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Sample records for action myoclonus-renal failure

  1. Genetics Home Reference: action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome

    MedlinePlus

    ... Management Genetic Testing (1 link) Genetic Testing Registry: Epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 4, with or without renal failure ... failure syndrome action myoclonus–renal failure syndrome AMRF epilepsy, progressive myoclonic 4, with or without renal failure ...

  2. Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    America's Promise Alliance (NJ1), 2006

    2006-01-01

    "Every Child, Every Promise: Turning Failure into Action" is the first national research that comprehensively measures the presence of the essential resources that correlate with success in both youth and adulthood. The report indicates that there is much work to do as a nation. It also shows how failure can be turned into action to improve the…

  3. The unifying role of dissipative action in the dynamic failure of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Dennis

    2015-05-19

    Dissipative action, the product of dissipation energy and transport time, is fundamental to the dynamic failure of solids. Invariance of the dissipative action underlies the fourth-power nature of structured shock waves observed in selected solid metals and compounds. Dynamic failure through shock compaction, tensile spall and adiabatic shear are also governed by a constancy of the dissipative action. This commonality underlying the various modes of dynamic failure is described and leads to deeper insights into failure of solids in the intense shock wave event. These insights are in turn leading to a better understanding of the shock deformation processes underlying the fourth-power law. Experimental result and material models encompassing the dynamic failure of solids are explored for the purpose of demonstrating commonalities leading to invariance of the dissipation action. As a result, calculations are extended to aluminum and uranium metals with the intent of predicting micro-scale energetics and spatial scales in the structured shock wave.

  4. Teacher Trainers as Action Researchers: Scrutinizing the Reasons for Student Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gürsoy, Emel; Çelik Korkmaz, Sule

    2015-01-01

    This action research aims to identify the teacher trainees' attributions for their failure, their locus of control and their achievement goals as a result of high failure rate in "Teaching English to Young Learners" course at a large state university in Turkey. For this purpose, qualitative and quantitative data were gathered via an…

  5. Contrasting actions of pressor agents in severe autonomic failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Biaggioni, I.; Norman, R.; Black, B. K.; Robertson, D.

    1998-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension is the most disabling symptom of autonomic failure. The choice of a pressor agent is largely empiric, and it would be of great value to define predictors of a response. PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 35 patients with severe orthostatic hypotension due to multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure, we determined the effect on seated systolic blood pressure (SBP) of placebo, phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg and 25 mg), yohimbine (5.4 mg), indomethacin (50 mg), ibuprofen (600 mg), caffeine (250 mg), and methylphenidate (5 mg). In a subgroup of patients, we compared the pressor effect of midodrine (5 mg) with the effect of phenylpropanolamine (12.5 mg). RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the pressor responses between patients with multiple system atrophy or pure autonomic failure. When compared with placebo, the pressor response was significant for phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin. In a subgroup of patients, we confirmed that this pressor effect of phenylpropanolamine, yohimbine, and indomethacin corresponded to a significant increase in standing SBP. The pressor responses to ibuprofen, caffeine, and methylphenidate were not significantly different from placebo. Phenylpropanolamine and midodrine elicited similar pressor responses. There were no significant associations between drug response and autonomic function testing, postprandial hypotension, or plasma catecholamine levels. CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that significant increases in systolic blood pressure can be obtained in patients with orthostatic hypotension due to primary autonomic failure with phenylpropanolamine in low doses or yohimbine or indomethacin in moderate doses. The response to a pressor agent cannot be predicted by autonomic function testing or plasma catecholamines. Therefore, empiric testing with a sequence of medications, based on the risk of side effects in the individual patient and the probability of a response, is a useful approach.

  6. The cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in acute myocardial infarction and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Polhemus, David J; Calvert, John W; Butler, Javed; Lefer, David J

    2014-01-01

    It has now become universally accepted that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), previously considered only as a lethal toxin, has robust cytoprotective actions in multiple organ systems. The diverse signaling profile of H2S impacts multiple pathways to exert cytoprotective actions in a number of pathological states. This paper will review the recently described cardioprotective actions of hydrogen sulfide in both myocardial ischemia/reperfusion injury and congestive heart failure.

  7. [Action-oriented versus state-oriented reactions to experimenter-induced failures].

    PubMed

    Brunstein, J C

    1989-01-01

    The present study assessed different effects of action-oriented versus state-oriented styles of coping with failure on achievement-related performance and cognition. In a learned helplessness experiment, students were exposed to an academic failure situation and were then tested on a series of problem-solving tasks, either immediately after the pretreatment or after a delay of 24 hours. Performance and cognitive concomitants were measured during both experimental periods. Results demonstrated that action orientation was associated with self-immunizing cognitions during helplessness training. Action-oriented participants improved their performance level even after repeated failure feedbacks. Moreover, action-oriented students assigned to the delayed test condition responded with increased striving for success and showed performance increments, even in comparison with control subjects. In contrast, state-oriented participants developed symptoms of helplessness and showed impaired performance during failure inductions. In later tests on problem-solving tasks, state-oriented groups responded with increased fear of failure. Independent of immediate or delayed test conditions, they soon lapsed into new performance decrements.

  8. The unifying role of dissipative action in the dynamic failure of solids

    DOE PAGES

    Grady, Dennis

    2015-05-19

    Dissipative action, the product of dissipation energy and transport time, is fundamental to the dynamic failure of solids. Invariance of the dissipative action underlies the fourth-power nature of structured shock waves observed in selected solid metals and compounds. Dynamic failure through shock compaction, tensile spall and adiabatic shear are also governed by a constancy of the dissipative action. This commonality underlying the various modes of dynamic failure is described and leads to deeper insights into failure of solids in the intense shock wave event. These insights are in turn leading to a better understanding of the shock deformation processes underlyingmore » the fourth-power law. Experimental result and material models encompassing the dynamic failure of solids are explored for the purpose of demonstrating commonalities leading to invariance of the dissipation action. As a result, calculations are extended to aluminum and uranium metals with the intent of predicting micro-scale energetics and spatial scales in the structured shock wave.« less

  9. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., analysis, engineering report, test, or project prepared for a court proceeding; and (D) Fees paid or... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings...

  10. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., analysis, engineering report, test, or project prepared for a court proceeding; and (D) Fees paid or... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings...

  11. 26 CFR 301.7432-1 - Civil cause of action for failure to release a lien.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., analysis, engineering report, test, or project prepared for a court proceeding; and (D) Fees paid or... 26 Internal Revenue 18 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Civil cause of action for failure to release a... TREASURY (CONTINUED) PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION PROCEDURE AND ADMINISTRATION Judicial Proceedings...

  12. Modeling the attenuation and failure of action potentials in the dendrites of hippocampal neurons.

    PubMed Central

    Migliore, M

    1996-01-01

    We modeled two different mechanisms, a shunting conductance and a slow sodium inactivation, to test whether they could modulate the active propagation of a train of action potentials in a dendritic tree. Computer simulations, using a compartmental model of a pyramidal neuron, suggest that each of these two mechanisms could account for the activity-dependent attenuation and failure of the action potentials in the dendrites during the train. Each mechanism is shown to be in good qualitative agreement with experimental findings on somatic or dendritic stimulation and on the effects of hyperpolarization. The conditions under which branch point failures can be observed, and a few experimentally testable predictions, are presented and discussed. PMID:8913580

  13. Unifying role of dissipative action in the dynamic failure of solids

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, Dennis E.

    2015-04-28

    A fourth-power law underlying the steady shock-wave structure and solid viscosity of condensed material has been observed for a wide range of metals and non-metals. The fourth-power law relates the steady-wave Hugoniot pressure to the fourth power of the strain rate during passage of the material through the structured shock wave. Preceding the fourth-power law was the observation in a shock transition that the product of the shock dissipation energy and the shock transition time is a constant independent of the shock pressure amplitude. Invariance of this energy-time product implies the fourth-power law. This property of the shock transition in solids was initially identified as a shock invariant. More recently, it has been referred to as the dissipative action, although no relationship to the accepted definitions of action in mechanics has been demonstrated. This same invariant property has application to a wider range of transient failure phenomena in solids. Invariance of this dissipation action has application to spall fracture, failure through adiabatic shear, shock compaction of granular media, and perhaps others. Through models of the failure processes, a clearer picture of the physics underlying the observed invariance is emerging. These insights in turn are leading to a better understanding of the shock deformation processes underlying the fourth-power law. Experimental result and material models encompassing the dynamic failure of solids are explored for the purpose of demonstrating commonalities leading to invariance of the dissipation action. Calculations are extended to aluminum and uranium metals with the intent of predicting micro-scale dynamics and spatial structure in the steady shock wave.

  14. Myostatin from the heart: local and systemic actions in cardiac failure and muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, Astrid; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    A significant proportion of heart failure patients develop skeletal muscle wasting and cardiac cachexia, which is associated with a very poor prognosis. Recently, myostatin, a cytokine from the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and a known strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth, has been identified as a direct mediator of skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with heart failure. Myostatin is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, although basal expression is also detectable in heart and adipose tissue. During pathological loading of the heart, the myocardium produces and secretes myostatin into the circulation where it inhibits skeletal muscle growth. Thus, genetic elimination of myostatin from the heart reduces skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with heart failure, whereas transgenic overexpression of myostatin in the heart is capable of inducing muscle wasting. In addition to its endocrine action on skeletal muscle, cardiac myostatin production also modestly inhibits cardiomyocyte growth under certain circumstances, as well as induces cardiac fibrosis and alterations in ventricular function. Interestingly, heart failure patients show elevated myostatin levels in their serum. To therapeutically influence skeletal muscle wasting, direct inhibition of myostatin was shown to positively impact skeletal muscle mass in heart failure, suggesting a promising strategy for the treatment of cardiac cachexia in the future. PMID:21421824

  15. Secondary hyperparathyroidism shortens the action of vecuronium in patients with chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Takita, K; Goda, Y; Kemmotsu, O; Mashio, H; Okuyama, A; Ito, Y; Sakamoto, H; Kawahigashi, H

    1995-05-01

    The authors studied the duration of action of vecuronium in 15 patients with normal renal function and 40 patients with chronic renal failure to evaluate the effect of secondary hyperparathyroidism on the action of vecuronium. The patients were divided into four groups: 15 patients with normal renal function (Group A); nine patients with chronic renal failure who did not need haemodialysis (Group B); 15 anephric patients who did not require parathyroidectomy (Group C); and 16 anephric patients who underwent parathyroidectomy because of severe secondary hyperparathyroidism (Group D). The ratio of the height of the first twitch (T1) to the baseline value before vecuronium administration was measured by an electromyogram. Baseline T1 was obtained after anaesthesia induction with thiamylal iv. The time to 10% recovery of the first twitch (REC 10) after administration of vecuronium 0.12 mg.kg-1 iv was measured in each group. Anaesthesia was maintained with isoflurane and nitrous oxide in oxygen, and supplemented with fentanyl iv. Patients in Group D showed shorter REC 10 (51 +/- 4 min) than those in Groups B (71 +/- 6 min) and C (80 +/- 10 min) (P < 0.05), but similar REC 10 to patients in Group A (37 +/- 4 min). These results suggest that the duration of action of vecuronium in anephric patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism is shorter than in those without secondary hyperparathyroidism.

  16. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the EMU 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    During EVA (Extravehicular Activity) No. 23 aboard the ISS (International Space Station) on 07/16/2013 water entered the EMU (Extravehicular Mobility Unit) helmet resulting in the termination of the EVA (Extravehicular Activity) approximately 1-hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5-L of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronauts hearing, vision and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based TT and E (Test, Tear-down and Evaluation) of the affected EMU hardware components led to the determination that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator function which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing short-comings of the ALCLR (Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery) Ion Filter Beds which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the Filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  17. Loss of Saltation and Presynaptic Action Potential Failure in Demyelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Hamada, Mustafa S.; Popovic, Marko A.; Kole, Maarten H. P.

    2017-01-01

    In cortical pyramidal neurons the presynaptic terminals controlling transmitter release are located along unmyelinated axon collaterals, far from the original action potential (AP) initiation site, the axon initial segment (AIS). Once initiated, APs will need to reliably propagate over long distances and regions of geometrical inhomogeneity like branch points (BPs) to rapidly depolarize the presynaptic terminals and confer temporally precise synaptic transmission. While axon pathologies such as demyelinating diseases are well established to impede the fidelity of AP propagation along internodes, to which extent myelin loss affects propagation along BPs and axon collaterals is not well understood. Here, using the cuprizone demyelination model, we performed optical voltage-sensitive dye (VSD) imaging from control and demyelinated layer 5 pyramidal neuron axons. In the main axon, we find that myelin loss switches the modality of AP propagation from rapid saltation towards a slow continuous wave. The duration of single AP waveforms at BPs or nodes was, however, only slightly briefer. In contrast, by using two-photon microscopy-guided loose-seal patch recordings from axon collaterals we revealed a presynaptic AP broadening in combination with a reduced velocity and frequency-dependent failure. Finally, internodal myelin loss was also associated with de novo sprouting of axon collaterals starting from the primary (demyelinated) axon. Thus, the loss of oligodendrocytes and myelin sheaths bears functional consequences beyond the main axon, impeding the temporal fidelity of presynaptic APs and affecting the functional and structural organization of synaptic connectivity within the neocortex. PMID:28289377

  18. Angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibition in heart failure: mechanistic action and clinical impact.

