Science.gov

Sample records for action modified competitive

  1. 77 FR 13142 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-05

    ...; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Modified-Competitive Sale of Public Land in Pahrump, Nye County... of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land totaling approximately 120 acres... disposal of public land by direct sale or modified-competitive sale within the Town of Pahrump. The...

  2. 78 FR 45270 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Jackson County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-26

    ... proposed sale must be submitted in writing to the BLM Ashland Resource Area Field Manager (see the... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in... County, Oregon, by modified competitive bidding sale procedures for the approved appraised fair...

  3. 78 FR 13079 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Marquette County, Michigan

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-26

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Land in Marquette....82-acre parcel of public land in Marquette County, Michigan. The sale will be subject to the Federal... INFORMATION: The following parcel of public land has been examined and found suitable for modified...

  4. 78 FR 59055 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-25

    ...: 14X5260] Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte... sale approximately 440 acres in the Desert Valley area of Humboldt County, Nevada, at no less than the fair market value (FMV) of $44,000. The sale will be conducted pursuant to the applicable provisions...

  5. 76 FR 16812 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Land in Santa Clara County, CA AGENCY... Management (BLM), Hollister Field Office, proposes to sell a parcel of public land consisting of... landowners would have the opportunity to submit written sealed bids to purchase the public land....

  6. 76 FR 6154 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa Cruz County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Bid Sale of Public Lands in Santa...: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Hollister Field Office proposes to sell a parcel of public land... public land. DATES: Written comments regarding this proposed sale must be received by the BLM on...

  7. 77 FR 33235 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Becker County, MN

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-05

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Becker... parcels of public land totaling 1 acre in Becker County, Minnesota. The sale will be subject to the.... SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following two parcels of public land have been examined and found suitable...

  8. 78 FR 25465 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Auction of Public Lands in Lincoln County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-01

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer three parcels of land in one sale totaling approximately 26.39 acres in Lincoln County, Nevada, by modified competitive sale. Bidding on the subject parcels will begin at not less than the appraised fair market value (FMV) of $15,800. The BLM has examined these parcels and found them suitable for disposal by modified competitive sale. The......

  9. Competitive Arenas and Schools' Logics of Action: A European Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Zanten, Agnes

    2009-01-01

    This article analyses the impact of competitive arenas on schools' logics of action in six local European contexts (London, Paris, Lille, Charleroi, Budapest and Lisbon). It first examines how competitive processes affect different schools' activities (recruitment, provision of options, promotion, tracking, provision for children with special…

  10. Reputation and Competition in a Hidden Action Model

    PubMed Central

    Fedele, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The economics models of reputation and quality in markets can be classified in three categories. (i) Pure hidden action, where only one type of seller is present who can provide goods of different quality. (ii) Pure hidden information, where sellers of different types have no control over product quality. (iii) Mixed frameworks, which include both hidden action and hidden information. In this paper we develop a pure hidden action model of reputation and Bertrand competition, where consumers and firms interact repeatedly in a market with free entry. The price of the good produced by the firms is contractible, whilst the quality is noncontractible, hence it is promised by the firms when a contract is signed. Consumers infer future quality from all available information, i.e., both from what they know about past quality and from current prices. According to early contributions, competition should make reputation unable to induce the production of high-quality goods. We provide a simple solution to this problem by showing that high quality levels are sustained as an outcome of a stationary symmetric equilibrium. PMID:25329387

  11. Reputation and competition in a hidden action model.

    PubMed

    Fedele, Alessandro; Tedeschi, Piero

    2014-01-01

    The economics models of reputation and quality in markets can be classified in three categories. (i) Pure hidden action, where only one type of seller is present who can provide goods of different quality. (ii) Pure hidden information, where sellers of different types have no control over product quality. (iii) Mixed frameworks, which include both hidden action and hidden information. In this paper we develop a pure hidden action model of reputation and Bertrand competition, where consumers and firms interact repeatedly in a market with free entry. The price of the good produced by the firms is contractible, whilst the quality is noncontractible, hence it is promised by the firms when a contract is signed. Consumers infer future quality from all available information, i.e., both from what they know about past quality and from current prices. According to early contributions, competition should make reputation unable to induce the production of high-quality goods. We provide a simple solution to this problem by showing that high quality levels are sustained as an outcome of a stationary symmetric equilibrium. PMID:25329387

  12. Competitive Protein Adsorption on Polysaccharide and Hyaluronate Modified Surfaces

    PubMed Central

    Ombelli, Michela; Costello, Lauren; Postle, Corinne; Anantharaman, Vinod; Meng, Qing Cheng; Composto, Russell J.; Eckmann, David M.

    2011-01-01

    We measured adsorption of bovine serum albumin (BSA) and fibrinogen (Fg) onto six distinct bare and dextran- and hyaluronate-modified silicon surfaces created using two dextran grafting densities and three hyaluronic acid (HA) sodium salts derived from human umbilical cord, rooster comb and streptococcus zooepidemicus. Film thickness and surface morphology depended on HA molecular weight and concentration. BSA coverage was enhanced on surfaces upon competitive adsorption of BSA:Fg mixtures. Dextranization differentially reduced protein adsorption onto surfaces based on oxidation state. Hyaluronization was demonstrated to provide the greatest resistance to protein coverage, equivalent to that of the most resistant dextranized surface. Resistance to protein adsorption was independent of the type of hyaluronic acid utilized. With changing bulk protein concentration from 20 to 40 µg ml−1 for each species, Fg coverage on silicon increased by 4×, whereas both BSA and Fg adsorption on dextran and HA were far less dependent of protein bulk concentration. PMID:21623481

  13. The 'X model': a modified version of the competition theory.

    PubMed

    Scott, O C; Révész, L; Edgren, M

    1993-10-01

    In 1985, Edgren et al. proposed a modified version of the competition theory to explain the interaction of sensitizers and protectors with target molecules damaged by radiation, which was designated the 'X' model. This model incorporates concepts which have been considered previously, namely that a type of radiation damage exists which cannot be chemically repaired, and that cells may contain a naturally occurring sensitizer. The model leads to testable predictions, such as, e.g. the crossing of 'K curves' when the level of protection is varied. It can only be applied to the immediate effects of radiation, i.e. before enzymatic reactions play a part. The present paper is a summary of work carried out since 1985 to test the predictions of the 'X' model and an exposition of the related algebra. PMID:7901298

  14. Competition as rational action: Why young children cannot appreciate competitive games

    PubMed Central

    Priewasser, Beate; Roessler, Johannes; Perner, Josef

    2013-01-01

    Understanding rational actions requires perspective taking both with respect to means and with respect to objectives. This study addresses the question of whether the two kinds of perspective taking develop simultaneously or in sequence. It is argued that evidence from competitive behavior is best suited for settling this issue. A total of 71 kindergarten children between 3 and 5 years of age participated in a competitive game of dice and were tested on two traditional false belief stories as well as on several control tasks (verbal intelligence, inhibitory control, and working memory). The frequency of competitive poaching moves in the game correlated with correct predictions of mistaken actions in the false belief task. Hierarchical linear regression after controlling for age and control variables showed that false belief understanding significantly predicted the amount of poaching moves. The results speak for an interrelated development of the capacity for “instrumental” and “telic” perspective taking. They are discussed in the light of teleology as opposed to theory use and simulation. PMID:23182381

  15. Competition as rational action: why young children cannot appreciate competitive games.

    PubMed

    Priewasser, Beate; Roessler, Johannes; Perner, Josef

    2013-10-01

    Understanding rational actions requires perspective taking both with respect to means and with respect to objectives. This study addresses the question of whether the two kinds of perspective taking develop simultaneously or in sequence. It is argued that evidence from competitive behavior is best suited for settling this issue. A total of 71 kindergarten children between 3 and 5 years of age participated in a competitive game of dice and were tested on two traditional false belief stories as well as on several control tasks (verbal intelligence, inhibitory control, and working memory). The frequency of competitive poaching moves in the game correlated with correct predictions of mistaken actions in the false belief task. Hierarchical linear regression after controlling for age and control variables showed that false belief understanding significantly predicted the amount of poaching moves. The results speak for an interrelated development of the capacity for "instrumental" and "telic" perspective taking. They are discussed in the light of teleology as opposed to theory use and simulation. PMID:23182381

  16. Modified Actions for Gravity: Theory and Phenomenology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotiriou, Thomas P.

    2007-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of gravitational theories which can be seen as modifications or generalisations of General Relativity. The motivation for considering such theories, stemming from Cosmology, High Energy Physics and Astrophysics is thoroughly discussed (cosmological problems, dark energy and dark matter problems, the lack of success so far in obtaining a successful formulation for Quantum Gravity). The basic principles which a gravitational theory should follow, and their geometrical interpretation, are analysed in a broad perspective which highlights the basic assumptions of General Relativity and suggests possible modifications which might be made. A number of such possible modifications are presented, focusing on certain specific classes of theories: scalar-tensor theories, metric f(R) theories, Palatini f(R) theories, metric-affine f(R) theories and Gauss--Bonnet theories. The characteristics of these theories are fully explored and attention is payed to issues of dynamical equivalence between them. Also, cosmological phenomenology within the realm of each of the theories is discussed and it is shown that they can potentially address the well-known cosmological problems. A number of viability criteria are presented: cosmological observations, Solar System tests, stability criteria, existence of exact solutions for common vacuum or matter configurations etc. Finally, future perspectives in the field of modified gravity are discussed and the possibility for going beyond a trial-and-error approach to modified gravity is explored.

  17. Recognition of Modified Conditioning Sounds by Competitively Trained Guinea Pigs

    PubMed Central

    Ojima, Hisayuki; Horikawa, Junsei

    2016-01-01

    The guinea pig (GP) is an often-used species in hearing research. However, behavioral studies are rare, especially in the context of sound recognition, because of difficulties in training these animals. We examined sound recognition in a social competitive setting in order to examine whether this setting could be used as an easy model. Two starved GPs were placed in the same training arena and compelled to compete for food after hearing a conditioning sound (CS), which was a repeat of almost identical sound segments. Through a 2-week intensive training, animals were trained to demonstrate a set of distinct behaviors solely to the CS. Then, each of them was subjected to generalization tests for recognition of sounds that had been modified from the CS in spectral, fine temporal and tempo (i.e., intersegment interval, ISI) dimensions. Results showed that they discriminated between the CS and band-rejected test sounds but had no preference for a particular frequency range for the recognition. In contrast, sounds modified in the fine temporal domain were largely perceived to be in the same category as the CS, except for the test sound generated by fully reversing the CS in time. Animals also discriminated sounds played at different tempos. Test sounds with ISIs shorter than that of the multi-segment CS were discriminated from the CS, while test sounds with ISIs longer than that of the CS segments were not. For the shorter ISIs, most animals initiated apparently positive food-access behavior as they did in response to the CS, but discontinued it during the sound-on period probably because of later recognition of tempo. Interestingly, the population range and mean of the delay time before animals initiated the food-access behavior were very similar among different ISI test sounds. This study, for the first time, demonstrates a wide aspect of sound discrimination abilities of the GP and will provide a way to examine tempo perception mechanisms using this animal species

  18. Bean Type Modifies Larval Competition in Zabrotes subfasciatus (Chrysomelidae: Bruchinae).

    PubMed

    Oliveira, S O D; Rodrigues, A S; Vieira, J L; Rosi-Denadai, C A; Guedes, N M P; Guedes, R N C

    2015-08-01

    Larval competition is particularly prevalent among grain beetles that remain within their mother-selected grain throughout development, and the behavioral process of competition is usually inferred by the competition outcome. The Mexican bean weevil Zabrotes subfasciatus (Boheman) is subjected to resource availability variation because of the diversity of common bean types and sizes, from small (e.g., kidney beans) to large (e.g., cranberry beans). The competition process was identified in the Mexican bean weevil reared on kidney and cranberry beans by inference from the competition outcome and by direct observation through digital X-ray imaging. Increased larval density negatively affected adult emergence in kidney beans and reduced adult body mass in both kidney and cranberry beans. Developmental time was faster in cranberry beans. The results allowed for increased larval fitness (i.e., higher larval biomass produced per grain), with larval density reaching a maximum plateau >5 hatched larvae per kidney bean, whereas in cranberry beans, larval fitness linearly increased with density to 13 hatched larvae per bean. These results, together with X-ray imaging without evidence of direct aggressive interaction among larvae, indicate scramble competition, with multiple larvae emerging per grain. However, higher reproductive output was detected for adults from lower density competition with better performance on cranberry beans. Larger populations and fitter adults are expected in intermediate larval densities primarily in cranberry beans where grain losses should be greater. PMID:26470357

  19. Action of dextran-modified hyaluronidase in experimental silicosis

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipova, O.G.; Yaglov, V.V.; Maksimenko, A.V.; Pavlovskaya, L.V.; Konovalova, O.Yu.; Varsanovich, E.A.; Bezrukavnikova, L.M.; Fedorova, V.I.; Fedorova, V.N.; Torchilin, V.P.

    1987-07-01

    The authors study the effect of hyaluronidase stabilized by covalent addition to dextran, modified by partial oxidation, on the development of the pneumofibrosis in silicosis. Rats were used in the investigations. Of the two preparations studied with stabilized hyaluronidase action, that stabilized by covalent addition of lidase to aldehyde-dextran proved to be the more effective.

  20. 76 FR 5201 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Monterey County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Monterey County... of Land Management (BLM), Hollister Field Office, proposes to sell two separate parcels of public... parcels of public land are proposed for competitive sale, in accordance with Sections 203 and 209 of...

  1. Resin-modified glass-ionomer setting reaction competition.

    PubMed

    Berzins, D W; Abey, S; Costache, M C; Wilkie, C A; Roberts, H W

    2010-01-01

    Resin-modified glass ionomers (RMGI) set by at least 2 mechanisms dependent upon reactant diffusion prior to gelation. Each reaction's kinetics and setting mechanism may rely on and/or compete with the other. In this study, we investigated RMGI setting reaction interactions using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) by varying light-cure initiation times. A RMGI was analyzed with isothermal and dynamic temperature scan DSC with light-curing occurring immediately, or at 5 or 10 minutes after mixing as well as without light-activation. Results show that as time allowed for the acid-base reaction increased, the light-activation polymerization exotherm decreased. Conversely, analysis of DSC data suggests that earlier light-activation may limit the acid-base reaction and result in a different structured material. During early RMGI development, acid-base and light-polymerization reactions compete with and inhibit one another. PMID:19966038

  2. Reinventing electric utilities: Competition, citizen action, and clean power

    SciTech Connect

    Smeloff, E.; Asmus, P.

    1996-12-01

    The authors consider the challenges for citizens and the utility industry in this new era of competition. Through an in-depth case study of the Sacramento Municipal Utility District (SMUD), a once-troubled utility that is now widely regarded as a model for energy efficiency and renewable energy development, they explore the changes that have occurred in the utility industry, and the implications of those changes for the future. The SMUD portrait is complemented by regional case studies of Portland General Electric and the Washington Public Power Supply System, the New England Electric Service, Northern States Power, the Electricity Reliability Council of Texas, and others that highlight the efforts of citizen groups and utilities to eliminate unproductive and environmentally damaging sources of power and to promote the use of new, cleaner energy technologies. The authors present and explain some of the fundamental principles that govern restructuring, while acknowledging that solutions will depend upon the unique resource needs, culture, and utility structure of each particular region.

  3. 5 CFR 351.603 - Actions subsequent to release from competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Release From Competitive Level § 351.603 Actions subsequent to... assignment to another position in accordance with subpart G of this part. If the employee accepts, the... accept an offer under subpart G, the employee shall be furloughed or separated....

  4. 5 CFR 351.603 - Actions subsequent to release from competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Release From Competitive Level § 351.603 Actions subsequent to... assignment to another position in accordance with subpart G of this part. If the employee accepts, the... accept an offer under subpart G, the employee shall be furloughed or separated....

  5. 76 FR 31627 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Lake County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Lake County, CA... Management (BLM) Ukiah Field Office proposes to sell an 80-acre parcel of public land in Lake County... receive a reply during normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public land...

  6. 76 FR 6155 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Sandoval County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Sandoval County... public land, situated in Sandoval County, New Mexico, has been authorized and designated for disposal in... serve important public objectives, including but not limited to, expansion of communities and...

  7. 75 FR 26991 - Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County, Oregon

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-13

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action; Competitive Sale of Public Land in Deschutes County... announces a comment period and proposed sale of five parcels of public land totaling 640 acres located in... GSA's Web site http://www.auctionrp.com . DATES: This notice initiates the public comment period...

  8. 75 FR 35832 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-23

    ... 49824] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Tehama County, CA AGENCY: Bureau of...) proposes to sell three parcels of public land totaling approximately 243.82 acres in Tehama County... (530) 224-2122 or via e-mail at Ilene_Emry@ca.blm.gov . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following...

  9. 76 FR 44355 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Carson City, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-25

    ...; TAS: 14X1109] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land in Carson City, NV AGENCY... Management (BLM) proposes to sell two parcels of public lands totaling approximately 10 acres located in the... conducted pursuant to Section 2601(d) of the Omnibus Public Land Management Act of 2009 (Pub. L....

  10. Learning from Toyota: How Action Learning Can Foster Competitive Advantage in New Product Development (NPD)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuchs, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    New product development and commercialization are essential to entrepreneurial growth and international competitiveness. Excellence in this area is strongly supported by individual and organizational learning efforts. By analyzing how Japanese car manufacturer Toyota organizes learning, this paper evaluates the potential of action learning to…

  11. Competitive Intelligence for SMEs. From Intellectual Concepts to Actionable CI Rules and Good Practices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dou, Henri

    2000-01-01

    Presents several aspects of the development of actionable competitive intelligence into SMEs (small and medium enterprises). Describes types of information used in SMEs, economic intelligence in France, suggestions for information management, and various works undertaken through the European Community. (Contains 11 references.) (Author/LRW)

  12. Mutual and asynchronous anticipation and action in sports as globally competitive and locally coordinative dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Keisuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-01-01

    Humans interact by changing their actions, perceiving other’s actions and executing solutions in conflicting situations. Using oscillator models, nonlinear dynamics have been considered for describing these complex human movements as an emergence of self-organisation. However, these frameworks cannot explain the hierarchical structures of complex behaviours between conflicting inter-agent and adapting intra-agent systems, especially in sport competitions wherein mutually quick decision making and execution are required. Here we adopt a hybrid multiscale approach to model an attack-and-defend game during which both players predict the opponent’s movement and move with a delay. From both simulated and measured data, one synchronous outcome between two-agent (i.e. successful defence) can be described as one attractor. In contrast, the other coordination-breaking outcome (i.e. successful attack) cannot be explained using gradient dynamics because the asymmetric interaction cannot always assume a conserved physical quantity. Instead, we provide the asymmetric and asynchronous hierarchical dynamical models to discuss two-agent competition. Our framework suggests that possessing information about an opponent and oneself in local-coordinative and global-competitive scale enables us to gain a deeper understanding of sports competitions. We anticipate developments in the scientific fields of complex movement adapting to such uncontrolled environments. PMID:26538452

  13. Mutual and asynchronous anticipation and action in sports as globally competitive and locally coordinative dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujii, Keisuke; Isaka, Tadao; Kouzaki, Motoki; Yamamoto, Yuji

    2015-11-01

    Humans interact by changing their actions, perceiving other’s actions and executing solutions in conflicting situations. Using oscillator models, nonlinear dynamics have been considered for describing these complex human movements as an emergence of self-organisation. However, these frameworks cannot explain the hierarchical structures of complex behaviours between conflicting inter-agent and adapting intra-agent systems, especially in sport competitions wherein mutually quick decision making and execution are required. Here we adopt a hybrid multiscale approach to model an attack-and-defend game during which both players predict the opponent’s movement and move with a delay. From both simulated and measured data, one synchronous outcome between two-agent (i.e. successful defence) can be described as one attractor. In contrast, the other coordination-breaking outcome (i.e. successful attack) cannot be explained using gradient dynamics because the asymmetric interaction cannot always assume a conserved physical quantity. Instead, we provide the asymmetric and asynchronous hierarchical dynamical models to discuss two-agent competition. Our framework suggests that possessing information about an opponent and oneself in local-coordinative and global-competitive scale enables us to gain a deeper understanding of sports competitions. We anticipate developments in the scientific fields of complex movement adapting to such uncontrolled environments.

  14. Competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, D W

    1997-01-01

    Our ambivalence toward competition can be traced to an unspoken preference for certain types of competition which give us an advantage over the types we value less. Four types are defined (a) pure (same rules, same objectives), (b) collaborative (same rules, shared objective), (c) market share (different rules, same objectives), and (d) market growth (different rules, value added orientation). The defining characteristics of the four types of competition are respectively: needing a referee, arguing over the spoils, differentiation and substitutability, and customer focus. Dentistry has features of all four types of competition, thus making it difficult to have a meaningful discussion or frame a coherent policy on this topic. PMID:9270222

  15. On the Modified Palatini Action Coupled to Fermionic Matter

    SciTech Connect

    Lagraa, Meriem Hadjer

    2010-10-31

    From the generalized Palatini's action proposed recently in [1], we show that we can obtain the standard effective action of the theory of Einstein-Cartan coupled to the fermionic matter without the usual current-current interaction. Therefore, an effective action which is free from the Barbero-Immirzi parameter [2] and the non-vanishing torsion resulting from the presence of the minimal coupling of fermionic matter. This establishes the equivalence between the theories of general relativity and Einstein-Cartan minimally coupled to fermions [3].

  16. 77 FR 31034 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive Direct Sale of Reversionary Interest Recreation and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-24

    ...] Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive Direct Sale of Reversionary Interest Recreation and Public... 5 acres in the Las Vegas Valley by non-competitive direct sale to the entity. The purpose of the direct sale is to dispose of certain reservations, conditions, and limitations contained in Patent No....

  17. 77 FR 67021 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-08

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV AGENCY...) proposes to offer by competitive sealed-bid sale, one parcel of public land totaling approximately 12.5... parcel will be offered pursuant to the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act of 1998...

  18. Modifiers of radiation action on DNA screened by analytical ultracentrifugation

    SciTech Connect

    Cobreros, G.; Lopez Zumel, M.C.; Usobiaga, P.

    1982-11-01

    The effect of daunomycin, chromomycin A/sub 3/, anthramycin, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) (cisplatin), mitomycin C, and chloroquine on the frequency of radioninduced strand breaks in X-irradiated aqueous solutions of DNA was studied primarily by analytical ultracentrifugation using the sedimentation velocity method. The results show a potent radiosensitizing effect for daunomycin and chromomycin, a protective action for chloroquine and mitomycin, and a nonmodifying effect for anthramycin. Cisplatin forms a highly aggregated complex with DNA which prevents this kind of study.

  19. Competitiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minihan, Charles E.

    1991-03-01

    Competition is defined as a spirited, sometimes ruthless, engagement of rivals such as in a race, a match, or an effort by one person to sell goods or services to customers in the marketplace of another. Sound familiar? If you will bear with me for a few minutes, I would like to examine competitiveness on a more global basis with emphasis on the rules of the game. You may be thinking that more often than not the competitive arena is relatively small and far from global, and its consequences are singularly influential on a trivial document called the P & L. However, with the newly established freedom of a major segment of the world population and with the industrial capability formerly known as Communist moving into what has heretofore been "our" limited arena, the competition could get very brisk. Brisk, and perhaps ruthless, unless we work together to try to establish an international industrial policy that is truly based on equality of competitive opportunity for all.

  20. Mate competition and evolutionary outcomes in genetically modified zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    PubMed

    Howard, Richard D; Rohrer, Karl; Liu, Yiyang; Muir, William M

    2015-05-01

    Demonstrating relationships between sexual selection mechanisms and trait evolution is central to testing evolutionary theory. Using zebrafish, we found that wild-type males possessed a significant advantage in mate competition over transgenic RFP Glofish® males. In mating trials, wild-type males were aggressively superior to transgenic males in male-male chases and male-female chases; as a result, wild-type males sired 2.5× as many young as did transgenic males. In contrast, an earlier study demonstrated that female zebrafish preferred transgenic males as mates when mate competition was excluded experimentally. We tested the evolutionary consequence of this conflict between sexual selection mechanisms in a long-term study. The predicted loss of the transgenic phenotype was confirmed. More than 18,500 adults collected from 18 populations across 15 generations revealed that the frequency of the transgenic phenotype declined rapidly and was eliminated entirely in all but one population. Fitness component data for both sexes indicated that only male mating success differed between wild-type and transgenic individuals. Our predictive demographic model based on fitness components closely matched the rate of transgenic phenotype loss observed in the long-term study, thereby supporting its utility for studies assessing evolutionary outcomes of escaped or released genetically modified animals. PMID:25873489

  1. Modifying action sounds influences people's emotional responses and bodily sensations

    PubMed Central

    Tonetto, Leandro Miletto; Klanovicz, Cristiano Porto; Spence, Charles

    2014-01-01

    We report an experiment designed to investigate the effect of modifying the sound of high-heeled shoes on women's self-reported valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as any changes to a variety of measures of bodily sensation. We also assessed whether self-evaluated personality traits and the enjoyment associated with wearing heels were correlated with these effects. Forty-eight women walked down a “virtual runway” while listening to four interaction sounds (leather- and polypropylene-soled high-heeled shoes contacting ceramic flooring or carpet). Analysis of the questionnaires that the participants completed indicated that the type of sonic interaction impacted valence, arousal, and dominance scores, as well as the evaluated bodily sensations. There were also correlations between these scores and both self-evaluated personality traits and the reported enjoyment associated with wearing high heels. These results demonstrate the effect that the sound of a woman's physical interaction with the environment can have, especially when her contact with the ground while walking makes a louder sound. More generally, these results demonstrate that the manipulation of product extrinsic sounds can modify people's evaluation of their emotional outcomes (valence, arousal, and dominance), as well as their bodily sensations. PMID:25469221

  2. 75 FR 21037 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-22

    ...: Proposed Non-Competitive (Direct) Sales of Public Lands, Boulder County, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Realty Action. SUMMARY: The public lands described in this Notice... . SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following described parcels of public land are proposed for sale: Sixth...

  3. Green revolution trees: semidwarfism transgenes modify gibberellins, promote root growth, enhance morphological diversity, and reduce competitiveness in hybrid poplar.

    PubMed

    Elias, Ani A; Busov, Victor B; Kosola, Kevin R; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W; Rood, Stewart B; Strauss, Steven H

    2012-10-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA(20) and GA(8), in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations. PMID:22904164

  4. Finders keepers, losers weepers - drought as a modifier of competition between European beech and Norway spruce -

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goisser, Michael; Blanck, Christian; Geppert, Uwe; Häberle, Karl-Heinz; Matyssek, Rainer; Grams, Thorsten E. E.

    2016-04-01

    Mixed stands of European beech (Fagus sylvatica L.) and Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst.) frequently reflect over-yielding, when compared to respective monospecific stands. Over-yielding is attributed to enhanced resource uptake efficiency through niche complementarity alleviating species competition. Under climate change, however, with severe and frequent summer drought, water limitation may become crucial in modifying the competitive interaction between neighboring beech and spruce trees. In view of the demands by silvicultural practice, basic knowledge from experimental field work about competitive versus facilitative interaction in maturing mixed beech-spruce forests is scarce. To this end, we investigate species-specific drought response including underlying mechanisms of species interaction in a maturing group-wise mixed beech-spruce forest, amongst 60 and 53 adult trees of beech and spruce, respectively (spruce 65 ± 2, beech 85 ± 4 years old). Severe and repeated experimental drought is being induced over several years through a stand-scale approach of rain throughfall exclusion (Kranzberg Forest Roof Experiment, KROOF). The experimental design comprises 6 roofed (E, automated, closing only during rain) and 6 control (C) plots with a total area of almost 1800 square meters. In 2015 minimum predawn potentials of -2.16 MPa and -2.26 MPa were reached in E for beech and spruce respectively. At the leaf level, spruce displayed high drought susceptibility reflected by a distinct decrease in both stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 80% each, suggesting isohydric response. Beech rather displayed anisohydry indicated by less pronounced yet significant reduction of stomatal conductance and net CO2 uptake rate by more than 55% and 45%, respectively. Under the C regime, a negative species interaction effect on stomatal conductance was found in beech, contrasting with a positive effect in spruce. However, drought reversed the effect of

  5. How action selection can be embodied: intracranial gamma band recording shows response competition during the Eriksen flankers test

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Fausto; Uithol, Sebo; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sartori, Ivana; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in monkeys suggest that action selection is based on a competition between various action options that are automatically planned by the motor system. Here we discuss data from intracranial EEG recordings in human premotor cortex (PMC) during a bimanual version of the Eriksen flankers test that suggest that the same principles apply to human action decisions. Recording sites in the dorsal PMC show an early but undifferentiated activation, a delayed response that depends on the experimental conditions and, finally, a movement related activation during action execution. Additionally, we found that the medial part of the PMC show a significant increase in response for ipsilateral trials, suggesting a role in inhibiting the wrong response. The ventral PMC seems to be involved in action execution, rather than action selection. Together these findings suggest that the human PMC is part of a network that specifies, selects, and executes actions. PMID:25206328

  6. Mode of action of DNA-competitive small molecule inhibitors of tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2

    PubMed Central

    Hornyak, Peter; Askwith, Trevor; Walker, Sarah; Komulainen, Emilia; Paradowski, Michael; Pennicott, Lewis E.; Bartlett, Edward J.; Brissett, Nigel C.; Raoof, Ali; Watson, Mandy; Jordan, Allan M.; Ogilvie, Donald J.; Ward, Simon E.; Atack, John R.; Pearl, Laurence H.; Caldecott, Keith W.; Oliver, Antony W.

