiming for the first lasing in 2016. We will report the current status, construction progress, and commissioning plans for the PAL XFEL project, including major subsystem preparations.

  5. Pen Pals: Practicing Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lampe, Kristen A.; Uselmann, Linda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes a semester-long pen-pal project in which preservice teachers composed mathematical problems and the middle school students worked for solutions. The college students assessed the solution and the middle school students provided feedback regarding the problem itself. (Contains 6 figures.)

  6. Action Research: Improving Graduate-Level Writing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Nari

    2012-01-01

    I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…

  7. A design of PAL with astigmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Yefei; Xiang, Huazhong; Zhu, Tianfeng; Chen, Jiabi

    2015-08-01

    Progressive addition lens (PAL) is designed for those who suffer from myopia and presbyopia to have a clear vision from a far distance to a nearby distance. Additionally there are many people that also suffer from astigmatism and need to be corrected. The cylinder power can't be simply added to the diopter of the PAL directly, because the diopter of the PAL needs to be changed smoothly. A methods has been proposed in this article to solve the problem, the freeform surface height of a PAL without astigmatism and the cylindrical lens surface height for the correction of astigmatism are calculated separately. The both two surface heights were added together, then the final surface is produced and shown with the both properties of PALs and cylindrical lenses used to correct the astigmatism.

  8. Scientists, educators, and national standards: Action at the local level

    SciTech Connect

    1994-04-01

    This volume contains full papers presented at the Forum entitled Scientists, Educators, and National Standards- Action at the Local Level held April 14-15, 1994. Records for the database have been prepared for the individual reports contained herein.

  9. Bidwell Pre-Computer Literacy Program. An Evaluation of IBM's Principle of the Alphabet Literacy System (PALS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Njie, Valerie; Cramer, Elizabeth

    The Bidwell Training Center, Inc., in Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, evaluated the effectiveness of IBM's Principle of the Alphabet Literacy System (PALS), an interactive instructional program to teach adolescents and adults writing and reading skills. Bidwell's goal was to use PALS to teach large numbers of adults who read below the fifth-grade level.…

  10. Regulation of a phenylalanine ammonia lyase (BbPAL) by calmodulin in response to environmental changes in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jiyoung; Park, Hyesung; Han, Jae-Gu; Oh, Junsang; Choi, Hyung-Kyoon; Kim, Seong Hwan; Sung, Gi-Ho

    2015-11-01

    Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, E.C. 4.3.1.5) catalyses the deamination of L -phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid and ammonia, facilitating a critical step in the phenylpropanoid pathway that produces a variety of secondary metabolites. In this study, we isolated BbPAL gene in the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana. According to multiple sequence alignment, homology modelling and in vitro PAL activity, we demonstrated that BbPAL acts as a typical PAL enzyme in B. bassiana. BbPAL interacted with calmodulin (CaM) in vitro and in vivo, indicating that BbPAL is a novel CaM-binding protein. The functional role of CaM in BbPAL action was to negatively regulate the BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis revealed that L -phenylalanine was reduced and trans-cinnamic acid was increased in response to the CaM inhibitor W-7. Dark conditions suppressed BbPAL activity in B. bassiana, compared with light. In addition, heat and cold stresses inhibited BbPAL activity in B. bassiana. Interestingly, these negative effects of BbPAL activity by dark, heat and cold conditions were recovered by W-7 treatment, suggesting that the inhibitory mechanism is mediated through stimulation of CaM activity. Therefore, this work suggests that BbPAL plays a role in the phenylpropanoid pathway mediated by environmental stimuli via the CaM signalling pathway. PMID:25970691

  11. Action recognition depends on observer's level of action control and social personality traits.

    PubMed

    Ondobaka, Sasha; Newman-Norlund, Roger D; de Lange, Floris P; Bekkering, Harold

    2013-01-01

    Humans recognize both the movement (physical) goals and action (conceptual) goals of individuals with whom they are interacting. Here, we assessed whether spontaneous recognition of others' goals depends on whether the observers control their own behavior at the movement or action level. We also examined the relationship between individual differences in empathy and ASD-like traits, and the processing of other individual's movement and action goals that are known to be encoded in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" brain networks. In order to address these questions, we used a computer-based card paradigm that made it possible to independently manipulate movement and action congruency of observed and executed actions. In separate blocks, participants were instructed to select either the right or left card (movement-control condition) or the higher or lower card (action-control condition), while we manipulated action- and movement-congruency of both actors' goals. An action-congruency effect was present in all conditions and the size of this effect was significantly correlated with self-reported empathy and ASD-like traits. In contrast, movement-congruency effects were only present in the movement-control block and were strongly dependent on action-congruency. These results illustrate that spontaneous recognition of others' behavior depends on the control scheme that is currently adopted by the observer. The findings suggest that deficits in action recognition are related to abnormal synthesis of perceived movements and prior conceptual knowledge that are associated with activations in the "mirroring" and "mentalizing" cortical networks. PMID:24303046

  12. Volume rendering using parallel algebraic logic (PAL) hardware

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongzheng; Shi, Hongchi; Coffield, Patrick C.

    1997-09-01

    In this paper, we present the implementation of a volume graphics rendering algorithm using shift-restoration operations on parallel algebraic logic (PAL) image processor. The algorithm is a parallel ray casting algorithm. In order to eliminate shading artifacts caused by inaccurate estimation of surface normal vectors, we use gray level volume instead of binary volume, and apply a low pass filter to smooth the volume object surfaces. By transforming the volume to an intermediate coordinate system to which there is a simple mapping from the object coordinate system, we solve the data redistribution problem caused by nonregular data access patterns in volume rendering. It has been proved very effective in reducing the data communication cost of the rendering algorithm on the PAL hardware.

  13. U.S. Homes Above EPA's Radon Action Level

    EPA Science Inventory

    This indicator presents the estimated number of homes with indoor radon levels over EPA's radon action level—the recommended maximum concentration for indoor radon—and the number of homes with operating radon mitigation systems. Radon is a human carcinogen that seeps into base...

  14. Dissociating crossmodal and verbal demands in paired associate learning (PAL): what drives the PAL-reading relationship?

    PubMed

    Litt, Robin A; de Jong, Peter F; van Bergen, Elsje; Nation, Kate

    2013-05-01

    Recent research suggests that visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) may tap a crossmodal associative learning mechanism that plays a distinct role in reading development. However, evidence from children with dyslexia indicates that deficits in visual-verbal PAL are strongly linked to the verbal demands of the task. The primary aim of this study was to disassociate the role of modality and verbal demand in driving the PAL-reading relationship. To do so, we compared performance across four PAL mapping conditions: visual-verbal, verbal-verbal, visual-visual and verbal-visual. We reasoned that if crossmodal mapping demand accounts for the PAL-reading relationship, both visual-verbal PAL and verbal-visual PAL should exhibit significant relationships with reading ability. The results were incompatible with the crossmodal hypothesis. Only tasks requiring verbal output (visual-verbal PAL and verbal-verbal PAL) significantly correlated with reading ability. In addition, visual-verbal PAL and verbal-verbal PAL were well represented by a latent "verbal output PAL" factor. Structural equation modeling showed that this factor fully accounted for the PAL-reading relationship; visual-verbal PAL did not add anything to the prediction of reading above and beyond this latent factor. The results are interpreted according to an alternative verbal account of the PAL-reading relationship. PMID:23403229

  15. Action and perception at the level of synergies.

    PubMed

    Turvey, M T

    2007-08-01

    Meeting the challenge of assembling coherent organizations of very many muscles characterizes a functional level of biological movement systems referred to as the level of muscular-articular links or synergies. The present article examines the issues confronting the forming, regulating, and ordering of synergies and the hypothesized principles, both classical and contemporary, which resolve them. A primary goal of the article is to highlight the abstractness of the concepts and tools required to understand the level's action-perception competence. Coverage is given to symmetry groups, task space, order parameters, metastability, biotensegrity, allometric scaling, and impredicative definitions. PMID:17604860

  16. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  17. Gondwana events and pal˦ogeography:A pal˦omagnetic review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grunow, Anne M.

    Several important tectonic episodes stand out in Gondwana's major and microplatemotions: (1) Gondwana assembly; (2) the general movement of Gondwana towards higher latitudes in the Pal˦ozoic; (3) the influence of terranes on Gondwana Mesozoic break-up motions; and (4) Mesozoic-Cenozoic terrane motion along Gondwana's convergent margins. Current palaeomagnetic data indicate that the various fragments of Gondwana were assembled between ˜900 and ˜500 Ma. After assembly, the East Gondwana portion of Gondwana moved from more equatorial latitudes in the Early Pal˦ozoic into much higher latitudes by the Late Pal˦ozoic, whereas that of West Gondwana was the opposite. This overall motion and concomitant climatic change had a profound influence on the pal˦oevolution of different Gondwana faunas and floras in the Pal˦ozoic. During the Palaeozoic and Mesozoic, convergence along the Gondwana margin resulted in accretion of various microplates. By the Early to Mid-Jurassic, pal˦omagnetic data suggest that terrane motion along the pal˦o-Pacific margin of Gondwana was related to the initial break-up of the supercontinent. This motion, especially in West Antarctica and New Zealand, caused the intermittent occurrence of palaeoseaways and landbridges between East and West Gondwana. In the Tertiary, collision of India and Africa with Eurasia caused significant local rotations associated with regional deformation.

  18. Preliminary Evidence on the Social Standing of Students with Learning Disabilities in PALS and No-PALS Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Douglas; Fuchs, Lynn S.; Mathes, Patricia G.; Martinez, Elizabeth A.

    2002-01-01

    A study collected sociometric data in 39 second- through sixth-grade classrooms, 22 of which were engaged in Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS), a form of peer tutoring. Students with learning disabilities in PALS classes were more socially accepted than those in no-PALS classes and enjoyed the same social standing as controls. (Contains…

  19. Logic synthesis strategy based on BDD decomposition and PAL-oriented optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opara, Adam; Kania, Dariusz

    2015-12-01

    A new strategy of logic synthesis for PAL-based CPLDs is presented in the paper. This approach consists of an original method of two-stage BDD-based decomposition and a two-level PAL-oriented optimization. The aim of the proposed approach is oriented towards balanced (speed/area) optimization. The first element of the strategy is original PAL-oriented decomposition. This decomposition consists in the sequential search for an input partition providing the feasibility for implementation of the free block in one PAL-based logic block containing a predefined number of product terms. The presented non-standard decomposition provides a means to minimize the area of the implemented circuit and to reduce of the necessary logic blocks in the programmable structure. The second element of the proposed logic synthesis strategy is oriented towards speed optimization. This optimization is based on utilizing tri-state buffers. Results of experiments prove that the presented synthesis strategy is especially effective for CPLD structures, which consist of PAL-based logic blocks containing a low number of product terms.

  20. Investigation of the low-level modulated light action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antonov, Sergei N.; Sotnikov, V. N.; Koreneva, L. G.

    1994-07-01

    Now there exists no clear complete knowledge about mechanisms and pathways by which low level laser bioactivation works. Modulated laser light action has been investigated two new ways: dynamical infrared thermography and computing image of living brain. These ways permit observation in real time laser action on peripheral blood flow, reflex reactions to functional probes, thermoregulation mechanisms as well as brain electrical activity changes of humans. We have designed a universal apparatus which produced all regimes of the output laser light. It has a built-in He-Ne laser with an acousto-optic modulator and an infrared GaAs laser. The device provided spatial combination of both the light beams and permitted us to irradiate an object both separately and simultaneously. This research shows that the most effective frequencies range from several to dozens of hertz. The duty factor and frequency scanning are also important. On the basis of these results in Russian clinics new treatment methods using modulated light are applied in practical neurology, gynecology, etc.

  1. Maternal and child undernutrition: effective action at national level.

    PubMed

    Bryce, Jennifer; Coitinho, Denise; Darnton-Hill, Ian; Pelletier, David; Pinstrup-Andersen, Per

    2008-02-01

    80% of the world's undernourished children live in just 20 countries. Intensified nutrition action in these countries can lead to achievement of the first Millennium Development Goal (MDG) and greatly increase the chances of achieving goals for child and maternal mortality (MDGs 4 and 5). Despite isolated successes in specific countries or for interventions--eg, iodised salt and vitamin A supplementation--most countries with high rates of undernutrition are failing to reach undernourished mothers and children with effective interventions supported by appropriate policies. This paper reports on an assessment of actions addressing undernutrition in the countries with the highest burden of undernutrition, drawing on systematic reviews and best-practice reports. Seven key challenges for addressing undernutrition at national level are defined and reported on: getting nutrition on the list of priorities, and keeping it there; doing the right things; not doing the wrong things; acting at scale; reaching those in need; data-based decisionmaking; and building strategic and operational capacity. Interventions with proven effectiveness that are selected by countries should be rapidly implemented at scale. The period from pregnancy to 24 months of age is a crucial window of opportunity for reducing undernutrition and its adverse effects. Programme efforts, as well as monitoring and assessment, should focus on this segment of the continuum of care. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions unlikely to be effective in the context of country or local realities. Nutrition resources should not be used to support actions that have not been proven to have a direct effect on undernutrition, such as stand-alone growth monitoring or school feeding programmes. In addition to health and nutrition interventions, economic and social policies addressing poverty, trade, and agriculture that have been associated with rapid improvements in nutritional status should be

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No. 0

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Boehlecke

    2004-04-01

    The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC specifically discusses the radiological PALs and their application to the findings of the CAU 204 corrective action investigation. The scope of this CADD consists of the following: (1) Develop corrective action objectives; (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria; (3) Develop corrective action alternatives; (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of corrective action alternatives in relation to corrective action objectives and screening criteria; and (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204.

  3. 75 FR 47856 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-09

    ... COMMISSION Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment AGENCY: Nuclear.... Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making available for comment Emergency Action Level (EAL... pdr.resource@nrc.gov . The ADAMS accession number for the Draft Emergency Action Level...

  4. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  5. Using Action Research to Improve Student Engagement in a Peer-Assisted Learning Programme

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hodgson, Yvonne; Benson, Robyn; Brack, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The benefits of students learning together in peer-assisted learning (PAL) programmes have been widely reported. Implementing and evaluating PAL programmes provide specific challenges for academic staff. This paper explains how action research was used to design, trial and refine a same-year PAL programme to enhance student engagement. The PAL…

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (December 2002, Revision No.: 0), Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NSO

    2002-12-12

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 204 is located on the Nevada Test Site approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) which include: 01-34-01, Underground Instrument House Bunker; 02-34-01, Instrument Bunker; 03-34-01, Underground Bunker; 05-18-02, Chemical Explosives Storage; 05-33-01, Kay Blockhouse; 05-99-02, Explosive Storage Bunker. Based on site history, process knowledge, and previous field efforts, contaminants of potential concern for Corrective Action Unit 204 collectively include radionuclides, beryllium, high explosives, lead, polychlorinated biphenyls, total petroleum hydrocarbons, silver, warfarin, and zinc phosphide. The primary question for the investigation is: ''Are existing data sufficient to evaluate appropriate corrective actions?'' To address this question, resolution of two decision statements is required. Decision I is to ''Define the nature of contamination'' by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); Decision II is to ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. If PALs are not exceeded, the investigation is completed. If PALs are exceeded, then Decision II must be resolved. In addition, data will be obtained to support waste management decisions. Field activities will include radiological land area surveys, geophysical surveys to identify any subsurface metallic and nonmetallic debris, field screening for applicable contaminants of potential concern, collection and analysis of surface and subsurface soil samples from biased locations, and step-out sampling to define the extent of

  7. PAL-DS MODEL: THE PAL MODEL INCLUDING DEPOSITION AND SEDIMENTATION. USER'S GUIDE

    EPA Science Inventory

    PAL is an acronym for an air quality model which applies a Gaussian plume diffusion algorithm to point, area, and line sources. The model is available from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency and can be used for estimating hourly and short-term average concentrations of non-...

  8. Atomic-level Snapshot Catches Protein Motor in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    Using a state-of-the-art protein crystallography beamline at Berkeley Labs Advanced Light Source, researchers have captured a critical action shapshot of an enzyme that is vital to the survival of all biological cells.

  9. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-01-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, “why” an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific “how” details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  10. Dysregulation in level of goal and action identification across psychological disorders.

    PubMed

    Watkins, Edward

    2011-03-01

    Goals, events, and actions can be mentally represented within a hierarchical framework that ranges from more abstract to more concrete levels of identification. A more abstract level of identification involves general, superordinate, and decontextualized mental representations that convey the meaning of goals, events, and actions, "why" an action is performed, and its purpose, ends, and consequences. A more concrete level of identification involves specific and subordinate mental representations that include contextual details of goals, events, and actions, and the specific "how" details of an action. This review considers three lines of evidence for considering that dysregulation of level of goal/action identification may be a transdiagnostic process. First, there is evidence that different levels of identification have distinct functional consequences and that in non-clinical samples level of goal/action identification appears to be regulated in a flexible and adaptive way to match the level of goal/action identification to circumstances. Second, there is evidence that level of goal/action identification causally influences symptoms and processes involved in psychological disorders, including emotional response, repetitive thought, impulsivity, problem solving and procrastination. Third, there is evidence that the level of goal/action identification is biased and/or dysregulated in certain psychological disorders, with a bias towards more abstract identification for negative events in depression, GAD, PTSD, and social anxiety. PMID:20579789

  11. Guide for Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) Group Facilitators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arendale, David R., Ed.; Lilly, Mary, Ed.

    2014-01-01

    The Peer Assisted Learning (PAL) program at the University of Minnesota is a primary academic support program for historically difficult, introductory college courses that serve as gatekeepers to academic degree programs. This document is the training manual used for the new PAL facilitators that manage the small study groups. Based upon operating…

  12. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS): a probe for molecular organisation in self-assembled biomimetic systems.

    PubMed

    Fong, Celesta; Dong, Aurelia W; Hill, Anita J; Boyd, Ben J; Drummond, Calum J

    2015-07-21

    Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) has been shown to be highly sensitive to conformational, structural and microenvironmental transformations arising from subtle geometric changes in molecular geometry in self-assembling biomimetic systems. The ortho-positronium (oPs) may be considered an active probe that can provide information on intrinsic packing and mobility within low molecular weight solids, viscous liquids, and soft matter systems. In this perspective we provide a critical overview of the literature in this field, including the evolution of analysis software and experimental protocols with commentary upon the practical utility of PALS. In particular, we discuss how PALS can provide unique insight into the macroscopic transport properties of several porous biomembrane-like nanostructures and suggest how this insight may provide information on the release of drugs from these matrices to aid in developing therapeutic interventions. We discuss the potentially exciting and fruitful application of this technique to membrane dynamics, diffusion and permeability. We propose that PALS can provide novel molecular level information that is complementary to conventional characterisation techniques. PMID:25948334

  13. Dissociating Crossmodal and Verbal Demands in Paired Associate Learning (PAL): What Drives the PAL-Reading Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Litt, Robin A.; de Jong, Peter F.; van Bergen, Elsje; Nation, Kate

    2013-01-01

    Recent research suggests that visual-verbal paired associate learning (PAL) may tap a crossmodal associative learning mechanism that plays a distinct role in reading development. However, evidence from children with dyslexia indicates that deficits in visual-verbal PAL are strongly linked to the verbal demands of the task. The primary aim of this…

  14. Neuroprotective effects of (Val8)GLP-1-Glu-PAL in the MPTP Parkinson's disease mouse model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, YanFang; Chen, YiMei; Li, Lin; Hölscher, Christian

    2015-10-15

    Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a hormone and a growth factor. GLP-1 mimetics are currently on the market as treatments for type 2 diabetes. They also have shown neuroprotective properties in animal models of neurodegenerative disorders. In addition, the GLP-1 mimetic exendin-4 has shown protective effects in animal models of Parkinson's disease (PD), and a first clinical trial in PD patients showed promising results. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL is a new GLP-1 analogue which has a longer biological half-life than exendin-4. We previously showed that (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL has neuroprotective properties. Here we tested the drug in the 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. MPTP was injected (30mg/kg i.p.) along with (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL (25nmol/kg i.p.) once-daily for 8 days. (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL showed good effects in preventing the MPTP-induced motor impairment (Rotarod, open field locomotion, swim test), reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase levels (dopamine synthesis) in the substantia nigra, a reduction of activated caspase 3 levels, of TUNEL positive cell numbers, of the pro-apoptotic signaling molecule BAX and an increase in the growth signaling molecule Bcl-2. The results demonstrate that (Val8)GLP-1-glu-PAL shows promise as a novel treatment of PD. PMID:26187689

  15. The Pals Studies of High T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xue-Song

    1992-01-01

    Part A: High T_{c} superconductors. Positron lifetimes in high T _{c} superconductors, YBaCuO(123), BiSrCaCuO(2212) and TlBaCaCuO(2212), have been measured as function of temperature (from 10K to 300K). The temperature dependence of positron lifetime below superconducting transition temperature, T_{c}, may be explained as a result of local charge transfer from Cu-O plane(s). The positron annihilation spectroscopy shows high sensitivity to defects, which may play a crucial role in the materials. Part B: Physical aging of glassy polymers. The combined PALS/mechanical test has been used to investigate the change in microscopic structure of glassy polymers, polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and polycarbonate (PC), as function of temperature, aging, thermal history and plastic deformation. The results confirm the mode ^1 that the plastic straining increases the free volume contents, which is responsible to the strain softening. The PALS measurements show great promise leading to a more fundamental understanding of the nature of glassy polymers. Part C: Positronium in silica aerogel. The ortho - to para-Ps conversion by O_2 as a function of temperature has been studied. The conversion cross section and bounding energy of O_2 to silica aerogel have been obtained and well agree with the results of other investigations. Part D: Development of lifetime spectrometer. Large size (phi40 x 30mm) BaF_2 scintillators are used in our new high efficiency 2gamma/3gamma positron lifetime spectrometer. In its 2gamma mode, the efficiency is at least 10 times higher than plastic scintillators, and a high time resolution of 212 ps is achieved. Its 3gamma mode can be used to detect pure 3gamma annihilation events, and is particularly useful for Ps studies in complex materials, such as polymers. ftn ^1Proposed by M. Boyce and O. Hasan of MIT.

  16. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  17. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  18. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  19. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  20. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  1. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 109.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  2. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF..., regulatory limits, and action levels. (a) When appropriate under the criteria of § 509.6, a tolerance for an... in subpart B of this part under the provisions of section 406 of the act. A tolerance may...

  3. Climbing the goal ladder: how upcoming actions increase level of aspiration.

    PubMed

    Koo, Minjung; Fishbach, Ayelet

    2010-07-01

    Pursuing a series of progressive (e.g., professional) goals that form a goal ladder often leads to a trade-off between moving up to a more advanced level and repeating the same goal level. This article investigates how monitoring one's current goal in terms of remaining actions versus completed actions influences the desire to move up the goal ladder. The authors propose that a focus on remaining (vs. completed) actions increases the motivation to move up to a more advanced level, whereas the focus on completed (vs. remaining) actions increases the satisfaction derived from the present level. They find support for these predictions across several goal ladders, ranging from academic and professional ladders to simple, experimental tasks. They further find that individuals strategically attend to information about remaining (vs. completed) actions to prepare to move up the goal ladder. PMID:20565182

  4. Building Effective Middle Level Teams. Turning Points: Recommendations into Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirsh, Stephanie; Valentine, Jerry W.

    This booklet is the first in a series of monographs developed as a resource for middle-level leaders. It provides practical strategies, procedures, and ideas to enable school leaders to plan and implement programs that will provide opportunities for students to be prepared for high school and beyond. The text focuses on the application of team…

  5. Proposed actions are no actions: re-modeling an ontology design pattern with a realist top-level ontology

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Ontology Design Patterns (ODPs) are representational artifacts devised to offer solutions for recurring ontology design problems. They promise to enhance the ontology building process in terms of flexibility, re-usability and expansion, and to make the result of ontology engineering more predictable. In this paper, we analyze ODP repositories and investigate their relation with upper-level ontologies. In particular, we compare the BioTop upper ontology to the Action ODP from the NeOn an ODP repository. In view of the differences in the respective approaches, we investigate whether the Action ODP can be embedded into BioTop. We demonstrate that this requires re-interpreting the meaning of classes of the NeOn Action ODP in the light of the precepts of realist ontologies. Results As a result, the re-design required clarifying the ontological commitment of the ODP classes by assigning them to top-level categories. Thus, ambiguous definitions are avoided. Classes of real entities are clearly distinguished from classes of information artifacts. The proposed approach avoids the commitment to the existence of unclear future entities which underlies the NeOn Action ODP. Our re-design is parsimonious in the sense that existing BioTop content proved to be largely sufficient to define the different types of actions and plans. Conclusions The proposed model demonstrates that an expressive upper-level ontology provides enough resources and expressivity to represent even complex ODPs, here shown with the different flavors of Action as proposed in the NeOn ODP. The advantage of ODP inclusion into a top-level ontology is the given predetermined dependency of each class, an existing backbone structure and well-defined relations. Our comparison shows that the use of some ODPs is more likely to cause problems for ontology developers, rather than to guide them. Besides the structural properties, the explanation of classification results were particularly hard to grasp for

  6. Using Action Research in Middle Level Teacher Education to Evaluate and Deepen Reflective Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagevik, Rita; Aydeniz, Mehmet; Rowell, C. Glennon

    2012-01-01

    The study examined the role of action research in promoting critical reflective thinking among twenty preservice teachers engaged in a year-long middle level program. Data from collaborative discussions, final written documents, presentations, and follow-up surveys revealed that conducting action research (a) engaged them in inquiry into their own…

  7. 42 CFR 493.1816 - Action when deficiencies are not at the condition level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Action when deficiencies are not at the condition level. 493.1816 Section 493.1816 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION LABORATORY REQUIREMENTS Enforcement Procedures § 493.1816 Action when...

  8. Ultra Stable Capacitor charging Power Supply of Klystron-Modulator for PAL XFEL

    SciTech Connect

    Son, Y. G.; Kwon, S. J.; Jang, S. D.; Suh, J. H.; Oh, J. S.

    2007-01-19

    The PAL (Pohang Accelerator Laboratory) 2.5-GeV linac is planed to be converted to a SASE-XFEL facility (PAL XFEL) that supplies coherent X-rays down to 0.3-nm wavelength. The electron beams has to have an emittance of 1.0 mm-mrad, a peak current of 3 kA, and a low energy spread of 1.0 MeV. In order to provide reasonably stable SASE output, the RF stability of 0.02% rms is required for both RF phase and amplitude. This stability is mainly determined by a low level RF drive system and klystron-modulators. The stability level of the modulator has to be improved 10 times better to meet the pulse stability of 0.02%. This is a technologically challenging issue for PAL XFEL. An inverter technology is to be applied to charge the PFN of a new modulator. Therefore, a new inverter system should provide very stable charging performances. This paper presents the development of an ultra stable klystron-modulator with an inverter power.

  9. Overcoming Obstacles Posed by "NCLB": When Preservice Teachers and Special Needs Children Pen Pal with Each Other

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceprano, Maria A.; Sivret, Pamela

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes a pen pal partnership experience wherein undergraduate teacher education candidates enrolled in a Reading Language Arts Methods course and exchanged a series of 6-8 letters with elementary level children designated as having special needs. The project resulted in a number of benefits for both the children and the teacher…

  10. 77 FR 63355 - Proposed Revision to Emergency Action Level Development Guidance Document

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC or the Commission) is making available for comment a proposed revision to the Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) 99-01, proposed Revision 6, ``Development of Emergency Action Levels for Non-Passive Reactors,'' dated September 2012. This document is intended to be used by the industry in the development of an emergency action level (EAL) scheme. The NRC......

  11. The Pal pathway required for ambient pH adaptation regulates growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of Beauveria bassiana in a pH-dependent manner.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Ying, Sheng-Hua; Feng, Ming-Guang

    2016-05-01

    The Pal/Rim pathway essential for fungal adaptation to ambient pH has been unexplored in Beauveria bassiana, a classic fungal entomopathogen. Here, we show the characterized Pal pathway comprising transcription factor PacC and upstream six Pal partners (PalA/B/C/F/H/I) in B. bassiana. Their coding genes were all transcribed most abundantly in standard wild-type culture under the alkaline condition of pH 9. Deletion of pacC or each pal gene resulted in a significant delay of culture acidification in a minimal broth (initial pH = 7.3). This delay concurred with altered accumulation levels of intra/extracellular organic acids and drastically depressed expression of some enzyme genes required for the syntheses of oxalic and lactic acids. Our deletion mutants except ΔpalI showed growth defects and maximal sensitivity to NaCl, KCl, LiCl, or sorbitol at pH 9, an alkaline condition leading to fragmented vacuoles in their hyphal cells exposed to osmotic stress. In these mutants, conidiation was significantly facilitated at pH 3 more than at pH 7 but suppressed slightly at pH 9. Mild virulence defects also occurred in the absence of pacC or any pal gene. These changes were restored by targeted gene complementation. Taken together, PacC and Pal partners regulate the growth, conidiation, and osmotolerance of B. bassiana in a pH-dependent manner, highlighting their vitality for the fungal pH response. PMID:26754817

  12. Corrective Action Decision for Corrective Action Unit 407. Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2000-09-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407, Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on Tonopah Test Range (TTR), CAU 407 is located approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and five miles south of Area 3. The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. As a result of these operations, the surface and subsurface soils in the area have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern associated with decontamination activities. In June and July 1998, corrective action investigation activities were performed at CAU 407 (as outlined in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan [CAIP]). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if any analytes were present at the site in concentrations above the preliminary action levels (PALs). The results indicated in the detection of plutonium above the PAL in samples taken from surface and subsurface soil within the exclusion zone, and uranium and americium detected above the PAL in samples taken from surface soil within the exclusion zone. No other COCs were identified above PALs specified in the CAIP. Based on this data, two corrective action objectives(CAOs)were defined: (1)to prevent or mitigate human exposure to surface and subsurface soil containing COCs, and (2) to prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. To accomplish these objectives, five CAAs were developed and evaluated. Based on the results of the detailed and comparative analysis of these alternatives, Alternative 3 (Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls With a Surface Cap) was chosen as the preferred alternative. This alternative was

  13. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses an active quorum sensing regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Bertini, Elisa V; Nieto Peñalver, Carlos G; Leguina, Ana C; Irazusta, Verónica P; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    The endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus colonizes a broad range of host plants. Its plant growth-promoting capability is related to the capacity to perform biological nitrogen fixation, the biosynthesis of siderophores, antimicrobial substances and the solubilization of mineral nutrients. Colonization of and survival in these endophytic niche requires a complex regulatory network. Among these, quorum sensing systems (QS) are signaling mechanisms involved in the control of several genes related to microbial interactions, host colonization and stress survival. G. diazotrophicus PAL5 possesses a QS composed of a luxR and a luxI homolog, and produces eight molecules from the AHL family as QS signals. In this report data are provided showing that glucose concentration modifies the relative levels of these signal molecules. The activity of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 QS is also altered in presence of other carbon sources and under saline stress conditions. Inactivation of the QS system of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 by means of a quorum quenching strategy allowed the identification of extracellular and intracellular proteins under the control of this regulatory mechanism. PMID:24974195

  14. AstroPAL: A Mentoring Program for Grad Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabrera, Nicole

    2016-01-01

    The Astronomy Peer Advising Leaders program (AstroPAL) provides guidance for incoming grad students from a team of student volunteers who have passed their 2nd year Qualifier Exam. The purpose is to pair first years with a mentor who can help them through some of the stresses or difficulties that come with being a new grad student. AstroPALs and mentees meet privately about once a month in a casual setting to talk about how they're adjusting to the new surroundings, how they're handling the workload, etc. New students can join AstroPAL at any time during their first two years, and can stop receiving guidance once they feel comfortable in the program. Mentees will be assigned an AstroPAL based on preference and availability, and an AstroPAL Liason will always be in place to facilitate mentor reassignments or other issues if necessary. After passing the 2nd year Qualifier Exam, mentees are eligible to serve as mentors to incoming students.

  15. From action representation to action execution: exploring the links between cognitive and biomechanical levels of motor control

    PubMed Central

    Land, William M.; Volchenkov, Dima; Bläsing, Bettina E.; Schack, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Along with superior performance, research indicates that expertise is associated with a number of mediating cognitive adaptations. To this extent, extensive practice is associated with the development of general and task-specific mental representations, which play an important role in the organization and control of action. Recently, new experimental methods have been developed, which allow for investigating the organization and structure of these representations, along with the functional structure of the movement kinematics. In the current article, we present a new approach for examining the overlap between skill representations and motor output. In doing so, we first present an architecture model, which addresses links between biomechanical and cognitive levels of motor control. Next, we review the state of the art in assessing memory structures underlying complex action. Following we present a new spatio-temporal decomposition method for illuminating the functional structure of movement kinematics, and finally, we apply these methods to investigate the overlap between the structure of motor representations in memory and their corresponding kinematic structures. Our aim is to understand the extent to which the output at a kinematic level is governed by representations at a cognitive level of motor control. PMID:24065915

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 266: Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 266, Area 25 Building 3124 Leachfield, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 266 includes Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-09. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report were combined into one report because sample data collected during the corrective action investigation (CAI) indicated that contaminants of concern (COCs) were either not present in the soil, or present at concentrations not requiring corrective action. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's recommendation that no corrective action was necessary for CAU 266. From February through May 1999, CAI activities were performed as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Analytes detected during the three-stage CAI of CAU 266 were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine COCs, and the analysis of the data generated from soil collection activities indicated the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile/semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium/plutonium, and strontium-90 for any of the samples. However, COCs were identified in samples from within the septic tank and distribution box; and the isotopic americium concentrations in the two soil samples did exceed PALs. Closure activities were performed at the site to address the COCs identified in the septic tank and distribution box. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 266 because the CAI revealed soil contamination to be less than the 100 millirems per year limit established by DOE Order 5400.5.

  17. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks. PMID:26117505

  18. Action recognition by mid-level discriminative spatial-temporal volume

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Feifei; Sang, Nong

    2013-10-01

    Most of recent work on action recognition in video employ action parts, attributes etc. as mid- and high-level features to represent an action. However, these action parts, attributes subject to some aspects of weak discrimination and being difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present an approach that uses mid-level discriminative Spatial-Temporal Volume to recognize human actions. The spatial-temporal volume is represented by a Feature Graph which is constructed beyond on a local collection of feature points (e.g., cuboids, STIP) located in the corresponding spatial-temporal volume. Firstly, we densely sampling spatial-temporal volumes from training videos and construct a feature graph for each volume. Then, all feature graphs are clustered using spectral cluster method. We regard feature graphs as video words and characterize videos with the bag-of-features framework which we call it the bag-of-feature-graphs framework. While, in the process of clustering, the distance between two feature graphs is computed using an efficient spectral method. Final recognition is accomplished using a linear-SVM classifier. We test our algorithm in a publicly available human action dataset, the experimental results show the effectiveness of our method.

  19. Pen Pal Writing: A Holistic and Socio-Cultural Approach to Adult English Literacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larrotta, Clarena; Serrano, Arlene F.

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative study reports the findings implementing a pen pal letter exchange project between adult English language learners and volunteer native English speakers. The pen pal project was implemented using a holistic and socio-cultural approach to English literacy development. This article presents pen pal writing as an authentic language…

  20. Peer Assistance and Leadership (PAL) Program. Program Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, H. Grant, Jr.

    This document describes the Peer Assistance and Leadership (PAL) Program, a peer helping program developed by the Austin Independent School District in Austin, Texas. It explains how selected high school students are trained to work as peer facilitators with younger students either on their own campus or from feeder junior high or elementary…

  1. Project PAL Resources. Procedures Manual. Tutor Training Manual. Tutor Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Centre County Vocational-Technical School, Pleasant Gap, PA. CIU 10 Bi-County Development Center for Adults.

    This document contains the final report of Project PAL (Pennsylvania Adult Literacy), designed to address staff development needs at a Pennsylvania adult literacy center, and three manuals: a tutor training resource manual for use by coordinators in developing a 9.5 hour tutor-training session, a tutor handbook for volunteers, and a coordinator's…

  2. Estimation of Soil Moisture With Dual-Frequency-PALS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of this study is to evaluate whether the NASA/JPL dual frequency airborne system, Passive Active L-band and S-band (PALS), can provide a reliable soil moisture measurements so that they can be integrated to provide soil moisture data at the scales of the spaceborne coarse resolutions. Th...

  3. S-band accelerating structures for the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Heung-Soo; Park, Young Jung; Joo, Young-Do; Heo, Hoon; Heo, Jinyul; Kim, Sang-Hee; Park, Soung-Soo; Hwang, Woon Ha; Kang, Heung-Sik; Kim, Kwang-woo; Ko, In-Soo; Oh, Kyoung-Min; Noh, Sung-Joo; Bak, Yong Hwan; Matsumoto, Hiroshi

    2015-02-01

    One hundred seventy-two accelerating structures are required for the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray free-electron laser's (PAL-XFEL's) 10-GeV main linear accelerator. So far, we have purchased 80 structures from Mitsubishi Heavy Industry (MHI), which have quasi-symmetric couplers in the accelerating structure to reduce the quadruple and the sextuple components of the electric field in the coupling cavity. High-power tests have been conducted for the first structure of the MHI structure, and Research Instruments (RI) has developed a 3-m long accelerating structure that has an operating frequency of 2856 MHz and in/out couplers of quasi-symmetric racetrack shape for the PAL-XFEL linear accelerator. This structure also has been tested by PAL and RI in the Pohang accelerator laboratory (PAL) to check the maximum available electric field gradient. We will describe the test results of these structures and the current status for the fabrication of the other accelerating structures in this paper.

  4. A Pen Pal Project Connects Preservice Teachers and Urban Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfong, Lori G.; Oberhauser, Casey

    2012-01-01

    This article describes a pen pal project that took place between preservice teachers and students in an urban middle school. The purpose of this project was twofold: to expose preservice teachers to the rewards of urban teaching and to expose urban middle school students to adult reading role models. As a result of the project, both goals were…

  5. Content Analysis Schedule for Bilingual Education Programs: Proyecto PAL.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez, Castor

    This content analysis schedule for "Proyecto PAL" in San Jose, California, presents information on the history, funding, and scope of the project. Included are sociolinguistic process variables such as the native and dominant languages of students and their interaction. Information is provided on staff selection and the linguistic background of…

  6. Radiation shielding design of the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Nam-Suk; Lee, Hee-Seock; Oh, Joo-Hee; Kim, Bum-Jong

    2015-02-01

    The construction of the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) started in 2011. The PAL-XFEL is designed to generate X-rays using 10 GeV, 0.2 nC electron beams. For the radiation shielding design, a beam-loss scenario suitable for the PAL-XFEL should be established. The beam-loss scenario was determined and categorized as normal or accidental. The electron beam will be shut down automatically when accidental beam-loss occurs. Using this scenario, the thickness of the accelerator and undulator tunnel of the PAL-XFEL was calculated by using the SHIELD11 code, and complicated tunnel structures such as maze entrances, sliding doors, trenches, sleeves, and ducts, were determined under the assumption of a thick iron target by using the FLUKA code. A detailed design of the main beam dump was established, and shielding structures at the front end for suppression of the radiation dose at the experimental area under the accidental beam-loss scenario were considered. The muon production was estimated by using the FLUKA code.

  7. DO-IT-Pals. Disabilities Opportunities Interworking Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Univ., Seattle.

    This booklet describes the DO-IT Pals program, a University of Washington program designed to encourage high school students with disabilities to explore careers in science, engineering, mathematics, and technology and learn more about how to prepare to enter these fields of study and employment. The program provides students with information…

  8. Validity and reliability of the activPAL3 for measuring posture and stepping in adults and young people.

    PubMed

    Sellers, Ceri; Dall, Philippa; Grant, Margaret; Stansfield, Ben

    2016-01-01

    Characterisation of free-living physical activity requires the use of validated and reliable monitors. This study reports an evaluation of the validity and reliability of the activPAL3 monitor for the detection of posture and stepping in both adults and young people. Twenty adults (median 27.6y; IQR22.6y) and 8 young people (12.0y; IQR4.1y) performed standardised activities and activities of daily living (ADL) incorporating sedentary, upright and stepping activity. Agreement, specificity and positive predictive value were calculated between activPAL3 outcomes and the gold-standard of video observation. Inter-device reliability was calculated between 4 monitors. Sedentary and upright times for standardised activities were within ±5% of video observation as was step count (excluding jogging) for both adults and young people. Jogging step detection accuracy reduced with increasing cadence >150stepsmin(-1). For ADLs, sensitivity to stepping was very low for adults (40.4%) but higher for young people (76.1%). Inter-device reliability was either good (ICC(1,1)>0.75) or excellent (ICC(1,1)>0.90) for all outcomes. An excellent level of detection of standardised postures was demonstrated by the activPAL3. Postures such as seat-perching, kneeling and crouching were misclassified when compared to video observation. The activPAL3 appeared to accurately detect 'purposeful' stepping during ADL, but detection of smaller stepping movements was poor. Small variations in outcomes between monitors indicated that differences in monitor placement or hardware may affect outcomes. In general, the detection of posture and purposeful stepping with the activPAL3 was excellent indicating that it is a suitable monitor for characterising free-living posture and purposeful stepping activity in healthy adults and young people. PMID:26669950

  9. An Action Science Research Approach to Reducing Student Tardiness at the High School Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gile, Curtis S.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to design, implement, analyze, and evaluate a series of interventions to reduce student tardiness at the high school level. Another purpose of the study was to determine the underlying values, beliefs, and behaviors associated with student tardiness from a faculty and staff perspective. The study…

  10. Use of screening action levels in risk management at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, J.R.; Hueske, K.L.; Dorries, A.M.

    1994-04-01

    The screening assessment approach used at Los Alamos National Laboratory has proved to be a valuable risk management tool in making decisions that are cost-effective, efficient, and defensible. Los Alamos has successfully used screening action levels to prioritize RFI activities, streamline data evaluation, and insure analytical methods are adequately sensitive to be protective of human health.

  11. 5 CFR 351.603 - Actions subsequent to release from competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Release From Competitive Level § 351.603 Actions subsequent to... assignment to another position in accordance with subpart G of this part. If the employee accepts, the... accept an offer under subpart G, the employee shall be furloughed or separated....

  12. 5 CFR 351.603 - Actions subsequent to release from competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Release From Competitive Level § 351.603 Actions subsequent to... assignment to another position in accordance with subpart G of this part. If the employee accepts, the... accept an offer under subpart G, the employee shall be furloughed or separated....

  13. 75 FR 6064 - Draft Emergency Action Level Frequently Asked Questions; Request for Comment

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-05

    ...The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is making available for comment an Emergency Action Level (EAL) frequently asked question (FAQ). This EALFAQ will be used to provide clarification of endorsed Nuclear Energy Institute (NEI) guidance related to the development of security related EALs. This EALFAQ was developed by the NRC at the request of NEI. The NRC is publishing this preliminary......

  14. 21 CFR 109.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 109.4 Section 109.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION UNAVOIDABLE CONTAMINANTS IN FOOD...

  15. 21 CFR 509.4 - Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Establishment of tolerances, regulatory limits, and action levels. 509.4 Section 509.4 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS UNAVOIDABLE...