    PubMed

    Buggey, Jonathan; Mentz, Robert J; DeVore, Adam D; Velazquez, Eric J

    2015-09-01

    Heart failure (HF) is an increasingly common syndrome associated with high mortality and economic burden, and there has been a paucity over the past decade of new pharmacotherapies that improve outcomes. However, recent data from a large randomized controlled trial compared the novel agent LCZ696, a dual-acting angiotensin receptor blocker and neprilysin inhibitor (ARNi), with the well established angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor enalapril and found significant reduction in mortality among the chronic reduced ejection fraction HF population. Preclinical and clinical data suggest that neprilysin inhibition provides beneficial outcomes in HF patients by preventing the degradation of natriuretic peptides and thereby promoting natriuresis and vasodilatation and counteracting the negative cardiorenal effects of the up-regulated renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system. Agents such as omapatrilat combined neprilysin and ACE inhibition but had increased rates of angioedema. Goals of an improved safety profile provided the rationale for the development of the ARNi LCZ696. Along with significant reductions in mortality and hospitalizations, clinical trials suggest that LCZ696 may improve surrogate markers of HF severity. In this paper, we review the preclinical and clinical data that led to the development of LCZ696, the understanding of the underlying mechanistic action, and the robust clinical impact that LCZ696 may have in the near future.

  19. 20 CFR 667.710 - What actions are required to address the failure of a local area to comply with the applicable...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Liability § 667.710 What actions are required to address the failure of a local area to comply with the... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What actions are required to address the failure of a local area to comply with the applicable uniform administrative provisions? 667.710...

  20. Investigation of the failure behaviour of vertebral trabecular architectures under uni-axial compression and wedge action loading conditions.

    PubMed

    McDonnell, P; Harrison, N; McHugh, P E

    2010-07-01

    Vertebral wedge fractures are associated with combined compression and flexure loading and are the most common fracture type for human vertebrae. In this study, rapid prototype (RP) biomodels of human vertebral trabecular bone were mechanically tested under uni-axial compression loading and also under wedge action loading (combination of compression and flexure loading) to investigate the mode of failure and the ultimate loads that could be sustained under these different loading conditions. Two types of trabecular bone models were manufactured and tested: baseline models which were directly derived from microCT scans of human thoracic vertebrae, and osteoporotic models which were generated from the baseline models using a custom-developed bone loss algorithm. The ultimate load for each model under compression and wedge action loading was determined and a video was recorded of each test so that failure mechanisms could be evaluated. The results of the RP model mechanical tests showed that the ultimate loads that could be supported by vertebral trabecular architectures under wedge action loading were less than those that could be supported under uni-axial compression loading by up to 26%. Also, the percentage reduction in strength from the baseline value due to osteoporotic bone loss was slightly less for the wedge action loading compared to uni-axial compression loading. Analysis of the videos for each test revealed that failure occurred in localised regions of the trabecular structure due to bending and buckling of thin vertical struts. These results suggest that vertebral trabecular bone is more susceptible to failure from wedge action loading compared to uni-axial compression loading, although this effect is not exacerbated by osteoporotic bone loss.

  1. Prognostic Significance of Depression in African Americans With Heart Failure: Insights from HF-ACTION

    PubMed Central

    Mentz, Robert J.; Babyak, Michael A.; Bittner, Vera; Fleg, Jerome L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Swank, Ann M.; Piña, Ileana L.; Kraus, William E.; Whellan, David J.; O'Connor, Christopher M.; Blumenthal, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although studies have shown that depression is associated with worse outcomes in heart failure (HF) patients, most studies have been in White patients. The impact of depression on outcomes in African Americans (AAs) with HF has not been studied. Methods and Results We analyzed 747 AAs and 1,420 Whites enrolled in HF-ACTION, which randomized 2,331 patients with ejection fraction ≤35% to usual care with or without exercise training. We examined the association between depressive symptoms assessed by the Beck Depression Inventory II (BDI-II) at baseline and after 3 months with all-cause mortality/hospitalization. A race by baseline BDI-II interaction was observed (P=.003) in which elevated baseline scores were associated with worse outcomes in AAs versus Whites. In AAs, the association was non-linear with a hazard ratio of 1.44 (95% CI: 1.24-1.68) when comparing the 75th and 25th percentile of BDI-II (score of 15 and 5, respectively). No race interaction was observed for mortality (P=.34). There was no differential association between BDI-II change and outcomes in AAs vs. Whites. In AAs, an increase in BDI-II score from baseline to 3 months was associated with increased mortality/hospitalization (HR 1.33, 95% CI: 1.12-1.57 per 10 point increase), while a decrease was not related to outcomes. Conclusions In AAs with HF, baseline symptoms of depression and worsening of symptoms over time are associated with increased all-cause mortality/hospitalization. Routine assessment of depressive symptoms in AAs with HF may help guide management. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT00047437. PMID:25901047

  2. From Diagnosis to Action: An Automated Failure Advisor for Human Deep Space Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colombano, Silvano; Spirkovska, Lilly; Baskaran, Vijayakumar; Morris, Paul; Mcdermott, William; Ossenfort, John; Bajwa, Anupa

    2015-01-01

    The major goal of current space system development at NASA is to enable human travel to deep space locations such as Mars and asteroids. At that distance, round trip communication with ground operators may take close to an hour, thus it becomes unfeasible to seek ground operator advice for problems that require immediate attention, either for crew safety or for activities that need to be performed at specific times for the attainment of scientific results. To achieve this goal, major reliance will need to be placed on automation systems capable of aiding the crew in detecting and diagnosing failures, assessing consequences of these failures, and providing guidance in repair activities that may be required. We report here on the most current step in the continuing development of such a system, and that is the addition of a Failure Response Advisor. In simple terms, we have a system in place the Advanced Caution and Warning System (ACAWS) to tell us what happened (failure diagnosis) and what happened because that happened (failure effects). The Failure Response Advisor will tell us what to do about it, how long until something must be done and why its important that something be done and will begin to approach the complex reasoning that is generally required for an optimal approach to automated system health management. This advice is based on the criticality and various timing elements, such as durations of activities and of component repairs, failure effects delay, and other factors. The failure advice is provided to operators (crew and mission controllers) together with the diagnostic and effects information. The operators also have the option to drill down for more information about the failure and the reasons for any suggested priorities.

  3. Beta blockers in heart failure haemodynamics, clinical effects and modes of action

    PubMed Central

    de Milliano, P.A.R.; Tijssen, J.G.P.; van Zwieten, P.A.; Lie, K.I.

    2001-01-01

    Treatment for heart failure may be directed at relieving symptoms and/or improving prognosis. One of the primary aims of research in heart failure is to alter the progressive decline in pump function and thereby improve prognosis. For many years, diuretics have been known as therapeutics in heart failure and they are very effective in symptom relief. Vasodilators and inotropes also have beneficial effects on symptom relief especially in the acute phase through changes in cardiac output, filling pressures and renal perfusion. However, although these treatments produce short-term relief, none have been shown to influence the disease process and thereby improve mortality. Indeed, many of these drugs may even lead to untoward long-term clinical outcomes as has been shown for example for milrinone and ibopamine. There is overwhelming evidence that drugs interfering with the neurohormonal activation in heart failure not only produce symptomatic relief but are also capable of attenuating disease progression with concomitant reductions in both morbidity and mortality. About a decade ago, convincing and large-scale evidence showed that ACE inhibitors produced favourable effects by antagonising the activated renin-angiotensin system. More recently, β-blockers, which antagonise the activated sympathetic system, were shown to be beneficial in the long term in moderate severe heart failure in terms of significant improvements in both morbidity and mortality. The RALES study further amplified the concept that drugs that interact in the neurohormonal system have beneficial effects. In this study, spironolactone, a weak, potassium-sparing diuretic counteracting aldosterone showed a reduction in mortality in more severe forms of heart failure. PMID:25696756

  4. Progressive cortical visual failure associated with occipital calcification and coeliac disease with relative preservation of the dorsal 'action' pathway.

    PubMed

    Plant, Gordon T; James-Galton, Merle; Wilkinson, David

    2015-10-01

    We describe the first reported case of a patient with coeliac disease and cerebral occipital calcification who shows a progressive and seemingly selective failure to recognise visual stimuli. This decline was tracked over a study period of 22 years and occurred in the absence of primary sensory or widespread intellectual impairment. Subsequent tests revealed that although the patient was unable to use shape and contour information to visually identify objects, she was nevertheless able to use this information to reach, grasp and manipulate objects under central, immediate vision. This preservation of visuo-motor control was echoed in her day-to-day ability to navigate and live at home independently. We conclude that occipital calcification following coeliac disease can lead to prominent higher visual failure that, under prescribed viewing conditions, is consistent with separable mechanisms for visual perception and action control.

  5. A Failure to Grasp the Affective Meaning of Actions in Autism Spectrum Disorder Subjects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grezes, J.; Wicker, B.; Berthoz, S.; de Gelder, B.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to grasp emotional messages in everyday gestures and respond to them is at the core of successful social communication. The hypothesis that abnormalities in socio-emotional behavior in people with autism are linked to a failure to grasp emotional significance conveyed by gestures was explored. We measured brain activity using fMRI…

  6. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells for treatment of heart failure: is it all paracrine actions and immunomodulation?

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar

    2008-02-01

    Despite significant advances in medical and surgical management of heart failure, mostly of ischaemic origin, the mortality and morbidity associated with it continue to be high. Pluripotent stem cells are being evaluated for treatment of heart failure. Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have been extensively studied. Emerging evidence suggests that locally delivered MSCs can lead to an improvement in ventricular function, but the cellular and molecular mechanisms involved remain unclear. Myocardial regeneration, as proposed by many researchers as the underlying mechanism, has failed to convince the scientific community. Recently some authors have ascribed improvement in ventricular function to paracrine actions of MSCs.A lot has been written about the host immune response triggered by embryonic stem cells and the consequent need for immunosuppression. Not enough work has been done on immune interactions involving allogeneic bone marrow cells. Full potential of stem cell therapy can be realised only when we are able to use allogeneic cells. The potential use of MSCs in cellular therapy has recently prompted researchers to look into their interaction with the host immune response. MSCs have immunomodulatory properties. They cause suppression of proliferation of alloreactive T cells in a dose-dependent manner.Tissue injury causes inflammation and release of several chemokines, cytokines and growth factors. They can cause recruitment of bone marrow-derived MSCs to the injured area. We review the literature on paracrine actions and immune interactions of allogeneic MSCs.

  7. Failure Analysis Results and Corrective Actions Implemented for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit 3011 Water in the Helmet Mishap

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steele, John; Metselaar, Carol; Peyton, Barbara; Rector, Tony; Rossato, Robert; Macias, Brian; Weigel, Dana; Holder, Don

    2015-01-01

    Water entered the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) helmet during extravehicular activity (EVA) no. 23 aboard the International Space Station on July 16, 2013, resulting in the termination of the EVA approximately 1 hour after it began. It was estimated that 1.5 liters of water had migrated up the ventilation loop into the helmet, adversely impacting the astronaut's hearing, vision, and verbal communication. Subsequent on-board testing and ground-based test, tear-down, and evaluation of the affected EMU hardware components determined that the proximate cause of the mishap was blockage of all water separator drum holes with a mixture of silica and silicates. The blockages caused a failure of the water separator degassing function, which resulted in EMU cooling water spilling into the ventilation loop, migrating around the circulating fan, and ultimately pushing into the helmet. The root cause of the failure was determined to be ground-processing shortcomings of the Airlock Cooling Loop Recovery (ALCLR) Ion Filter Beds, which led to various levels of contaminants being introduced into the filters before they left the ground. Those contaminants were thereafter introduced into the EMU hardware on-orbit during ALCLR scrubbing operations. This paper summarizes the failure analysis results along with identified process, hardware, and operational corrective actions that were implemented as a result of findings from this investigation.

  8. Modelling of damage accumulation and failure of structural members subjected to strong seismic actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trifonov, Oleg Vladimirovich

    2009-09-01

    Following the total Lagrangian approach, an incremental formulation for three-dimensional Timoshenko beam element taking into account large displacements and rotations is developed. For the failure analysis of reinforced concrete structural members, subjected to extreme loads, a new elastoplastic damage constitutive model is proposed on the level of cross-sectional variables. The model is based on the concept of the yield surface and associated flow rule. The effects of softening and strength deterioration are accounted for by the introduction of damage variables. To assure the objectivity of the numerical simulation a non-local treatment of damage variables is implemented. Comparison to different experimental results on biaxial cyclic tests is performed. Numerical results demonstrate that the proposed model effectively reproduces softening, strength deterioration, coupling between different components of the generalized force vector and other nonlinear effects accompanying the inelastic structural response under three-dimensional seismic loading.