    2016-01-01

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is a 5′-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase important for the repair of DNA adducts generated by non-productive (abortive) activity of topoisomerase II (TOP2). TDP2 facilitates therapeutic resistance to topoisomerase poisons, which are widely used in the treatment of a range of cancer types. Consequently, TDP2 is an interesting target for the development of small molecule inhibitors that could restore sensitivity to topoisomerase-directed therapies. Previous studies identified a class of deazaflavin-based molecules that showed inhibitory activity against TDP2 at therapeutically useful concentrations, but their mode of action was uncertain. We have confirmed that the deazaflavin series inhibits TDP2 enzyme activity in a fluorescence-based assay, suitable for high-throughput screen (HTS)-screening. We have gone on to determine crystal structures of these compounds bound to a ‘humanized’ form of murine TDP2. The structures reveal their novel mode of action as competitive ligands for the binding site of an incoming DNA substrate, and point the way to generating novel and potent inhibitors of TDP2. PMID:27099339

  7. Mode of action of DNA-competitive small molecule inhibitors of tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase 2.

    PubMed

    Hornyak, Peter; Askwith, Trevor; Walker, Sarah; Komulainen, Emilia; Paradowski, Michael; Pennicott, Lewis E; Bartlett, Edward J; Brissett, Nigel C; Raoof, Ali; Watson, Mandy; Jordan, Allan M; Ogilvie, Donald J; Ward, Simon E; Atack, John R; Pearl, Laurence H; Caldecott, Keith W; Oliver, Antony W

    2016-07-01

    Tyrosyl-DNA phosphodiesterase 2 (TDP2) is a 5'-tyrosyl DNA phosphodiesterase important for the repair of DNA adducts generated by non-productive (abortive) activity of topoisomerase II (TOP2). TDP2 facilitates therapeutic resistance to topoisomerase poisons, which are widely used in the treatment of a range of cancer types. Consequently, TDP2 is an interesting target for the development of small molecule inhibitors that could restore sensitivity to topoisomerase-directed therapies. Previous studies identified a class of deazaflavin-based molecules that showed inhibitory activity against TDP2 at therapeutically useful concentrations, but their mode of action was uncertain. We have confirmed that the deazaflavin series inhibits TDP2 enzyme activity in a fluorescence-based assay, suitable for high-throughput screen (HTS)-screening. We have gone on to determine crystal structures of these compounds bound to a 'humanized' form of murine TDP2. The structures reveal their novel mode of action as competitive ligands for the binding site of an incoming DNA substrate, and point the way to generating novel and potent inhibitors of TDP2. PMID:27099339

  8. Alignment effects in beer mugs: Automatic action activation or response competition?

    PubMed

    Roest, Sander A; Pecher, Diane; Naeije, Lilian; Zeelenberg, René

    2016-08-01

    Responses to objects with a graspable handle are faster when the response hand and handle orientation are aligned (e.g., a key press with the right hand is required and the object handle is oriented to the right) than when they are not aligned. This effect could be explained by automatic activation of specific motor programs when an object is viewed. Alternatively, the effect could be explained by competition at the response level. Participants performed a reach-and-grasp or reach-and-button-press action with their left or right hand in response to the color of a beer mug. The alignment effect did not vary as a function of the type of action. In addition, the alignment effect disappeared in a go/no-go version of the task. The same results were obtained when participants made upright/inverted decisions, so that object shape was task-relevant. Our results indicate that alignment effects are not due to automatic motor activation of the left or right limb. PMID:27184058

  9. Promoting Healthy Competition Using Modified Rules and Sports from Other Cultures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Constantinou, Phoebe

    2014-01-01

    A great controversy around the concept of competition exists, not only among researchers but also among teachers, parents, and even the participants themselves. An overemphasis on competitive sports and unhealthy competition has overshadowed the positive benefits of sport participation, including character and moral development and…

  10. Biomechanical Analysis of Defensive Cutting Actions During Game Situations: Six Cases in Collegiate Soccer Competitions.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Shogo; Koga, Hideyuki; Krosshaug, Tron; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-06-27

    The strengths of interpersonal dyads formed by the attacker and defender in one-on-one situations are crucial for performance in team ball sports such as soccer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics of one-on-one defensive movements in soccer competitions, and determine the relationships between lower limb kinematics and the center of mass translation during cutting actions. Six defensive scenes in which a player was responding to an offender's dribble attack were selected for analysis. To reconstruct the three-dimensional kinematics of the players, we used a photogrammetric model-based image-matching technique. The hip and knee kinematics were calculated from the matched skeleton model. In addition, the center of mass height was expressed as a ratio of each participant's body height. The relationships between the center of mass height and the kinematics were determined by the Pearson's product-moment correlation coefficient. The normalized center of mass height at initial contact was correlated with the vertical center of mass displacement (r = 0.832, p = 0.040) and hip flexion angle at initial contact (r = -0.823, p = 0.044). This suggests that the lower center of mass at initial contact is an important factor to reduce the downwards vertical center of mass translation during defensive cutting actions, and that this is executed primarily through hip flexion. It is therefore recommended that players land with an adequately flexed hip at initial contact during one-on-one cutting actions to minimize the vertical center of mass excursion. PMID:26240644

  11. Biomechanical Analysis of Defensive Cutting Actions During Game Situations: Six Cases in Collegiate Soccer Competitions

    PubMed Central

    Sasaki, Shogo; Koga, Hideyuki; Krosshaug, Tron; Kaneko, Satoshi; Fukubayashi, Toru

    2015-01-01

    The strengths of interpersonal dyads formed by the attacker and defender in one-on-one situations are crucial for performance in team ball sports such as soccer. The purpose of this study was to analyze the kinematics of one-on-one defensive movements in soccer competitions, and determine the relationships between lower limb kinematics and the center of mass translation during cutting actions. Six defensive scenes in which a player was responding to an offender’s dribble attack were selected for analysis. To reconstruct the three-dimensional kinematics of the players, we used a photogrammetric model-based image-matching technique. The hip and knee kinematics were calculated from the matched skeleton model. In addition, the center of mass height was expressed as a ratio of each participant’s body height. The relationships between the center of mass height and the kinematics were determined by the Pearson’s product-moment correlation coefficient. The normalized center of mass height at initial contact was correlated with the vertical center of mass displacement (r = 0.832, p = 0.040) and hip flexion angle at initial contact (r = −0.823, p = 0.044). This suggests that the lower center of mass at initial contact is an important factor to reduce the downwards vertical center of mass translation during defensive cutting actions, and that this is executed primarily through hip flexion. It is therefore recommended that players land with an adequately flexed hip at initial contact during one-on-one cutting actions to minimize the vertical center of mass excursion. PMID:26240644

  12. 75 FR 28278 - Notice of amendment to Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Online Auction of Public Lands in...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-20

    ..., 2009 (74 FR 46790), to add additional terms and conditions to the sale process. DATES: Interested... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR...: 14X5232] Notice of amendment to Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Online Auction of Public Lands...

  13. 75 FR 38545 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Auction of Public Lands in White Pine County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-02

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Auction of Public Lands in White Pine County, NV AGENCY... Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land of approximately 2.5 acres in White Pine County... proposed sale of public lands until August 16, 2010. If the BLM decision is to proceed with the sale,...

  14. 76 FR 56793 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ...; TAS: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County... the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act of 1998 (SNPLMA), Public Law 105-263, as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land totaling approximately...

  15. 76 FR 18578 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-04

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Clark County, NV AGENCY... Nevada Public Land Management Act of 1998 (SNPLMA), as amended, the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer one parcel of public land totaling approximately 5 acres in the Las Vegas Valley...

  16. 76 FR 37373 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Colusa, Glenn, and Lake Counties...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-27

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Colusa, Glenn, and.... SUMMARY: The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) Ukiah Field Office proposes to sell four parcels of public... normal business hours. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The following public lands are proposed for...

  17. 78 FR 56242 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-12

    ...: 14X5232] Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of 28 Parcels of Public Land in Clark County, NV AGENCY... Management (BLM) proposes to offer 28 parcels of public land totaling approximately 440.42 acres in the Las... parcels would be offered for sale pursuant to the Southern Nevada Public Land Management Act of...

  18. 76 FR 68783 - Notice of Realty Action: Direct (Non-Competitive) Sale of Reversionary Interest in Benton County, WA

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Direct (Non-Competitive) Sale of Reversionary Interest... INFORMATION below has been determined suitable for direct sale and release to the City of West Richland... parcel can be used is restricted by the reversionary clause. DATES: Comments regarding the proposed...

  19. 76 FR 16810 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot Springs County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-25

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Hot...: A 10-acre parcel of public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming is being considered for non... following described public land in Hot Springs County, Wyoming has been examined and found suitable for...

  20. Pulsed magnetic stimulation modifies amplitude of action potentials in vitro via ionic channels-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zaghloul; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the influence of pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs) on amplitude of evoked, compound action potential (CAP) recorded from the segments of sciatic nerve in vitro. PMFs were applied for 30 min at frequency of 0.16 Hz and intensity of 15 mT. In confirmation of our previous reports, PMF exposure enhanced amplitude of CAPs. The effect persisted beyond PMF activation period. As expected, CAP amplitude was attenuated by antagonists of sodium channel, lidocaine, and tetrodotoxin. Depression of the potential by sodium channels antagonists was reversed by subsequent exposure to PMFs. The effect of elevated potassium concentration and veratridine on the action potential was modified by exposure to PMFs as well. Neither inhibitors of protein kinase C and protein kinase A, nor known free radicals scavengers had any effects on PMF action. Possible mechanisms of PMF action are discussed. PMID:25884360

  1. Patterns and Drivers of Tree Mortality in Iberian Forests: Climatic Effects Are Modified by Competition

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Benito, Paloma; Lines, Emily R.; Gómez-Aparicio, Lorena; Zavala, Miguel A.; Coomes, David A.

    2013-01-01

    Tree mortality is a key process underlying forest dynamics and community assembly. Understanding how tree mortality is driven by simultaneous drivers is needed to evaluate potential effects of climate change on forest composition. Using repeat-measure information from c. 400,000 trees from the Spanish Forest Inventory, we quantified the relative importance of tree size, competition, climate and edaphic conditions on tree mortality of 11 species, and explored the combined effect of climate and competition. Tree mortality was affected by all of these multiple drivers, especially tree size and asymmetric competition, and strong interactions between climate and competition were found. All species showed L-shaped mortality patterns (i.e. showed decreasing mortality with tree size), but pines were more sensitive to asymmetric competition than broadleaved species. Among climatic variables, the negative effect of temperature on tree mortality was much larger than the effect of precipitation. Moreover, the effect of climate (mean annual temperature and annual precipitation) on tree mortality was aggravated at high competition levels for all species, but especially for broadleaved species. The significant interaction between climate and competition on tree mortality indicated that global change in Mediterranean regions, causing hotter and drier conditions and denser stands, could lead to profound effects on forest structure and composition. Therefore, to evaluate the potential effects of climatic change on tree mortality, forest structure must be considered, since two systems of similar composition but different structure could radically differ in their response to climatic conditions. PMID:23451096

  2. Wave action modifies the effects of consumer diversity and warming on algal assemblages.

    PubMed

    Mrowicki, Robert J; O'Connor, Nessa E

    2015-04-01

    To understand the consequences of biodiversity loss, it is necessary to test how biodiversity-ecosystem functioning relationships may vary with predicted environmental change. In particular, our understanding will be advanced by studies addressing the interactive effects of multiple stressors on the role of biodiversity across trophic levels. Predicted increases in wave disturbance and ocean warming, together with climate-driven range shifts of key consumer species, are likely to have profound impacts on the dynamics of coastal marine communities. We tested whether wave action and temperature modified the effects of gastropod grazer diversity (Patella vulgata, Littorina littorea, and Gibbula umbilicalis) on algal assemblages in experimental rock pools. The presence or absence of L. littorea appeared to drive changes in microalgal and macroalgal biomass and macroalgal assemblage structure. Macroalgal biomass also decreased with increasing grazer species richness, but only when wave action was enhanced. Further, independently of grazer diversity, wave action and temperature had interactive effects on macroalgal assemblage structure. Warming also led to a reversal of grazer-macroalgal interaction strengths from negative to positive, but only when there was no wave action. Our results show that hydrodynamic disturbance can exacerbate the effects of changing consumer diversity, and may also disrupt the influence of other environmental stressors on key consumer-resource interactions. These findings suggest that the combined effects of anticipated abiotic and biotic change on the functioning of coastal marine ecosystems, although difficult to predict, may be substantial. PMID:26230022

  3. Mixed infections and the competitive fitness of faster-acting genetically modified viruses

    PubMed Central

    Zwart, Mark P; Van Der Werf, Wopke; Van Oers, Monique M; Hemerik, Lia; Van Lent, Jan M V; De Visser, J Arjan G M; Vlak, Just M; Cory, Jenny S

    2009-01-01

    Faster-acting recombinant baculoviruses have shown potential for improved suppression of insect pests, but their ecological impact on target and nontarget hosts and naturally occurring pathogens needs to be assessed. Previous studies have focused on the fitness of recombinants at the between-hosts level. However, the population structure of the transmission stages will also be decided by within-host selection. Here we have experimentally quantified the within-host competitive fitness of a fast-acting recombinant Autographa californica multicapsid nucleopolyhedrovirus missing the endogenous egt gene (vEGTDEL), by means of direct competition in single- and serial-passage experiments with its parental virus. Quantitative real-time PCR was employed to determine the ratio of these two viruses in passaged mixtures. We found that vEGTDEL had reduced within-host fitness: per passage the ratio of wild type to vEGTDEL was on average enhanced by a factor of 1.53 (single passage) and 1.68 (serial passage). There is also frequency-dependence: the higher the frequency of vEGTDEL, the stronger the selection against it is. Additionally, the virus ratio is a predictor of time to host death and virus yield. Our results show that egt is important to within-host fitness and allow for a more complete assessment of the ecological impact of recombinant baculovirus release. PMID:25567862

  4. Analyzing after-action reports from Hurricanes Andrew and Katrina: repeated, modified, and newly created recommendations.

    PubMed

    Knox, Claire Connolly

    2013-01-01

    Thirteen years after Hurricane Andrew struck Homestead, FL, Hurricane Katrina devastated the Gulf Coast of Mississippi, Alabama, and southeastern Louisiana. Along with all its destruction, the term "catastrophic" was redefined. This article extends the literature on these hurricanes by providing a macrolevel analysis of The Governor's Disaster Planning and Response Review Committee Final Report from Hurricane Andrew and three federal after-action reports from Hurricane Katrina, as well as a cursory review of relevant literature. Results provide evidence that previous lessons have not been learned or institutionalized with many recommendations being repeated or modified. This article concludes with a discussion of these lessons, as well as new issues arising during Hurricane Katrina. PMID:24180096

  5. Toward a workable biosafety system for regulating genetically modified organisms in Ethiopia: balancing conservation and competitiveness.

    PubMed

    Abraham, Adane

    2013-01-01

    On September 9, 2009, Ethiopia enacted a highly restrictive biosafety law firmly based on precautionary principles as a foundation for its GMO regulation system. Its drafting process, led by the country's Environmental Protection Authority, was judged as biased, focusing only on protecting the environment from perceived risks, giving little attention to potential benefits of GMOs. Many of its provisions are very stringent, exceeding those of Cartagena Protocol on Biosafety, while others cannot be fulfilled by applicants, collectively rendering the emerged biosafety system unworkable. These provisions include requirements for advance informed agreement and rigorous socioeconomic assessment in risk evaluation for all GMO transactions, including contained research use-which requires the head of the competent national authority of the exporting country to take full responsibility for GMO-related information provided-and stringent labeling, insurance and monitoring requirements for all GMO activities. Furthermore, there is no provision to establish an independent national biosafety decision-making body(ies). As a result, foreign technology owners that provide highly demanded technologies like Bt cotton declined to work with Ethiopia. There is a fear that the emerged biosafety system might also continue to suppress domestic genetic engineering research and development. Thus, to benefit from GMOs, Ethiopia has to revise its biosafety system, primarily by making changes to some provisions of the law in a way that balances its diverse interests of conserving biodiversity, protecting the environment and enhancing competition in agricultural and other economic sectors. PMID:23580251

  6. Photodynamic action of curcumin derived polymer modified ZnO nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Hariharan, R.; Senthilkumar, S.; Suganthi, A.; Rajarajan, M.

    2012-11-15

    Highlights: ► ZnO/PVA nano sensitized with curcumin and its metal complex were synthesized by vacuum evaporation method. ► M/cur sensitized on ZnO/PVA nanocomposites were characterized. ► Generation of {sup 1}O{sub 2} and ROS were detected by optical and EPR-spin trapping method. ► It was found that photoinduced cleavage of DNA using Zn/cur–ZnO/PVA was superior. ► Photodegradation of MB in water catalyzed by ZnO/PVA–Zn/cur was also superior under visible light. -- Abstract: The photodynamic action of ZnO nano can be improved by modifying the surface by PVA and encapsulating the natural product, curcumin. The synthesized ZnO/PVA nanocomposites have been characterized using XRD, SEM, TEM, FTIR, TG–DTA, etc. Here we are reporting the photodynamic effect of ZnO nanocomposites on pUC18 DNA. Based on optical and EPR measurements, singlet oxygen and other ROS were responsible for photocleavage of DNA. Most importantly, derived curcumin modified ZnO/PVA nanocomposites were comparatively more effective than derived curcumin complex against HeLa cell lines under in vitro condition. In addition, photodegradation of methylene blue (MB) in water catalyzed by nano ZnO/PVA–curcumin derivative was investigated at room temperature. Under visible irradiation photocatalytic activity of ZnO nanomaterial sensitized curcumin was higher than those of curcumin and nano ZnO.

  7. Green Revolution Trees: Semidwarfism Transgenes Modify Gibberellins, Promote Root Growth, Enhance Morphological Diversity, and Reduce Competitiveness in Hybrid Poplar1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Elias, Ani A.; Busov, Victor B.; Kosola, Kevin R.; Ma, Cathleen; Etherington, Elizabeth; Shevchenko, Olga; Gandhi, Harish; Pearce, David W.; Rood, Stewart B.; Strauss, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Semidwarfism has been used extensively in row crops and horticulture to promote yield, reduce lodging, and improve harvest index, and it might have similar benefits for trees for short-rotation forestry or energy plantations, reclamation, phytoremediation, or other applications. We studied the effects of the dominant semidwarfism transgenes GA Insensitive (GAI) and Repressor of GAI-Like, which affect gibberellin (GA) action, and the GA catabolic gene, GA 2-oxidase, in nursery beds and in 2-year-old high-density stands of hybrid poplar (Populus tremula × Populus alba). Twenty-nine traits were analyzed, including measures of growth, morphology, and physiology. Endogenous GA levels were modified in most transgenic events; GA20 and GA8, in particular, had strong inverse associations with tree height. Nearly all measured traits varied significantly among genotypes, and several traits interacted with planting density, including aboveground biomass, root-shoot ratio, root fraction, branch angle, and crown depth. Semidwarfism promoted biomass allocation to roots over shoots and substantially increased rooting efficiency with most genes tested. The increased root proportion and increased leaf chlorophyll levels were associated with changes in leaf carbon isotope discrimination, indicating altered water use efficiency. Semidwarf trees had dramatically reduced growth when in direct competition with wild-type trees, supporting the hypothesis that semidwarfism genes could be effective tools to mitigate the spread of exotic, hybrid, and transgenic plants in wild and feral populations. PMID:22904164

  8. Inhibition of CD73 AMP hydrolysis by a therapeutic antibody with a dual, non-competitive mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Geoghegan, James C; Diedrich, Gundo; Lu, Xiaojun; Rosenthal, Kim; Sachsenmeier, Kris F; Wu, Herren; Dall'Acqua, William F; Damschroder, Melissa M

    2016-01-01

    CD73 (ecto-5'-nucleotidase) has recently been established as a promising immuno-oncology target. Given its role in activating purinergic signaling pathways to elicit immune suppression, antagonizing CD73 (i.e., releasing the brake) offers a complimentary pathway to inducing anti-tumor immune responses. Here, we describe the mechanistic activity of a new clinical therapeutic, MEDI9447, a human monoclonal antibody that non-competitively inhibits CD73 activity. Epitope mapping, structural, and mechanistic studies revealed that MEDI9447 antagonizes CD73 through dual mechanisms of inter-CD73 dimer crosslinking and/or steric blocking that prevent CD73 from adopting a catalytically active conformation. To our knowledge, this is the first report of an antibody that inhibits an enzyme's function through 2 distinct modes of action. These results provide a finely mapped epitope that can be targeted for selective, potent, and non-competitive inhibition of CD73, as well as establish a strategy for inhibiting enzymes that function in both membrane-bound and soluble states. PMID:26854859

  9. Modes and nodes explain the mechanism of action of vortioxetine, a multimodal agent (MMA): modifying serotonin's downstream effects on glutamate and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) release.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2015-08-01

    Vortioxetine is an antidepressant with multiple pharmacologic modes of action at targets where serotonin neurons connect with other neurons. These actions modify the release of both glutamate and GABA (gamma amino butyric acid) within various brain circuits. PMID:26062900

  10. Modifying Automatic Approach Action Tendencies in Individuals with Elevated Social Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Charles T.; Amir, Nader

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that social anxiety is associated with a reduced approach orientation for positive social cues. In the current study we examined the effect of experimentally manipulating automatic approach action tendencies on the social behavior of individuals with elevated social anxiety symptoms. The experimental paradigm comprised a computerized Approach Avoidance Task (AAT) in which participants responded to pictures of faces conveying positive or neutral emotional expressions by pulling a joystick toward themselves (approach) or by moving it to the right (sideways control). Participants were randomly assigned to complete an AAT designed to increase approach tendencies for positive social cues by pulling these cues toward themselves on the majority of trials, or to a control condition in which there was no contingency between the arm movement direction and picture type. Following the manipulation, participants took part in a relationship-building task with a trained confederate. Results revealed that participants trained to approach positive stimuli displayed greater social approach behaviors during the social interaction and elicited more positive reactions from their partner compared to participants in the control group. These findings suggest that modifying automatic approach tendencies may facilitate engagement in the types of social approach behaviors that are important for relationship development. PMID:22728645

  11. Competition, Competitive Repulsion, and Coexistence

    PubMed Central

    Darlington, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    This manuscript is concerned with concepts rather than abstruse details or mathematics. Discussed are: competition; extended competition, proposed for competition in the strict sense, extended and modified by all related interactions including predation, parasitism, disease, and even cooperation, all of which can be “weapons of competition”; competitive repulsion, proposed for the sum of forces that determine spacings, including ecologic spacings, of individuals and populations; Darwin (biotic) equilibriums; competitive extinction, Gause's principle, limited and limiting resources, and single-resource competition; de facto coexistence of competing species, exemplified by green plants competing for sunlight; niche competition; the two concepts of competitive exclusion; devision of resources and of their utilizers; cause and effect in real situations; and niches, niche overlap, and coexistence. Stressed is the complexity of the real world, and the confusion that can and does arise from modeling it too simply. PMID:4508308

  12. Catastrophic extinction, noise-stabilized turbulence and unpredictability of competition in a modified Volterra-Lotka model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goryachev, A. B.; Polezhaev, A. A.; Chernavskii, D. S.

    1996-03-01

    Spatial coexistence and competition among species is investigated through a modified Volterra-Lotka model which takes into account sexual breeding. This allows the population specific growth rate to depend on the population density. As a result of this modification the degeneracy inherent in the classical model is eliminated and qualitatively novel regimes are observed, as demonstrated by parametric analysis of the model. In the case where the corresponding parameters of competing species do not differ significantly the model can be reduced to a single Ginzburg-Landau type equation. The spatially distributed model is analyzed both in the absence and in the presence of noise mimicking inherent fluctuations in birth and death rates. It is shown that noise can qualitatively change the behavior of the system. Not only does it induce the formation of spatial patterns, but also switches on endless turbulent-like rearrangement of the system. When initially unpopulated habitat is occupied by competing species even a very low-intensity noise makes the final state of the system totally unpredictable and sensitive to any fluctuations.

  13. An investigation of the electrochemical action of the epoxy zinc-rich coatings containing surface modified aluminum nanoparticle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jalili, M.; Rostami, M.; Ramezanzadeh, B.

    2015-02-01

    Aluminum nanoparticle was modified with amino trimethylene phosphonic acid (ATMP). The surface characterization of the nanoparticles was done by X-ray photo electron spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and thermal gravimetric analysis. The influence of the replacement of 2 wt% of zinc dust in the standard zinc-rich epoxy coating by nanoparticles on the electrochemical action of the coating was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) and salt spray tests. The morphology and phase composition of the zinc rich paints were evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and filed-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Results showed that the ATMP molecules successfully adsorbed on the surface of Al nanoparticles. Results obtained from salt spray and electrochemical measurements revealed that the addition of surface modified nanoparticles to the zinc rich coating enhanced its galvanic action and corrosion protection properties.

  14. Dosage-Dependent Modifiers of Position Effect Variegation in Drosophila and a Mass Action Model That Explains Their Effect

    PubMed Central

    Locke, J.; Kotarski, M. A.; Tartof, K. D.

    1988-01-01

    Twelve dominant enhancers of position effect variegation, representing four loci on the second and third chromosomes of Drosophila melanogaster, have been induced by P-element mutagenesis. Instead of simple transposon insertions, seven of these mutations are cytologically visible duplications and three are deficiencies. The duplications define two distinct regions, each coinciding with a locus that also behaves as a dominant haplo-dependent suppressor of variegation. Conversely, two of the deficiencies overlap with a region that contains a haplo-dependent enhancer of variegation while duplications of this same region act to suppress variegation. The third deficiency defines another haplo-dependent enhancer. These data indicate that loci capable of modifying variegation do so in an antipodal fashion through changes in the wild-type gene copy number and may be divided into two reciprocally acting classes. Class I modifiers enhance variegation when duplicated or suppress variegation when deficient. Class II modifiers enhance when deficient but suppress when duplicated. From our data, and those of others, we propose that in Drosophila there are about 20 to 30 dominant loci that modify variegation. Most appear to be of the class I type whereas only two class II modifiers have been identified so far. From these observations we put forth a model, based on the law of mass action, for understanding how such suppressor-enhancer loci function. We propose that each class I modifier codes for a structural protein component of heterochromatin and their effects on variegation are a consequence of their dosage dependent influence on the extent of the assembly of heterochromatin at the chromosomal site of the position effect. It is further proposed that class II modifiers may inhibit the class I products directly, bind to hypothetical termination sites that define heterochromatin boundaries or promote euchromatin formation. Consistent with our mass action model we find that

  15. An Ontological Model of Behaviour Theory to Generate Personalized Action Plans to Modify Behaviours.

    PubMed

    Baig, Wasif; Abidi, Samina; Abidi, Syed Sibte Raza

    2016-01-01

    Behavior change approaches aim to assist patients in achieving self-efficacy in managing their condition. Social cognitive theory (SCT) stipulates self-efficacy as a central element to behavior change and provides constructs to achieve self-efficacy guided by person-specific action plans. In our work, to administer behaviour change in patient with chronic conditions, our approach entails the computerization of SCT-based self-efficacy constructs in order to generate personalized action plans that are suitable to an individual's current care scenario. We have taken a knowledge management approach, whereby we have computerized the SCT-based self-efficacy constructs in terms of a high-level SCT knowledge model that can be operationalized to generate personalized behaviour change action plans. We have collected and computerized behavior change content targeting healthy living and physical activity. Semantic web technologies have been used to develop the SCT knowledge model, represented in terms of an ontology and SWRL rules. The ontological SCT model can inferred to generate personalized self-management action plans for a given patient profile. We present formative evaluation of the clinical correctness and relevance of the generated personalized action plans for a range of test patient profiles. PMID:27577412

  16. Anticipation of Body-Scaled Action Is Modified in Anorexia Nervosa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guardia, Dewi; Lafargue, Gilles; Thomas, Pierre; Dodin, Vincent; Cottencin, Olivier; Luyat, Marion

    2010-01-01

    Patients with anorexia nervosa frequently believe they are larger than they really are. The precise nature of this bias is not known: is it a false belief related to the patient's aesthetic and emotional attitudes towards her body? Or could it also reflect abnormal processing of the representation of the body in action? We tested this latter…

  17. JOINT ACTION OF O3 AND SO2 IN MODIFYING PLANT GAS EXCHANGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The joint action of O3 and SO2 stress on plants was investigated. Gas exchange measurements of O3, SO2, and H2O vapor were made for garden pea. Plants were grown under controlled environments; O3, SO2, H2O vapor fluxes were evaluated with a whole-plant gas exchange chamber using ...

  18. Molecular mechanisms of the action of miraculin, a taste-modifying protein.

    PubMed

    Misaka, Takumi

    2013-03-01

    Miraculin (MCL) is a homodimeric protein isolated from the fruits of Richadella dulcifica, a shrub native to West Africa. Although it is flat in taste at neutral pH, MCL has taste-modifying activity in which sour stimuli produce a sweet perception. Once MCL enters the mouth, strong sweetness can be detected for more than 1 h each time we taste a sour solution. While the human sweet taste receptor (hT1R2-hT1R3) has been identified, the molecular mechanisms underlying the taste-modifying activity of MCL remain unclear. Recently, experimental evidence has been published demonstrating the successful quantitative evaluation of the acid-induced sweetness of MCL using a cell-based assay system. The results strongly suggested that MCL binds hT1R2-hT1R3 as an antagonist at neutral pH and functionally changes into an agonist at acidic pH. Since sweet-tasting proteins may be used as low-calorie sweeteners because they contain almost no calories, it is expected that MCL will be used in the near future as a new low-calorie sweetener or to modify the taste of sour fruits. PMID:23466289

  19. 78 FR 64974 - Notice of Realty Action; Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-30

    ... sealed bids for this public land sale. The original notice, which published on September 25, 2013 (78 FR 59055), incorrectly stated the date. On page 59055, column 2, line 4 below the chart, which...