  16. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 407: Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-24

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 407, Roller Coaster RADSAFE Area (RCRSA), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on Tonopah Test Range (TTR), CAU 407 is located approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and five miles south of Area 3. The RCRSA was used during May and June of 1963 to decontaminate vehicles, equipment, and personnel from the Clean Slate tests. As a result of these operations, the surface and subsurface soils in the area have been impacted by plutonium and other contaminants of potential concern associated with decontamination activities. In June and July 1998, corrective action investigation activities were performed at CAU 407 (as outlined in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan [CAIP]). The purpose of this investigation was to determine if any analytes were present at the site in concentrations above the preliminary action levels (PALs). The results indicated in the detection of plutonium above the PAL in samples taken from surface and subsurface soil within the exclusion zone, and uranium and americium detected above the PAL in samples taken from surface soil within the exclusion zone. No other COCs were identified above PALs specified in the CAIP. Based on this data, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were defined: (1) to prevent or mitigate human exposure to surface and subsurface soil containing COCs, and (2) to prevent adverse impacts to groundwater quality. To accomplish these objectives, five CAAs were developed and evaluated. Based on the results of the detailed and comparative analysis of these alternatives, Alternative 3 (Partial Excavation, Disposal, and Administrative Controls With a Surface Cap) was chosen as the preferred alternative. This alternative was

  17. Antarctic Peninsula Late Cretaceous-Early Cenozoic pal˦oenvironments and Gondwana pal˦ogeographies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dingle, R. V.; Lavelle, M.

    2000-07-01

    A review is made of stratigraphical, geochemical and pal˦ogeographical data from the northern Antarctic Peninsula and the Southern Ocean for Late Mesozoic-Early Cenozoic times. Clay mineral and S/total organic C ratios are used to re-assess earlier scenarios, and it is suggested that eight climatic episodes affected the northern Antarctic Peninsula between Late Aptian and Pal˦ogene times. Evolving pal˦ogeographies in southern Gondwana allowed the connection of the inter-continental western Weddell Basin to the proto-Indian Ocean during Albian to Cenomanian times, and it is suggested that this caused an initial cooling of ambient temperatures in the northern Antarctic Peninsula area. This situation altered when the South Atlantic seaway was opened to equatorial regions, producing a Campanian warm episode. Throughout this period, the climate was humid and non-seasonal (ever-wet) and the adjacent seas were dominated by mineralwalled phytoplankton. A Maastrichtian to Mid-Pal˦ocene cool period is postulated following the establishment of more-polar ocean circulation routes along the southern edge of the Pacific Basin, and the climate became seasonally humid with phytoplankton production switching to organicwalled dominant. The global Pal˦ogene climatic optimum was a warm, ever-wet episode but as it waned from Mid-Eocene times, a further, relatively short, period of marked seasonality is recognised. Later, Eocene climates were again ever-wet and became progressively cooler. The Late Eocene-Early Oligocene opening of the Tasman Sea and Drake Passage seaways caused cold conditions on Seymour Island, followed rapidly by the earliest glacial sediments on King George Island and the establishment of mineral-walled phytoplankton dominance in the seas.

  18. Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) Genes in Red Clover: Expression in Whole Plants and in Response to Yeast Fungal Elicitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) four unique cDNAs encoding phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL, EC 4.3.1.5) were identified (PAL1-4). PAL2-4 encode nearly identical proteins (> 97%) that are only 89% identical to that encoded by PAL1. Under normal growing conditions in young leaves and flowers, P...

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    US Department of Energy Nevada Operations Office

    1999-09-16

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Offices's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 240: Area 25 Vehicle Washdown, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This corrective action investigation was conducted in accordance with the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for CAU 240 as developed under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 240 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 25-07-01, Vehicle Washdown Area (Propellant Pad); 25-07-02, Vehicle Washdown Area (F and J Roads Pad); and 25-07-03, Vehicle Washdown Station (RADSAFE Pad). In March 1999, the corrective action investigation was performed to detect and evaluate analyte concentrations against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified at CAS 25-07-01 or CAS 25-07-03; therefore, there was no need for corrective action at these two CASs. At CAS 25-07-02, diesel-range organics and radionuclide concentrations in soil samples from F and J Roads Pad exceeded PALs. Based on this result, potential CAAs were identified and evaluated to ensure worker, public, and environmental protection against potential exposure to COCs in accordance with Nevada Administrative Code 445A. Following a review of potential exposure pathways, existing data, and future and current operations in Area 25, two CAAs were identified for CAU 240 (CAS 25-07-02): Alternative 1 - No Further Action and Alternative 2 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. Alternative 2 was identified as the preferred alternative. This alternative was judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, compliance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site, as well as minimizing potential future exposure

  20. Development of action levels for MED/MPD skin-testing units in ultraviolet phototherapy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Connor, Una M.; O'Hare, Neil J.

    2003-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) Phototherapy is commonly used for treatment of skin diseases such as psoriasis and eczema. Treatment is carried out using UV phototherapy units, exposing all or part of the body for a certain exposure time. Prior to exposure in treatment units, an unaffected area of skin may be tested using UV skin-testing units in order to determine a suitable treatment regime. The exposure time at which barely perceptible erythema has developed is known as the Minimal Erythemal Dose (MED) for UVB therapy and Minimal Phototoxic Dose (MPD) for UVA therapy. This is used to determine the starting dose in the treatment regime. The presence of 'hotspots' and 'coldspots' in UV skin-testing units can result in inaccurate determination of MED/MPD. This could give rise to severe burns during treatment, or in a sub-optimal dose regime being used. Quality assurance protocols for UV phototherapy equipment have recently been developed and these protocols have highlighted the need for action levels for skin-testing units. An action level is a reference value, which is used to determine whether the difference in irradiance output level across a UV unit is acceptable. Current methodologies for skin-testing in Ireland have been characterised and errors introduced during testing have been estimated. Action levels have been developed based on analysis of errors and requirements of skin-testing.

  1. PALS and DSC study of nanopores partially filled by hexadecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šauša, O.; Illeková, E.; Krištiak, J.; Berek, D.; Macová, E.

    2013-06-01

    The controlled porosity glasses (CPG) filled with various amount of hexadecane (HXD) in nanopores were studied both by the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and the differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) methods. Two types of CPG matrices were used with average pore sizes 12.6 and 22.2 nm. The PALS measurements showed, that when the process of large pores filling by HXD has started, the long o-Ps lifetime went down to HXD o-Ps lifetime about 3ns [1]. DSC measurements at partially filled nanopores showed always two crystallization peaks [2]. Their positions depended on average pore size of matrix. Third crystallization peak was identified in overfilled samples (only short o-Ps lifetimes were present) and their position in temperature scale was the same as for the bulk HXD peak. The latter peak was independent of the average pore size of matrices. This fact confirms the assumption that processes studied by PALS with the samples that contained smaller amount of HXD in CPG occured inside of nanopores of the matrix.

  2. Risk newsboy: approach for addressing uncertainty in developing action levels and cleanup limits

    SciTech Connect

    Cooke, Roger; MacDonell, Margaret

    2007-07-01

    Site cleanup decisions involve developing action levels and residual limits for key contaminants, to assure health protection during the cleanup period and into the long term. Uncertainty is inherent in the toxicity information used to define these levels, based on incomplete scientific knowledge regarding dose-response relationships across various hazards and exposures at environmentally relevant levels. This problem can be addressed by applying principles used to manage uncertainty in operations research, as illustrated by the newsboy dilemma. Each day a newsboy must balance the risk of buying more papers than he can sell against the risk of not buying enough. Setting action levels and cleanup limits involves a similar concept of balancing and distributing risks and benefits in the face of uncertainty. The newsboy approach can be applied to develop health-based target concentrations for both radiological and chemical contaminants, with stakeholder input being crucial to assessing 'regret' levels. Associated tools include structured expert judgment elicitation to quantify uncertainty in the dose-response relationship, and mathematical techniques such as probabilistic inversion and iterative proportional fitting. (authors)

  3. PAL: an object-oriented programming library for molecular evolution and phylogenetics.

    PubMed

    Drummond, A; Strimmer, K

    2001-07-01

    Phylogenetic Analysis Library (PAL) is a collection of Java classes for use in molecular evolution and phylogenetics. PAL provides a modular environment for the rapid construction of both special-purpose and general analysis programs. PAL version 1.1 consists of 145 public classes or interfaces in 13 packages, including classes for models of character evolution, maximum-likelihood estimation, and the coalescent, with a total of more than 27000 lines of code. The PAL project is set up as a collaborative project to facilitate contributions from other researchers. AVAILIABILTY: The program is free and is available at http://www.pal-project.org. It requires Java 1.1 or later. PAL is licensed under the GNU General Public License. PMID:11448888

  4. 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program Supports At-Risk Youth and Seniors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goble, Connie L.; Miller, Lucinda B.

    2014-01-01

    The 4-H PetPALS Juvenile Diversion Program provides a partnership opportunity with Extension and the juvenile court system to positively impact lives of at-risk youth. At-risk youth are taught by 4-H PetPALS adult volunteer leaders and 4-H PetPALS members to value and respect the human-animal bond, as well as to understand and empathize with…

  5. [Comparative antioxidant action on the level of reactive oxygen species in normal and transformed fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Liublinskaia, O G; Kirpichnikova, K M; Gamaleĭ, I A

    2013-01-01

    We studied the changes in the level of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in normal (3T3) and transformed (3T3-SV40) murine fibroblasts under the antioxidant action for 15 min using fluorescent probe carbo- xy-H2DCFDA. We have shown that N-acetylcysteine (NAC) decreased ROS level in both cellular types. Another antioxidant, alpha-lipoic acid (ALA), and its reduced form, dihydrolipoic acid (DHLA), caused the prooxidant effects. Both ALA and DHLA in the concentration range of 0.1-1.25 mM increased ROS level in dose dependent manner in both cellular types. The ability of ALA and DHLA to activate hydrogen peroxide production is discussed. PMID:25509127

  6. Identification of N-acyl homoserine lactones produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 cultured in complex and synthetic media.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Bertini, Elisa V; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2012-07-01

    The endophytic diazotrophic Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5 was originally isolated from sugarcane (Saccharum officinarum). The biological nitrogen fixation, phytohormones secretion, solubilization of mineral nutrients and phytopathogen antagonism allow its classification as a plant growth-promoting bacterium. The recent genomic sequence of PAL5 unveiled the presence of a quorum sensing (QS) system. QS are regulatory mechanisms that, through the production of signal molecules or autoinducers, permit a microbial population the regulation of the physiology in a coordinated manner. The most studied autoinducers in gram-negative bacteria are the N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs). The usage of biosensor strains evidenced the presence of AHL-like molecules in cultures of G. diazotrophicus PAL5 grown in complex and synthetic media. Analysis of AHLs performed by LC-APCI-MS permitted the identification of eight different signal molecules, including C6-, C8-, C10-, C12- and C14-HSL. Mass spectra confirmed that this diazotrophic strain also synthesizes autoinducers with carbonyl substitutions in the acyl chain. No differences in the profile of AHLs could be determined under both culture conditions. However, although the level of short-chain AHLs was not affected, a decrease of 30% in the production of long-chain AHLs could be measured in synthetic medium. PMID:22350020

  7. Differential effects of salinity and osmotic stress on the plant growth-promoting bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus PAL5.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, Marcos Vinicius V; Intorne, Aline C; Vespoli, Luciano de S; Madureira, Hérika C; Leandro, Mariana R; Pereira, Telma N S; Olivares, Fábio L; Berbert-Molina, Marília A; De Souza Filho, Gonçalo A

    2016-04-01

    Plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPB) represent a promising alternative to the massive use of industrial fertilizers in agriculture. Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a PGPB that colonizes several plant species. Although this bacterium is able to grow at high sucrose concentrations, its response to environmental stresses is poorly understood. The present study evaluated G. diazotrophicus PAL5 response to stresses caused by sucrose, PEG 400, NaCl, KCl, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Morphological, ultrastructural and cell growth analysis revealed that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 is more sensitive to salt than osmotic stress. Growth inhibition and strong morphological changes were caused by salinity, in consequence of Cl ion-specific toxic effect. Interestingly, low osmotic stress levels were beneficial for bacterial multiplication, which was able to tolerate high sucrose concentrations, Na2SO4 and K2SO4. Our data show that G. diazotrophicus PAL5 has differential response to osmotic and salinity stress, which may influence its use as inoculant in saline environments. PMID:26809283

  8. The phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) gene family shows a gymnosperm-specific lineage

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) is a key enzyme of the phenylpropanoid pathway that catalyzes the deamination of phenylalanine to trans-cinnamic acid, a precursor for the lignin and flavonoid biosynthetic pathways. To date, PAL genes have been less extensively studied in gymnosperms than in angiosperms. Our interest in PAL genes stems from their potential role in the defense responses of Pinus taeda, especially with respect to lignification and production of low molecular weight phenolic compounds under various biotic and abiotic stimuli. In contrast to all angiosperms for which reference genome sequences are available, P. taeda has previously been characterized as having only a single PAL gene. Our objective was to re-evaluate this finding, assess the evolutionary history of PAL genes across major angiosperm and gymnosperm lineages, and characterize PAL gene expression patterns in Pinus taeda. Methods We compiled a large set of PAL genes from the largest transcript dataset available for P. taeda and other conifers. The transcript assemblies for P. taeda were validated through sequencing of PCR products amplified using gene-specific primers based on the putative PAL gene assemblies. Verified PAL gene sequences were aligned and a gene tree was estimated. The resulting gene tree was reconciled with a known species tree and the time points for gene duplication events were inferred relative to the divergence of major plant lineages. Results In contrast to angiosperms, gymnosperms have retained a diverse set of PAL genes distributed among three major clades that arose from gene duplication events predating the divergence of these two seed plant lineages. Whereas multiple PAL genes have been identified in sequenced angiosperm genomes, all characterized angiosperm PAL genes form a single clade in the gene PAL tree, suggesting they are derived from a single gene in an ancestral angiosperm genome. The five distinct PAL genes detected and verified in P. taeda

  9. Dual orientation of the outer membrane lipoprotein Pal in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Juliana; MacPherson, Victoria; Barnard, David; Bettinger, John; D'Arcy, Brooke; Surendran, Naveen; Hellman, Judith; Pichichero, Michael E.

    2015-01-01

    Peptidoglycan associated lipoprotein (Pal) of Escherichia coli (E. coli) is a characteristic bacterial lipoprotein, with an N-terminal lipid moiety anchoring it to the outer membrane. Since its discovery over three decades ago, Pal has been well studied for its participation in the Tol–Pal complex which spans the periplasm and has been proposed to play important roles in bacterial survival, pathogenesis and virulence. Previous studies of Pal place the lipoprotein in the periplasm of E. coli, allowing it to interact with Tol proteins and the peptidoglycan layer. Here, we describe for the first time, a subpopulation of Pal which is present on the cell surface of E. coli. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy detect anti-Pal antibodies on the surface of intact E. coli cells. Interestingly, Pal is surface exposed in an ‘all or nothing’ manner, such that most of the cells contain only internal Pal, with fewer cells ( < 20  %) exhibiting surface Pal. PMID:25808171

  10. Opportunities for State-Level Action to Reduce Firearm Violence: Proceeding From the Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Braga, Anthony A.

    2011-01-01

    Firearm violence remains an important problem, and a large body of evidence shows that guns used in crime follow generally predictable paths from manufacturer to criminal end user. Policy initiatives based on that evidence have been shown to be effective. A recently published study conducted by a leading policy organization presents new evidence and makes specific recommendations for action by state-level policymakers. Unfortunately, the study's analysis is overly simplified, and the recommendations are therefore misleading. We suggest alternatives that are evidence based. PMID:21778510

  11. Magnetostriction and palæomagnetism of igneous rocks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graham, John W.; Buddington, A.F.; Balsley, J.R.

    1959-01-01

    IN a recent communication, Stott and Stacey1 report on a “crucial experiment” from which they conclude: “This excellent agreement between the dip and the directions of artificial thermoremanent magnetization of the stressed and unstressed rocks indicates that large systematic errors due to magnetostriction are most improbable in igneous rocks of types normally used for palæomagnetic work”. This experiment was intended to test the proposals2 and measurements3 bearing on the role of magnetostriction in rock magnetism. We present here our reasons for believing that the experiment was not crucial and that the conclusion is not justified.

  12. Taking Action: A Cross-Modal Investigation of Discourse-Level Representations

    PubMed Central

    Kaiser, Elsi

    2012-01-01

    Segmenting stimuli into events and understanding the relations between those events is crucial for understanding the world. For example, on the linguistic level, successful language use requires the ability to recognize semantic coherence relations between events (e.g., causality, similarity). However, relatively little is known about the mental representation of discourse structure. We report two experiments that used a cross-modal priming paradigm to investigate how humans represent the relations between events. Participants repeated a motor action modeled by the experimenter (e.g., rolled a ball toward mini bowling pins to knock them over), and then completed an unrelated sentence-continuation task (e.g., provided a continuation for “Peter scratched John.…”). In two experiments, we tested whether and how the coherence relations represented by the motor actions (e.g., causal events vs. non-causal events) influence participants’ performance in the linguistic task. (A production study was also conducted to explore potential syntactic priming effects.) Our analyses focused on the coherence relations between the prompt sentences and participants’ continuations, as well as the referential shifts in the continuations. As a whole, the results suggest that the mental representations activated by motor actions overlap with the mental representations used during linguistic discourse-level processing, but nevertheless contain fine-grained information about sub-types of causality (reaction vs. consequence). In addition, the findings point to parallels between shifting one’s attention from one-event to another and shifting one’s attention from one referent to another, and indicate that the event structure of causal sequences is conceptualized more like single events than like two distinct events. As a whole, the results point toward common representations activated by motor sequences and discourse-semantic relations, and further our understanding of the mental

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  14. Ethical issues in using children's blood lead levels as a remedial action objective.

    PubMed

    Moodie, Sue M; Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  15. The study of hydrogen peroxide level under cisplatin action using genetically encoded sensor hyper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, A. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Brilkina, A. A.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Antonova, N. O.; Mishina, N. M.; Shakhova, N. M.; Belousov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the participation of hydrogen peroxide in reaction of cervical cancer cell line HeLa Kyoto on cisplatin action. Determination of hydrogen peroxide level was performed using genetically encoded fluorescent sensor HyPer2. The dependence of cell viability on cisplatin concentration was determined using MTT assay. Mechanisms of cell death as well as HyPer2 reaction was revealed by flow cytometry after 6-hours of incubation with cisplatin in different concentrations. Cisplatin used in low concentrations had no effect on hydrogen peroxide level in HeLa Kyoto cells. Increase of HyPer2 fluorescence was detected only after exposure with cisplatin in high concentration. The reaction was not the consequence of cell death.

  16. Ethical Issues in Using Children's Blood Lead Levels as a Remedial Action Objective

    PubMed Central

    Evans, Emily Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency measures the success or failure of Superfund site remediation efforts against remedial action objectives (RAOs). RAOs are frequently based on environmental contaminant concentrations, but with lead exposure, blood lead levels from the population at risk are often used. Although childhood lead screening is an important public health tool, an RAO based on child blood lead levels raises ethical concerns: public health efforts that are more reactive than preventive, a blood lead standard (10 μg/dL) that may not be fully protective, the use of a measure whose validity and reliability may be easily compromised, and exacerbation of environmental injustice and systematic disadvantages. The example of Bunker Hill mine, Kellogg, Idaho, allowed an examination of these ethical concerns. PMID:21836120

  17. Validation of Goal Orientation Measure in PALS among Latino Adolescents Participating in a College Outreach Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rinthapol, Nida; Duran, Richard

    2011-01-01

    The study will incorporate psychometric methods to examine the validity and reliability of the GO (goal orientation) measure which called PALS (pattern of adaptive learning survey) among immigrant youth. Previous research has not focused on the reliability and validity of the PALS for using with Latino students. Internal consistency reliability…

  18. Getting to Know You: Cross-Cultural Pen Pals Expand Children's World View

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shandomo, Hibajene M.

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author described the Poplar Street-Naledi pen pal project. The goals of this project were to provide elementary school students with a broader view of the world, to increase their social and cultural awareness, to develop content knowledge of where their pen pals live, and to determine the impact of this project on student…

  19. "Aloha", Hoosier! A Pen-Pal Activity in the Third Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callahan, Raymond; Chan, Kam Chi

    2007-01-01

    Ray, a preservice teacher in Indiana, and Maxine, a 35-year teaching veteran in Hawai'i, set up a pen-pal program for the third grade students in their respective classrooms, 4,000 miles apart. This pen-pal program, used in conjunction with children's literature and community and technology resources, brought about memorable learning experiences.…

  20. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Volunteer Sponsor's Leader's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This handbook was developed for volunteer group leaders participating in Brevard Community College's Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning). Project BEST-PAL was developed especially for low socioeconomic parents who are in need of an opportunity to explore effective parenting, with a primary objective being…

  1. VizieR Online Data Catalog: Radial velocities in Pal 4 (Frank+, 2012)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, M. J.; Hilker, M.; Baumgardt, H.; Cote, P.; Grebel, E. K.; Haghi, H.; Kupper, A. H. W.; Djorgovski, S. G.

    2013-04-01

    B and V images centred on Pal 4 were obtained with LRIS on the night of 1999 January 14. On three different nights in 1999 February and March, spectra for 24 candidate red giants in the direction of Pal 4 were obtained using HIRES mounted on the Keck I telescope. (1 data file).

  2. Writing Pal: Feasibility of an Intelligent Writing Strategy Tutor in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roscoe, Rod D.; McNamara, Danielle S.

    2013-01-01

    The Writing Pal (W-Pal) is a novel intelligent tutoring system (ITS) that offers writing strategy instruction, game-based practice, essay writing practice, and formative feedback to developing writers. Compared to more tractable and constrained learning domains for ITS, writing is an ill-defined domain because the features of effective writing are…

  3. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute ... were as easy to find as a cigarette? NCI QuitPal is a free, interactive app for iPhone ...

  4. The Dilemma of High Level Planning in Distributed Agile Software Projects: An Action Research Study in a Danish Bank

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svejvig, Per; Fladkjær Nielsen, Ann-Dorte

    The chapter reports on an action research study with the aim to design a high level planning process in distributed and co-located software projects based on agile methods. The main contributions are the insight that high level planning process is highly integrated with other project disciplines and specific steps has to be taken to apply the process in distributed projects; and the action research approach is indeed suitable to software process improvements.

  5. From the Last Interglacial to the Anthropocene: Modelling a Complete Glacial Cycle (PalMod)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brücher, Tim; Latif, Mojib; Claussen, Martin; Schulz, Michael

    2016-04-01

    We will give a short overview of the national climate modelling initiative (PalMod - Paleo Modelling, www.palmod.de) on the understanding of the climate system dynamics and its variability during the last glacial cycle. PalMod is funded by the German Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) and its specific topics are: (i) to identify and quantify the relative contributions of the fundamental processes which determined the Earth's climate trajectory and variability during the last glacial cycle, (ii) to simulate with comprehensive Earth System Models (ESMs) the climate from the peak of the last interglacial - the Eemian warm period - up to the present, including the changes in the spectrum of variability, and (iii) to assess possible future climate trajectories beyond this century during the next millennia with sophisticated ESMs tested in such a way. The research is intended to be conducted over a period of 10 years, but with shorter funding cycles. The envisioned approach is innovative in three respects. First, the consortium aims at simulating a full glacial cycle in transient mode and with comprehensive ESMs which allow full interactions between the physical and biogeochemical components of the Earth system, including ice sheets. Second, we shall address climate variability during the last glacial cycle on a large range of time scales, from interannual to multi-millennial, and attempt to quantify the relative contributions of external forcing and processes internal to the Earth system to climate variability at different time scales. Third, in order to achieve a higher level of understanding of natural climate variability at time scales of millennia, its governing processes and implications for the future climate, we bring together three different research communities: the Earth system modeling community, the proxy data community and the computational science community. The consortium consists of 18 partners including all major modelling centers within

  6. Pharmacologic manipulation of the flushing action of cerebrospinal fluid. Effect on CSF diatrizoate levels.

    PubMed

    Harnish, P P; Samuel, K

    1988-12-01

    The continual production and absorption of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) provides for the dilution and removal of potentially toxic substances from the central nervous system (CNS). This study quantified changes in the CSF concentration of diatrizoate following pretreatment with various drugs that alter CSF production. Adult rats, pretreated with one of ten drugs or normal saline (control) and anesthetized, received sodium diatrizoate (2 mL/kg, IV). Blood and CSF were sampled 2 hours later, and the diatrizoate concentrations were measured. Serum diatrizoate levels in the control group averaged 144.3 micrograms/mL. There were no significant differences in serum levels between control and pretreated groups. The CSF diatrizoate concentration in the control group averaged 10.8 micrograms/mL. Pretreatment with acetazolamide, ritodrine, or probenecid resulted in a significant increase in the CSF concentration, to 24.7 micrograms/mL or 228% of control in the case of acetazolamide. Pretreatment with salicylate, carbachol, or aminophylline resulted in significantly lower CSF diatrizoate levels than control; 3.2 micrograms/mL (30% of control) for carbachol. Digoxin, furosemide, dibutyryl cAMP, or dexamethasone pretreatments had no significant effect on CSF diatrizoate concentrations. Thus, a wide range of drugs may significantly alter the concentration of diatrizoate in the CNS. Drug-induced changes in the rate of CSF production may be responsible for this action. PMID:2849595

  7. Corrective Action Plan for INEL low-level waste management ES&H vulnerabilities

    SciTech Connect

    1996-07-01

    Low-level waste (LLW) activities at INEL include numerous waste generators, storage facilities, three treatment facilities, and one disposal facility. The Working Group Assessment Team (WGAT) conducted an assessment of the LLW management program in response to the Defense Nuclear Facilities Safety Board (DNFSB) Recommendation 94-2 (Conformance with Safety Standards at Department of Energy Low-Level Nuclear Waste and Disposal Facilities). Assessment included review of waste generators, liquid effluent treatment, storage facilities and practices, and a disposal facility with vaults and a shallow subsurface burial site. WGAT reviewed relevant documents and conducted tours concerning these LLW operations. The vulnerabilities identified by WGAT were similar to those self-identified by INEL (storage and disposal of LLW). This assessment resulted in the documentation of 8 vulnerabilities and 3 conditions. WGAT assessed the overall LLW/mixed low-level waste (MLLW) management program at INEL as being generally effective. As recommended by DNFSB, a site-specific Corrective Action Plan has been prepared and constitutes the initial site improvement activities.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site.

  9. TweezPal - Optical tweezers analysis and calibration software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osterman, Natan

    2010-11-01

    Optical tweezers, a powerful tool for optical trapping, micromanipulation and force transduction, have in recent years become a standard technique commonly used in many research laboratories and university courses. Knowledge about the optical force acting on a trapped object can be gained only after a calibration procedure which has to be performed (by an expert) for each type of trapped objects. In this paper we present TweezPal, a user-friendly, standalone Windows software tool for optical tweezers analysis and calibration. Using TweezPal, the procedure can be performed in a matter of minutes even by non-expert users. The calibration is based on the Brownian motion of a particle trapped in a stationary optical trap, which is being monitored using video or photodiode detection. The particle trajectory is imported into the software which instantly calculates position histogram, trapping potential, stiffness and anisotropy. Program summaryProgram title: TweezPal Catalogue identifier: AEGR_v1_0 Program summary URL:http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/summaries/AEGR_v1_0.html Program obtainable from: CPC Program Library, Queen's University, Belfast, N. Ireland Licensing provisions: Standard CPC licence, http://cpc.cs.qub.ac.uk/licence/licence.html No. of lines in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 44 891 No. of bytes in distributed program, including test data, etc.: 792 653 Distribution format: tar.gz Programming language: Borland Delphi Computer: Any PC running Microsoft Windows Operating system: Windows 95, 98, 2000, XP, Vista, 7 RAM: 12 Mbytes Classification: 3, 4.14, 18, 23 Nature of problem: Quick, robust and user-friendly calibration and analysis of optical tweezers. The optical trap is calibrated from the trajectory of a trapped particle undergoing Brownian motion in a stationary optical trap (input data) using two methods. Solution method: Elimination of the experimental drift in position data. Direct calculation of the trap stiffness from the positional

  10. [Positron annihilation lifetime spectrometry (PALS) and its pharmaceutical applications].

    PubMed

    Sebe, István; Szabó, Barnabás; Zelkó, Romána

    2012-01-01

    PALS is one of the most widely used "nuclear probe" techniques for the tracking of the structural characteristics of materials. The method is based on the matter-energy equivalence principle recognized by Einstein: the electrons and positrons as particle-antiparticle pairs disappear in mutual destruction of particles, they annihilate with high-energy gamma-radiation, thus "particle-energy transition" occurs. The properties of the resulting radiation exactly correspond to the relevant properties of the electron and positron preceding the annihilation. Since electrons occur in all types of materials, the phenomenon of positron annihilation can play in any environment; consequently the method can be used for the analysis of each type of materials (crystalline and amorphous, organic and inorganic, biotic and abiotic). The present paper provides an overview of the theoretical physical background, the practical realization and evaluation of methods, their limitations, and summarizes the pharmaceutical applications published in recent years. PMID:22570984

  11. Soft X-ray FEL simulation in PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, Chi Hyun; Ko, In Soo; Parc, Yong Woon; Han, Jang Hui

    2015-10-01

    The soft X-ray beamline in the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray Free Electron Laser (PAL-XFEL) will provide a photon beam with a wavelength from 1 nm to 3 nm in the self-amplified spontaneous emission (SASE) mode by using an electron beam with a 3.15-GeV beam energy. Linearly polarized radiation will be supplied by using six planar undulators (PUs). The linearly-polarized radiation powers at 1 (3) nm can reach 10.2 (30) GW. Polarization of the radiation will be controlled by applying the reverse undulator tapering scheme to the PUs and adding two helical undulators (HUs). The circularly-polarized radiation powers at 1 (3) nm will be 3.11 (11.73) GW. The degrees of circular polarization will be larger than 0.99 for both wavelengths. Three options for the future upgrade of the beamline to increase the radiation power are proposed.

  12. Astrophysically Relevant Dipole Studies at WiPAL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Endrizzi, Douglass; Forest, Cary; Wallace, John; WiPAL Team

    2015-11-01

    A novel terrella experiment is being developed to immerse a dipole magnetic field in the large, unmagnetized, and fully ionized background plasma of WiPAL (Wisconsin Plasma Astrophysics Lab). This allows for a series of related experiments motivated by astrophysical processes, including (1) inward transport of plasma into a magnetosphere with focus on development of Kelvin-Helmholtz instabilities from boundary shear flow; (2) helicity injection and simulation of solar eruptive events via electrical breakdown along dipole field lines; (3) interaction of Coronal Mass Ejection-like flows with a target magnetosphere and dependence on background plasma pressure; (4) production of a centrifugally driven wind to study how dipolar magnetic topology changes as closed field lines open. A prototype has been developed and preliminary results will be presented. An overview of the final design and construction progress will be given. This material is based upon work supported by the NSF Graduate Research Fellowship Program.

  13. Loss of PALS1 Expression Leads to Tight Junction and Polarity Defects

    PubMed Central

    Straight, Samuel W.; Shin, Kunyoo; Fogg, Vanessa C.; Fan, Shuling; Liu, Chia-Jen; Roh, Michael; Margolis, Ben

    2004-01-01

    Prior work in our laboratory established a connection between the PALS1/PATJ/CRB3 and Par6/Par3/aPKC protein complexes at the tight junction of mammalian epithelial cells. Utilizing a stable small interfering RNA expression system, we have markedly reduced expression of the tight junction-associated protein PALS1 in MDCKII cells. The loss of PALS1 resulted in a corresponding loss of expression of PATJ, a known binding partner of PALS1, but had no effect on the expression of CRB3. However, the absence of PALS1 and PATJ expression did result in the decreased association of CRB3 with members of the Par6/Par3/aPKC protein complex. The consequences of the loss of PALS1 and PATJ were exhibited by a delay in the polarization of MDCKII monolayers after calcium switch, a decrease in the transepithelial electrical resistance, and by the inability of these cells to form lumenal cysts when grown in a collagen gel matrix. These defects in polarity determination may be the result of the lack of recruitment of aPKC to the tight junction in PALS1-deficient cells, as observed by confocal microscopy, and subsequent alterations in downstream signaling events. PMID:14718565

  14. Institutional Diversity in Collective Action: Investigating Successful Village Level Maintenance of Hand Pumps in Malawi

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Joubert, Brian Anthony

    Providing clean water to rural communities in sub-Saharan Africa remains a challenge. Unsanitary and distant water sources cause a host of health and humanitarian problems. A common means of remedying this situation has been the donation of improved water sources, fitted with low-cost hand pumps. Due donor capacity and/ or policy most hand pumps are donated under the guise of Village Level Operation and Maintenance (VLOM). This premises the notion that recipient communities will take ownership of the new pump and as such will ensure its maintenance. To assist with this many donors carry out programs of technical repair training and the structuring of in-village leadership and management groups. The reality is that a high proportion of these pumps break down after donation and cease to work thereafter. Measures to redress technical elements of these failures through increased training or adequate distribution of spares has seen some success but failure rates remains high. This has led to a call for more attention to demand side issues, focusing on the communal aspects that may influence a village to act collectively in the maintenance of its hand pump. This thesis researched five Malawian villages where the community had maintained their hand pumps for a period of 10 or more years. These hand pumps were treated as shared resources and the literature on common-pool resources and social institutions was used as a theoretical framework. Applying these theories proved to be appropriate for analyzing the norms, conventions and forms of cooperative conduct. This allowed the research to gain insights into institutional diversity and the relationship between 'formal institutions', most often exogenous in nature, and informal' or customary collective action institutions embedded within the communities. Findings showed the emergence of three predominant themes within these successful case studies: 1) the role of leadership at varying levels and how it is embodied

  15. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar

    PubMed Central

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J.; Beale, Michael H.; Karp, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  16. Characterisation of the willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) gene family reveals expression differences compared with poplar.

    PubMed

    de Jong, Femke; Hanley, Steven J; Beale, Michael H; Karp, Angela

    2015-09-01

    Willow is an important biomass crop for the bioenergy industry, and therefore optimal growth with minimal effects of biotic and abiotic stress is essential. The phenylpropanoid pathway is responsible for the biosynthesis of not only lignin but also of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids and phenolic glycosides which all have a role in protecting the plant against biotic and abiotic stress. All products of the phenylpropanoid pathway are important for the healthy growth of short rotation cropping species such as willow. However, the phenylpropanoid pathway in willow remains largely uncharacterised. In the current study we identified and characterised five willow phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) genes, which encode enzymes that catalyse the deamination of l-phenylalanine to form trans-cinnamic acid, the entry point into the phenylpropanoid pathway. Willow PAL1, PAL2, PAL3 and PAL4 genes were orthologous to the poplar genes. However no orthologue of PAL5 appears to be present in willow. Moreover, two tandemly repeated PAL2 orthologues were identified in a single contig. Willow PALs show similar sub-cellular localisation to the poplar genes. However, the enzyme kinetics and gene expression of the willow PAL genes differed slightly, with willow PAL2 being more widely expressed than its poplar orthologues implying a wider role for PALs in the production of flavonoids, condensed tannins, benzenoids, and phenolic glycosides, in willow. PMID:26070140

  17. Consideration of measurement error when using commercial indoor radon determinations for selecting radon action levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.; Dolan, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of year-long, in-home radon measurement in Colorado from commercial companies applying typical methods indicates that considerable variation in precision exists. This variation can have a substantial impact on any mitigation decisions, either voluntary or mandated by law, especially regarding property sale or exchange. Both long-term exposure (nuclear track greater than 90 days), and short-term (charcoal adsorption 4-7 days) exposure methods were used. In addition, periods of continuous monitoring with a highly calibrated alpha-scintillometer took place for accuracy calibration. The results of duplicate commercial analysis show that typical results are no better than ??25 percent with occasional outliers (up to 5 percent of all analyses) well beyond that limit. Differential seasonal measurements (winter/summer) by short-term methods provide equivalent information to single long-term measurements. Action levels in the U.S. for possible mitigation decisions should be selected so that they consider the measurement variability; specifically, they should reflect a concentration range similar to that adopted by the European Community.

  18. Stimulant drug effects on touchscreen automated paired-associates learning (PAL) in rats.

    PubMed

    Roschlau, Corinna; Votteler, Angeline; Hauber, Wolfgang

    2016-08-01

    Here we tested in rats effects of the procognitive drugs modafinil and methylphenidate on post-acquisition performance in an object-location paired-associates learning (PAL) task. Modafinil (32; 64 mg/kg) was without effect, while higher (9 mg/kg) but not lower (4.5 mg/kg) doses of methylphenidate impaired PAL performance. Likewise, higher but not lower doses of amphetamine (0.4; 0.8 mg/kg) and MK-801 (0.08; 0.12 mg/kg) decreased PAL performance. Impaired PAL performance induced by methylphenidate, amphetamine, and MK801 most likely reflects compromised cognitive function, e.g., retrieval of learned paired associates. Our data suggest that stimulant drugs such as methylphenidate and modafinil might not facilitate performance in hippocampus-related cognitive tasks. PMID:27421894

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 552: Area 12 Muckpile and Ponds, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 1

    SciTech Connect

    Robert F. Boehlecke

    2005-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 552 is being investigated because man-made radionuclides and chemical contaminants may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose an unacceptable risk to human health and/or the environment. The CAI will be conducted following the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and the DOE National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). The DQOs are used to identify the type, amount, and quality of data needed to define the nature and extent of contamination and identify and evaluate the most appropriate corrective action alternatives for CAU 552. The primary problem statement for the investigation is: ''Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for CAS 12-23-05.'' To address this problem statement, the resolution of the following two decision statements is required: (1) The Decision I statement is: ''Is a contaminant present within the CAU at a concentration that could pose an unacceptable risk to human health and the environment?'' Any site-related contaminant detected at a concentration exceeding the corresponding preliminary action level (PAL), as defined in Section A.1.4.2, will be considered a contaminant of concern (COC). A COC is defined as a site-related constituent that exceeds the screening criteria (PAL). The presence of a contaminant within each CAS is defined as the analytical detection of a COC. (2) The Decision II statement is: ''Determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs.'' This decision will be achieved by the collection of data that are adequate to define the extent of COCs. Decision II samples are used to determine the lateral and vertical extent of the contamination as well as the likelihood of COCs to migrate outside of the site boundaries. The migration pattern can be derived from the Decision

  20. Pal 12 - A metal-rich globular cluster in the outer halo

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, J. G.; Frogel, J. A.; Persson, S. E.; Zinn, R.

    1980-01-01

    New optical and infrared observations of several stars in the distant globular cluster Pal 12 show that they have CO strengths and heavy element abundances only slightly less than in M 71, one of the more metal-rich globular clusters. Pal 12 thus has a metal abundance near the high end of the range over which globular clusters exist and lies in the outer galactic halo. Its red horizontal branch is not anomalous in view of the abundance that has been found.

  1. 78 FR 56719 - Draft Guidance for Industry on Arsenic in Apple Juice: Action Level; Supporting Document for...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-13

    ... protective of human health and achievable with the use of good manufacturing practices. It also describes FDA...: Action Level'' that appeared in the Federal Register of July 15, 2013 (78 FR 42086). The draft guidance...-1639. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: I. Background In the Federal Register of July 15, 2013 (78 FR...

  2. Laser-driven ablation through fast electrons in PALS experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gus'kov, S. Yu.; Chodukowski, T.; Demchenko, N.; Kalinowska, Z.; Kasperczuk, A.; Krousky, E.; Pfeifer, M.; Pisarczyk, P.; Pisarczyk, T.; Renner, O.; Skala, J.; Smid, M.; Ullschmied, J.

    2016-03-01

    Energy transfer to shock wave in Al and Cu targets irradiated by a laser pulse with intensity of I≈1-50 PW/cm2 and duration of 250 ps was investigated at Prague Asterix Laser System (PALS). The iodine laser provided energy in the range of 100-600 J at the first and third harmonic frequencies. The focal spot radius of laser beam on the target was varied from 160 to 40 μm. The dominant contribution of fast electron energy transfer into the ablation process was found when using the first harmonic radiation, the focal spot radius of 40-100 μm, and the energy of 300-600 J. The fast electron heating results in the growth of ablation pressure from 60 Mbar at the intensity of 10 PW/cm2 to 180 Mbar at the intensity of 50 PW/cm2 and in the growth of the efficiency of the energy conversion into the shock wave from 2 to 7% under the conditions of 2D ablation.

  3. Mapping heatwave health risk at the community level for public health action

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Climate change poses unprecedented challenges, ranging from global and local policy challenges to personal and social action. Heat-related deaths are largely preventable, but interventions for the most vulnerable populations need improvement. Therefore, the prior identification of high risk areas at the community level is required to better inform planning and prevention. We aimed to demonstrate a simple and flexible conceptual framework relying upon satellite thermal data and other digital data with the goal of easily reproducing this framework in a variety of urban configurations. Results The study area encompasses Rennes, a medium-sized French city. A Landsat ETM + image (60 m resolution) acquired during a localized heatwave (June 2001) was used to estimate land surface temperature (LST) and derive a hazard index. A land-use regression model was performed to predict the LST. Vulnerability was assessed through census data describing four dimensions (socio-economic status, extreme age, population density and building obsolescence). Then, hazard and vulnerability indices were combined to deliver a heatwave health risk index. The LST patterns were quite heterogeneous, reflecting the land cover mosaic inside the city boundary, with hotspots of elevated temperature mainly observed in the city center. A spatial error regression model was highly predictive of the spatial variation in the LST (R2 = 0.87) and was parsimonious. Three land cover descriptors (NDVI, vegetation and water fractions) were negatively linked with the LST. A sensitivity analysis (based on an image acquired on July 2000) yielded similar results. Southern areas exhibited the most vulnerability, although some pockets of higher vulnerability were observed northeast and west of the city. The heatwave health risk map showed evidence of infra-city spatial clustering, with the highest risks observed in a north–south central band. Another sensitivity analysis gave a very high

  4. Tertiary ostracods of Gebel Withr, southwestern Sinai, Egypt: pal˦ontology, biostratigraphy and pal˦obiogeography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shahin, A.

    2000-08-01

    The exposed Early Eocene-Early Miocene interval in the study area yields considerable amounts of ostracods. A detailed investigation of the ostracod content has led to the recognition of 79 species and subspecies, five of which are reported as new species. They are Semicytherura bassiounii, Semicytherura gammudii, Pterygocythere withrensis, Paracosta reymenti and Cativella bulgi. An attempt to reconstruct a local ostracod biozonation has led to the recognition of six biostratigraphical zones. These biozones are arranged from the youngest to the oldest as follows: Leguminocythereis bopaensis-Leguminocythereis bicostata Assemblage Zone; Reticulina saitoi-Trachyleberis nodosus Assemblage Zone; Asymmetricythere yousefi-Cytherella piacabucuensis Assemblage Zone; Leguminocythereis africana-Buntonia faresi Assenblage Zone; and Grinioneis haidingeri-Pokornyella deformis minor Assemblage Zone. The palaeobathymetric estimates for these assemblages reveals a great deal from the inner neritic to the upper bathyal environments. The cosmopolitan distribution of the recorded species proved to be useful for pal˦obiogeographic reconstruction. This reveals that there was a direct connection throughout the Tethyan realm and a connection between the Tethyan North Africa and West Africa via the Trans-Saharan Seaway, at least until the end of the Palaeocene, through which the migration of benthic organisms had occurred.