  9. Relationship between myocardial uptake and actions in heart failure of methyldigoxin.

    PubMed Central

    Hayward, R; Greenwood, H; Stephens, J; Hamer, J

    1983-01-01

    1 Problems have been encountered in recent years in confirming useful benefit to patients with heart failure and sinus rhythm from acute exposure to digitalis glycosides, though effectiveness of these preparations upon cardiac contractile performance is indisputable. Undesired effects such as those upon systemic vascular resistance have been invoked to explain this. 2 Detailed haemodynamic responses have been studied by cardiac catheterisation in nine such patients for 30 min after intravenous methyldigoxin infusion. Myocardial glycoside uptake was simultaneously assessed. 3 Methyldigoxin uptake by the heart was rapid, passing its peak within 20 min, and was followed by substantial elution. 4 A small progressive and significant increase in cardiac output was observed, though left ventricular filling pressures were not significantly reduced after methyldigoxin. Cardiac contractile function as assessed by left ventricular maximum dP/dt, measured in six patients, showed consistent improvement. PMID:6849743

  10. Efficacy and Safety of Exercise Training in Patients With Chronic Heart Failure: HF-ACTION Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    O’Connor, Christopher M.; Whellan, David J.; Lee, Kerry L.; Keteyian, Steven J.; Cooper, Lawton S.; Ellis, Stephen J.; Leifer, Eric S.; Kraus, William E.; Kitzman, Dalane W.; Blumenthal, James A.; Rendall, David S.; Miller, Nancy Houston; Fleg, Jerome L.; Schulman, Kevin A.; McKelvie, Robert S.; Zannad, Faiez; Piña, Ileana L.

    2010-01-01

    Context Guidelines recommend that exercise training be considered for medically stable outpatients with heart failure. Previous studies have not had adequate statistical power to measure the effects of exercise training on clinical outcomes. Objective To test the efficacy and safety of exercise training among patients with heart failure. Design, Setting, and Patients Multicenter, randomized controlled trial among 2331 medically stable outpatients with heart failure and reduced ejection fraction. Participants in Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training (HF-ACTION) were randomized from April 2003 through February 2007 at 82 centers within the United States, Canada, and France; median follow-up was 30 months. Interventions Usual care plus aerobic exercise training, consisting of 36 supervised sessions followed by home-based training, or usual care alone. Main Outcome Measures Composite primary end point of all-cause mortality or hospitalization and prespecified secondary end points of all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization, and cardiovascular mortality or heart failure hospitalization. Results The median age was 59 years, 28% were women, and 37% had New York Heart Association class III or IV symptoms. Etiology was ischemic in 51%. Median left ventricular ejection fraction was 25%. Exercise adherence decreased from a median of 95 minutes per week during months 4 through 6 of follow-up to 74 minutes per week during months 10 through 12. A total of 759 (65%) patients in the exercise group died or were hospitalized, compared with 796 (68%) in the usual care group (hazard ratio [HR], 0.93; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.84–1.02; P = .13). There were nonsignificant reductions in the exercise training group for mortality (189 [16%] in the exercise group vs 198 [17%] in the usual care group; HR, 0.96; 95% CI, 0.79–1.17; P = .70), cardiovascular mortality or cardiovascular hospitalization (632

  11. Oscillatory behavior of ventricular action potential duration in heart failure patients at respiratory rate and low frequency

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Ben; Child, Nick; Van Duijvenboden, Stefan; Orini, Michele; Chen, Zhong; Coronel, Ruben; Rinaldi, Christopher A.; Gill, Jaspal S.; Gill, Jaswinder S.; Taggart, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Oscillations of arterial pressure occur spontaneously at a frequency of approximately 0.1 Hz coupled with synchronous oscillations of sympathetic nerve activity (“Mayer waves”). This study investigated the extent to which corresponding oscillations may occur in ventricular action potential duration (APD). Fourteen ambulatory (outpatient) heart failure patients with biventricular pacing devices were studied while seated upright watching movie clips to maintain arousal. Activation recovery intervals (ARI) as a measure of ventricular APD were obtained from unipolar electrograms recorded from the LV epicardial pacing lead during steady state RV pacing from the device. Arterial blood pressure was measured non-invasively (Finapress) and respiration monitored. Oscillations were quantified using time frequency and coherence analysis. Oscillatory behavior of ARI at the respiratory frequency was observed in all subjects. The magnitude of the ARI variation ranged from 2.2 to 6.9 ms (mean 5.0 ms). Coherence analysis showed a correlation with respiratory oscillation for an average of 43% of the recording time at a significance level of p < 0.05. Oscillations in systolic blood pressure in the Mayer wave frequency range were observed in all subjects for whom blood pressure was recorded (n = 13). ARI oscillation in the Mayer wave frequency range was observed in 6/13 subjects (46%) over a range of 2.9 to 9.2 ms. Coherence with Mayer waves at the p < 0.05 significance level was present for an average of 29% of the recording time. In ambulatory patients with heart failure during enhanced mental arousal, left ventricular epicardial APD (ARI) oscillated at the respiratory frequency (approximately 0.25 Hz). In 6 patients (46%) APD oscillated at the slower Mayer wave frequency (approximately 0.1 Hz). These findings may be important in understanding sympathetic activity-related arrhythmogenesis. PMID:25389408

  12. 40 CFR 307.42 - Fund's obligation in the event of failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122. 307.42 Section 307.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA)...

  13. 40 CFR 307.42 - Fund's obligation in the event of failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122. 307.42 Section 307.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA)...

  14. 40 CFR 307.42 - Fund's obligation in the event of failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122. 307.42 Section 307.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA)...

  15. 40 CFR 307.42 - Fund's obligation in the event of failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122. 307.42 Section 307.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA)...

  16. 40 CFR 307.42 - Fund's obligation in the event of failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... failure of remedial actions taken pursuant to CERCLA section 122. 307.42 Section 307.42 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) SUPERFUND, EMERGENCY PLANNING, AND COMMUNITY RIGHT-TO-KNOW PROGRAMS COMPREHENSIVE ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSE, COMPENSATION, AND LIABILITY ACT (CERCLA)...

  17. 45 CFR 265.8 - Under what circumstances will we take action to impose a reporting penalty for failure to submit...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... impose a reporting penalty for failure to submit quarterly and annual reports? 265.8 Section 265.8 Public... submit quarterly and annual reports? (a) We will take action to impose a reporting penalty under § 262.1...), ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN AND FAMILIES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES DATA COLLECTION AND...

  18. Action Potential-Evoked Calcium Release Is Impaired in Single Skeletal Muscle Fibers from Heart Failure Patients

    PubMed Central

    DiFranco, Marino; Quiñonez, Marbella; Shieh, Perry; Fonarow, Gregg C.; Cruz, Daniel; Deng, Mario C.; Vergara, Julio L.; Middlekauff, Holly R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Exercise intolerance in chronic heart failure (HF) has been attributed to abnormalities of the skeletal muscles. Muscle function depends on intact excitation-contraction coupling (ECC), but ECC studies in HF models have been inconclusive, due to deficiencies in the animal models and tools used to measure calcium (Ca2+) release, mandating investigations in skeletal muscle from HF patients. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that Ca2+ release is significantly impaired in the skeletal muscle of HF patients in whom exercise capacity is severely diminished compared to age-matched healthy volunteers. Methods and Findings Using state-of-the-art electrophysiological and optical techniques in single muscle fibers from biopsies of the locomotive vastus lateralis muscle, we measured the action potential (AP)-evoked Ca2+ release in 4 HF patients and 4 age-matched healthy controls. The mean peak Ca2+ release flux in fibers obtained from HF patients (10±1.2 µM/ms) was markedly (2.6-fold) and significantly (p<0.05) smaller than in fibers from healthy volunteers (28±3.3 µM/ms). This impairment in AP-evoked Ca2+ release was ubiquitous and was not explained by differences in the excitability mechanisms since single APs were indistinguishable between HF patients and healthy volunteers. Conclusions These findings prove the feasibility of performing electrophysiological experiments in single fibers from human skeletal muscle, and offer a new approach for investigations of myopathies due to HF and other diseases. Importantly, we have demonstrated that one step in the ECC process, AP-evoked Ca2+ release, is impaired in single muscle fibers in HF patients. PMID:25310188

  19. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study.

    PubMed

    Zile, Melanie A; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and action potential voltage alternans (APV-ALT), the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart-failure

  20. Failure in Pantomime Action Execution Correlates with the Severity of Social Behavior Deficits in Children with Autism: A Praxis Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gizzonio, Valentina; Avanzini, Pietro; Campi, Cristina; Orivoli, Sonia; Piccolo, Benedetta; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Tassinari, Carlo Alberto; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Fabbri-Destro, Maddalena

    2015-01-01

    Here we describe the performance of children with autism, their siblings, and typically developing children using the Florida Apraxia Battery. Children with autism showed the lowest performance in all sections of the test. They were mostly impaired in pantomime actions execution on imitation and on verbal command, and in imitation of meaningless…

  1. Group membership affects spontaneous mental representation: failure to represent the out-group in a joint action task.

    PubMed

    McClung, Jennifer Susan; Jentzsch, Ines; Reicher, Stephen David

    2013-01-01

    Predicting others' actions is crucial to successful social interaction. Previous research on joint action, based on a reaction-time paradigm called the Joint Simon Task, suggests that successful joint action stems from the simultaneous representation of the self with the other. Performance on this task provides a read-out of the degree of intrusion from a partner that participants experience from acting jointly compared to acting alone, which in turn is a measure of the degree to which participants mentally represent their co-actors during the task. To investigate the role of perceived group membership in this type of joint action and its influence on the representation of others, we first subjected participants to a minimal group paradigm while manipulating differences in social competition. We then asked participants to do the Joint Simon Task in pairs with an in-group or out-group member. Only participants who acted with an "in-group" partner on the joint task showed altered reaction times compared to when acting alone, presumably a change caused by the simultaneous and automatic representation of their in-group partner. In contrast, participants who acted with an out-group partner were unaffected in their reactions when doing the joint task, showing no evidence of representation of their out-group partner. This effect was present in both the high-competition and low-competition conditions, indicating that the differential effects of group membership on representation during joint action were driven by perceived group membership and independent of the effects of social competition. We concluded that participants failed to represent out-group members as socially relevant agents not based on any personality or situational characteristics, but in reaction only to their status as "other". In this way group membership appears to affect cognition on a very immediate and subconscious level.

  2. Analysis of the failures and corrective actions for the LHC cryogenics radiation tolerant electronics and its field instruments

    SciTech Connect

    Balle, Christoph; Casas, Juan; Vauthier, Nicolas

    2014-01-29

    The LHC cryogenic system radiation tolerant electronics and their associated field instruments have been in nominal conditions since before the commissioning of the first LHC beams in September 2008. This system is made of about 15’000 field instruments (thermometers, pressure sensors, liquid helium level gauges, electrical heaters and position switches), 7’500 electronic cards and 853 electronic crates. Since mid-2008 a software tool has been deployed, this allows an operator to report a problem and then lists the corrective actions. The tool is a great help in detecting recurrent problems that may be tackled by a hardware or software consolidation. The corrective actions range from simple resets, exchange of defective equipment, repair of electrical connectors, etc. However a recurrent problem that heals by itself is present on some channels. This type of fault is extremely difficult to diagnose and it appears as a temporary opening of an electrical circuit; its duration can range from a few minutes to several months. This paper presents the main type of problems encountered during the last four years, their evolution over time, the various hardware or software consolidations that have resulted and whether they have had an impact in the availability of the LHC beam.