  20. 78 FR 61380 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land at Schoolhouse Butte...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR Bureau of Land Management [LLNV930000.L14300000.EU0000 241A; N-85116; 13-08807; MO 4500053892; TAS... (N-85116), Humboldt County, NV Correction In notice document 2013-23339, appearing on pages...

  1. 75 FR 55349 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive Sealed Bid Sale of Public Lands in Rio Arriba...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ... received by the BLM no later than 4:30 p.m., Mountain Standard Time (MST), on November 8, 2010 at the BLM... determine the high bidder on November 9, 2010, at 10 a.m. MST, at the BLM Farmington Field Office. The... authorized representative must be present at the bid opening on November 9, 2010 at 10 a.m. MST. Should...

  2. 77 FR 20413 - Notice of Realty Action: Modified Competitive, Sealed-Bid Sale of Public Land in Clark County, NV

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-04

    ... sale in the Las Vegas Valley Disposal Boundary Environmental Impact Statement (EIS), approved by Record..., which provides that ``Approximately 175,314 acres of public lands within the disposal areas identified on Map 2-3 are potentially available for disposal through sale, exchange, or Recreation and...

  3. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner

    PubMed Central

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J.E.; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z.; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D.; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Summary Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute−/+ cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  4. Cell Competition Modifies Adult Stem Cell and Tissue Population Dynamics in a JAK-STAT-Dependent Manner.

    PubMed

    Kolahgar, Golnar; Suijkerbuijk, Saskia J E; Kucinski, Iwo; Poirier, Enzo Z; Mansour, Sarah; Simons, Benjamin D; Piddini, Eugenia

    2015-08-10

    Throughout their lifetime, cells may suffer insults that reduce their fitness and disrupt their function, and it is unclear how these potentially harmful cells are managed in adult tissues. We address this question using the adult Drosophila posterior midgut as a model of homeostatic tissue and ribosomal Minute mutations to reduce fitness in groups of cells. We take a quantitative approach combining lineage tracing and biophysical modeling and address how cell competition affects stem cell and tissue population dynamics. We show that healthy cells induce clonal extinction in weak tissues, targeting both stem and differentiated cells for elimination. We also find that competition induces stem cell proliferation and self-renewal in healthy tissue, promoting selective advantage and tissue colonization. Finally, we show that winner cell proliferation is fueled by the JAK-STAT ligand Unpaired-3, produced by Minute(-/+) cells in response to chronic JNK stress signaling. PMID:26212135

  5. Spatial representations in older adults are not modified by action: Evidence from tool use.

    PubMed

    Costello, Matthew C; Bloesch, Emily K; Davoli, Christopher C; Panting, Nicholas D; Abrams, Richard A; Brockmole, James R

    2015-09-01

    Theories of embodied perception hold that the visual system is calibrated by both the body schema and the action system, allowing for adaptive action-perception responses. One example of embodied perception involves the effects of tool use on distance perception, in which wielding a tool with the intention to act upon a target appears to bring that object closer. This tool-based spatial compression (i.e., tool-use effect) has been studied exclusively with younger adults, but it is unknown whether the phenomenon exists with older adults. In this study, we examined the effects of tool use on distance perception in younger and older adults in 2 experiments. In Experiment 1, younger and older adults estimated the distances of targets just beyond peripersonal space while either wielding a tool or pointing with the hand. Younger adults, but not older adults, estimated targets to be closer after reaching with a tool. In Experiment 2, younger and older adults estimated the distance to remote targets while using either a baton or a laser pointer. Younger adults displayed spatial compression with the laser pointer compared to the baton, although older adults did not. Taken together, these findings indicate a generalized absence of the tool-use effect in older adults during distance estimation, suggesting that the visuomotor system of older adults does not remap from peripersonal to extrapersonal spatial representations during tool use. PMID:26052886

  6. 78 FR 8188 - Notice of Realty Action: Proposed (Non-Competitive) Direct Sale of Public Land in Carbon County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-05

    ... in Carbon County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of realty action... acres of public land in Carbon County, Utah, at not less than the appraised fair market value to Hunt... Carbon County, Utah, are proposed for direct sale, subject to the applicable provisions of Sections...

  7. Anti citrullinated protein antibodies and mechanism of action of common disease modifying drugs--insights in pathomechanisms of autoimmunity.

    PubMed

    Pongratz, Georg; Fleck, Martin

    2012-01-01

    The increasing understanding of autoimmune mechanisms continuously leads to new therapeutic targets and development of novel diagnostic tools in rheumatology. On the other hand, an improved comprehension of mechanisms of action of many drugs and the daily utilization in rheumatology leads to a better understanding of the underlying autoimmune processes. An example for the latter is Bcell depletion using anti-CD20 antibodies, which leads to the concept of B cells not only playing a role as antibody secreting cells but also as important cellular components of autoimmune processes, acting as antigen presenting and cytokine producing cells. Another example is the conventional disease modifying anti-rheumatic drug methotrexate, which has also been used successfully in the clinic first and then, while trying to understand its mechanism of action, led to knew insights in autoimmune mechanisms e.g. revealing the strong anti-inflammatory potential of adenosine. But not only the mechanism of action of different drugs, but also the identification of antibodies against citrullinated proteins (ACPA) as a valuable diagnostic tool resulted in novel concepts regarding the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. The following review first explains the value of ACPA in the diagnosis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and then summarizes the application and mechanism of action of several important substances used in the management of autoimmune disorders. Based on these insights, the authors explain their understanding of the autoimmune process as a continuous repeat of autoantigen presentation - autoreactive effector cell activation - destruction of tissue - liberation of new autoantigens - and again autoantigen presentation, which closes the vicious circle. PMID:22612739

  8. 77 FR 24978 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Washakie County, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ..., Wyoming, by non- competitive (direct) sale to the town of Ten Sleep under the provisions of the Federal... United States. 3. A reservation of a right-of-way for a Federal-aid Highway (Ten Sleep-Big Trails Road.... This land is being offered by direct sale to the Town of Ten Sleep pursuant to 43 CFR 2711.3-3....

  9. Partially Hydrolyzed Gluten in Fermented Cereal-Based Products by R5 Competitive ELISA: Collaborative Study, First Action 2015.05.

    PubMed

    Lacorn, Markus; Weiss, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    In 2008, the AACC International Protein Technical Committee (now Protein and Enzymes Technical Committee) initiated a collaborative study of a method for determining gluten in fermented products, using an R5 competitive ELISA system. The method has been approved as AACCI Approved Method AACCI 38-55.02. The new method has been validated for testing fermented foods and beverages to determine that they conform to the Codex threshold of 20 mg of gluten/kg in total for gluten-free products. It is recommended that the method be accepted by AOAC as Official First Action. PMID:26525254

  10. A 200-m All-out Front-crawl Swim Modifies Competitive Swimmers' Shoulder Joint Position Sense.

    PubMed

    Uematsu, A; Kurita, Y; Inoue, K; Okuno, K; Hortobágyi, T; Suzuki, S

    2015-11-01

    We tested the hypothesis that an all-out-effort 200-m front-crawl swim trial affects competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense. On Day 1, we measured shoulder joint position sense before and after the swim trial, and on Day 2 before and after 2 min of seated rest. On both days, shoulder joint position sense was measured in the seated position using electromagnetic movement sensors in a position-matching paradigm. An investigator abducted participants' left (reference) shoulder joint in the frontal plane to test angles of 90°, 135°, and 180°. Participants then actively abducted the right (indicator) shoulder joint to match the position of the left, reference arm. After the 200-m all-out front-crawl swim trial, the indicator relative to the reference angle differed by 4.4° toward adduction at the 180° (vertical) testing position (P<0.05). Variation in absolute matching error was 3.2° or 2.2 times greater after swim compared with the no-swim control trial. An all-out 200-m front-crawl swim trial can selectively increase competitive swimmers' shoulder joint position sense error and increase variation in matching error in horizontal arm position. PMID:26252553

  11. Branched zinc oxide nanorods arrays modified paper electrode for electrochemical immunosensing by combining biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode.

    PubMed

    Sun, Guoqiang; Yang, Hongmei; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Jinghua; Ge, Shenguang; Yan, Mei; Song, Xianrang

    2015-12-15

    Branched zinc oxide nanorods (BZR) arrays, an array with high charge carries collection efficiency and specific surface area, are grown on the reduced graphene oxide-paper working electrode for the first time to construct a paper-based electrochemical (EC) immunosensor. Typically, the BZR are fabricated via a simple hydrothermal process, which can provide abundant sites for antibodies loading. By combining the large surface area of porous zinc oxide (PZS) and good biocompatibility of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs), PZS-AuNPs (PZS@Au) nanocomposites are designed to label horseradish peroxide (HRP) and antigens. After a competitive reaction between antigens and PZS@Au nanocomposites labeled antigens, the signal labels are introduced into the immunosensor, in which, HRP participate in biocatalytic precipitation process. The produced precipitate reduces the electrode surface area and hinders the electron transfer. With the increase of concentration of antigens, the signal labels introduced into the sensor decrease, thus, a signal-on immunoassay for α-fetoprotein detection is constructed. The proposed paper-based EC immunosensor combines enzymatic biocatalytic precipitation reaction and competitive immunoassay mode for the first time, and possesses a wide linear range from 0.2 pg mL(-1) to 500 ng mL(-1) with a detection limit of 0.08 pg mL(-1). In addition, the proposed method is simple, sensitive and specific and can be a promising platform for other protein detection. PMID:26232677

  12. Genetically modified flax expressing NAP-SsGT1 transgene: examination of anti-inflammatory action.

    PubMed

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  13. Genetically Modified Flax Expressing NAP-SsGT1 Transgene: Examination of Anti-Inflammatory Action

    PubMed Central

    Matusiewicz, Magdalena; Kosieradzka, Iwona; Zuk, Magdalena; Szopa, Jan

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the work was to define the influence of dietary supplementation with GM (genetically modified) GT#4 flaxseed cake enriched in polyphenols on inflammation development in mice liver. Mice were given ad libitum isoprotein diets: (1) standard diet; (2) high-fat diet rich in lard, high-fat diet enriched with 30% of (3) isogenic flax Linola seed cake; and (4) GM GT#4 flaxseed cake; for 96 days. Administration of transgenic and isogenic seed cake lowered body weight gain, of transgenic to the standard diet level. Serum total antioxidant status was statistically significantly improved in GT#4 flaxseed cake group and did not differ from Linola. Serum thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, lipid profile and the liver concentration of pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α were ameliorated by GM and isogenic flaxseed cake consumption. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-γ did not differ between mice obtaining GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes. The C-reactive protein concentration was reduced in animals fed GT#4 flaxseed cake and did not differ from those fed non-GM flaxseed cake-based diet. Similarly, the liver structure of mice consuming diets enriched in flaxseed cake was improved. Dietetic enrichment with GM GT#4 and non-GM flaxseed cakes may be a promising solution for health problems resulting from improper diet. PMID:25247574

  14. Paracrine action of HO-1-modified mesenchymal stem cells mediates cardiac protection and functional improvement.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Bin; Ren, Xiaofeng; Lin, Guosheng; Zhu, Chengang; Chen, Honglei; Yin, Jiechao; Jiang, Hong; Yang, Bo; Ding, Danhua

    2008-10-01

    The aim has been to determine whether the supernatants of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transfected with adenovirus carrying human heme oxygenase-1 (hHO-1) gene protect cardiomyocytes from ischemic injury. We have found that hHO-1 infected MSCs (hHO-1-MSCs) increased expression of hHO-1 protein. Apoptosis of cultured hHO-1-MSCs exposed to hypoxia was suppressed. Several cytokines, including HGF, bFGF, TGF-beta, VEGF and IL-1beta, were produced by hHO-1-MSCs, some being significantly enhanced under hypoxia stimulation. Meanwhile, those cytokines reduced caspase-3 level and activity in cultured adult rat ventricular cardiomyocytes (ARVCs) exposed to hypoxia. Supernatants obtained from hHO-1-MSCs improved left ventricular function, limited myocardial infarct size, increased microvessel density, and inhibited apoptosis of cardiomyocytes in rat myocardial infarction. It can be concluded hHO-1-modified MSCs prevent myocardial cell injury via secretion of paracrine-acting mediators. PMID:18692581

  15. 75 FR 55347 - Notice of Realty Action: Competitive Sale of Public Land Near Aztec in San Juan County, NM

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-10

    ...The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) proposes to offer, by competitive sale, one parcel of land totaling 73.75 acres within the Aztec city limits in San Juan County, New Mexico. The sale will be subject to the applicable provisions of Section 203 of the Federal Land Policy and Management Act of 1976 (FLPMA), respectively, and BLM land sale regulations. The purpose of the sale is to dispose of......

  16. Silver-nanoparticles-modified biomaterial surface resistant to staphylococcus: new insight into the antimicrobial action of silver.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Zhao, Yaochao; Qin, Hui; Wahafu, Tuerhongjiang; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used clinically, but postoperative implant infection remains a potential severe complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of nano-silver(Ag)-functionalized Ti surfaces against epidemic Staphylococcus from the perspective of the regulation of biofilm-related genes and based on a bacteria-cell co-culture study. To achieve this goal, two representative epidemic Staphylococcus strains, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, RP62A) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, USA 300), were used, and it was found that an Ag-nanoparticle-modified Ti surface could regulate the expression levels of biofilm-related genes (icaA and icaR for S. epidermidis; fnbA and fnbB for S. aureus) to inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Moreover, a novel bacteria-fibroblast co-culture study revealed that the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles on such a surface can help mammalian cells to survive, adhere and spread more successfully than Staphylococcus. Therefore, the modified surface was demonstrated to possess a good anti-infective capability against both sessile bacteria and planktonic bacteria through synergy between the effects of Ag nanoparticles and ion release. This work provides new insight into the antimicrobial action and mechanism of Ag-nanoparticle-functionalized Ti surfaces with bacteria-killing and cell-assisting capabilities and paves the way towards better satisfying the clinical needs. PMID:27599568

  17. Silver-nanoparticles-modified biomaterial surface resistant to staphylococcus: new insight into the antimicrobial action of silver

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiaxing; Li, Jinhua; Guo, Geyong; Wang, Qiaojie; Tang, Jin; Zhao, Yaochao; Qin, Hui; Wahafu, Tuerhongjiang; Shen, Hao; Liu, Xuanyong; Zhang, Xianlong

    2016-01-01

    Titanium implants are widely used clinically, but postoperative implant infection remains a potential severe complication. The purpose of this study was to investigate the antibacterial activity of nano-silver(Ag)-functionalized Ti surfaces against epidemic Staphylococcus from the perspective of the regulation of biofilm-related genes and based on a bacteria-cell co-culture study. To achieve this goal, two representative epidemic Staphylococcus strains, Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis, RP62A) and Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, USA 300), were used, and it was found that an Ag-nanoparticle-modified Ti surface could regulate the expression levels of biofilm-related genes (icaA and icaR for S. epidermidis; fnbA and fnbB for S. aureus) to inhibit bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Moreover, a novel bacteria-fibroblast co-culture study revealed that the incorporation of Ag nanoparticles on such a surface can help mammalian cells to survive, adhere and spread more successfully than Staphylococcus. Therefore, the modified surface was demonstrated to possess a good anti-infective capability against both sessile bacteria and planktonic bacteria through synergy between the effects of Ag nanoparticles and ion release. This work provides new insight into the antimicrobial action and mechanism of Ag-nanoparticle-functionalized Ti surfaces with bacteria-killing and cell-assisting capabilities and paves the way towards better satisfying the clinical needs. PMID:27599568

  18. Joint Action of O3 and SO2 in Modifying Plant Gas Exchange 1

    PubMed Central

    Olszyk, David M.; Tingey, David T.

    1986-01-01

    The joint action of O3 and SO2 stress on plants was investigated by determining the quantitative relationship between air pollutant fluxes and effects on stomatal conductance. Gas exchange measurements of O3, SO2, and H2O vapor were made for Pisum sativum L. (garden pea). Plants were grown under controlled environments, and O3, SO2, and H2O vapor fluxes were evaluated with a whole-plant gas exchange chamber using the mass-balance approach. Maximum O3 and SO2 fluxes per unit area (2 sided) into leaves averaged 8 nanomoles per square meter per second with exposure to either O3 or SO2 at 0.1 microliters per liter. Internal fluxes of either O3 or SO2 were reduced by up to 50% during exposure to combined versus individual pollutants; the greatest reduction occurred with simultaneous versus sequential combinations of the pollutants. Stomatal conductance to H2O was substantially altered by the pollutant exposures, with O3 molecules twice as effective as SO2 molecules in inducing stomatal closure. Stomatal conductance was related to the integrated dose of pollutants. The regression equations relating integrated dose to stomatal conductance were similar with O3 alone, O3 plus added SO2, and O3 plus SO2 simultaneously; i.e. a dose of 100 micromoles per square meter produced a 39 to 45% reduction in conductance over nonexposed plants. With SO2 alone, or SO2 plus added O3, a dose of 100 micromoles per square meter produced a 20 to 25% reduction in conductance. When O3 was present at the start of the exposure, then stomatal response resembled that for O3 more than the response for SO2. This study indicated that stomatal responses with combinations of O3 and SO2 are not dependent solely on the integrated dose of pollutants, but suggests that a metabolic synergistic effect exists. PMID:16665041

  19. Informational constraints on interceptive actions of elite football goalkeepers in 1v1 dyads during competitive performance.

    PubMed

    Shafizadeh, Mohsen; Davids, Keith; Correia, Vanda; Wheat, Jonathan; Hizan, Hazuan

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether perceptual variables can provide informational constraints for the goalkeepers to intercept the ball successfully in 1v1 dyads. Video images of 42 actions (1v1 in direct shots) were selected randomly from different matches and divided into conceded goals (n = 20) and saved actions (n = 22) to investigate interceptive actions of 20 goalkeepers in the English Premier League in season 2013-2014. Time to Contact (TTC) of the closing distance gap between shooter and goalkeeper was obtained by digitising actions in the 18-yard penalty box. Statistical analyses revealed that, in sequences of play resulting in an intercepted shot at goal, goalkeepers closed down outfield players in the X axis, whereas when a goal was conceded, there was a significantly delayed movement by goalkeepers toward the shooters in this plane. The results of canonical correlations showed that a decreasing distance between a shooter and goalkeeper, and accompanied reduction in relative interpersonal velocity followed a temporal pattern. Findings of this study showed how perception of key informational constraints on dyadic system relations, such as TTC, interpersonal distance and relative velocity, constrain elite goalkeepers' interceptive actions, playing an important role in successful performance. PMID:26652039

  20. 77 FR 47090 - Notice of Realty Action; Proposed Competitive Sale of Public Lands in Washington County, UT

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-07

    ... Washington County, UT AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Bureau of... approximately 271.57 acres in Washington County, Utah, at not less than appraised fair market value. The sale... all written comments concerning this notice to the St. George Field Office, Attn: Shered Mullins,...

  1. Mobilizing for Competitiveness: Linking Education and Training to Jobs. A Call to Action from the California Business Roundtable. Summary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Business Roundtable.

    Prepared by the California Business Roundtable to help mobilize public and practice action in California, this report offers a vision for a comprehensive education and training system suited to the 21st century and proposes goals and strategies for its implementation. The report provides a framework for viewing K-12 education, community colleges,…

  2. 78 FR 76855 - Notice of Realty Action: Non-Competitive (Direct) Sale of Public Land in Campbell County, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-19

    ... Realty Action (NORA) in the Federal Register (78 FR 7809) to segregate the parcel from appropriation..., pages 13 and 14 and Map 5. Additionally, Maintenance Plan Change 20120720 was added to comply with... disposal map and included a text version of all legal descriptions of parcels identified for...

  3. Coexpression of Nuclear Receptors and Histone Methylation Modifying Genes in the Testis: Implications for Endocrine Disruptor Modes of Action

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Alison M.; Carter, Kim W.; Anderson, Denise; Wise, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    Background Endocrine disruptor chemicals elicit adverse health effects by perturbing nuclear receptor signalling systems. It has been speculated that these compounds may also perturb epigenetic mechanisms and thus contribute to the early origin of adult onset disease. We hypothesised that histone methylation may be a component of the epigenome that is susceptible to perturbation. We used coexpression analysis of publicly available data to investigate the combinatorial actions of nuclear receptors and genes involved in histone methylation in normal testis and when faced with endocrine disruptor compounds. Methodology/Principal Findings The expression patterns of a set of genes were profiled across testis tissue in human, rat and mouse, plus control and exposed samples from four toxicity experiments in the rat. Our results indicate that histone methylation events are a more general component of nuclear receptor mediated transcriptional regulation in the testis than previously appreciated. Coexpression patterns support the role of a gatekeeper mechanism involving the histone methylation modifiers Kdm1, Prdm2, and Ehmt1 and indicate that this mechanism is a common determinant of transcriptional integrity for genes critical to diverse physiological endpoints relevant to endocrine disruption. Coexpression patterns following exposure to vinclozolin and dibutyl phthalate suggest that coactivity of the demethylase Kdm1 in particular warrants further investigation in relation to endocrine disruptor mode of action. Conclusions/Significance This study provides proof of concept that a bioinformatics approach that profiles genes related to a specific hypothesis across multiple biological settings can provide powerful insight into coregulatory activity that would be difficult to discern at an individual experiment level or by traditional differential expression analysis methods. PMID:22496781

  4. Heterochromatin of the Drosophila melanogaster Y chromosome as modifier of position effect variegation: the time of its action.

    PubMed

    Becker, H J

    1977-03-01

    Addition of heterochromatin suppresses while subtraction enhances position effect variegation. The heterochromatin-sensitive period has been determined in white/white-apricot variegated eyes of YSWa/Wa; Dp (1,3)W264-58 flies. When such larvae, carrying a Y-short (YS) arm at the distal end of one X chromosome, are X-rayed, mitotic recombination leads to one daughter cell with two YS arms and an adjacent daughter cell with no YS arm. When induced after clonal initiation, the frequency of dark clones developing from daughter cells with two YS arms is significantly higher than the frequency of dark clones in the rest of the eye; and this frequency is even higher when induced before clonal initiation. The modifying action of the Y-heterochromatin is exerted, therefore, during and after clonal initiation. Surprisingly, the frequency of dark clones developing from cells with no YS arm is not lower than the frequency of dark clones in the rest of the eye. PMID:406511

  5. A Modified Method for Studying Behavioral Paradox of Antioxidants and Their Disproportionate Competitive Kinetic Effect to Scavenge the Peroxyl Radical Formation

    PubMed Central

    Masood, Nusrat; Fatima, Kaneez; Luqman, Suaib

    2014-01-01

    We have described a modified method for evaluating inhibitor of peroxyl radicals, a well-recognized and -documented radical involved in cancer initiation and promotion as well as diseases related to oxidative stress and ageing. We are reporting hydrophilic and lipophilic as well as natural and synthetic forms of antioxidants revealing a diversified behaviour to peroxyl radical in a dose-dependent manner (1 nM–10 μM). A simple kinetic model for the competitive oxidation of an indicator molecule (ABTS) and a various antioxidant by a radical (ROO•) is described. The influences of both the concentration of antioxidant and duration of reaction (70 min) on the inhibition of the radical cation absorption are taken into account while determining the activity. The induction time of the reaction was also proposed as a parameter enabling determination of antioxidant content by optimizing and introducing other kinetic parameters in 96-well plate assays. The test evidently improves the original PRTC (peroxyl radical trapping capacity) assay in terms of the amount of chemical used, simultaneous tracking, that is, the generation of the radical taking place continually and the kinetic reduction technique (area under curve, peak value, slope, and Vmax). PMID:24672395

  6. Saprotrophic competitiveness and biocontrol fitness of a genetically modified strain of the plant-growth-promoting fungus Trichoderma hamatum GD12.

    PubMed

    Ryder, Lauren S; Harris, Beverley D; Soanes, Darren M; Kershaw, Michael J; Talbot, Nicholas J; Thornton, Christopher R

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species are ubiquitous soil fungi that hold enormous potential for the development of credible alternatives to agrochemicals and synthetic fertilizers in sustainable crop production. In this paper, we show that substantial improvements in plant productivity can be met by genetic modification of a plant-growth-promoting and biocontrol strain of Trichoderma hamatum, but that these improvements are obtained in the absence of disease pressure only. Using a quantitative monoclonal antibody-based ELISA, we show that an N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase-deficient mutant of T. hamatum, generated by insertional mutagenesis of the corresponding gene, has impaired saprotrophic competitiveness during antagonistic interactions with Rhizoctonia solani in soil. Furthermore, its fitness as a biocontrol agent of the pre-emergence damping-off pathogen Sclerotinia sclerotiorum is significantly reduced, and its ability to promote plant growth is constrained by the presence of both pathogens. This work shows that while gains in T. hamatum-mediated plant-growth-promotion can be met through genetic manipulation of a single beneficial trait, such a modification has negative impacts on other aspects of its biology and ecology that contribute to its success as a saprotrophic competitor and antagonist of soil-borne pathogens. The work has important implications for fungal morphogenesis, demonstrating a clear link between hyphal architecture and secretory potential. Furthermore, it highlights the need for a holistic approach to the development of genetically modified Trichoderma strains for use as crop stimulants and biocontrol agents in plant agriculture. PMID:21835878

  7. School Meal Programs: Competitive Foods Are Available in Many Schools; Actions Taken To Restrict Them Differ by State and Locality. Report to Congressional Requesters. GAO-04-673

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bellis, David D.

    2004-01-01

    Because of concerns about trends in children's health and eating habits and interest in further understanding issues related to competitive foods in schools, this study addressed: which foods and school food practices fell under the term "competitive foods" and what federal restrictions existed on their sale; what was known about the types of…

  8. [Monitoring of blood parameters under course-modified MS therapy : Substance-specific relevance and current recommendations for action].

    PubMed

    Klotz, L; Berthele, A; Brück, W; Chan, A; Flachenecker, P; Gold, R; Haghikia, A; Hellwig, K; Hemmer, B; Hohlfeld, R; Korn, T; Kümpfel, T; Lang, M; Limmroth, V; Linker, R A; Meier, U; Meuth, S G; Paul, F; Salmen, A; Stangel, M; Tackenberg, B; Tumani, H; Warnke, C; Weber, M S; Ziemssen, T; Zipp, F; Wiendl, H

    2016-06-01

    With the approval of various substances for the immunotherapy of multiple sclerosis (MS), treatment possibilities have improved significantly over the last few years. Indeed, the choice of individually tailored preparations and treatment monitoring for the treating doctor is becoming increasingly more complex. This is particularly applicable for monitoring for a treatment-induced compromise of the immune system. The following article by members of the German Multiple Sclerosis Skills Network (KKNMS) and the task force "Provision Structures and Therapeutics" summarizes the practical recommendations for approved immunotherapy for mild to moderate and for (highly) active courses of MS. The focus is on elucidating the substance-specific relevance of particular laboratory parameters with regard to the mechanism of action and the side effects profile. To enable appropriate action to be taken in clinical practice, any blood work changes that can be expected, in addition to any undesirable laboratory findings and their causes and relevance, should be elucidated. PMID:26927677

  9. Pharmacological characterization of LY233053: A structurally novel tetrazole-substituted competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid antagonist with a short duration of action

    SciTech Connect

    Schoepp, D.D.; Ornstein, P.L.; Leander, J.D.; Lodge, D.; Salhoff, C.R.; Zeman, S.; Zimmerman, D.M. )

    1990-12-01

    This study reports the activity of a structurally novel excitatory amino acid receptor antagonist, LY233053 (cis-(+-)-4-((2H-tetrazol-5-yl)methyl)piperidine-2-carboxylic acid), the first tetrazole-containing competitive N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) antagonist. LY233053 potently inhibited NMDA receptor binding to rat brain membranes as shown by the in vitro displacement of (3H) CGS19755 (IC50 = 107 +/- 7 nM). No appreciable affinity in (3H)alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methylisoxazole-4-propionic acid (AMPA) or (3H)kainate binding assays was observed (IC50 values greater than 10,000 nM). In vitro NMDA receptor antagonist activity was further demonstrated by selective inhibition of NMDA-induced depolarization in cortical wedges (IC50 = 4.2 +/- 0.4 microM vs. 40 microM NMDA). LY233053 was effective after in vivo systemic administration in a number of animal models. In neonatal rats, LY233053 selectively blocked NMDA-induced convulsions (ED50 = 14.5 mg/kg i.p.) with a relatively short duration of action (2-4 hr). In pigeons, LY233053 potently antagonized (ED50 = 1.3 mg/kg i.m.) the behavioral suppressant effects of 10 mg/kg of NMDA. However, a dose of 160 mg/kg, i.m., was required to produce phencyclidine-like catalepsy in pigeons. In mice, LY233053 protected against maximal electroshock-induced seizures at lower doses (ED50 = 19.9 mg/kg i.p.) than those that impaired horizontal screen performance (ED50 = 40.9 mg/kg i.p.). Cholinergic and GABAergic neuronal degenerations after striatal infusion of NMDA were prevented by single or multiple i.p. doses of LY233053. In summary, the antagonist activity of LY233053 after systemic administration demonstrates potential therapeutic value in conditions of neuronal cell loss due to NMDA receptor excitotoxicity.