  5. Isolation of an organic solvent-tolerant bacterium Bacillus licheniformis PAL05 that is able to secrete solvent-stable lipase.

    PubMed

    Anbu, Periasamy; Hur, Byung Ki

    2014-01-01

    In this study, seven lipase-producing bacterial strains were isolated from salt-enriched and cattle farm soil samples after incubation in toluene- and benzene-enriched media. One strain (PAL05) showed significantly greater lipase activity on spirit blue agar medium and stability in organic solvents. The positive strain (PAL05) was identified as Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Lipase production was optimized in a medium containing glycerol as the carbon source and Tween 80 as an inducer (0.5% glycerol+0.5% Tween 80) at pH 8.0 and a temperature of 30 °C. In addition, the enzyme was moderately halotolerant as it exhibited increased activity in the presence of 2.5% NaCl. Optimized conditions increased the lipase production threefold. Crude lipase retained its activity for 14 days of incubation in the presence of various organic solvents at a level of 25% and 50%. The enzyme was stable at 25% in most solvents; some of the solvents such as hexane, benzene, and ethanol actually stimulated enzyme activity. The organic solvent stability of the lipase produced by the strain PAL05 enables the enzyme to be used as a potential biocatalyst for ester synthesis and other applications in nonaqueous conditions. PMID:24397298

  6. Levels and actions of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions: Sex-specific features.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto C; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids regulate the physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system, exert neuroprotective actions and represent interesting tools for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Sex differences in their levels are detected not only under physiological conditions but are also modified in a sex-dependent way in different pathological alterations such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic encephalopathy, psychiatric disorders and peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, many of these disorders show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. The neuroprotective actions of neuroactive steroids, together with the sex specific regulation of its levels might provide the basis to design sex-specific neuroprotective therapies. Indeed, some experiments here discussed suggest the viability of this approach. PMID:26657814

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 230: Area 22 Sewage Lagoons and Corrective Action Unit 320: Area 22 Desert Rock Airport Strainer Box, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-09-01

    The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 22 Sewage Lagoons site. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during September 1999, Soil samples were collected using a direct-push method and a backhoe. Soil samples were collected from the sludge bed, sewage lagoons, strainer box, and Imhoff tank areas. Characterization of the manholes associated with the septic system leading to the Imhoff tank was done during March 2000. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Soil sample results indicated that the only constituent of concern (COC) detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) was total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) as diesel-range organics. This COC was detected in three samples from the sludge bed at concentrations up to 580 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). This exceeds the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) regulatory action level for TPH of 100 mg/kg (Nevada Administrative Code, 1996). Excavation of the area during characterization uncovered asphalt debris, four safety poles, and strands of barbed wire. The TPH-impacted soil and debris will be removed and disposed in the NTS Area 6 Hydrocarbon Landfill.

  8. An fMRI study of joint action-varying levels of cooperation correlates with activity in control networks.

    PubMed

    Chaminade, Thierry; Marchant, Jennifer L; Kilner, James; Frith, Christopher D

    2012-01-01

    As social agents, humans continually interact with the people around them. Here, motor cooperation was investigated using a paradigm in which pairs of participants, one being scanned with fMRI, jointly controlled a visually presented object with joystick movements. The object oscillated dynamically along two dimensions, color and width of gratings, corresponding to the two cardinal directions of joystick movements. While the overall control of each participant on the object was kept constant, the amount of cooperation along the two dimensions varied along four levels, from no (each participant controlled one dimension exclusively) to full (each participant controlled half of each dimension) cooperation. Increasing cooperation correlated with BOLD signal in the left parietal operculum and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), while decreasing cooperation correlated with activity in the right inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, the intraparietal sulci and inferior temporal gyri bilaterally, and the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex. As joint performance improved with the level of cooperation, we assessed the brain responses correlating with behavior, and found that activity in most of the areas associated with levels of cooperation also correlated with the joint performance. The only brain area found exclusively in the negative correlation with cooperation was in the dorso medial frontal cortex, involved in monitoring action outcome. Given the cluster location and condition-related signal change, we propose that this region monitored actions to extract the level of cooperation in order to optimize the joint response. Our results, therefore, indicate that, in the current experimental paradigm involving joint control of a visually presented object with joystick movements, the level of cooperation affected brain networks involved in action control, but not mentalizing. PMID:22715326

  9. StarPals and IYA: Remote Imaging Projects for Research and Astrophotography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischer, A. A.; Kingan, J. J.

    2008-11-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the U.S. Naval Observatory.

  10. Investigation of PCM microcapsules at various temperatures and pressures by PALS method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zgardzińska, B.; Tydda, M.; Blazewicz, A.

    2015-06-01

    The positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) was used to investigate the properties of Phase Change Material (PCM): the Micronal® DS 5001 X microcapsules. The microcapsules are composed of a polymer capsule shell and a paraffin core. Two groups of free volumes were observed: those producing the long-lived component can be ascribed to the polymer, the other to the mixed alkanes. Both o-Ps components show the known effect of the intensity rise with positron irradiation time. At temperatures below -3°C we have observed the short lifetime as for alkane rigid phase, then the rotator-like phase preceded liquid phase. This form of temperature dependence of PAL spectra is discussed. There was no destructive effect of temperature. The PALS results were compared with those obtained by scanning electron microscopy.

  11. Gluconic acid produced by Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 possesses antimicrobial properties.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Peñalver, Carlos G; Savino, María J; Bertini, Elisa V; Sánchez, Leandro A; de Figueroa, Lucía I C

    2014-09-01

    Gluconic acid is produced in large quantities by the endophytic and diazotrophic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5. This organic acid derives from direct oxidation of glucose by a pyrroloquinoline-quinone-linked glucose dehydrogenase in this plant growth-promoting bacterium. In the present article, evidence is presented showing that gluconic acid is also responsible for the antimicrobial activity of G. diazotrophicus Pal5. The broad antagonistic spectrum includes Gram-positive and -negative bacteria. Eukaryotic microorganisms are more resistant to growth inhibition by this acid. Inhibition by gluconic acid can be modified through the presence of other organic acids. In contrast to other microorganisms, the Quorum Sensing system of G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a regulatory mechanism that plays a key role in several microbe-microbe interactions, is not related to gluconic acid production and the concomitant antagonistic activity. PMID:25049167

  12. PAL-XFEL cavity beam position monitor pick-up design and beam test

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sojeong; Park, Young Jung; Kim, Changbum; Kim, Seung Hwan; Shin, Dong Cheol; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2016-08-01

    As an X-ray Free Electron Laser, PAL-XFEL is about to start beam commissioning. X-band cavity beam position monitor (BPM) is used in the PAL-XFEL undulator beam line. Prototypes of cavity BPM pick-up were designed and fabricated to test the RF characteristics. Also, the beam test of a cavity BPM pick-up was done in the Injector Test Facility (ITF). In the beam test, the raw signal properties of the cavity BPM pick-up were measured at a 200 pC bunch charge. According to the RF test and beam test results, the prototype cavity BPM pick-up design was confirmed to meet the requirements of the PAL-XFEL cavity BPM system.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with ROTC 1, 2, and Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 204 Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE); and the U.S. Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) north of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). The Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 204 are located in Areas 1, 2, 3, and 5 of the NTS, in Nye County, Nevada (Figure 1-2). Corrective Action Unit 204 is comprised of the six CASs identified in Table 1-1. As shown in Table 1-1, the FFACO describes four of these CASs as bunkers one as chemical exchange storage and one as a blockhouse. Subsequent investigations have identified four of these structures as instrumentation bunkers (CASs 01-34-01, 02-34-01, 03-34-01, 05-33-01), one as an explosives storage bunker (CAS 05-99-02), and one as both (CAS 05-18-02). The six bunkers included in CAU 204 were primarily used to monitor atmospheric testing or store munitions. The ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) for Corrective Action Unit 204: Storage Bunkers, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'' (NNSA/NV, 2002a) provides information relating to the history, planning, and scope of the investigation; therefore, it will not be repeated in this CADD. This CADD identifies potential corrective action alternatives and provides a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 204. The evaluation of corrective action alternatives is based on process knowledge and the results of investigative activities conducted in accordance with the CAIP (NNSA/NV, 2002a) that was approved prior to the start of the Corrective Action Investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change (ROTC) No. 1 to the CAIP (approval pending) documents changes to the preliminary action levels (PALs) agreed to by the Nevada Division

  14. Synapse-Level Determination of Action Potential Duration by K(+) Channel Clustering in Axons.

    PubMed

    Rowan, Matthew J M; DelCanto, Gina; Yu, Jianqing J; Kamasawa, Naomi; Christie, Jason M

    2016-07-20

    In axons, an action potential (AP) is thought to be broadcast as an unwavering binary pulse over its arbor, driving neurotransmission uniformly at release sites. Yet by recording from axons of cerebellar stellate cell (SC) interneurons, we show that AP width varies between presynaptic bouton sites, even within the same axon branch. The varicose geometry of SC boutons alone does not impose differences in spike duration. Rather, axonal patching revealed heterogeneous peak conductance densities of currents mediated mainly by fast-activating Kv3-type potassium channels, with clustered hotspots at boutons and restricted expression at adjoining shafts. Blockade of Kv channels at individual boutons indicates that currents immediately local to a release site direct spike repolarization at that location. Thus, the clustered arrangement and variable expression density of Kv3 channels at boutons are key determinants underlying compartmentalized control of AP width in a near synapse-by-synapse manner, multiplying the signaling capacity of these structures. PMID:27346528

  15. Effect of Cu content on the defect evolution in Fe-Cu alloys investigated by PALS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X. Z.; Lai, X.; Cheng, G. D.; Jin, S. X.; Zhang, X.; Zhang, P.; Wang, B. Y.

    2016-01-01

    The effect of Cu content on the evolution of defects in Fe-x%Cu alloys (x= 0.15, 0.3, and 0.6) were investigated using Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The vacancy-type and Cu-vacancy complexes defects were respectively produced by quenching from 1173 K and cold-rolled deformation followed by isochronal annealing. The PALS results with isochronal annealing showed that the temperature of defects recovery increased in deformed Fe-Cu alloys with Cu content. The increment of Cu content also restrained the migration of vacancies in as-quenched Fe-Cu alloys.

  16. Validation of the Actigraph GT3X and ActivPAL Accelerometers for the Assessment of Sedentary Behavior

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kim, Youngdeok; Barry, Vaughn W.; Kang, Minsoo

    2015-01-01

    This study examined (a) the validity of two accelerometers (ActiGraph GT3X [ActiGraph LLC, Pensacola, FL, USA] and activPAL [PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, Scotland]) for the assessment of sedentary behavior; and (b) the variations in assessment accuracy by setting minimum sedentary bout durations against a proxy for direct observation using an…

  17. USER'S GUIDE FOR PAL 2.0: A GAUSSIAN-PLUME ALGORITHM FOR POINT, AREA, AND LINE SOURCES

    EPA Science Inventory

    PAL is an acronym for the Point, Area, and Line source algorithm. PAL is a method of estimating short-term dispersion using Gaussian-plume steady state assumptions. The algorithm can be used for estimating concentrations of non-reactive pollutants at 99 receptors for averaging ti...

  18. Problems with McAdams and Pals's (2006) Proposal of a Framework for an Integrative Theory of Personality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Epstein, Seymour

    2007-01-01

    Comments on the original article "A New Big Five: Fundamental Principles for an Integrative Science of Personality," by Dan P. McAdams and Jennifer L. Pals (see record 2006-03947-002). Here, the current author begins with a critique of McAdams and Pals's (April 2006) five principles for a framework for an integrative theory of personality. The…

  19. Kinemage of action - Proposed reaction mechanism of glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase at an atomic level

    SciTech Connect

    Sorensen, John L.; Stetefeld, Joerg

    2011-10-07

    Highlights: {yields} Inhibitors of tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis may be useful antibiotics. {yields} Mechanism of critical enzyme, glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase, is presented. {yields} Unique vitamin B6-dependant enzyme traps intermediate in active site. {yields} Molecular dynamics show that a re-orientation of the substrate is required. -- Abstract: Glutamate-1-semialdehyde aminomutase (GSAM), a key enzyme in tetrapyrrole cofactor biosynthesis, performs a unique transamination on a single substrate. The substrate, glutamate-1-semialdehyde (GSA), undergoes a reaction that exchanges the position of an amine and a carbonyl group to produce 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA). This transamination reaction is unique in the fact that is does not require an external cofactor to act as a nitrogen donor or acceptor in this transamination reaction. One of the other remarkable features of the catalytic mechanism is the release free in the enzyme active site of the intermediate 4,5-diaminovaleric acid (DAVA). The action of a gating loop prevents the escape of DAVA from the active site. In a MD simulation approach, using snapshots provided by X-ray crystallography and protein crystal absorption spectrometry data, the individual catalytic steps in this unique intramolecular transamination have been elucidated.

  20. The Role of Facilitators in Project Action Learning Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cao, Rui; Chuah, Kong Bieng; Chao, Yiu Chung; Kwong, Kar Fai; Law, Mo Yin

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: This paper addresses the importance of a more proactive role of organizational learning (OL) facilitators, learning motivation reinforcer, through a two-part longitudinal study in a case company. The first part of this study aims to investigate and analyze some unexpected challenges in the project action learning-driven (PAL) OL…

  1. Rice phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene OsPAL4 is associated with broad spectrum disease resistance.

    PubMed

    Tonnessen, Bradley W; Manosalva, Patricia; Lang, Jillian M; Baraoidan, Marietta; Bordeos, Alicia; Mauleon, Ramil; Oard, James; Hulbert, Scot; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E

    2015-02-01

    Most agronomically important traits, including resistance against pathogens, are governed by quantitative trait loci (QTL). QTL-mediated resistance shows promise of being effective and long-lasting against diverse pathogens. Identification of genes controlling QTL-based disease resistance contributes to breeding for cultivars that exhibit high and stable resistance. Several defense response genes have been successfully used as good predictors and contributors to QTL-based resistance against several devastating rice diseases. In this study, we identified and characterized a rice (Oryza sativa) mutant line containing a 750 bp deletion in the second exon of OsPAL4, a member of the phenylalanine ammonia-lyase gene family. OsPAL4 clusters with three additional OsPAL genes that co-localize with QTL for bacterial blight and sheath blight disease resistance on rice chromosome 2. Self-pollination of heterozygous ospal4 mutant lines produced no homozygous progeny, suggesting that homozygosity for the mutation is lethal. The heterozygous ospal4 mutant line exhibited increased susceptibility to three distinct rice diseases, bacterial blight, sheath blight, and rice blast. Mutation of OsPAL4 increased expression of the OsPAL2 gene and decreased the expression of the unlinked OsPAL6 gene. OsPAL2 function is not redundant because the changes in expression did not compensate for loss of disease resistance. OsPAL6 co-localizes with a QTL for rice blast resistance, and is down-regulated in the ospal4 mutant line; this may explain enhanced susceptibility to Magnoporthe oryzae. Overall, these results suggest that OsPAL4 and possibly OsPAL6 are key contributors to resistance governed by QTL and are potential breeding targets for improved broad-spectrum disease resistance in rice. PMID:25515696

  2. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26 Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 2 with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Wickline, Alfred

    2006-12-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each corrective action site (CAS) within CAU 168. The corrective action investigation (CAI) was conducted in accordance with the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 168: Area 25 and 26, Contaminated Materials and Waste Dumps, Nevada Test Site, Nevada'', as developed under the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 168 is located in Areas 25 and 26 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada and is comprised of the following 12 CASs: CAS 25-16-01, Construction Waste Pile; CAS 25-16-03, MX Construction Landfill; CAS 25-19-02, Waste Disposal Site; CAS 25-23-02, Radioactive Storage RR Cars; CAS 25-23-13, ETL - Lab Radioactive Contamination; CAS 25-23-18, Radioactive Material Storage; CAS 25-34-01, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-34-02, NRDS Contaminated Bunker; CAS 25-99-16, USW G3; CAS 26-08-01, Waste Dump/Burn Pit; CAS 26-17-01, Pluto Waste Holding Area; and CAS 26-19-02, Contaminated Waste Dump No.2. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CASs within CAU 168. Radiological measurements of railroad cars and test equipment were compared to unrestricted (free) release criteria. Assessment of the data generated from the CAI activities revealed the following: (1) Corrective Action Site 25-16-01 contains hydrocarbon-contaminated soil at concentrations exceeding the PAL. The contamination is at discrete locations associated with asphalt debris. (2) No COCs were identified at CAS 25-16-03. Buried construction waste is present in at least two disposal cells contained within the

  3. Systemic High School Reform in Two States: The Serendipity of State-Level Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamann, Edmund T.

    2005-01-01

    Maine and Vermont have been national leaders in state-level coordination of high school reform. Both recently developed almost interchangeable, new, voluntary, statewide frameworks that describe multiple ways high schools should change. Both frameworks--Promising Futures (Maine Commission on Secondary Education 1998) and High Schools on the Move…

  4. Following Alice: Theories of Critical Thinking and Reflective Practice in Action at Postgraduate Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanwick, Ruth; Kitchen, Ruth; Jarvis, Joy; McCracken, Wendy; O'Neil, Rachel; Powers, Steve

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a flexible framework of principles for teaching critical thinking and reflective practice skills at the postgraduate level. It reports on a collaborative project between four UK institutions providing postgraduate programmes in deaf education. Through a critical review of current theories of critical thinking and reflective…

  5. Top-level players' visual control of interceptive actions: Bootsma and van Wieringen (1990) 20 years later.

    PubMed

    Bootsma, Reinoud J; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H P; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-08-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of their participants under conditions with and without vision available during the execution of the drive. In the second step, through simulation they evaluated the extent to which a preprogrammed pattern of muscle stimulation acting on the dynamical characteristics of the musculoskeletal system could explain the patterns of movement observed, including the phenomena of kinematic convergence and compensatory variability. In this contribution, we show how methodological and conceptual shortcomings, pertaining to both parts of Van Soest et al.'s study, severely limit the impact of their findings. We argue that their conclusion-denying the possibility of visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions-cannot be upheld in the light of the existing evidence, while Bootsma and Van Wieringen's conclusion-in favor of the visual regulation of rapid interceptive actions in top-level players- still holds strong, even after 20 years. Irrespective of the trends of the moment, we suggest that both appropriate experimentation and principled theorization need to be deployed before a model-based predictive architecture can be considered as a serious alternative to a (more parsimonious) information-based control architecture. PMID:20695718

  6. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  7. Examining movement variability in the basketball free-throw action at different skill levels.

    PubMed

    Button, Chris; MacLeod, Morven; Sanders, Ross; Coleman, Simon

    2003-09-01

    The analysis of variability both within and between performers can reveal important information about how athletes satisfy situational constraints. Transitory changes in the basketball free-throw shot were examined across different stages in skill development. Six female basketball players were selected, representing a range of playing expertise (pretest: 0-90% baskets scored). Each participant was video recorded performing 30 shots. Contrary to predictions, there was not a clear pattern of a reduction in trajectory variability with increasing skill level. However, improvements in skill level were associated with an increasing amount of intertrial movement consistency from the elbow and wrist joints. It is suggested that the angular motions of the elbow and wrist joints were compensated for each other toward the end of each throw to adapt to subtle changes in release parameters of the ball. PMID:14510290

  8. Peer Assessment Learning Sessions (PALS): An Innovative Feedback Technique for Large Engineering Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Moore, Liza; Baldock, Tom

    2007-01-01

    This paper reports the development of innovative assessment sessions within two core technical courses in Civil Engineering at the University of Queensland. Peer Assessment Learning Sessions (PALS) facilitate a student's peer assessment of a colleague's problem-based learning assignment or tutorial within a "traditional" whole-class setting, under…

  9. Yash Pal Committee Report on Higher Education: Certain Reflections by Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumthas, N. S.; Anju Krishnan, K.

    2011-01-01

    In the present scenario, Indian higher education is expanding in quantity but compromising with quality. Hats off to Yash Pal Committee, which took this matter into account, worked on it and submitted a report (renovation and rejuvenation of higher education in India) on June 24, 2009 to the Human Resource Ministry. Major attributes of Yash Pal…

  10. Pen Pal Letter Exchanges: Taking First Steps toward Developing Cultural Understandings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barksdale, Mary Alice; Watson, Carol; Park, Eun Soo

    2007-01-01

    This article describes a qualitative research project that examined pen pal letters exchanged between children in Virginia, USA, and Malawi in Sub-Saharan Africa. The goal was to study the nature of communication between students living in these two very different cultural contexts. The results of this study indicated that there were three primary…

  11. The Web Pen Pals Project: Students' Perceptions of a Learning Community in an Online Synchronous Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maples, Joellen; Groenke, Susan; Dunlap, Dan

    2005-01-01

    This paper draws on data gathered from a five-month phenomenological study of middle school students' perceptions of the effects of computer-based technologies on a learning community in an online synchronous environment. Twenty-four eighth-grade students participated in the Web Pen Pals project, a university-secondary telecollaborative…

  12. Connecting in Rhizomic Spaces: Peer-Assisted Learning (PAL) and E-Learning in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bone, Jane; Edwards, Susan

    2015-01-01

    A PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning) project supported research that focused on e-learning and Web 2.0 technologies as part of a pedagogical approach in the context of a tertiary institution. This project responded to a call for a rejuvenation of conventional approaches to pedagogy while teaching an early childhood unit in a large Australian university.…

  13. Adaptation of the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) to Turkish Students: Factorial Validity and Reliability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cikrikci-Demirtash, R. Nukhet

    2005-01-01

    The study presented in this article was conducted to determine psychometric features of scales for Turkish students by adapting the Patterns of Adaptive Learning Scales (PALS) developed by Midgley and others (2000) to the Turkish language in order to measure personal and classroom goal orientations. The scales were developed to test…

  14. Let's Be PALS: An Evidence-Based Approach to Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunst, Carl J.; Trivette, Carol M.

    2009-01-01

    An evidence-based approach to professional development is described on the basis of the findings from a series of research syntheses and meta-analyses of adult learning methods and strategies. The approach, called PALS (Participatory Adult Learning Strategy), places major emphasis on both active learner involvement in all aspects of training…

  15. Authentic Reading, Writing, and Discussion: An Exploratory Study of a Pen Pal Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrell, Linda B.; Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Calvert, Leah; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Igo, Brent

    2011-01-01

    In this exploratory study, reading, writing, and discussion were examined within the context of a pen pal intervention focusing on authentic literacy tasks. The study employed a mixed-method design with a triangulation-convergence model to explore the relationship between authentic literacy tasks and the literacy motivation of elementary students…

  16. RaPAL Bulletin, Numbers 5-13, 1988-1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RaPAL Bulletin, 1988

    1988-01-01

    This document consists of a 3-year compilation (9 issues) of the RaPAL (Research and Practice in Adult Literacy) Bulletin. Typical articles are: "Student Involvement in Research" (a report of a workshop by Alex Golightly, Nick Nicola, and Marilyn Stone); part of a dialogue between Paolo Freire and Ira Shor, writer/educators of Brazil and the…

  17. Coastal Hazards Maps: Actionable Information for Communities Facing Sea-Level Rise (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibeaut, J. C.; Barraza, E.

    2010-12-01

    Barrier islands along the U.S. Gulf coast remain under increasing pressure from development. This development and redevelopment is occurring despite recent hurricanes, ongoing erosion, and sea-level rise. To lessen the impacts of these hazards, local governments need information in a form that is useful for informing the public, making policy, and enforcing development rules. We recently completed the Galveston Island Geohazards Map for the city of Galveston, Texas and are currently developing maps for the Mustang and South Padre Island communities. The maps show areas that vary in their susceptibility to, and function for, mitigating the effects of geological processes, including sea-level rise, land subsidence, erosion and storm-surge flooding and washover. The current wetlands, beaches and dunes are mapped as having the highest geohazard potential both in terms of their exposure to hazardous conditions and their mitigating effects of those hazards for the rest of the island. These existing “critical environments” are generally protected under existing regulations. Importantly, however, the mapping recognizes that sea-level rise and shoreline retreat are changing the island; therefore, 60-year model projections of the effects of these changes are incorporated into the map. The areas that we project will become wetlands, beaches and dunes in the next 60 years are not protected. These areas are the most difficult to deal with from a policy point of view, yet we must address what happens there if real progress is to be made in how we live with sea-level rise. The geohazards maps draw on decades of geological knowledge of how barrier islands behave and put it in a form that is intuitive to the public and directly useful to planners. Some of the “messages” in the map include: leave salt marshes alone and give them room to migrate inland as sea level rises; set back and move development away from the shoreline to provide space for beaches and protective dunes

  18. The action of Clofazimine on the level of lysosomal enzymes of cultured macrophages.

    PubMed Central

    Sarracent, J; Finlay, C M

    1982-01-01

    Mouse peritoneal and calf alveolar macrophage cultures were exposed to various concentrations of Clofazimine, 3 (p-chloroanilino)-10-p-Chlorophenyl 2, 10-dihydro-2-isopropylimino, for 120 hr and an increase of four lysosomal enzymes were found with 0 . 3 micrograms/ml of the drug. In mouse peritoneal macrophage cultures, higher concentrations were toxic. Cycloheximide inhibited the lysosomal enzyme activity increase found. No change in enzymatic activity was observed when a lysosomal enriched granular fraction was incubated with various drug concentrations. Our results strongly suggest that Clofazimine at concentrations close to therapeutic serum levels induces de novo synthesis of lysosomal enzymes in macrophage cultures. PMID:7083642

  19. Permissive and Non-permissive Hypercapnia: Mechanisms of Action and Consequences of High Carbon Dioxide Levels

    PubMed Central

    Briva, Arturo; Lecuona, Emilia; Sznajder, Jacob I.

    2013-01-01

    Acute lung injury is a disease with high mortality, which affects a large numbers of patients whose treatment continues to be debated. It has recently been postulated that hypercapnia can attenuate the inflammatory response during lung injury, which would assign it a specific role within lung protection strategies during mechanical ventilation. In this paper, we review current evidence on the role that high levels of CO2 in the blood play in lung injury. We conclude that, although there are reports that show benefits, the most recent evidence suggests that hypercapnia can be harmful and can contribute to worsening lung damage. PMID:20303638

  20. StarPals International Young Astronomers' Network Collaborative Projects for IYA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingan, Jessi

    2008-09-01

    StarPals is a nascent non-profit organization with the goal of providing opportunities for international collaboration between students of all ages within space science research. We believe that by encouraging an interest in the cosmos, the one thing that is truly Universal, from a young age, students will not only further their knowledge of and interest in science but will learn valuable teamwork and life skills. The goal is to foster respect, understanding and appreciation of cultural diversity among all StarPals participants, whether students, teachers, or mentors. StarPals aims to inspire students by providing opportunities in which, more than simply visualizing themselves as research scientists, they can actually become one. The technologies of robotic telescopes, videoconferencing, and online classrooms are expanding the possibilities like never before. In honor of IYA2009, StarPals would like to encourage 400 schools to participate on a global scale in astronomy/cosmology research on various concurrent projects. We will offer in-person or online workshops and training sessions to teach the teachers. We will be seeking publication in scientific journals for some student research. For our current project, the Double Stars Challenge, students use the robotic telescopes to take a series of four images of one of 30 double stars from a list furnished by the US Naval Observatory and then use MPO Canopus software to take distance and position angle measurements. StarPals provides students with hands-on training, telescope time, and software to complete the imaging and measuring. A paper will be drafted from our research data and submitted to the Journal of Double Star Observations. The kids who participate in this project may potentially be the youngest contributors to an article in a vetted scientific journal. Kids rapidly adapt and improve their computer skills operating these telescopes and discover for themselves that science is COOL!

  1. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 121: Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-09-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 121 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) (1996, as amended February 2008) as Storage Tanks and Miscellaneous Sites. CAU 121 consists of the following three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 12-01-01, Aboveground Storage Tank; (2) CAS 12-01-02, Aboveground Storage Tank; and (3) CAS 12-22-26, Drums; 2 AST's. CAU 121 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO and the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan for CAU 121 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007). Field work took place from February through September 2008. Samples were collected to determine the path forward to close each site. Closure activities were completed as defined in the plan based on sample analytical results and site conditions. No contaminants of concern (COCs) were present at CAS 12-01-01; therefore, no further action was chosen as the corrective action alternative. As a best management practice (BMP), the empty aboveground storage tank (AST) was removed and disposed as sanitary waste. At CAS 12-01-02, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) were present above the preliminary action level (PAL) in the soil beneath the AST that could possibly have originated from the AST contents. Therefore, PCBs were considered COCs, and the site was clean closed by excavating and disposing of soil containing PCBs. Approximately 5 cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) of soil were excavated and disposed as petroleum hydrocarbon PCB remediation waste, and approximately 13 yd3 of soil were excavated and disposed as PCB remediation waste. Cleanup samples were collected to confirm that the remaining soil did not contain PCBs above the PAL. Other compounds detected in the soil above PALs (i.e., total petroleum hydrocarbons [TPH] and semi-volatile organic compounds [SVOCs]) were

  2. DiPALS: Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis - a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed Central

    McDermott, Christopher J; Bradburn, Mike J; Maguire, Chin; Cooper, Cindy L; Baird, Wendy O; Baxter, Susan K; Cohen, Judith; Cantrill, Hannah; Dixon, Simon; Ackroyd, Roger; Baudouin, Simon; Bentley, Andrew; Berrisford, Richard; Bianchi, Stephen; Bourke, Stephen C; Darlison, Roy; Ealing, John; Elliott, Mark; Fitzgerald, Patrick; Galloway, Simon; Hamdalla, Hisham; Hanemann, C Oliver; Hughes, Philip; Imam, Ibrahim; Karat, Dayalan; Leek, Roger; Maynard, Nick; Orrell, Richard W; Sarela, Abeezar; Stradling, John; Talbot, Kevin; Taylor, Lyn; Turner, Martin; Simonds, Anita K; Williams, Tim; Wedzicha, Wisia; Young, Carolyn; Shaw, Pamela J

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease resulting in death, usually from respiratory failure, within 2-3 years of symptom onset. Non-invasive ventilation (NIV) is a treatment that when given to patients in respiratory failure leads to improved survival and quality of life. Diaphragm pacing (DP), using the NeuRx/4(®) diaphragm pacing system (DPS)™ (Synapse Biomedical, Oberlin, OH, USA), is a new technique that may offer additional or alternative benefits to patients with ALS who are in respiratory failure. OBJECTIVE The Diaphragm Pacing in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (DiPALS) trial evaluated the effect of DP on survival over the study duration in patients with ALS with respiratory failure. DESIGN The DiPALS trial was a multicentre, parallel-group, open-label, randomised controlled trial incorporating health economic analyses and a qualitative longitudinal substudy. PARTICIPANTS Eligible participants had a diagnosis of ALS (ALS laboratory-supported probable, clinically probable or clinically definite according to the World Federation of Neurology revised El Escorial criteria), had been stabilised on riluzole for 30 days, were aged ≥ 18 years and were in respiratory failure. We planned to recruit 108 patients from seven UK-based specialist ALS or respiratory centres. Allocation was performed using 1 : 1 non-deterministic minimisation. INTERVENTIONS Participants were randomised to either standard care (NIV alone) or standard care (NIV) plus DP using the NeuRX/4 DPS. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES The primary outcome was overall survival, defined as the time from randomisation to death from any cause. Secondary outcomes were patient quality of life [assessed by European Quality of Life-5 Dimensions, three levels (EQ-5D-3L), Short Form questionnaire-36 items and Sleep Apnoea Quality of Life Index questionnaire]; carer quality of life (EQ-5D-3L and Caregiver Burden Inventory); cost-utility analysis and health

  3. Study on the mechanism of action between dimethyl phthalate and herring sperm DNA at molecular level.

    PubMed

    Chi, Zhenxing; Wang, Donglin; You, Hong

    2016-08-01

    Dimethyl phthalate (DMP), a typical phthalic acid ester, is widespread in the environment and causes extensive concern due to its adverse effects on human health. To understand the genotoxicity of DMP at molecular level, the toxic interaction of DMP with herring sperm (hs) deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA; hs-DNA) was investigated in vitro under simulated physiological conditions using multi-spectroscopic techniques and a molecular modeling method. The results of Ultraviolet-Visible absorption spectroscopy, fluorescence emission spectroscopy, and circular dichroism spectra indicated that DMP interacts with hs-DNA in a groove-binding mode that changes the double helical structure of DNA. The binding constant and the number of binding sites calculated from the fluorescence quenching data were 565.718 L mol(-1) and 0.7872, respectively. A molecular modeling study revealed that DMP tends to bind with DNA in the A-T-rich regions of minor groove and that hydrogen bonding and van der Waals forces play main roles in the interaction. This research can help to elucidate the mechanism of DMP toxicity in vivo. PMID:27166703

  4. Alimini Lakes Project (PAL). Human-environment interaction during the Holocene in Mediterranean coastal wetlands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balbo, Andrea; Primavera, Milena; Fiorentino, Girolamo; Simone, Oronzo; Caldara, Massimo; Quarta, Gianluca; Calcagnile, Lucio

    2010-05-01

    A diachronical understanding of the co-evolution of people and Mediterranean wetlands requires the combined study of archaeological and palaeoenvironmental records. By focusing on an extended chronology, and relying on the update of known and new archaeological and palaeonvironmental sequences, PAL investigates how the Alimini Lakes disctrict (Apulia, S Italy) has changed over the past 10ka (the Holocene), a period witnessing great climatic environmental and social change. Holocene climate change is amplified in coastal wetlands, greatly affecting hydrology vegetation and people. Likewise, socio-economical changes (e.g. the introduction of agriculture) play a fundamental role in the shaping of wet landscapes. Under the combined action of environmental and human factors, coastal wetlands are prone to rapid and drastic ecological shifts and constitute ideal locations for developing a geoarchaeological approach. The results of the first year of research are presented here and include (1) the visit, description and GPS positioning of previously and newly discovered archaeological areas (cave and open air sites), (2) sampling of two Holocene sedimentary sequences from the Alimini Lakes disctict, (3) the results of the preliminary analyses (including AMS radiocarbon dating) carried out on the samples. The relocation of new and previously found archaeological sites was necessary to overcome some confusions caused by the contrasting published information. Relocated archaeological sites were normalized in a GIS environment. Two main Pleistocene/Holocene palaeoenvironmental sequences were sampled within the Alimini Lakes district: (1) the Frassanito dune reference sequence, obtained from a portion of the coastal dune (up to 10 m high) bordering the trait of the Adriatic coast situated in front of the Alimini lakes, (2) the ALI G 1 core (9m long) sampled on the W shore of Alimini Grande Lake. The multiproxy study of these sedimentary sequences provides a record of Holocene

  5. Relative impact of sea level rise, wave climate and anthropogenic actions on the recent shoreline changes of the Pacific Islands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garcin, M.; Baills, A.; Yates, M.; Le Cozannet, G.; Bulteau, T.; Salai, E.; Sauter, J.

    2012-04-01

    Sea level rise is nowadays one of a major concern for many low-lying and highly populated areas in the world. However, it is difficult to forecast the consequences of sea levels rise in terms of erosion, due to the interactions with many forcing factors of the evolution of coastline mobility. Indeed, climatic factors such as sea level rise are combined with internal and external geodynamic processes, biological factors, wave forcing and anthropogenic actions which can also play an important role in coastline mobility. Understanding the whole system and its past evolutions is necessary to anticipate future changes. Within the on-going CECILE project, our goal is to evaluate the impact of future sea level change on some emblematic coasts located in different part of the world in order to assess their sensitivity and the variability of their response to different change rise rates. This work presents the study conducted on coastlines of two regions of the Pacific: French Polynesia (SW Pacific) and New Caledonia. In order to evaluate the sensitivity of the coastlines to sea level rise, we firstly analysed the response of each coastline during the sea level rise of the past 50 years, using a diachronic analysis of ancient and recent remote sensing images. Then we also took into account the evolution of anthropogenic actions contributing to modifications of the sedimentary budget at the coast, and finally, sea level variations, using the sea level reconstruction of Becker et al. (2012) of the 2nd half of the XXth century. Two atolls of French Polynesia (Manihi and Scilly) and six coastal stretches of New Caledonia have been studied. Although Manihi and Scilly experienced a sea level rise rate twice as important as the global mean according to Becker et al. (2012), wave forcing was, during the last 50 years, the dominant factor controlling the shoreline evolution and aggradation/erosion processes on the atolls. On the contrary, on the main island of New Caledonia, the

  6. Action Tweets Linked to Reduced County-Level HIV Prevalence in the United States: Online Messages and Structural Determinants.

    PubMed

    Ireland, Molly E; Chen, Qijia; Schwartz, H Andrew; Ungar, Lyle H; Albarracin, Dolores

    2016-06-01

    HIV is uncommon in most US counties but travels quickly through vulnerable communities when it strikes. Tracking behavior through social media may provide an unobtrusive, naturalistic means of predicting HIV outbreaks and understanding the behavioral and psychological factors that increase communities' risk. General action goals, or the motivation to engage in cognitive and motor activity, may support protective health behavior (e.g., using condoms) or encourage activity indiscriminately (e.g., risky sex), resulting in mixed health effects. We explored these opposing hypotheses by regressing county-level HIV prevalence on action language (e.g., work, plan) in over 150 million tweets mapped to US counties. Controlling for demographic and structural predictors of HIV, more active language was associated with lower HIV rates. By leveraging language used on social media to improve existing predictive models of geographic variation in HIV, future targeted HIV-prevention interventions may have a better chance of reaching high-risk communities before outbreaks occur. PMID:26650382

  7. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-29

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 x{sub zp}. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  8. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  9. A possible approach for setting a mercury risk-based action level based on tribal fish ingestion rates.

    PubMed

    Harper, Barbara L; Harris, Stuart G

    2008-05-01

    Risks from mercury and other contaminants in fish for a large Columbia River dataset are evaluated in this paper for a range of consumption rates. Extensive ethnohistorical, nutritional, recent ethnographic surveys, and other documentation was reviewed to confirm previous determinations that the traditional subsistence fish consumption rate is 500 pounds per capita annually, or 620 g per day (gpd). Lower comtemporary consumption rates for other population subsets are also discussed. The causes of the current suppression of fish consumption are discussed and the cultural, educational, social, and trade and economic impacts of the loss of fish are considered. Action levels for mercury for riverine Tribes in the Columbia Basin are suggested at 0.1 ppm or less based on the combined risk from mercury plus other contaminants, the higher fish consumption rates, the existing cultural deficit due to loss of salmon and other stressors, the health benefits of fish, and the cultural and economic importance of fish. The goal of fish advisories is to reduce fish consumption even further, which shifts the burden of avoiding risk to the very people who already bear the burdens of contaminant exposure, socio-economic impacts and cultural loss. However, because Tribal communities often do not have the choice of giving up more food, income, religion, culture, and heritage in order to avoid contamination, they are forced into choosing between culture and health. Many tribal members choose to incur chemical risk rather than giving up their culture and religion. We believe that lowering the action level for mercury is part of the federal fiduciary responsibility to American Indian Tribes. PMID:17631290

  10. Critical Care staffs' attitudes, confidence levels and educational needs correlate with countries' donation rates: data from the Donor Action database.

    PubMed

    Roels, Leo; Spaight, Caroline; Smits, Jacqueline; Cohen, Bernard

    2010-08-01

    To investigate on the impact of Critical Care (CC) staffs' attitudes to donation, their acceptance of the brain death (BD) concept, their confidence with donation-related tasks and educational needs on national donation rates. Donor Action (DA) Hospital Attitude Survey (HAS) data were collected from 19 537 CC staff in 11 countries, including personal attitudes to donation, self-reported knowledge, involvement and comfort levels with donation-related tasks and educational requirements. Countries' donation performance was expressed as Procurement Efficiency Index (PEI) (organs procured and transplanted/deaths from eligible causes). National PEI rates correlated well with CC staffs' average support to donation (R = 0.700, P = 0.014), acceptance of the BD concept (R = 0.742, P = 0.007), confidence levels (R = 0.796, P = 0.002) and average educational requirements with donation-related tasks (R = -0.661, P = 0.025). Nurses reported significantly lower positive attitudes (P < 0.0001), acceptance of the BD concept (P < 0.0001), comfort levels (P < 0.0001) and requested more education (P = 0.0025) than medical staff members. DA's HAS is a powerful, standardized tool to assess CC staffs' attitudes and donation-related skills in different environments. Measures to improve countries' donation performance should focus on guidance and education of CC staff so as to ensure that all practitioners have sufficient knowledge and feel comfortable with donation-related issues. PMID:20210934

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Evenson, Grant

    2005-07-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 554, Area 23 Release Site, located in Mercury at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 554 is comprised of one corrective action site (CAS): (1) CAS 23-02-08, USTs 23-115-1, 2, 3/Spill 530-90-002. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 554 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from January 18 through May 5, 2005, as set forth in the ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 554: Area 23 Release Site'' (NNSA/NSO, 2004) and Records of Technical Change No. 1 and No. 2. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 554 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) established in the CAU 554 CAIP for total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) benzo(a)pyrene, dibenz(a,h)anthracene, and trichloroethene (TCE). Specifically: (1) The soil beneath and laterally outward from former underground storage tanks at CAS 23-02-08 contains TPH-diesel-range organics (DRO) above the PAL of 100 milligrams per kilogram, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 400 feet (ft) below ground surface (bgs). The

  12. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute | NIH MedlinePlus the Magazine

    MedlinePlus

    ... turn Javascript on. NCI QuitPal, an App from the National Cancer Institute Past Issues / Winter 2013 Table ... Institutes of Health National Cancer Institute What if the tools you need to quit smoking were as ...

  13. Action Potential Energetics at the Organismal Level Reveal a Trade-Off in Efficiency at High Firing Rates

    PubMed Central

    Gilmour, Kathleen M.; Moorhead, Mayron J.; Perry, Steve F.; Markham, Michael R.

    2014-01-01

    The energetic costs of action potential (AP) production constrain the evolution of neural codes and brain networks. Cellular-level estimates of AP-related costs are typically based on voltage-dependent Na+ currents that drive active transport by the Na+/K+ ATPase to maintain the Na+ and K+ ion concentration gradients necessary for AP production. However, these estimates of AP cost have not been verified at the organismal level. Electric signaling in the weakly electric fish Eigenmannia virescens requires that specialized cells in an electric organ generate APs with large Na+ currents at high rates (200–600 Hz). We measured these currents using a voltage-clamp protocol and then estimated the energetic cost at the cellular level using standard methods. We then used this energy-intensive signaling behavior to measure changes in whole-animal energetics for small changes in electric discharge rate. At low rates, the whole-animal measure of AP cost was similar to our cellular-level estimates. However, AP cost increased nonlinearly with increasing firing rates. We show, with a biophysical model, that this nonlinearity can arise from the increasing cost of maintaining AP amplitude at high rates. Our results confirm that estimates of energetic costs based on Na+ influx are appropriate for low baseline firing rates, but that extrapolating to high firing rates may underestimate true costs in cases in which AP amplitude does not decrease. Moreover, the trade-off between energetic cost and firing rate suggests an additional constraint on the evolution of high-frequency signaling in neuronal systems. PMID:24381281

  14. PALS: A unique probe for the molecular organisation of biopolymer matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roussenova, M.; Alam, M. A.