  3. Bacterial Cooperation Causes Systematic Errors in Pathogen Risk Assessment due to the Failure of the Independent Action Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Cornforth, Daniel M.; Matthews, Andrew; Brown, Sam P.; Raymond, Ben

    2015-01-01

    The Independent Action Hypothesis (IAH) states that pathogenic individuals (cells, spores, virus particles etc.) behave independently of each other, so that each has an independent probability of causing systemic infection or death. The IAH is not just of basic scientific interest; it forms the basis of our current estimates of infectious disease risk in humans. Despite the important role of the IAH in managing disease interventions for food and water-borne pathogens, experimental support for the IAH in bacterial pathogens is indirect at best. Moreover since the IAH was first proposed, cooperative behaviors have been discovered in a wide range of microorganisms, including many pathogens. A fundamental principle of cooperation is that the fitness of individuals is affected by the presence and behaviors of others, which is contrary to the assumption of independent action. In this paper, we test the IAH in Bacillus thuringiensis (B.t), a widely occurring insect pathogen that releases toxins that benefit others in the inoculum, infecting the diamondback moth, Plutella xylostella. By experimentally separating B.t. spores from their toxins, we demonstrate that the IAH fails because there is an interaction between toxin and spore effects on mortality, where the toxin effect is synergistic and cannot be accommodated by independence assumptions. Finally, we show that applying recommended IAH dose-response models to high dose data leads to systematic overestimation of mortality risks at low doses, due to the presence of synergistic pathogen interactions. Our results show that cooperative secretions can easily invalidate the IAH, and that such mechanistic details should be incorporated into pathogen risk analysis. PMID:25909384

  4. Effects of wenxin keli on the action potential and L-type calcium current in rats with transverse aortic constriction-induced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yu; Li, Yang; Guo, Lili; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Mingjing; Gao, Yonghong; Wu, Aiming; Lou, Lixia; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Xing, Yanwei

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the effects of WXKL on the action potential (AP) and the L-type calcium current (I Ca-L) in normal and hypertrophied myocytes. Methods. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the transverse aortic constriction- (TAC-) induced heart failure group. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by TAC surgery, whereas the control group underwent a sham operation. Eight weeks after surgery, single cardiac ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of the rats. The APs and I Ca-L were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results. The action potential duration (APD) of the TAC group was prolonged compared with the control group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The current densities of the I Ca-L in the TAC group treated with 5 g/L WXKL were significantly decreased compared with the TAC group. We also determined the effect of WXKL on the gating mechanism of the I Ca-L in the TAC group. We found that WXKL decreased the I Ca-L by accelerating the inactivation of the channels and delaying the recovery time from inactivation. Conclusions. The results suggest that WXKL affects the AP and blocked the I Ca-L, which ultimately resulted in the treatment of arrhythmias.

  5. Effects of Wenxin Keli on the Action Potential and L-Type Calcium Current in Rats with Transverse Aortic Constriction-Induced Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu; Li, Yang; Guo, Lili; Chen, Wen; Zhao, Mingjing; Gao, Yonghong; Wu, Aiming; Lou, Lixia; Wang, Jie; Liu, Xiaoqiu; Xing, Yanwei

    2013-01-01

    Objective. We investigated the effects of WXKL on the action potential (AP) and the L-type calcium current (ICa-L) in normal and hypertrophied myocytes. Methods. Forty male rats were randomly divided into two groups: the control group and the transverse aortic constriction- (TAC-) induced heart failure group. Cardiac hypertrophy was induced by TAC surgery, whereas the control group underwent a sham operation. Eight weeks after surgery, single cardiac ventricular myocytes were isolated from the hearts of the rats. The APs and ICa-L were recorded using the whole-cell patch clamp technique. Results. The action potential duration (APD) of the TAC group was prolonged compared with the control group and was markedly shortened by WXKL treatment in a dose-dependent manner. The current densities of the ICa-L in the TAC group treated with 5 g/L WXKL were significantly decreased compared with the TAC group. We also determined the effect of WXKL on the gating mechanism of the ICa-L in the TAC group. We found that WXKL decreased the ICa-L by accelerating the inactivation of the channels and delaying the recovery time from inactivation. Conclusions. The results suggest that WXKL affects the AP and blocked the ICa-L, which ultimately resulted in the treatment of arrhythmias. PMID:24319478

  6. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... version of this page please turn Javascript on. Heart Failure What is Heart Failure? In heart failure, the heart cannot pump enough ... failure often experience tiredness and shortness of breath. Heart Failure is Serious Heart failure is a serious and ...

  7. Evaluating IMRT and VMAT dose accuracy: Practical examples of failure to detect systematic errors when applying a commonly used metric and action levels

    SciTech Connect

    Nelms, Benjamin E.; Chan, Maria F.; Jarry, Geneviève; Lemire, Matthieu; Lowden, John; Hampton, Carnell

    2013-11-15

    Purpose: This study (1) examines a variety of real-world cases where systematic errors were not detected by widely accepted methods for IMRT/VMAT dosimetric accuracy evaluation, and (2) drills-down to identify failure modes and their corresponding means for detection, diagnosis, and mitigation. The primary goal of detailing these case studies is to explore different, more sensitive methods and metrics that could be used more effectively for evaluating accuracy of dose algorithms, delivery systems, and QA devices.Methods: The authors present seven real-world case studies representing a variety of combinations of the treatment planning system (TPS), linac, delivery modality, and systematic error type. These case studies are typical to what might be used as part of an IMRT or VMAT commissioning test suite, varying in complexity. Each case study is analyzed according to TG-119 instructions for gamma passing rates and action levels for per-beam and/or composite plan dosimetric QA. Then, each case study is analyzed in-depth with advanced diagnostic methods (dose profile examination, EPID-based measurements, dose difference pattern analysis, 3D measurement-guided dose reconstruction, and dose grid inspection) and more sensitive metrics (2% local normalization/2 mm DTA and estimated DVH comparisons).Results: For these case studies, the conventional 3%/3 mm gamma passing rates exceeded 99% for IMRT per-beam analyses and ranged from 93.9% to 100% for composite plan dose analysis, well above the TG-119 action levels of 90% and 88%, respectively. However, all cases had systematic errors that were detected only by using advanced diagnostic techniques and more sensitive metrics. The systematic errors caused variable but noteworthy impact, including estimated target dose coverage loss of up to 5.5% and local dose deviations up to 31.5%. Types of errors included TPS model settings, algorithm limitations, and modeling and alignment of QA phantoms in the TPS. Most of the errors were

  8. Rate-dependent force, intracellular calcium, and action potential voltage alternans are modulated by sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of thin filament regulation in human heart failure: A myocyte modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Zile, Melanie A.

    2016-01-01

    Microvolt T-wave alternans (MTWA) testing identifies heart failure patients at risk for lethal ventricular arrhythmias at near-resting heart rates (<110 beats per minute). Since pressure alternans occurs simultaneously with MTWA and has a higher signal to noise ratio, it may be a better predictor of arrhythmia, although the mechanism remains unknown. Therefore, we investigated the relationship between force alternans (FORCE-ALT), the cellular manifestation of pressure alternans, and APV-ALT, the cellular driver of MTWA. Our goal was to uncover the mechanisms linking APV-ALT and FORCE-ALT in failing human myocytes and to investigate how the link between those alternans was affected by pacing rate and by physiological conditions such as sarcomere length and heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters. To achieve this, a mechanically-based, strongly coupled human electromechanical myocyte model was constructed. Reducing the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake current (Iup) to 27% was incorporated to simulate abnormal calcium handling in human heart failure. Mechanical remodeling was incorporated to simulate altered thin filament activation and crossbridge (XB) cycling rates. A dynamical pacing protocol was used to investigate the development of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca]i), voltage, and active force alternans at different pacing rates. FORCE-ALT only occurred in simulations incorporating reduced Iup, demonstrating that alternans in the intracellular calcium concentration (CA-ALT) induced FORCE-ALT. The magnitude of FORCE-ALT was found to be largest at clinically relevant pacing rates (<110 bpm), where APV-ALT was smallest. We found that the magnitudes of FORCE-ALT, CA-ALT and APV-ALT were altered by heart failure induced-remodeling of mechanical parameters and sarcomere length due to the presence of myofilament feedback. These findings provide important insight into the relationship between heart-failure-induced electrical and mechanical

  9. The Success and Failure of Positive Action To Mitigate the Effects of an All-Male Senior Management Team in a Secondary School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coldron, John; Boulton, Pam

    1998-01-01

    Considers the effectiveness of an initiative in a British secondary school taken to mitigate the effects of an all-male senior management team. Draws a partial balance sheet of its successes and failures, especially as related to effects on female school staff, and to friction in dealing with traditional structures. (DSK)

  10. Stress Analysis and Testing at the Marshall Space Flight Center to Study Cause and Corrective Action of Space Shuttle External Tank Stringer Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wingate, Robert J.

    2012-01-01

    After the launch scrub of Space Shuttle mission STS-133 on November 5, 2010, large cracks were discovered in two of the External Tank intertank stringers. The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, as managing center for the External Tank Project, coordinated the ensuing failure investigation and repair activities with several organizations, including the manufacturer, Lockheed Martin. To support the investigation, the Marshall Space Flight Center formed an ad-hoc stress analysis team to complement the efforts of Lockheed Martin. The team undertook six major efforts to analyze or test the structural behavior of the stringers. Extensive finite element modeling was performed to characterize the local stresses in the stringers near the region of failure. Data from a full-scale tanking test and from several subcomponent static load tests were used to confirm the analytical conclusions. The analysis and test activities of the team are summarized. The root cause of the stringer failures and the flight readiness rationale for the repairs that were implemented are discussed.

  11. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... upcoming screening events. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. About AKF ... support of AKF. Kidney Action Day Kidney Action Day Learn about our signature outreach event. Free health ...

  12. Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Respiratory failure happens when not enough oxygen passes from your lungs into your blood. Your body's organs, ... brain, need oxygen-rich blood to work well. Respiratory failure also can happen if your lungs can' ...

  13. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can't pump enough blood to meet the body's needs. Heart failure does not mean that your heart has stopped ... Tiredness and shortness of breath Common causes of heart failure are coronary artery disease, high blood pressure and ...

  14. Enteral nutrients potentiate glucagon-like peptide-2 action and reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition in a rat model of human intestinal failure.

    PubMed

    Brinkman, Adam S; Murali, Sangita G; Hitt, Stacy; Solverson, Patrick M; Holst, Jens J; Ney, Denise M

    2012-09-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived gut hormone that shows promise for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Our objective was to investigate how combination GLP-2 + enteral nutrients (EN) affects intestinal adaption in a rat model that mimics severe human SBS and requires parenteral nutrition (PN). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups and maintained with PN for 18 days: total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone, TPN + GLP-2 (100 μg·kg(-1)·day(-1)), PN + EN + GLP-2(7 days), PN + EN + GLP-2(18 days), and a nonsurgical oral reference group. Animals underwent massive distal bowel resection followed by jejunocolic anastomosis and placement of jugular catheters. Starting on postoperative day 4, rats in the EN groups were allowed ad libitum access to EN. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 had their rate of PN reduced by 0.25 ml/day starting on postoperative day 6. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 demonstrated significantly greater body weight gain with similar energy intake and a safe 80% reduction in PN compared with TPN ± GLP-2. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 for 7 or 18 days showed similar body weight gain, residual jejunal length, and digestive capacity. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 showed increased jejunal GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) expression. Treatment with TPN + GLP-2 demonstrated increased jejunal expression of epidermal growth factor. Cessation of GLP-2 after 7 days with continued EN sustained the majority of intestinal adaption and significantly increased expression of colonic proglucagon compared with PN + EN + GLP-2 for 18 days, and increased plasma GLP-2 concentrations compared with TPN alone. In summary, EN potentiate the intestinotrophic actions of GLP-2 by improving body weight gain allowing for a safe 80% reduction in PN with increased jejunal expression of GLP-2R, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 following distal bowel

  15. Enteral nutrients potentiate glucagon-like peptide-2 action and reduce dependence on parenteral nutrition in a rat model of human intestinal failure

    PubMed Central

    Brinkman, Adam S.; Murali, Sangita G.; Hitt, Stacy; Solverson, Patrick M.; Holst, Jens J.

    2012-01-01

    Glucagon-like peptide-2 (GLP-2) is a nutrient-dependent, proglucagon-derived gut hormone that shows promise for the treatment of short bowel syndrome (SBS). Our objective was to investigate how combination GLP-2 + enteral nutrients (EN) affects intestinal adaption in a rat model that mimics severe human SBS and requires parenteral nutrition (PN). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to one of five groups and maintained with PN for 18 days: total parenteral nutrition (TPN) alone, TPN + GLP-2 (100 μg·kg−1·day−1), PN + EN + GLP-2(7 days), PN + EN + GLP-2(18 days), and a nonsurgical oral reference group. Animals underwent massive distal bowel resection followed by jejunocolic anastomosis and placement of jugular catheters. Starting on postoperative day 4, rats in the EN groups were allowed ad libitum access to EN. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 had their rate of PN reduced by 0.25 ml/day starting on postoperative day 6. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 demonstrated significantly greater body weight gain with similar energy intake and a safe 80% reduction in PN compared with TPN ± GLP-2. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 for 7 or 18 days showed similar body weight gain, residual jejunal length, and digestive capacity. Groups provided PN + EN + GLP-2 showed increased jejunal GLP-2 receptor (GLP-2R), insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I), and IGF-binding protein-5 (IGFBP-5) expression. Treatment with TPN + GLP-2 demonstrated increased jejunal expression of epidermal growth factor. Cessation of GLP-2 after 7 days with continued EN sustained the majority of intestinal adaption and significantly increased expression of colonic proglucagon compared with PN + EN + GLP-2 for 18 days, and increased plasma GLP-2 concentrations compared with TPN alone. In summary, EN potentiate the intestinotrophic actions of GLP-2 by improving body weight gain allowing for a safe 80% reduction in PN with increased jejunal expression of GLP-2R, IGF-I, and IGFBP-5 following distal bowel

  16. Manufacturing quality from electronic failure analysis results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbs, B.