  10. Modified mass action law-based model to correlate the solubility of solids and liquids in entrained supercritical carbon dioxide.

    PubMed

    González, J C; Vieytes, M R; Botana, A M; Vieites, J M; Botana, L M

    2001-02-23

    The solubility of solids and liquids in supercritical CO2 with added entrainers was modeled with a modified version of the equation of Chrastil to include the effect of entrainers. By considering the formation of the solute-entrainer-solvent complexes an equation is obtained which predicts an exponential increase of solubility with fluid density and/or entrainer concentration. The correlating model was tested by non-linear regression through a computerized iterative process for several systems where an entrainer was present. Four experimental parameters are easily regressed from experimental data, hence the corresponding properties of components such as chemical potentials or critical parameters are not needed. Instead of its simplicity, this thermodynamical model provided a good correlation of the solubility enhancement in the presence of entrainer effect. PMID:11263564

  11. Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bergeron, Pierrette; Hiller, Christine A.

    2002-01-01

    Reviews the evolution of competitive intelligence since 1994, including terminology and definitions and analytical techniques. Addresses the issue of ethics; explores how information technology supports the competitive intelligence process; and discusses education and training opportunities for competitive intelligence, including core competencies…

  12. Viability and Resilience of Languages in Competition

    PubMed Central

    Chapel, Laetitia; Castelló, Xavier; Bernard, Claire; Deffuant, Guillaume; Eguíluz, Víctor M.; Martin, Sophie; Miguel, Maxi San

    2010-01-01

    We study the viability and resilience of languages, using a simple dynamical model of two languages in competition. Assuming that public action can modify the prestige of a language in order to avoid language extinction, we analyze two cases: (i) the prestige can only take two values, (ii) it can take any value but its change at each time step is bounded. In both cases, we determine the viability kernel, that is, the set of states for which there exists an action policy maintaining the coexistence of the two languages, and we define such policies. We also study the resilience of the languages and identify configurations from where the system can return to the viability kernel (finite resilience), or where one of the languages is lead to disappear (zero resilience). Within our current framework, the maintenance of a bilingual society is shown to be possible by introducing the prestige of a language as a control variable. PMID:20126655

  13. Friendly competition.

    PubMed

    Chambers, David W

    2006-01-01

    Competition that is characterized by rules, often informal, agreed among mutually accepted participants, and that gives the competitors a special, advantageous status with others is called friendly competition. Dentists have engaged in it deeply and it is good for the profession. Friendly competition offers the advantages of spillover of commonly useful information and technologies, stimulation of innovation, a united and convenient face to customers and suppliers, and standards that promote growth. Friendly competition increases the size of the pie, regardless of market share. Paradoxically, this is even true for the little guy in the shadow of the giant. If carried to extremes, unfriendly competition leads to destroying competitors, the confusion of multiple rules, and encouragement of disruptive change. PMID:17477218

  14. 78 FR 20697 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-05

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission is noticing a recent Postal Service filing concerning an addition to the competitive product list... 57 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ It asserts that Priority Mail Contract 57 is a...

  15. 78 FR 26404 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-06

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... 4 to the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public... Return Service Contract 4 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that...

  16. 78 FR 20360 - New Competitive Product

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-04

    ... New Competitive Product AGENCY: Postal Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Commission... the competitive product list. This notice informs the public of the filing, invites public comment... Priority Mail Contract 56 to the competitive product list.\\1\\ The Postal Service asserts that Priority...

  17. Involvement of Receptor Activity-Modifying Protein 3 (RAMP3) in the Vascular Actions of Adrenomedullin in Rat Mesenteric Artery Smooth Muscle Cells.

    PubMed

    Chauhan, Madhu; Yallampalli, Uma; Banadakappa, Manu; Yallampalli, Chandrasekhar

    2015-11-01

    CALCB, ADM, and ADM2 are potent vasodilators that share a seven-transmembrane GPCR, calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CALCRL), whose ligand specificity is dictated by the presence of one of the three receptor activity-modifying proteins (RAMPs). We assessed the relative pharmacologic potency of these peptides in mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and the specific RAMP that mediates the effect of ADM in VSMCs. VSMCs, with or without RAMP knockdown, were treated with CALCB, ADM, or ADM2 in the presence or absence of their antagonists, CALCB8-37, ADM22-52, and ADM217-47, respectively, to assess the relative effect of peptides on cAMP production and their pharmacologic potency. Proximity ligation assay was used to assess the specific RAMP that associates with CALCRL to mediate the actions of ADM in VSMCs. All three peptides induced cAMP generation in VSMCs and the order of their potency is CALCB > ADM > ADM2. Effects of CALCB were blocked by CALCB8-37, ADM effects were blocked by CALCB8-37 and ADM217-47 but not ADM22-52, and ADM2 effects were blocked by all three antagonists. Knockdown of RAMP2 was ineffective, whereas knockdown of RAMP3 inhibited ADM-induced cAMP production in VSMCs, suggesting involvement of RAMP3 with CALCRL to mediate ADM effects. Absence of both RAMP2 and RAMP3 further increased CALCB-induced cAMP synthesis compared to control (P < 0.05). ADM increased CALCRL and RAMP3 association and RAMP3 knockdown inhibited the interaction of ADM with CALCRL. PMID:26423127

  18. US Competitiveness in Synthetic Biology.

    PubMed

    Gronvall, Gigi Kwik

    2015-01-01

    Synthetic biology is an emerging technical field that aims to make biology easier to engineer; the field has applications in strategically important sectors for the US economy. While the United States currently leads in synthetic biology R&D, other nations are heavily investing in order to boost their economies, which will inevitably diminish the US leadership position. This outcome is not entirely negative--additional investments will expand markets--but it is critical that the US government take steps to remain competitive: There are applications from which the US population and economy may benefit; there are specific applications with importance for national defense; and US technical leadership will ensure that US experts have a leading role in synthetic biology governance, regulation, and oversight. Measures to increase competitiveness in S&T generally are broadly applicable for synthetic biology and should be pursued. However, the US government will also need to take action on fundamental issues that will affect the field's development, such as countering anti-GMO (genetically modified organism) sentiments and anti-GMO legislation. The United States should maintain its regulatory approach so that it is the product that is regulated, not the method used to create a product. At the same time, the United States needs to ensure that the regulatory framework is updated so that synthetic biology products do not fall into regulatory gaps. Finally, the United States needs to pay close attention to how synthetic biology applications may be governed internationally, such as through the Nagoya Protocol of the Convention on Biological Diversity, so that beneficial applications may be realized. PMID:26690379

  19. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  20. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2009-11-01

    1. Physics competitions: aims and realizations One aim of physics competitions is to increase the interest of young students, primarily at upper secondary level, to physics and natural sciences in general. A competition has motivational aspects known usually from sports events or games—comparing one's own ability with others, of course with the desire to be better and to win. If competitions reach nationwide and even international levels, additional stimulation is created. Competitions provide greatest attraction to possible winners, to the group of gifted people in a particular field. This implies that science contests are excellent tools for the promotion of talented students. Traditional teaching has been shown to have problems in supporting this group of students. Very often teachers are overstretched with the demands of teaching both low- and high-level students. Extracurricular activities are therefore a good chance to relieve the teacher, and to give talented students the opportunity for appropriate training and challenge. The competitions, however, have a broader impact and address more young people than one might guess from the statements above. Training courses and selection at school level give a larger group of students extra and, to some extent, complimentary education in physics. The degree of complexity of the tasks corresponds very often to the standards of the next level of education in the school system. Interestingly, many physics competitions have their origin in countries beyond the former Iron Curtain. They started as regional and national tournaments, were joined by neighbouring countries and have grown, in some cases, to events with participants from more than 80 countries. Although the features mentioned above are common to the different competitions, there are distinct differences between them [1]. The International Physics Olympiad (IPhO) is the oldest international physics competition for students at upper secondary level [2]. It dates

  1. Nanostructural Characterization of Modified Homogalacturonan with Pectin Methylesterase from Jelly Fig (Ficus awkeotsang Makino) Achenes and Modeling of Enzyme Mode of Action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    1. Justification: Pectin is a major hydrocolloid used in various food, cosmetics, and medicine pharmaceutical products. The relative amount of unmethylesterified galacturonic acid (GalA)residues and their distribution are key determinants of pectin functionality. Pectin methylesterase (PME) modifies...

  2. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2010-07-01

    This editorial opens the second special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics. In the first section last year, we asked for feedback on the idea of such a section and on the content of the articles. We received no answer whatsoever, which can be interpreted in two ways: the section is not interesting enough to raise motivation for feedback, or the reader is satisfied. Having no indication which scenario is the correct one, we are optimistic and favour the second. The section at hand contains three articles. Again, as last year, the organizer of the annual Olympiad reports on tasks and outcomes of this competition. The Olympiad took place in Merida, Mexico, and was by far the largest event with 316 contestants from 68 countries. Again, the predominance of Asian/Chinese students was manifest, showing how serious the training is taken by both their authorities and students. Unfortunately, the winners of the last International Young Physicists' Tournament (IYPT), the team from Korea, did not accept the offer to report on their prize-winning contribution. We are thankful that two students from Austria, who achieved second place with their team, took over and reported on the task which they presented in the finals of the competition. It connects the fields of sport and physics and explains a special move in skateboarding. The third contribution introduces a different competition, 'International Conference of Young Scientists'. On one hand, as in the Olympiad, it addresses individuals, not teams. On the other, as in the IYPT, students have several months to prepare and also the quality of the presentation is an important element of the judgment. In fact, this competition comes closer to real scientific research compared to the other events. Finally and again, we hope that this section will serve several purposes: To show the competitions as a very important tool in the support of gifted students. To raise awareness amongst university teachers, and

  3. Malaysian competition

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffs, E.

    1994-11-01

    Two years ago, the first tentative steps were taken to privatize the Malaysian electricity supply industry with the flotation of 25 percent of Tenaga Nasional Bhd. At the same time the terms were defined for independent power generation, and plans were drawn up for six projects. Now, with six independent power producer projects under construction adding more capacity than the partly privatized TNB, the utility`s station managers are concerned they will be at a competitive disadvantage unless they can operate under the same type of power sales agreement.

  4. EDITORIAL: Physics competitions Physics competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordens, H.; Mathelitsch, L.

    2011-07-01

    International tests on competences, such as TIMSS or PISA, and knowledge of young students have revealed low average scores in many countries, often unexpectedly. One effective measure to increase the average standard of a population is to bring the last third of the group to a higher level. Therefore, many nations put some effort into this activity. This brings the danger that not enough attention is paid to students at the other end, those who are talented. Indeed, it is a very difficult task for a teacher to support the less able and at the same time challenge the gifted students, to lead them to the limits of their abilities and provide for a smooth transition to university study. Physics competitions have been proven to fulfil these last demands to a large degree, and therefore are an important additional and, to some extent, complementary tool for the promotion of talented students. This third special section on physics competitions in European Journal of Physics contains three papers, each dealing with a different form of science contest. The first continues the series of presentations of tasks performed at the International Young Physicists' Tournament, which was held in Vienna in 2011. First place went to the team from Singapore, and they have put their investigation on vertical oscillations of coupled magnets into written form (not required by the tournament, where an oral presentation and a defence and discussion are the central aspects). Their paper shows how rich in physics this problem is, and what level of solutions high-school students can already achieve. Sadly, those responsible for the organization of last year's International Physics Olympiad did not provide us with a report on this competition. This is unfortunate, since the Olympiad in Zagreb was very successful and, in particular, the experimental tasks were creative and demanding. Very similar to the aims and the execution of the Physics Olympiad is the International Olympiad on Astronomy

  5. Competitive science: is competition ruining science?

    PubMed

    Fang, Ferric C; Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-04-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  6. Competitive Science: Is Competition Ruining Science?

    PubMed Central

    Casadevall, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Science has always been a competitive undertaking. Despite recognition of the benefits of cooperation and team science, reduced availability of funding and jobs has made science more competitive than ever. Here we consider the benefits of competition in providing incentives to scientists and the adverse effects of competition on resource sharing, research integrity, and creativity. The history of science shows that transformative discoveries often occur in the absence of competition, which only emerges once fields are established and goals are defined. Measures to encourage collaboration and ameliorate competition in the scientific enterprise are discussed. PMID:25605760

  7. All competition is not alike: Neural mechanisms for resolving underdetermined and prepotent competition

    PubMed Central

    Snyder, Hannah R.; Banich, Marie T.; Munakata, Yuko

    2014-01-01

    People must constantly select among potential thoughts and actions in the face of competition from (a) multiple task-relevant options (underdetermined competition) and (b) strongly dominant options that are not appropriate in the current context (prepotent competition). These types of competition are ubiquitous during language production. In this work, we investigate the neural mechanisms that allow individuals to effectively manage these cognitive control demands and to quickly choose words with few errors. Using fMRI, we directly contrast underdetermined and prepotent competition within the same task (verb generation) for the first time, allowing localization of the neural substrates supporting the resolution of these two types of competition. Using a neural network model, we investigate the possible mechanisms by which these brain regions support selection. Together, our findings demonstrate that all competition is not alike: resolving prepotent competition and resolving underdetermined competition rely on partly dissociable neural substrates and mechanisms. Specifically, activation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex is specific to resolving underdetermined competition between multiple appropriate responses, most likely via competitive lateral inhibition. In contrast, activation of left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex is sensitive to both underdetermined competition and prepotent competition from response options that are inappropriate in the current context. This region likely provides top-down support for task-relevant responses, which enables them to out-compete prepotent responses in the selection process that occurs in left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. PMID:24742155

  8. 32 CFR 173.2 - Competitive Information Certification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the offeror may have obtained an unfair competitive advantage from the information and that there is... action may be taken to neutralize the potential unfair competitive advantage. Any decision to deny award... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive Information Certification....

  9. 76 FR 35465 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing...

  10. 77 FR 40630 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-10

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Colorado AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the Mineral Leasing Act of 1920,...

  11. 76 FR 18240 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  12. 76 FR 11258 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., Wyoming, will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of...

  13. 76 FR 64099 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-17

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that..., will be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the...

  14. Lunabotics Mining Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, Rob; Murphy, Gloria

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation describes a competition to design a lunar robot (lunabot) that can be controlled either remotely or autonomously, isolated from the operator, and is designed to mine a lunar aggregate simulant. The competition is part of a systems engineering curriculum. The 2010 competition winners in five areas of the competition were acknowledged, and the 2011 competition was announced.

  15. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  16. Competitive spirit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2000-01-01

    Leicester University will host the 65 international teams of students who will assemble in July for this year's International Physics Olympiad . The last time the Olympiad came to the UK was in 1986 in London, and it was the notable enthusiasm of the Leicester Physics and Astronomy department which persuaded the Olympiad Committee to give them the chance of organizing the prestigious event. The students taking part from all over the world are studying physics at A-level or an equivalent standard and they will take part in an intellectual marathon of theoretical and practical examinations. Each national team comprises five students selected from three rounds of competition and the teams will receive an official welcome from the city, as well as opportunities to visit some of the important educational and cultural centres of the surrounding region. The finalists will also be able to test their skills and initiative at the Challenger Learning Centre, which forms part of Leicester's new National Space Science Centre. Specific information on the event can be found on the Olympiad-2000 website at www.star.le.ac.uk/IphO-2000 . The Rudolf Ortvay problem solving contest in physics, which takes place in November, is a tradition of Eötvös University in Budapest, Hungary. The competition was first opened to international participants in 1998, enabling students from universities around the world to show their knowledge, ingenuity, problem-solving skills and physical insight into problems that are far beyond routine level. The problems (30 - 35 each year) are chosen from different branches of theoretical as well as applied physics. They have varying levels of difficulty, and every contestant can send solutions for ten problems. The focus is not on school-level problem-solving routines but rather on the `physical' way of thinking, recognition of the heart of the problem and an appropriate choice of mathematics. The majority of the assigned problems are original, few having

  17. Characterization of the mechanism of action of the genetically modified Cry1AbMod toxin that is active against Cry1Ab-resistant insects.

    PubMed

    Muñóz-Garay, Carlos; Portugal, Leivi; Pardo-López, Liliana; Jiménez-Juárez, Nuria; Arenas, Ivan; Gómez, Isabel; Sánchez-López, Rosana; Arroyo, Raquel; Holzenburg, Andreas; Savva, Christos G; Soberón, Mario; Bravo, Alejandra

    2009-10-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis Cry toxins are used in the control of insect pests. They are pore-forming toxins with a complex mechanism that involves the sequential interaction with receptors. They are produced as protoxins, which are activated by midgut proteases. Activated toxin binds to cadherin receptor, inducing an extra cleavage including helix alpha-1, facilitating the formation of a pre-pore oligomer. The toxin oligomer binds to secondary receptors such as aminopeptidase and inserts into lipid rafts forming pores and causing larval death. The primary threat to efficacy of Bt-toxins is the evolution of insect resistance. Engineered Cry1AMod toxins, devoid of helix alpha-1, could be used for the control of resistance in lepidopterans by bypassing the altered cadherin receptor, killing resistant insects affected in this receptor. Here we analyzed the mechanism of action of Cry1AbMod. We found that alkaline pH and the presence of membrane lipids facilitates the oligomerization of Cry1AbMod. In addition, tryptophan fluorescence emission spectra, ELISA binding to pure aminopeptidase receptor, calcein release assay and analysis of ionic-conductance in planar lipid bilayers, indicated that the secondary steps in mode of action that take place after interaction with cadherin receptor such as oligomerization, receptor binding and pore formation are similar in the Cry1AbMod and in the wild type Cry1Ab. Finally, the membrane-associated structure of Cry1AbMod oligomer was analyzed by electron crystallography showing that it forms a complex with a trimeric organization. PMID:19559004

  18. Lenalidomide as a disease-modifying agent in patients with del(5q) myelodysplastic syndromes: linking mechanism of action to clinical outcomes.

    PubMed

    Giagounidis, Aristoteles; Mufti, Ghulam J; Fenaux, Pierre; Germing, Ulrich; List, Alan; MacBeth, Kyle J

    2014-01-01

    Deletion of the long arm of chromosome 5, del(5q), is the most prevalent cytogenetic abnormality in patients with myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS). In isolation, it is traditionally associated with favorable prognosis compared with other subtypes of MDS. However, owing to the inherent heterogeneity of the disease, prognosis for patients with del(5q) MDS is highly variable depending on the presence of factors such as additional chromosomal abnormalities, >5 % blasts in the bone marrow (BM), or transfusion dependence. Over recent years, the immunomodulatory drug lenalidomide has demonstrated remarkable efficacy in patients with del(5q) MDS. Advances in the understanding of the pathogenesis of the disease have suggested that lenalidomide targets aberrant signaling pathways caused by haplosufficiency of specific genes in a commonly deleted region on chromosome 5 (e.g., SPARC, RPS14, Cdc25C, and PP2A). As a result, the agent specifically targets del(5q) clones while also promoting erythropoiesis and repopulation of the bone marrow in normal cells. This review discusses recent developments in the understanding of the mechanism of action of lenalidomide, and how this underlies favorable outcomes in patients with del(5q) MDS. In addition, we discuss how improved understanding of the mechanism of disease will facilitate clinicians' ability to predict/monitor response and identify patients at risk of relapse. PMID:24018623

  19. Plant cell wall extensibility: connecting plant cell growth with cell wall structure, mechanics, and the action of wall-modifying enzymes.

    PubMed

    Cosgrove, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The advent of user-friendly instruments for measuring force/deflection curves of plant surfaces at high spatial resolution has resulted in a recent outpouring of reports of the 'Young's modulus' of plant cell walls. The stimulus for these mechanical measurements comes from biomechanical models of morphogenesis of meristems and other tissues, as well as single cells, in which cell wall stress feeds back to regulate microtubule organization, auxin transport, cellulose deposition, and future growth directionality. In this article I review the differences between elastic modulus and wall extensibility in the context of cell growth. Some of the inherent complexities, assumptions, and potential pitfalls in the interpretation of indentation force/deflection curves are discussed. Reported values of elastic moduli from surface indentation measurements appear to be 10- to >1000-fold smaller than realistic tensile elastic moduli in the plane of plant cell walls. Potential reasons for this disparity are discussed, but further work is needed to make sense of the huge range in reported values. The significance of wall stress relaxation for growth is reviewed and connected to recent advances and remaining enigmas in our concepts of how cellulose, hemicellulose, and pectins are assembled to make an extensible cell wall. A comparison of the loosening action of α-expansin and Cel12A endoglucanase is used to illustrate two different ways in which cell walls may be made more extensible and the divergent effects on wall mechanics. PMID:26608646

  20. The Janus face of Darwinian competition.

    PubMed

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating. PMID:26354182

  1. The Janus face of Darwinian competition

    PubMed Central

    Hintze, Arend; Phillips, Nathaniel; Hertwig, Ralph

    2015-01-01

    Without competition, organisms would not evolve any meaningful physical or cognitive abilities. Competition can thus be understood as the driving force behind Darwinian evolution. But does this imply that more competitive environments necessarily evolve organisms with more sophisticated cognitive abilities than do less competitive environments? Or is there a tipping point at which competition does more harm than good? We examine the evolution of decision strategies among virtual agents performing a repetitive sampling task in three distinct environments. The environments differ in the degree to which the actions of a competitor can affect the fitness of the sampling agent, and in the variance of the sample. Under weak competition, agents evolve decision strategies that sample often and make accurate decisions, which not only improve their own fitness, but are good for the entire population. Under extreme competition, however, the dark side of the Janus face of Darwinian competition emerges: Agents are forced to sacrifice accuracy for speed and are prevented from sampling as often as higher variance in the environment would require. Modest competition is therefore a good driver for the evolution of cognitive abilities and of the population as a whole, whereas too much competition is devastating. PMID:26354182

  2. Competition in the Marketplace.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    The conceptual introduction to this issue focuses on two questions: why study competition and what is a competitive market. Four instructional units follow, beginning with "Choosing Competitors." This preschool and kindergarten unit involves students in competitive games (naming colors), role playing competitive behaviors, comparing toys, and…

  3. Competition in Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, John Martin; DeVitis, Joseph L.

    This book discusses various major aspects of competition in education. It identifies competition within educational policies, programs, and practices, as well as the problems that certain forms of competition create. It also traces the influences of American competitive values on education. Chapter 1 provides an introductory overview of the…

  4. Autonomy Support and Its Links to Physical Activity and Competitive Performance: Mediations through Motivation, Competence, Action Orientation and Harmonious Passion, and the Moderator Role of Autonomy Support by Perceived Competence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halvari, Hallgeir; Ulstad, Svein Olav; Bagoien, Tor Egil; Skjesol, Knut

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to test a Self-Determination Theory (SDT) process model in relation to involvement in physical activity and competitive performance among students (N = 190). In this model, perceived autonomy support from teachers and coaches was expected to be positively related to autonomous motivation, perceived competence,…

  5. FIRST teams watch the competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    FIRST teams watch robots in action during the FIRST competition. Students from all over the country are at the KSC Visitor Complex for the FIRST (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) Southeast Regional competition March 9-11 in the Rocket Garden. Teams of high school students are testing the limits of their imagination using robots they have designed, with the support of business and engineering professionals and corporate sponsors, to compete in a technological battle against other schools' robots. Of the 30 high school teams competing, 16 are Florida teams co-sponsored by NASA and KSC contractors. Local high schools participating are Astronaut, Bayside, Cocoa Beach, Eau Gallie, Melbourne, Melbourne Central Catholic, Palm Bay, Rockledge, Satellite, and Titusville.

  6. Modified cyanobacteria

    DOEpatents

    Vermaas, Willem F J.

    2014-06-17

    Disclosed is a modified photoautotrophic bacterium comprising genes of interest that are modified in terms of their expression and/or coding region sequence, wherein modification of the genes of interest increases production of a desired product in the bacterium relative to the amount of the desired product production in a photoautotrophic bacterium that is not modified with respect to the genes of interest.

  7. Revising the Competitiveness Index using factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Houston, John; Harris, Paul; McIntire, Sandra; Francis, Dientje

    2002-02-01

    The Competitiveness Index is a 20-item true-false measure designed to assess the desire to win in interpersonal situations. To develop a more psychometrically sound form of the scale, 213 undergraduates were administered the original form and a modified version containing a 5-point Likert-type scale. An initial principal component analysis using a varimax rotation of the modified version yielded a four-factor solution accounting for 54.5% of the explained variance. Based on a subsequent reliability analysis. six items were dropped from the modified scale. A second analysis produced a two-factor solution accounting for 54.1% of the explained variance. Both factors (Enjoyment of Competition and Contentiousness) formed reliable subscales. The 14-item Revised Competitiveness Index had high internal consistency and was positively correlated with the original Competitiveness Index, the competitiveness subscales of the Work and Family Orientation Questionnaire, the Sports Orientation Questionnaire, and the Nach Naff measure of Need for Achievement. PMID:11899003

  8. Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liles, Cassandra

    2009-01-01

    The Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition is a new competition that needs graphics, logos, rules, as well as an arena. Although this is the first year of the competition, the competition is modeled after an existing competition, the Centennial Lunar Excavator Challenge. This competition however is aimed at college students. This makes the challenge identifying key aspects of the original competition and modeling them to fit into an easier task, and creating exciting advertisement that helps encourage participation. By using a youth focus group, young insight, as well as guiding advice from experts in the field, hopefully an arena can be designed and built, rules can be molded and created to fit, and alluring graphics can be printed to bring about a successful first year of the Lunar Regolith Excavation Competition.

  9. Modifying effects of a single injection of phenobarbital on the inhibitory action of benzo(a)pyrene on 3H-thymidine incorporation into various organs of the mouse.

    PubMed

    Hellman, B

    1986-01-01

    The effects of the procarcinogen benzo(a)pyrene and the enzyme inducer phenobarbital on the DNA turnover in various organs of male C57BL mice were evaluated by measuring the incorporation of [6-3H]thymidine. When injected intraperitoneally 48 h before sacrifice, benzo(a)pyrene (28.8 mg/kg body weight) inhibited the incorporation of 3H-thymidine into the spleen, thymus, testis, and small intestine. A corresponding analysis with phenobarbital sodium (75 mg/kg b.w.) revealed reduced incorporation of 3H-thymidine into the pancreas (after 24 h) and bone marrow (after 72 h). The effects of combining benzo(a)pyrene and phenobarbital was examined by injecting the latter agent either 24 h before or after the polycyclic hydrocarbon. A previous injection of phenobarbital resulted in a potentiation of the inhibitory action of benzo(a)pyrene in the spleen. However, when phenobarbital was given after benzo(a)pyrene, there was a five-fold increase of the 3H-thymidine incorporation into the liver in comparison to the controls given vehicle. The demonstration that a single injection of phenobarbital has modifying effects on the 3H-thymidine incorporation both when administered alone and in combination with benzo(a)pyrene indicates that enzyme inducers may influence the outcome in genotoxicity tests. PMID:3767600

  10. Effect of different factors modifying the activity of some enzyme systems of the endoplasmic reticulum on the sensitivity of cell organelles against the damaging action of chemical agents. II. Studies with chlorpromazine, 2,4-dinitrophenol, phenobarbital and DDT.

    PubMed

    Popov, C S; Yantchev, I; Popova, M P; Vultcheva, G M

    1979-02-01

    Further investigations on the effect of different stress factors on the stability of intracellular membranes were carried out. Large granule fractions derived from livers of sleep-deprived and dehydrated rats and subjected to preincubation at 37 degrees and pH 5 were shown to release latent acid phosphatase with a delayed rate indicating an increased lysosomal stability towards acid media conditioning. Lysosomes of such animals, however, were found to be more sensitive to mechanical treatments (homogenization procedure in this case) than that of controls, a conclusion made on the basis of enhanced "free" and nonsedimentable phosphatase activities in liver homogenates. The stress factors which previously were included in the group of modifiers of the activity of the endoplasmic reticulum-located enzymes caused some changes in the action of certain chemicals on membranes. Earlier such changes were elicited for carbon tetrachloride and only on low-temperature-conditioned rats for chlorpromazine. The present results show that stress factors studied result in deviations (different in extent and in direction) from the usual effects of chlorpromazine, 2,4-dinitrophenol, phenobarbital and DDT on liver lysosomes and peroxisomes. PMID:465308

  11. Strategizing for Intense Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hahn, William; Bourgeois, Ernest J., Jr.

    1999-01-01

    Examines trend toward more aggressive student recruiting strategies by colleges and universities, applying a model that assesses five competitive forces-cause and effect of competition, the expanding marketplace, substitute products, buyer power, and supplier power, and examines various strategies for dealing with these competitive forces, such as…

  12. In Defence of Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prvulovich, Zika Rad

    1982-01-01

    Examines objections to competition as presented by educational philosopher Michael Fielding and others. The two major types of criticism of competition are that it is unfair and divisive and that it is selfish and immoral. The author advocates educational experiences which combine self-competition with cooperation. (AM)

  13. Competitive Anxiety in Sport.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martens, Rainer; And Others

    This book is a comprehensive review of competitive anxiety research that has used the Sport Competition Anxiety Test, or SCAT (a trait scale), and the Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2). The book describes the theoretical basis and development procedures for both scales, including detailed information on reliability and validity. In…

  14. Build a Positive Classroom Environment: Avoid Competition!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Self, Nancy S.