    2013-06-01

    This short review aims to illustrate the versatility of Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS) when utilized for the characterization of biopolymers (e.g.: starch, fractionated maltooligomers, gelatin and cellulose derivatives) commonly used for the formulation of pharmaceutical encapsulants. By showing examples from a number of recent PALS studies, we illustrate that this technique can be used to probe the changes in thermodynamic state and molecular packing for a wide range of biopolymer matrices as a function of temperature, matrix composition and water content. This provides a basis for establishing composition-structure-property relationships for these materials, which would eventually enable the rational control of their macroscopic properties and the design of optimal encapsulating matrices and intelligent drug delivery systems.

  15. PAL spectroscopy of rare-earth doped Ga-Ge-Te/Se glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shpotyuk, Ya.; Ingram, A.; Shpotyuk, O.

    2016-04-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy was applied for the first time to study free-volume void evolution in chalcogenide glasses of Ga-Ge-Te/Se cut-section exemplified by glassy Ga10Ge15Te75 and Ga10Ge15Te72Se3 doped with 500 ppm of Tb3+ or Pr3+. The collected PAL spectra reconstructed within two-state trapping model reveal decaying tendency in positron trapping efficiency in these glasses under rare-earth doping. This effect results in unchanged or slightly increased defect-related lifetimes τ2 at the cost of more strong decrease in I2 intensities, as well as reduced positron trapping rate in defects and fraction of trapped positrons. Observed changes are ascribed to rare-earth activated elimination of intrinsic free volumes associated mainly with negatively-charged states of chalcogen atoms especially those neighboring with Ga-based polyhedrons.

  16. Optimization of the hard X-ray self-seeding layout of the PAL-XFEL

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jaeyu; Hyun Shim, Chi; Yoon, Moohyun; Hwang, Ilmoon; Woon Parc, Yong; Wu, Juhao

    2015-10-01

    The Pohang Accelerator Laboratory X-ray free electron laser (PAL-XFEL) will operate a soft X-ray undulator line and a hard X-ray one during the initial operation period. For the hard X-ray line, self-seeding using a diamond crystal is the most promising approach to supply narrow bandwidth radiation to users. This paper presents simulation results for the optimization of the self-seeding layout in the hard X-ray undulator line for PAL-XFEL. The electron energy used in this study for the hard X-ray self-seeding scheme is 8.126 GeV and the central wavelength is 0.15 nm. The photon beam spectral bandwidth will be 0.78 eV by using the self-seeding option.

  17. EsPal: one-stop shopping for Spanish word properties.

    PubMed

    Duchon, Andrew; Perea, Manuel; Sebastián-Gallés, Nuria; Martí, Antonia; Carreiras, Manuel

    2013-12-01

    This article introduces EsPal: a Web-accessible repository containing a comprehensive set of properties of Spanish words. EsPal is based on an extensible set of data sources, beginning with a 300 million token written database and a 460 million token subtitle database. Properties available include word frequency, orthographic structure and neighborhoods, phonological structure and neighborhoods, and subjective ratings such as imageability. Subword structure properties are also available in terms of bigrams and trigrams, biphones, and bisyllables. Lemma and part-of-speech information and their corresponding frequencies are also indexed. The website enables users either to upload a set of words to receive their properties or to receive a set of words matching constraints on the properties. The properties themselves are easily extensible and will be added over time as they become available. It is freely available from the following website: http://www.bcbl.eu/databases/espal/ . PMID:23468181

  18. Impact of soil field water capacity on secondary metabolites, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL), maliondialdehyde (MDA) and photosynthetic responses of Malaysian kacip fatimah (Labisia pumila Benth).

    PubMed

    Jaafar, Hawa Z E; Ibrahim, Mohd Hafiz; Mohamad Fakri, Nur Farhana

    2012-01-01

    A randomized complete block design 2 × 4 experiment was designed and conducted for 15 weeks to characterize the relationships between production of total phenolics, flavonoid, anthocyanin, leaf gas exchange, total chlorophyll, phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) activity in two varieties of Labisia pumila Benth, namely the var. alata and pumila, under four levels of evapotranspiration replacement (ER) (100%; well watered), (75%, moderate water stress), (50%; high water stress) and (25%; severe water stress). The production of total phenolics, flavonoids, anthocyanin, soluble sugar and relative leaf water content was affected by the interaction between varieties and SWC. As the ER levels decreased from 100% to 25%, the production of PAL and MDA activity increased steadily. At the highest (100%) ER L. pumila exhibited significantly higher net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield, maximum efficiency of photosystem II (f(v)/f(m)) and lower dark respiration rates compared to the other treatment. The production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin was also found to be higher under high water stress (50% ER replacement) compared to severe water stress (25% ER). From this study, it was observed that as net photosynthesis, apparent quantum yield and chlorophyll content were downregulated under high water stress the production of total phenolics, flavonoids and anthocyanin were upregulated implying that the imposition of high water stress can enhance the medicinal properties of L. pumila Benth. PMID:22695235

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 410: Waste Disposal Trenches, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0 (includes ROTCs 1, 2, and 3)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-07-16

    , beryllium, total petroleum hydrocarbons; and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals. Field activities will consist of geophysical and radiological surveys, and collecting soil samples at biased locations by appropriate methods. A two-step data quality objective strategy will be followed: (1) define the nature of contamination at each CAS location by identifying any contamination above preliminary action levels (PALs); and, (2) determine the extent of contamination identified above PALs. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document.

  20. Actions of mammalian insulin on a Neurospora variant: effects on intracellular metabolite levels as monitored by P-31 NMR spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Greenfield, N.J.; McKenzie, M.A.; Jordan, F.; Takahashi, M.; Lenard, J.

    1986-05-01

    Fourier transform P-31 NMR spectroscopy (81 MHz) was used to investigate the biochemical nature of insulin action upon the cell wall-deficient slime mutant of Neurospora crassa. Spectra of oxygenated, living cells (ca.10/sup 9//ml.) in late logarithmic-early stationary phase of growth were accumulated for approximately 20 min. (350-450 pulses). Pronounced differences were seen in the metabolite levels of cells cultured for 18-21 hours in the presence of insulin (100 nM) as compared to cells cultured in its absence. Differences in the insulin-grown cells included higher levels of sugar phosphates, inorganic (cytoplasmic) phosphate, NAD+/NADH and UDP-glucose (UDPG) compared to control cells, in which UDP-N-acetylglucosamine (UDPNAG) was the prominent sugar nucleotide. When 100 mM glucose was administered with insulin immediately prior to measurement, short term effects were seen. There were significant increases of sugar phosphates, inorganic phosphate, NAD+/NADH, phosphodiesters and UDPG relative to the case of glucose addition alone. These results are wholly consistent with the known influence of insulin upon mammalian metabolism: stimulation of glucose uptake, phosphorylation and oxidation, phosphatide synthesis and Pi uptake.

  1. Supplementation of CHROMagar Candida Medium with Pal's Medium for Rapid Identification of Candida dubliniensis

    PubMed Central

    Sahand, Ismail H.; Moragues, María D.; Eraso, Elena; Villar-Vidal, María; Quindós, Guillermo; Pontón, José

    2005-01-01

    CHROMagar Candida medium is used for the isolation and identification of Candida species, but it does not differentiate Candida albicans from Candida dubliniensis. This differentiation can be achieved by using Pal's agar, which cannot be used in primary isolation. We have combined both media to obtain a new medium that can be used for the isolation and identification of C. dubliniensis in primary cultures. PMID:16272515

  2. One NASA: Sharing Knowledge Through an Agency-wide Process Asset Library (PAL)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Truss, Baraka J.

    2006-01-01

    This poster session will cover the key purpose and components behind implementing the NASA PAL website. This session will present the current results, describing the process used to create the website, the current usage measure, and will demonstrate how NASA is truly becoming ONE. The target audience for the poster session includes those currently implementing the CMMI model and looking for PAL adoption techniques. To continue to be the leader in space, science and technology, NASA is using this agency-wide PAL to share knowledge, work products and lessons learned through this website. Many organizations have failed to recognize how the efforts of process improvement fit into overall organizational effort. However, NASA as an agency has adopted the benefits of process improvement by the creation of this website to foster communication between its ten centers. The poster session will cover the following, topics outlined below: 1) Website purpose; 2) Characteristics of the website; 3) User accounts status; 4) Website content size; and 5) Usage percentages.

  3. Palæomagnetic evidence relevant to a change in the earth's radius

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cox, Allan; Doell, Richard R.

    1961-01-01

    INTEREST in the hypothesis that the Earth's radius has increased during geological history has been renewed in recent years because of several sets of independent observations and interpretations. From studies of the deformation of mountain ranges and the distribution of faults and oceans, Carey1 proposes an increase in the Earth's area of 45 per cent since the Palæozoic era. Heezen2 similarly interprets submarine topography as indicating that the oceans may be immense rift valleys formed by a pulling apart of the continents as the Earth expanded. Using a different approach, Egyed3,4 infers a rate of increase of the Earth's radius of 0.4–0.8 mm. per year. This calculation is based on a decrease in the total amount of continental area covered by oceans during the past 400 million years, as determined palæographically. Egyed4 has also pointed out the desirability of using palæomagnetic data to test this hypothesis.

  4. A Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas of human cerebral cortex.

    PubMed

    Van Essen, David C

    2005-11-15

    This report describes a new electronic atlas of human cerebral cortex that provides a substrate for a wide variety of brain-mapping analyses. The Population-Average, Landmark- and Surface-based (PALS) atlas approach involves surface-based and volume-based representations of cortical shape, each available as population averages and as individual subject data. The specific PALS-B12 atlas introduced here is derived from structural MRI volumes of 12 normal young adults. Accurate cortical surface reconstructions were generated for each hemisphere, and the surfaces were inflated, flattened, and mapped to standard spherical configurations using SureFit and Caret software. A target atlas sphere was generated by averaging selected landmark contours from each of the 24 contributing hemispheres. Each individual hemisphere was deformed to this target using landmark-constrained surface registration. The utility of the resultant PALS-B12 atlas was demonstrated using a variety of analyses. (i) Probabilistic maps of sulcal identity were generated using both surface-based registration (SBR) and conventional volume-based registration (VBR). The SBR approach achieved markedly better consistency of sulcal alignment than did VBR. (ii) A method is introduced for 'multi-fiducial mapping' of volume-averaged group data (e.g., fMRI data, probabilistic architectonic maps) onto each individual hemisphere in the atlas, followed by spatial averaging across the individual maps. This yielded a population-average surface representation that circumvents the biases inherent in choosing any single hemisphere as a target. (iii) Surface-based and volume-based morphometry applied to maps of sulcal depth and sulcal identity demonstrated prominent left-right asymmetries in and near the superior temporal sulcus and Sylvian fissure. Moreover, shape variability in the temporal lobe is significantly greater in the left than the right hemisphere. The PALS-B12 atlas has been registered to other surface

  5. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  6. Optimisation of transgene action at the post-transcriptional level: high quality parthenocarpic fruits in industrial tomatoes

    PubMed Central

    Pandolfini, Tiziana; Rotino, Giuseppe L; Camerini, Serena; Defez, Roberto; Spena, Angelo

    2002-01-01

    Background Genetic engineering of parthenocarpy confers to horticultural plants the ability to produce fruits under environmental conditions that curtail fruit productivity and quality. The DefH9-iaaM transgene, whose predicted action is to confer auxin synthesis specifically in the placenta, ovules and derived tissues, has been shown to confer parthenocarpy to several plant species (tobacco, eggplant, tomato) and varieties. Results UC82 tomato plants, a typical cultivar used by the processing industry, transgenic for the DefH9-iaaM gene produce parthenocarpic fruits that are malformed. UC82 plants transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM, a DefH9-iaaM derivative gene modified in its 5'ULR by replacing 53 nucleotides immediately upstream of the AUG initiation codon with an 87 nucleotides-long sequence derived from the rolA intron sequence, produce parthenocarpic fruits of high quality. In an in vitro translation system, the iaaM mRNA, modified in its 5'ULR is translated 3–4 times less efficiently than the original transcript. An optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy correlates with a reduced transgene mRNA steady state level in DefH9-RI-iaaM flower buds in comparison to DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Consistent with the known function of the iaaM gene, flower buds transgenic for the DefH9-RI-iaaM gene contain ten times more IAA than control untransformed flower buds, but five times less than DefH9-iaaM flower buds. Conclusions By using an auxin biosynthesis transgene downregulated at the post-transcriptional level, an optimal expressivity of parthenocarpy has been achieved in a genetic background not suitable for the original transgene. Thus, the method allows the generation of a wider range of expressivity of the desired trait in transgenic plants. PMID:11818033

  7. PalC, One of Two Bro1 Domain Proteins in the Fungal pH Signalling Pathway, Localizes to Cortical Structures and Binds Vps32

    PubMed Central

    Galindo, Antonio; Hervás-Aguilar, América; Rodríguez-Galán, Olga; Vincent, Olivier; Arst, Herbert N; Tilburn, Joan; Peñalva, Miguel A

    2007-01-01

    PalC, distantly related to Saccharomyces cerevisiaeperipheral endosomal sorting complexes required for transport III (ESCRT-III) component Bro1p and one of six Aspergillus nidulanspH signalling proteins, contains a Bro1 domain. Green fluorescent protein (GFP)-tagged PalC is recruited to plasma membrane-associated punctate structures upon alkalinization, when pH signalling is active. PalC recruitment to these structures is dependent on the seven transmembrane domain (7-TMD) receptor and likely pH sensor PalH. PalC is a two-hybrid interactor of the ESCRT-III Vps20/Vps32 subcomplex and binds Vps32 directly. This binding is largely impaired by Pro439Phe, Arg442Ala and Arg442His substitutions in a conserved region mediating interaction of Bro1p with Vps32p, but these substitutions do not prevent cortical punctate localization, indicating Vps32 independence. In contrast, Arg442Δ impairs Vps32 binding and prevents PalC-GFP recruitment to cortical structures. pH signalling involves a plasma membrane complex including the 7-TMD receptor PalH and the arrestin-like PalF and an endosomal membrane complex involving the PalB protease, the transcription factor PacC and the Vps32 binding, Bro1-domain-containing protein PalA. PalC, which localizes to cortical structures and can additionally bind a component of ESCRT-III, has the features required to bridge these two entities. A likely S. cerevisiaeorthologue of PalC has been identified, providing the basis for a unifying hypothesis of gene regulation by ambient pH in ascomycetes. PMID:17696968

  8. Individual information beam broadcasting system using a PAL-SLM based CGH beam former for the location based information services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osawa, Shunichi; Itoh, Hideo; Nakamura, Yoshiyuki; Nishimura, Takuichi; Lin, Xin; Tokuda, Masamitsu

    2006-01-01

    As an implementation of ubiquitous information service environments, we have been researching location-based information service systems at indoor and short distance area. The system should provide adequate information services, which fit the user's attributes, such as language, knowledge level and the volume of information, what is so-called "Right now, Here, and for Me" information services. Keeping privacy and security of the user is an important issue. Spatial optical communication technique is used for the system because the technique is easy to implement a location- and direction-based communication system. Information broadcasting in an area can be realized by an omnidirectional modulated light emission. However, the omnidirectional beam causes spill out of secure information to others, and has lower energy conservation than a focused beam communication. In this paper, a new spatial optical information broadcasting system, which can focus modulated beams only to intended users. CGH (Computer Generated Hologram) technique on a SLM (Spatial Light Modulator) is proposed and demonstrated. The system is composed of a PAL-SLM (Parallel Aligned Nematic Liquid Crystal Spatial Light Modulator), an eye-safe semiconductor laser or a semiconductor laser pumped YAG laser for the beam emitter, and an infrared video camera with an infrared LED illuminator for user locator. Experimental results of beam deflecting characteristics are described on beam uniformity, deflecting angle and the enhancement, communication characteristics, and real time tracking of user with a corner-reflecting sheet.

  9. Structure and Function of the Escherichia coli Tol-Pal Stator Protein TolR*

    PubMed Central

    Wojdyla, Justyna A.; Cutts, Erin; Kaminska, Renata; Papadakos, Grigorios; Hopper, Jonathan T. S.; Stansfeld, Phillip J.; Staunton, David; Robinson, Carol V.; Kleanthous, Colin

    2015-01-01

    TolR is a 15-kDa inner membrane protein subunit of the Tol-Pal complex in Gram-negative bacteria, and its function is poorly understood. Tol-Pal is recruited to cell division sites where it is involved in maintaining the integrity of the outer membrane. TolR is related to MotB, the peptidoglycan (PG)-binding stator protein from the flagellum, suggesting it might serve a similar role in Tol-Pal. The only structure thus far reported for TolR is of the periplasmic domain from Haemophilus influenzae in which N- and C-terminal residues had been deleted (TolR(62–133), Escherichia coli numbering). H. influenzae TolR(62–133) is a symmetrical dimer with a large deep cleft at the dimer interface. Here, we present the 1.7-Å crystal structure of the intact periplasmic domain of E. coli TolR (TolR(36–142)). E. coli TolR(36–142) is also dimeric, but the architecture of the dimer is radically different from that of TolR(62–133) due to the intertwining of its N and C termini. TolR monomers are rotated ∼180° relative to each other as a result of this strand swapping, obliterating the putative PG-binding groove seen in TolR(62–133). We found that removal of the strand-swapped regions (TolR(60–133)) exposes cryptic PG binding activity that is absent in the full-length domain. We conclude that to function as a stator in the Tol-Pal complex dimeric TolR must undergo large scale structural remodeling reminiscent of that proposed for MotB, where the N- and C-terminal sequences unfold in order for the protein to both reach and bind the PG layer ∼90 Å away from the inner membrane. PMID:26354441

  10. Degradation, receptor binding, insulin secreting and antihyperglycaemic actions of palmitate-derivatised native and Ala8-substituted GLP-1 analogues.

    PubMed

    Green, Brian D; Gault, Victor A; Mooney, Mark H; Irwin, Nigel; Harriott, Patrick; Greer, Brett; Bailey, Cliff J; O'Harte, Finbarr P M; Flatt, Peter R

    2004-02-01

    The hormone glucagon-like peptide-1(7-36)amide (GLP-1) is released in response to ingested nutrients and acts to promote glucose-dependent insulin secretion ensuring efficient postprandial glucose homeostasis. Unfortunately, the beneficial actions of GLP-1 which give this hormone many of the desirable properties of an antidiabetic drug are short lived due to degradation by dipeptidyl-peptidase IV (DPP IV) and rapid clearance by renal filtration. In this study we have attempted to extend GLP-1 action through the attachment of palmitoyl moieties to the epsilon-amino group in the side chain of the Lys26 residue and to combine this modification with substitutions of the Ala8 residue, namely Val or amino-butyric acid (Abu). In contrast to native GLP-1, which was rapidly degraded, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8, Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8 Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 all exhibited profound stability during 12 h incubations with DPP IV and human plasma. Receptor binding affinity and the ability to increase cyclic AMP in the clonal beta-cell line BRIN-BD11 were decreased by 86- to 167-fold and 15- to 62-fold, respectively compared with native GLP-1. However, insulin secretory potency tested using BRIN-BD11 cells was similar, or in the case of [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 enhanced. Furthermore, when administered in vivo together with glucose to diabetic (ob/ob) mice, [Lys(pal)26]GLP-1, [Abu8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 and [Val8,Lys(pal)26]GLP-1 did not demonstrate acute glucose-lowering or insulinotropic activity as observed with native GLP-1. These studies support the potential usefulness of fatty acid linked analogues of GLP-1 but indicate the importance of chain length for peptide kinetics and bioavailability. PMID:15101559

  11. Effects of methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) in cocaine discrimination or self-administration in rhesus monkeys.

    PubMed

    Kohut, Stephen J; Fivel, Peter A; Blough, Bruce E; Rothman, Richard B; Mello, Nancy K

    2013-10-01

    Monoamine releasers with varying selectivity for dopamine (DA)/norepinephrine and serotonin (5-HT) release are potential treatment medications for cocaine abuse. Although DA-selective monoamine releasers effectively reduce cocaine abuse, their clinical usefulness is limited by abuse liability. It is hypothesized that increasing 5-HT neurotransmission may reduce the abuse-related effects of DA releasers, but the optimal DA:5-HT release ratio remains to be determined. This study in rhesus monkeys compared the effects of two compounds with differing potency for 5-HT release. Methcathinone and 3-Cl-methcathinone (PAL-434) have equal potency for DA release, but PAL-434 has 10-fold higher potency for 5-HT release. In drug discrimination studies, monkeys were trained to discriminate cocaine (0.4 mg/kg i.m.) from saline in a two-key, food-reinforced procedure. In drug self-administration studies, a separate group of monkeys was trained to respond for cocaine [0.01 mg/kg/injection (inj)] and food (1 g pellets) under a second order schedule of reinforcement [FR2(VR16:S)]. When responding was stable, methcathinone (0.1–0.56 mg/kg.h i.v.) or PAL-434 (0.32–1.8 mg/kg.h i.v.) was administered chronically (one injection every 20 min for 23 h/d) for 7–10 d. In discrimination studies, both compounds dose-dependently increased cocaine-like responding but with different potencies (cocaine=methcathinone >PAL-434). Chronic treatment with methcathinone or PAL-434 dose-dependently and selectively reduced cocaine self-administration. PAL-434 was about 4-fold and methcathinone about 1.6-fold more potent at decreasing cocaine- over food-maintained responding. These data suggest that compounds with moderate selectivity for DA vs. 5-HT release (8–15-fold) may be effective for the treatment of cocaine dependence. PMID:23768644

  12. Pharmacological inhibition of PAR2 with the pepducin P2pal-18S protects mice against acute experimental biliary pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Michael, E S; Kuliopulos, A; Covic, L; Steer, M L; Perides, G

    2013-03-01

    Pancreatic acinar cells express proteinase-activated receptor-2 (PAR2) that is activated by trypsin-like serine proteases and has been shown to exert model-specific effects on the severity of experimental pancreatitis, i.e., PAR2(-/-) mice are protected from experimental acute biliary pancreatitis but develop more severe secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. P2pal-18S is a novel pepducin lipopeptide that targets and inhibits PAR2. In studies monitoring PAR2-stimulated intracellular Ca(2+) concentration changes, we show that P2pal-18S is a full PAR2 inhibitor in acinar cells. Our in vivo studies show that P2pal-18S significantly reduces the severity of experimental biliary pancreatitis induced by retrograde intraductal bile acid infusion, which mimics injury induced by endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). This reduction in pancreatitis severity is observed when the pepducin is given before or 2 h after bile acid infusion but not when it is given 5 h after bile acid infusion. Conversely, P2pal-18S increases the severity of secretagogue-induced pancreatitis. In vitro studies indicate that P2pal-18S protects acinar cells against bile acid-induced injury/death, but it does not alter bile acid-induced intracellular zymogen activation. These studies are the first to report the effects of an effective PAR2 pharmacological inhibitor on pancreatic acinar cells and on the severity of experimental pancreatitis. They raise the possibility that a pepducin such as P2pal-18S might prove useful in the clinical management of patients at risk for developing severe biliary pancreatitis such as occurs following ERCP. PMID:23275617

  13. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5.

    PubMed

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  14. Complete genome sequence of the sugarcane nitrogen-fixing endophyte Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Bertalan, Marcelo; Albano, Rodolpho; de Pádua, Vânia; Rouws, Luc; Rojas, Cristian; Hemerly, Adriana; Teixeira, Kátia; Schwab, Stefan; Araujo, Jean; Oliveira, André; França, Leonardo; Magalhães, Viviane; Alquéres, Sylvia; Cardoso, Alexander; Almeida, Wellington; Loureiro, Marcio Martins; Nogueira, Eduardo; Cidade, Daniela; Oliveira, Denise; Simão, Tatiana; Macedo, Jacyara; Valadão, Ana; Dreschsel, Marcela; Freitas, Flávia; Vidal, Marcia; Guedes, Helma; Rodrigues, Elisete; Meneses, Carlos; Brioso, Paulo; Pozzer, Luciana; Figueiredo, Daniel; Montano, Helena; Junior, Jadier; de Souza Filho, Gonçalo; Martin Quintana Flores, Victor; Ferreira, Beatriz; Branco, Alan; Gonzalez, Paula; Guillobel, Heloisa; Lemos, Melissa; Seibel, Luiz; Macedo, José; Alves-Ferreira, Marcio; Sachetto-Martins, Gilberto; Coelho, Ana; Santos, Eidy; Amaral, Gilda; Neves, Anna; Pacheco, Ana Beatriz; Carvalho, Daniela; Lery, Letícia; Bisch, Paulo; Rössle, Shaila C; Ürményi, Turán; Rael Pereira, Alessandra; Silva, Rosane; Rondinelli, Edson; von Krüger, Wanda; Martins, Orlando; Baldani, José Ivo; Ferreira, Paulo CG

    2009-01-01

    Background Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is an endophytic diazotrophic bacterium that lives in association with sugarcane plants. It has important biotechnological features such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism pathways, secretion of organic acids, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Results Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5 is the third diazotrophic endophytic bacterium to be completely sequenced. Its genome is composed of a 3.9 Mb chromosome and 2 plasmids of 16.6 and 38.8 kb, respectively. We annotated 3,938 coding sequences which reveal several characteristics related to the endophytic lifestyle such as nitrogen fixation, plant growth promotion, sugar metabolism, transport systems, synthesis of auxin and the occurrence of bacteriocins. Genomic analysis identified a core component of 894 genes shared with phylogenetically related bacteria. Gene clusters for gum-like polysaccharide biosynthesis, tad pilus, quorum sensing, for modulation of plant growth by indole acetic acid and mechanisms involved in tolerance to acidic conditions were identified and may be related to the sugarcane endophytic and plant-growth promoting traits of G. diazotrophicus. An accessory component of at least 851 genes distributed in genome islands was identified, and was most likely acquired by horizontal gene transfer. This portion of the genome has likely contributed to adaptation to the plant habitat. Conclusion The genome data offer an important resource of information that can be used to manipulate plant/bacterium interactions with the aim of improving sugarcane crop production and other biotechnological applications. PMID:19775431

  15. Phosphate enhances levan production in the endophytic bacterium Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal5

    PubMed Central

    Idogawa, Nao; Amamoto, Ryuta; Murata, Kousaku; Kawai, Shigeyuki

    2014-01-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a gram-negative and endophytic nitrogen-fixing bacterium that has several beneficial effects in host plants; thus, utilization of this bacterium as a biofertilizer in agriculture may be possible. G. diazotrophicus synthesizes levan, a D-fructofuranosyl polymer with β-(2→6) linkages, as an exopolysaccharide and the synthesized levan improves the stress tolerance of the bacterium. In this study, we found that phosphate enhances levan production by G. diazotrophicus Pal5, a wild type strain that showed a stronger mucous phenotype on solid medium containing 28 mM phosphate than on solid medium containing 7 mM phosphate. A G. diazotrophicus Pal5 levansucrase disruptant showed only a weak mucous phenotype regardless of the phosphate concentration, indicating that the mucous phenotype observed on 28 mM phosphate medium was caused by levan. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the effect of a high concentration of phosphate on exopolysaccharide production. PMID:24717418

  16. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data with and without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, B. E.; Panda, B. E.; Sutliff, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first two minutes of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  17. Vibration Analysis of the Space Shuttle External Tank Cable Tray Flight Data With and Without PAL Ramp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walker, Bruce E.; Panda, Jayanta; Sutliff, Daniel L.

    2008-01-01

    External Tank Cable Tray vibration data for three successive Space Shuttle flights were analyzed to assess response to buffet and the effect of removal of the Protuberance Air Loads (PAL) ramp. Waveform integration, spectral analysis, cross-correlation analysis and wavelet analysis were employed to estimate vibration modes and temporal development of vibration motion from a sparse array of accelerometers and an on-board system that acquired 16 channels of data for approximately the first 2 min of each flight. The flight data indicated that PAL ramp removal had minimal effect on the fluctuating loads on the cable tray. The measured vibration frequencies and modes agreed well with predicted structural response.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 254: Area 25 R-MAD Decontamination Facility, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 254, R-MAD Decontamination Facility, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 254 is comprised of Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-23-06, Decontamination Facility. A corrective action investigation for this CAS as conducted in January 2000 as set forth in the related Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Samples were collected from various media throughout the CAS and sent to an off-site laboratory for analysis. The laboratory results indicated the following: radiation dose rates inside the Decontamination Facility, Building 3126, and in the storage yard exceeded the average general dose rate; scanning and static total surface contamination surveys indicated that portions of the locker and shower room floor, decontamination bay floor, loft floor, east and west decon pads, north and south decontamination bay interior walls, exterior west and south walls, and loft walls were above preliminary action levels (PALs). The investigation-derived contaminants of concern (COCs) included: polychlorinated biphenyls, radionuclides (strontium-90, niobium-94, cesium-137, uranium-234 and -235), total volatile and semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, and total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (Metals). During the investigation, two corrective action objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate human exposure to COCs. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the Nevada Test Site, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Unrestricted Release Decontamination and Verification Survey; and Alternative 3 - Unrestricted

  19. Structures of the human Pals1 PDZ domain with and without ligand suggest gated access of Crb to the PDZ peptide-binding groove

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanova, Marina E.; Fletcher, Georgina C.; O’Reilly, Nicola; Purkiss, Andrew G.; Thompson, Barry J.; McDonald, Neil Q.

    2015-03-01

    This study characterizes the interaction between the carboxy-terminal (ERLI) motif of the essential polarity protein Crb and the Pals1/Stardust PDZ-domain protein. Structures of human Pals1 PDZ with and without a Crb peptide are described, explaining the highly conserved nature of the ERLI motif and revealing a sterically blocked peptide-binding groove in the absence of ligand. Many components of epithelial polarity protein complexes possess PDZ domains that are required for protein interaction and recruitment to the apical plasma membrane. Apical localization of the Crumbs (Crb) transmembrane protein requires a PDZ-mediated interaction with Pals1 (protein-associated with Lin7, Stardust, MPP5), a member of the p55 family of membrane-associated guanylate kinases (MAGUKs). This study describes the molecular interaction between the Crb carboxy-terminal motif (ERLI), which is required for Drosophila cell polarity, and the Pals1 PDZ domain using crystallography and fluorescence polarization. Only the last four Crb residues contribute to Pals1 PDZ-domain binding affinity, with specificity contributed by conserved charged interactions. Comparison of the Crb-bound Pals1 PDZ structure with an apo Pals1 structure reveals a key Phe side chain that gates access to the PDZ peptide-binding groove. Removal of this side chain enhances the binding affinity by more than fivefold, suggesting that access of Crb to Pals1 may be regulated by intradomain contacts or by protein–protein interaction.

  20. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  1. Changes in Levels of Affirmative Action in College Admissions in Response to Statewide Bans and Judicial Rulings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blume, Grant H.; Long, Mark C.

    2014-01-01

    Affirmative action in college admissions was effectively banned in Texas by the Hopwood ruling in 1997, by voter referenda in California and Washington in 1996 and 1998, and by administrative decisions in Florida in 1999. The "Hopwood" and "Johnson" rulings also had possible applicability to public colleges throughout Alabama,…

  2. Top-Level Players' Visual Control of Interceptive Actions: Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) 20 Years Later

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootsma, Reinoud J.; Fernandez, Laure; Morice, Antoine H. P.; Montagne, Gilles

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-step approach, Van Soest et al. (2010) recently questioned the pertinence of the conclusions drawn by Bootsma and Van Wieringen (1990) with respect to the visual regulation of an exemplary rapid interceptive action: the attacking forehand drive in table tennis. In the first step, they experimentally compared the movement behaviors of…

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with Errata Sheet

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-11-12

    This Closure Report (CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. This CAU is located in Areas 3 and 20 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 356 consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; 03-09-03, Mud Pit; 03-09-04, Mud Pit; 03-09-05, Mud Pit; 20-16-01, Landfill; and 20-22-21, Drums. This CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's (NNSA/NV's) recommendation that no further corrective action and closure in place is deemed necessary for CAU 356. This recommendation is based on the results of field investigation/closure activities conducted November 20, 2001, through January 3, 2002, and March 11 to 14, 2002. These activities were conducted in accordance with the Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration Plan (SAFER) for CAU 356. For CASs 03-09-01, 03-09-03, 20-16-01, and 22-20-21, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against Preliminary Action Levels (PALs) and it was determined that no Contaminants of Concern (COCs) were present. Therefore, no further action is necessary for the soil at these CASs. For CASs 03-04-01, 03-09-04, and 03-09-05, analytes detected in soil during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against PALs and identifies total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPHs) and radionuclides (i.e., americium-241 and/or plutonium 239/240) as COCs. The nature, extent, and concentration of the TPH and radionuclide COCs were bounded by sampling and shown to be relatively immobile. Therefore, closure in place is recommended for these CASs in CAU 356. Further, use restrictions are not required at this CAU beyond the NTS use restrictions identified in

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 490: Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (Rev. No.: 0, February 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-02-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended Corrective Action Alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 490, Station 44 Burn Area, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 490 is located on the Nellis Air Force Range and the Tonopah Test Range and is approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. This CAU is comprised of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-56-001-03BA, Fire Training Area (located southwest of Area 3); RG-56-001-RGBA, Station 44 Burn Area (located west of Main Lake); 03-58-001-03FN, Sandia Service Yard (located north of the northwest corner of Area 3); and 09-54-001-09L2, Gun Propellant Burn Area (located south of the Area 9 Compound on the TTR). A Corrective Action Investigation was performed in July and August 2000, and analytes detected during the corrective action investigation were evaluated against preliminary action levels to determine contaminants of concern (COCs). There were no COCs identified in soil at the Gun Propellant Burn Area or the Station 44 Burn Area; therefore, there is no need for corrective actions at these two sites. Five soil samples at the Fire Training Area and seven at the Sandia Service Yard exceeded PALs for total petroleum hydrocarbons-diesel. Upon the identification of COCs specific to CAU 490, Corrective Action Objectives were developed based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations at the TTR, with the following three CAAs under consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Closure In Place - No Further Action With Administrative Controls, and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on

  5. Project Pals: A Description of a High School-Based Tutorial Program Using Corrective Reading and Peer-Delivered Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marchand-Martella, Nancy; Martella, Ronald C.; Bettis, Daniel F.; Blakely, Molly Riley

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to assess implementation aspects of a peer-delivered Corrective Reading Program (CRP), entitled "Project PALS" (Peer Assisted Learning System), in six area high schools. Specifically, high schools provided details on the following aspects of their programs: school and teachers, students receiving peer…

  6. Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parenting Affective Learning): Process Manual for Program Implementation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brevard Community Coll., Cocoa, FL.

    This manual describes and evaluates the implementation of Project BEST-PAL (Basic Education Skills Through-Parent Affective Learning), Brevard Community College's special demonstration training project intended to return adults who have dropped out of the educational system back into the learning environment by bringing them to parenting classes…

  7. Impact of a Parenting Program in a High-Risk, Multi-Ethnic Community: The PALS Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Stephen; O'Connor, Thomas G.; Futh, Annabel; Matias, Carla; Price, Jenny; Doolan, Moira

    2010-01-01

    Background: Parenting programs have been shown to work when delivered to motivated ethnic majority parents in demonstration projects, but comparatively little is known about their impact when delivered to high-risk, multi-ethnic populations by routine local services. Methods: The Primary Age Learning Skills (PALS) trial was a randomized controlled…

  8. The causal model approach to nutritional problems: an effective tool for research and action at the local level.

    PubMed Central

    Tonglet, R.; Mudosa, M.; Badashonderana, M.; Beghin, I.; Hennart, P.

    1992-01-01

    Reported are the results of a case study from Kirotshe rural health district, Northern Kivu, Zaire, where a workshop on the causal model approach to nutrition was organized in 1987. The model has since been used in the field for research design, training of health professionals, nutrition intervention, and community development. The rationale behind this approach is reviewed, the experience accumulated from Kirotshe district is described, and the ways in which the causal model contributes to comprehensive health and nutrition care are discussed. The broad range of possible policy implications of this approach underlines its usefulness for future action. PMID:1486667

  9. Generation of fast neutrons through deuteron acceleration at the PALS laser facility

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krása, J.; Klír, D.; Velyhan, A.; Řezáč, K.; Cikhardt, J.; Ryć, L.; Krouský, E.; Pfeifer, M.; De Marco, M.; Skála, J.; Dudžák, R.; Ullschmied, J.

    2016-03-01

    Recent experiments at the laser facility PALS focused on the laser driven fusion of deuterons are reviewed. They benefit of high reaction cross-sections and of a high number of multi-MeV deuterons from thick CD2 targets irradiated by intensity of 3× 1016 W cm-2. In the reported experiments fast fusion neutrons with energy up to 16 MeV were produced through 7Li(d, n)8Be and 11B(d, n)12C reactions in a pitcher-catcher target configuration. When using a large area CD2 foil as a secondary catcher target the total maximum neutron yield from the 2H(d, n)3He reaction increased by a factor of about 5, from 4× 108 to 2× 109. This result reveals that most of the deuterons having enough kinetic energy to enter a fusion reaction are emitted from the primary target into vacuum.

  10. Simulation of radiative shock waves in Xe of last PALS experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cotelo, M.; Velarde, P.; de la Varga, A. G.; Portillo, D.; Stehlé, C.; Chaulagain, U.; Kozlova, M.; Larour, J.; Suzuki-Vidal, F.

    2015-12-01

    We present the radiative hydrodynamic simulation code ARWEN applied to study laboratory astrophysics phenomena. Our aim is to reproduce the results obtained from laser-produced radiative shock waves experiments held in PALS in 2011, focusing on the velocity of the shock wave and the length of the radiative precursor formed. We describe the main features of the simulation code as well as the parameters and data (EOS and opacities) used to simulate a target consisting of a Xe gas filled tube illuminated by a 60 J laser during 0.35 ns. A radiative precursor of about 165 μm is formed ahead of a shock wave traveling at velocity of 47.8 km/s, in agreement with the experimental data.

  11. Multivariate statistical analysis of stream-sediment geochemistry in the Grazer Paläozoikum, Austria

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Weber, L.; Davis, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    The Austrian reconnaissance study of stream-sediment composition — more than 30000 clay-fraction samples collected over an area of 40000 km2 — is summarized in an atlas of regional maps that show the distributions of 35 elements. These maps, rich in information, reveal complicated patterns of element abundance that are difficult to compare on more than a small number of maps at one time. In such a study, multivariate procedures such as simultaneous R-Q mode components analysis may be helpful. They can compress a large number of variables into a much smaller number of independent linear combinations. These composite variables may be mapped and relationships sought between them and geological properties. As an example, R-Q mode components analysis is applied here to the Grazer Paläozoikum, a tectonic unit northeast of the city of Graz, which is composed of diverse lithologies and contains many mineral deposits.

  12. Interfacial reactions in SiC{sub p}/Al composite fabricated by pressureless infiltration

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, K.B.; Kwon, H.

    1997-04-15

    Metal matrix composites (MMCs) reinforced by ceramic phases have been fabricated by various techniques including powder metallurgy, casting, etc. Recently Lanxide corporation developed the DIMOX and PRIMEX processes for fabricating ceramic- and metal-matrix composites, respectively. The PRIMEX process is an innovative technique for fabricating MMCs by the spontaneous infiltration of molten AL alloy containing Mg into a ceramic filler or preform under nitrogen atmosphere in pressureless state without the aid of vacuum or externally applied pressure. Although there were many patents on MMC fabrication by the above pressureless infiltration technique, however, few works on the resulting microstructures and their effects on mechanical properties were reported. Thus, in this study, the effects on interfacial reactions occurring during the fabrication of SiC{sub p}AL composite by the pressureless infiltration technique on microstructures and hardness have been investigated.

  13. Spin probe dynamics in relation to free volume in crystalline organics from ESR and PALS: Cyclohexane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Švajdlenková, H.; Zgardzinska, B.; Lukešová, M.; Bartoš, J.

    2016-01-01

    A joint external probe ESR and PALS study on cyclohexane (CHX) using stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetra-methyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) or ortho-positronium (o-Ps), respectively, is reported. The slow to fast transition of TEMPO occurs at the characteristic ESR temperature T50G coinciding with the solid to solid transition temperature, TSS. Moreover, o-Ps lifetime τ3(T50G) = 2.0 ns is close to an empirical rule τ3(T50G) = 2.17 ± 0.15 ns found for a series of amorphous glass-formers indicating that main transition of the TEMPO connected with the 'rigid' to plastic crystalline state transition in CHX occurs under the similar local free volume condition as in amorphous media.

  14. Automation of beam based alignment for the PAL-XFEL undulator line

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parc, Yong Woon; Hwang, Ilmoon; Han, Jang-Hui; Ko, In Soo

    2015-05-01

    An automated method of quadrupole beam based alignment in an X-ray free electron laser (XFEL) undulator line is proposed. To realize the automatic beam based alignment (BBA) independently of operator's skill and efforts, the procedure is simplified. Simulation results on the BBA technique using two alignment stages for the Pohang Accelerator Laboratory XFEL's (PAL-XFEL) undulator line is carried out. After a standard mechanical alignment the quadrupoles are expected to be aligned to 100 μm rms from our previous experience. A rough alignment method in this study is able to align the quadrupoles to about 40 μm rms without any pre-handling of electron beam orbit or quadrupoles position. At the second stage, the singular value decomposition (SVD) method is applied to perform a fine alignment in which the trajectory of an electron beam is controlled within 5 μm rms to the ideal orbit. All procedures are programmable to perform the BBA automatically.

  15. Regulation of genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes by Pal-PacC signaling in Aspergillus nidulans.

    PubMed

    Kunitake, Emi; Hagiwara, Daisuke; Miyamoto, Kentaro; Kanamaru, Kyoko; Kimura, Makoto; Kobayashi, Tetsuo

    2016-04-01

    Cellulosic biomass represents a valuable potential substitute for fossil-based fuels. As such, there is a strong need to develop efficient biotechnological processes for the enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulosic biomass via the optimization of cellulase production by fungi. Ambient pH is an important factor affecting the industrial production of cellulase. In the present study, we demonstrate that several Aspergillus nidulans genes encoding cellulolytic enzymes are regulated by Pal-PacC-mediated pH signaling, as evidenced by the decreased cellulase productivity of the palC mutant and pacC deletants of A. nidulans. The deletion of pacC was observed to result in delayed induction and decreased expression of the cellulase genes based on time course expression analysis. The genome-wide identification of PacC-regulated genes under cellobiose-induced conditions demonstrated that genes expressed in a PacC-dependent manner included 82 % of ClrB (a transcriptional activator of the cellulase genes)-regulated genes, including orthologs of various transporter and β-glucosidase genes considered to be involved in cellobiose uptake or production of stronger inducer molecules. Together with the significant overlap between ClrB- and PacC-regulated genes, the results suggest that PacC-mediated regulation of the cellulase genes involves not only direct regulation by binding to their promoter regions but also indirect regulation via modulation of the expression of genes involved in ClrB-dependent transcriptional activation. Our findings are expected to contribute to the development of more efficient industrial cellulase production methods. PMID:26946171

  16. Characterization of the TolB-Pal trans-envelope complex from Xylella fastidiosa reveals a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the biofilm development process.