    The Electronic Failure Analysis Group of the AFWAL/Materials Laboratory Systems Support Division has investigated numerous electronic device failures that resulted from manufacturing process defects. The electronic failure analysis program that verifies the device failure, locates the failure site, establishes the cause of failure and recommends corrective actions is discussed in relation to improving the quality of electronic devices; performing electronic failure analysis is a high-payoff activity. Corrective actions usually involve very small costs to the manufacturer and provide the user with a large return on investment. Brief case histories are presented in regard to packaging, die attachment, solder flux removal, package moisture content, IC metallization processes, potted modules, and handling procedures affecting device cleanliness. Situations are identified where better quality control could eliminate many device defects that lead to premature part failure.

  17. Kidney Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Dialysis or Transplant Paying for Kidney Failure Treatment Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ... to share this content freely. October 2, 2013 Contact Us Health Information Center Phone: 1-800-860- ...

  18. Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... for people who can't tolerate ACE inhibitors. Beta blockers. This class of drugs not only slows your ... rhythms and lessen your chance of dying unexpectedly. Beta blockers may reduce signs and symptoms of heart failure, ...

  19. Heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of multidisciplinary interventions for heart failure? What are the effects of exercise in people with heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments for heart failure? What are the effects of devices for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of coronary revascularisation for treatment of heart failure? What are the effects of drug treatments in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to August 2010 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 80 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium

  20. The failure of international action against terrorism.

    PubMed

    Suter, Keith

    2006-01-01

    Progress on the so-called 'War on Terrorism' is slow. There is no agreed definition of terrorism and no consistent government policy in respect of it. Consideration of terrorism ignores the role of some governments in what could be regarded as terrorist activity, often with the connivance of others for reasons of political expediency. The special case of suicide terrorism is discussed in detail. It is concluded that the world is now exposed to a new form of warfare, and that even with new military thinking this could continue for perhaps decades to come.

  1. Heart failure

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Introduction Heart failure occurs in 3% to 4% of adults aged over 65 years, usually as a consequence of coronary artery disease or hypertension, and causes breathlessness, effort intolerance, fluid retention, and increased mortality. The 5-year mortality in people with systolic heart failure ranges from 25% to 75%, often owing to sudden death following ventricular arrhythmia. Risks of cardiovascular events are increased in people with left ventricular systolic dysfunction (LVSD) or heart failure. Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical questions: What are the effects of non-drug treatments, and of drug and invasive treatments, for heart failure? What are the effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors in people at high risk of heart failure? What are the effects of treatments for diastolic heart failure? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to May 2009 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically, please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 85 systematic reviews, RCTs, or observational studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: aldosterone receptor antagonists, amiodarone, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin II receptor blockers, anticoagulation, antiplatelet agents, beta-blockers, calcium channel blockers, cardiac resynchronisation therapy, digoxin (in people already receiving diuretics and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors), exercise, hydralazine plus isosorbide dinitrate, implantable cardiac

  2. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Kidney Failure Kidney failure, also known as renal failure, ... evaluated? How is kidney failure treated? What is kidney (renal) failure? The kidneys are designed to maintain ...

  3. Anemia and heart failure.

    PubMed

    O'Meara, Eileen; Murphy, Clare; McMurray, John J V

    2004-12-01

    Over the past few years, anemia has emerged as a powerful independent predictor of adverse outcomes in chronic heart failure (CHF). It affects up to 50% of patients with CHF, depending on the definition of anemia used and on the population studied. Even small reductions in hemoglobin are associated with worse outcome. However, the causes of anemia in CHF remain unclear, although impairment of renal function and inflammatory cytokines are proposed mechanisms. Both may act through impairment of the synthesis or action of erythropoietin. Preliminary studies have demonstrated improvement in symptoms, exercise tolerance, quality of life, and reductions in hospitalizations when patients with severe CHF were treated with erythropoietin. The benefits and the potential risks of such therapies will be further addressed in upcoming larger randomized trials. The recent interest in anemia reflects a new perspective in heart failure therapy, focusing on non-cardiovascular comorbidities.

  4. Heart failure.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2013-02-01

    Despite major improvements in the treatment of virtually all cardiac disorders, heart failure (HF) is an exception, in that its prevalence is rising, and only small prolongations in survival are occurring. An increasing fraction, especially older women with diabetes, obesity, and atrial fibrillation exhibit HF with preserved systolic function. Several pathogenetic mechanisms appear to be operative in HF. These include increased hemodynamic overload, ischemia-related dysfunction, ventricular remodeling, excessive neurohumoral stimulation, abnormal myocyte calcium cycling, excessive or inadequate proliferation of the extracellular matrix, accelerated apoptosis, and genetic mutations. Biomarkers released as a consequence of myocardial stretch, imbalance between formation and breakdown of extracellular matrix, inflammation, and renal failure are useful in the identification of the pathogenetic mechanism and, when used in combination, may become helpful in estimating prognosis and selecting appropriate therapy. Promising new therapies that are now undergoing intensive investigation include an angiotensin receptor neprilysin inhibitor, a naturally-occurring vasodilator peptide, a myofilament sensitizer and several drugs that enhance Ca++ uptake by the sarcoplasmic reticulum. Cell therapy, using autologous bone marrow and cardiac progenitor cells, appears to be promising, as does gene therapy. Chronic left ventricular assistance with continuous flow pumps is being applied more frequently and successfully as destination therapy, as a bridge to transplantation, and even as a bridge to recovery and explantation. While many of these therapies will improve the care of patients with HF, significant reductions in prevalence will require vigorous, multifaceted, preventive approaches.

  5. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  6. Wind Turbine Failures - Tackling current Problems in Failure Data Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reder, M. D.; Gonzalez, E.; Melero, J. J.

    2016-09-01

    The wind industry has been growing significantly over the past decades, resulting in a remarkable increase in installed wind power capacity. Turbine technologies are rapidly evolving in terms of complexity and size, and there is an urgent need for cost effective operation and maintenance (O&M) strategies. Especially unplanned downtime represents one of the main cost drivers of a modern wind farm. Here, reliability and failure prediction models can enable operators to apply preventive O&M strategies rather than corrective actions. In order to develop these models, the failure rates and downtimes of wind turbine (WT) components have to be understood profoundly. This paper is focused on tackling three of the main issues related to WT failure analyses. These are, the non-uniform data treatment, the scarcity of available failure analyses, and the lack of investigation on alternative data sources. For this, a modernised form of an existing WT taxonomy is introduced. Additionally, an extensive analysis of historical failure and downtime data of more than 4300 turbines is presented. Finally, the possibilities to encounter the lack of available failure data by complementing historical databases with Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition (SCADA) alarms are evaluated.

  7. A failure recovery planning prototype for Space Station Freedom

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Kelly, Christine M.

    1991-01-01

    NASA is investigating the use of advanced automation to enhance crew productivity for Space Station Freedom in numerous areas, including failure management. A prototype is described that uses various advanced automation techniques to generate courses of action whose intents are to recover from a diagnosed failure, and to do so within the constraints levied by the failure and by Freedom's configuration and operating conditions.

  8. The failure-tolerant leader.

    PubMed

    Farson, Richard; Keyes, Ralph

    2002-08-01

    "The fastest way to succeed," IBM's Thomas Watson, Sr., once said, "is to double your failure rate." In recent years, more and more executives have embraced Watson's point of view, coming to understand what innovators have always known: Failure is a prerequisite to invention. But while companies may grasp the value of making mistakes at the level of corporate practices, they have a harder time accepting the idea at the personal level. People are afraid to fail, and corporate culture reinforces that fear. In this article, psychologist and former Harvard Business School professor Richard Farson and coauthor Ralph Keyes discuss how companies can reduce the fear of miscues. What's crucial is the presence of failure-tolerant leaders--executives who, through their words and actions, help employees overcome their anxieties about making mistakes and, in the process, create a culture of intelligent risk-taking that leads to sustained innovation. Such leaders don't just accept productive failure, they promote it. Drawing from their research in business, politics, sports, and science, the authors identify common practices among failure-tolerant leaders. These leaders break down the social and bureaucratic barriers that separate them from their followers. They engage at a personal level with the people they lead. They avoid giving either praise or criticism, preferring to take a nonjudgmental, analytical posture as they interact with staff. They openly admit their own mistakes rather than trying to cover them up or shifting the blame. And they try to root out the destructive competitiveness built into most organizations. Above all else, failure-tolerant leaders push people to see beyond traditional definitions of success and failure. They know that as long as a person views failure as the opposite of success, rather than its complement, he or she will never be able to take the risks necessary for innovation.

  9. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  10. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  11. Mud pump failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, E.C. II

    1981-10-01

    Extrusion, the primary cause of piston failure, is the degradation of a seal caused by the seal material moving into the interface between the two parts being sealed. It is shown that operational dynamics of the mud piston lead to an aggravated extrusion condition. As both the liner wall and the piston OD lose material, the clearance gap between liner and piston increases. This gap provides the piston seal a space to move into when pressurized. This movement, called extrusion, is undesirable because the piston rubber is then subjected to abnormal stresses which it cannot tolerate. As the piston moves forward, this extruded material is gradually nibbled away. Extrusion and nibble action continue on each stroke of the pump as additional rubber moves away from the high-pressure side of the piston toward the low-pressure side. A discussion is presented of extrusion rates and seal leakage.

  12. Acute kidney failure

    MedlinePlus

    Kidney failure; Renal failure; Renal failure - acute; ARF; Kidney injury - acute ... There are many possible causes of kidney damage. They include: ... cholesterol (cholesterol emboli) Decreased blood flow due to very ...

  13. What Is Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... page from the NHLBI on Twitter. What Is Heart Failure? Heart failure is a condition in which the heart can' ... force. Some people have both problems. The term "heart failure" doesn't mean that your heart has stopped ...

  14. Heart failure - medicines

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - medicines; Congestive heart failure - medicines; Cardiomyopathy - medicines; HF - medicines ... You will need to take most of your heart failure medicines every day. Some medicines are taken ...

  15. Production systems need negation as failure

    SciTech Connect

    Phan Minh Dung; Mancarella, P.

    1996-12-31

    We study action rule based systems with two forms of negation, namely classical negation and {open_quotes}negation as failure to find a course of actions{close_quotes}. We show by several examples that adding negation as failure to such systems increase their expressiveness, in the sense that real life problems can be represented in a natural and simple way. Then, we address the problem of providing a formal declarative semantics to these extended systems, by adopting an argumentation based approach, which has been shown to be a simple unifying framework for understanding the declarative semantics of various nonmonotonic formalisms. In this way, we naturally define the grounded (well-founded), stable and preferred semantics for production systems with negation as failure. Next, we characterize the class of stratified production systems, which enjoy the properties that the above mentioned semantics coincide and that negation as failure can be computed by a simple bottom-up operator.

  16. A modeling framework for system restoration from cascading failures.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chaoran; Li, Daqing; Zio, Enrico; Kang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    System restoration from cascading failures is an integral part of the overall defense against catastrophic breakdown in networked critical infrastructures. From the outbreak of cascading failures to the system complete breakdown, actions can be taken to prevent failure propagation through the entire network. While most analysis efforts have been carried out before or after cascading failures, restoration during cascading failures has been rarely studied. In this paper, we present a modeling framework to investigate the effects of in-process restoration, which depends strongly on the timing and strength of the restoration actions. Furthermore, in the model we also consider additional disturbances to the system due to restoration actions themselves. We demonstrate that the effect of restoration is also influenced by the combination of system loading level and restoration disturbance. Our modeling framework will help to provide insights on practical restoration from cascading failures and guide improvements of reliability and resilience of actual network systems.

  17. A Modeling Framework for System Restoration from Cascading Failures

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chaoran; Li, Daqing; Zio, Enrico; Kang, Rui

    2014-01-01

    System restoration from cascading failures is an integral part of the overall defense against catastrophic breakdown in networked critical infrastructures. From the outbreak of cascading failures to the system complete breakdown, actions can be taken to prevent failure propagation through the entire network. While most analysis efforts have been carried out before or after cascading failures, restoration during cascading failures has been rarely studied. In this paper, we present a modeling framework to investigate the effects of in-process restoration, which depends strongly on the timing and strength of the restoration actions. Furthermore, in the model we also consider additional disturbances to the system due to restoration actions themselves. We demonstrate that the effect of restoration is also influenced by the combination of system loading level and restoration disturbance. Our modeling framework will help to provide insights on practical restoration from cascading failures and guide improvements of reliability and resilience of actual network systems. PMID:25474408

  18. 2008 Ozone National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2008 Ozone NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  19. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  20. Advanced Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Advanced Heart Failure Updated:Feb 9,2017 When heart failure (HF) ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  1. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  2. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  3. 16 CFR 1209.37 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.37 Corrective actions. (a) Test failure... change in the product specification and a new cellulose insulation product (see § 1209.34(b)),...

  4. 16 CFR 1209.37 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.37 Corrective actions. (a) Test failure... change in the product specification and a new cellulose insulation product (see § 1209.34(b)),...

  5. 16 CFR 1209.37 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.37 Corrective actions. (a) Test failure... change in the product specification and a new cellulose insulation product (see § 1209.34(b)),...