    2009-01-01

    Elementary teachers often instigate competition among their students through such common statements as: "Students who make 100 on the spelling test may have 10 minutes of extra center time" and "The most creatively written story this week will be placed on the bulletin board." While such pronouncements motivate some students into action, they…

  15. Student Perspectives of Competition: A Qualitative Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael W.; Lucius, Jennifer Evens; Johnson, Sharon

    2009-01-01

    The present study involved action research of appraising business students' individual assessments of a classroom competition exercise in which they participated for a university semester. Analysis of in-depth interviews held with each student show four over-arching themes shared by the participants. First, students showed significant self-insight…

  16. Aminoglycoside Modifying Enzymes

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez, Maria S.; Tolmasky, Marcelo E.

    2010-01-01

    Aminoglycosides have been an essential component of the armamentarium in the treatment of life-threatening infections. Unfortunately, their efficacy has been reduced by the surge and dissemination of resistance. In some cases the levels of resistance reached the point that rendered them virtually useless. Among many known mechanisms of resistance to aminoglycosides, enzymatic modification is the most prevalent in the clinical setting. Aminoglycoside modifying enzymes catalyze the modification at different −OH or −NH2 groups of the 2-deoxystreptamine nucleus or the sugar moieties and can be nucleotidyltranferases, phosphotransferases, or acetyltransferases. The number of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes identified to date as well as the genetic environments where the coding genes are located is impressive and there is virtually no bacteria that is unable to support enzymatic resistance to aminoglycosides. Aside from the development of new aminoglycosides refractory to as many as possible modifying enzymes there are currently two main strategies being pursued to overcome the action of aminoglycoside modifying enzymes. Their successful development would extend the useful life of existing antibiotics that have proven effective in the treatment of infections. These strategies consist of the development of inhibitors of the enzymatic action or of the expression of the modifying enzymes. PMID:20833577

  17. Utility competition with small business. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    D'Addario, P.J.

    1986-06-10

    The purpose of the study is to take a further, and broader, look at the competition issue between utilities and small businesses of energy-related utility programs. The contractor examined in greater depth the reasons for utility interest in diversifying into nonregulated, and competitive, energy-related fields; the elements of utility subsidization of these non-regulated activities; the potential remedies that small businesses have to counter unfair or illegal competition; the scope of the cross-subsidy problem; and the effectiveness of specific actions taken by small businesses against utilities. The purpose of the report is, therefore, to address these five areas, including five key case studies of actual small business complaints against alleged unfair or illegal utility competition.

  18. 76 FR 63951 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-14

    ... November 7, 2005, are subject to cost recovery on a case-by-case basis (See 43 CFR 3000.10(d)(1), 70 FR... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale, Utah AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of competitive coal lease sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that that...

  19. Approximate kernel competitive learning.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jian-Sheng; Zheng, Wei-Shi; Lai, Jian-Huang

    2015-03-01

    Kernel competitive learning has been successfully used to achieve robust clustering. However, kernel competitive learning (KCL) is not scalable for large scale data processing, because (1) it has to calculate and store the full kernel matrix that is too large to be calculated and kept in the memory and (2) it cannot be computed in parallel. In this paper we develop a framework of approximate kernel competitive learning for processing large scale dataset. The proposed framework consists of two parts. First, it derives an approximate kernel competitive learning (AKCL), which learns kernel competitive learning in a subspace via sampling. We provide solid theoretical analysis on why the proposed approximation modelling would work for kernel competitive learning, and furthermore, we show that the computational complexity of AKCL is largely reduced. Second, we propose a pseudo-parallelled approximate kernel competitive learning (PAKCL) based on a set-based kernel competitive learning strategy, which overcomes the obstacle of using parallel programming in kernel competitive learning and significantly accelerates the approximate kernel competitive learning for large scale clustering. The empirical evaluation on publicly available datasets shows that the proposed AKCL and PAKCL can perform comparably as KCL, with a large reduction on computational cost. Also, the proposed methods achieve more effective clustering performance in terms of clustering precision against related approximate clustering approaches. PMID:25528318

  20. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  1. Four paths of competition

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1995-05-01

    The financial community`s focus on utility competition has been riveted on the proceedings now in progress at state regulatory commissions. The fear that something immediately damaging will come out of these proceedings seems to have diminished in recent months, and the stock market has reacted favorably. However, regulatory developments are only one of four paths leading to competition; the others are the marketplace, the legislatures, and the courts. Each could play a critical role in the emergence of competition.

  2. Intramural Gymnastics Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cornelius, William L.

    1981-01-01

    An intramural gymnastic competition, if properly organized, can foster student and community interest in gymnastics. Aspects of organization and essential preplanning include: directing, judging, scoring, and managing. (JN)

  3. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  4. Utah Mock Trial Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Linda, Comp.

    Background materials and guidelines for secondary students and educators in Utah who wish to participate in the state-wide mock trial competition are provided. Many parts of the publication can be used by educators in other states who are using mock trials in their classrooms or who are developing a state-wide mock trial competition. The manual…

  5. Competition: Was Kohn Right?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shields, David Light; Bredemeier, Brenda Light

    2010-01-01

    Alfie Kohn made the case for competition being destructive to education. The truth may be that there are two separate ways to contest: true competition, which is a healthy desire to excel, and decompetition, which is the unhealthy desire merely to beat the opponent. Decompetition leads to the ills that Kohn enumerated. Educators should teach their…

  6. Competitiveness, Technology and Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lall, Sanjaya

    This document examines competitiveness in the developing world. Chapters 1 through 3, which are largely conceptual, examine the following topics: the concept of competitiveness and why it is important; market-stimulating technology policies in developing countries, and the relationship between import liberalization and industrial performance.…

  7. The harms of smoking and benefits of smoking cessation in women compared with men with type 2 diabetes: an observational analysis of the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial

    PubMed Central

    Blomster, Juuso I; Woodward, Mark; Zoungas, Sophia; Hillis, Graham S; Harrap, Stephen; Neal, Bruce; Poulter, Neil; Mancia, Giuseppe; Chalmers, John; Huxley, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives In general populations, the adverse effects of smoking on coronary risk have been demonstrated to be greater in women than in men; whether this is true for individuals with diabetes is unclear. Design Cohort study. Setting 20 countries worldwide participating in the ADVANCE (Action in Diabetes and Vascular Disease: Preterax and Diamicron modified release Controlled Evaluation) trial. Participants 11 140 patients with type 2 diabetes aged ≥55 years and in cardiovascular risk at the time of randomisation. Primary and secondary outcome measures Major cardiovascular events (death from cardiovascular disease, non-fatal stroke or non-fatal myocardial infarction (MI)), all cardiovascular events (major cardiovascular event or peripheral arterial disease or transient ischaemic attack), and all-cause mortality. Secondary outcome measures were major coronary events (fatal and non-fatal MI), major cerebrovascular events (fatal and non-fatal stroke), nephropathy (new or worsening renal disease), and all cancer. Results At baseline, 6466 (56% women) participants were never-smokers, 1550 (28% women) were daily smokers and 3124 (21% women) were former smokers. Median follow-up time was 5 years. In Cox regression models after multiple adjustments, compared with never smoking, daily smoking was associated with increased risk of all primary and secondary outcomes with the exception of major cerebrovascular disease. Only for major coronary events was there any evidence of a stronger effect in women than in men (ratio of the adjusted HRs women:men; 1.64 (0.83 to 3.26) p=0.08). For all other outcomes considered, the hazards of smoking were similar in men and women. Quitting smoking was associated with a 30% reduction in all-cause mortality (p=0.001) in both sexes. Conclusions In individuals with diabetes, the effects of smoking on all major forms of cardiovascular disease are equally as hazardous in women and men with the possible exception of major coronary events

  8. Species‐specific action of (Pro3)GIP – a full agonist at human GIP receptors, but a partial agonist and competitive antagonist at rat and mouse GIP receptors

    PubMed Central

    Sparre‐Ulrich, A H; Hansen, L S; Svendsen, B; Christensen, M; Knop, F K; Hartmann, B; Holst, J J

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Specific, high potency receptor antagonists are valuable tools when evaluating animal and human physiology. Within the glucose‐dependent, insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) system, considerable attention has been given to the presumed GIP receptor antagonist, (Pro3)GIP, and its effect in murine studies. We conducted a pharmacological analysis of this ligand including interspecies differences between the rodent and human GIP system. Experimental Approach Transiently transfected COS‐7 cells were assessed for cAMP accumulation upon ligand stimulation and assayed in competition binding using 125I‐human GIP. Using isolated perfused pancreata both from wild type and GIP receptor‐deficient rodents, insulin‐releasing, glucagon‐releasing and somatostatin‐releasing properties in response to species‐specific GIP and (Pro3)GIP analogues were evaluated. Key Results Human (Pro3)GIP is a full agonist at human GIP receptors with similar efficacy (E max) for cAMP production as human GIP, while both rat and mouse(Pro3)GIP were partial agonists on their corresponding receptors. Rodent GIPs are more potent and efficacious at their receptors than human GIP. In perfused pancreata in the presence of 7 mM glucose, both rodent (Pro3)GIP analogues induced modest insulin, glucagon and somatostatin secretion, corresponding to the partial agonist activities observed in cAMP production. Conclusions and Implications When evaluating new compounds, it is important to consider interspecies differences both at the receptor and ligand level. Thus, in rodent models, human GIP is a comparatively weak partial agonist. Human (Pro3)GIP was not an antagonist at human GIP receptors, so there is still a need for a potent antagonist in order to elucidate the physiology of human GIP. PMID:26359804

  9. 76 FR 61478 - Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-04

    ... Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC) AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness will..., President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, Office of the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance,...

  10. 77 FR 1127 - Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-09

    ... Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC) AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness will..., President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, Office of the Under Secretary for Domestic Finance,...

  11. 76 FR 7629 - Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-10

    ... Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC) AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of Open Meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness will... Oxtoby, Designated Federal Officer, President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, Office of the...

  12. 76 FR 31680 - Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC)

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Open Meeting of the President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness (PCJC) AGENCY: Departmental Offices, Treasury. ACTION: Notice of open meeting. SUMMARY: The President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness will... Officer, President's Council on Jobs and Competitiveness, Office of the Under Secretary for...

  13. 78 FR 19799 - National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-02

    ... United States Mint National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition ACTION: Notification of the Opening of the National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coin Program Design Competition... (heads side) of the 2014 National Baseball Hall of Fame Commemorative Coins. The competition, which...

  14. 77 FR 18883 - Announcement of the Fall 2012 Annual Grant Competition for Immediate Release

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-28

    ... Announcement of the Fall 2012 Annual Grant Competition for Immediate Release AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency announces its Annual Grant Competition, which offers support... conflict resolution. The Annual Grant Competition is open to any project that falls within the...

  15. 75 FR 27625 - Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-17

    ... PEACE Announcement of the Fall 2010 Annual Grant Competition Effective October 1, 2010 AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency announces its Annual Grant Competition... international peace and conflict resolution. The Annual Grant Competition is open to any project that...

  16. 78 FR 28291 - Announcement of the Fall 2013 Annual Grant Competition for Immediate Release

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Announcement of the Fall 2013 Annual Grant Competition for Immediate Release AGENCY: United States Institute of Peace. ] ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: The Agency announces its Annual Grant Competition, which offers... and conflict resolution. The Annual Grant Competition is open to any project that falls within...

  17. 78 FR 19520 - Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-01

    ... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale COC-74813, CO AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Competitive Coal Lease Sale. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that... be offered for competitive lease by sealed bid in accordance with the provisions of the...

  18. 78 FR 53486 - Addition of Round-Trip Mailer Product to the Competitive Product List

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-29

    ... Round-Trip Mailer Product to the Competitive Product List AGENCY: Postal Service TM ACTION: Notice... Commission to add a product called ``Round-Trip Mailer'' to the competitive product list. DATES: Effective... (Commission) a request to add a ``Round-Trip Mailer'' product to its competitive product list, pursuant...

  19. 77 FR 58511 - Announcement of Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2011

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... Bureau of the Census Announcement of Competition Under the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act of 2011 AGENCY: Bureau of the Census, Commerce. ACTION: Notice of competition announcement. SUMMARY: The Census Bureau announces a prize competition under Section 105 of the America COMPETES Reauthorization Act...

  20. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  1. Competitive hybridization models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cherepinsky, Vera; Hashmi, Ghazala; Mishra, Bud

    2010-11-01

    Microarray technology, in its simplest form, allows one to gather abundance data for target DNA molecules, associated with genomes or gene-expressions, and relies on hybridizing the target to many short probe oligonucleotides arrayed on a surface. While for such multiplexed reactions conditions are optimized to make the most of each individual probe-target interaction, subsequent analysis of these experiments is based on the implicit assumption that a given experiment yields the same result regardless of whether it was conducted in isolation or in parallel with many others. It has been discussed in the literature that this assumption is frequently false, and its validity depends on the types of probes and their interactions with each other. We present a detailed physical model of hybridization as a means of understanding probe interactions in a multiplexed reaction. Ultimately, the model can be derived from a system of ordinary differential equations (ODE’s) describing kinetic mass action with conservation-of-mass equations completing the system. We examine pairwise probe interactions in detail and present a model of “competition” between the probes for the target—especially, when the target is effectively in short supply. These effects are shown to be predictable from the affinity constants for each of the four probe sequences involved, namely, the match and mismatch sequences for both probes. These affinity constants are calculated from the thermodynamic parameters such as the free energy of hybridization, which are in turn computed according to the nearest neighbor (NN) model for each probe and target sequence. Simulations based on the competitive hybridization model explain the observed variability in the signal of a given probe when measured in parallel with different groupings of other probes or individually. The results of the simulations can be used for experiment design and pooling strategies, based on which probes have been shown to have a strong

  2. Foreign Energy Company Competitiveness: Background information

    SciTech Connect

    Weimar, M.R.; Freund, K.A.; Roop, J.M.

    1994-10-01

    This report provides background information to the report Energy Company Competitiveness: Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994). The main body of this publication consists of data uncovered during the course of research on this DOE report. This data pertains to major government energy policies in each country studied. This report also provides a summary of the DOE report. In October 1993, the Office of Energy Intelligence, US Department of Energy (formerly the Office of Foreign Intelligence), requested that Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepare a report addressing policies and actions used by foreign governments to enhance the competitiveness of their energy firms. Pacific Northwest Laboratory prepared the report Energy Company Competitiveness Little to Do With Subsidies (DOE 1994), which provided the analysis requested by DOE. An appendix was also prepared, which provided extensive background documentation to the analysis. Because of the length of the appendix, Pacific Northwest Laboratory decided to publish this information separately, as contained in this report.

  3. 2000 FIRST Robotics Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2000-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2000 FIRST Robotics competition. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  4. Aboveground and belowground competition between willow Salix caprea its understory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudrák, Ondřej; Hermová, Markéta; Frouz, Jan

    2016-04-01

    The effects of aboveground and belowground competition with the willow S. caprea on its understory plant community were studied in unreclaimed post-mining sites. Belowground competition was evaluated by comparing (i) frames inserted into the soil that excluded woody roots (frame treatment), (ii) frames that initially excluded woody root growth but then allowed regrowth of the roots (open-frame treatment), and (iii) undisturbed soil (no-frame treatment). These treatments were combined with S. caprea thinning to assess the effect of aboveground competition. Three years after the start of the experiment, aboveground competition from S. caprea (as modified by thinning of the S. caprea canopy) had not affected understory biomass or species number but had affected species composition. In contrast, belowground competition significantly affected both the aboveground and belowground biomass of the understory. The aboveground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame treatment (which excluded woody roots) than in the other two treatments. The belowground biomass of the understory was greater in the frame than in the open-frame treatment. Unlike aboveground competition (light availability), belowground competition did not affect understory species composition. Our results suggest that S. caprea is an important component during plant succession on post-mining sites because it considerably modifies its understory plant community. Belowground competition is a major reason for the low cover and biomass of the herbaceous understory in S. caprea stands on post-mining sites.

  5. Competition for land

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Pete; Gregory, Peter J.; van Vuuren, Detlef; Obersteiner, Michael; Havlík, Petr; Rounsevell, Mark; Woods, Jeremy; Stehfest, Elke; Bellarby, Jessica

    2010-01-01

    A key challenge for humanity is how a future global population of 9 billion can all be fed healthily and sustainably. Here, we review how competition for land is influenced by other drivers and pressures, examine land-use change over the past 20 years and consider future changes over the next 40 years. Competition for land, in itself, is not a driver affecting food and farming in the future, but is an emergent property of other drivers and pressures. Modelling studies suggest that future policy decisions in the agriculture, forestry, energy and conservation sectors could have profound effects, with different demands for land to supply multiple ecosystem services usually intensifying competition for land in the future. In addition to policies addressing agriculture and food production, further policies addressing the primary drivers of competition for land (population growth, dietary preference, protected areas, forest policy) could have significant impacts in reducing competition for land. Technologies for increasing per-area productivity of agricultural land will also be necessary. Key uncertainties in our projections of competition for land in the future relate predominantly to uncertainties in the drivers and pressures within the scenarios, in the models and data used in the projections and in the policy interventions assumed to affect the drivers and pressures in the future. PMID:20713395

  6. Competitiveness measurement system in the advertising sector.

    PubMed

    Poveda-Bautista, Rocío; García-Melón, Mónica; Baptista, Doris C

    2013-01-01

    In this paper a new approach to find indicators that can be used to measure companies' competitiveness and performance in an efficient and reliable way is presented. The aim is to assist managers of companies within a specific industrial sector by providing information about their relative position in the market so as to define better action plans that may improve the company's performance. The approach combines the use of the Analytic Network Process, a multicriteria decision method, with the Balanced Scorecard. It allows the definition of a number of competitiveness indicators based on the performance and setting of the advertising sector. In this way it is possible to obtain a Competitiveness Index that allows a company to know its relative position with respect to other companies in the sector, and establish a ranking of the companies ordered by their competitiveness level. A case study in the advertising industry of Venezuela is provided. Results show that improvement plans for the agencies analyzed should promote creativity, innovation and the use of new technologies, as a particular form of innovation. These factors were considered to be the most relevant indicators in the advertising sector. The participating experts agreed that the methodology is useful and an improvement over current competitiveness assessment methods. PMID:24505555

  7. Healthy Competition and Unsound Comparison: Reforming Educational Competition in Singapore

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Søren

    2015-01-01

    It is frequently claimed that the "competition state" responds to external competition by making competition increasingly central to its internal processes as well. This article discusses education reform in Singapore as departing from the opposite position. In Singapore "excessive" competition in education is now targeted by…

  8. Confidentiality: a modified value.

    PubMed Central

    Emson, H E

    1988-01-01

    In its original expression as a medical value confidentiality may have been absolute; this concept has become eroded by patient consent, legal actions and change in the climate of public opinion. In particular requirements arising out of legal statutes and common law judgements have greatly modified the confidentiality of the doctor-patient relationship in societies deriving their law from English origins. Despite this, confidentiality remains a value which the physician must strive to preserve. He cannot however do this without considering its effect upon possible innocent third parties. PMID:3392723

  9. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  10. Interspecific competition among Hawaiian forest birds

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mountainspring, S.; Scott, J.M.

    1985-01-01

    The object of this study was to determine whether interspecific competition modified local geographic distribution, after taking into account the effect of habitat structure. The tendencies for 14 passerine birds to have positive or negative associations were examined, using 7861 sample points in seven native forests on the islands of Hawaii, Maui, and Kauai. All birds were at least partly insectivorous and were fairly common in forested areas, although some fed chiefly on nectar or fruit. Species-pairs were classified as primary or secondary potential competitors based on general dietary similarity. To evaluate the association between species and to account for the effect of individual species habitat preferences, partial correlations were computed for each species-pair in a study area from the simple correlations between the species and 26 habitat variables plus two quadratic terms to represent nonlinearity. The partial correlations represented a short-term ('instantaneous') assessment of the strength of competitive interactions, and did not reflect the accumulation of competitive displacement through time. Of 170 partial correlations in the analysis, only 10 indicated significant negative association. The general pattern was of positive association (76 significantly positive partials), which probably resulted from flocking and from attraction of birds to areas of resource superabundance. Two species showed consistent patterns of negative partial correlations over several adjacent study areas, the Japanese White-eye/Iiwi in montane Hawaii, and the Japanese White-eye/Elepaio in windward Hawaii; both patterns could be reasonably attributed to direct competition. Species-pairs were grouped by the native or exotic status of the component species. Native/exotic pairs had a significantly greater proportion of negative partial correlations (37%) than either native/native pairs (8%) or exotic/exotic pairs (0%). This pattern was consistent across the seven study areas and

  11. Advancing Manufacturing Research Through Competitions

    SciTech Connect

    Balakirsky, Stephen; Madhavan, Raj

    2009-01-01

    Competitions provide a technique for building interest and collaboration in targeted research areas. This paper will present a new competition that aims to increase collaboration amongst Universities, automation end-users, and automation manufacturers through a virtual competition. The virtual nature of the competition allows for reduced infrastructure requirements while maintaining realism in both the robotic equipment deployed and the scenarios. Details of the virtual environment as well as the competitions objectives, rules, and scoring metrics will be presented.

  12. Utility competition and residential customers

    SciTech Connect

    Studness, C.M.

    1994-11-01

    Residential customers have found themselves either ignored or ill-used by the major participants in the struggle over utility competition. No group is seeking to secure them the benefits of competition, and those who oppose competition have curried their favor by conjuring up misleading horror stories about how competition would harm them. Yet residential customers ultimately stand to gain as much from competition as larger customers.

  13. Competitive strategy for providers.

    PubMed

    Hackett, M C

    1996-01-01

    National Health Service (NHS) Trusts are struggling to determine a long-term strategic direction for their organizations in response to the competitive pressures generated by the NHS reforms. The development of long-term strategic direction and the methods to implement this are presenting real challenges to the Trusts which have inherited service configurations based on bureaucratic planning frameworks rather than service configurations suited to a more competitive environment. Examines the strategic choices available to these organizations; explores the importance of identifying positive strategic choices; and discusses the advantages and disadvantages in the context of the NHS internal market. PMID:10164226

  14. Demography and language competition.

    PubMed

    Kandler, Anne

    2009-04-01

    Attempts to describe language competition and extinction in a mathematical way have enjoyed increased popularity recently. In this paper I review recent modeling approaches and, based on these findings, propose a model of reaction-diffusion type. I analyze the dynamics of interactions of a population with two monolingual groups and a group that is bilingual in these two languages. The results show that demographic factors, such as population growth or population dispersal, play an important role in the competition dynamic. Furthermore, I consider the impact of two strategies for language maintenance: adjusting the status of the endangered language and adjusting the availability of monolingual and bilingual educational resources. PMID:19943743

  15. Experimental evolution of sperm competitiveness in a mammal

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background When females mate with multiple partners, sperm from rival males compete to fertilise the ova. Studies of experimental evolution have proven the selective action of sperm competition on male reproductive traits. However, while reproductive traits may evolve in response to sperm competition, this does not necessarily provide evidence that sperm competitive ability responds to selection. Indeed, a study of Drosophila failed to observe divergence in sperm competitive ability of males in lines selected for enhanced sperm offence and defence. Results Adopting the naturally polygamous house mouse (Mus domesticus) as our vertebrate model, we performed an experimental evolution study and observed genetic divergence in sperm quality; males from the polygamous selection lines produced ejaculates with increased sperm numbers and greater sperm motility compared to males from the monogamous lines. Here, after 12 generations of experimental evolution, we conducted competitive matings between males from lineages evolving under sperm competition and males from lineages subject to relaxed selection. We reduced variation in paternity arising from embryo mortality by genotyping embryos in utero at 14 days gestation. Our microsatellite data revealed a significant paternity bias toward males that evolved under the selective regime of sperm competition. Conclusion We provide evidence that the sperm competitiveness phenotype can respond to selection, and show that improved sperm quality translates to greater competitive fertilisation success in house mice. PMID:21251249

  16. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  17. Competition in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jameson, Daphne

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author shares the strategy she adopted to even out the participation among her multicultural students during their classroom discussions. The author realized that her students had different concepts about the classroom and different philosophies about competition. For the Americans and Indians, the classroom was a site of…

  18. Human Resources Competitiveness Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    This report distills hundreds of indicators from both domestic and international sources to determine how the United States compares to other countries and to its own past performance in competitiveness. It attempts to establish a baseline of some key education and training indicators that, taken together, show where the nation stands and where it…

  19. Cost and competition

    SciTech Connect

    Kahn, E.

    1994-11-01

    The growth of private power is part of the movement away from administrative regulation and toward competitive control of prices for electricity. Despite the substantial success of the private power industry, this process is far from complete. Utility regulators, who preside over the power purchase contracting process, are responsible for assuring that the prices which are presented to them for approval are reasonable.

  20. Growing Competition for Libraries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gibbons, Susan

    2001-01-01

    Describes the Questia subscription-based online academic digital books library. Highlights include weaknesses of the collection; what college students want from a library; importance of marketing; competition for traditional academic libraries that may help improve library services; and the ability of Questia to overcome barriers and…

  1. Building Camaraderie from Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marino, Gordon

    2007-01-01

    Educational institutions have adopted athletics programs to promote character building. Sports help people feel comfortable in their skins and provide unique opportunities to develop qualities such as cooperation, perseverance, and the ability to cope with fear. But the arena can be a hothouse for more primal feelings that emerge in competition.…

  2. Television and Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noll, Roger G.

    The television industry is characterized by numerous imperfections in market competition. The spectrum allocation policy of the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) assures that there will be only three national television networks; consequently in nearly all markets these stations account for 75% to 100% of revenues. These networks in turn…

  3. Competitiveness and Campaign '88.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernan-Schloss, Adam, Ed.; And Others

    This report profiles the positions of the six Democratic and six Republican 1988 presidential candidates on policy issues affecting U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. Candidate profiles are provided for: Bruce Babbitt, Michael Dukakis, Richard Gephardt, Albert Gore, Jr., Jesse Jackson, and Paul Simon (Democrats); and George Bush, Robert…

  4. Competitiveness Index 1990.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    The United States' economic performance in the world economy is compared with that of Canada, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom (the Summit 7 countries). Competitiveness is assessed by four economic indicators: standard of living, trade, manufacturing productivity, and investment. The United States continues to outinvest the…

  5. Competition in Advertising.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Jim

    1991-01-01

    Discusses five ways (high school newspaper and yearbook advertising, summer jobs, internships, contests, and student-run advertising agencies) students can start to prepare for a career in the competitive field of advertising while still in high school and college. (SR)

  6. A Winning Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Geddes, Kim; Franchini, Elease

    2012-01-01

    As a high school physics teacher, Kim Geddes is constantly searching for new experiences to challenge, motivate, and engage students. Last year, she incorporated ExploraVision into the energy unit of her school's physics curriculum with the help of their media specialist (Elease Franchini). ExploraVision is a competition offered through a…

  7. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  8. Differential effects of LY235959, a competitive antagonist of the NMDA receptor on kappa-opioid receptor agonist induced responses in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Bhargava, H N; Thorat, S N

    1997-02-01

    The effects of the competitive antagonist of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor, LY235959, were determined on the analgesic and hypothermic effects as well as on the development of tolerance to these effects of U-50,488H, a kappa-opioid receptor agonist in mice and rats. In the mouse, a single injection of LY235959 given 10 min prior to U-50,488H did not modify the analgesic action of the latter. Similarly, chronic administration of LY235959 twice a day for 4 days did not modify U-50,488H-induced analgesia in mice. Repeated pretreatment of mice with LY235959 dose-dependently attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic actions of U-50,488H. In the rat, LY235959 by itself produced a significant analgesia and prior treatment of rats with LY235959 enhanced the analgesic action of U-50,488H. Similar effects were seen with the hypothermic action. Pretreatment of rats with LY235959 attenuated the development of tolerance to the analgesic but not to the hypothermic action of U-50,488H. These results provide evidence that LY235959 produces differential actions on nociception and thermic responses by itself and when given acutely with U-50,488H in mice and rats. However, when the animals are pretreated with LY235959, similar inhibitory effects are observed on the development of tolerance to the analgesic action of U-50,488H in both the species. These studies demonstrate an involvement of the NMDA receptor in the development of kappa-opioid tolerance and suggest that the biochemical consequences of an opioid's interaction with the opioid receptor are not the only factors that contribute to the acute and chronic actions of opioid analgesic drugs. PMID:9045999

  9. 77 FR 58592 - Modified Norway Post Agreement

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ...The Commission is noticing a recently-filed Postal Service request to include a modified Norway Post Agreement within an existing competitive product. The modification includes an 18-month extension of the original agreement's term. This notice addresses procedural aspects of the...

  10. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-10-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition.