    PubMed

    Santos, Clelton A; Janissen, Richard; Toledo, Marcelo A S; Beloti, Lilian L; Azzoni, Adriano R; Cotta, Monica A; Souza, Anete P

    2015-10-01

    The intriguing roles of the bacterial Tol-Pal trans-envelope protein complex range from maintenance of cell envelope integrity to potential participation in the process of cell division. In this study, we report the characterization of the XfTolB and XfPal proteins of the Tol-Pal complex of Xylella fastidiosa. X. fastidiosa is a major plant pathogen that forms biofilms inside xylem vessels, triggering the development of diseases in important cultivable plants around the word. Based on functional complementation experiments in Escherichia coli tolB and pal mutant strains, we confirmed the role of xftolB and xfpal in outer membrane integrity. In addition, we observed a dynamic and coordinated protein expression profile during the X. fastidiosa biofilm development process. Using small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS), the low-resolution structure of the isolated XfTolB-XfPal complex in solution was solved for the first time. Finally, the localization of the XfTolB and XfPal polar ends was visualized via immunofluorescence labeling in vivo during bacterial cell growth. Our results highlight the major role of the components of the cell envelope, particularly the TolB-Pal complex, during the different phases of bacterial biofilm development. PMID:26049080

  17. "Peer-Assisted Learning"(PAL) in the Skills-Lab – an inventory at the medical faculties of the Federal Republic of Germany

    PubMed Central

    Blohm, M.; Lauter, J.; Branchereau, S.; Krautter, M.; Köhl-Hackert, N.; Jünger, J.; Herzog, W.; Nikendei, C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Over multiple years, the didactic concept of „peer-assisted learning“ (PAL) has proved to be valuable for medical education. Particularly in the field of the nowadays widely established Skills-Labs, the assignment of student tutors is both popular and effective. The aim of the underlying study is to assess the current status of PAL programs within German medical faculties’ Skills-Labs regarding their distribution, extent, structure and content based on a nation-wide survey. Methods: All 36 medical faculties in Germany were contacted and asked for their participation (via telephone or in written form) in the survey encompassing 16 central questions as to the structure of established PAL programs. Data obtained were subject to quantitative and qualitative analysis. Results: 35 of 36 (97.2%) medical faculties participated in the survey. A PAL program was shown to be established at 33 (91.7%) faculties. However, the results show distinct differences between different faculties with respect to extent and content of the PAL programs. Conclusions: Among German medical Skills-Labs, PAL has been established almost ubiquitously. Further studies on the conception and standardization of training concepts appear to be pivotal for the advancement of PAL in the context of Skills-Labs. PMID:25699102

  18. [An experimental study of the anti-inflammatory action of noopept and its effect on the level of cytokines].

    PubMed

    Alekseeva, S V; Kovalenko, L P; Tallerova, A V; Gudasheva, T A; Durnev, A D

    2012-01-01

    The anti-inflammatory effects of noopept (dipeptide analog of piracetam) upon a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration at doses of 1, 5, and 10 mg/kg in comparison to the reference drug diclofenac (10 mg/kg, i.p.) have been studied on a model of acute exudative inflammation induced by carrageenan in outbred rats and concanavalin A (Con A) in CBA mice. The level of cytokines was studied on the lipopolysaccharide (LPS) model (single administration, 100 mg/kg, i.p.) with 5-day administration of noopept at a dose of 5 mg/kg (i.p., before endotoxin injection) in C57BL/6 mice. The administration of noopept led to a significant suppression of the inflammatory response to both carrageenan and Con A. The administration of Con A caused a 16-fold increase in the level of IL-6 interleukin in the blood serum of mice as compared to control. Noopept (5 mg/kg) reduced the level of IL-6 by a factor of 1.8 in the inflammatory response to Con A. The administration of LPS led to pronounced increase in the levels ofpro-inflammatory IL-6 and TNF-alpha in the blood serum of test mice as compared to intact animals. The course administration of noopept (5 mg/kg) significantly decreased the level of IL-6 and reduced by half the level of TNF-alpha. PMID:23156084

  19. Methylmercury in fish: a review of residue levels, fish consumption and regulatory action in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Tollefson, L.; Cordle, F.

    1986-09-01

    The dangers associated with the consumption of large amounts of methylmercury in fish are well recognized, and there is some evidence to suggest that methylmercury may be the cause of subtle neurological impairments when ingested at even low to moderate levels, particularly the prenatal and early childhood periods. This concern has prompted a continuing assessment of the risk of methylmercury toxicity among fish consumers in the US as well as other countries. The toxicokinetics of methylmercury in humans are reviewed and used to estimate body burdens associated with toxic effects. To determine seafood consumption patterns among the continental US population the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has analyzed data from a diary study commissioned by the Tuna Research Foundation. Mercury residue levels in domestic fish sampled by the FDA were used to determine the level of exposure to methylmercury. Until evidence is presented that substantially lowers the known body burden of methylmercury which causes toxicity, calculations indicate that the current 1.0 ppm regulatory level provides adequate protection for the average fish consumer, for young children, and for a significant number of consumers exceeding the acceptable daily intake. However, additional studies are being carried out in a continuing process to ensure that safe levels of prenatal exposure to mercury residues in fish are maintained.

  20. "Growing Up" through the Middle Level Years: A Case Study in Leadership Actions Necessary to Meet Students' Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, M. Melissa Richard

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the journey of a suburban middle level principal, as she led a school through an educational change process. This was a single case study design involving the school leader as principal participant, and the researcher as participant observer. The theoretical model that was developed for this…

  1. Influence of lipid heterogeneity and phase behavior on phospholipase A2 action at the single molecule level.

    PubMed

    Gudmand, Martin; Rocha, Susana; Hatzakis, Nikos S; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Stamou, Dimitrios; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Hofkens, Johan; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-05-19

    We monitored the action of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) on L- and D-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity and diffusion behavior of single PLA(2) molecules in a heterogeneous lipid environment during active hydrolysis. The experiments showed that enzyme molecules adsorbed and interacted almost exclusively with the fluid region of the DPPC monolayers. Domains of gel state L-DPPC were degraded exclusively from the gel-fluid interface where the buildup of negatively charged hydrolysis products, fatty acid salts, led to changes in the mobility of PLA(2). The mobility of individual enzymes on the monolayers was characterized by single particle tracking. Diffusion coefficients of enzymes adsorbed to the fluid interface were between 3.2 microm(2)/s on the L-DPPC and 4.9 microm(2)/s on the D-DPPC monolayers. In regions enriched with hydrolysis products, the diffusion dropped to approximately 0.2 microm(2)/s. In addition, slower normal and anomalous diffusion modes were seen at the L-DPPC gel domain boundaries where hydrolysis took place. The average residence times of the enzyme in the fluid regions of the monolayer and on the product domain were between approximately 30 and 220 ms. At the gel domains it was below the experimental time resolution, i.e., enzymes were simply reflected from the gel domains back into solution. PMID:20441751

  2. Influence of Lipid Heterogeneity and Phase Behavior on Phospholipase A2 Action at the Single Molecule Level

    PubMed Central

    Gudmand, Martin; Rocha, Susana; Hatzakis, Nikos S.; Peneva, Kalina; Müllen, Klaus; Stamou, Dimitrios; Uji-I, Hiroshi; Hofkens, Johan; Bjørnholm, Thomas; Heimburg, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    Abstract We monitored the action of phospholipase A2 (PLA2) on L- and D-dipalmitoyl-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) Langmuir monolayers by mounting a Langmuir-trough on a wide-field fluorescence microscope with single molecule sensitivity. This made it possible to directly visualize the activity and diffusion behavior of single PLA2 molecules in a heterogeneous lipid environment during active hydrolysis. The experiments showed that enzyme molecules adsorbed and interacted almost exclusively with the fluid region of the DPPC monolayers. Domains of gel state L-DPPC were degraded exclusively from the gel-fluid interface where the buildup of negatively charged hydrolysis products, fatty acid salts, led to changes in the mobility of PLA2. The mobility of individual enzymes on the monolayers was characterized by single particle tracking. Diffusion coefficients of enzymes adsorbed to the fluid interface were between 3.2 μm2/s on the L-DPPC and 4.9 μm2/s on the D-DPPC monolayers. In regions enriched with hydrolysis products, the diffusion dropped to ≈0.2 μm2/s. In addition, slower normal and anomalous diffusion modes were seen at the L-DPPC gel domain boundaries where hydrolysis took place. The average residence times of the enzyme in the fluid regions of the monolayer and on the product domain were between ≈30 and 220 ms. At the gel domains it was below the experimental time resolution, i.e., enzymes were simply reflected from the gel domains back into solution. PMID:20441751

  3. Effect of contrasted levels of habitual physical activity on metabolic flexibility.

    PubMed

    Bergouignan, Audrey; Antoun, Edwina; Momken, Iman; Schoeller, Dale A; Gauquelin-Koch, Guillemette; Simon, Chantal; Blanc, Stéphane

    2013-02-01

    The factors regulating the body's ability to switch from fat to carbohydrate oxidation in response to fuel availability changes, or metabolic flexibility (MF), are currently intensively investigated in the context of metabolic diseases. Although numerous metabolic diseases are associated with sedentary behaviors and metabolic inflexibility, the effect of habitual physical activity level (PAL) on MF regulation is surprisingly poorly known. We investigated how PAL affects MF in cross-sectional and interventional studies. MF was assessed in 44 subjects: normal-weight and overweight sedentary men submitted to 2 mo of exercise at current recommendations, normal-weight active men submitted to 1 mo of reduced PAL and normal-weight women submitted to 1 mo of bed rest, with or without exercise. MF was evaluated, before and after interventions, following two standard meals as the relationship between individual mathematical variances in insulin and nonprotein respiratory quotient (NPRQ) daily kinetics. Daily NPRQ and insulin variances differed according to habitual PAL (P = 0.002 and P = 0.009, respectively); active subjects had higher variances in NPRQ for lower variances in insulin than sedentary subjects, indicating a better MF. Detraining increased insulin variance (P = 0.009) and decreased NPRQ variance (P = 0.003), while training tended to have opposite effects. Insulin and NPRQ variances were negatively related along the PAL continuum (R(2) = 0.70, P < 0.001). Variance in NPRQ was also positively related to PAL (R(2) = 0.52, P < 0.001). By assessing MF with mathematical surrogates in conditions of daily pattern in meal's intake, we showed that habitual PAL is associated with MF status, and that MF is modulated by changes in PAL. PMID:23239872

  4. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-03-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying.

  5. Water-Vapor Sorption Processes in Nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 Ceramics: the PAL Spectroscopy Study.

    PubMed

    Klym, Halyna; Ingram, Adam; Shpotyuk, Oleh; Hadzaman, Ivan; Solntsev, Viacheslav

    2016-12-01

    The water-vapor sorption processes in nanoporous MgO-Al2O3 ceramics are studied with positron annihilation lifetime (PAL) spectroscopy employing positron trapping and positronium (Ps)-decaying modes. It is demonstrated that the longest-lived components in the four-term reconstructed PAL spectra with characteristic lifetimes near 2 and 60-70 ns can be, respectively, attributed to ortho-positronium (o-Ps) traps in nanopores with 0.3- and 1.5-1.8-nm radii. The first o-Ps decaying process includes "pick-off" annihilation in the "bubbles" of liquid water, while the second is based on o-Ps interaction with physisorbed water molecules at the walls of the pores. In addition, the water vapor modifies structural defects located at the grain boundaries in a vicinity of pores, this process being accompanied by void fragmentation during water adsorption and agglomeration during water desorption after drying. PMID:26956602

  6. A touch-screen based paired-associates learning (PAL) task for the rat may provide a translatable pharmacological model of human cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Talpos, John C; Aerts, Nancy; Fellini, Laetitia; Steckler, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    The use of touch-screen equipped operant boxes is an increasingly popular approach for modeling human cognition in the rodent. However little data is currently available describing the effects of pharmacological manipulations on touch-screen based tasks. Owing to the relationship between performance on visual-spatial paired associates learning (PAL) with schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease one task of specific interest is the touch-screen PAL task developed for rodents (J. Talpos et al., 2009). The goal of this study was to profile a range of the commonly used pharmacological models of schizophrenia and Alzheimer's disease to investigate the sensitivity of PAL to these models of disease. Male Lister hooded rats were trained on PAL until stable performance was obtained. The effects of PCP, ketamine, amphetamine, LSD, scopolamine, and biperiden (recently proposed as an alternative to scopolamine) were then tested on animals performing the PAL task. While all compounds influenced responding during PAL, only PCP and amphetamine impaired performance with minimal changes in secondary measures (response latencies, trials completed). Surprisingly ketamine did not cause a change in percent correct despite being an NMDA antagonist, indicating that not all NMDA antagonists are equal in the touch-screen platform. This finding is in agreement with existing literature showing differential effects of NMDA antagonists on a wide variety of behavioral assays include tasks of attention, memory, and cognitive flexibility (Gilmour et al., 2009; Dix et al., 2010; Smith et al., 2011). Moreover biperiden showed no benefit when compared to scopolamine, highlighting the current lack of an effective pharmacological model of cholinergic dysfunction in the touch-screen platform. These data demonstrate that performance on PAL can be disrupted by common pharmacological disease models, suggesting that PAL may have the sensitivity to serve as a translational test for the study of cognition in

  7. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    PubMed Central

    Cass, Cynthia L.; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F.; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D.; Bukhman, Yury V.; Foster, Cliff E.; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C.; Moskvin, Oleg V.; Johnson, Eric T.; Willhoit, Megan E.; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D.; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C.

    2015-01-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  8. Effects of PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium.

    PubMed

    Cass, Cynthia L; Peraldi, Antoine; Dowd, Patrick F; Mottiar, Yaseen; Santoro, Nicholas; Karlen, Steven D; Bukhman, Yury V; Foster, Cliff E; Thrower, Nick; Bruno, Laura C; Moskvin, Oleg V; Johnson, Eric T; Willhoit, Megan E; Phutane, Megha; Ralph, John; Mansfield, Shawn D; Nicholson, Paul; Sedbrook, John C

    2015-07-01

    The phenylpropanoid pathway in plants synthesizes a variety of structural and defence compounds, and is an important target in efforts to reduce cell wall lignin for improved biomass conversion to biofuels. Little is known concerning the trade-offs in grasses when perturbing the function of the first gene family in the pathway, PHENYLALANINE AMMONIA LYASE (PAL). Therefore, PAL isoforms in the model grass Brachypodium distachyon were targeted, by RNA interference (RNAi), and large reductions (up to 85%) in stem tissue transcript abundance for two of the eight putative BdPAL genes were identified. The cell walls of stems of BdPAL-knockdown plants had reductions of 43% in lignin and 57% in cell wall-bound ferulate, and a nearly 2-fold increase in the amounts of polysaccharide-derived carbohydrates released by thermochemical and hydrolytic enzymic partial digestion. PAL-knockdown plants exhibited delayed development and reduced root growth, along with increased susceptibilities to the fungal pathogens Fusarium culmorum and Magnaporthe oryzae. Surprisingly, these plants generally had wild-type (WT) resistances to caterpillar herbivory, drought, and ultraviolet light. RNA sequencing analyses revealed that the expression of genes associated with stress responses including ethylene biosynthesis and signalling were significantly altered in PAL knocked-down plants under non-challenging conditions. These data reveal that, although an attenuation of the phenylpropanoid pathway increases carbohydrate availability for biofuel, it can adversely affect plant growth and disease resistance to fungal pathogens. The data identify notable differences between the stress responses of these monocot pal mutants versus Arabidopsis (a dicot) pal mutants and provide insights into the challenges that may arise when deploying phenylpropanoid pathway-altered bioenergy crops. PMID:26093023

  9. Spin probe dynamics in relation to free volume in crystalline organics from ESR and PALS: N-tridecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukešová, M.; Zgardzinska, B.; Švajdlenková, H.; Zaleski, R.; Charmas, B.; Bartoš, J.

    2015-11-01

    A joint external probe ESR and PALS study on n-tridecane (n-TRD) using stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) or ortho-positronium (o-Ps), respectively, is presented. In contrast to n-hexadecane (n-HXD) [Physica B 430, 99 (2013)], five crossovers in the spin probe TEMPO mobility coinciding with those in the o-Ps probe annihilation parameters at the characteristic ESR and PALS temperatures in the solid phase were revealed: 1) acceleration within the slow regime at TX1slow in accordance with the changes in both o-Ps lifetime, τ3, and relative o-Ps intensity, I3, at Tb1 cr * in the rigid crystalline solid are related to very local end methyl group dynamics, 2) slow to fast regime transition at T50G<PALS is related with the collective chain dynamics of the melting transition TmDSC . The underlying structural-dynamic processes behind the observed ESR and PALS crossover coincidencies are discussed in the light of the present thermodynamic DSC and reported dynamic NMR, QENS and IR data.

  10. PAL SPME Arrow--evaluation of a novel solid-phase microextraction device for freely dissolved PAHs in water.

    PubMed

    Kremser, Andreas; Jochmann, Maik A; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-01-01

    After more than 25 years, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) has gained widespread acceptance as a well-automatable and flexible microextraction technique, while its instrumental basis remained mostly unchanged. The novel PAL (Prep And Load solution) SPME Arrow combines the advantages of SPME with the benefits of extraction techniques providing larger sorption phase volumes such as stir bar sorptive extraction (SBSE). It thereby avoids the inherent drawbacks of both techniques such as limitations in method automation in the case of SBSE, as well as the small sorption phase volumes and the lacking fiber robustness of classical SPME fibers. This new design is based on a robust stainless steel backbone, carrying, the screw connection to the PAL sampler, the enlarged sorption phase, and an arrow-shaped tip for conservative penetration of septa (hence the name). An outer capillary encloses this phase apart from enrichment and desorption processes and rests against the tip during transfer and penetrations, resulting in a homogeneously closed device. Here, we present an evaluation and a comparison of the novel PAL SPME Arrow with classical SPME fibers, extracting polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) as model analytes, from the freely dissolved fraction in lab water and groundwater via direct immersion using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as common sorption phase material. Limits of detection, repeatabilities, and extraction yields were determined for the PAL SPME Arrow and compared to data of classical SPME fibers and SBSE bars. Results indicate a significant benefit in extraction efficiency due to the larger sorption phase volume. It is accompanied by faultless mechanical robustness and thus better reliability, especially in case of prolonged, unattended, and automated operation. As an exemplary application, the water-soluble fraction of PAHs and derivatives in a roofing felt sample was quantified. PMID:26677018

  11. [Estimation of action of lactoovovegetarian and vegan diets on blood level of atherogenic lipoproteins in healthy people].

    PubMed

    Medkova, I L; Mosiakina, L I; Biriukova, L S

    2002-01-01

    The biochemical status of 72 vegetarians (aged 40-60) was studied; 35 persons kept to a lactoovovegetarian diet and 37 persons followed a vegan diet (vegetable food only). As the results of the investigation showed, almost all of the biochemical parameters of blood tests in the both groups were kept to the physiological norm. A pronounced hypolipidemic effect of both the diets was observed (the total cholesterol level was 5.24 +/- 0.28 mmol/l in the vegetarian group and 3.26 +/- 0.17 mmol/l in the vegan group), some parameters of lipid metabolism in the group of vegan being lower then in the vegetarian group. Thus, the total cholesterol level in the vegan group was lower by 38.7%, the atherogenic coefficient--by 13.8%, the low density cholesterol--by 34.3%, triglicerides--by 28.3%. Although the above mentioned parameters of the vegan group seem to be more satisfactory than those of the vegetarian group, we could not recommend the vegan diet for long periods of time because of deficiency of some nutrients in it. PMID:12462949

  12. Organization of goal-directed action at a high level of motor skill: the case of stone knapping in India.

    PubMed

    Biryukova, E V; Bril, B

    2008-07-01

    We analyzed the relationship between goal achievement and execution variability in craftsmen who have acquired the highest "ultimate" skills of stone knapping. The goal of a knapping movement is defined as the vector of the final velocity of a hammer, crucial for detaching a flake and, consequently, for the shape of the final product. The execution of the movement is defined by the kinematic pattern of the arm (i.e., by the coordination between the joint angles corresponding to the seven arm degrees of freedom). The results show that (a) the direction of final velocity is very stable for all craftsmen, whereas the amount of kinetic energy transmitted to the stone was craftsman specific and (b) the kinematic pattern of the arm was strongly individual and was a reliable sign of the level of skill--the highest level was characterized by the highest flexibility of movement kinematics. We stress the importance of conducting the experiment in natural conditions for better understanding of the relationship among the purpose (the final shape of the stone), the goal, and the execution of the movement. PMID:18698105

  13. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  14. Spin probe dynamics in relation to free volume in crystalline organics by means of ESR and PALS: n-Hexadecane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartoš, J.; Švajdlenková, H.; Zaleski, R.; Edelmann, M.; Lukešová, M.

    2013-12-01

    We report on a combined study of the guest dynamics and free volume in n-hexadecane (n-HXD) using two external microscopic probes: stable free radical 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-piperidinyloxy (TEMPO) and ortho-positronium (o-Ps) by means of ESR or PALS, respectively. Dynamic behavior of the molecular TEMPO probe and annihilation properties of the atomistic o-Ps one as a function of temperature are compared. Two coincidencies between the crossover effects at the characteristic ESR and PALS temperatures T50 G and Tb1cr below and TX2fast and TmPALS at the melting point TmDSC of n-HXD from macroscopic DSC scan were found. First, the slow to fast regime transition is ascribed to the spin probe TEMPO localization in the expanding interlamellar gap due to the induced enhanced end-chain mobility. Second, the high-temperature crossover within the fast regime is directly connected to the collective chain movements at the melting which takes place under the similar free volume fluctuation condition as revealed recently for a series of amorphous small molecular and polymer glass-formers.

  15. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  16. Reversing the reduced level of endometrial GLUT4 expression in polycystic ovary syndrome: a mechanistic study of metformin action.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Cui, Peng; Jiang, Hong-Yuan; Guo, Yan-Rong; Pishdari, Bano; Hu, Min; Feng, Yi; Billig, Håkan; Shao, Ruijin

    2015-01-01

    Conflicting results have been reported regarding whether or not insulin-regulated glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) is expressed in human and rodent endometria. There is an inverse relationship between androgen levels and insulin-dependent glucose metabolism in women. Hyperandrogenemia, hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance are believed to contribute to endometrial abnormalities in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS). However, it has been unclear in previous studies if endometrial GLUT4 expression is regulated by androgen-dependent androgen receptors (ARs) and/or the insulin receptor/Akt/mTOR signaling network. In this study, we demonstrate that GLUT4 is expressed in normal endometrial cells (mainly in the epithelial cells) and is down-regulated under conditions of hyperandrogenemia in tissues from PCOS patients and in a 5α-dihydrotestosterone-induced PCOS-like rat model. Western blot analysis revealed reduced endometrial GLUT4 expression and increased AR expression in PCOS patients. However, the reduced GLUT4 level was not always associated with an increase in AR in PCOS patients when comparing non-hyperplasia with hyperplasia. Using a human tissue culture system, we investigated the molecular basis by which GLUT4 regulation in endometrial hyperplasia tissues is affected by metformin in PCOS patients. We show that specific endogenous organic cation transporter isoforms are regulated by metformin, and this suggests a direct effect of metformin on endometrial hyperplasia. Moreover, we demonstrate that metformin induces GLUT4 expression and inhibits AR expression and blocks insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling in the same hyperplasia human tissues. These findings indicate that changes in endometrial GLUT4 expression in PCOS patients involve the androgen-dependent alteration of AR expression and changes in the insulin receptor/PI3K/Akt/mTOR signaling network. PMID:26045896

  17. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 177: Mud Pits and Cellars, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2006-06-01

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses closure for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 177, Mud Pits and Cellars, identified in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order''. Corrective Action Unit 177 consists of the 12 following Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 8, 9, 19, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site: (1) 08-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (2) 09-09-41, Unknown No.3 Mud Pit/Disposal Area; (3) 09-09-45, U-9bz PS No.1A Mud Pit (1) and Cellar; (4) 09-23-05, Mud Pit and Cellar; (5) 09-23-08, Mud Pit and Cellar; (6) 09-23-09, U-9itsx20 PS No.1A Cellar; (7) 10-23-02, Mud Pit and Cellar; (8) 10-23-03, Mud Pit and Cellar; (9) 19-23-01, Mud Pit and Cellar; (10) 19-23-02, Cellar and Waste Storage Area; (11) 19-23-03, Cellar with Casing; and (12) 20-23-07, Cellar. This plan provides the methodology for field activities needed to gather the necessary information for closing each CAS. There is sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations of similar sites regarding the expected nature and extent of potential contaminants to recommend closure of CAU 177 using the SAFER process. The data quality objective process developed for this CAU identified the following expected closure options: (1) investigation and confirmation that no contamination exists above the preliminary action levels (PALs), leading to a no further action declaration, or (2) characterization of the nature and extent of contamination, leading to closure in place with use restrictions. The expected closure options were selected based on available information including contaminants of potential concern, future land use, and assumed risks. A decision flow process was developed to outline the collection of data necessary to achieve closure. There are two decisions that need to be answered for closure. Decision I is to determine whether contaminants of potential concern are present in concentrations exceeding the PALs

  18. Improving Diversity and Educational Outreach at the K-14 level: A Call to Action for the AGU Membership

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, F. R.; Johnson, R.

    2002-12-01

    In 2002, the Subcommittee on Diversity (SD) of the Committee on Education and Human Resources (CEHR) submitted a Diversity Plan to the leadership of AGU. This plan outlines specific programs and goals that AGU can follow to help improve diversity in the Earth and space sciences. Diversity issues are key components to improve the human resource potential in the geosciences. As women are the majority population, and racial and ethnic minorities are experiencing the largest growing segment of the United States population, it is within our best interest to actively recruit and retain these populations into our dynamic fields of study. The SD recognizes that the strength of the AGU lies within its membership. Composed of some of the brightest and talented scientists in the world, the AGU members are leaders and pioneers in our understanding of the Earth System. Yet, many, if not most, people within underrepresented communities are not aware of the relevance that the Earth and space sciences play in their lives. In this discussion, we will discuss the importance of the AGU membership in the Diversity Plan. In addition, we will outline specific things that AGU members can do to improve access of US students and citizenry to Earth and space science education. These steps require that AGU members become active advocates in the public, especially at the K-14 level.

  19. Metabonomic analysis of the joint toxic action of long-term low-level exposure to a mixture of four organophosphate pesticides in rat plasma.

    PubMed

    Du, Longfei; Li, Sifan; Qi, Lei; Hou, Yurong; Zeng, Yan; Xu, Wei; Wang, Hong; Zhao, Xiujuan; Sun, Changhao

    2014-05-01

    In previously published articles, we evaluated the toxicity of four organophosphate (OP) pesticides (dichlorvos, dimethoate, acephate, and phorate) in rats using metabonomic technology at their corresponding no observed adverse effect levels (NOAELs). The results show that a single pesticide did not elicit a toxic response. The joint toxic action of four pesticides (at their corresponding NOAELs) was evaluated by metabolomic analysis of rat plasma under experimental conditions similar to those of the four single OP pesticides. The pesticides were administered daily to rats through drinking water for 24 weeks. The mixture of four pesticides showed a joint toxic action at the NOAELs of each pesticide. The 19 metabolites were statistically significantly changed in all the treated groups compared with those in the control group (p < 0.05 or p < 0.01). Exposure to OP pesticides resulted in increased lysoPC (15 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (16 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (O-18 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (P-19 : 1(12Z)/0 : 0), lysoPC (18 : 1(9Z)/0 : 0), lysoPC (18 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (20 : 4(5Z, 8Z, 11Z, 14Z)/0 : 0), lysoPE (16 : 0/0 : 0), lysoPC (17 : 0/0 : 0), 4-pyridoxic acid, glutamic acid, glycocholic acid, and arachidonic acid, as well as decreased C16 sphinganine, C17 sphinganine, phytosphingosine, indoleacrylic acid, tryptophan, and iodotyrosine in rat plasma. The results indicate that the mixture of OP pesticides induced oxidative stress, liver and renal dysfunction, disturbed the metabolism of lipids and amino acids, and interfered with the function of the thyroid gland. The present plasma results provided complementarities with our previous metabolomic analysis of the rat urine profile exposed to a mixture of four OP pesticides, and also contributed to the understanding of the mechanism of joint toxic action. PMID:24626741

  20. Nonperturbative renormalization of the axial current in Nf=3 lattice QCD with Wilson fermions and a tree-level improved gauge action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulava, John; Della Morte, Michele; Heitger, Jochen; Wittemeier, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We nonperturbatively determine the renormalization factor of the axial vector current in lattice QCD with Nf=3 flavors of Wilson-clover fermions and the tree-level Symanzik-improved gauge action. The (by now standard) renormalization condition is derived from the massive axial Ward identity, and it is imposed among Schrödinger functional states with large overlap on the lowest lying hadronic state in the pseudoscalar channel, in order to reduce kinematically enhanced cutoff effects. We explore a range of couplings relevant for simulations at lattice spacings of ≈0.09 fm and below. An interpolation formula for ZA(g02) , smoothly connecting the nonperturbative values to the 1-loop expression, is provided together with our final results.

  1. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 482: Area 15 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds Nevada Test Site

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-09-30

    This Corrective Action Decision Document /Closure Report (CADD/CR) was prepared by the Defense Threat Reduction Agency (DTRA) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 482 U15a/e Muckpiles and Ponds. This CADD/CR is consistent with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 482 is comprised of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs) and one adjacent area: CAS 15-06-01, U15e Muckpile; CAS 15-06-02, U15a Muckpile; CAS 15-38-01, Area 15 U15a/e Ponds; and Drainage below the U15a Muckpile. The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure with no further corrective action, by placing use restrictions on the three CASs and the adjacent area of CAU 482. To support this recommendation, a corrective action investigation (CAI) was performed in September 2002. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the Data Quality Objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to determine appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 482 dataset from the CAI was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. Tier 2 FALS were determined for the hazardous constituents of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH)-diesel-range organics (DRO) and the radionuclides americium (Am)-241, cesium (Cs)-137, plutonium (Pu)-238, and Pu-239. The Tier 2 FALs were calculated for the radionuclides using site-specific information. The hazardous constituents of TPH-DRO were compared to the PALs

  2. Impact of the Positive Action program on school-level indicators of academic achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes: A matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Frank; Vuchinich, Samuel; Acock, Alan; Washburn, Isaac; Beets, Michael; Li, Kin-Kit

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports the effects of a comprehensive elementary school-based social-emotional and character education program on school-level achievement, absenteeism, and disciplinary outcomes utilizing a matched-pair, cluster randomized, controlled design. The Positive Action Hawai‘i trial included 20 racially/ethnically diverse schools (mean enrollment = 544) and was conducted from the 2002-03 through the 2005-06 academic years. Using school-level archival data, analyses comparing change from baseline (2002) to one-year post trial (2007) revealed that intervention schools scored 9.8% better on the TerraNova (2nd ed.) test for reading and 8.8% on math; 20.7% better in Hawai‘i Content and Performance Standards scores for reading and 51.4% better in math; and that intervention schools reported 15.2% lower absenteeism and fewer suspensions (72.6%) and retentions (72.7%). Overall, effect sizes were moderate to large (range 0.5-1.1) for all of the examined outcomes. Sensitivity analyses using permutation models and random-intercept growth curve models substantiated results. The results provide evidence that a comprehensive school-based program, specifically developed to target student behavior and character, can positively influence school-level achievement, attendance, and disciplinary outcomes concurrently. PMID:20414477

  3. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  4. A Measure of Person-Centered Practices in Assisted Living: The PC-PAL

    PubMed Central

    Zimmerman, Sheryl; Allen, Josh; Cohen, Lauren W.; Pinkowitz, Jackie; Reed, David; Coffey, Walter O.; Reed, Peter; Lepore, Michael; Sloane, Philip D.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Develop self-administered questionnaires of person-centeredness for completion by residents and staff in assisted living (AL), in response to concerns that AL is not person-centered; also, demonstrated person-centeredness is necessary for Medicaid support as a home and community-based services provider. Design Community-based participatory research partnership between a research team, a consortium of 11 stakeholder organizations, and others. Methods included literature review, item generation and reduction, cognitive testing, field testing, exploratory factor analysis, and convergent and discriminant validity testing. Setting Cognitive testing conducted in two AL residences and field testing conducted in 19 diverse, stratified AL residences in six states. Participants Eight residents and staff participated in cognitive testing, and 228 residents and 123 staff participated in field testing. Measurements Feasibility and psychometric testing of draft questionnaires that included 75 items (resident version) and 102 items (staff version), with parallel items on both versions as appropriate. Results The final resident questionnaire included 49 items and four factors: well-being and belonging, individualized care and services, social connectedness, and atmosphere. The staff questionnaire included 62 items and five factors: workforce practices, social connectedness, individualized care and services, atmosphere, and caregiver-resident relationships. Staff scored person-centeredness higher than did residents, reflecting their different perspectives. Conclusion The Person-Centered Practices in Assisted Living (PC-PAL) questionnaires measure person-centeredness from the perspectives of residents and staff, meaning that they reflect the concepts and items considered to be important to these key stakeholders. Use of these instruments to describe, assess, quantify, assure, and ultimately improve person-centeredness in AL is feasible and appropriate for all AL settings

  5. Southern African Phanerozoic marine invertebrates: Biogeography, pal˦oecology, climatology and comments on adjacent regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boucot, A. J.

    The Palaeozoic marine invertebrate fossil record in southern Africa is characterised by extensive data for the Early and Middle Devonian but extremely limited or absent for other Palaeozoic Periods. The Mesozoic Era is lacking in marine invertebrate fossils for the Triassic, Late Jurassic, and Cretaceous. For the Cenozoic Era there is limited marine megafossil information. Overall, in benthic, cool waters, Palaeozoic, marine megafossils from southern Africa appear to represent relatively low diversity communities, when compared to ecologically comparable warm water environments elsewhere. However, the marine benthic Cretaceous and Cenozoic faunas of southwestern Africa are typically diverse warm water types, until the later Miocene when cool waters again prevailed. The Benguela Current clearly influenced lower diversity faunas. Climatically, it can be inferred from the marine megabenthic pal˦ontological evidence, thatwarm conditions were present from Early Cambrian until mid-Ordovician times, followed by a much cooler climate that persisted well into the Middle Devonian. The Late Palaeozoic evidence thus indicates cool to cold conditions. In contrast, the Late Permian fossils are consistent with warmer conditions, continuing through Late Jurassic and Cretaceous times along the East African and West African coasts, until the Late Miocene. Within the Gondwanan framework, a Central African region can be envisaged that was subject to non-marine conditions during the entire Phanerozoic Eon. Peripheral to this central African region were marine environments of various ages. The geological history of these peripheral regions was fairly unique. Some features in southern Africa are similar of those found in the Paraná Basin and the Falkland Islands. Most of North Africa from central Senegal to Libya contains a Phanerozoic marine cover extending from the Early Cambrian through to the Carboniferous, characterised by warm water faunas, except for the Ordovician which yields

  6. Free heme pool and activity of key enzyme of heme synthesis in the rat liver under action of agents affecting reduced glutathione level.

    PubMed

    Barannik, T V; Inshina, N M; Kaliman, P A

    2005-01-01

    The decrease of GSH level in the rat liver was found to be accompanied by an increase of tryptophan 2,3-dioxygenase (TDO) heme saturation during first hours after HgCl2, phenylhydrazine (Ph) injection or rhabdomyolysis (the coefficient of correlation -0.978). The activity of the key enzyme of heme synthesis--5-aminolevulinate synthase (ALAS) was 2.5-fold increased in the first hours after Ph injection and rhabdomyolysis. Glutathione injection in vivo as well as CdCl2 caused the increase of GSH content and the inhibition of ALAS. The coefficient of correlation for GSH content and ALAS activity under the action of agents altering both these parameters (CdCl2, Ph, GSH injection and rhabdomyolysis) is 0.938. Taking into account the presence of heme regulatory motif with conserved cystein in many proteins, including ALAS and TDO (accession number in SwissProt database AAH61793 and P21643, respectively), the link between alterations of GSH content, ALAS activity and heme saturation of TDO in the rat liver could be proposed. The further experiments should be performed in order to elucidate the mechanisms of GSH level influence on free heme pool formation in the liver cells. PMID:16846079

  7. Flexible vs Rigid Epitope Conformations for Diagnostic- and Vaccine-Oriented Applications: Novel Insights from the Burkholderia pseudomallei BPSL2765 Pal3 Epitope.

    PubMed

    Gori, Alessandro; Peri, Claudio; Quilici, Giacomo; Nithichanon, Arnone; Gaudesi, Davide; Longhi, Renato; Gourlay, Louise; Bolognesi, Martino; Lertmemongkolchai, Ganjana; Musco, Giovanna; Colombo, Giorgio

    2016-03-11

    Peptides seldom retain stable conformations if separated from their native protein structure. In an immunological context, this potentially affects the development of selective peptide-based bioprobes and, from a vaccine perspective, poses inherent limits in the elicitation of cross-reactive antibodies by candidate epitopes. Here, a 1,4-disubstituted-1,2,3-triazole-mediated stapling strategy was used to stabilize the native α-helical fold of the Pal3 peptidic epitope from the protein antigen PalBp (BPSL2765) from Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiological agent of melioidosis. Whereas Pal3 shows no propensity to fold outside its native protein context, the engineered peptide (Pal3H) forms a stable α-helix, as assessed by MD, NMR, and CD structural analyses. Importantly, Pal3H shows an enhanced ability to discriminate between melioidosis patient subclasses in immune sera reactivity tests, demonstrating the potential of the stapled peptide for diagnostic purposes. With regard to antibody elicitation and related bactericidal activities, the linear peptide is shown to elicit a higher response. On these bases, we critically discuss the implications of epitope structure engineering for diagnostic- and vaccine-oriented applications. PMID:27623032

  8. Glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor activation regulates cocaine actions and dopamine homeostasis in the lateral septum by decreasing arachidonic acid levels.

    PubMed

    Reddy, I A; Pino, J A; Weikop, P; Osses, N; Sørensen, G; Bering, T; Valle, C; Bluett, R J; Erreger, K; Wortwein, G; Reyes, J G; Graham, D; Stanwood, G D; Hackett, T A; Patel, S; Fink-Jensen, A; Torres, G E; Galli, A

    2016-01-01

    Agonism of the glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) receptor (GLP-1R) has been effective at treating aspects of addictive behavior for a number of abused substances, including cocaine. However, the molecular mechanisms and brain circuits underlying the therapeutic effects of GLP-1R signaling on cocaine actions remain elusive. Recent evidence has revealed that endogenous signaling at the GLP-1R within the forebrain lateral septum (LS) acts to reduce cocaine-induced locomotion and cocaine conditioned place preference, both considered dopamine (DA)-associated behaviors. DA terminals project from the ventral tegmental area to the LS and express the DA transporter (DAT). Cocaine acts by altering DA bioavailability by targeting the DAT. Therefore, GLP-1R signaling might exert effects on DAT to account for its regulation of cocaine-induced behaviors. We show that the GLP-1R is highly expressed within the LS. GLP-1, in LS slices, significantly enhances DAT surface expression and DAT function. Exenatide (Ex-4), a long-lasting synthetic analog of GLP-1 abolished cocaine-induced elevation of DA. Interestingly, acute administration of Ex-4 reduces septal expression of the retrograde messenger 2-arachidonylglycerol (2-AG), as well as a product of its presynaptic degradation, arachidonic acid (AA). Notably, AA reduces septal DAT function pointing to AA as a novel regulator of central DA homeostasis. We further show that AA oxidation product γ-ketoaldehyde (γ-KA) forms adducts with the DAT and reduces DAT plasma membrane expression and function. These results support a mechanism in which postsynaptic septal GLP-1R activation regulates 2-AG levels to alter presynaptic DA homeostasis and cocaine actions through AA. PMID:27187231

  9. Dispersion and interaction of graphene oxide in amorphous and semi-crystalline nano-composites: a PALS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurer, Frans H. J.; Arza, Carlos R.

    2015-06-01

    The influence of dispersion and interaction of Graphene Oxide (GO) in semicrystalline Polyhydroxy butyrate (PHB) and glassy amorphous Poly(tBP-oda) is explored by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS). The ortho-Positronium lifetimes which represent the main free volume hole size of both polymers are mainly affected by the large differences in internal stresses built up by the shrinkage of the polymers during their preparation, restricted by the platelet structure of GO. The ortho-Positronium intensities, which represent the ortho-Positronium formation probabilities, suggest a strong dependency of on the dispersion of the nano-particles and their aspect ratio.

  10. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  11. High level waste storage tank farms/242-A evaporator standards/requirements identification document phase 1 assessment corrective actions/compliance schedule approval report

    SciTech Connect

    Biebesheimer, E.

    1996-09-30

    This document, the Standards/Requirements Identification Document (S/RID) Phase I Assessment Corrective Actions/Compliance Schedule Approval Report for the subject facility, contains the corrective actions required to bring the facility into compliance as a result of an Administrative Assessment to determine whether S/RID requirements are fully addressed by existing policies, plans or procedures. These actions are delineated in the Compliance Schedule Approvals which also contain; noncompliances, risks, compensatory measures, schedules for corrective actions, justifications for approval, and resource impacts.

  12. Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site characterization and dynamic compaction of low-level radioactive waste trenches. FY 1988 progress report

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, E.C.; Spalding, B.P.; Lee, S.Y.; Hyder, L.K.

    1989-01-01

    As part of a low-level radioactive waste burial ground stabilization and closure technology demonstration project, a group of five burial trenches in Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) Solid Waste Storage Area (SWSA) 6 was selected as a demonstration site for testing trench compaction, trench grouting, and trench cap installation and performance. This report focuses on site characterization, trench compaction, and grout-trench leachate compatibility. Trench grouting and cap design and construction will be the subject of future reports. The five trenches, known as the Test Area for Remedial Actions (TARA) site, are contained within a hydrologically isolated area of SWSA 6; for that reason, any effects of stabilization activities on site performance and groundwater quality will be separable from the influence of other waste disposal units in SWSA 6. To obviate the chronic problem of burial trench subsidence and to provide support for an infiltration barrier cap, these five trenches were dynamically compacted by repeated dropping of a 4-ton weight onto each trench from heights of approximately 7 m.