  6. 16 CFR 1209.37 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.37 Corrective actions. (a) Test failure... change in the product specification and a new cellulose insulation product (see § 1209.34(b)),...

  7. 16 CFR 1209.37 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... SAFETY STANDARD FOR CELLULOSE INSULATION Certification § 1209.37 Corrective actions. (a) Test failure... change in the product specification and a new cellulose insulation product (see § 1209.34(b)),...

  8. Lox/Gox related failures during Space Shuttle Main Engine development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cataldo, C. E.

    1981-01-01

    Specific rocket engine hardware and test facility system failures are described which were caused by high pressure liquid and/or gaseous oxygen reactions. The failures were encountered during the development and testing of the space shuttle main engine. Failure mechanisms are discussed as well as corrective actions taken to prevent or reduce the potential of future failures.

  9. Recognition Failure: Another Case of Retrieval Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rabinowitz, Jan; And Others

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical explanation of the phenomenon of recognition failure and a presentation of seven experiments investigating performance. Recognition failure is reduced when a more stringent recognition criterion is used, essentially eliminated when the proper access test is used and significantly reduced when variability in recognition performance is…

  10. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  11. 20 CFR 633.315 - Replacement, corrective action, termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... monitoring review; (3) Nonperformance related to such requirements as: (i) Failure to comply with formal corrective action after due notice; (ii) Failure to comply with the requirements of the Act related to a..., section 402 programs by reason of congressional action, whether by authorization, appropriation,...

  12. 20 CFR 633.315 - Replacement, corrective action, termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... monitoring review; (3) Nonperformance related to such requirements as: (i) Failure to comply with formal corrective action after due notice; (ii) Failure to comply with the requirements of the Act related to a..., section 402 programs by reason of congressional action, whether by authorization, appropriation,...

  13. 20 CFR 633.315 - Replacement, corrective action, termination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... monitoring review; (3) Nonperformance related to such requirements as: (i) Failure to comply with formal corrective action after due notice; (ii) Failure to comply with the requirements of the Act related to a..., section 402 programs by reason of congressional action, whether by authorization, appropriation,...

  14. [Diuretic therapy in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Trullàs, Joan Carles; Morales-Rull, José Luís; Formiga, Francesc

    2014-02-20

    Many of the primary clinical manifestations of heart failure (HF) are due to fluid retention, and treatments targeting congestion play a central role in HF management. Diuretic therapy remains the cornerstone of congestion treatment, and diuretics are prescribed to the majority of HF patients. Despite this ubiquitous use, there is limited evidence from prospective randomized studies to guide the use of diuretics. With the chronic use of diuretic and usually in advanced stages of HF, diuretics may fail to control salt and water retention. This review describes the mechanism of action of available diuretic classes, reviews their clinical use based on scientific evidence and discusses strategies to overcome diuretic resistance.

  15. Failure in glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Keeton, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Review of state of the art concerning glass failure mechanisms and fatigue theories discusses brittle fracture in glass, fatigue mechanisms, fatigue behavior, environmental effects on failure rate, and aging.

  16. [Understanding heart failure].

    PubMed

    Boo, José Fernando Guadalajara

    2006-01-01

    Heart failure is a disease with several definitions. The term "heart failure" is used by has brougth about confusion in the terminology. For this reason, the value of the ejection fraction (< 0.40 or < 0.35) is used in most meganalyses on the treatment of heart failure, avoiding the term "heart failure" that is a confounding concept. In this paper we carefully analyze the meaning of contractility, ventricular function or performance, preload, afterload, heart failure, compensation mechanisms in heart failure, myocardial oxygen consumption, inadequate, adequate and inappropriate hypertrophy, systole, diastole, compliance, problems of relaxation, and diastolic dysfunction. Their definitions are supported by the original scientific descriptions in an attempt to clarify the concepts about ventricular function and heart failure and, in this way, use the same scientific language about the meaning of ventricular function, heart failure, and diastolic dysfunction.

  17. 77 FR 34457 - Pipeline Safety: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration Pipeline Safety: Mechanical Fitting Failure Reports AGENCY: Pipeline and Hazardous Materials Safety Administration (PHMSA), DOT. ACTION: Notice; Issuance...

  18. Failures in psychodynamic psychotherapy.

    PubMed

    Gold, Jerry; Stricker, George

    2011-11-01

    This article addresses the issue of failures in psychodynamic psychotherapy. Drawing on the clinical and research literatures, and utilizing our clinical experiences, we first describe and define criteria for success and failure in treatment. We then review five factors that can lead to failure: client factors, therapist factors, technical factors, relationship factors, and environmental factors. We illustrate our presentation with a case example, and conclude by discussing ways in which the likelihood of failures in psychodynamic treatment can be lowered.

  19. "Remember Me": Memory and Action in "Hamlet".

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrews, Michael Cameron

    1981-01-01

    Examines the relationship between Hamlet's commitments to the past and his failure to translate these commitments into action, as he permits himself to be deflected by preoccupation with the future consequences of his action. Cites supportive evidence from the text. (DMM)

  20. Ammonia tank failure

    SciTech Connect

    Sweat, M.E.

    1983-04-01

    An ammonia tank failure at Hawkeye Chemical of Clinton, Iowa is discussed. The tank was a double-wall, 27,000 metric-ton tank built in 1968 and commissioned in December 1969. The paper presented covers the cause of the failure, repair, and procedural changes made to prevent recurrence of the failure. (JMT)

  1. Mod 1 wind turbine generator failure modes and effects analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) was directed primarily at identifying those critical failure modes that would be hazardous to life or would result in major damage to the system. Each subsystem was approached from the top down, and broken down to successive lower levels where it appeared that the criticality of the failure mode warranted more detail analysis. The results were reviewed by specialists from outside the Mod 1 program, and corrective action taken wherever recommended.

  2. Heart Failure: A Primer.

    PubMed

    Lee, Christopher S; Auld, Jonathan

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure is a complex and multisystem clinical syndrome that results from impaired ventricular contractility and/or relaxation. Hypertension, diabetes mellitus, and coronary artery disease are common antecedents to heart failure. The main pathogenic mechanisms involved in heart failure include sympathetic nervous and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system activation, as well as inflammation. A detailed history and physical examination and additional diagnostic tests may be needed to diagnose heart failure. Most treatment strategies target neurohormonal systems. Nonpharmacologic interventions and effective engagement in self-care are also important in overall heart failure management. Therapeutic strategies are geared toward prolonging life and optimizing quality of life.

  3. The failure of earthquake failure models

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gomberg, J.

    2001-01-01

    In this study I show that simple heuristic models and numerical calculations suggest that an entire class of commonly invoked models of earthquake failure processes cannot explain triggering of seismicity by transient or "dynamic" stress changes, such as stress changes associated with passing seismic waves. The models of this class have the common feature that the physical property characterizing failure increases at an accelerating rate when a fault is loaded (stressed) at a constant rate. Examples include models that invoke rate state friction or subcritical crack growth, in which the properties characterizing failure are slip or crack length, respectively. Failure occurs when the rate at which these grow accelerates to values exceeding some critical threshold. These accelerating failure models do not predict the finite durations of dynamically triggered earthquake sequences (e.g., at aftershock or remote distances). Some of the failure models belonging to this class have been used to explain static stress triggering of aftershocks. This may imply that the physical processes underlying dynamic triggering differs or that currently applied models of static triggering require modification. If the former is the case, we might appeal to physical mechanisms relying on oscillatory deformations such as compaction of saturated fault gouge leading to pore pressure increase, or cyclic fatigue. However, if dynamic and static triggering mechanisms differ, one still needs to ask why static triggering models that neglect these dynamic mechanisms appear to explain many observations. If the static and dynamic triggering mechanisms are the same, perhaps assumptions about accelerating failure and/or that triggering advances the failure times of a population of inevitable earthquakes are incorrect.

  4. Teacher Perceptions of High School Student Failure in the Classroom: Identifying Preventive Practices of Failure Using Critical Incident Technique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalahar, Kory G.

    2011-01-01

    Student failure is a prominent issue in many comprehensive secondary schools nationwide. Researchers studying error, reliability, and performance in organizations have developed and employed a method known as critical incident technique (CIT) for investigating failure. Adopting an action research model, this study involved gathering and analyzing…

  5. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  6. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  7. Kidney Failure: What to Expect

    MedlinePlus

    ... Kidneys & How They Work Kidney Disease A-Z Kidney Failure What is kidney failure and how is it treated? Kidney failure ... Methods for Kidney Failure: Peritoneal Dialysis . Peritoneal dialysis Kidney Transplant A kidney transplant places a healthy kidney ...

  8. Role of LIMP-2 in the intracellular trafficking of β-glucosidase in different human cellular models.

    PubMed

    Malini, Erika; Zampieri, Stefania; Deganuto, Marta; Romanello, Milena; Sechi, Annalisa; Bembi, Bruno; Dardis, Andrea

    2015-09-01

    Acid β-glucosidase (GCase), the enzyme deficient in Gaucher disease (GD), is transported to lysosomes by the lysosomal integral membrane protein (LIMP)-2. In humans, LIMP-2 deficiency leads to action myoclonus-renal failure (AMRF) syndrome. GD and AMRF syndrome share some clinical features. However, they are different from clinical and biochemical points of view, suggesting that the role of LIMP-2 in the targeting of GCase would be different in different tissues. Besides, the role of LIMP-2 in the uptake and trafficking of the human recombinant (hr)GCase used in the treatment of GD is unknown. Thus, we compared GCase activity and intracellular localization in immortalized lymphocytes, fibroblasts, and a neuronal model derived from multipotent adult stem cells, from a patient with AMRF syndrome, patients with GD, and control subjects. In fibroblasts and neuronlike cells, GCase targeting to the lysosomes is completely dependent on LIMP-2, whereas in blood cells, GCase is partially targeted to lysosomes by a LIMP-2-independent mechanism. Although hrGCase cellular uptake is independent of LIMP-2, its trafficking to the lysosomes is mediated by this receptor. These data provide new insights into the mechanisms involved in the intracellular trafficking of GCase and in the pathogeneses of GD and AMRF syndrome.

  9. Array-Based Gene Discovery with Three Unrelated Subjects Shows SCARB2/LIMP-2 Deficiency Causes Myoclonus Epilepsy and Glomerulosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Berkovic, Samuel F.; Dibbens, Leanne M.; Oshlack, Alicia; Silver, Jeremy D.; Katerelos, Marina; Vears, Danya F.; Lüllmann-Rauch, Renate; Blanz, Judith; Zhang, Ke Wei; Stankovich, Jim; Kalnins, Renate M.; Dowling, John P.; Andermann, Eva; Andermann, Frederick; Faldini, Enrico; D'Hooge, Rudi; Vadlamudi, Lata; Macdonell, Richard A.; Hodgson, Bree L.; Bayly, Marta A.; Savige, Judy; Mulley, John C.; Smyth, Gordon K.; Power, David A.; Saftig, Paul; Bahlo, Melanie

    2008-01-01

    Action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome (AMRF) is an autosomal-recessive disorder with the remarkable combination of focal glomerulosclerosis, frequently with glomerular collapse, and progressive myoclonus epilepsy associated with storage material in the brain. Here, we employed a novel combination of molecular strategies to find the responsible gene and show its effects in an animal model. Utilizing only three unrelated affected individuals and their relatives, we used homozygosity mapping with single-nucleotide polymorphism chips to localize AMRF. We then used microarray-expression analysis to prioritize candidates prior to sequencing. The disorder was mapped to 4q13-21, and microarray-expression analysis identified SCARB2/Limp2, which encodes a lysosomal-membrane protein, as the likely candidate. Mutations in SCARB2/Limp2 were found in all three families used for mapping and subsequently confirmed in two other unrelated AMRF families. The mutations were associated with lack of SCARB2 protein. Reanalysis of an existing Limp2 knockout mouse showed intracellular inclusions in cerebral and cerebellar cortex, and the kidneys showed subtle glomerular changes. This study highlights that recessive genes can be identified with a very small number of subjects. The ancestral lysosomal-membrane protein SCARB2/LIMP-2 is responsible for AMRF. The heterogeneous pathology in the kidney and brain suggests that SCARB2/Limp2 has pleiotropic effects that may be relevant to understanding the pathogenesis of other forms of glomerulosclerosis or collapse and myoclonic epilepsies. PMID:18308289

  10. Early complications. Respiratory failure.

    PubMed

    Zwischenberger, J B; Alpard, S K; Bidani, A

    1999-08-01

    Pulmonary complications following thoracic surgery are common and associated with significant morbidity and mortality. Respiratory failure after pneumonectomy occurs in approximately 5% to 15% of cases and significantly increases patient mortality. Strategies for ventilator support are based on the nature of the underlying complication and the pathophysiology of respiratory failure. This article describes the cause and pathophysiology of respiratory failure and pulmonary embolus postpneumonectomy. Diagnosis, management, and innovative therapies are also reviewed.