  11. Environmental structure and competitive scoring advantages in team competitions.

    PubMed

    Merritt, Sears; Clauset, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    In most professional sports, playing field structure is kept neutral so that scoring imbalances may be attributed to differences in team skill. It thus remains unknown what impact environmental heterogeneities can have on scoring dynamics or competitive advantages. Applying a novel generative model of scoring dynamics to roughly 10 million team competitions drawn from an online game, we quantify the relationship between the structure within a competition and its scoring dynamics, while controlling the impact of chance. Despite wide structural variations, we observe a common three-phase pattern in the tempo of events. Tempo and balance are highly predictable from a competition's structural features alone and teams exploit environmental heterogeneities for sustained competitive advantage. Surprisingly, the most balanced competitions are associated with specific environmental heterogeneities, not from equally skilled teams. These results shed new light on the design principles of balanced competition, and illustrate the potential of online game data for investigating social dynamics and competition. PMID:24166062

  12. Objects tell us what action we can expect: dissociating brain areas for retrieval and exploitation of action knowledge during action observation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Ricarda I.; Wurm, Moritz F.; Wittmann, Marco K.; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2014-01-01

    Objects are reminiscent of actions often performed with them: knife and apple remind us on peeling the apple or cutting it. Mnemonic representations of object-related actions (action codes) evoked by the sight of an object may constrain and hence facilitate recognition of unrolling actions. The present fMRI study investigated if and how action codes influence brain activation during action observation. The average number of action codes (NAC) of 51 sets of objects was rated by a group of n = 24 participants. In an fMRI study, different volunteers were asked to recognize actions performed with the same objects presented in short videos. To disentangle areas reflecting the storage of action codes from those exploiting them, we showed object-compatible and object-incompatible (pantomime) actions. Areas storing action codes were considered to positively co-vary with NAC in both object-compatible and object-incompatible action; due to its role in tool-related tasks, we here hypothesized left anterior inferior parietal cortex (aIPL). In contrast, areas exploiting action codes were expected to show this correlation only in object-compatible but not incompatible action, as only object-compatible actions match one of the active action codes. For this interaction, we hypothesized ventrolateral premotor cortex (PMv) to join aIPL due to its role in biasing competition in IPL. We found left anterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to co-vary with NAC. In addition to these areas, action codes increased activity in object-compatible action in bilateral PMv, right IPS, and lateral occipital cortex (LO). Findings suggest that during action observation, the brain derives possible actions from perceived objects, and uses this information to shape action recognition. In particular, the number of expectable actions quantifies the activity level at PMv, IPL, and pMTG, but only PMv reflects their biased competition while observed action unfolds

  13. American Competitiveness Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Reid, Harry [D-NV

    2011-01-25

    01/25/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S128) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  14. Demolishing the competition: the longitudinal link between competitive video games, competitive gambling, and aggression.

    PubMed

    Adachi, Paul J C; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-07-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship between video game competition and aggression. In addition, if competition in video games is a significant reason for the link between video game play and aggression, then other competitive activities, such as competitive gambling, also may predict aggression over time. In the current study, we directly assessed the socialization (competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicts aggression over time) versus selection hypotheses (aggression predicts competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time). Adolescents (N = 1,492, 50.8 % female) were surveyed annually from Grade 9 to Grade 12 about their video game play, gambling, and aggressive behaviors. Greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling predicted higher levels of aggression over time, after controlling for previous levels of aggression, supporting the socialization hypothesis. The selection hypothesis also was supported, as aggression predicted greater competitive video game play and competitive gambling over time, after controlling for previous competitive video game play and competitive gambling. Our findings, taken together with the fact that millions of adolescents play competitive video games every day and that competitive gambling may increase as adolescents transition into adulthood, highlight the need for a greater understanding of the relationship between competition and aggression. PMID:23595418

  15. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  16. Single elimination competition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fink, T. M. A.; Coe, J. B.; Ahnert, S. E.

    2008-09-01

    We study a simple model of competition in which each player has a fixed strength: randomly selected pairs of players compete, the stronger one wins and the loser is eliminated. We show that the best indicator of future success is not the number of wins but a player's wealth: the accumulated wealth of all defeated players. We calculate the distributions of strength and wealth for two versions of the problem: in the first, the loser is replaced; in the second, the loser is not. The probability of attaining a given wealth is shown to be path-independent. We illustrate our model with the popular game of conkers and discuss an extension to round-robin sports competition.

  17. Designing Competitive Service Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martinez, Veronica; Turner, Trevor

    The explosives developed in Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth ­century by the famous Swede and patron of the world peace prize, Alfred Nobel, were extremely durable and, apart from the introduction of the electric detonator, have remained in use with minor modifications for almost a century (Fig. 5.1a). In the 1970s a new invention started a process of change that has transformed the explosives business from being a supplier of products to a provider of a service. Survival very much depended on the agility of ICI Explosives UK, hereinafter referred to as "ICI Explosives," in adapting to the new competitive environment. Manufacturing excellence was not a solution. Innovative thinking was required to sustain the ­business as changes in technology reduced the complexity that had ­protected the business from serious competition for over a century.

  18. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  19. The Literature of Competitive Intelligence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Thomas D.

    1994-01-01

    Describes competitive intelligence (CI) literature in terms of its location, quantity, authorship, length, and problems of bibliographic access. Highlights include subject access; competitive intelligence research; espionage and security; monographs; and journals. (21 references) (LRW)

  20. Competition for finite resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, L. Jonathan; Zia, R. K. P.

    2012-05-01

    The resources in a cell are finite, which implies that the various components of the cell must compete for resources. One such resource is the ribosomes used during translation to create proteins. Motivated by this example, we explore this competition by connecting two totally asymmetric simple exclusion processes (TASEPs) to a finite pool of particles. Expanding on our previous work, we focus on the effects on the density and current of having different entry and exit rates.

  1. Competitive Intelligence and Social Advantage.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Elisabeth; Cronin, Blaise

    1994-01-01

    Presents an overview of issues concerning civilian competitive intelligence (CI). Topics discussed include competitive advantage in academic and research environments; public domain information and libraries; covert and overt competitive intelligence; data diversity; use of the Internet; cooperative intelligence; and implications for library and…

  2. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  3. Lexical Selection Is Competitive: Evidence from Indirectly Activated Semantic Associates during Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melinger, Alissa; Rahman, Rasha Abdel

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we present 3 picture-word interference (PWI) experiments designed to investigate whether lexical selection processes are competitive. We focus on semantic associative relations, which should interfere according to competitive models but not according to certain noncompetitive models. In a modified version of the PWI paradigm,…

  4. 20 CFR 627.902 - Governor's actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Governor's actions. 627.902 Section 627.902... PROGRAMS UNDER TITLES I, II, AND III OF THE ACT Transition Provisions § 627.902 Governor's actions. The...) Modify the Governor's coordination and special services plan in accordance with instructions issued...

  5. Competition, Games, Technology--Boys Are Loving English

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gresham, Peta

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects one cycle of an action research project that investigated how integrating activity, competition, and visual learning strategies through IWB/ Smart Response technology could engage a lower level Year 12 Advanced English class in NSW--a group of boys who felt disconnected from the course of study. After my initial reconnaissance…

  6. 7 CFR 1726.201 - Formal competitive bidding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., as described in 7 CFR 1726.201, were followed in awarding this contract.” The certification executed... AGRICULTURE ELECTRIC SYSTEM CONSTRUCTION POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Procurement Procedures § 1726.201 Formal... taking any other action necessary to procure full, free and competitive bidding. The borrower should...

  7. The Omega Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lanni, Robert P.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a game in which the symbol omega becomes equivalent to the word ohm, and is then modified or incorporated into a picture to represent a common word or phrase. Recommends the game as a way of humanizing the beginning course. (GA)

  8. 15 CFR 325.10 - Modifying or revoking a certificate.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Modifying or revoking a certificate... CERTIFICATES OF REVIEW § 325.10 Modifying or revoking a certificate. (a) Action subject to modification or revocation. The Secretary shall revoke a certificate, in whole or in part, or modify it, as the Secretary...

  9. 76 FR 60651 - Leased Commercial Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Access; Development of Competition and Diversity in Video Programming Distribution and Carriage; Revision... Video Programming Distribution and Carriage AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Final... carriage of video programming vendors by multichannel video programming distributors (``MVPDs''), known...

  10. Rowing competitions and perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Flores, Alfinio; Bernhardt, Stephen A.; Shipman, Henry L.

    2015-02-01

    This paper is about integrating the use of graphing technology (specifically, GeoGebra) with principles of motion, principles of perspective, and the concept of vanishing points to model a dynamic event. Students were asked to analyse video images of a rowing competition filmed with a single camera positioned perpendicular to the race. The fixed position of the camera in such races makes it difficult to determine whether a scull closer to the camera is actually overtaking another, more distant scull. The paper illustrates how students in their first year at the university can integrate the use of technology, science, mathematics, and writing to solve a real world problem involving motion.

  11. Attention competition with advertisement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O.

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant.

  12. Attention competition with advertisement.

    PubMed

    Cetin, Uzay; Bingol, Haluk O

    2014-09-01

    In the new digital age, information is available in large quantities. Since information consumes primarily the attention of its recipients, the scarcity of attention is becoming the main limiting factor. In this study, we investigate the impact of advertisement pressure on a cultural market where consumers have a limited attention capacity. A model of competition for attention is developed and investigated analytically and by simulation. Advertisement is found to be much more effective when the attention capacity of agents is extremely scarce. We have observed that the market share of the advertised item improves if dummy items are introduced to the market while the strength of the advertisement is kept constant. PMID:25314476

  13. Quick-Release Pin With Lever Action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trevino, Robert C.

    1995-01-01

    Lever-action quick-release pin operated more easily. Mechanism operated with gloved hand. In modified version, lever added to handle to facilitate actuation. Lever action reduces actuation force. Lever-action pin operated by squeezing on any point of moveable ends of lever and handle together between thumb and forefinger or by simply grasping and squeezing handle and lever with entire hand in more natural grasp.

  14. Anti-competitive impacts of secret strategic pricing in the electricity industry

    SciTech Connect

    Shepherd, W.G.

    1997-02-15

    Strategic price discrimination in the electric power industry is the topic of the article. In particular, long-term and secret price discounts are discussed in terms of their effect on utility competition. It is stated that such discounts may arrest or block movement toward competition, allowing many or most private utilities to remain near monopolies. Regulatory action is identified as a mean to control anti-competitive pricing tactics.

  15. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  16. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  17. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  18. Optimal control for competitive-cooperative systems: Modeling flexible coalitions in tomorrow`s competitive world

    SciTech Connect

    Lenhart, S. |; Protopopescu, V.

    1994-09-01

    The last years have witnessed a dramatic shift of the world`s military, political, and economic paradigm from a bi-polar competitive gridlock to a more fluid, multi-player environment. This change has necessarily been followed by a re-evaluation of the strategic thinking and by a reassessment of mutual positions, options, and decisions. The essential attributes of the new situation are modeled by a system of nonlinear evolution equations with competitive/cooperative interactions. The mathematical setting is quite general to accommodate models related to military confrontation, arms control, economic competition, political negotiations, etc. Irrespective of the specific details, all these situations share a common denominator, namely the presence of various players with different and often changing interests and goals. The interests, ranging from conflicting to consensual, are defined in a context of interactions between the players that vary from competitive to cooperative. Players with converging interests tend to build up cooperative coalitions while coalitions with diverging interests usually compete among themselves, but this is not an absolute requirement (namely, one may have groups with converging interests and competitive interactions, and vice-versa). Appurtenance to a coalition may change in time according to the shift in one`s perceptions, interests, or obligations. During the time evolution, the players try to modify their strategies as to best achieve their respective goals. An objective functional quantifying the rate of success (payoff) vs. effort (cost) measures the degree of goal attainment for all players involved, thus selecting an optimal strategy based on optimal controls. While the technical details may vary from problem to problem, the general approach described here establishes a standard framework for a host of concrete situations that may arise from tomorrow`s {open_quotes}next competition{close_quotes}.

  19. Information Systems, Competitive Dynamics, and Firm Performance: An Interpretive and Centering Resonance Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vannoy, Sandra A.

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation examines, from a managerial interpretive perspective, how information systems contribute to firms' specific competitive actions and responses, and the resultant impacts upon firm performance. The findings from this research suggest that the answer may well lie within the role of information systems in firms' competitive dynamics…

  20. The effects of competition and competitiveness on cardiovascular activity.

    PubMed

    Harrison, L K; Denning, S; Easton, H L; Hall, J C; Burns, V E; Ring, C; Carroll, D

    2001-07-01

    Cardiovascular activity was measured at resting baseline and in response to a car racing game, undertaken in competition or in cooperation with an experimenter, or individually. Competitiveness and win and goal orientations were assessed by questionnaire. Competition provoked increases in blood pressure and heart rate, and a significant shortening of the preejection period, an index of enhanced beta-adrenergic influences on the heart. The cooperation task was largely without effect, and although the solo task affected cardiovascular activity, it did so to a lesser extent and much less consistently than did the competition task. The three task conditions, then, were largely distinguishable by their capacity to activate beta-adrenergic processes. Participants high in competitiveness and desire to win showed higher blood pressure reactions and greater shortening of the preejection period to competition than those low in these characteristics. PMID:11446573

  1. Change in Action: How Infants Learn to Walk down Slopes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Simone V.; Adolph, Karen E.; Vereijken, Beatrix

    2009-01-01

    A critical aspect of perception-action coupling is the ability to modify ongoing actions in accordance with variations in the environment. Infants' ability to modify their gait patterns to walk down shallow and steep slopes was examined at three nested time scales. Across sessions, a microgenetic training design showed rapid improvements after the…

  2. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements. PMID:12346441

  3. Soil organisms shape the competition between grassland plant species.

    PubMed

    Sabais, Alexander C W; Eisenhauer, Nico; König, Stephan; Renker, Carsten; Buscot, François; Scheu, Stefan

    2012-12-01

    Decomposers and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) both determine plant nutrition; however, little is known about their interactive effects on plant communities. We set up a greenhouse experiment to study effects of plant competition (one- and two-species treatments), Collembola (Heteromurus nitidus and Protaphorura armata), and AMF (Glomus intraradices) on the performance (above- and belowground productivity and nutrient uptake) of three grassland plant species (Lolium perenne, Trifolium pratense, and Plantago lanceolata) belonging to three dominant plant functional groups (grasses, legumes, and herbs). Generally, L. perenne benefited from being released from intraspecific competition in the presence of T. pratense and P. lanceolata. However, the presence of AMF increased the competitive strength of P. lanceolata and T. pratense against L. perenne and also modified the effects of Collembola on plant productivity. The colonization of roots by AMF was reduced in treatments with two plant species suggesting that plant infection by AMF was modified by interspecific plant interactions. Collembola did not affect total colonization of roots by AMF, but increased the number of mycorrhizal vesicles in P. lanceolata. AMF and Collembola both enhanced the amount of N and P in plant shoot tissue, but impacts of Collembola were less pronounced in the presence of AMF. Overall, the results suggest that, by differentially affecting the nutrient acquisition and performance of plant species, AMF and Collembola interactively modify plant competition and shape the composition of grassland plant communities. The results suggest that mechanisms shaping plant community composition can only be understood when complex belowground interactions are considered. PMID:22678109

  4. Making geothermal power competitive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fassbender, L. L.; Bloomster, C. H.

    The near-term supply curve for the electrical applications of geothermal energy is presented, and the impacts of technological improvements are illustrated. The curve is derived using the subsurface temperature, reservoir thickness, and heat content estimates made by the U.S. Geological Survey for the identified high-temperature and intermediate-temperature hydrothermal resources of the western U.S. Each step in the curve is composed of one or more geothermal resources identified by the USGS. Both high- and intermediate-temperature resources were included up to an arbitrary cost ceiling of 100 mills/kWh. Curves are drawn to show the impacts of combinations of technological advances expected to be achieved by 1982 and 1985. It is shown that most of the identified hydrothermal resources could become competitive with conventional energy sources for electrical power production by 1985.

  5. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  6. Mapping your competitive position.

    PubMed

    D'Aveni, Richard A

    2007-11-01

    A price-benefit positioning map helps you see, through your customers' eyes, how your product compares with all its competitors in a market. You can draw such a map quickly and objectively, without having to resort to costly, time-consuming consumer surveys or subjective estimates of the excellence of your product and the shortcomings of all the others. Creating a positioning map involves three steps: First, define your market to include everything your customers might consider to be your product's competitors or substitutes. Second, track the price your customers actually pay (wholesale or retail? bundled or unbundled?) and identify what your customers see as your offering's primary benefit. This is done through regression analysis, determining which of the product's attributes (as described objectively by rating services, government agencies, R&D departments, and the like) explains most of the variance in its price. Third, draw the map by plotting on a graph the position of every product in the market you've selected according to its price and its level of primary benefit, and draw a line that runs through the middle of the points. What you get is a picture of the competitive landscape of your market, where all the products above the line command a price premium owing to some secondary benefit customers value, and all those below the line are positioned to earn market share through lower prices and reduced secondary benefits. Using examples as varied as Harley-Davidson motorcycles, Motorola cell phones, and the New York restaurant market, Tuck professor D'Aveni demonstrates some of the many ways the maps can be used: to locate unoccupied or less-crowded spaces in highly competitive markets, for instance, or to identify opportunities created through changes in the relationship between the primary benefit and prices. The maps even allow companies to anticipate--and counter-- rivals' strategies. R eprint RO711G PMID:18159791

  7. Spatial Aspects of Interspecific Competition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durrett, Rick; Levin, Simon

    1998-01-01

    Using several variants of a stochastic spatial model introduced by Silvertown et al., we investigate the effect of spatial distribution of individuals on the outcome of competition. First, we prove rigorously that if one species has a competitive advantage over each of the others, then eventually it takes over all the sites in the system. Second, we examine tradeoffs between competition and dispersal distance in a two-species system. Third, we consider a cyclic competitive relationship between three types. In this case, a nonspatial treatment leads to densities that follow neutrally stable cycles or even unstable spiral solutions, while a spatial model yields a stationary distribution with an interesting spatial structure.

  8. Managed competition in health care and the unfinished agenda

    PubMed Central

    Enthoven, Alain C.

    1986-01-01

    A market made up of health care financing and delivery plans and individual consumers, without a carefully drawn set of rules to mitigate market failures, and without mediation by collective action on the demand side, cannot produce efficiency and equity. The concept of competition that can achieve these goals, at least to a satisfactory approximation, is managed competition, with intelligent active agents on the demand side, called sponsors, that contract with the competing health care plans and continuously structure and adjust the market to overcome its tendencies to failure. A great deal remains to be done to achieve the goals envisioned by the “procompetition reformers.” PMID:10311922

  9. Feature Discovery by Competitive Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rumelhart, David E.; Zipser, David

    1985-01-01

    Reports results of studies with an unsupervised learning paradigm called competitive learning which is examined using computer simulation and formal analysis. When competitive learning is applied to parallel networks of neuron-like elements, many potentially useful learning tasks can be accomplished. (Author)

  10. Higher Education, Employability and Competitiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pavlin, Samo; Svetlicic, Marjan

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the relationship between competitiveness and higher education systems in Europe. It explores whether more competitive countries have developed more labour-market-oriented systems of higher education (HE) that thereby give their graduates greater short term employability potential. Based on and a large-scale survey among 45.000…

  11. An Approach to Competitive Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Petrina M.

    1994-01-01

    Offers a detailed discussion of competitive assessment, an efficient and cost-effective method to evaluate competitive products. Describes its three phases: numerical scoring, building a best-of-breed model, and determining the gap between the best-of-breed model and another product. (SR)

  12. A Learning Software Design Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooper, Simon; Hokanson, Brad; Bernhardt, Paul; Johnson, Mark

    2002-01-01

    Explains the University of Minnesota Learning Software Design Competition, focusing on its goals and emphasis on innovation. Describes the review process to evaluate and judge the software, lists the winners, identifies a new class of educational software, and outlines plans for future competitions. (Author/LRW)

  13. Neurocognitive Performance: Returning to Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDaniel, Larry W.; McIntire, Kyle

    2010-01-01

    Athletes who suffer from concussions under report their symptoms in order to expedite their return to competition. Athletic trainers and coaches must be aware of what is going on with athletes, even if it means requiring them to refrain from competition. Ninety percent of concussions are minor and can be difficult to diagnosis. There is a lack of…

  14. Competitive Grading Sabotages Good Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krumboltz, John D.; Yeh, Christine J.

    1996-01-01

    Competitive grading stresses judging over learning. Assigning competitive grades adversely affects teachers by turning them into students' opponents, justifying inadequate teaching methods, trivializing course content, encouraging evaluation methods that misdirect and inhibit student learning, and rewarding teachers for punishing students. High…

  15. The 2005 Australian Informatics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, David

    2006-01-01

    This article describes the Australian Informatics Competition (AIC), a non-programming competition aimed at identifying students with potential in programming and algorithmic design. It is the first step in identifying students to represent Australia at the International Olympiad in Informatics. The main aim of the AIC is to increase awareness of…

  16. Competitive Electricity Prices: An Update

    EIA Publications

    1998-01-01

    Illustrates a third impact of the move to competitive generation pricing -- the narrowing of the range of prices across regions of the country. This feature article updates information in Electricity Prices in a Competitive Environment: Marginal Cost Pricing of Generation Services and Financial Status of Electric Utilities.

  17. Mathematics + Competitions = A Winning Formula!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Tracy L.; Karnes, Frances A.

    1998-01-01

    Describes how teachers of the gifted can make the study of mathematics dynamic, innovative, and creative through the exploration of problem-solving skills and real-life applications. Math competitions and general academic competitions that include mathematics for elementary schools, middle schools, and high schools are highlighted. (CR)

  18. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  19. The need for competitive intelligence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-01-01

    Often associated with marketing warfare, competitive intelligence has become an essential part of health-care organizations' strategic planning efforts. Without overstepping ethical boundaries, providers can gather a vast array of "intelligence" about their competition from public sources, from the marketplace and from competitors themselves. PMID:10303102

  20. How to use competitive intelligence.

    PubMed

    MacStravic, R S

    1989-02-01

    Keeping tabs on the competition is a necessity, not a luxury, for organizations operating in today's health-care marketplace. This article, the second of two, explores various strategies for using competitive intelligence and suggests ways to ensure organization-wide commitment to gathering and using this information as part of an overall strategic plan. PMID:10291747

  1. Competitive strategy a new era.

    PubMed

    Zuckerman, Alan M

    2007-11-01

    By adopting five basic practices, your organization will be ready to advance to the next level of competitive fitness: Develop a reliable financial baseline. Insist on development of a competitive intelligence database system. Employ rigorous business planning. Advocate for focus and discipline. Really commit to competing. PMID:18018789

  2. How competition affects evolutionary rescue

    PubMed Central

    Osmond, Matthew Miles; de Mazancourt, Claire

    2013-01-01

    Populations facing novel environments can persist by adapting. In nature, the ability to adapt and persist will depend on interactions between coexisting individuals. Here we use an adaptive dynamic model to assess how the potential for evolutionary rescue is affected by intra- and interspecific competition. Intraspecific competition (negative density-dependence) lowers abundance, which decreases the supply rate of beneficial mutations, hindering evolutionary rescue. On the other hand, interspecific competition can aid evolutionary rescue when it speeds adaptation by increasing the strength of selection. Our results clarify this point and give an additional requirement: competition must increase selection pressure enough to overcome the negative effect of reduced abundance. We therefore expect evolutionary rescue to be most likely in communities which facilitate rapid niche displacement. Our model, which aligns to previous quantitative and population genetic models in the absence of competition, provides a first analysis of when competitors should help or hinder evolutionary rescue. PMID:23209167

  3. On a modified electrodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Reiss, H.R.

    2012-01-01

    A modification of electrodynamics is proposed, motivated by previously unremarked paradoxes that can occur in the standard formulation. It is shown by specific examples that gauge transformations exist that radically alter the nature of a problem, even while maintaining the values of many measurable quantities. In one example, a system with energy conservation is transformed to a system where energy is not conserved. The second example possesses a ponderomotive potential in one gauge, but this important measurable quantity does not appear in the gauge-transformed system. A resolution of the paradoxes comes from noting that the change in total action arising from the interaction term in the Lagrangian density cannot always be neglected, contrary to the usual assumption. The problem arises from the information lost by employing an adiabatic cutoff of the field. This is not necessary. Its replacement by a requirement that the total action should not change with a gauge transformation amounts to a supplementary condition for gauge invariance that can be employed to preserve the physical character of the problem. It is shown that the adiabatic cutoff procedure can also be eliminated in the construction of quantum transition amplitudes, thus retaining consistency between the way in which asymptotic conditions are applied in electrodynamics and in quantum mechanics. The ‘gauge-invariant electrodynamics’ of Schwinger is shown to depend on an ansatz equivalent to the condition found here for maintenance of the ponderomotive potential in a gauge transformation. Among the altered viewpoints required by the modified electrodynamics, in addition to the rejection of the adiabatic cutoff, is the recognition that the electric and magnetic fields do not completely determine a physical problem, and that the electromagnetic potentials supply additional information that is required for completeness of electrodynamics. PMID:23105173

  4. Project X: competitive intelligence data mining and analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gilmore, John F.; Pagels, Michael A.; Palk, Justin

    2001-03-01

    Competitive Intelligence (CI) is a systematic and ethical program for gathering and analyzing information about your competitors' activities and general business trends to further your own company's goals. CI allows companies to gather extensive information on their competitors and to analyze what the competition is doing in order to maintain or gain a competitive edge. In commercial business this potentially translates into millions of dollars in annual savings or losses. The Internet provides an overwhelming portal of information for CI analysis. The problem is how a company can automate the translation of voluminous information into valuable and actionable knowledge. This paper describes Project X, an agent-based data mining system specifically developed for extracting and analyzing competitive information from the Internet. Project X gathers CI information from a variety of sources including online newspapers, corporate websites, industry sector reporting sites, speech archiving sites, video news casts, stock news sites, weather sites, and rumor sites. It uses individual industry specific (e.g., pharmaceutical, financial, aerospace, etc.) commercial sector ontologies to form the knowledge filtering and discovery structures/content required to filter and identify valuable competitive knowledge. Project X is described in detail and an example competitive intelligence case is shown demonstrating the system's performance and utility for business intelligence.

  5. Randomness in Competitions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben-Naim, E.; Hengartner, N. W.; Redner, S.; Vazquez, F.

    2013-05-01

    We study the effects of randomness on competitions based on an elementary random process in which there is a finite probability that a weaker team upsets a stronger team. We apply this model to sports leagues and sports tournaments, and compare the theoretical results with empirical data. Our model shows that single-elimination tournaments are efficient but unfair: the number of games is proportional to the number of teams N, but the probability that the weakest team wins decays only algebraically with N. In contrast, leagues, where every team plays every other team, are fair but inefficient: the top √{N} of teams remain in contention for the championship, while the probability that the weakest team becomes champion is exponentially small. We also propose a gradual elimination schedule that consists of a preliminary round and a championship round. Initially, teams play a small number of preliminary games, and subsequently, a few teams qualify for the championship round. This algorithm is fair and efficient: the best team wins with a high probability and the number of games scales as N 9/5, whereas traditional leagues require N 3 games to fairly determine a champion.

  6. Female competition in chimpanzees.

    PubMed

    Pusey, Anne E; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission-fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  7. Foreign launch competition growing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brodsky, R. F.; Wolfe, M. G.; Pryke, I. W.

    1986-07-01

    A survey is given of progress made by other nations in providing or preparing to provide satellite launch services. The European Space Agency has four generations of Ariane vehicles, with a fifth recently approved; a second launch facility in French Guiana that has become operational has raised the possible Ariane launch rate to 10 per year, although a May failure of an Ariane 2 put launches on hold. The French Hermes spaceplane and the British HOTOL are discussed. Under the auspices of the Italian National Space Plane, the Iris orbital transfer vehicle is developed and China's Long March vehicles and the Soviet Protons and SL-4 vehicles are discussed; the Soviets moreover are apparently developing not only a Saturn V-class heavy lift vehicle with a 150,000-kg capacity (about five times the largest U.S. capacity) but also a space shuttle and a spaceplane. Four Japanese launch vehicles and some vehicles in an Indian program are also ready to provide launch services. In this new, tough market for launch services, the customers barely outnumber the suppliers. The competition develops just as the Challenger and Titan disasters place the U.S. at a disadvantage and underline the hard work ahead to recoup its heretofore leading position in launch services.

  8. Female competition in chimpanzees

    PubMed Central

    Pusey, Anne E.; Schroepfer-Walker, Kara

    2013-01-01

    Female chimpanzees exhibit exceptionally slow rates of reproduction and raise their offspring without direct paternal care. Therefore, their reproductive success depends critically on long-term access to high-quality food resources over a long lifespan. Chimpanzee communities contain multiple adult males, multiple adult females and their offspring. Because males are philopatric and jointly defend the community range while most females transfer to new communities before breeding, adult females are typically surrounded by unrelated competitors. Communities are fission–fusion societies in which individuals spend time alone or in fluid subgroups, whose size depends mostly on the abundance and distribution of food. To varying extents in different populations, females avoid direct competition by foraging alone or in small groups in distinct, but overlapping core areas within the community range to which they show high fidelity. Although rates of aggression are low, females compete for space and access to food. High rank correlates with high reproductive success, and high-ranking females win direct contests for food and gain preferential access to resource-rich sites. Females are aggressive to immigrant females and even kill the newborn infants of community members. The intensity of such aggression correlates with population density. These patterns are compared to those in other species, including humans. PMID:24167307

  9. 77 FR 15597 - Special Local Regulation; USAT Triathlon/Race Rowing Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Competition; Black Warrior River; Tuscaloosa, AL AGENCY: Coast Guard, DHS. ACTION: Temporary final rule... Warrior River, from mile 338.5 to mile 341.5, Tuscaloosa, AL. This action is necessary for the safeguard... Tuscaloosa Tourism and Sports Commission to conduct their events on April 21, 2012. After reviewing...