  13. An Extended Model of Reasoned Action to Understand the Influence of Individual- and Network-Level Factors on African Americans’ Participation in HIV Vaccine Research

    PubMed Central

    Frew, Paula M.; Archibald, Matthew; Diallo, Dazon Dixon; Hou, Su-I; Horton, Takeia; Chan, Kayshin; Mulligan, Mark J.; del Rio, Carlos

    2010-01-01

    In the United States, the number and proportion of HIV/AIDS cases among black/African Americans continue to highlight the need for new biomedical prevention interventions, including an HIV vaccine, microbicide, or new antiretroviral (ARV) prevention strategies such as pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) to complement existing condom usage, harm reduction methods, and behavioral change strategies to stem the HIV epidemic. Although black/African Americans are disproportionately impacted by HIV/AIDS, their participation in HIV clinical research continues to have unique challenges. We theorize that interaction among multilevel factors creates ideal alignment for minority participation in HIV clinical studies. Thus, we initially set out to test an extended model of reasoned action with 362 participants to understand the interplay of sociopsychological and network-level considerations influencing minority participation in HIV prevention research efforts. In this study, we linked the intrapersonal dimensions of attitudes, beliefs, and normative concerns to community-level components, appraisal of involvement with the clinical research organization, an entity which operates within a networked structure of community partner agencies, and identification with coalition advocacy aims. Various participatory outcomes were explored including involvement in future HIV vaccine community functions, participation in community promotion of HIV vaccine research, and community mobilization. Three-stage least squares estimates indicated similar findings across three models. Significant effects demonstrate the importance of positive attitudes toward HIV vaccine research, favorable health research beliefs, perceived social support for participation, HIV/AIDS issue engagement, and perceived relevance of the clinical research site’s mission and values. Identification of these nuanced pathway effects provides implications for tailored community program development. PMID:20012200

  14. The development of applied action levels for soil contact: a scenario for the exposure of humans to soil in a residential setting.

    PubMed Central

    Sedman, R M

    1989-01-01

    The California Site Mitigation Decision Tree Manual, 1985, was developed by the California Department of Health Services to provide a detailed technical basis for managing uncontrolled hazardous waste sites. The Decision Tree describes a process that relies on criteria, Applied Action Levels (AALs) to evaluate and, if necessary, mitigate the impact of uncontrolled hazardous waste sites on the public health and the environment. AALs are developed for individual substances, species, and media of exposure. AALs have been routinely developed for the media of air and water; however, an approach for developing AALs for soil contact was lacking. Given that the air pathway for soil contact is addressed in AALs for air, two routes of exposure, ingestion and dermal contact, are addressed in developing AALs for soil contact. The approach assumes a lifetime of exposure to soil in a residential setting. Age-related changes in exposure are included in the scenario. Exposure to soil due to ingestion and dermal contact are quantitated independently and then integrated in the final exposure scenario. A mass balance approach using four elements is employed to quantitate soil ingestion for a young child. Changes in soil ingestion with age are based on age-related changes in blood lead concentration and mouthing behavior. Dermal exposure to soil was determined from studies that reported skin soil load and from estimates of exposed skin surface area. Age-related changes in the dermal exposure to soil are also based on changes with age of blood lead concentration and mouthing behavior. The estimates of exposure to soil due to ingestion and dermal contact are integrated, and an approach for developing AALs is advanced. AALs are derived by allocating the Maximum Exposure Level as described in the Decision Tree to the average daily exposure to soil. Toxicokinetic considerations for the two routes of exposure must be included in deriving AALs for the soil medium of exposure. PMID:2651104

  15. Polybrominated diphenyl ether (DE-71) interferes with thyroid hormone action independent of effects on circulating levels of thyroid hormone in male rats.

    PubMed

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F K; Gaertner, Dean W; Arnold, Doug L; Gilbert, Mary E; Zoeller, R Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0-30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  16. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ether (DE-71) Interferes With Thyroid Hormone Action Independent of Effects on Circulating Levels of Thyroid Hormone in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bansal, Ruby; Tighe, Daniel; Danai, Amin; Rawn, Dorothea F. K.; Gaertner, Dean W.; Arnold, Doug L.; Gilbert, Mary E.

    2014-01-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are routinely found in human tissues including cord blood and breast milk. PBDEs may interfere with thyroid hormone (TH) during development, which could produce neurobehavioral deficits. An assumption in experimental and epidemiological studies is that PBDE effects on serum TH levels will reflect PBDE effects on TH action in tissues. To test whether this assumption is correct, we performed the following experiments. First, five concentrations of diphenyl ether (0–30 mg/kg) were fed daily to pregnant rats to postnatal day 21. PBDEs were measured in dam liver and heart to estimate internal dose. The results were compared with a separate study in which four concentrations of propylthiouracil (PTU; 0, 1, 2, and 3 ppm) was provided to pregnant rats in drinking water for the same duration as for diphenyl ether. PBDE exposure reduced serum T4 similar in magnitude to PTU, but serum TSH was not elevated by PBDE. PBDE treatment did not affect the expression of TH response genes in the liver or heart as did PTU treatment. PTU treatment reduced T4 in liver and heart, but PBDE treatment reduced T4 only in the heart. Tissue PBDEs were in the micrograms per gram lipid range, only slightly higher than observed in human fetal tissues. Thus, PBDE exposure reduces serum T4 but does not produce effects on tissues typical of low TH produced by PTU, demonstrating that the effects of chemical exposure on serum T4 levels may not always be a faithful proxy measure of chemical effects on the ability of thyroid hormone to regulate development and adult physiology. PMID:25060363

  17. Nephrocystin-1 and nephrocystin-4 are required for epithelial morphogenesis and associate with PALS1/PATJ and Par6

    PubMed Central

    Delous, Marion; Hellman, Nathan E.; Gaudé, Helori-Maël; Silbermann, Flora; Le Bivic, André; Salomon, Rémi; Antignac, Corinne; Saunier, Sophie

    2009-01-01

    Nephronophthisis (NPH) is an autosomal recessive disorder characterized by renal fibrosis, tubular basement membrane disruption and corticomedullary cyst formation leading to end-stage renal failure. The disease is caused by mutations in NPHP1-9 genes, which encode the nephrocystins, proteins localized to cell–cell junctions and centrosome/primary cilia. Here, we show that nephrocystin mRNA expression is dramatically increased during cell polarization, and shRNA-mediated knockdown of either NPHP1 or NPHP4 in MDCK cells resulted in delayed tight junction (TJ) formation, abnormal cilia formation and disorganized multi-lumen structures when grown in a three-dimensional collagen matrix. Some of these phenotypes are similar to those reported for cells depleted of the TJ proteins PALS1 or Par3, and interestingly, we demonstrate a physical interaction between these nephrocystins and PALS1 as well as their partners PATJ and Par6 and show their partial co-localization in human renal tubules. Taken together, these results demonstrate that the nephrocystins play an essential role in epithelial cell organization, suggesting a plausible mechanism by which the in vivo histopathologic features of NPH might develop. PMID:19755384

  18. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation

    PubMed Central

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J. Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or ‘structural heterogeneities’ but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  19. The initial break-up of Pangæa elicited by Late Palæozoic deglaciation.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Meng-Wan; Shellnutt, J Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The break-up of Pangæa was principally facilitated by tensional plate stress acting on pre-existing suture zones. The rifting of Pangæa began during the Early Permian along the southern Tethys margin and produced the lenticular-shaped continent known as Cimmeria. A mantle-plume model is ascribed to explain the rift-related volcanism but the NW-SE oriented Cimmerian rifts do not correlate well with pre-existing suture zones or 'structural heterogeneities' but appear to have a pertinent spatial and temporal association with Late Palæozoic glacial-interglacial cycles. Mantle potential temperature estimates of Cimmerian rift-related basalts (1410 °C ± 50 °C) are similar to ambient mantle conditions rather than an active mantle-plume rift as previously suggested. Moreover, we find that the distribution of glacial deposits shows significant temporal and spatial concurrence between the glacial retreat margins and rifting sites. We conclude that the location and timing of Cimmerian rifting resulted from the exploitation of structural heterogeneities within the crust that formed due to repeated glacial-interglacial cycles during the Late Palæozoic. Such effects of continental deglaciation helped to create the lenticular shape of Cimmeria and Neotethys Ocean suggesting that, in some instances, climate change may directly influence the location of rifting. PMID:27511791

  20. Physical Activity and Lymphedema (The PAL Trial): Assessing the safety of progressive strength training in breast cancer survivors

    PubMed Central

    Schmitz, Kathryn H.; Troxel, Andrea B.; Cheville, Andrea; Grant, Lorita L.; Bryan, Cathy J.; Gross, Cynthia; Lytle, Leslie A.; Ahmed, Rehana L.

    2009-01-01

    Lymphedema is a chronic and progressive long-term adverse effect of breast cancer treatment commonly defined by swelling of the affected arm. Current clinical guidelines indicate that women with and at risk for lymphedema should protect the affected arm from overuse. In clinical practice, this often translates into risk aversive guidance to avoid using the arm. This could lead to a disuse pattern that may increase the likelihood of injury from common activities of daily living. Further, such guidance poses an additional barrier to staying physically active, potentially translating to weight gain, which has been shown to be associated with worse clinical course for women with lymphedema. We hypothesize that a program of slowly progressive strength training with no upper limit on the amount of weight that may be lifted would gradually increase the physiologic capacity of the arm so that common activities represent a decreasing percentage of maximal capacity. Theoretically, this increased capacity should decrease the risk that daily activities put stress on the lymphatic system of the affected side. The Physical Activity and Lymphedema (PAL) Trial is a recently completed randomized controlled exercise intervention trial that recruited 295 breast cancer survivors (141 with lymphedema at study entry, 154 at risk for lymphedema at study entry). The purpose of this report is to provide detail regarding the study design, statistical design, and protocol of the PAL trial. PMID:19171204

  1. Identification of an eccentricity in the date/time metadata of a PAL MiniDV recording.

    PubMed

    Lacey, Douglas S; Koenig, Bruce E

    2008-11-01

    A Phase-Alternation Line (PAL) Mini Digital Video (MiniDV) recording and camcorder were provided by the Law Society of Singapore for forensic examination. During visual analyses of the submitted recording and a test recording produced on the submitted camcorder, the number of occurrences of each unique date/time stamp varied from the nominal value of 25 frames (the frame rate per second of PAL recordings), within a range of +/-3 frames. This embedded date/time information is recorded in the digital bit stream along with the video and audio information and can be optionally displayed during playback. These visual observations prompted detailed analyses of the digital metadata of the recordings which consisted of locating the portions of the bit stream associated with the date/time information, and then identifying their redundancy characteristics, data structure, and encoding protocol. Automated scripts were developed using digital data analysis software to locate, extract, convert, and count all of the unique date/time stamps, and to provide an easily-viewable output of the results. The application of the scripting process to both the submitted tape and the test recording produced on the submitted camcorder revealed that the date/time information on each exhibited a nonstandard but consistent timing pattern, which confirmed the visual observations and provided evidence that the submitted recording was consistent with having been produced on the submitted camcorder. PMID:18752555

  2. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  3. Use of the reciprocal calculation procedure for setting workplace emergency action levels for hydrocarbon mixtures and their relationship to lower explosive limits.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Ron

    2012-04-01

    This paper proposes a novel use of the reciprocal calculation procedure (RCP) to calculate workplace emergency action levels (WEALs) for accidental releases of hydrocarbon mixtures. WEALs are defined here as the concentration in air that area monitors should alarm at to provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to allow at least enough time to don respiratory protective equipment (RPE) and escape. The rationale for the approach is analysed, and ways of defining suitable substance group guidance values (GVs) for input into the RCP are considered and compared. WEAL GVs could be based on: 3× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 3× rule), the 5× RCP GVs (i.e. using the 5× rule for calculating ceiling values), emergency exposure limits, or immediately dangerous to life or health values (IDLHs). Of these, the method of choice is to base WEAL GVs on health-based IDLH values, which were developed for emergency situations in the workplace. However, IDLHs have only been set for 11 hydrocarbons, so the choice of GVs is also informed by comparison with possible GVs based on the other approaches. Using the proposed GVs, WEALs were calculated for various hydrocarbon mixtures, and the way they vary with the composition of the mixture was examined. Also, the level of health protection given by the current practice of setting emergency area alarms in the oil and gas industry at 10% of the lower explosive limit (LEL) was tested by comparing this with the WEAL. In the event of an accidental release, this comparison suggests that, provided that aromatics constitute <50% of the mixture, an alarm set at 10% LEL should provide adequate warning and be sufficiently protective of health to at allow at least enough time to don RPE and escape. In the absence of better information or specific acute toxicity concerns (such as the presence of hydrogen sulphide), it is proposed that the WEALs be used as a guide for assessing the adequacy of area alarm levels in respect of warning

  4. Quality of Life in Patients With Brain Metastases Using the EORTC QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL

    SciTech Connect

    Caissie, Amanda; Nguyen, Janet; Chen, Emily; Zhang Liying; Sahgal, Arjun; Clemons, Mark; Kerba, Marc; Arnalot, Palmira Foro; Danjoux, Cyril; Tsao, May; Barnes, Elizabeth; Holden, Lori; Danielson, Brita; Chow, Edward

    2012-07-15

    Purpose: The 20-item European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Brain Neoplasm (QLQ-BN20) is a validated quality-of-life (QOL) questionnaire for patients with primary brain tumors. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life Questionnaire-Core 15 Palliative (QLQ-C15-PAL) core palliative questionnaire is a 15-item version of the core 30-item QLQ-C30 and was developed to decrease the burden on patients with advanced cancer. The combination of the QLQ-BN20 and QLQ-C30 to assess QOL may be too burdensome for patients. The primary aim of this study was to assess QOL in patients before and after treatment for brain metastases using the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL, a version of the QLQ-BN20 questionnaire with 2 additional questions assessing cognitive functioning that were not addressed in the QLQ-C15-PAL. Methods and Materials: Patients with brain metastases completed the QLQ-C15-PAL and QLQ-BN20+2 questionnaires to assess QOL before and 1 month after radiation. Linear regression analysis was used to assess changes in QOL scores over time, as well as to explore associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales, patient demographics, and clinical variables. Spearman correlation assessed associations between the QLQ-BN20+2 and QLQ-C15-PAL scales. Results: Among 108 patients, the majority (55%) received whole-brain radiotherapy only, with 65% of patients completing follow-up at 1 month after treatment. The most prominent symptoms at baseline were future uncertainty (QLQ-BN20+2) and fatigue (QLQ-C15-PAL). After treatment, significant improvement was seen for the QLQ-C15-PAL insomnia scale, as well as the QLQ-BN20+2 scales of future uncertainty, visual disorder, and concentration difficulty. Baseline Karnofsky Performance Status was negatively correlated to QLQ-BN20+2 motor dysfunction but positively related to QLQ-C15-PAL physical functioning and QLQ-BN20+2 cognitive functioning at

  5. Adult Literacy Action Campaign: Projects around Australia. A Review of State and Territory Level Adult Literacy Projects Funded under the Adult Literacy Action Campaign of the National Policy on Languages. Occasional Paper Number 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Australian Advisory Council on Languages and Multicultural Education, Canberra.

    This collection of papers is a review of the adult literacy projects in Australia funded under the 1987-89 Adult Literacy Action Campaign (ALAC) of the National Policy on Languages. Fourteen authors describe various literacy projects and, often, their outcomes. The projects described are grouped in seven areas. On the subject of Literacy Training…

  6. Aspects of activity behavior as a determinant of the physical activity level.

    PubMed

    Bonomi, A G; Plasqui, G; Goris, A H C; Westerterp, K R

    2012-02-01

    This study investigated which aspects of the individuals' activity behavior determine the physical activity level (PAL). Habitual physical activity of 20 Dutch adults (age: 26-60 years, body mass index: 24.5 ± 2.7 kg/m(2)) was measured using a tri-axial accelerometer. Accelerometer output was used to identify the engagement in different types of daily activities with a classification tree algorithm. Activity behavior was described by the daily duration of sleeping, sedentary behavior (lying, sitting, and standing), walking, running, bicycling, and generic standing activities. Simultaneously, the total energy expenditure (TEE) was measured using doubly labeled water. PAL was calculated as TEE divided by sleeping metabolic rate. PAL was significantly associated (P<0.05) with sedentary time (R=-0.72), and the duration of walking (R=0.49), bicycling (R=0.77), and active standing (R=0.62). A negative association was observed between sedentary time and the duration of active standing (R=-0.87; P<0.001). A multiple-linear regression analysis showed that 75% of the variance in PAL could be predicted by the duration of bicycling (Partial R(2) =59%; P<0.01), walking (Partial R(2) =9%; P<0.05) and being sedentary (Partial R(2) =7%; P<0.05). In conclusion, there is objective evidence that sedentary time and activities related to transportation and commuting, such as walking and bicycling, contribute significantly to the average PAL. PMID:20536909

  7. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  8. Therapeutic Action of Fluoxetine is Associated with a Reduction in Prefrontal Cortical miR-1971 Expression Levels in a Mouse Model of Posttraumatic Stress Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Schmidt, Ulrike; Herrmann, Leonie; Hagl, Kathrin; Novak, Bozidar; Huber, Christine; Holsboer, Florian; Wotjak, Carsten T.; Buell, Dominik R.

    2013-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are a class of small non-coding RNAs that have recently emerged as epigenetic modulators of gene expression in psychiatric diseases like schizophrenia and major depression. So far, miRNAs have neither been studied in patients suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) nor in PTSD animal models. Here, we present the first study exploring the connection between miRNAs and PTSD. Employing our previously established PTSD mouse model, we assessed miRNA profiles in prefrontal cortices (PFCs) dissected from either fluoxetine or control-treated wildtype C57BL/6N mice 74 days after their subjection to either a single traumatic electric footshock or mock-treatment. Fluoxetine is an antidepressant known to be effective both in PTSD patients and in mice suffering from a PTSD-like syndrome. Screening for differences in the relative expression levels of all potential miRNA target sequences of miRBase 18.0 by pairwise comparison of the PFC miRNA profiles of the four mouse groups mentioned resulted in identification of five miRNA candidate molecules. Validation of these miRNA candidates by reverse transcriptase quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) revealed that the therapeutic action of fluoxetine in shocked mice is associated with a significant reduction in mmu-miR-1971 expression. Furthermore, our findings suggest that traumatic stress and fluoxetine interact to cause distinct alterations in the mouse PFC miRNA signature in the long-term. PMID:23847554

  9. A service-level action research intervention to improve identification and treatment of cannabis and related mental health issues in young Indigenous Australians: a study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Bohanna, India; Bird, Katrina; Copeland, Jan; Roberts, Nicholas; Clough, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Regular cannabis use is associated with negative mental health impacts including psychosis, depression and anxiety. Rates of cannabis use have increased in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander communities in northern Australia within the last two decades, presenting a significant increased risk to young people's mental health in these regions. Improved screening, early detection and treatment for cannabis-related mental health issues are urgently required. This paper describes a service-level action research intervention and evaluation protocol for use in the few services where it is possible to engage young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Australians. Methods/Design The protocol is being developed in two services where youth mental health is core business: a primary healthcare centre and a youth service in the Cairns and hinterland region, far north Queensland. The protocol calls first for baseline data to be collected using staff and client surveys; network mapping; and analysis of screening, treatment and referral rates. The protocol's intervention phase is driven by service needs identified from baseline data. Intervention strategies focus on implementing/enhancing cannabis screening instruments and processes in line with current best practice; enhancing networks with external drug and mental health services; developing culturally acceptable training and resources; developing activities aiming to reduce cannabis use in young Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander clients using the services. The protocol requires implementation of the multilevel intervention within each service for 1 year, with follow-up data then collected and compared to baseline. Process evaluation identifies the more effective intervention strategies and documents the challenges to be overcome for full implementation. Ethics and dissemination Ethics approval was provided by The James Cook University, Human Research Ethics Committee. Ethics Approval Number H5322. Peer

  10. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  11. "Do You Have a Brother? I Have Two!": The Nature of Questions Asked and Answered in Text-Focused Pen Pal Exchanges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Elizabeth M.; Evering, Lea; Malloy, Jacquelynn A.; Gambrell, Linda B.

    2014-01-01

    Authentic learning experiences are those in which students engage with texts as well as the behaviors of reading and writing within contexts of real-world use beyond traditional academic use. This study provides quantitative analysis of how students (n = 200) engaged with an adult pen pal in a shared literacy experience. Findings indicate that…

  12. "Did You Like Living in a Trailer? Why or Why Not?": Discourse and the Third Space in a Rural Pen Pal Exchange

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eppley, Karen; Shannon, Patrick; Gilbert, Lauren K.

    2011-01-01

    This study describes efforts in a U.S. teacher education program to raise the teacher candidates' awareness of how place impacts schooling. The preservice teachers and second graders exchanged pen pal letters based on books set in contemporary rural America. The teacher candidates enacted four major discourses in the correspondence: personal,…

  13. Assessing the Effectiveness of Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) Reading Program on Sixth-Grade Students Comprehension, Fluency, and Attitude toward Reading, with Nonfiction Texts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abbondanza, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to implement and evaluate the effectiveness of the Peer-Assisted Learning Strategies (PALS) supplemental reading program to determine if there was an increase in sixth grade students' reading comprehension, oral fluency, and attitude toward reading, specifically when reading nonfiction text. One-hundred sixty-four…

  14. Remedial Help in Inclusive Classrooms: Gender Differences in the Enhancement of Mathematics Achievement of Students through PAL (Peer-Assisted Learning)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Obidoa, Mabel A.; Eskay, Michael; Onwubolu, Catherine O.

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated gender differences in the effect of PAL (peer-assisted learning) on students' mathematics performance in Enugu State of Nigeria. It used pre-test and post-test non-randomized control group design. Four research questions and four hypotheses guided the study. The population was SS II (senior secondary school class II)…

  15. Computer simulations of the experiments at RAL, LULI, and PALS carried out under HiPER including those performed at ILE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Yong-Joo

    2011-06-01

    Comparison of computer simulations applied to the experiments at RAL(UK), LULI(France), PALS(Czech Republic), and ILE(Japan) is given. Temporal evolution of densities, electron temperatures, compression/implosion velocities, are discussed using one dimensional hydrodynamic code (HYADES).

  16. Measuring Early Spanish Literacy: Factor Structure and Measurement Invariance of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K")

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Francis L.; Ford, Karen L.; Invernizzi, Marcia; Fan, Xitao

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the latent factor structure of the "Phonological Awareness Literacy Screening for Kindergarteners" in Spanish ("PALS español K"). Participants included 590 Spanish-speaking, public-school kindergarteners from five states. Three theoretically-guided factor structures were measured and tested with one half of our…

  17. Effects of phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) knockdown on cell wall composition, biomass digestibility, and biotic and abiotic stress responses in Brachypodium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Phenylalanine Ammonia Lyase (PAL) catalyzes the first step in the phenylpropanoid pathway in plants, controlling biosynthesis of a variety of structural and defense compounds including monolignols that polymerize into lignin. Gaps remain in our understanding of how genetic alterations to this pathwa...

  18. Azimuthal Signature of Coincidental Brightness Temperature and Normalized Radar Cross-Section Obtained Using Airborne PALS Instrument

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Kim, Seungbum; Yueh, Simon; Cosh, Mike; Jackson, Tom; Njoku, Eni

    2010-01-01

    Coincidental airborne brightness temperature (TB) and normalized radar-cross section (NRCS) measurements were carried out with the PALS (Passive and Active L- and S-band) instrument in the SMAPVEX08 (SMAP Validation Experiment 2008) field campaign. This paper describes results obtained from a set of flights which measured a field in 45(sup o) steps over the azimuth angle. The field contained mature soy beans with distinct row structure. The measurement shows that both TB and NRCS experience modulation effects over the azimuth as expected based on the theory. The result is useful in development and validation of land surface parameter forward models and retrieval algorithms, such as the soil moisture algorithm for NASA's SMAP (Soil Moisture Active and Passive) mission. Although the footprint of the SMAP will not be sensitive to the small resolution scale effects as the one presented in this paper, it is nevertheless important to understand the effects at smaller scale.

  19. PALS and DSC measurements in 8 MeV electron irradiated natural rubber filled with different fillers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandal, Arunava; Pan, Sandip; Roychowdhury, Anirban; Sengupta, Asmita

    2015-10-01

    The effect of high energy electron irradiation on the microstructure and thermal properties of natural rubber (NR) filled with different fillers at different concentrations are studied. The samples are irradiated with 8 MeV electron beam to a total dose of 100 KGy. The change in free volume size and specific heat due to addition of fillers and irradiation are studied using positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) respectively. The Positron lifetime spectra are de-convoluted into two components. The longer lived component (τo-Ps) signifies the pick-off annihilation of ortho-positronium (o-Ps) at free volume site which may be related to the radius of the free volume holes. It is observed that the specific heat (Cp) and free volume size are all affected by both irradiation and addition of fillers.

  20. Studying functional properties of hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel contact lenses with PALS, MIR and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filipecki, J.; Sitarz, M.; Kocela, A.; Kotynia, K.; Jelen, P.; Filipecka, K.; Gaweda, M.

    2014-10-01

    Determination of free volume holes of the hydrogel and silicone-hydrogel polymer contact lenses were investigated. Two types of polymer contact lenses were used as materials: the first is a hydrogel contact lenses Proclear family (Omafilcon A), while the second is a silicone-hydrogel contact lens of the family Biofinity (Comfilcon A). Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy PALS was used to characterize geometrical sizes and fraction of the free volume holes in the investigated samples. There is a clear difference in the free volume sizes and their fractions between silicone-hydrogel and polymer hydrogel contact lenses which in turn are connected with oxygen permeability in these lenses. Apart from that, spectroscopic (middle infrared) MIR and Raman examinations were carried out in order to demonstrate the differences of the water content in the test contact lenses.

  1. Isolation and characterization of active promoters from Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus strain PAL5 using a promoter-trapping plasmid.

    PubMed

    Schwab, Stefan; Pessoa, Cristiane Alves; de Lima Bergami, Amanda Aparecida; de Azevedo Figueiredo, Nathália Lima; Dos Santos Teixeira, Kátia Regina; Baldani, José Ivo

    2016-07-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing, endophytic bacterium that has the potential to promote plant growth and increase yield. Genetically modified strains might get more benefits to host plants, including through expression of useful proteins, such as Cry toxins from B. thuringiensis, or enzymes involved in phytohormone production, proteins with antagonistic activity for phytopathogens, or that improve nutrient utilization by the plant. For that, expression systems for G. diazotrophicus are needed, which requires active promoters fused to foreign (or innate) genes. This article describes the construction of a G. diazotrophicus PAL5 promoter library using a promoter-less lacZ-bearing vector, and the identification of six active promoters through β-galactosidase activity assays, sequencing and localization in the bacterial genome. The characterized promoters, which are located on distinct regions of the bacterial genome and encoding either sense or antisense transcripts, present variable expression strengths and might be used in the future for expressing useful proteins. PMID:26914247

  2. Assessment of personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter among children with asthma in Detroit, Michigan, as part of Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA).

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, Gerald J; Dvonch, Timothy; Yip, Fuyuen Y; Parker, Edith A; Isreal, Barbara A; Marsik, Frank J; Morishita, Masako; Barres, James A; Robins, Thomas G; Brakefield-Caldwell, Wilma; Sam, Mathew

    2002-01-01

    We report on the research conducted by the Community Action Against Asthma (CAAA) in Detroit, Michigan, to evaluate personal and community-level exposures to particulate matter (PM) among children with asthma living in an urban environment. CAAA is a community-based participatory research collaboration among academia, health agencies, and community-based organizations. CAAA investigates the effects of environmental exposures on the residents of Detroit through a participatory process that engages participants from the affected communities in all aspects of the design and conduct of the research; disseminates the results to all parties involved; and uses the research results to design, in collaboration with all partners, interventions to reduce the identified environmental exposures. The CAAA PM exposure assessment includes four seasonal measurement campaigns each year that are conducted for a 2-week duration each season. In each seasonal measurement period, daily ambient measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 (particulate matter with a mass median aerodynamic diameter less than 2.5 microm and 10 microm, respectively) are collected at two elementary schools in the eastside and southwest communities of Detroit. Concurrently, indoor measurements of PM2.5 and PM10 are made at the schools as well as inside the homes of a subset of 20 children with asthma. Daily personal exposure measurements of PM10 are also collected for these 20 children with asthma. Results from the first five seasonal assessment periods reveal that mean personal PM10 (68.4 39.2 microg/m(3)) and indoor home PM10 (52.2 30.6 microg/m(3)) exposures are significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the outdoor PM10 concentrations (25.8 11.8 microg/m(3)). The same was also found for PM2.5 (indoor PM2.5 = 34.4 21.7 microg/m(3); outdoor PM2.5 = 15.6 8.2 microg/m(3)). In addition, significant differences (p < 0.05) in community-level exposure to both PM10 and PM2.5 are observed between the two Detroit communities (southwest

  3. Late Neolithic vegetation history at the pile-dwelling site of Palù di Livenza (northeastern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pini, Roberta

    2004-12-01

    The Late Neolithic pile-dwelling of Palù di Livenza yielded archaeological remains typical of the Square Mouth Pottery and Lagozza Cultures. A palynological investigation reveals important changes in the vegetation due to anthropogenic pressure. Between ca. 6590 and 5960 cal. yr BP, dense oak wood forests with deciduous Quercus, Fagus and Corylus extended around the mire, with no signs of human impact. The establishment of the pile-dwelling, dated to ca. 5960 cal. yr BP, led to a strong reduction of forests, reclamation of wetlands, and expansion of herbaceous communities, with cultivated species, infestant weeds, nitrophilous and ruderal herbs, pastures and meadows. According to AMS dates and previous archaeological chronologies, the pile-dwelling persisted for about 700 years (from ca. 5960 to 5260 cal. yr BP). The history of the pile-dwelling after ca. 5260 cal. yr BP cannot be reconstructed because of recent contamination of the top part of the section. Rarefaction analysis was applied to estimate changes of palynological richness through time: the highest E(Tn) (between 56 and 69 taxa) are contemporaneous with the local development of the pile-dwelling. The comparison of pollen data with archaeobotanical evidence indicates that Fragaria vesca, Malus sylvestris, Papaver somniferum and Physalis alkekengi were gathered at some distance from the site and that Linum usitatissimum is strongly under-represented in pollen samples. Crop cultivation can be estimated for a radius of several hundred metres around the mire. Palù di Livenza is significant in the context of Neolithic archaeobotany of northern Italy and neighbouring countries. Copyright

  4. Application of the No Action Level (NAL) protocol to correct for prostate motion based on electronic portal imaging of implanted markers

    SciTech Connect

    Boer, Hans C.J. de . E-mail: j.deboer@erasmusmc.nl; Os, Marjolein J.H. van; Jansen, Peter P.; Heijmen, Ben J.M.

    2005-03-15

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of the No Action Level (NAL) off-line correction protocol in the reduction of systematic prostate displacements as determined from electronic portal images (EPI) using implanted markers. Methods and materials: Four platinum markers, two near the apex and two near the base of the prostate, were implanted for localization purposes in patients who received fractionated high dose rate brachytherapy. During the following course of 25 fractions of external beam radiotherapy, the position of each marker relative to the corresponding position in digitally reconstructed radiographs (DRRs) was measured in EPI in 15 patients for on average 17 fractions per patient. These marker positions yield the composite displacements due to both setup error and internal prostate motion, relative to the planning computed tomography scan. As the NAL protocol is highly effective in reducing systematic errors (recurring each fraction) due to setup inaccuracy alone, we investigated its efficacy in reducing systematic composite displacements. The analysis was performed for the center of mass (COM) of the four markers, as well as for the cranial and caudal markers separately. Furthermore, the impact of prostate rotation on the achieved positioning accuracy was determined. Results: In case of no setup corrections, the standard deviations of the systematic composite displacements of the COM were 3-4 mm in the craniocaudal and anterior-posterior directions, and 2 mm in the left-right direction. The corresponding SDs of the random displacements (interfraction fluctuations) were 2-3 mm in each direction. When applying a NAL protocol based on three initial treatment fractions, the SDs of the systematic COM displacements were reduced to 1-2 mm. Displacements at the cranial end of the prostate were slightly larger than at the caudal end, and quantitative analysis showed this originates from left-right axis rotations about the prostate apex. Further analysis revealed

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 536: Area 3 Release Site, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0 with Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Boehlecke, Robert

    2004-11-01

    corrective action investigation (CAI). Record of Technical Change No. 1 to the CAIP documents changes to the PALs agreed to by the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) and DOE, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO). This ROTC provides the justification for changing from background-based to dose-based radiological PALs. This ROTC was approved and the dose-based PAL comparison implemented on March 9, 2004.

  6. Item-Level Psychometrics and Predictors of Performance for Spanish/English Bilingual Speakers on "An Object and Action Naming Battery"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonds, Lisa A.; Donovan, Neila J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: There is a pressing need for psychometrically sound naming materials for Spanish/English bilingual adults. To address this need, in this study the authors examined the psychometric properties of An Object and Action Naming Battery (An O&A Battery; Druks & Masterson, 2000) in bilingual speakers. Method: Ninety-one Spanish/English…

  7. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  8. Action of an electromagnetic pulse on a plasma with a high level of ion-acoustic turbulence. Field diffusion and subdiffusion

    SciTech Connect

    Ovchinnikov, K. N.; Uryupin, S. A.

    2013-09-15

    Specific features of the interaction of a relatively weak electromagnetic pulse with a nonisothermal current-carrying plasma in which the electron drift velocity is much higher than the ion-acoustic velocity, but lower than the electron thermal velocity, are studied. If the state of the plasma with ion-acoustic turbulence does not change during the pulse action, the field penetrates into the plasma in the ordinary diffusion regime, but the diffusion coefficient in this case is inversely proportional to the anomalous conductivity. If, during the pulse action, the particle temperatures and the current-driving field change due to turbulent heating, the field penetrates into the plasma in the subdiffusion regime. It is shown how the presence of subdiffusion can be detected by measuring the reflected field.

  9. Developing an Action Learning Design Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bong, Hyeon-Cheol; Cho, Yonjoo; Kim, Hyung-Sook

    2014-01-01

    As the number of organizations implementing action learning increases, both successful and failed cases also increase in action learning practice in South Korea. Existing studies on action learning have listed key success factors of action learning at the program level or at the team level but have not paid sufficient attention to the program…

  10. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1995-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation needs to be known in order to assess the carcinogenic risks of various UV sources, most notably the different solar UV spectra at ground level under depleting stratospheric ozone. This wavelength dependence cannot be extracted from human data (e.g., from epidemiology); it can, however, be directly obtained from animal experiments. Precise information on the wavelength dependence, the so-called action spectrum, was not available until recently: erythemal or mutagenic action spectra have been used as substitutes. However, experimental data on skin tumors induced in hairless mice (Skh:HR1) with various polychromatic sources have been building up. Our group has found that none of the substitute action spectra yield a statistically acceptable description of our data, and we have, therefore, derived a new action spectrum, dubbed the SCUP action spectrum (SCUP stands for Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia, because the action spectrum also fits experimental data from the former Skin and Cancer Hospital in Philadelphia). The SCUP action spectrum has a maximum at 293 nm, and in the UVA region above 340 nm the relative carcinogenicity per J/m2 drops to about 10(-4) of this maximum. The effects of an ozone depletion on solar UV doses weighted with these different action spectra are compared: the erythemal and SCUP weighted dose come out as least sensitive with a 1.3% and 1.4% increase, respectively, for every 1% decrease in ozone. PMID:7597292

  11. Determination of the melt level from a real weight signal during computer-assisted crystal growth by the Stepanov (EFG) technique and the use of crucible motion as a control action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossolenko, S. N.; Stryukov, D. O.; Kurlov, V. N.

    2015-06-01

    The current melt level is determined from a real weight signal during computer-assisted crystal growth by the Stepanov technique. No knowledge of the real shape of growing crystals is necessary in this case. A numerical solution to the capillary Laplace equation is used to analyze the use of the motion of a crucible with a melt as a control action that affects the shapes of menisci and growing crystals.

  12. The Two-Level Theory of Verb Meaning: An Approach to Integrating the Semantics of Action with the Mirror Neuron System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemmerer, David; Gonzalez-Castillo, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the "root". The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the "event structure template". We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the…

  13. An investigation of the effect of silicone oil on polymer intraocular lenses by means of PALS, FT-IR and Raman spectroscopies.

    PubMed

    Chamerski, Kordian; Lesniak, Magdalena; Sitarz, Maciej; Stopa, Marcin; Filipecki, Jacek

    2016-10-01

    The effect of the polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based silicone oil, that is widely used in vitreoretinal surgery, on internal structures of the polymer intraocular lenses was investigated. The effect of PDMS was studied on the polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) rigid lenses and poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate) (PHEMA) flexible lenses. The research was carried out by means of the positron lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) as well as the infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and the Raman spectroscopy (RS). The studies involving the use of PALS and FT-IR methods have revealed that the PHEMA based lenses absorbed, whereas the PMMA lenses did not absorb, silicone oil. The results obtained with the use of the RS method were inconclusive, probably due to the too low intensity of the characteristic PDMS bands. The evidence from this study was discussed in terms of physics and related to the clinical use of both silicone oil and intraocular lenses. PMID:27261889

  14. Alcohol use, abuse, and alcohol-related disorders among ethnic groups in Hungary. Part II: Palócs from Mátraderecske.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, D P; Benkmann, H G; Goedde, H W; Püschel, K; Béres, J; Czeizel, A E; Dobos, I; Métneki, J; Szekér, E; Sahegyi, J

    1995-03-01

    An epidemiological study on alcohol drinking habits, alcohol metabolism rate, alcohol-related acute physiological symptoms, and alcohol misuse among Palócs, an ethnic minority in Hungary, was conducted. The demographic and sociocultural correlates revealed their ethnic identity: low to moderate education, relatively low number of children per family and higher percentage of skilled workers among males. Alcohol use survey revealed that frequency of alcohol consumption among Palóc male population is considerably high. While about 41% of the Palóc males reported to drink daily between 30 ml and 90 ml pure alcohol, only 5% of the females reported to consume this amount regularly. 53% of males and less than 1% of females were classified as heavy drinkers (consuming more than 60 ml absolute alcohol per day). While all kinds of alcoholic beverage was reported to be consumed by the males, Pálinka (a kind of brandy) drinking was more common among females. About 45% of the Palócs reported to experience acute reactions after drinking a moderate dose of alcohol. The physical and physiological reactions include facial flushing, higher pulse rate, tachycardia and euphoria. While there was no distinct gender difference in facial flushing response to alcohol drinking, a higher percentage of males (70%) reported symptoms such as sleepiness, euphoria and aggressiveness as compared to about only 36% females reporting such reactions. Distribution of clinical chemical markers, in particular GGT values confirmed a heavier alcohol consumption among males than among females. High GGT value also correlated with a positive alcohol-related facial flushing reaction in males. PMID:7755376

  15. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  16. Characteristics of very slow stepping in healthy adults and validity of the activPAL3™ activity monitor in detecting these steps.

    PubMed

    Stansfield, Ben; Hajarnis, Mugdha; Sudarshan, Radhika

    2015-01-01

    The use of activity monitors to objectively measure stepping activity allows the characterisation of free-living daily activity performance. However, they must be fully validated. The characteristics of very slow stepping were examined and the validity of an activity monitor, the activPAL3™ (PAL Technologies Ltd., Glasgow, UK) to detect these steps was assessed. 10M/10F healthy adults (36±10 y) performed a treadmill walking protocol from 1.0m/s down to 0.1m/s (0.1m/s increments) whilst wearing the monitor under video observation (gold standard). Within the 800 stepping periods recorded the proportion of the steps correctly detected by the activPAL3™ was explored against speed and cadence. Below 0.4 m/s walking began to be intermittent, stepping interspersed with stationary postures. At 0.1 m/s almost 90% of walking periods were intermittent. The percentage of steps detected was over 90% for walking speed at or above 0.5m/s and cadence at or above 69 steps/min. However, below these limits % steps detected reduced rapidly with zero steps detected at 0.1m/s and at or below 24 steps/min. When examining the stepping activity of groups with limited stepping cadence the above thresholds of performance should be considered to ensure that outcomes are not misinterpreted and important very slow stepping activity missed. PMID:25455167

  17. Separating Hazardous Aerosols from Ambient Aerosols: Role of Fluorescence-Spectral Determination, Aerodynamic Deflector and Pulse Aerodynamic Localizer (PAL)

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Yong-Le; Cobler, Patrick J.; Rhodes, Scott A.; Halverson, Justin; Chang, Richard K.

    2005-08-22

    An aerosol deflection technique based on the single-shot UV-laser-induced fluorescence spectrum from a flowing particle is presented as a possible front-end bio-aerosol/hazardous-aerosol sensor/identifier. Cued by the fluorescence spectra, individual flowing bio-aerosol particles (1-10 {micro}m in diameter) have been successfully deflected from a stream of ambient aerosols. The electronics needed to compare the fluorescence spectrum of a particular particle with that of a pre-determined fluorescence spectrum are presented in some detail. The deflected particles, with and without going through a funnel for pulse aerodynamic localization (PAL), were collected onto a substrate for further analyses. To demonstrate how hazardous materials can be deflected, TbCl{sub 3} {center_dot} 6H{sub 2}O (a simulant material for some chemical forms of Uranium Oxide) aerosol particles (2 {micro}m in diameter) mixed with Arizona road dust was separated and deflected with our system.

  18. Controlling the level of the sonic boom generated by a flying vehicle by means of cryogenic forcing. 3. Physical justification of the cryogenic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fomin, V. M.; Chirkashenko, V. F.; Volkov, V. F.; Kharitonov, A. M.

    2011-05-01

    The influence of the basic factors of cryogenic forcing on formation of the middle zone on the sonic boom and aerodynamic characteristics of the flying vehicle is studied by experimental and numerical methods. Experimental data obtained with alcohol or liquid nitrogen as an injected liquid are used for comparisons; as a result, the total effect of temperature and coolant evaporation can be determined. The influence of temperature is studied by means of numerical simulations of the cryogenic action of distributed injection of air. A comparison of numerical and experimental data reveals the effect of the coolant evaporation process on perturbed flow formation. It is demonstrated that evaporation of the coolant outgoing onto the vehicle surface should be intensified to increase the efficiency of cryogenic forcing (to decrease the coolant flow rate).

  19. Delving into Egocentric Actions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Ye, Zhefan; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the challenging problem of recognizing the camera wearer's actions from videos captured by an egocentric camera. Egocentric videos encode a rich set of signals regarding the camera wearer, including head movement, hand pose and gaze information. We propose to utilize these mid-level egocentric cues for egocentric action recognition. We present a novel set of egocentric features and show how they can be combined with motion and object features. The result is a compact representation with superior performance. In addition, we provide the first systematic evaluation of motion, object and egocentric cues in egocentric action recognition. Our benchmark leads to several surprising findings. These findings uncover the best practices for egocentric actions, with a significant performance boost over all previous state-of-the-art methods on three publicly available datasets. PMID:26973427

  20. Self-inhibiting action of nortriptylin's antidepressive effect at high plasma levels: a randomized double-blind study controlled by plasma concentrations in patients with endogenous depression.