  11. Failure to thrive.

    PubMed

    Krugman, Scott D; Dubowitz, Howard

    2003-09-01

    Failure to thrive is a condition commonly seen by primary care physicians. Prompt diagnosis and intervention are important for preventing malnutrition and developmental sequelae. Medical and social factors often contribute to failure to thrive. Either extreme of parental attention (neglect or hypervigilance) can lead to failure to thrive. About 25 percent of normal infants will shift to a lower growth percentile in the first two years of life and then follow that percentile; this should not be diagnosed as failure to thrive. Infants with Down syndrome, intrauterine growth retardation, or premature birth follow different growth patterns than normal infants. Many infants with failure to thrive are not identified unless careful attention is paid to plotting growth parameters at routine checkups. A thorough history is the best guide to establishing the etiology of the failure to thrive and directing further evaluation and management. All children with failure to thrive need additional calories for catch-up growth (typically 150 percent of the caloric requirement for their expected, not actual, weight). Few need laboratory evaluation. Hospitalization is rarely required and is indicated only for severe failure to thrive and for those whose safety is a concern. A multidisciplinary approach is recommended when failure to thrive persists despite intervention or when it is severe.

  12. Nonlocal effects and countermeasures in cascading failures.

    PubMed

    Witthaut, Dirk; Timme, Marc

    2015-09-01

    We study the propagation of cascading failures in complex supply networks with a focus on nonlocal effects occurring far away from the initial failure. It is shown that a high clustering and a small average path length of a network generally suppress nonlocal overloads. These properties are typical for many real-world networks, often called small-world networks, such that cascades propagate mostly locally in these networks. Furthermore, we analyze the spatial aspects of countermeasures based on the intentional removal of additional edges. Nonlocal actions are generally required in networks that have a low redundancy and are thus especially vulnerable to cascades.

  13. Living with Respiratory Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... smoking. Emotional Issues and Support Living with respiratory failure may cause fear, anxiety, depression, and stress. Talk about how you feel with your health care team. Talking to a professional counselor also can ... to living with respiratory failure. You can see how other people who have ...

  14. Ampoule Failure System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watring, Dale A. (Inventor); Johnson, Martin L. (Inventor)

    1996-01-01

    An ampoule failure system for use in material processing furnaces comprising a containment cartridge and an ampoule failure sensor. The containment cartridge contains an ampoule of toxic material therein and is positioned within a furnace for processing. An ampoule failure probe is positioned in the containment cartridge adjacent the ampoule for detecting a potential harmful release of toxic material therefrom during processing. The failure probe is spaced a predetermined distance from the ampoule and is chemically chosen so as to undergo a timely chemical reaction with the toxic material upon the harmful release thereof. The ampoule failure system further comprises a data acquisition system which is positioned externally of the furnace and is electrically connected to the ampoule failure probe so as to form a communicating electrical circuit. The data acquisition system includes an automatic shutdown device for shutting down the furnace upon the harmful release of toxic material. It also includes a resistance measuring device for measuring the resistance of the failure probe during processing. The chemical reaction causes a step increase in resistance of the failure probe whereupon the automatic shutdown device will responsively shut down the furnace.

  15. Generalized energy failure criterion.

    PubMed

    Qu, R T; Zhang, Z J; Zhang, P; Liu, Z Q; Zhang, Z F

    2016-03-21

    Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the "generalized energy criterion", as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components.

  16. Acute Decompensated Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Joseph, Susan M.; Cedars, Ari M.; Ewald, Gregory A.; Geltman, Edward M.; Mann, Douglas L.

    2009-01-01

    Hospitalizations for acute decompensated heart failure are increasing in the United States. Moreover, the prevalence of heart failure is increasing consequent to an increased number of older individuals, as well as to improvement in therapies for coronary artery disease and sudden cardiac death that have enabled patients to live longer with cardiovascular disease. The main treatment goals in the hospitalized patient with heart failure are to restore euvolemia and to minimize adverse events. Common in-hospital treatments include intravenous diuretics, vasodilators, and inotropic agents. Novel pharmaceutical agents have shown promise in the treatment of acute decompensated heart failure and may simplify the treatment and reduce the morbidity associated with the disease. This review summarizes the contemporary management of patients with acute decompensated heart failure. PMID:20069075

  17. Generalized energy failure criterion

    PubMed Central

    Qu, R. T.; Zhang, Z. J.; Zhang, P.; Liu, Z. Q.; Zhang, Z. F.

    2016-01-01

    Discovering a generalized criterion that can predict the mechanical failure of various different structural materials is one of ultimate goals for scientists in both material and mechanics communities. Since the first study on the failure criterion of materials by Galileo, about three centuries have passed. Now we eventually find the “generalized energy criterion”, as presented here, which appears to be one universal law for various different kinds of materials. The validity of the energy criterion for quantitatively predicting the failure is experimentally confirmed using a metallic glass. The generalized energy criterion reveals the competition and interaction between shear and cleavage, the two fundamental inherent failure mechanisms, and thus provides new physical insights into the failure prediction of materials and structural components. PMID:26996781

  18. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  19. Underground storage tank corrective action technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, R.

    1987-01-01

    The document contains information on corrective action technologies for releases from underground storage tanks (UST). It probes general background information on UST construction techniques, leak detection methods, and failure mechanisms. It also addresses transport pathways of released substances, techniques for evaluating the extent of a release, factors influencing risk to human health and the environment, techniques for selecting initial corrective-action response technologies, and detailed technical profiles of corrective action technologies. Emphasis is on corrective actions associated with releases from gasoline and petroleum USTs.

  20. [Heart failure and comorbidities].

    PubMed

    Boully, Clémence; Hanon, Olivier

    2015-03-01

    Heart failure is a frequent disease in the elderly. Its clinical presentation is less typical and the prognosis more severe than in younger subjects because heart failure occurs in patients with multiple comorbidities. A comprehensive geriatric assessment should therefore be performed to detect the vulnerabilities and manage the comorbidities. The main diseases associated with heart failure are dementia, depression, malnutrition, atrial fibrillation, coronary artery disease, orthostatic hypotension, renal failure, anemia and iron deficiency. Comorbidities worsen heart failure and makes its treatment more difficult. The identification and treatment of comorbidities improve the prognosis in terms of mortality but especially in terms of quality of life. Caution with drugs is necessary because of pharmacokinetic or pharmacodynamic changes related to aging and the comorbidities. In this context, clinical and laboratory monitoring should be increased, mostly during an acute event (acute heart failure, infection, dehydration, fall, new therapy…). Therefore, the follow-up of elderly patients with heart failure requires a multidisciplinary approach that involves close cooperation between cardiologists, geriatricians, general practitioners, nurses, and pharmacists.

  1. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  2. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  3. Liver Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Bacak, Stephen J; Thornburg, Loralei L

    2016-01-01

    Acute liver failure is a rare but life-threatening medical emergency in pregnancy whose true incidence remains unknown. Many cases of acute liver failure are caused by pregnancy-related conditions such as acute fatty liver of pregnancy and HELLP syndrome. However, acute deterioration in liver function can also be caused by drug overdose, viral infections, and an exacerbation of underlying chronic liver disease. This article provides an overview of the normal liver changes that occur during pregnancy, and summarizes the most common conditions and general management strategies of liver failure during pregnancy.

  4. Damage mechanics - failure modes

    SciTech Connect

    Krajcinovic, D.; Vujosevic, M.

    1996-12-31

    The present study summarizes the results of the DOE sponsored research program focused on the brittle failure of solids with disordered microstructure. The failure is related to the stochastic processes on the microstructural scale; namely, the nucleation and growth of microcracks. The intrinsic failure modes, such as the percolation, localization and creep rupture, are studied by emphasizing the effect of the micro-structural disorder. A rich spectrum of physical phenomena and new concepts that emerges from this research demonstrates the reasons behind the limitations of traditional, deterministic, and local continuum models.

  5. [Exercise training in heart failure].

    PubMed

    Edelmann, F; Grabs, V; Halle, M

    2014-06-01

    Exercise training in patients with chronic stable heart failure (HF) is a recommended and broadly accepted treatment strategy that is an integral part of an evidence-based management involving pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies. There is ample scientific evidence that exercise training in HF with reduced (HFrEF) and with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) improves exercise capacity, HF symptoms and quality of life. This is due to an improvement of central hemodynamics, endothelial function, neurohumoral activation, skeletal muscle structure and function as well as a decrease in inflammatory markers. The largest randomized, controlled HF-ACTION study (Heart Failure-A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of exercise TraiNing) demonstrated that exercise training results in a modest improvement of all-cause mortality and hospitalizations in HFrEF, depending on adequate compliance. Outcome data in HFpEF are lacking. Besides compliance, efficacy of exercise training is dependent on the intensity and type of exercise. Resistance and high intensity endurance training in addition to a standard aerobic exercise seem to be superior in improving the clinical status of HF patients. In the future, individualized exercise programs will help to improve long-term adherence to exercise training.

  6. Heart failure - discharge

    MedlinePlus

    ... Heart failure - overview Heart pacemaker High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Smoking - tips on how to quit ... ask your doctor How to read food labels Implantable cardioverter defibrillator - discharge Low-salt diet Mediterranean diet ...

  7. Heart failure overview

    MedlinePlus

    ... heart failure: Fast or difficult breathing Leg swelling (edema) Neck veins that stick out (are distended) Sounds ( ... pacemaker High blood pressure Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator Pulmonary edema Stable angina Ventricular assist device Patient Instructions ACE ...

  8. Failure to communicate.

    PubMed

    Fiesta, J

    1998-02-01

    When a medication error is coupled with a communication problem, a patient may experience significant injury. Cases involving communication breakdown, i.e, failure to communicate or listen, are discussed.

  9. Triac failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nola, F. J. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A failure detector is provided for detecting unidirectional failures in triacs, particularly as used in power factor controllers for induction motors. In a first embodiment, the triac voltage waveform is sensed and upon detection of an unbalanced signal, corresponding to failure of the triac in either the positive or negative direction, the triac is turned full on in both directions. In a second embodiment, a pair of pulsed signals are derived, the pulse durations of which are proportional to the phase difference between the load current and voltage for each half cycle, and the triac is turned full on responsive to a difference in pulse duration between the half cycle signals. An unidirectional open circuit detector is adapted to use a signal from either of the first and second embodiment to turn the triac off in response to an open circuit failure in either direction.

  10. Inverter ratio failure detector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, A. P.; Ebersole, T. J.; Andrews, R. E. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A failure detector which detects the failure of a dc to ac inverter is disclosed. The inverter under failureless conditions is characterized by a known linear relationship of its input and output voltages and by a known linear relationship of its input and output currents. The detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the detector's input and output voltages and which provides a failure-indicating signal only when the monitored output voltage is less by a selected factor, than the expected output voltage for the monitored input voltage, based on the known voltages' relationship. Similarly, the detector includes circuitry which is responsive to the input and output currents and provides a failure-indicating signal only when the input current exceeds by a selected factor the expected input current for the monitored output current based on the known currents' relationship.

  11. Heart failure - tests

    MedlinePlus

    CHF - tests; Congestive heart failure - tests; Cardiomyopathy - tests; HF - tests ... An echocardiogram (Echo) is a test that uses sound waves to create a moving picture of the heart. The picture is much more detailed than a plain ...

  12. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Robert; Novack, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Space Launch System (SLS) Agenda: Objective; Key Definitions; Calculating Common Cause; Examples; Defense against Common Cause; Impact of varied Common Cause Failure (CCF) and abortability; Response Surface for various CCF Beta; Takeaways.

  13. Evaluation of ultrafiltration failure.

    PubMed

    Korbet, S M

    1998-07-01

    The evaluation of ultrafiltration failure is embarked upon when a patient has persistent problems with symptoms and signs of fluid overload. Fluid overload is a common problem in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients and the risk of its occurrence increases with time on dialysis. Although often attributed to changes in peritoneal membrane function (membrane failure), there are a number of potential, and frequently more common factors that can contribute to the failure of adequate fluid removal in patients on PD. Many of the causes of ultrafiltration failure may be apparent after an initial informal evaluation. However, if after this the etiology remains unexplained, a systematic approach to the differential diagnosis of this problem can be utilized with the use of the peritoneal equilibration test. Once a diagnosis is confirmed, a logical therapeutic plan can be formulated.

  14. Living with Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... help you in the future. Follow Your Treatment Plan Treatment can relieve your symptoms and make daily ... or nurse about getting flu and pneumonia vaccines. Plan Ahead If you have heart failure, it's important ...

  15. What Causes Respiratory Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Conditions Causing Respiratory Failure Figure A shows the location of the lungs, airways, diaphragm, rib cage, pulmonary arteries, brain, and spinal cord ... STATEMENT FOIA NO FEAR ACT OIG CONTACT US ...