  10. Caffeine's Vascular Mechanisms of Action

    PubMed Central

    Echeverri, Darío; Montes, Félix R.; Cabrera, Mariana; Galán, Angélica; Prieto, Angélica

    2010-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed stimulating substance in the world. It is found in coffee, tea, soft drinks, chocolate, and many medications. Caffeine is a xanthine with various effects and mechanisms of action in vascular tissue. In endothelial cells, it increases intracellular calcium stimulating the production of nitric oxide through the expression of the endothelial nitric oxide synthase enzyme. Nitric oxide is diffused to the vascular smooth muscle cell to produce vasodilation. In vascular smooth muscle cells its effect is predominantly a competitive inhibition of phosphodiesterase, producing an accumulation of cAMP and vasodilation. In addition, it blocks the adenosine receptors present in the vascular tissue to produce vasoconstriction. In this paper the main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the vascular tissue are described, in which it is shown that caffeine has some cardiovascular properties and effects which could be considered beneficial. PMID:21188209

  11. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in a competitive area which are in the same grade (or...

  12. Testosterone, cortisol, and human competition.

    PubMed

    Casto, Kathleen V; Edwards, David A

    2016-06-01

    Testosterone and cortisol figure prominently in the research literature having to do with human competition. In this review, we track the history of this literature, concentrating particularly on major theoretical and empirical contributions, and provide commentary on what we see as important unresolved issues. In men and women, athletic competition is typically associated with an increase in testosterone (T) and cortisol (C). Hormone changes in response to non-athletic competition are less predictable. Person (e.g., power motivation, mood, aggressiveness, social anxiety, sex, and baseline levels of T and C) and context (e.g., whether a competition is won or lost, the closeness of the competition, whether the outcome is perceived as being influenced by ability vs. chance, provocations) factors can influence hormone responses to competition. From early on, studies pointed to a positive relationship between T and dominance motivation/status striving. Recent research, however, suggests that this relationship only holds for individuals with low levels of C - this is the core idea of the dual-hormone hypothesis, and it is certain that the broadest applications of the hypothesis have not yet been realized. Individuals differ with respect to the extent to which they embrace competition, but the hormonal correlates of competitiveness remain largely unexplored. Although rapid increases in both T and C associated with competition are likely adaptive, we still know very little about the psychological benefits of these hormonal changes. Administration studies have and will continue to contribute to this inquiry. We close with a discussion of what, we think, are important methodological and mechanistic issues for future research. PMID:27103058

  13. GENE REGULATION BY MAPK SUBSTRATE COMPETITION

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoosik; Andreu, María José; Lim, Bomyi; Chung, Kwanghun; Terayama, Mark; Jiménez, Gerardo; Berg, Celeste A.; Lu, Hang; Shvartsman, Stanislav Y.

    2011-01-01

    SUMMARY Developing tissues are patterned by coordinated activities of signaling systems, which can be integrated by a regulatory region of a gene that binds multiple transcription factors or by a transcription factor that is modified by multiple enzymes. Based on a combination of genetic and imaging experiments in the early Drosophila embryo, we describe a signal integration mechanism that cannot be reduced to a single gene regulatory element or a single transcription factor. This mechanism relies on an enzymatic network formed by Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) and its substrates. Specifically, anteriorly localized MAPK substrates, such as Bicoid, antagonize MAPK-dependent downregulation of Capicua, a repressor which is involved in gene regulation along the dorsoventral axis of the embryo. MAPK substrate competition provides a basis for ternary interaction of the anterior, dorsoventral, and terminal patterning systems. A mathematical model of this interaction can explain gene expression patterns with both anteroposterior and dorsoventral polarities. PMID:21664584

  14. FIRST 2002, 2003, 2004 Robotics Competition(s)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Purman, Richard

    2004-01-01

    The New Horizons Regional Education Center (NHREC) in Hampton, VA sought and received NASA funding to support its participation in the 2002, 2003, and 2004 FIRST Robotics Competitions. FIRST, Inc. (For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology) is an organization which encourages the application of creative science, math, and computer science principles to solve real-world engineering problems. The FIRST competition is an international engineering contest featuring high school, government, and business partnerships.

  15. Distributional preferences and competitive behavior☆

    PubMed Central

    Balafoutas, Loukas; Kerschbamer, Rudolf; Sutter, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    We study experimentally the relationship between distributional preferences and competitive behavior. We find that spiteful subjects react strongest to competitive pressure and win in a tournament significantly more often than efficiency-minded and inequality averse subjects. However, when given the choice between a tournament and a piece rate scheme, efficiency-minded subjects choose the tournament most often, while spiteful and inequality averse subjects avoid it. When controlling for distributional preferences, risk attitudes and past performance, the gender gap in the willingness to compete is no longer significant, indicating that gender-related variables explain why twice as many men as women self-select into competition. PMID:23576829

  16. How does competition structure affect industry merger waves? A network analysis perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Rui; Yang, Jianmei; Yao, Canzhong; McKelvey, Bill

    2015-07-01

    By taking China's beer industry as an example, this paper establishes a series of industrial competition-pressure networks and examines the correlation between competition structure and merger actions. We present a cascade dynamic-merger agent-based computational model driven by competition pressure diffusion to describe the forming process of industry merger wave. The empirical analyses and agent-based computational simulation results show that the competition structure among rivals has a strong effect on the scale, the duration time, and the stability of industry merger wave. We also give explanations on why there are different simulation results between in single market competition environment and in multi-market competition environment, as well as discuss the management implications for the industry-merger policy makers and the merger-tactics decision makers that are involved in merger wave.

  17. Unintended imitation affects success in a competitive game.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Vaziri Pashkam, Maryam; Nakayama, Ken

    2013-12-10

    Imitation typically occurs in social contexts where people interact and have common goals. Here, we show that people are also highly susceptible to imitate each other in a competitive context. Pairs of players performed a competitive and fast-reaching task (a variant of the arcade whac-a-mole game) in which money could be earned if players hit brief-appearing visual targets on a large touchscreen before their opponents. In three separate experiments, we demonstrate that reaction times and movements were highly correlated within pairs of players. Players affected their success by imitating each other, and imitation depended on the visibility of the opponent's behavior. Imitation persisted, despite the competitive and demanding nature of the game, even if this resulted in lower scores and payoffs and even when there was no need to counteract the opponent's actions. PMID:24277821

  18. Final matches of the FIRST regional robotic competition at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Four robots vie for position on the playing field during the 1999 FIRST Southeastern Regional robotic competition held at KSC. Powered by 12-volt batteries and operated by remote control, the robotic gladiators spent two minutes each trying to grab, claw and hoist large, satin pillows onto their machines. Student teams, shown behind protective walls, play defense by taking away competitors' pillows and generally harassing opposing machines. Two of the robots have lifted their caches of pillows above the field, a movement which earns them points. Along with the volunteer referees, at the edge of the playing field, judges at right watch the action. FIRST is a nonprofit organization, For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. The competition comprised 27 teams, pairing high school students with engineer mentors and corporations. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  19. Final matches of the FIRST regional robotic competition at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Student teams behind protective walls operate remote controls to maneuver their robots around the playing field during the 1999 FIRST Southeastern Regional robotic competition held at KSC. The robotic gladiators spent two minutes each trying to grab, claw and hoist large, satin pillows onto their machines. Teams played defense by taking away competitors' pillows and generally harassing opposing machines. On the side of the field are the judges, including (far left) Deputy Director for Launch and Payload Processing Loren Shriver and former KSC Director of Shuttle Processing Robert Sieck. A giant screen TV displays the action on the field. The competition comprised 27 teams, pairing high school students with engineer mentors and corporations. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  20. Final matches of the FIRST regional robotic competition at KSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    During the 1999 FIRST Southeastern Regional robotic competition held at KSC, a robot carrying its cache of pillow-like disks maneuvers to move around another at left. Powered by 12-volt batteries and operated by remote control, the robotic gladiators spend two minutes each trying to grab, claw and hoist the pillows onto their machines. Teams play defense by taking away competitors' pillows and generally harassing opposing machines. Behind the field are a group of judges, including KSC former KSC Director of Shuttle Processing Robert Sieck (left, in cap), and Center Director Roy Bridges (in white shirt). A giant screen TV in the background displays the action on the playing field. FIRST is a nonprofit organization, For Inspiration and Recognition of Science and Technology. The competition comprised 27 teams, pairing high school students with engineer mentors and corporations. The FIRST robotics competition is designed to provide students with a hands-on, inside look at engineering and other professional careers.

  1. Gender and competitive preferences: The role of competition size.

    PubMed

    Hanek, Kathrin J; Garcia, Stephen M; Tor, Avishalom

    2016-08-01

    In a series of 8 studies, we examine whether gender differences in competition entry preferences are moderated by the size of the competition. Drawing on theories of gender roles and stereotypes, we show that women, relative to men, prefer to enter smaller compared with larger competitions. Studies 1a and 1b demonstrate this effect in observational data on preferences for working in differently sized firms and applying to differently sized colleges. Studies 2a and 2b replicate the effect with real behavioral decisions in different domains. We also find empirical evidence that prescriptive gender norms and stereotypes underlie this effect. In Study 3, we find experimental evidence that women and men differ in their preferences for differently sized groups under competition, but not in noncompetitive settings. Three additional experimental studies (Studies 4, 5a, and 5b) show that perceptions of comfort in small versus larger competitions underlie women's preferences. These findings suggest that women's preferences for smaller competitions may be driven by an adherence to prescriptive gender norms. We discuss the implications of the current findings for gender inequalities in organizations. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27176148

  2. Impulsive action: emotional impulses and their control

    PubMed Central

    Frijda, Nico H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical view on impulsive action, integrating thus far separate perspectives on non-reflective action, motivation, emotion regulation, and impulse control. We frame impulsive action in terms of directedness of the individual organism toward, away, or against other givens – toward future states and away from one’s present state. First, appraisal of a perceived or thought-of event or object on occasion, rapidly and without premonition or conscious deliberation, triggers a motive to modify one’s relation to that event or object. Situational specifics of the event as perceived and appraised motivate and guide selection of readiness for a particular kind of purposive action. Second, perception of complex situations can give rise to multiple appraisals, multiple motives, and multiple simultaneous changes in action readiness. Multiple states of action readiness may interact in generating action, by reinforcing or attenuating each other, thereby yielding impulse control. We show how emotion control can itself result from a motive state or state of action readiness. Our view links impulsive action mechanistically to states of action readiness, which is the central feature of what distinguishes one kind of emotion from another. It thus provides a novel theoretical perspective to the somewhat fragmented literature on impulsive action. PMID:24917835

  3. Multifaceted Interfaces of Bacterial Competition.

    PubMed

    Stubbendieck, Reed M; Straight, Paul D

    2016-08-15

    Microbial communities span many orders of magnitude, ranging in scale from hundreds of cells on a single particle of soil to billions of cells within the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract. Bacterial cells in all habitats are members of densely populated local environments that facilitate competition between neighboring cells. Accordingly, bacteria require dynamic systems to respond to the competitive challenges and the fluctuations in environmental circumstances that tax their fitness. The assemblage of bacteria into communities provides an environment where competitive mechanisms are developed into new strategies for survival. In this minireview, we highlight a number of mechanisms used by bacteria to compete between species. We focus on recent discoveries that illustrate the dynamic and multifaceted functions used in bacterial competition and discuss how specific mechanisms provide a foundation for understanding bacterial community development and function. PMID:27246570

  4. 1986 Honeywell Futurist Awards Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Bryan J.

    1986-01-01

    Consists of three essays from the 1986 Honeywell Futurist Award competition. Discusses the use of the Molecular Matrix Chip to make computer communication more accessible, and thus to promote citizenship. (CH)

  5. Competitive Strategy in Continuing Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baden, Clifford

    1987-01-01

    Reviews strategic variables available to those planning continuing education marketing programs. Discusses generic competitive strategies: (1) overall cost leadership, (2) differentiation, and (3) specialization. Mentions several potential problems. (CH)

  6. Limb apraxia and the “affordance competition hypothesis”

    PubMed Central

    Rounis, Elisabeth; Humphreys, Glyn

    2015-01-01

    Limb apraxia, a disorder of higher order motor control, has long been a challenge for clinical assessment and understanding (Leiguarda and Marsden, 2000). The deficits originally described in limb apraxia (Liepmann, 1920) have been classified by the nature of the errors made by the patients leading to, namely, ideational and ideomotor apraxia. The dual stream hypothesis (Goodale and Milner, 1992) has been used to explain these categories: ideational apraxia is thought to relate to a deficit in the concept of a movement (coded in the ventral stream). Patients have difficulty using objects, sequencing actions to interact with them or pantomiming their use. Ideomotor apraxia, on the other hand, is thought to arise from problems in the accurate implementation of movements within the dorsal stream. One of the limitations on understanding apraxia is the failure by the clinical literature to draw on knowledge of the factors determining actions in the environment. Here we emphasize the role of affordance. There is much recent work indicating that our responses to stimuli are strongly influenced by the actions that the objects “afford”, based on their physical properties and the intentions of the actor (e.g., Tucker and Ellis, 1998). The concept of affordance, originally suggested by Gibson (1979) has been incorporated in a recent model of interactive behavior that draws from findings in non-human primates, namely the “affordance competition hypothesis” (Cisek, 2007). This postulates that interactive behavior arises by a process of competition between possible actions elicited by the environment. In this paper we argue that “affordance competition” may play a role in apraxia. We review evidence that at least some aspects of apraxia may reflect an abnormal sensitivity to competition when multiple affordances are present (Riddoch et al., 1998) and/or a poor ability to exert cognitive control over this competition when it occurs. This framework suggests a new way

  7. Understanding Competition in Spine Care.

    PubMed

    Sharan, Alok D; Schroeder, Gregory D; West, Michael E; Vaccaro, Alexander R

    2016-04-01

    The changing landscape from volume to value represents a natural transformation in the health care industry. Increasingly provider groups are finding themselves responding to unfamiliar market forces. Whether explicit or implicit, competition is playing a larger role for the sustainability of providers. For spine care providers who are attempting to navigate the transition from volume to value, understanding the forces that shape competition in health care can help achieve success. PMID:26925860

  8. The origin and use of the terms competitive and non-competitive in interactions among chemical substances in biological systems.

    PubMed

    McIlwain, H

    1986-01-01

    The terms competition and competitive were in use for appropriate types of interaction in human and animal behaviour from the seventeenth century. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries they reached more technical uses in biology, especially in darwinian studies; and in chemistry in describing competing reactions, surface phenomena and the influence of substituent groupings in reactant molecules. Use of competitive and non-competitive to describe enzyme inhibitors had a specific beginning when J. B. S. Haldane (following premonitory work of others) applied the terms in 1927 and 1930 to types of inhibition already differentiated by Michaelis and co-workers. The theoretical background in kinetics and stereochemistry so acquired gave a firmness to the application of the terms in biochemistry. The first examples concerned glycosidases, especially beta-D-fructofuranosidase or invertase, and interactions of carbon monoxide and oxygen at iron-porphyrin systems. They were thus of interest in toxicology and in enzyme and carrier studies. The sphere of application of the biochemically-defined terms expanded greatly when, following investigation of sulphonamide action, it was realized that concepts of enzyme inhibition by structurally related compounds offered a route to understanding the action of existing medicaments and to the production of new ones. Ideas and terminology based on competitive and non-competitive enzyme inhibition and receptor occupancy have subsequently been applied in many ways. Examples include application to the analysis of feedback inhibition and other processes of metabolic control; to receptor relationships among neurotransmitters and medicaments; and to understanding interactions at sensory receptors. PMID:3030738

  9. Effects of competitive reward distribution on auditing and competitive responding.

    PubMed Central

    Schmitt, D R

    2000-01-01

    This study allowed subjects to audit each other's responding during a series of competitive contests. Six pairs of female college students competed in 3-min contests in which the competitive response was a knob pull. A sum of money was divided using a proportional distribution or a 100%/0% reward distribution. In the proportional distribution, a subject's proportion of the sum was her proportion of the total number of responses. Also, in every contest either subject could make a response that would end the contest prematurely and give both subjects the same amount: a sum equal to 33% of the competitive total. Each subject could press either or both of two audit buttons that displayed her own and the other's response total for 10 s. Results replicated earlier findings in showing the superiority of the proportional distribution in total number of competitive responses made. No subject audited continuously, and only 1 audited most of the time. Most audits were interpersonal, including both own and other's scores. Auditing typically was more frequent in 100%/0% contests in which subjects were more likely to stop the contest when they were far behind. Winners were more likely to audit than were losers. Competitive response rates increased when the differences revealed by audits were small and decreased when they were large. Overall audit patterns were consistent with the view that feedback as "news" is more often sought when it can lead to improved outcomes. PMID:10966099

  10. An Evolutionary Solution for Cooperative and Competitive Mobile Agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jiancong; Ruan, Jiuhong; Liang, Yongquan

    The cooperation and competition among mobile agents using evolutionary strategy is an important domain in Agent theory and application. With evolutionary strategy the cooperation process is achieved by training and iterating many times. From evolutionary solution of cooperative and competitive mobile agents (CCMA), a group of mobile agents are partitioned into two populations, cooperative agents group and competitive agent group. Cooperative agents are treated as several pursuers, while a competitive agent is viewed as the pursuers' competitor called evader. The cooperation actions take place among the pursuers in order to capture the evader as rapidly as possible. An agent individual (chromosome) is encoded based on a kind of two-dimensional random moving. The next moving direction is encoded as chromosome. The chromosome can be crossed over and mutated according to designed operators and fitness function. An evolutionary algorithm for cooperation and competition of mobile agents is proposed. The experiments show that the algorithm for this evolutionary solution is effective, and it has better time performances and convergence.

  11. From glue to gasoline: how competition turns perspective takers unethical.

    PubMed

    Pierce, Jason R; Kilduff, Gavin J; Galinsky, Adam D; Sivanathan, Niro

    2013-10-01

    Perspective taking is often the glue that binds people together. However, we propose that in competitive contexts, perspective taking is akin to adding gasoline to a fire: It inflames already-aroused competitive impulses and leads people to protect themselves from the potentially insidious actions of their competitors. Overall, we suggest that perspective taking functions as a relational amplifier. In cooperative contexts, it creates the foundation for prosocial impulses, but in competitive contexts, it triggers hypercompetition, leading people to prophylactically engage in unethical behavior to prevent themselves from being exploited. The experiments reported here establish that perspective taking interacts with the relational context--cooperative or competitive--to predict unethical behavior, from using insidious negotiation tactics to materially deceiving one's partner to cheating on an anagram task. In the context of competition, perspective taking can pervert the age-old axiom "do unto others as you would have them do unto you" into "do unto others as you think they will try to do unto you." PMID:23955353

  12. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  13. Surface acidity and degree of carburization of modified silver catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Pestryakov, A.N.; Belousova, V.N.; Roznina, M.I.

    1993-11-10

    The effect has been studied of some compounds as modifying additives on the surface acidity, degree of carburization, aggregation and silver entrainement of silver-pumice catalysts for methanol oxidation. Catalyst samples have been tested in an industrial reactor. The probable mechanism of modifying action of the additives is discussed.

  14. Interference competition and species coexistence.

    PubMed Central

    Amarasekare, Priyanga

    2002-01-01

    Interference competition is ubiquitous in nature. Yet its effects on resource exploitation remain largely unexplored for species that compete for dynamic resources. Here, I present a model of exploitative and interference competition with explicit resource dynamics. The model incorporates both biotic and abiotic resources. It considers interference competition both in the classical sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, and interference on, the other species) and in the broad sense (i.e. each species suffers a net reduction in per capita growth rate via interference from, but can experience an increase in growth rate via interference on, the other species). Coexistence cannot occur under classical interference competition even when the species inferior at resource exploitation is superior at interference. Such a trade-off can, however, change the mechanism of competitive exclusion from dominance by the superior resource exploiter to a priority effect. Now the inferior resource exploiter can exclude the superior resource exploiter provided it has a higher initial abundance. By contrast, when interference is beneficial to the interacting species, coexistence is possible via a trade-off between exploitation and interference. These results hold regardless of whether the resource is biotic or abiotic, indicating that the outcome of exploitative and interference competition does not depend on the exact nature of resource dynamics. The model makes two key predictions. First, species that engage in costly interference mechanisms (e.g. territoriality, overgrowth or undercutting, allelopathy and other forms of chemical competition) should not be able to coexist unless they also engage in beneficial interference mechanisms (e.g. predation or parasitism). Second, exotic invasive species that displace native biota should be superior resource exploiters that have strong interference effects on native species with little

  15. Observational bounds on modified gravity models

    SciTech Connect

    De Felice, Antonio; Mukherjee, Pia; Wang Yun

    2008-01-15

    Modified gravity provides a possible explanation for the currently observed cosmic acceleration. In this paper, we study general classes of modified gravity models. The Einstein-Hilbert action is modified by using general functions of the Ricci and the Gauss-Bonnet scalars, both in the metric and in the Palatini formalisms. We do not use an explicit form for the functions, but a general form with a valid Taylor expansion up to second order about redshift zero in the Riemann-scalars. The coefficients of this expansion are then reconstructed via the cosmic expansion history measured using current cosmological observations. These are the quantities of interest for theoretical considerations relating to ghosts and instabilities. We find that current data provide interesting constraints on the coefficients. The next-generation dark energy surveys should shrink the allowed parameter space for modified gravity models quite dramatically.

  16. Competitive helping in online giving.

    PubMed

    Raihani, Nichola J; Smith, Sarah

    2015-05-01

    Unconditional generosity in humans is a puzzle. One possibility is that individuals benefit from being seen as generous if there is competition for access to partners and if generosity is a costly-and therefore reliable-signal of partner quality [1-3]. The "competitive helping" hypothesis predicts that people will compete to be the most generous, particularly in the presence of attractive potential partners [1]. However, this key prediction has not been directly tested. Using data from online fundraising pages, we demonstrate competitive helping in the real world. Donations to fundraising pages are public and made sequentially. Donors can therefore respond to the behavior of previous donors, creating a potential generosity tournament. Our test of the competitive helping hypothesis focuses on the response to large, visible donations. We show that male donors show significantly stronger responses (by donating more) when they are donating to an attractive female fundraiser and responding to a large donation made by another male donor. The responses for this condition are around four times greater than when males give to less-attractive female (or male) fundraisers or when they respond to a large donation made by a female donor. Unlike males, females do not compete in donations when giving to attractive male fundraisers. These data suggest that males use competitive helping displays in the presence of attractive females and suggest a role for sexual selection in explaining unconditional generosity. PMID:25891407

  17. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations

    PubMed Central

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation—that is, the competitiveness of its research system—and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of “markers” of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most “sophisticated” needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  18. The Scientific Competitiveness of Nations.

    PubMed

    Cimini, Giulio; Gabrielli, Andrea; Sylos Labini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    We use citation data of scientific articles produced by individual nations in different scientific domains to determine the structure and efficiency of national research systems. We characterize the scientific fitness of each nation-that is, the competitiveness of its research system-and the complexity of each scientific domain by means of a non-linear iterative algorithm able to assess quantitatively the advantage of scientific diversification. We find that technological leading nations, beyond having the largest production of scientific papers and the largest number of citations, do not specialize in a few scientific domains. Rather, they diversify as much as possible their research system. On the other side, less developed nations are competitive only in scientific domains where also many other nations are present. Diversification thus represents the key element that correlates with scientific and technological competitiveness. A remarkable implication of this structure of the scientific competition is that the scientific domains playing the role of "markers" of national scientific competitiveness are those not necessarily of high technological requirements, but rather addressing the most "sophisticated" needs of the society. PMID:25493626

  19. National Biofuels Action Plan, October 2008

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2008-10-01

    To help industry achieve the aggressive national goals, Federal agencies will need to continue to enhance their collaboration. The Biomass Research and Development (R&D) Board was created by Congress in the Biomass Research and Development Act of 2000. The National Biofuels Action Plan outlines areas where interagency cooperation will help to evolve bio-based fuel production technologies from promising ideas to competitive solutions.

  20. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  1. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  2. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competitive level. 351.403 Section 351.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS REDUCTION IN FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive levels consisting of all positions in...

  3. 5 CFR 351.403 - Competitive level.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FORCE Scope of Competition § 351.403 Competitive level. (a)(1) Each agency shall establish competitive... document the employee's actual duties and responsibilities. (3) Sex may not be the basis for a competitive level determination, except for a position OPM designates that certification of eligibles by sex...

  4. Business Plan Competitions: An Overview. CELCEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Nicole

    This document describes business plan competitions sponsored by universities. The idea began in the early 1980s at the University of Texas when Masters in Business Administration (MBA) students created a friendly competitive activity along the lines of the law schools Moot Court competition. Later the competition became national, and then…

  5. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  6. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  7. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  8. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  9. 24 CFR 791.406 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 791.406 Section 791... Authority for Housing Assistance § 791.406 Competition. (a) All budget authority allocated pursuant to § 791.403(b)(2) shall be reserved and obligated pursuant to a competition. Any such competition shall...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except... agreements, unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The CSREES ADO and...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  13. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) Solicit at least three sources to promote competition to the maximum extent..., document the file to explain the lack of competition....

  14. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture... Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except..., unless restricted by statute, only after competition. (b) Exception. The NIFA ADO and the...

  15. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  16. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  17. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  18. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  19. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  20. 40 CFR 35.382 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.382 Section 35...)(3)) § 35.382 Competitive process. State Wetlands Development Grants are awarded on a competitive... established by EPA. After the competitive process is complete, the recipient can, at its discretion,...

  1. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  2. 40 CFR 35.603 - Competitive process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competitive process. 35.603 Section 35... (section 104(b)(3)) § 35.603 Competitive process. EPA will award water quality cooperative agreement funds through a competitive process in accordance with national program guidance. After the competitive...

  3. America's Competitive Crisis: Confronting the New Reality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Council on Competitiveness, Washington, DC.

    Efforts to restore America's competitive position must proceed from an accurate definition of what competitiveness is. The U.S. competitiveness problem has three dimensions: long-standing structural problems, macroeconomic policies, and the trade and economic policies of foreign countries. The long-term erosion of U.S. competitiveness is suggested…

  4. Line competition in gas lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Pikulev, A A

    2000-08-31

    Simultaneous lasing on two lines having a common upper level is analysed. Within the framework of the two-level model, a formula for the gain in each line is obtained. Two possible types of line competition are found: symbiosis and quenching. It is shown that competition in the quenching regime can be used to study the rates of population of the lower levels. The results are illustrated by competition diagrams for the 2.65-{mu}m and 2.03-{mu}m of the Xe atom in the Ar-Xe mixture and the 703.2-nm and 724.5-nm lines of the Ne atom in the Ne-Ar mixture. (active media)

  5. Belowground competition among invading detritivores.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Han; Szlavecz, Katalin; Filley, Timothy; Buyer, Jeffrey S; Bernard, Michael J; Pitz, Scott L

    2016-01-01

    The factors regulating soil animal communities are poorly understood. Current theory favors niche complementarity and facilitation over competition as the primary forms of non-trophic interspecific interaction in soil fauna; however, competition has frequently been suggested as an important community-structuring factor in earthworms, ecosystem engineers that influence belowground processes. To date, direct evidence of competition in earthworms is lacking due to the difficulty inherent in identifying a limiting resource for saprophagous animals. In the present study, we offer the first direct evidence of interspecific competition for food in this dominant soil detritivore group by combining field observations with laboratory mesocosm experiments using 13C and 15N double-enriched leaf litter to track consumption patterns. In our experiments, the Asian invasive species Amynthas hilgendorfi was a dominant competitor for leaf litter against two European species currently invading the temperate deciduous forests in North America. This competitive advantage may account for recent invasion success of A. hilgendorfi in forests with established populations of European species, and we hypothesize that specific phenological differences play an important role in determining the outcome of the belowground competition. In contrast, Eisenoides lonnbergi, a common native species in the Eastern United States, occupied a unique trophic position with limited interactions with other species, which may contribute to its persistence in habitats dominated by invasive species. Furthermore, our results supported neither the hypothesis that facilitation occurs between species of different functional groups nor the hypothesis that species in the same group exhibit functional equivalency in C and N translocation in the soil. We propose that species identity is a more powerful approach to understand earthworm invasion and its impacts on belowground processes. PMID:27008785

  6. Speech-Action Coordination in Young Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Balamore, Usha; Wozniak, Robert H.

    1984-01-01

    Speech-action coordination in 100 three and four year olds was measured according to a modified version of Wozniak's hammering-board task. Four instructional conditions (instructional, demonstration, vocalization, no vocalization) were presented in a numerical task ("Hit four times") and in two spatial tasks: three-color ("Hit red, green, yellow")…

  7. 40 CFR 192.04 - Corrective action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Corrective action. If the groundwater concentration limits established for disposal sites under provisions of..., in any case, as a minimum shall: (a) Conform with the groundwater provisions of § 192.02(c)(3), and (b) Clean up groundwater in conformance with subpart B, modified as appropriate to apply to...

  8. Can NCLB Survive the Competitiveness Competition? Education Outlook. Number 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Frederick M.; Rotherham, Andrew J.

    2007-01-01

    Some see the George W. Bush administration's American Competitiveness Initiative (ACI) as the perfect complement to the No Child Left Behind Act's (NCLB) equity focus. The authors believe, however, that the prospects for synergy of these two agendas are not bright. In this essay, the authors discuss the history behind NCLB and the ACI, and argue…

  9. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  10. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  11. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  12. 23 CFR 636.404 - Can a competitive range be used to limit competition?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can a competitive range be used to limit competition... used to limit competition? If the solicitation notifies offerors that the competitive range can be... permit an efficient competition. However, you must provide written notice to any offeror whose...