    PubMed

    Kragh-Sorensen, P; Hansen, C E; Baastrup, P C; Hvidberg, E F

    1976-02-01

    Below the toxic plasma level of nortriptyline (NT) an upper therapeutic limit has been postulated in patients with endogenous depression. If so the clinical significance is obvious and a double-blind, randomized study was performed in order to solve this problem. Two groups of patients were controlled at different plasma levels (less than 150 ng/ml and less than 180 ng/ml). The degree of depression was rated weekly. Only about one third (n equals 24) of the patients originally included, were carried through the full protocol, the most prominent reason for drop out beeing spontaneous remission during an initial placebo period. After 4 weeks of NT treatment the majority in the high level group was still depressed, but the difference barely significant (P equals 5.5%). However, a randomized reduction of the plasma level among the patients at the high level resulted in a significant correlation to remission. Evaluation of the total material after 6 weeks of NT treatment demonstrated a strong correlation of high plasma level to poor antidepressive effect of NT. No correlation could be obtained between side-effects, which were few, and plasma level. The non-proteinbound fraction in plasma was found to 7% (SD 1.83) by simultaneous determinations of NT in plasma and CSF in 13 patients. The variation in the proteinbinding was not likely to invalidate the over all results based on total NT determination. A therapeutic plasma range of 50-150 ng/ml is recommended. PMID:766041

  1. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  2. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  3. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  5. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition. PMID:26970853

  6. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  7. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  8. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  9. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott of certain…

  10. Student Perceptions of Science Teacher Actions in Two Culturally Diverse Middle-Level Science Classrooms: A Case Study in the American Deep South.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGinnis, J. Randy

    The purpose of this study was to give voice to students' perceptions in two science classrooms taught by two white teachers in an urban multicultural middle-level school situated in the American Deep South. Student participants were 35 students of different ethnicities in grades 7 and 8. The theoretical reference used is social contextual, a…

  11. Airborne active and passive L-band measurements using PALS instrument in SMAPVEX12 soil moisture field campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, Andreas; Yueh, Simon; Chazanoff, Seth; Dinardo, Steven; O'Dwyer, Ian; Jackson, Thomas; McNairn, Heather; Bullock, Paul; Wiseman, Grant; Berg, Aaron; Magagi, Ramata; Njoku, Eni

    2012-10-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) Mission is scheduled for launch in late 2014. The objective of the mission is global mapping of soil moisture and freeze/thaw state. Merging of active and passive L-band observations of the mission will enable unprecedented combination of accuracy, resolution, coverage and revisit-time for soil moisture and freeze/thaw state retrieval. For pre-launch algorithm development and validation the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a field campaign named as SMAPVEX12 (Soil Moisture Active Passive Validation Experiment 2012) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, and other Canadian and US institutions in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June-July, 2012. The main objective of SMAPVEX12 was acquisition of a data record that features long time-series with varying soil moisture and vegetation conditions over an aerial domain of multiple parallel flight lines. The coincident active and passive L-band data was acquired with the PALS (Passive Active L-band System) instrument. The measurements were conducted over the experiment domain every 2-3 days on average, over a period of 43 days. The preliminary calibration of the brightness temperatures obtained in the campaign has been performed. Daily lake calibrations were used to adjust the radiometer calibration parameters, and the obtained measurements were compared against the raw in situ soil moisture measurements. The evaluation shows that this preliminary calibration of the data produces already a consistent brightness temperature record over the campaign duration, and only secondary adjustments and cleaning of the data is need before the data can be applied to the development and validation of SMAP algorithms.

  12. Let’s be pals again: major systematic changes in Palaemonidae (Crustacea: Decapoda)

    PubMed Central

    Fransen, Charles H.J.M.; Page, Timothy J.

    2015-01-01

    In recent years the systematic position of genera in the shrimp families Gnathophyllidae and Hymenoceridae has been under debate, with phylogenetic studies suggesting the families are not real family level units. Here, we review the molecular evidence as well as the morphological characters used to distinguish both families, leading to the conclusion that neither family is valid. Further, we studied the structural details of the single morphological character which distinguishes the two subfamilies (Palaemoninae, Pontoniinae) in Palaemonidae, as well as their phylogenetic relationship. As the supposed character distinction plainly does not hold true and supported by the phylogenetic results, the recognition of subfamilies in Palaemonidae is not warranted. As a consequence, all three supra-generic taxa (Gnathophyllidae, Hymenoceridae, Pontoniinae) are thus herein formally synonymised with Palaemonidae. PMID:26339545

  13. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  14. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  15. Identification and characterization of an iron ABC transporter operon in Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus Pal 5.

    PubMed

    Urzúa, Lucia Soto; Vázquez-Candanedo, Ada P; Sánchez-Espíndola, Adriana; Ramírez, Carlos Ávila; Baca, Beatriz E

    2013-06-01

    Gluconacetobacter diazotrophicus is a nitrogen-fixing bacterium and endophyte of sugarcane. We have cloned and sequenced the genes coding for the components of the iron ABC-type acquisition system of G. diazotrophicus. Sequence analysis revealed three ORFs, (feuA, feuB, and feuC) organized as an operon and encoding polypeptides of 346 (38 kDa), 342 (34.2 kDa), and 240 (26 kDa) amino acids, respectively. The deduced translation products of the feu operon showed similarity with a periplasmic solute-binding protein (FeuA), permease (FeuB), and ATPase (FeuC) involved in Fe transport. The role of FeuB in the survival of G. diazotrophicus under iron depletion was evaluated by comparing the ability of wild-type and FeuB-Km(R) -mutant strains in a medium without iron supplementation and in a medium containing 2, 2'-dipyridyl (DP). Growth of the mutant was affected in the medium containing DP. The operon was expressed at higher levels in cells depleted for iron than in those that contained the metal. A decrease in nitrogenase activity was observed with the FeuB-Km(R) -mutant strain that with the wild-type under iron deficiency conditions, suggesting that the Feu operon play role in Fe nutrition of G. diazotrophicus. PMID:23624722

  16. NOTE: Dielectrophoretic analysis of changes in cytoplasmic ion levels due to ion channel blocker action reveals underlying differences between drug-sensitive and multidrug-resistant leukaemic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, L.; Shelmerdine, H.; Hughes, M. P.; Coley, H. M.; Hübner, Y.; Labeed, F. H.

    2008-01-01

    Dielectrophoresis (DEP)—the motion of particles in non-uniform AC fields—has been used in the investigation of cell electrophysiology. The technique offers the advantages of rapid determination of the conductance and capacitance of membrane and cytoplasm. However, it is unable to directly determine the ionic strengths of individual cytoplasmic ions, which has potentially limited its application in assessing cell composition. In this paper, we demonstrate how dielectrophoresis can be used to investigate the cytoplasmic ion composition by using ion channel blocking agents. By blocking key ion transporters individually, it is possible to determine their overall contribution to the free ions in the cytoplasm. We use this technique to evaluate the relative contributions of chloride, potassium and calcium ions to the cytoplasmic conductivities of drug sensitive and resistant myelogenous leukaemic (K562) cells in order to determine the contributions of individual ion channel activity in mediating multi-drug resistance in cancer. Results indicate that whilst K+ and Ca2+ levels were extremely similar between sensitive and resistant lines, levels of Cl- were elevated by three times to that in the resistant line, implying increased chloride channel activity. This result is in line with current theories of MDR, and validates the use of ion channel blockers with DEP to investigate ion channel function.

  17. THE SENSITIVITY OF CELLS WITH THE VARIOUS LEVEL OF NAD(P)H:QUINONE OXIDOREDUCTASE 1 TO CYTOTOXIC ACTION OF QUINONIMINES AND α-TOCOPHEROL SYNTHETIC DERIVATIVES.

    PubMed

    Petrova, G V; Parshykov, A V

    2015-01-01

    The effects of α-tocopherol with shortened to 6 carbon atoms side chain (α-Toc-C6), α-tocopherol succinate (α-TS) and quinonimine 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol (DCPIP) on DT-diaphorase activity and viability of rat thymocytes, splenocytes and hepatocytes were investigated. It was shown that the lowest basal activity of the enzyme is inherent in splenocytes. In comparison to splenocytes, DT-diaphorase activity was 1.4 and 5 times higher in thymocytes and hepatocytes, respectively. It was found that the sensitivity of cells to the cytotoxic effect of DCPIP was inversely proportional to the basal level of DT-diaphorase activity and accompanied by its activation with subsequent inhibition at non-toxic and toxic concentrations, respectively. Hepatocytes were least sensitive to the cytotoxic effect of α-Toc-C6. In thymocytes and splenocytes α-Toc-C6 exerts inhibitory effects on DT-diaphorase, whereas in hepatocytes an increased activity of the enzyme was observed, which probably caused their high survival rate. Simultaneous induction of cytochrome P450 enzyme expression by α-Toc-C6 in hepatocytes is also possible. Cytotoxic effect of α-TS does not depend on the basal level of DT-diaphorase activity in cells, is not accompanied by its induction and it is most likely determined by the non-specific esterase activity. PMID:26547963

  18. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    SciTech Connect

    Moeis, Maelita R. Berlian, Liska Suhandono, Sony Prima, Alex Komalawati, Eli Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-24

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation {sup 325}RLDRD{sup 329} and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  19. Cloning and construction of recombinant palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca on pET-32b into E. coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS for production of isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moeis, Maelita R.; Berlian, Liska; Suhandono, Sony; Prima, Alex; Komalawati, Eli; Kristianti, Tati

    2014-03-01

    Klebsiella oxytoca produces sucrose isomerase which catalyses the conversion of sucrose to isomaltulose, a new generation of sugar. From the previous study, palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca was succesfully isolated from sapodilla fruit (Manilkara zapota). The full-length palI gene sequence of Klebsiella oxytoca was cloned in E. coli DH5α. The deduced amino acid sequence shows 498 residues which includes conserved motif for sucrose isomerisation 325RLDRD329 and 97% identical to palI gene from Klebsiella sp. LX3 (GenBank:AAK82938.1). This fragment was succesfullly ligated into the expression vector pET-32b using overlap-extension PCR and cloned in Escherichia coli BL21 (DE3) pLysS. DNA sequencing result shows that palI gene of Klebsiella oxytoca was inserted in-frame in pET-32b. This is the first report on cloning of palI gene from Klebsiella oxytoca.

  20. The GROOP Effect: Groups Mimic Group Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Gunther

    2011-01-01

    Research on perception-action links has focused on an interpersonal level, demonstrating effects of observing individual actions on performance. The present study investigated perception-action matching at an inter-group level. Pairs of participants responded to hand movements that were performed by two individuals who used one hand each or they…

  1. Damage mechanisms in a cast ductile iron and a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3p}/Al composite

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, J.H.; Liaw, P.K.; Corum, J.M.; Hansen, J.G.R.; Cornie, J.A.

    1998-11-01

    Recently, pressure infiltration was used to fabricate alumina particulate (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3p})-reinforced Al matrix composites, and a program is in progress to demonstrate the suitability of this material for use in automobile parts with the goal of reducing the weight and increasing the vehicle performance. Mechanical behavior and damage mechanisms of an Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulate-reinforced Al matrix composite (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3p}/Al) prepared by pressure infiltration are investigated and compared with those of a cast ductile iron. In addition to low cost and reduced weight, the composite has a Young`s modulus comparable to the ductile iron, However, its fracture toughness is lower than that of the ductile iron. Interface debonding between the graphite and ferrite is responsible for the crack initiation behavior of the ductile iron. The crack in the ductile iron is arrested by the ductile ferrite phase surrounding the graphite, leading to high fracture toughness. For the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3p}/Al composite, the dominating crack initiation mode is particulate cracking. Interface debonding and zigzag cracking of particulates are additional fracture modes. The high content of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulates and the high thermal and elastic incompatibilities between the Al matrix and Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} particulates result in brittle fracture and low fracture toughness for the composite. Possible ways to increase the fracture toughness of the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3p}/Al composite material are also outlined.

  2. PALS (Passive Active L-band System) Radiometer-Based Soil Moisture Retrieval for the SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colliander, A.; Jackson, T. J.; Chan, S.; Bindlish, R.; O'Neill, P. E.; Chazanoff, S. L.; McNairn, H.; Bullock, P.; Powers, J.; Wiseman, G.; Berg, A. A.; Magagi, R.; Njoku, E. G.

    2014-12-01

    NASA's (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) mission is scheduled for launch in early January 2015. For pre-launch soil moisture algorithm development and validation, the SMAP project and NASA coordinated a SMAP Validation Experiment 2012 (SMAPVEX12) together with Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada in the vicinity of Winnipeg, Canada in June 7-July 19, 2012. Coincident active and passive airborne L-band data were acquired using the Passive Active L-band System (PALS) on 17 days during the experiment. Simultaneously with the PALS measurements, soil moisture ground truth data were collected manually. The vegetation and surface roughness were sampled on non-flight days. The SMAP mission will produce surface (top 5 cm) soil moisture products a) using a combination of its L-band radiometer and SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) measurements, b) using the radiometer measurement only, and c) using the SAR measurements only. The SMAPVEX12 data are being utilized for the development and testing of the algorithms applied for generating these soil moisture products. This talk will focus on presenting results of retrieving surface soil moisture using the PALS radiometer. The issues that this retrieval faces are very similar to those faced by the global algorithm using the SMAP radiometer. However, the different spatial resolution of the two observations has to be accounted for in the analysis. The PALS 3 dB footprint in the experiment was on the order of 1 km, whereas the SMAP radiometer has a footprint of about 40 km. In this talk forward modeled brightness temperature over the manually sampled fields and the retrieved soil moisture over the entire experiment domain are presented and discussed. In order to provide a retrieval product similar to that of the SMAP passive algorithm, various ancillary information had to be obtained for the SMAPVEX12 domain. In many cases there are multiple options on how to choose and reprocess these data

  3. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  4. Avulsion in action: Reconstruction and modelling sedimentation pace and upstream flood water levels following a Medieval tidal-river diversion catastrophe (Biesbosch, The Netherlands, 1421-1750 AD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleinhans, Maarten G.; Weerts, Henk J. T.; Cohen, Kim M.

    2010-05-01

    Deltaic land inundated by storm surges may reform by sedimentation from natural or human-induced river diversions. This is a well-known trigger mechanism for creation of new channels in coastal plains and deltas, which may develop into main channels and lead to abandonment of older (avulsion), particularly in the downstream parts of deltas that host tidal rivers. These new channels develop as part of deltaic splay complexes that heal initial diversion scars and fill up flooded basins at a certain pace. We study a case with excellent historical and geological data of a diversion of the river Rhine following catastrophic inundations (1421-1424 AD) into medieval reclaimed land. Numerical modelling of deltaic splay and channel development is combined with reconstructions from historical maps and geological data. This yields detailed insight in pacing of splay sedimentation and changing hydrodynamics in the channel upstream of the diversion in the two centuries following the inundation. The equivalent of the full sand budget of the river Rhine was effectively trapped in the developing splay. The tidal-avulsion splay evolution on aspects is similar to that of fluvial crevassing into flood basins documented for settings lacking 'downstream' tidal control. The typical small-scale delta-lobe avulsion cycles: mouth bar formation, backward sedimentation, upstream avulsion, channel progradation and mouth bar formation are reproduced in the splay-modelling. The pacing of splay development, however, is relatively fast due to the presence of tides and the water depth in the receiving basin. The diversion had a strong upstream impact, in particular on water levels in the feeding river channel at stages of peak flow. For two centuries levels were significantly raised, because bifurcation-imposed reduced transport capacity and associated sedimentation at the diversion site increased hydraulic roughness and hampered flow. These findings have implications regarding flood mitigation

  5. Effect of a supportive-educative program in the math class for stress, anxiety, and depression in female students in the third level of junior high school: An action research

    PubMed Central

    Emamjomeh, Seyedeh Mahtab; Bahrami, Masoud

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aim: Students in junior high school, particularly in the third level, are prone to a variety of stressors. This in turn might lead to stress, anxiety, depression, and other health-related problems. There are a very limited number of action research studies to identify the effect of stress management techniques among students. Therefore, a study was conducted to assess the effect of a program used in the math class to decrease the student's level of stress, anxiety, and depression. Material and Methods: This was an action research study, which was conducted in region three of the Education and Training Office of Isfahan, in the year 2012. Fifty-one students in a junior high school were selected and underwent a comprehensive stress management program. This program was prepared in collaboration with the students, their parents, teachers, and managers of the school, and was implemented approximately during a four-month period. The student's stress, anxiety, and depression were measured before and after the program using the DASS-21 questionnaire. Findings: The t-test identified that the mean scores of stress, anxiety, and depression after the intervention were significantly lower than the corresponding scores before the program. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) also showed that the students from the veterans (Janbaz) families had higher levels of stress compared to their classmates, who belonged to the non-veteran families (P< 0.05). Results: Education and implementation of stress management techniques including cognitive and behavioral interventions along with active and collaborative methods of learning in the math class might be useful both inside and outside the class, for better management of stress and other health-related problems of students. PMID:25767821

  6. Pockmarks on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar: formation from overpressured shallow contourite gas reservoirs and internal wave action during the last glacial sea-level lowstand?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    León, Ricardo; Somoza, Luis; Medialdea, Teresa; González, Francisco Javier; Gimenez-Moreno, Carmen Julia; Pérez-López, Raúl

    2014-06-01

    Integrating novel and published swath bathymetry (3,980 km2), as well as chirp and high-resolution 2D seismic reflection profiles (2,190 km), this study presents the mapping of 436 pockmarks at water depths varying widely between 370 and 1,020 m on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar. On the Atlantic side in the south-eastern Gulf of Cádiz near the Camarinal Sill, 198 newly discovered pockmarks occur in three well localized and separated fields: on the upper slope ( n=14), in the main channel of the Mediterranean outflow water (MOW, n=160), and on the huge contourite levee of the MOW main channel ( n=24) near the well-known TASYO field. These pockmarks vary in diameter from 60 to 919 m, and are sub-circular to irregularly elongated or lobate in shape. Their slope angles on average range from 3° to 25°. On the Mediterranean side of the strait on the Ceuta Drift of the western Alborán Basin, where pockmarks were already known to occur, 238 pockmarks were identified and grouped into three interconnected fields, i.e. a northern ( n=34), a central ( n=61) and a southern field ( n=143). In the latter two fields the pockmarks are mainly sub-circular, ranging from 130 to 400 m in diameter with slope angles averaging 1.5° to 15°. In the northern sector, by contrast, they are elongated up to 1,430 m, probably reflecting MOW activity. Based on seismo-stratigraphic interpretation, it is inferred that most pockmarks formed during and shortly after the last glacial sea-level lowstand, as they are related to the final erosional discontinuity sealed by Holocene transgressive deposits. Combining these findings with other existing knowledge, it is proposed that pockmark formation on either side of the Strait of Gibraltar resulted from gas and/or sediment pore-water venting from overpressured shallow gas reservoirs entrapped in coarse-grained contourites of levee deposits and Pleistocene palaeochannel infillings. Venting was either triggered or promoted by hydraulic pumping

  7. Effects of high levels of dietary zinc oxide on ex vivo epithelial histamine response and investigations on histamine receptor action in the proximal colon of weaned piglets.

    PubMed

    Kröger, S; Pieper, R; Aschenbach, J R; Martin, L; Liu, P; Rieger, J; Schwelberger, H G; Neumann, K; Zentek, J

    2015-11-01

    The aim of the study was to identify the effect of high dietary zinc oxide (ZnO) levels on the histamine-induced secretory-type response and histamine metabolism in the porcine proximal colon. After weaning at d 26, 3 diets with low (LZn), normal (NZn), and high (HZn) concentrations of zinc (57, 164, or 2,425 mg/kg) were fed to a total of 120 piglets. Digesta and tissue samples were taken from the ascending colon after 7 ± 1, 14 ± 1, 21 ± 1, and 28 ± 1 d. Partially stripped tissue was mounted in Ussing chambers, and histamine was applied either to the serosal or mucosal compartments. Tissue was pretreated with or without aminoguanidine and amodiaquine to block the histamine-degrading enzymes diamine oxidase (DAO) and histamine -methyltransferase (HMT), respectively. Gene expression and catalytic activity of DAO and HMT in the tissue were analyzed. The numbers of mast cells were determined in tissue samples, and histamine concentration was measured in the colon digesta. Colon tissue from another 12 piglets was used for functional studies on histamine H and H receptors by using the neuronal conduction blocker tetrodotoxin (TTX) and the H and H receptor blocker chloropyramine and famotidine, respectively. After serosal histamine application to colonic tissue in Ussing chambers, the change of short-circuit current (Δ) was not affected by pretreatment and was not different between Zn feeding groups. The Δ after mucosal histamine application was numerically lower ( = 0.168) in HZn compared to LZn and NZn pigs. Mast cell numbers increased from 32 to 46 d of life ( < 0.05). Further studies elucidated that the serosal histamine response was partly inhibited by chloropyramine or famotidine ( < 0.01). The response to mucosal histamine tended to be decreased when chloropyramine but not famotidine was applied from either the serosal or the mucosal side ( = 0.055). Tetrodotoxin alone or in combination with chloropyramine resulted in a similar reduction in the mucosal

  8. Joint Association of Dietary Pattern and Physical Activity Level with Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Chinese Men: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Dong; He, Yuna; Li, Yanping; Luan, Dechun; Zhai, Fengying; Yang, Xiaoguang; Ma, Guansheng

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to investigate the joint associations of physical activity level (PAL) and dietary patterns in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors among Chinese men. The study population consisted of 13 511 Chinese males aged 18-59 years from the 2002 China National Nutrition and Health Survey. Based on dietary data collected by a food frequency questionnaire, four dietary patterns were identified and labeled as "Green Water" (high consumption of rice, vegetables, seafood, pork, and poultry), "Yellow Earth" (high consumption of wheat flour products and starchy tubers), "New Affluent" (high consumption of animal sourced foods and soybean products), and "Western Adopter" (high consumption of animal sourced foods, cakes, and soft drinks). From the information collected by a 1-year physical activity questionnaire, PAL was calculated and classified into 4 categories: sedentary, low active, active, and very active. As compared with their counterparts from the New Affluent pattern, participants who followed the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of abdominal obesity (AO; 50.2%), hypertension (HT; 37.9%), hyperglycemia (HG; 41.5%), elevated triglyceride (ETG; 14.5%), low HDL (LHDL; 39.8%), and metabolic syndrome (MS; 51.9%). When compared to sedentary participants, the odds ratio of participants with very active PAL was 0.62 for AO, 0.85 for HT, 0.71 for HG, 0.76 for ETG, 0.74 for LHDL, and 0.58 for MS. Individuals who followed both very active PAL and the Green Water pattern had a lower likelihood of CVD risk factors (AO: 65.8%, HT: 39.1%, HG: 57.4%, ETG: 35.4%, LHDL: 56.1%, and MS: 75.0%), compared to their counterparts who followed both sedentary PAL and the New Affluent pattern. In addition, adherence to both healthy dietary pattern and very active PAL presented a remarkable potential for CVD risk factor prevention. PMID:23840426

  9. Effective learning techniques for military applications using the Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) enhanced Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMonica, Peter; Dziegiel, Roger; Liuzzi, Raymond; Hepler, James

    2009-05-01

    The Personalized Assistant that Learns (PAL) Program is a Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) research effort that is advancing technologies in the area of cognitive learning by developing cognitive assistants to support military users, such as commanders and decision makers. The Air Force Research Laboratory's (AFRL) Information Directorate leveraged several core PAL components and applied them to the Web-Based Temporal Analysis System (WebTAS) so that users of this system can have automated features, such as task learning, intelligent clustering, and entity extraction. WebTAS is a modular software toolset that supports fusion of large amounts of disparate data sets, visualization, project organization and management, pattern analysis and activity prediction, and includes various presentation aids. WebTAS is predominantly used by analysts within the intelligence community and with the addition of these automated features, many transition opportunities exist for this integrated technology. Further, AFRL completed an extensive test and evaluation of this integrated software to determine its effectiveness for military applications in terms of timeliness and situation awareness, and these findings and conclusions, as well as future work, will be presented in this report.

  10. Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan for Corrective Action Unit 356: Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Revision No. 0, August 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-08-21

    This Streamlined Approach for Environmental Restoration (SAFER) Plan addresses the actions necessary for the characterization and closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 356, Mud Pits and Disposal Sites, as identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). The CAU, located on the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, consists of seven Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 03-04-01, Area 3 Change House Septic System; CAS 03-09-01, Mud Pit Spill Over; CAS 03-09-03, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-04, Mud Pit; CAS 03-09-05, Mud Pit; CAS 20-16-01, Landfill; CAS 20-22-21, Drums. Sufficient information and process knowledge from historical documentation and investigations are the basis for the development of the phased approach chosen to address the data collection activities prior to implementing the preferred closure alternative for each CAS. The Phase I investigation will determine through collection of environmental samples from targeted populations (i.e., mud/soil cuttings above textural discontinuity) if contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) are present in concentrations exceeding preliminary action levels (PALs) at each of the CASs. If COPCs are present above PALs, a Phase II investigation will be implemented to determine the extent of contamination to support the appropriate corrective action alternative to complete closure of the site. Groundwater impacts from potentially migrating contaminants are not expected due to the depths to groundwater and limiting hydrologic drivers of low precipitation and high evaporation rates. Future land-use scenarios limit future uses to industrial activities; therefore, future residential uses are not considered. Potential exposure routes to site workers from contaminants of concern in septage and soils include oral ingestion, inhalation, or dermal contact (absorption) through in-advertent disturbance of contaminated structures and/or soils. Diesel within drilling muds is expected to be the primary COPC based on process

  11. The role of action readiness in motivated behavior.

    PubMed

    Suri, Gaurav; Sheppes, Gal; Gross, James J

    2015-12-01

    According to many theories of motivation and decision making, the principal driver of human behavior is the valuation of actions. Action value is computed as the difference between stimulus value (the benefits and costs inherent in the stimulus that is the target of the action) and action costs (the effort required to perform the action). In the present work, we propose that action costs are crucially influenced by the readiness to perform a given action. We define action readiness as the ease with which an action may be initiated given the preaction launch state of the individual. An action that has been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a high level of action readiness, whereas an action that has not been frequently or recently performed or rehearsed has a low level of action readiness. By our account, if action readiness levels are high for a given action, decreased action costs may result in action even when the stimulus value is relatively low. Conversely, if action readiness levels are low for a given action, even action costs that appear negligible can dominate positive stimulus values, resulting in seemingly puzzling instances of inaction. We develop and test these ideas in 3 studies across 233 participants using an image-viewing decision context and a logistic prediction model. PMID:26436428

  12. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  13. Precautionary allergen labelling: perspectives from key stakeholder groups.

    PubMed

    DunnGalvin, A; Chan, C-H; Crevel, R; Grimshaw, K; Poms, R; Schnadt, S; Taylor, S L; Turner, P; Allen, K J; Austin, M; Baka, A; Baumert, J L; Baumgartner, S; Beyer, K; Bucchini, L; Fernández-Rivas, M; Grinter, K; Houben, G F; Hourihane, J; Kenna, F; Kruizinga, A G; Lack, G; Madsen, C B; Clare Mills, E N; Papadopoulos, N G; Alldrick, A; Regent, L; Sherlock, R; Wal, J-M; Roberts, G

    2015-09-01

    Precautionary allergen labelling (PAL) was introduced by the food industry to help manage and communicate the possibility of reaction from the unintended presence of allergens in foods. However, in its current form, PAL is counterproductive for consumers with food allergies. This review aims to summarize the perspectives of all the key stakeholders (including clinicians, patients, food industry and regulators), with the aim of defining common health protection and risk minimization goals. The lack of agreed reference doses has resulted in inconsistent application of PAL by the food industry and in levels of contamination that prompt withdrawal action by enforcement officers. So there is a poor relationship between the presence or absence of PAL and actual reaction risk. This has led to a loss of trust in PAL, reducing the ability of consumers with food allergies to make informed choices. The result has been reduced avoidance, reduced quality of life and increased risk-taking by consumers who often ignore PAL. All contributing stakeholders agree that PAL must reflect actual risk. PAL should be transparent and consistent with rules underpinning decision-making process being communicated clearly to all stakeholders. The use of PAL should indicate the possible, unintended presence of an allergen in a consumed portion of a food product at or above any proposed action level. This will require combined work by all stakeholders to ensure everyone understands the approach and its limitations. Consumers with food allergy then need to be educated to undertake individualized risk assessments in relation to any PAL present. PMID:25808296

  14. Effect of l-phenylalanine on PAL activity and production of naphthoquinone pigments in suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma (Royle) Johnst.

    PubMed

    Sykłowska-Baranek, Katarzyna; Pietrosiuk, Agnieszka; Naliwajski, Marcin R; Kawiak, Anna; Jeziorek, Małgorzata; Wyderska, Sylwia; Lojkowska, Ewa; Chinou, Ioanna

    2012-10-01

    The effects of l-phenylalanine (PHE) on cell growth and production of shikonin and its derivatives, acetylshikonin (ACS) and isobutyrylshikonin (IBS), in suspension cultures of Arnebia euchroma were examined. Supplementing media using PHE have been successfully utilized to enhance shikonin production in cell cultures of other species of Boraginaceae. l-Phenylalanine, the key compound in the phenylpropanoid pathway, is converted by phenylalanine ammonia lyase (PAL) to trans-cinnamic acid, which is the precursor of p-hydroxybenzoic acid (PHB). Coupling of PHB and geranyl pyrophosphate (derived from mevalonate pathway) by p-hydroxybenzoate-m-geranyltransferase leads later to biosynthesis of shikonins. The addition of 0.01 or 0.1 mM PHE to the culture medium stimulated cell proliferation, where the highest observed increase in fresh cell biomass (measured as a ratio of final weight to initial weight) was 12-fold, in contrast to an eightfold increase in control cultures. Whereas, growth media supplemented with 1 mM PHE markedly reduced the rate of cell growth (to only twofold). Precursor feeding had detrimental effects on both ACS and IBS production in all PHE-supplemented media. The highest total content (intracellular + extracellular) of the investigated red pigments (9.5 mg per flask) was detected in the control culture without PHE. ACS was the major component of the naphthoquinone fraction determined in cells and post-culture media. Shikonin itself was found only in the post-culture media from cultures supplemented with 0.01 or 0.1 mM PHE. Increases in PAL activity corresponded well with the accumulation of investigated naphthoquinones in control culture. However, peak PAL activity did not directly correlate with maximum production of shikonin derivatives. Cytotoxicity of extracts, prepared from the cells cultivated in the presence of PHE or in control cultures, was tested on three cancer cell lines: HL-60, HeLa, and MCF-7. The extracts prepared from the

  15. L'Anti-Atlas occidental du Maroc: étude sédimentologique et reconstitutions paléogéographiques au Cambrien inférieur

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benssaou, M.; Hamoumi, N.

    2001-04-01

    L'étude lithostratigraphique en sédimentologique des formations du Cambrien inférieur de l'Anti-Atlas occidental (Maroc) a permis de mettre en évidence la diversité extrême des faciès allant des faciès continentaux jusqu'au faciès franchement marins. La répartition verticale de ces faciès ainsi que leurs associations ont permis de (i) proposer un nouveau découpage de la succession en formations lithostratigraphiques, (ii) reconstituer les milieux de dépôt (système fluviatile, lacs, fan-deltas, milieu littoral, plate-forme dominée par des constructions stromatolitiques et récifales et plate-forme dominée par les tempêtes) et (iii) établir des modèles paléogéographiques retraçant les différentes étapes d'évolution de ce bassin qui fait partie de la plate-forme nord-gondwanienne au Cambrien inférieur. Lithostratigraphical and sedimentological studies of the Early Cambrian formations in the western Anti-Atlas (Morocco) evidence their large diversity of facies ranging from continental to clearly marine. Vertical distribution and associations of facies afford opportunities to (i) suggest a new classification of the sedimentary sequence in terms of lithostratigraphic formations, (ii) restore the depositional environments (fluvial system, lake, delta fan, coast, stromatolite and reef-dominated platform, tempest-dominated platform), and (iii) establish palæogeographic models displaying the different evolutionary stages of this basin that constituted a part of the Lower Cambrian north-Gondwanian platform.

  16. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  17. Action Research in Graduate Management Research Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perry, Chad; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortun

    1992-01-01

    It is proposed that action research, as distinguished from traditional research, has a role in graduate management education. It is suggested that the former is more appropriate for developing managerial competencies. Differences between master's-level and doctoral-level action research projects are noted, and related issues for curriculum design…

  18. Towards a new understanding of the Neoproterozoic-early palæozoic Lufilian and northern Zambezi belts in Zambia and the Democratic Republic of Congo

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porada, Hubertus; Berhorst, Volker

    2000-04-01

    horizons of the 'Ore Formation' in Zambia and 'Series des Mines' in Katanga are related to temporarily anoxic conditions prevailing in the Roan Lagoon-Basin which had a southwest-northeast extent of ca 400 km. The lagoon-basin was subsequently filled by clastics derived from mainly northeastern sources (upper Kitwe Subgroup/Zambia; Dipeta Subgroup/Katanga). Possibly due to continental rupture in the southeastern, more advanced, segment of the rift and concomitant differential movement in the rupturing plate, the Kundelungu Basin started to open during deposition of the Mwashia Group. Opening of the extensional basin was accompanied by rifting, rapid subsidence of the affected platform segment and widespread mafic magmatism, which lasted until deposition of the Lower Kundelungu Group. The elevated margins of the rapidly subsiding Kundelungu Basin offered favourable conditions for inland glaciation during the Sturtian-Rapitan global glaciation epoch. The diamictites of the Grand Conglomát are thus dated at ca 750 Ma. Tectonogenesis in the Lufilian and Zambezi Belts is related to ca 560-550 Ma collision of the 'Angola-Kalahari Plate' (comprising the Kalahari Craton and southwestern part of the Congo Craton) and the 'Congo-Tanzania Plate' (comprising the remaining part of the Congo Craton) along a southeast-northwest trending suture linking up the southern Mozambique Belt with the West Congo Belt. Collision was accompanied by northeast directed thrusting involving deep crustal detachments and forward-propagating thrust faults that developed in platform and slope deposits below a high level thrust. In the Domes region, the platform sequence was detached from its basement and displaced for ca 150 km into the External Fold-Thrust Belt of Katanga. The large displacement was enhanced by fluids liberated from evaporite-rich mudflat deposits of the R.A.T. Subgroup. In the Zambezi Belt, northeast directed thrusting was succeeded by southwest directed backfolding and backthrusting

  19. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  20. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  1. Tectono-sedimentary evolution of the Gondwanan Satpura Basin of central India: evidence of pre-Trap doming, rifting and pal˦oslope reversal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casshyap, S. M.; Khan, A.

    2000-07-01

    The Mesozoic Gondwanan Satpura Basin of central India, comprising an approximately 1300 m thick sequence of the Pachmarhi, Denwa and Bagra Formations, was subjected to at least three major tectonic events. These events are manifested by tectonic dislocation, marginal uplifts, basin subsidence and deformation, as well as by stratigraphical disposition, lithofacies assemblage, and palaeoslope and pal˦ocurrent patterns. The first tectonic event is manifested by the onset of Early Triassic Pachmarhi sedimentation, which is marked in the basal part by a sudden increase of conglomeratic, pebbly, gritty to coarsegrained cross-bedded sandstone. This contrasts with the underlying fine elastics of the Late Permian Bijori Formation. The stratigraphical relationship and lithofacies, together with pal˦ocurrent and petrographic data, reflect tectonic uplift in the source area to the southeast of the Satpura Basin during or prior to the deposition of Pachmarhi Formation. The pebbly coarse sandy facies of the Pachmarhi Formation represents a braided river assemblage, overlain by a meandering river facies of the Denwa Formation, with river systems flowing dominantly from southeast to northwest. The progressive change in lithofacies and grain size upward from Pachmarhi to Denwa implies that the source area became peneplained and that the basin stabilised. During the prolonged gap of non-deposition, following the Mid-Triassic break in sedimentation after deposition of the Denwa Formation, a second tectonic event resulted in the widespread faulting and uplift of Permo-Triassic Gondwana sediments and basement rocks, respectively, to the south and north of the Narmada-Son Lineament Zone of Peninsular India. A third tectonic event is manifested by Late Jurassic-Early Cretaceous Bagra conglomerate and sandstone-shale facies in the northern part of the Satpura Basin. This formation, which unconformably overlies the Precambrian, and Permian and Triassic Gondwana formations or abuts

  2. 29 CFR 30.4 - Affirmative action plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... these regulations, sponsors are expected to make appropriate adjustments in goal levels. See 29 CFR 30.8... affirmative action plan. (b) Definition of affirmative action. Affirmative action is not mere passive... affirmative action plan must also include adequate provision for outreach and positive recruitment that...

  3. Ecology and Energy Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these elementary school-level instructional materials are for use as an introduction to existing units of study, supplements to a textbook, or a source of special projects for environmental education. Contents include these six units: Make Your Own Ecology Mini-spinner, Let's Look at a Food Chain, Drip the…

  4. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  5. Association between cognitive performance, physical fitness, and physical activity level in women with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    PubMed

    Ickmans, Kelly; Clarys, Peter; Nijs, Jo; Meeus, Mira; Aerenhouts, Dirk; Zinzen, Evert; Aelbrecht, Senne; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Pattyn, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    Limited scientific evidence suggests that physical activity is directly related to cognitive performance in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). To date, no other study has examined the direct relationship between cognitive performance and physical fitness in these patients. This study examined whether cognitive performance and physical fitness are associated in female patients with CFS and investigated the association between cognitive performance and physical activity level (PAL) in the same study sample. We hypothesized that patients who performed better on cognitive tasks would show increased PALs and better performance on physical tests. The study included 31 women with CFS and 13 healthy inactive women. Participants first completed three cognitive tests. Afterward, they undertook a test to determine their maximal handgrip strength, performed a bicycle ergometer test, and were provided with an activity monitor. In patients with CFS, lower peak oxygen uptake and peak heart rate were associated with slower psychomotor speed (p < 0.05). Maximal handgrip strength was correlated with working memory performance (p < 0.05). Both choice and simple reaction time were lower in patients with CFS relative to healthy controls (p < 0.05 and p < 0.001, respectively). In conclusion, physical fitness, but not PAL, is associated with cognitive performance in female patients with CFS. PMID:24203542

  6. Early changes in membrane permeability, production of oxidative burst and modification of PAL activity induced by ergosterol in cotyledons of Mimosa pudica.

    PubMed

    Rossard, Stéphanie; Luini, Estelle; Pérault, Jean-Michel; Bonmort, Janine; Roblin, Gabriel

    2006-01-01

    Ergosterol (a fungal membrane component) was shown to induce transient influx of protons and membrane hyperpolarization in cotyledonary cells of Mimosa pudica L. By contrast, chitosan (a fungal wall component with known elicitor properties) triggered membrane depolarization. In the processes induced by ergosterol, a specific desensitization was observed, since cells did not react to a second ergosterol application but did respond to a chitosan treatment. This comparative study correspondingly shows that ergosterol and chitosan were perceived in a distinct manner by plant cells. Generation of O2*-, visualized by infiltration with nitroblue tetrazolium, was displayed in organs treated with ergosterol and chitosan. This AOS production was preceded by an increase in activity of NADPH oxidase measured in protein extracts of treated cotyledons. In all the previously described processes, cholesterol had no effect, thereby indicating that ergosterol specifically induced these physiological changes known to participate in the reaction chain activated by characteristic elicitors. Contrary to chitosan, ergosterol did not greatly activate secondary metabolism as shown by the small change in content of free phenolics and by the low modification in activity of PAL, the key enzyme of this metabolic pathway. Therefore, future studies have to clarify the signalling cascade triggered by ergosterol recognition. PMID:16510520

  7. Objects tell us what action we can expect: dissociating brain areas for retrieval and exploitation of action knowledge during action observation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Ricarda I.; Wurm, Moritz F.; Wittmann, Marco K.; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2014-01-01

    Objects are reminiscent of actions often performed with them: knife and apple remind us on peeling the apple or cutting it. Mnemonic representations of object-related actions (action codes) evoked by the sight of an object may constrain and hence facilitate recognition of unrolling actions. The present fMRI study investigated if and how action codes influence brain activation during action observation. The average number of action codes (NAC) of 51 sets of objects was rated by a group of n = 24 participants. In an fMRI study, different volunteers were asked to recognize actions performed with the same objects presented in short videos. To disentangle areas reflecting the storage of action codes from those exploiting them, we showed object-compatible and object-incompatible (pantomime) actions. Areas storing action codes were considered to positively co-vary with NAC in both object-compatible and object-incompatible action; due to its role in tool-related tasks, we here hypothesized left anterior inferior parietal cortex (aIPL). In contrast, areas exploiting action codes were expected to show this correlation only in object-compatible but not incompatible action, as only object-compatible actions match one of the active action codes. For this interaction, we hypothesized ventrolateral premotor cortex (PMv) to join aIPL due to its role in biasing competition in IPL. We found left anterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to co-vary with NAC. In addition to these areas, action codes increased activity in object-compatible action in bilateral PMv, right IPS, and lateral occipital cortex (LO). Findings suggest that during action observation, the brain derives possible actions from perceived objects, and uses this information to shape action recognition. In particular, the number of expectable actions quantifies the activity level at PMv, IPL, and pMTG, but only PMv reflects their biased competition while observed action unfolds

  8. The Challenge of Evaluating Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edmonstone, John

    2015-01-01

    The paper examines the benefits claimed for action learning at individual, organisational and inter-organisational levels. It goes on to identify both generic difficulties in evaluating development programmes and action learning specifically. The distinction between formative and summative evaluation is considered and a summative evaluation…

  9. Outdoor Recreation Action. Report No. 10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Outdoor Recreation (Dept. of Interior), Washington, DC.

    Actions taken in the area of outdoor recreation on Federal, State, local, and private levels are reported in the document. Financing actions are listed according to states, government agencies, and names of private financers. The organization and administration section includes new agencies, personnel, reorganizations, and significant resolutions…

  10. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  11. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  12. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  13. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  14. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  15. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  16. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory Affirmative Action Program. Revised

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-01

    The Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Affirmative Action Program (AAP) serves as a working document that describes current policies, practices, and results in the area of affirmative action. It represents the Laboratory`s framework for an affirmative approach to increasing the representation of people of color and women in segments of our work force where they have been underrepresented and taking action to increase the employment of persons with disabilities and special disabled and Vietnam era veterans. The AAP describes the hierarchy of responsibility for Laboratory affirmative action, the mechanisms that exist for full Laboratory participation in the AAP, the policies and procedures governing recruitment at all levels, the Laboratory`s plan for monitoring, reporting, and evaluating affirmative action progress, and a description of special affirmative action programs and plans the Laboratory has used and will use in its efforts to increase the representation and retention of groups historically underrepresented in our work force.

  17. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  18. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  19. Errata Sheet for the Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 166: Storage Yards and Contaminated Materials, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-12-21

    On Page 6, in Section 2.1.1.4, fourth paragraph, third sentence, ''FAL'' should be ''PAL''. The sentence should read, ''TPH was also present at concentrations above the PAL in all three wax samples that were analyzed for TPH''.

  20. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  1. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  2. A Scientific Assessment of Sociodemographic Factors, Physical Activity Level, and Nutritional Knowledge as Determinants of Dietary Quality among Indo-Mauritian Women

    PubMed Central

    Jeewon, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    A healthy diet is of particular concern throughout the life of women to avoid many chronic illnesses especially during their 30s to 50s. There are published data on dietary quality and its determinants among women, but there is a lack of similar data regarding women in Mauritius. This study aimed to investigate the association between age and dietary quality in relation to sociodemographic factors, physical activity level (PAL) and nutritional knowledge (NK). A survey-based study was conducted in 2012 among Indo-Mauritian women including 117 young (21.35 ± 1.98), 160 reaching middle age (34.02 ± 5.09) and 50 middle-aged (37.85 ± 8.32). Validated questionnaires were used to elicit information on the determinants. A food frequency table consisting of 18 food items was used to assess dietary quality. Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to determine the association between various factors and dietary quality. The mean dietary score of middle-aged women (18.70 ± 2.67) was closer to recommended dietary guidelines compared to young women (17.22 ± 3.40), and women reaching middle age (17.55 ± 3.29). Educational level, PAL, NK, and age were main determinants of dietary quality among Indo-Mauritian women (P < 0.05). Younger women with low educational level, PAL, and NK are at risk of poor dietary quality. PMID:23762543

  3. Practicing What We Teach: Using Action Research to Learn about Teaching Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele

    2015-01-01

    In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…

  4. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  5. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  6. Affirmative Action in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Natan

    This paper examines issues of equality, discrimination, affirmative action, and preferential treatment in Israel. An introduction provides a broad outline of topics addressed in the paper: the status of the Jewish sector, with treatment of Jewish immigrants to serve as an example of affirmative action; the policies of the state in relation to the…

  7. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  8. Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  9. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  10. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  11. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  12. Affirmative Action Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    All campuses and units of the University and Community College System of Nevada annually submit data to the Chancellor's Office on affirmative action. This report provides tables of affirmative action data for students enrolled during fall 1992 and professional and classified staff employed during 1992. First, student data is provided on gender…

  13. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  14. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  15. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  16. Science - Image in Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavidovique, Bertrand; Lo Bosco, Giosue'

    pt. A. Information: data organization and communication. Statistical information: a Bayesian perspective / R. B. Stern, C. A. de B. Pereira. Multi-a(ge)nt graph patrolling and partitioning / Y. Elor, A. M. Bruckstein. The role of noise in brain function / S. Roy, R. Llinas. F-granulation, generalized rough entropy and image analysis / S. K. Pal. Fast redshift clustering with the Baire (ultra) metric / F. Murtagh, P. Contreras. Interactive classification oriented superresolution of multispectral images / P. Ruiz ... [et al.]. Blind processing in astrophysical data analysis / E. Salerno, L. Bedini. The extinction map of the orion molecular cloud / G. Scandariato (best student's paper), I. Pagano, M. Robberto -- pt. B. System: structure and behaviour. Common grounds: the role of perception in science and the nature of transitions / G. Bernroider. Looking the world from inside: intrinsic geometry of complex systems / L. Boi. The butterfly and the photon: new perspectives on unpredictability, and the notion of casual reality, in quantum physics / T. N. Palmer. Self-replicated wave patterns in neural networks with complex threshold / V. I. Nekorkin. A local explication of causation / G. Boniolo, R. Faraldo, A. Saggion. Evolving complexity, cognition, and consciousness / H. Liljenstrom. Self-assembly, modularity and physical complexity / S. E. Ahnert. The category of topological thermodynamics / R. M. Kiehn. Anti-phase spiking patterns / M. P. Igaev, A. S. Dmitrichev, V. I. Nekorkin -- pt. C. Data/system representation. Reality, models and representations: the case of galaxies, intelligence and avatars / J-C. Heudin. Astronomical images and data mining in the international virtual observatory context / F. Pasian, M. Brescia, G. Longo. Dame: a web oriented infrastructure for scientific data mining and exploration / S. Cavuoti ... [et al.]. Galactic phase spaces / D. Chakrabarty. From data to images: a shape based approach for fluorescence tomography / O. Dorn, K. E. Prieto

  17. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  18. Hungarian climate change action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T.; Arpasi, M.; Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T.; Harnos, Z.; Lontay, Z.; Somogyi, Z.; Tajthy, T.

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  19. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  20. Conceptualizing Indicator Domains for Evaluating Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…

  1. Planning actions in robot automated operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Das, A.

    1988-01-01

    Action planning in robot automated operations requires intelligent task level programming. Invoking intelligence necessiates a typical blackboard based architecture, where, a plan is a vector between the start frame and the goal frame. This vector is composed of partially ordered bases. A partial ordering of bases presents good and bad sides in action planning. Partial ordering demands the use of a temporal data base management system.

  2. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  3. Corrective Action Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The glossary of technical terms was prepared to facilitate the use of the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) issued by OSWER on November 14, 1986. The CAP presents model scopes of work for all phases of a corrective action program, including the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI), Corrective Measures Study (CMS), Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI), and interim measures. The Corrective Action Glossary includes brief definitions of the technical terms used in the CAP and explains how they are used. In addition, expected ranges (where applicable) are provided. Parameters or terms not discussed in the CAP, but commonly associated with site investigations or remediations are also included.

  4. Toxic action/toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    ,Z-muconaldehyde forms cyclic products containing a pyrrole residue linked to purine. Increased HbCO concentrations reduce the O2-carrying capacity of the blood, and the changed shape of the O2-Hb dissociation curve parallels disturbance in O2 unloading. CN- acts on electron transport and paralyses respiration. In telodrin poisoning, preconvulsive glutamine formation abstracts tricarboxylic acid intermediates incommensurately with normal cerebral respiration. Antigen-antibody complexing depletes the antibody titre, available against infection. At high doses of Cd, Cd-thionein filtered through the kidneys is reabsorbed and tubular lesions produced. Some organophosphate insecticides promote irreversible acetylcholinesterase phosphorylation and blockade nerve function, and others react with neurotoxic esterase to cause delayed neuropathy. The evidence for Paraquat pulmonary poisoning suggests a radical mechanism involving three interrelated cyclic reaction stages. The action of N- and O8 (O substituent in 6-position of the purine) demethylases explains deletion mechanisms for DNA-alkyl adducts. DNA-directed synthesis in the presence of ultimate carcinogens provides for an estimation of misincorporations, which implicate the same transversions as those found by direct mutagenicity testing. Chemical carcinogens recognize tissue-sensitive cells and modify their heritable genetic complement. Oncoproteins encoded by activated oncogenes signal the transformation of normal cells into cancer cells. The importance of the H-ras oncogene and p53 tumour-suppressor gene is stressed. Antidotal action is analysed; for example, parenteral glutamine administration to telodrin-intoxicated rats restores the depleted cerebral glutamate level and prevents seizures. Glutamate acts as anticonvulsant in petit mal epilepsy. In general, therefore, the reaction of the toxicant-related substance with the relevant target-tissue macromolecule accounts for the biochemical/biological events at a cellular level a PMID

  5. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  6. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Caregiver Action Network Toggle navigation Toolbox Forum Volunteers Donate About Us Join National Family Caregivers ... for caring for a loved one Family Caregiver Forum Share and talk with other caregivers Rare Disease ...

  7. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  8. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  9. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  10. Galileons from Lovelock actions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Van Doorsselaere, Jos

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate how, for an arbitrary number of dimensions, the Galileon actions and their covariant generalizations can be obtained through a standard Kaluza-Klein compactification of higher-dimensional Lovelock gravity. In this setup, the dilaton takes on the role of the Galileon. In addition, such compactifications uncover other more general Galilean actions, producing purely second-order equations in the weak-field limit, now both for the Galileon and the metric perturbations.

  11. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  12. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  13. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system. PMID:10858918

  14. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, William F.

    1977-01-01

    A method and apparatus for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium, which comprises populating the upper energy level to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and thereafter establishing an inverted population by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level such as by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  15. Laser action by optically depumping lower states

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-11-26

    A method and apparatus are described for obtaining laser action between an upper energy level and a lower energy level of a gaseous medium. The upper energy level is populated to some degree (short of achieving a conventional inverted population) by any suitable pumping means, and an inverted population is established by transiently and selectively depumping the lower energy level. The depumping may be done by exposing the medium to an intense source of radiation which selectively causes the transformation of the lower energy level species to some other energy level. Thus, a thermally pumped/optically depumped gas laser system is produced.

  16. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model for Fentanyl in support of the development of Provisional Advisory Levels

    SciTech Connect

    Shankaran, Harish; Adeshina, Femi; Teeguarden, Justin G.

    2013-12-15

    Provisional Advisory Levels (PALs) are tiered exposure limits for toxic chemicals in air and drinking water that are developed to assist in emergency responses. Physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) modeling can support this process by enabling extrapolations across doses, and exposure routes, thereby addressing gaps in the available toxicity data. Here, we describe the development of a PBPK model for Fentanyl – a synthetic opioid used clinically for pain management – to support the establishment of PALs. Starting from an existing model for intravenous Fentanyl, we first optimized distribution and clearance parameters using several additional IV datasets. We then calibrated the model using pharmacokinetic data for various formulations, and determined the absorbed fraction, F, and time taken for the absorbed amount to reach 90% of its final value, t90. For aerosolized pulmonary Fentanyl, F = 1 and t90 < 1 min indicating complete and rapid absorption. The F value ranged from 0.35 to 0.74 for oral and various transmucosal routes. Oral Fentanyl was absorbed the slowest (t90 ∼ 300 min); the absorption of intranasal Fentanyl was relatively rapid (t90 ∼ 20–40 min); and the various oral transmucosal routes had intermediate absorption rates (t90 ∼ 160–300 min). Based on these results, for inhalation exposures, we assumed that all of the Fentanyl inhaled from the air during each breath directly, and instantaneously enters the arterial circulation. We present model predictions of Fentanyl blood concentrations in oral and inhalation scenarios relevant for PAL development, and provide an analytical expression that can be used to extrapolate between oral and inhalation routes for the derivation of PALs. - Highlights: • We develop a Fentanyl PBPK model for relating external dose to internal levels. • We calibrate the model to oral and inhalation exposures using > 50 human datasets. • Model predictions are in good agreement with the available

  17. [Biological actions of acetaldehyde].

    PubMed

    Ijiri, I

    1999-11-01

    Acetaldehyde (AcH), the first metabolite of ethanol (EtOH), is a chemically reactive and pharmacologically active compound. The author has been engaged in the study of AcH in cooperation with many researchers for three decades. We have found many biological actions of AcH which cause cardiovascular symptoms after drinking and also inhibited EtOH absorption via the canine and rat intestinal tract. This report covers the following five points. 1. The subjects were classified into a non-flushing group and a flushing group, according to the degree of facial flushing after drinking 200 ml of Sake (Japanese rice wire) at a rate of 100 ml per 5 min. Blood EtOH profile was much the same in both groups, yet peak blood AcH concentration in the flushing group was significantly higher than that in the non-flushing group. All subjects in the flushing group showed marked flushing and an increase in pulse rate after drinking, but these symptoms were not apparent in the non-flushing group. These results suggested that cardiovascular symptoms were caused by AcH itself. 2. Urinary excretions of both norepinephrine and epinephrine increased in the flushing cases after drinking Sake in comparison with those who drank the same volume of water. However, these catecholamines did not change in the non-flushing group. These results suggested that it is catecholamines released from the sympathetic nerve end or the adrenal medulla by AcH which caused an increase in pulse rate. 3. Bradykinin is released from high molecular kininogen by activated kallikrein and acts to dilate distal blood vessels and raise permeability in tissues. On the other hand, kallidin is released from low molecular kininogen by activated glandular kallikrein and its action is weaker than that of bradykinin. Blood low molecular kininogen levels in the flushing group decreased gradually after drinking and were mutually related to the blood AcH concentrations. But levels in the non-flushing group showed no difference

  18. New lattice action for heavy quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Oktay, Mehmet B.; Kronfeld, Andreas S.

    2008-03-01

    We extend the Fermilab method for heavy quarks to include interactions of dimension six and seven in the action. There are, in general, many new interactions, but we carry out the calculations needed to match the lattice action to continuum QCD at the tree level, finding six non-zero couplings. Using the heavy-quark theory of cutoff effects, we estimate how large the remaining discretization errors are. We find that our tree-level matching, augmented with one-loop matching of the dimension-five interactions, can bring these errors below 1%, at currently available lattice spacings.

  19. Action recognition in the visual periphery.

    PubMed

    Fademrecht, Laura; Bülthoff, Isabelle; de la Rosa, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    Recognizing whether the gestures of somebody mean a greeting or a threat is crucial for social interactions. In real life, action recognition occurs over the entire visual field. In contrast, much of the previous research on action recognition has primarily focused on central vision. Here our goal is to examine what can be perceived about an action outside of foveal vision. Specifically, we probed the valence as well as first level and second level recognition of social actions (handshake, hugging, waving, punching, slapping, and kicking) at 0° (fovea/fixation), 15°, 30°, 45°, and 60° of eccentricity with dynamic (Experiment 1) and dynamic and static (Experiment 2) actions. To assess peripheral vision under conditions of good ecological validity, these actions were carried out by a life-size human stick figure on a large screen. In both experiments, recognition performance was surprisingly high (more than 66% correct) up to 30° of eccentricity for all recognition tasks and followed a nonlinear decline with increasing eccentricities. PMID:26913625

  20. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  1. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  2. Effects of Security actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergman, Ramona; Andersson-Sköld, Yvonne; Nyberg, Lars; Johansson, Magnus

    2010-05-01

    In a project funded by the Swedish Civil Contingencies Agency, the effort and work to reduce different kinds of accidents are being evaluated. The project wants to illuminate the links between actions and outcome, so we can learn from today's performance and in the future select more effective measures and overall deal with accidents more efficiently. The project ESS covers the field of frequent accidents such as sliding accidents at home, in house fires and less common accidents such as chemical and land fill accidents up to even more rare accidents such as natural accidents and hazards. In the ESS project SGI (Swedish geotechnical institute) will evaluate the work and effort concerning various natural hazards limited to landslides, erosion and flooding. The aim is to investigate how municipalities handle, especially prevention, of such natural disasters today. The project includes several aspects such as: • which are the driving forces for risk analysis in a municipality • do one use risk mapping (and what type) in municipal risk analysis • which aspects are most important when selecting preventive measures • in which way do one learn from past accidents • and from previous accidents elsewhere, by for example use existing databases • etc There are many aspects that play a role in a well-functioning safety promotion work. The overall goal is to examine present work and activities, highlight what is well functioning and identify weak points. The aim is to find out where more resources are needed and give suggestions for a more efficient security work. This includes identification of the most efficient "tools" in use or needed. Such tools can be education, directives, funding, more easily available maps and information regarding previous accidents and preventive measures etc. The project will result in recommendations for more effective ways to deal with landslides, erosion and flooding. Since different kinds of problems can occur depending on level of

  3. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  4. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  5. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  6. Action of methyl-, propyl- and butylparaben on GPR30 gene and protein expression, cAMP levels and activation of ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in MCF-7 breast cancer cells and MCF-10A non-transformed breast epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Wróbel, Anna Maria; Gregoraszczuk, Ewa Łucja

    2015-10-14

    In the present study, we examined cAMP levels and activation of the MAPK/ERK1/2 and PI3K/Akt signaling pathways in response to the actions of parabens on GPR30 in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. Cells were exposed to methyl-, propyl- or butylparaben at a concentration of 20nM; 17-β-estradiol (10nM) was used as a positive control. 17β-estradiol and all tested parabens increased GPR30 gene and protein expression in MCF-7 and MCF-10A cells. No parabens affected cAMP levels in either cell line, with the exception of propylparaben in MCF-10A cells. 17β-estradiol, propylparaben, and butylparaben increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-7 cells, whereas 17β-estradiol, methyl- and butylparaben, but not propylparaben, increased phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in MCF-10A cells. Akt activation was noted only in MCF-7 cells and only with propylparaben treatment. Collectively, the data presented here point to a nongenomic mechanism of action of parabens in activation GPR30 in both cancer and non-cancer breast cell lines through βγ dimer-mediated activation of the ERK1/2 pathway, but not the cAMP/PKA pathway. Moreover, among investigated parabens, propylparaben appears to inhibit apoptosis in cancer cells through activation of Akt kinases, confirming conclusions suggested by our previously published data. Nevertheless, continuing research on the carcinogenic action of parabens is warranted. PMID:26253279

  7. Improving Learning and Teaching through Action Learning and Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skeriit, Ortrun

    1993-01-01

    A theoretical framework for action learning and action research is presented, as a basis for better understanding college instruction and learning. Action research is viewed as a philosophy, theory of learning, research methodology, and teaching technique. It is argued that action research both increases knowledge and improves teaching.…

  8. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y.; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M.

    2016-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO) for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Rats were fed (12 weeks) diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group). EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA) but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA) in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%–24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05) episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73%) and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s) than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit. PMID:26742064

  9. Contradictory effects of chlorpromazine on endothelial cells in a rat model of endotoxic shock in association with its actions on serum TNF-alpha levels and antioxidant enzyme activities.

    PubMed

    Can, Cenk; Demirci, Buket; Uysal, Ayşegül; Akçay, Yasemin Delen; Koşay, Sezen

    2003-09-01

    We examined the effects of the phenothiazine derivative, chlorpromazine on thoracic aortic endothelial cell histology (14 h after LPS challenge) in a model of endotoxic shock in rats. Since excessive formation of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and oxygen-derived free radicals contribute to endothelial injury in endotoxemia, we also evaluated the effect of the drug on the activities of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase in liver tissue in this model and tried to find out whether this possible effect was associated with a change in serum TNF-alpha levels (measured 90 min after chlorpromazine administration). Endotoxemia was induced by a single i.p. injection of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) (5 mg kg(-1) in 1.5 ml of saline; LPS from Escherichia coli serotype 055:B5, L-2880, Sigma Chemical Company). Electron microscopic evaluation of the aortas revealed that chlorpromazine (administered 30 min prior to LPS challenge), in smaller doses (3 mg kg(-1)) ameliorated the endothelial cell injury caused by LPS, whereas it caused deterioration of endothelial cell morphology in higher doses (10 and 25 mg kg(-1)). Chlorpromazine administration caused a significant reduction in serum TNF-alpha levels, which was correlated well with an increase in SOD activity in all drug doses (3, 10 and 25 mg kg(-1)). Catalase activity was increased only in the 25 mg kg(-1) chlorpromazine group. PMID:12860438

  10. Rise in DPA Following SDA-Rich Dietary Echium Oil Less Effective in Affording Anti-Arrhythmic Actions Compared to High DHA Levels Achieved with Fish Oil in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Adams, Michael; Dallimore, Julie; Kitessa, Soressa M

    2016-01-01

    Stearidonic acid (SDA; C18:4n-3) has been suggested as an alternative to fish oil (FO) for delivering health benefits of C ≥ 20 long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA). Echium oil (EO) represents a non-genetically-modified source of SDA available commercially. This study compared EO and FO in relation to alterations in plasma and tissue fatty acids, and for their ability to afford protection against ischemia-induced cardiac arrhythmia and ventricular fibrillation (VF). Rats were fed (12 weeks) diets supplemented with either EO or FO at three dose levels (1, 3 and 5% w/w; n = 18 per group). EO failed to influence C22:6n-3 (DHA) but increased C22:5n-3 (DPA) in tissues dose-dependently, especially in heart tissue. Conversely, DHA in hearts of FO rats showed dose-related elevation; 14.8%-24.1% of total fatty acids. Kidney showed resistance for incorporation of LC n-3 PUFA. Overall, FO provided greater cardioprotection than EO. At the highest dose level, FO rats displayed lower (p < 0.05) episodes of VF% (29% vs. 73%) and duration (22.7 ± 12.0 vs. 75.8 ± 17.1 s) than the EO group but at 3% EO was comparable to FO. We conclude that there is no endogenous conversion of SDA to DHA, and that DPA may be associated with limited cardiac benefit. PMID:26742064

  11. Effects and action mechanisms of sodium fluoride (NaF) on the growth and cephalotaxine production of Cephalotaxus mannii suspension cells.

    PubMed

    Li, Yong-Cheng; Jiang, Xuan-Xian; Long, Xiao-Juan

    2014-12-01

    To explore the effects of NaF on the growth and cephalotaxine production of Cephalotaxus mannii suspension cells, NaF was added into the C mannii cell suspension cultures at day 15 of culture time. It is documented that NaF suppressed cell growth but enhanced cephalotaxine production. The largest yield obtained of cephalotaxine reached to 9.57mg/L when the cultures were treated with an appropriate dosage of 15mg/L NaF, which was 3.7 times that of the control cultures (2.58mg/L). Additionally, NaF markedly enhanced the activity of glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and reduced the level of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) of cells. It was also found that NaF weakened the oxidative damage of cell membrane and led to lower content of malonyl dialdehyde (MDA) in NaF-treated cells compared with the control cells. The MDA content of NaF-treated cells decreased 91% compared to the controls. Although lower membrane lipid peroxidation in NaF-treated cells, its membrane permeability was higher than the control cells and showed a high product secret rate. What is more, NaF boosted the activity of phenylalanine ammonium-lyse (PAL), but did not burst a peak of PAL activity in the time curve of PAL activity. These results indicated NaF acted as an inhibitor of the Enbden Parnas (EMP) pathway, not as an elicitor to promote cephalotaxine production. PMID:25442952

  12. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  13. Conclusions and Federal actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    Findings regarding fluorocarbon production, the roles of ozone and fluorocarbons in atmospheric chemistry, the depletion of stratospheric ozone by fluorocarbons, and various effects of this depletion are outlined. Research into these areas is described and recommendations are given for governmental action to reduce the release of fluorocarbons to the environment.

  14. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  15. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  16. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  17. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  18. Community Action Curriculum Compendium.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncan, Karen

    This compendium contains descriptions of 59 community action projects that receive academic credit from 48 colleges and universities. Brief descriptions are given of the diverse institutions offering such field work for credit, including information on enrollment and type (i.e., public, private, etc.). Although the characteristics of the programs…

  19. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  20. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  1. Early Childhood Action Tips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Donnell, Nina Sazer

    In response to requests for information from people and organizations all over the United States on how to contribute to the healthy development of young children, the Families and Work Institute has gathered concrete suggestions from leaders in diverse fields into this booklet of action tips. This effort was undertaken to support the "I Am Your…

  2. Quick action clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  3. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  4. ACTION. Annual Report 1978.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1978. The introduction notes a continued growth in programs and comments on new developments. Older American Volunteer Programs are discussed in the next section, specifically the Retired Senior Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and…

  5. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  6. Affirmative Action for Men?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malveaux, Julianne

    2005-01-01

    If colleges are willing to consider "social engineering" and affirmative action to ensure the inclusion of White men, are they willing to do so for African Americans and other people of color? Will the Center for Individual Rights ride to the rescue of the White women who may be unfairly nudged out of positions for which they are "qualified" in…

  7. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  8. From Intuition to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Principal, 2012

    2012-01-01

    The vast majority of principals intuitively believe that the arts belong in schools and in every child's life. Now is the time to take action on your intuition--and become an instructional leader for the arts, just as you are for every core subject. Arts-engaged principals share strategies for becoming instructional leaders for the arts.

  9. Action Research in Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2009-01-01

    Action research places a powerful tool for school improvement in the hands of teachers. By highlighting the outcomes that are possible and presenting clear steps in the research process, this book is one to encourage anyone who is seeking to implement evidence-based school improvement. Eileen Piggot-Irvine uses her Problem Resolving Action…

  10. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  11. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  12. Promoting Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowyer, John

    1994-01-01

    Outlines a lesson on the extinction process allowing students to better understand why and how species become endangered before they attempt to take action on this problem. Provides background information and describes several suggested methodologies, evaluation and enrichment ideas, six resources, and two references. (LZ)

  13. Literacy Education Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clymer, Carol

    The Literacy Education Action (LEA) program was established in the fall of 1985 under the initiative of the president of the El Paso Community College (Texas). During 1985 and 1986, LEA concentrated on developing its own literacy tutoring program, including recruiting and training volunteers and community members with reading skills below the…

  14. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  15. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  16. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  17. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oklahoma State Dept. of Education, Oklahoma City.

    As mandated by law, this 1983 revision describes the Oklahoma State Department of Education's Affirmative Action Plan and analyzes the employment patterns of the department's work force for that year in light of equal employment opportunity goals. Following a brief policy statement, the development, dissemination, and implementation of the plan…

  18. Conjugate flow action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  19. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  20. A database of whole-body action videos for the study of action, emotion, and untrustworthiness.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Villing, Matthias; Racey, Chris; Strong, Samantha L; Wincenciak, Joanna; Barraclough, Nick E

    2014-12-01

    We present a database of high-definition (HD) videos for the study of traits inferred from whole-body actions. Twenty-nine actors (19 female) were filmed performing different actions-walking, picking up a box, putting down a box, jumping, sitting down, and standing and acting-while conveying different traits, including four emotions (anger, fear, happiness, sadness), untrustworthiness, and neutral, where no specific trait was conveyed. For the actions conveying the four emotions and untrustworthiness, the actions were filmed multiple times, with the actor conveying the traits with different levels of intensity. In total, we made 2,783 action videos (in both two-dimensional and three-dimensional format), each lasting 7 s with a frame rate of 50 fps. All videos were filmed in a green-screen studio in order to isolate the action information from all contextual detail and to provide a flexible stimulus set for future use. In order to validate the traits conveyed by each action, we asked participants to rate each of the actions corresponding to the trait that the actor portrayed in the two-dimensional videos. To provide a useful database of stimuli of multiple actions conveying multiple traits, each video name contains information on the gender of the actor, the action executed, the trait conveyed, and the rating of its perceived intensity. All videos can be downloaded free at the following address: http://www-users.york.ac.uk/~neb506/databases.html. We discuss potential uses for the database in the analysis of the perception of whole-body actions. PMID:24584971

  1. Avulsion in Action: Reconstruction and Modelling Sedimentation Pace and Upstream Flood Water Levels Following a Medieval Tidal-River Diversion and Storm Surge Catastrophe, The Netherlands, 1421-1750 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cohen, K.; Kleinhans, M. G.; Weerts, H.

    2010-12-01

    Deltaic land inundated by storm surges may reform by sedimentation from natural or human-induced river diversions. This is a well-known trigger mechanism for creation of new channels in coastal plains and deltas, which may develop into main channels and lead to abandonment of older (avulsion), particularly in the downstream parts of deltas that host tidal rivers. These new channels develop as part of deltaic splay complexes that heal initial diversion scars and fill up flooded basins at a certain pace. We study a case with excellent historical and geological data of a diversion of the river Rhine following catastrophic inundations (1421-1424 AD) into medieval reclaimed land. Numerical modelling of deltaic splay and channel development is combined with reconstructions from historical maps and geological data. This yields detailed insight in pacing of splay sedimentation and changing hydrodynamics in the channel upstream of the diversion in the two centuries following the inundation. The equivalent of the full sand budget of the river Rhine was effectively trapped in the developing splay. The tidal-avulsion splay evolution on aspects is similar to that of fluvial crevassing into flood basins documented for settings lacking ‘downstream’ tidal control. The typical small-scale delta-lobe avulsion cycles: mouth bar formation, backward sedimentation, upstream avulsion, channel progradation and mouth bar formation are reproduced in the splay-modelling. The pacing of splay development, however, is relatively fast due to the presence of tides and the water depth in the receiving basin. The diversion had a strong upstream impact, in particular on water levels in the feeding river channel at stages of peak flow. For two centuries levels were significantly raised, because bifurcation-imposed reduced transport capacity and associated sedimentation at the diversion site increased hydraulic roughness and hampered flow. These findings have implications regarding flood

  2. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996; as amended March 2010). CAU 562 consists of 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. Site characterization activities were performed in 2009 and 2010, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 562. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized. (1) CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot, will be clean closed by removing shot. (2) CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain, will be clean closed by removing paint and contaminated soil. As a best management practice (BMP), asbestos tile will be removed. (3) CAS 02-59-01, Septic System, will be clean closed by removing septic tank contents. As a BMP, the septic tank will be removed. (4) CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required; however, as a BMP, the concrete drain will be removed. (5) CAS 02-60-02, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. As a BMP, the drain grates and drain pipe will be removed. (6) CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. As a BMP, the steam cleaning sump grate and outfall pipe will be removed. (7) CAS 02-60-04, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. (8) CAS 02-60-05, French Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. (9) CAS 02-60-06, French Drain, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required. (10) CAS 02-60-07, French Drain, requires no further action. The french drain identified in historical documentation was not located during corrective action investigation

  3. Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kochukhova, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Eighteen- and 25-month-old human toddlers' ability to manually solve a puzzle and their ability to anticipate the goal during observation of similar actions were investigated. Results demonstrate that goal anticipation during action observation is dependent on manual ability, both on a group level (only 25-month-olds solved the manual task and anticipated the goal during observation) and individually within the older age group (r (xy) = 0.53). These findings suggests a connection between manual ability and the ability to anticipate the goal of others' actions in toddlers, in accordance with the direct matching hypothesis. PMID:20041233

  4. Correlation of Gas Permeability in a Metal-Organic Framework MIL-101(Cr)–Polysulfone Mixed-Matrix Membrane with Free Volume Measurements by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    PubMed Central

    Jeazet, Harold B. Tanh; Koschine, Tönjes; Staudt, Claudia; Raetzke, Klaus; Janiak, Christoph

    2013-01-01

    Hydrothermally stable particles of the metal-organic framework MIL-101(Cr) were incorporated into a polysulfone (PSF) matrix to produce mixed-matrix or composite membranes with excellent dispersion of MIL-101 particles and good adhesion within the polymer matrix. Pure gas (O2, N2, CO2 and CH4) permeation tests showed a significant increase of gas permeabilities of the mixed-matrix membranes without any loss in selectivity. Positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) indicated that the increased gas permeability is due to the free volume in the PSF polymer and the added large free volume inside the MIL-101 particles. The trend of the gas transport properties of the composite membranes could be reproduced by a Maxwell model. PMID:24957061

  5. Effect of semiclassical molecular initial ground state configuration on the neutron spectra in the interactions of p+Al, Fe, and Zr at 1.2 GeV

    SciTech Connect

    Abdel-Waged, Khaled

    2005-04-01

    We studied the effect of the semiclassical molecular initial ground state configuration of the nucleus on the neutron spectra for p+Al, Fe, and Zr at 1.2 GeV by using an improved ultrarelativistic quantum molecular dynamics (ImUrQMD) model. Compared to the standard UrQMD version, it incorporates: (i) Pauli potential (ii) a medium modified NN{yields}N{delta} angular distribution, and (iii) a statistical multifragmentation decay model as an afterburner. It is shown that the slow evaporated, cascade, and quasielastic (inelastic) peaks of neutrons are all sensitive to different initialization procedures. Therefore, the implementation of a proper semiclassical ground state initialization in the ImUrQMD model is of importance for the description of all the neutron spectra in proton-induced reactions at intermediate energies ({approx_equal}1GeV)

  6. Action Recognition Using Nonnegative Action Component Representation and Sparse Basis Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Yang, Wankou; Sun, Changyin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose using high-level action units to represent human actions in videos and, based on such units, a novel sparse model is developed for human action recognition. There are three interconnected components in our approach. First, we propose a new context-aware spatial-temporal descriptor, named locally weighted word context, to improve the discriminability of the traditionally used local spatial-temporal descriptors. Second, from the statistics of the context-aware descriptors, we learn action units using the graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization, which leads to a part-based representation and encodes the geometrical information. These units effectively bridge the semantic gap in action recognition. Third, we propose a sparse model based on a joint l2,1-norm to preserve the representative items and suppress noise in the action units. Intuitively, when learning the dictionary for action representation, the sparse model captures the fact that actions from the same class share similar units. The proposed approach is evaluated on several publicly available data sets. The experimental results and analysis clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26270909

  7. Action Research and the School Counselor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamsky, Neal R.

    1970-01-01

    Points to need for counselors to be involved in research activities, while at the same time examining reasons why they are not. Suggests that counselors have an obligation to divest themselves of the rigidity that hampers research at the local level, and attempt to conduct action research. (CJ)

  8. Training as an Affirmative Action Strategy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hadley, Gay B.; And Others

    This manual is intended to help organizations design training programs that assist in the achievement of affirmative action. These topics are discussed in section I: the importance of work force diversity; recruiting and training women and minority employees at all levels of the organization; and the costs and benefits of training as an…

  9. Positive Action. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Positive Action," a K-12 program, aims to promote a positive self-concept, character development, healthy behavior, and social-emotional skills and to reduce disruptive and problem behavior. The curricula for elementary and middle school students each have seven units per kit, with nine kits per grade level. The high school curriculum has six…

  10. New Perspectives on Action Learning: Developing Criticality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Lisa; Thorpe, Richard

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the role of criticality in action learning and in Master's level management education; examines approaches to developing criticality through social constructionist approaches to learning and illustrates how a heightened consciousness of language use by managers can be used to develop critical reflection. Examines critical…

  11. Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Angela R.; Buchanan, Natasha D.; Fairley, Temeika L.; Smith, Judith Lee

    2016-01-01

    Long-term objectives associated with cancer survivors have been suggested by Healthy People 2020, including increasing the proportion of survivors living beyond 5 years after diagnosis and improving survivors’ mental and physical health-related quality of life. Prior to reaching these objectives, several intermediate steps must be taken to improve the physical, social, emotional, and financial well-being of cancer survivors. Public health has a role in developing strategic, actionable, and measurable approaches to facilitate change at multiple levels to improve the lives of survivors and their families. The social ecological model has been used by the public health community as the foundation of multilevel intervention design and implementation, encouraging researchers and practitioners to explore methods that promote internal and external changes at the individual, interpersonal, organizational, community, and policy levels. The survivorship community, including public health professionals, providers, policymakers, survivors, advocates, and caregivers, must work collaboratively to identify, develop, and implement interventions that benefit cancer survivors. The National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship highlights public health domains and associated strategies that can be the impetus for collaboration between and among the levels in the social ecological model and are integral to improving survivor outcomes. This paper describes the Public Health Action Model for Cancer Survivorship, an integrative framework that combines the National Action Plan for Cancer Survivorship with the social ecological model to demonstrate how interaction among the various levels may promote better outcomes for survivors. PMID:26590641

  12. Characterization of dynamics in complex lyophilized formulations: II. Analysis of density variations in terms of glass dynamics and comparisons with global mobility, fast dynamics, and Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy (PALS)

    PubMed Central

    Chieng, Norman; Cicerone, Marcus T.; Zhong, Qin; Liu, Ming; Pikal, Michael J.

    2013-01-01

    Amorphous HES/disaccharide (trehalose or sucrose) formulations, with and without added polyols (glycerol and sorbitol) and disaccharide formulations of human growth hormone (hGH), were prepared by freeze drying and characterized with particular interest in methodology for using high precision density measurements to evaluate free volume changes and a focus on comparisons between “free volume” changes obtained from analysis of density data, fast dynamics (local mobility), and PALS characterization of “free volume” hole size. Density measurements were performed using a helium gas pycnometer, and fast dynamics was characterized using incoherent neutron scattering spectrometer. Addition of sucrose and trehalose to hGH decreases free volume in the system with sucrose marginally more effective than trehalose, consistent with superior pharmaceutical stability of sucrose hGH formulations well below Tg relative to trehalose. We find that density data may be analyzed in terms of free volume changes by evaluation of volume changes on mixing and calculation of apparent specific volumes from the densities. Addition of sucrose to HES decreases free volume, but the effect of trehalose is not detectable above experimental error. Addition of sorbitol or glycerol to HES/trehalose base formulations appears to significantly decrease free volume, consistent with the positive impact of such additions on pharmaceutical stability (i.e., degradation) in the glassy state. Free volume changes, evaluated from density data, fast dynamics amplitude of local motion, and PALS hole size data generally are in qualitative agreement for the HES/disaccharide systems studied. All predict decreasing molecular mobility as disaccharides are added to HES. Global mobility as measured by enthalpy relaxation times, increases as disaccharides, particularly sucrose, are added to HES. PMID:23623797

  13. Evaluating the Consistency of the 1982–1999 NDVI Trends in the Iberian Peninsula across Four Time-series Derived from the AVHRR Sensor: LTDR, GIMMS, FASIR, and PAL-II

    PubMed Central

    Alcaraz-Segura, Domingo; Liras, Elisa; Tabik, Siham; Paruelo, José; Cabello, Javier

    2010-01-01

    Successive efforts have processed the Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor archive to produce Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) datasets (i.e., PAL, FASIR, GIMMS, and LTDR) under different corrections and processing schemes. Since NDVI datasets are used to evaluate carbon gains, differences among them may affect nations’ carbon budgets in meeting international targets (such as the Kyoto Protocol). This study addresses the consistency across AVHRR NDVI datasets in the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) by evaluating whether their 1982–1999 NDVI trends show similar spatial patterns. Significant trends were calculated with the seasonal Mann-Kendall trend test and their spatial consistency with partial Mantel tests. Over 23% of the Peninsula (N, E, and central mountain ranges) showed positive and significant NDVI trends across the four datasets and an additional 18% across three datasets. In 20% of Iberia (SW quadrant), the four datasets exhibited an absence of significant trends and an additional 22% across three datasets. Significant NDVI decreases were scarce (croplands in the Guadalquivir and Segura basins, La Mancha plains, and Valencia). Spatial consistency of significant trends across at least three datasets was observed in 83% of the Peninsula, but it decreased to 47% when comparing across the four datasets. FASIR, PAL, and LTDR were the most spatially similar datasets, while GIMMS was the most different. The different performance of each AVHRR dataset to detect significant NDVI trends (e.g., LTDR detected greater significant trends (both positive and negative) and in 32% more pixels than GIMMS) has great implications to evaluate carbon budgets. The lack of spatial consistency across NDVI datasets derived from the same AVHRR sensor archive, makes it advisable to evaluate carbon gains trends using several satellite datasets and, whether possible, independent/additional data sources to contrast. PMID:22205868

  14. Science education and everyday action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Wendy Renee Sherman

    2001-07-01

    This dissertation addresses three related tasks and issues in the larger field of science education. The first is to review of the several uses of "everydayness" at play in the science education literature, and in the education and social science literatures more generally. Four broad iterations of everydayness were found in science education, and these were traced and analyzed to develop their similarities, and contradictions. It was concluded that despite tendencies in science education research to suppose a fundamental demarcation either between professional science and everyday life, or between schools and everyday life, all social affairs, including professional science and activity in schools, are continuous with everyday life, and consist fundamentally in everyday, ordinary mundane actions which are ordered and organized by the participants to those social activities and occasions. The second task for this dissertation was to conduct a naturalistic, descriptive study of undergraduate-level physics laboratory activities from the analytic perspective of ethnomethodology. The study findings are presented as closely-detailed analysis of the students' methods of following their instructions and 'fitting' their observed results to a known scientific concept or principle during the enactment of their classroom laboratory activities. Based on the descriptions of students' practical work in following instructions and 'fitting'. The characterization of school science labs as an "experiment-demonstration hybrid" is developed. The third task of this dissertation was to synthesize the literature review and field study findings in order to clarify what science educators could productively mean by "everydayness", and to suggest what understandings of science education the study of everyday action recommends. It is argued that the significance of the 'experiment-demo hybrid' characterization must be seen in terms of an alternate program for science education research, which

  15. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  16. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  17. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  18. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  19. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  20. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements. PMID:12346441

  1. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  2. 10 CFR 1021.400 - Level of NEPA review.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Level of NEPA review. 1021.400 Section 1021.400 Energy... Classes of Actions § 1021.400 Level of NEPA review. (a) This subpart identifies DOE actions that normally... proceed with the level of NEPA review indicated for that class of actions, unless there are...

  3. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people “kicking”) or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone “kicking”) within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with “person-specific” action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than

  4. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine E; Cardillo, Eileen R; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people "kicking") or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone "kicking") within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with "person-specific" action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than concrete

  5. Improving Teaching with Collaborative Action Research: An ASCD Action Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cunningham, Diane

    2011-01-01

    Once you've established a professional learning community (PLC), you need to get this ASCD (Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) action tool to ensure that your PLC stays focused on addressing teaching methods and student learning problems. This ASCD action tool explains how your PLC can use collaborative action research to…

  6. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  7. Paving the Path to Success. Data for Action 2014. Summary

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2014

    2014-01-01

    At the federal level, leaders can promote policies that reduce burdens on states, encourage collaboration across agencies, and help build the capacity of stakeholders to use data while ensuring the privacy of student information. The annual "Data for Action" survey measures states' progress toward achieving the 10 State Actions to Ensure…

  8. Infants Recognize Similar Goals across Dissimilar Actions Involving Object Manipulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olofson, Eric L.; Baldwin, Dare

    2011-01-01

    We investigated infants' ability to recognize the similarity between observed and implied goals when actions differed in surface-level motion details. In two experiments, 10- to 12-month-olds were habituated to an actor manipulating an object and then shown test actions in which the actor contacted the object with a novel hand configuration that…

  9. Alternatives/action plan report for outfall 17

    SciTech Connect

    1994-11-01

    This Document contains information pertaining to alternatives/action associated with controlling ammonia entering through outfall 17. This document identifies the location of contaminate source, the ammonia concentration levels entering East Fork Poplar Creek, and the action taken to reduce/eliminate the toxicity problem.

  10. Research, Action, and Participation: The Merchant Shipping Case.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walton, Richard E.; Gaffney, Michael E.

    1989-01-01

    Focuses on the international industry of merchant shipping to explore strategies used to promote organizational change over the past 20 years. This case study emphasizes the advantages of melding knowledge and action in participatory action. Points out the importance of the design and management of industry-level forums in assuring the success.…

  11. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  12. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  13. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  14. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  15. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  16. Climate Literacy: Springboard to Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, B.; Bader, D.

    2011-12-01

    Research indicates that the public views zoos and aquariums as reliable and trusted sources for information on conservation (Ocean Project, 2009). The Aquarium of the Pacific is using NOAA's Science on a Sphere (SOS)° and linked flat screens to convey climate concepts to the public and serve as a model for how aquariums can promote climate literacy. The Ocean Science Center houses the SOS and is designed to immerse our visitors in an experience that extends from the sphere, to our live animals, and to our public programming. The first SOS exhibit, the sea level rise story, opened as the cornerstone of an aquarium-wide climate literacy strategy. Large panels next to the SOS prompts visitors to pledge actions to reduce their personal carbon footprint. The exhibit objectives were to provide a visual presentation that conveys a dramatic story about sea level rise, and to engage the audience in confronting the impact of sea level rise, and the local implications. The Aquarium utilized Yale's Six Americas survey instrument during summer 2010 to measure our audience interpretations of and responses to climate change. The survey showed that 78% of visitors categorized themselves as either alarmed or concerned about climate change, greater than the national average. Thus our climate literacy programs do not focus on convincing visitors of climate change and its causes, but on encouraging adaptive responses to varying scenarios. University of California, Berkeley, Lawrence Hall of Science Center for Research Evaluation and Assessment (REA) conducted a pre-opening evaluation of the exhibit's impact. The participants, 58% of whom were families with children, did not want to know more about climate change, but wanted tangible activities they could engage in to mitigate human induced effects, and more details about the impact of climate change on marine animals. REA stated that, "the sea level rise programs (both facilitated and non-facilitated) are well positioned to be

  17. The Concept of Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun

    2002-01-01

    Based on classic and emerging international literature, action learning is defined as learning form concrete experience and critical reflection on experience, focused on problem solving and change. Facilitators of action learning do not impose solutions but guide action learning teams through the process. (Contains 44 references.) (SK)

  18. Must Affirmative Action Be Divisive?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fineberg, Solomon Andhil

    1975-01-01

    Affirmative action is seen as causing dissension and cleavages in the civil rights coalition. Requisites suggested for winning support for affirmative action are thorough knowledge of its rationale and components, assuring whites they will not be pushed out of jobs, and a continued emphasis on the urgency for affirmative action. (Author/AM)

  19. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  20. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…