  13. Geographic Proximity and Enrollment Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zammuto, Raymond F.

    The use of a measure of geographic proximity to help explain enrollment competition among postsecondary institutions was investigated. The measure, the number of miles between institutions, was obtained by determining the longitude and latitude coordinates for about 99% of the schools in the Higher Education General Information System universe.…

  14. Economic Competitiveness: A Campaign Primer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fischer, Karin

    2008-01-01

    With the dollar's continued swoon and grim news on the job front, American economic competitiveness has become a central theme in the presidential election. Stumping in Ohio and Pennsylvania, old-line industrial states hit hard by the flight of manufacturing jobs, Democrats Hillary Rodham Clinton and Barack Obama have called for renegotiating the…

  15. Competitions: Developing and Nurturing Talents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karnes, Frances A.; Riley, Tracy L.

    1996-01-01

    This article discusses the need for competitions and contests in schools to develop and enhance talents in academics, fine and performing arts, leadership, and service learning. An academic contest school assessment checklist is included. Information on several national contests for children and youth is presented. (CR)

  16. Competitive economics of nuclear power

    SciTech Connect

    Hellman, R.

    1981-03-02

    Some 12 components of a valid study of the competitive economics of a newly ordered nuclear power plant are identified and explicated. These are then used to adjust the original cost projections of four authoritative studies of nuclear and coal power economics.

  17. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    SciTech Connect

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv

    2012-01-01

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  18. Teaching the Values of Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buyer, Paul

    2005-01-01

    The author of this paper first learned about the values of competition as a member of the 1989 Star of Indiana Drum and Bugle Corps. Because they played more than thirty shows that summer, it was common to compete two nights in a row. He vividly remembers one such occasion. Their first show was outstanding, and they finished second. Everyone was…

  19. Clean Energy Business Plan Competition

    ScienceCinema

    Maxted, Sara Jane; Lojewski, Brandon; Scherson, Yaniv;

    2013-05-29

    Top Students Pitch Clean Energy Business Plans The six regional finalists of the National Clean Energy Business Plan Competition pitched their business plans to a panel of judges June 13 in Washington, D.C. The expert judges announced NuMat Technologies from Northwestern University as the grand prize winner.

  20. "Project Psychology": A Classroom Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleck, Bethany K. B.; Hussey, Heather D.

    2009-01-01

    The authors describe an original and unique series of classroom group-work activities organized as a competitive game called "Project Psychology," which was implemented in an Introduction to Psychology course. The project goals included increasing student participation, interest, content comprehension, and motivation. Fostering connections to…

  1. Competitive Cooperation: The Iceberg Profile.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaughan, Jerry L.

    Competitive athletes' scores on the Profile of Mood States (POMS) test create an iceberg-like pattern known as the "Iceberg Profile." Their scores for tension, depression, anger, fatigue, and confusion are low while their scores on vigor juts upward creating the "Iceberg Profile." Persons in a cooperative relationship are often competing against…

  2. Competition in a Social Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Legara, Erika Fille; Longjas, Anthony; Batac, Rene

    Complex adaptive agents develop strategies in the presence of competition. In modern human societies, there is an inherent sense of locality when describing inter-agent dynamics because of its network structure. One then wonders whether the traditional advertising schemes that are globally publicized and target random individuals are as effective in attracting a larger portion of the population as those that take advantage of local neighborhoods, such as "word-of-mouth" marketing schemes. Here, we demonstrate using a differential equation model that schemes targeting local cliques within the network are more successful at gaining a larger share of the population than those that target users randomly at a global scale (e.g., television commercials, print ads, etc.). This suggests that success in the competition is dependent not only on the number of individuals in the population but also on how they are connected in the network. We further show that the model is general in nature by considering examples of competition dynamics, particularly those of business competition and language death.

  3. Raising Economic Competitiveness with Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Silberman, Harry F.

    The current school reform movement has been plagued by three false assumptions. The first of these postulates that more academic requirements will strengthen the minds of students, improve their reasoning, prepare them for a rapidly changing economy, and make the U.S. economy more competitive. Although it is true that the workers of the future…

  4. A Sinking Feeling about Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cirasuolo, Joseph J.

    2001-01-01

    A competitive school ambience will further distinguish winners from losers in an increasingly fractured and stratified society. Disadvantaged students have little chance to win the standards game. Educators should examine the gilded age's hypocrisy; what gallantry existed the night the Titanic sank applied only to first-class female passengers.…

  5. Competition with Charters Motivates Districts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holley, Marc J.; Lueken, Martin F.; Egalite, Anna J.

    2013-01-01

    Proponents of market-based education reform often argue that introducing charter schools and other school choice policies creates a competitive dynamic that will prompt low-performing districts to improve their practice. Rather than simply providing an alternative to neighborhood public schools for a handful of students, the theory says, school…

  6. Competitive strategies in the NHS.

    PubMed

    Coad, H; Kennedy, B

    1992-04-01

    The NHS has, of necessity since implementation of the NHS and Community Care Act 1990, strengthened its skills in business, marketing and other functions borrowed from industry and commerce. One area where, however, the NHS is currently weak is in competitive intelligence. Hazel Coad and Barbara Kennedy explain what this strategically important function is and how it can help financial viability. PMID:10118487

  7. An Amusement Park Physics Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moll, Rachel F.

    2010-01-01

    Amusement park physics is a popular way to reinforce physics concepts and to motivate physics learners. This article describes a novel physics competition where students use simple tools to take amusement park ride measurements and use the data to answer challenging exam questions. Research into the impact of participating in the competition…

  8. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  9. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  10. Simultaneous action execution and observation optimise grasping actions.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Curie, Aurore; des Portes, Vincent; Nazir, Tatjana A; Paulignan, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Action observation and execution share overlapping neural resonating mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to examine the effect of the activation of this system during concurrent movement observation and execution in a prehension task, when no a priori information about the requirements of grasping action was available. Although it is known that simultaneous activation by observation and execution influences motor performance, the importance of the delays of these two events and the specific effect of movement observation itself (and not the prediction of the to-be-observed movement) on action performance are poorly known. Fine-grained kinematic analysis of both the transport and grasp components of the movement should provide knowledge about the influence of movement observation on the precision and the performance of the executed movement. The experiment involved two real participants who were asked to grasp a different side of a single object that was composed of a large and a small part. In the first experiment, we measured how the transport component and the grasp component were affected by movement observation. We tested whether this influence was greater if the observed movement occurred just before the onset of movement (200 ms) or well before the onset of movement (1 s). In a second experiment, to reproduce the previous experiment and to verify the specificity of the grasping movements, we also included a condition consisting of pointing towards the object. Both experiments showed two main results. A general facilitation of the transport component was found when observing a simultaneous action, independent of its congruency. Moreover, a specific facilitation of the grasp component was present during the observation of a congruent action when movement execution and observation were nearly synchronised. While the general facilitation may arise from a competition between the two participants as they reached for the object, the specific facilitation

  11. Hospital pricing: cost shifting and competition.

    PubMed

    Morrisey, M A

    1993-05-01

    The issue of cost shifting has taken on enormous policy implications. It is estimated that unsponsored and undercompensated hospital costs--one measure of cost shifting--has totaled $21.5 billion in 1991. The health services research literature indicates that hospitals set different prices for different payers. However, the empirical evidence on hospitals' ability to raise prices to one payer to make up for unsponsored care or lower payments by other payers is mixed at best. No study has concluded that hospitals have raised prices to fully adjust for such actions. The extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. When a hospital has market power, it is able to set prices above marginal costs. However, when a buyer has enough patient/subscribers and a willingness to direct them to particular providers based on price considerations, hospitals have less flexibility in raising prices above costs. Thus, the extent of cost shifting is limited by the market. Cost shifting is not as easy as it may have been in the past because the nature of hospital and insurer competition has changed radically in the last decade. While hospital quality, services, and amenities still matter, some buyers are increasingly concerned about the price they pay. Evidence from studies of PPO and HMO negotiations with hospitals suggests that hospitals' market power is eroding, at least in some areas. In areas with relatively few hospital competitors and little PPO or HMO activity, Medicaid and Medicare price reductions and uncompensated care burdens will be partially absorbed by higher prices paid by private payers. In more price sensitive markets and in markets in which prices to private payers have risen to those commensurate with the market power of local hospitals, such cost shifting will not occur. A market-based approach in hospital pricing requires an explicit policy for the uninsured. In a competitive market, a hospital that traditionally cared for the uninsured by spending some of its

  12. Infants' Understanding of Actions Performed by Mechanical Devices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyer, Ty W.; Pan, J. Samantha; Bertenthal, Bennett I.

    2011-01-01

    Recent research suggests that 9-month-old infants tested in a modified version of the A-not-B search task covertly imitate actions performed by the experimenter. The current study examines whether infants also simulate actions performed by mechanical devices, and whether this varies with whether or not they have been familiarized with the devices…

  13. Bimetric theory of gravity from the nonchiral Plebanski action

    SciTech Connect

    Speziale, Simone

    2010-09-15

    We study a modification of the Plebanski action for general relativity, which leads to a modified theory of gravity with 8 degrees of freedom. We show how the action can be recasted as a bimetric theory of gravity, and expanding around a biflat background we identify the 6 extra degrees of freedom with a second, massive graviton and a scalar mode.

  14. Electric power competition & the economic doctrine of contestable markets

    SciTech Connect

    Owan, R.E.

    1995-06-01

    This paper addresses electric power competition and ascribes a prototypical market structure for the utility industry. The advent of {open_quotes}limited{close_quotes} competition in the electric utility industry has created interesting market challenges for incumbent companies and those eager to enter the fray. Competition is viewed as limited in the sense that not all aspects of the utility industry have been deregulated. While transmission and distribution remain protected market segments, the metamorphosis is most evident in the generation component of the utility industry. The changes have been orchestrated by favorable actions by the Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (FERC) and Public Utilities Regulatory Policies Act (PURPA). Because of the industry changes, the classical view of the electric utility company as a vertical monopoly is arguable. Welfare considerations not withstanding, part of the rationale for the deregulation of power generation is that the technology and techniques are sufficiently common (i.e. not proprietary) as to allow others to provide the same product or service at competitive prices.

  15. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress.

    PubMed

    Cowden, Richard G; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R (2) = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R (2) = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport. PMID:27014132

  16. Mental Toughness in Competitive Tennis: Relationships with Resilience and Stress

    PubMed Central

    Cowden, Richard G.; Meyer-Weitz, Anna; Oppong Asante, Kwaku

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationships between mental toughness (MT), resilience, and stress among competitive South African tennis players. A total of 351 tennis players participating at various competitive standards completed the Sports Mental Toughness Questionnaire, the Resilience Scale for Adults, and a modified version of the Recovery-Stress Questionnaire for Athletes. The results indicated that total MT was positively associated with total resilience (r = 0.59), but negatively associated with total stress (r = -0.44). The resilience subscales of perception of self, perception of future, social competence, and social resources, but not family cohesion, significantly predicted total MT (R2 = 0.35). Both total resilience and total MT significantly predicted total stress (R2 = 0.21). Based on the findings, interrelations between MT and resilience are explored, implications outlined, and additional research is suggested to ascertain the contextual relevance and outcomes associated with each construct in sport. PMID:27014132

  17. Demolishing the Competition: The Longitudinal Link between Competitive Video Games, Competitive Gambling, and Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adachi, Paul J. C.; Willoughby, Teena

    2013-01-01

    The majority of research on the link between video games and aggression has focused on the violent content in games. In contrast, recent experimental research suggests that it is video game competition, not violence, that has the greatest effect on aggression in the short-term. However, no researchers have examined the long-term relationship…

  18. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  19. Freedom from Government Competition Act

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Sen. Thune, John [R-SD

    2011-04-12

    04/12/2011 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Freedom from Government Competition Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Thune, John [R-SD

    2013-03-12

    03/12/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Aged Distilled Spirits Competitiveness Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. McConnell, Mitch [R-KY

    2013-08-01

    08/01/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Finance. (text of measure as introduced: CR S6229) (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  2. Neanderthal Extinction by Competitive Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Banks, William E.; d'Errico, Francesco; Peterson, A. Townsend; Kageyama, Masa; Sima, Adriana; Sánchez-Goñi, Maria-Fernanda

    2008-01-01

    Background Despite a long history of investigation, considerable debate revolves around whether Neanderthals became extinct because of climate change or competition with anatomically modern humans (AMH). Methodology/Principal Findings We apply a new methodology integrating archaeological and chronological data with high-resolution paleoclimatic simulations to define eco-cultural niches associated with Neanderthal and AMH adaptive systems during alternating cold and mild phases of Marine Isotope Stage 3. Our results indicate that Neanderthals and AMH exploited similar niches, and may have continued to do so in the absence of contact. Conclusions/Significance The southerly contraction of Neanderthal range in southwestern Europe during Greenland Interstadial 8 was not due to climate change or a change in adaptation, but rather concurrent AMH geographic expansion appears to have produced competition that led to Neanderthal extinction. PMID:19107186

  3. Plan competitions reveal entrepreneurial talent

    SciTech Connect

    Madison, Alison L.

    2011-05-15

    Monthly economic diversity column for Tri-City Herald business section. Excerpt below: There’s something to be said for gaining valuable real-world experience in a structured, nurturing environment. Take for instance learning to scuba dive in the comfort of my resort pool rather than immediately hanging out with sharks while I figure out little things like oxygen tanks and avoiding underwater panic attacks. Likewise, graduate students are getting some excellent, supportive real-world training through university business plan competitions. These competitions are places where smart minds, new technologies, months of preparation and coaching, and some healthy pre-presentation jitters collide to reveal not only solid new business ideas, but also some promising entrepreneurial talent. In fact, professionals from around our region descend upon college campuses every spring to judge these events, which help to bridge the gap between academics and the real technology and business-driven economy.

  4. Competitive coexistence in antiviral immunity.

    PubMed

    Arnaout, R A; Nowak, M A

    2000-06-01

    Adaptive immunity to viruses in vertebrates is mediated by two distinct but complementary branches of the immune system: the cellular response, which eliminates infected cells, and the humoral response, which eliminates infectious virus. This leads to an interesting contest, since the two responses compete, albeit indirectly, for proliferative stimuli. How can a host mount a coordinated antiviral campaign? Here we show that competition may lead to a state of "competitive coexistence" in which, counterintuitively, each branch complements the other, with clinical benefit to the host. The principle is similar to free-market economics, in which firms compete, but the consumer benefits. Experimental evidence suggests this is a useful paradigm in antiviral immunity. PMID:10816366

  5. Competitiveness assessment of engineering products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharisova, A. R.; Puryaev, A. S.

    2014-12-01

    This article discusses the problem of increasing the competitiveness of the engineering industry through the implementation of innovative projects. Based on the analysis of the features of innovative projects formulated a conclusion according to which the innovative projects effectiveness evaluation should take into account non-economic indicators such as social, ecological, resource, scientific and technological. We formulate the process and provide a methodology to evaluate the effectiveness of innovative projects based on noneconomic indicators. This technique is aimed at assessing the projects increase the competitiveness of products, which is understood as a comprehensive line of products a whole range of different physical limitations of the essence, allowing the long run to get sustainable income.

  6. BDS thin film damage competition

    SciTech Connect

    Stolz, C J; Thomas, M D; Griffin, A J

    2008-10-24

    A laser damage competition was held at the 2008 Boulder Damage Symposium in order to determine the current status of thin film laser resistance within the private, academic, and government sectors. This damage competition allows a direct comparison of the current state-of-the-art of high laser resistance coatings since they are all tested using the same damage test setup and the same protocol. A normal incidence high reflector multilayer coating was selected at a wavelength of 1064 nm. The substrates were provided by the submitters. A double blind test assured sample and submitter anonymity so only a summary of the results are presented here. In addition to the laser resistance results, details of deposition processes, coating materials, and layer count will also be shared.

  7. Modeling competition between yeast strains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Gee, Maarten; van Mourik, Hilda; de Visser, Arjan; Molenaar, Jaap

    2016-04-01

    We investigate toxin interference competition between S. cerevisiae colonies grown on a solid medium. In vivo experiments show that the outcome of this competition depends strongly on nutrient availability and cell densities. Here we present a new model for S. cerevisiae colonies, calculating the local height and composition of the colonies. The model simulates yeast colonies that show a good fit to experimental data. Simulations of colonies that start out with a homogeneous mixture of toxin producing and toxin sensitive cells can display remarkable pattern formation, depending on the initial ratio of the strains. Simulations in which the toxin producing and toxin sensitive species start at nearby positions clearly show that toxin production is advantageous.

  8. 48 CFR 245.7302 - Competitive sales.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competitive sales. 245..., DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT GOVERNMENT PROPERTY Sale of Surplus Contractor Inventory 245.7302 Competitive sales....

  9. Students + Chemistry + Competition = An Energizing Reaction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pax, Julianna; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Describes a high school chemistry competition at the University of Maryland (College Park). Basic guidelines, organization, events, and evaluation of the competition are provided. A list of events is presented. (YP)

  10. EVALUATING MULTICOMPONENT COMPETITIVE ADSORPTION IN FIXED BEDS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An equilibrium column model (ECM) was developed to evaluate multicomponent competition in fixed-bed adsorption columns. The model ignores mass transfer resistances and uses ideal adsorbed solution theory to predict the competitive effects in multicomponent mixtures. The bed capac...

  11. Developing Information Systems for Competitive Intelligence Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hohhof, Bonnie

    1994-01-01

    Discusses issues connected with developing information systems for competitive intelligence support; defines the elements of an effective competitive information system; and summarizes issues affecting system design and implementation. Highlights include intelligence information; information needs; information sources; decision making; and…

  12. Microscale Titration in Schools Titration Competition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Michael J.

    1998-01-01

    Reviews the requirements of the National Titration Competition and describes how a team in a local competition used the technique. Compares microscale titration to conventional titration. Outlines the benefits of employing microscale techniques. (DDR)

  13. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  14. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  15. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  16. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  17. 32 CFR 22.320 - Special competitions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... REGULATIONS DoD GRANTS AND AGREEMENTS-AWARD AND ADMINISTRATION Competition § 22.320 Special competitions. Some.... An example would be a program to enhance U.S. capabilities for academic research and...

  18. Competitive Intelligence and the Information Center.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greene, H. Frances

    1988-01-01

    Examines the competitive intelligence approach to corporate information gathering, and discusses how it differs from the traditional library information center approach. Steps for developing a competitive intelligence system in the library information center are suggested. (33 references) (MES)

  19. Connective stability of competitive equilibrium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siljak, D. D.

    1975-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to derive necessary and sufficient conditions for the connective stability of nonlinear matrix systems described by the equation x-dot = A(t, x) x, where the matrix A(t, x) has time-varying nonlinear elements. The results obtained can be used to study the stability of competitive equilibrium in fields as diverse as economics and engineering, model ecosystems, and the arms race.-

  20. Physiological demands of competitive surfing.

    PubMed

    Farley, Oliver R L; Harris, Nigel K; Kilding, Andrew E

    2012-07-01

    This study was a performance analysis of surfing athletes during competitive surfing events in an attempt to inform the development of surfing-specific conditioning. Twelve nationally ranked surfers were fitted with heart rate (HR) monitors and global positioning system (GPS) units and videoed during the heats of 2 sanctioned competitions. Means and SDs represented the centrality and spread of analyzed data. From the 32 videos analyzed, the greatest amount of time spent during surfing was paddling (54 ± 6.3% of the total time) (% TT). The remaining stationary represented 28 ± 6.9% TT, wave riding, and paddling for a wave represented only 8 ± 2% TT and 4 ± 1.5% TT, respectively. Surfers spent 61 ± 7% of the total paddling bouts and 64 ± 6.8% of total stationary bouts between 1 and 10 seconds. The average speed recorded via the GPS for all the subjects was 3.7 ± 0.6 km·h(-1), with an average maximum speed of 33.4 ± 6.5 km·h(-1) (45 km·h(-1) was the highest speed recorded). The average distance covered was 1,605 ± 313 m. The mean HR during the surf competitions was 139 ± 11 b·min(-1) (64% HRmax), with a (mean) peak of 190 ± 12 b·min(-1) (87% HRmax). Sixty percent TT was spent between 56 and 74% of the age-predicted HR maximum (HRmax), 19% TT >46% HRmax, and approximately 3% TT >83% HRmax. Competitive surfing therefore involves intermittent high-intensity bouts of all out paddling intercalated with relatively short recovery periods and repeated bouts of low-intensity paddling, incorporating intermittent breath holding. Surfing-specific conditioning sessions should attempt to replicate such a profile. PMID:21986691

  1. Competitive dynamics on complex networks.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jiuhua; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-01-01

    We consider a dynamical network model in which two competitors have fixed and different states, and each normal agent adjusts its state according to a distributed consensus protocol. The state of each normal agent converges to a steady value which is a convex combination of the competitors' states, and is independent of the initial states of agents. This implies that the competition result is fully determined by the network structure and positions of competitors in the network. We compute an Influence Matrix (IM) in which each element characterizing the influence of an agent on another agent in the network. We use the IM to predict the bias of each normal agent and thus predict which competitor will win. Furthermore, we compare the IM criterion with seven node centrality measures to predict the winner. We find that the competitor with higher Katz Centrality in an undirected network or higher PageRank in a directed network is most likely to be the winner. These findings may shed new light on the role of network structure in competition and to what extent could competitors adjust network structure so as to win the competition. PMID:25068622

  2. Competitive Dynamics on Complex Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Jiuhua; Liu, Qipeng; Wang, Xiaofan

    2014-07-01

    We consider a dynamical network model in which two competitors have fixed and different states, and each normal agent adjusts its state according to a distributed consensus protocol. The state of each normal agent converges to a steady value which is a convex combination of the competitors' states, and is independent of the initial states of agents. This implies that the competition result is fully determined by the network structure and positions of competitors in the network. We compute an Influence Matrix (IM) in which each element characterizing the influence of an agent on another agent in the network. We use the IM to predict the bias of each normal agent and thus predict which competitor will win. Furthermore, we compare the IM criterion with seven node centrality measures to predict the winner. We find that the competitor with higher Katz Centrality in an undirected network or higher PageRank in a directed network is most likely to be the winner. These findings may shed new light on the role of network structure in competition and to what extent could competitors adjust network structure so as to win the competition.

  3. Unconscious Effects of Action on Perception

    PubMed Central

    Halász, Veronika; Cunnington, Ross

    2012-01-01

    We spend much of our life predicting the future. This involves developing theories and making predictions about others’ intentions, goals and about the consequences of the actions we are observing. Adapting our actions and behaviours to the environment is required for achieving our goals, and to do this the motor system relies on input from sensory modalities. However, recent theories suggest that the link between motor and perceptual areas is bidirectional, and that predictions based on planned or intended actions can unconsciously influence and modify our perception. In the following review we describe current theories on the link between action and perception, and examine the ways in which the motor system can unconsciously alter our perception. PMID:24962769

  4. Report on the 2006 AAPT Apparatus Competition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flarend, Richard

    2007-01-01

    Each year at the AAPT summer meeting there is an apparatus competition in which members of the physics community can share ideas for new or improved apparatus to aid in the teaching of physics. The 2006 competition at the summer meeting in Syracuse, NY, was the largest competition in quite a while and continued an upward trend in the number of…

  5. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  6. 14 CFR § 1260.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. § 1260.143 Section § 1260... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  7. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  8. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  9. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... ORGANIZATIONS (OMB CIRCULAR A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  10. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  11. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  12. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  13. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition...

  14. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  15. 28 CFR 70.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 70.43 Section 70.43 Judicial... Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 70.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  16. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  17. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition...

  18. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  19. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  20. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  1. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  2. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  3. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  4. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  5. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  6. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  7. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  8. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  9. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  10. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  11. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  12. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  13. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  14. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  15. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  16. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  17. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  18. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  19. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  20. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  1. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  2. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  3. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  4. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  5. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  6. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  7. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  8. 7 CFR 2500.011 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... with regulations established in 7 CFR 3015.158(d). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 2500.011 Section 2500.011 Agriculture...: Solicitation and Proposals § 2500.011 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  10. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  11. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  12. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  13. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  14. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  15. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  16. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  17. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  18. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  19. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  20. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  1. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  2. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  3. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  4. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  5. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  6. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  7. 34 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Education Office of... Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  8. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  9. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  10. 40 CFR 30.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Competition. 30.43 Section 30.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 30.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  11. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  12. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  13. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  14. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  15. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition...

  16. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  17. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  18. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  19. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  20. 7 CFR 550.46 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 550.46 Section 550.46 Agriculture... Procurement Standards § 550.46 Competition. (a) All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The Cooperator shall be alert...

  1. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  2. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  3. 48 CFR 370.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 370.504... SPECIAL PROGRAMS AFFECTING ACQUISITION Acquisitions Under the Buy Indian Act 370.504 Competition. (a) Contracts awarded under the Buy Indian Act are subject to competition among Indians or Indian concerns...

  4. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  5. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  6. 48 CFR 9.206-3 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 9.206-3... CONTRACTOR QUALIFICATIONS Qualifications Requirements 9.206-3 Competition. (a) Presolicitation. If a... solicitation to ascertain whether the number of sources is adequate for competition. (See 9.204(a) for...

  7. 24 CFR 84.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Competition. 84.43 Section 84.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 84.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  8. 14 CFR 1260.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Competition. 1260.143 Section 1260.143..., Hospitals, and Other Non-Profit Organizations Procurement Standards § 1260.143 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  9. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  10. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  11. 48 CFR 13.104 - Promoting competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Promoting competition. 13... METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES SIMPLIFIED ACQUISITION PROCEDURES Procedures 13.104 Promoting competition. The contracting officer must promote competition to the maximum extent practicable to obtain supplies and...

  12. 7 CFR 2500.011 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... with regulations established in 7 CFR 3015.158(d). ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Competition. 2500.011 Section 2500.011 Agriculture...: Solicitation and Proposals § 2500.011 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided...

  13. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  14. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  15. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  16. 10 CFR 600.143 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 600.143 Section 600.143 Energy DEPARTMENT OF... Nonprofit Organizations Post-Award Requirements § 600.143 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  17. 43 CFR 12.943 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Competition. 12.943 Section 12.943 Public....943 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  18. 32 CFR 32.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Competition. 32.43 Section 32.43 National... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 32.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  19. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...

  20. 36 CFR 1210.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 1210.43 Section... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  1. 29 CFR 95.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Competition. 95.43 Section 95.43 Labor Office of the... Standards § 95.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  2. 48 CFR 1353.206 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... FORMS FORMS Prescription of Forms 1353.206 Competition requirements. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1306.303-70, use Form CD-492, Justification for Other Than Full and Open Competition, to support the requirements... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition...

  3. 49 CFR 19.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Competition. 19.43 Section 19.43 Transportation... Requirements Procurement Standards § 19.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  4. 22 CFR 145.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Competition. 145.43 Section 145.43 Foreign... Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  5. 48 CFR 873.104 - Competition requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition requirements... Competition requirements. (a) Without regard to FAR part 6, if the health-care resource required is a... officers must seek competition to the maximum extent practicable and must permit all responsible...

  6. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  7. 20 CFR 435.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Competition. 435.43 Section 435.43 Employees...-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 435.43 Competition. All procurement transactions must be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The...

  8. 2 CFR 215.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 2 Grants and Agreements 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 215.43 Section 215.43 Grants... A-110) Post Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 215.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  9. 14 CFR 1274.504 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2011-01-01 2010-01-01 true Competition. 1274.504 Section 1274.504... FIRMS Procurement Standards § 1274.504 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall...

  10. 48 CFR 570.104 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 570.104... PROGRAMS ACQUIRING LEASEHOLD INTERESTS IN REAL PROPERTY General 570.104 Competition. Unless the contracting officer uses the simplified procedures in subpart 570.2, the competition requirements of FAR part 6...

  11. 22 CFR 518.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Competition. 518.43 Section 518.43 Foreign... Procurement Standards § 518.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert...

  12. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  13. 41 CFR 105-72.503 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Competition. 105-72.503... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS 72.50-Post-Award Requirements/Procurement Standards § 105-72.503 Competition... practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of...

  14. 38 CFR 49.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Competition. 49.43... NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 49.43 Competition. All... free competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well...

  15. 48 CFR 570.203-2 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Competition. 570.203-2... 570.203-2 Competition. (a) To the maximum extent practicable, the contracting officer must solicit at least three sources to promote competition. If there are repeated requirements for space in the...

  16. 7 CFR 3430.11 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 3430.11 Section 3430.11 Agriculture...-GENERAL AWARD ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS Pre-award: Solicitation and Application § 3430.11 Competition. (a) Standards for competition. Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, CSREES will enter...

  17. 7 CFR 3019.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Competition. 3019.43 Section 3019.43 Agriculture... § 3019.43 Competition. All procurement transactions shall be conducted in a manner to provide, to the maximum extent practical, open and free competition. The recipient shall be alert to...

  18. 7 CFR 550.5 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Competition. 550.5 Section 550.5 Agriculture... Competition. REE agencies may enter into non-assistance cooperative agreements, as authorized by this part, without regard to any requirements for competition. (7 U.S.C. 3318(e))....

  19. 45 CFR 74.43 - Competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Competition. 74.43 Section 74.43 Public Welfare... COMMERCIAL ORGANIZATIONS Post-Award Requirements Procurement Standards § 74.43 Competition. All procurement... competition. The recipient shall be alert to organizational conflicts of interest as well as...

  20. 45 CFR 2400.2 - Annual competition.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Annual competition. 2400.2 Section 2400.2 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS General § 2400.2 Annual competition. To achieve its principal purposes, the Foundation holds an annual national competition to select teachers in grades 7-12, college seniors,...