  16. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  17. Habits, action sequences, and reinforcement learning

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2012-01-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquire and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions. PMID:22487034

  18. Habits, action sequences and reinforcement learning.

    PubMed

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W

    2012-04-01

    It is now widely accepted that instrumental actions can be either goal-directed or habitual; whereas the former are rapidly acquired and regulated by their outcome, the latter are reflexive, elicited by antecedent stimuli rather than their consequences. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) provides an elegant description of goal-directed action. Through exposure to states, actions and rewards, the agent rapidly constructs a model of the world and can choose an appropriate action based on quite abstract changes in environmental and evaluative demands. This model is powerful but has a problem explaining the development of habitual actions. To account for habits, theorists have argued that another action controller is required, called model-free RL, that does not form a model of the world but rather caches action values within states allowing a state to select an action based on its reward history rather than its consequences. Nevertheless, there are persistent problems with important predictions from the model; most notably the failure of model-free RL correctly to predict the insensitivity of habitual actions to changes in the action-reward contingency. Here, we suggest that introducing model-free RL in instrumental conditioning is unnecessary, and demonstrate that reconceptualizing habits as action sequences allows model-based RL to be applied to both goal-directed and habitual actions in a manner consistent with what real animals do. This approach has significant implications for the way habits are currently investigated and generates new experimental predictions.

  19. Genesis Failure Investigation Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, John

    2004-01-01

    The-Genesis mission to collect solar-wind samples and return them to Earth for detailed analysis proceeded successfully for 3.5 years. During reentry on September 8, 2004, a failure in the entry, descent and landing sequence resulted in a crash landing of the Genesis sample return capsule. This document describes the findings of the avionics sub-team that supported the accident investigation of the JPL Failure Review Board.

  20. Heart failure in pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Rutherford, John D

    2012-12-01

    With increasing maternal age and the presence of comorbid conditions such as hypertension, cardiovascular assessment and monitoring is the responsibility of all clinicians caring for pregnant patients. Furthermore, there are specific conditions, such as mitral stenosis, peripartum cardiomyopathy, and preeclampsia, that can be associated with heart failure and secondary maternal (and fetal) mortality and morbidity. The important causes of heart failure in pregnancy are discussed.

  1. Acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Bellomo, Rinaldo

    2011-10-01

    Acute renal failure (now acute kidney injury) is a common complication of critical illness affecting between 30 and 60% of critically ill patients. The development of a consensus definition (RIFLE--risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage system) has allowed standardization of reporting and epidemiological work. Multicenter multinational epidemiological studies indicate that sepsis is now the most common cause of acute renal failure in the intensive care unit (ICU) followed by cardiac surgery-associated acute kidney injury. Unfortunately, our understanding of the pathogenesis of acute renal failure in these settings remains limited. Because of such limited understanding, no reproducibly effective therapies have been developed. In addition the diagnosis of acute renal failure still rests upon the detection of changes in serum creatinine, which only occur if more than 50% of glomerular filtration is lost and are often delayed by more than 24 hours. Such diagnostic delays make the implementation of early therapy nearly impossible. In response to these difficulties, there has been a concerted effort to use proteomics to identify novel early biomarkers of acute renal failure. The identification and study of neutrophil gelatinase- associated lipocalin has been an important step in this field. Another area of active interest and investigation relates to the role of intravenous fluid resuscitation and fluid balance. Data from large observational studies and randomized, controlled trials consistently indicate that a positive fluid balance in patients with acute renal failure represents a major independent risk factor for mortality and provides no protection of renal function. The pendulum is clearly swinging away from a fluid-liberal approach to a fluid-conservative approach in these patients. Finally, there is a growing appreciation that acute renal failure may identify patients who are at increased risk of subsequent chronic renal dysfunction and mortality, opening the way

  2. Accidental knowledge: Using accidents and other project failures to inform research in systems engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorenson, Diane C.

    Projects experience cost overruns, late deliveries, quality issues, cancellation, and accidents despite the best efforts of the systems engineering community. There is relatively little research on why systems engineering failures in general happen, but a substantial body of work on accident causation. Here, we investigate whether systems failures in general exhibit the same patterns of causation as accidents. We conducted a review of existing accident models to develop a model that could be applied to all types of project failures. Our model helped us to classify where the factors occur during the system development/system operation phases and which entity was involved in each factor. We analyzed 58 failure case studies. The failure cases span non-accidents, accidents, and dual failures. The sources for each subset had varying depth and scope of investigation. We developed a coding method to compare the factors between failure cases that broke each factor down into an "actor-action-object" structure. We further generalized the actions from the "actor-action-object" strings into control flaws so that we could analyze the failure cases at a high level. We analyzed the control flaws, actions, and actors for each failure case and compared the results for accidents and non-accidents. Of our results that we could not attribute to study biases, we found similarities and differences between project failure causation. We also identified which control flaws, actions, and actors were the most prevalent in the different types of project failures. Of all the actions, "failure to consider factor in system development" contributed most to non-accidents, while "failure to consider step in risk management" contributed the most to accidents. Of all the actors, "company management" contributed the most to non-accidents and accidents.

  3. Decompensated heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Mangini, Sandrigo; Pires, Philippe Vieira; Braga, Fabiana Goulart Marcondes; Bacal, Fernando

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Heart failure is a disease with high incidence and prevalence in the population. The costs with hospitalization for decompensated heart failure reach approximately 60% of the total cost with heart failure treatment, and mortality during hospitalization varies according to the studied population, and could achieve values of 10%. In patients with decompensated heart failure, history and physical examination are of great value for the diagnosis of the syndrome, and also can help the physician to identify the beginning of symptoms, and give information about etiology, causes and prognosis of the disease. The initial objective of decompensated heart failure treatment is the hemodynamic and symptomatic improvement preservation and/or improvement of renal function, prevention of myocardial damage, modulation of the neurohormonal and/or inflammatory activation and control of comorbidities that can cause or contribute to progression of the syndrome. According to the clinical-hemodynamic profile, it is possible to establish a rational for the treatment of decompensated heart failure, individualizing the proceedings to be held, leading to reduction in the period of hospitalization and consequently reducing overall mortality. PMID:24136770

  4. Premature ovarian failure.

    PubMed

    Kalantaridou, S N; Davis, S R; Nelson, L M

    1998-12-01

    In 1% of women, premature ovarian failure develops by 40 years of age, a condition causing amenorrhea, infertility, sex steroid deficiency, and elevated gonadotropins. Early loss of ovarian function has significant psychosocial sequelae and major health implications. These young women have a nearly two-fold age-specific increase in mortality rate. Among women with spontaneous premature ovarian failure who have a normal karyotype, half have ovarian follicles remaining in the ovary that function intermittently. Indeed, pregnancies have occurred after the diagnosis of premature ovarian failure. Thus, premature ovarian failure should not be considered as a premature menopause. Young women with this disorder have a 5% to 10% chance for spontaneous pregnancy. Attempts at ovulation induction using various regimens fail to induce ovulation rates greater than those seen in untreated patients; however, oocyte donation for women desiring fertility is an option. Young women with premature ovarian failure need a thorough assessment, sex steroid replacement, and long-term surveillance to monitor therapy. Estrogen-progestin replacement therapy should be instituted as soon as the diagnosis is made. Androgen replacement should also be considered for women with low libido, persistent fatigue, and poor well-being despite taking adequate estrogen replacement. Women with premature ovarian failure should be followed up for the presence of associated autoimmune endocrine disorders such as hypothyroidism, adrenal insufficiency, and diabetes mellitus.

  5. 2006 Particulate Matter (PM) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Infrastructure Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2006 PM NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices,and fact sheets

  6. 2008 Lead (Pb) National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) Implementation Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Read about the EPA's infrastructure actions for the 2008 lead NAAQS. These actions are regarding states' failure to submit SIPs addressing various parts of the standards. Here you can read the federal register notices, fact sheets, and the docket folder.

  7. 12 CFR 3.21 - Relation to other administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Issuance of a Directive § 3.21 Relation to other administrative actions. A... response to a bank's failure to achieve or maintain the applicable minimum capital ratios. Interpretations...

  8. 12 CFR 3.21 - Relation to other administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RATIOS; ISSUANCE OF DIRECTIVES Issuance of a Directive § 3.21 Relation to other administrative actions. A... response to a bank's failure to achieve or maintain the applicable minimum capital ratios. Interpretations...

  9. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2015-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  10. Common Cause Failure Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hark, Frank; Britton, Paul; Ring, Rob; Novack, Steven D.

    2016-01-01

    Common Cause Failures (CCFs) are a known and documented phenomenon that defeats system redundancy. CCFS are a set of dependent type of failures that can be caused by: system environments; manufacturing; transportation; storage; maintenance; and assembly, as examples. Since there are many factors that contribute to CCFs, the effects can be reduced, but they are difficult to eliminate entirely. Furthermore, failure databases sometimes fail to differentiate between independent and CCF (dependent) failure and data is limited, especially for launch vehicles. The Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) of NASA's Safety and Mission Assurance Directorate at Marshal Space Flight Center (MFSC) is using generic data from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's database of common cause failures at nuclear power plants to estimate CCF due to the lack of a more appropriate data source. There remains uncertainty in the actual magnitude of the common cause risk estimates for different systems at this stage of the design. Given the limited data about launch vehicle CCF and that launch vehicles are a highly redundant system by design, it is important to make design decisions to account for a range of values for independent and CCFs. When investigating the design of the one-out-of-two component redundant system for launch vehicles, a response surface was constructed to represent the impact of the independent failure rate versus a common cause beta factor effect on a system's failure probability. This presentation will define a CCF and review estimation calculations. It gives a summary of reduction methodologies and a review of examples of historical CCFs. Finally, it presents the response surface and discusses the results of the different CCFs on the reliability of a one-out-of-two system.

  11. [Heart failure and anemia].

    PubMed

    Reda, S; Motloch, L J; Hoppe, U C

    2013-09-01

    Chronic heart failure has an age-dependent prevalence of 2% and is therefore one of the most frequent diseases in western societies. A reduced hemoglobin concentration according to the definition of the World Health Organization is a common comorbidity affecting more than half of all heart failure patients. Elderly patients, patients suffering from renal impairment and women are more likely to develop anemia but a definitive etiology of anemia is only identified in the minority of cases. Anemia is associated with a poor clinical status and a greater risk of hospitalization and is a predictive factor for increased mortality. The incidence of anemia appears to increase with a poorer functional class. Intravenous iron therapy improves the exercise capacity in patients with systolic heart failure and iron deficiency and is currently being recommended for patients with persistent symptoms despite optimal medical and device therapy. However, erythropoietin-stimulating agents as a treatment for anemia in chronic heart failure have failed to improve clinical outcome in a large randomized trial. In patients with heart failure but with maintained ejection fraction, anemia is also associated with a poor prognosis. Specific therapeutic recommendations for these patients are still not available.

  12. 24 CFR 25.5 - Administrative actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... a letter of reprimand, probation, suspension, or withdrawal; or enter into a settlement agreement... administrative action that the Board finds appropriate as provided by 12 U.S.C. 1708(c). (c) Probation. Probation shall be effective upon receipt of the notice of probation by the mortgagee. Failure to comply with...

  13. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  14. Weld failure detection

    DOEpatents

    Pennell, William E.; Sutton, Jr., Harry G.

    1981-01-01

    Method and apparatus for detecting failure in a welded connection, particrly applicable to not readily accessible welds such as those joining components within the reactor vessel of a nuclear reactor system. A preselected tag gas is sealed within a chamber which extends through selected portions of the base metal and weld deposit. In the event of a failure, such as development of a crack extending from the chamber to an outer surface, the tag gas is released. The environment about the welded area is directed to an analyzer which, in the event of presence of the tag gas, evidences the failure. A trigger gas can be included with the tag gas to actuate the analyzer.

  15. BIOASSAY VESSEL FAILURE ANALYSIS

    SciTech Connect

    Vormelker, P

    2008-09-22

    Two high-pressure bioassay vessels failed at the Savannah River Site during a microwave heating process for biosample testing. Improper installation of the thermal shield in the first failure caused the vessel to burst during microwave heating. The second vessel failure is attributed to overpressurization during a test run. Vessel failure appeared to initiate in the mold parting line, the thinnest cross-section of the octagonal vessel. No material flaws were found in the vessel that would impair its structural performance. Content weight should be minimized to reduce operating temperature and pressure. Outer vessel life is dependent on actual temperature exposure. Since thermal aging of the vessels can be detrimental to their performance, it was recommended that the vessels be used for a limited number of cycles to be determined by additional testing.

  16. High-Temperature Graphitization Failure of Primary Superheater Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Mandal, N.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-12-01

    Failure of boiler tubes is the main cause of unit outages of the plant, which further affects the reliability, availability and safety of the unit. So failure analysis of boiler tubes is absolutely essential to predict the root cause of the failure and the steps are taken for future remedial action to prevent the failure in near future. This paper investigates the probable cause/causes of failure of the primary superheater tube in a thermal power plant boiler. Visual inspection, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, metallographic examination and hardness measurement are conducted as the part of the investigative studies. Apart from these tests, mechanical testing and fractographic analysis are also conducted as supplements. Finally, it is concluded that the superheater tube is failed due to graphitization for prolonged exposure of the tube at higher temperature.

  17. Cascading failure analysis and restoration strategy in an interdependent network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Lv, Chuan; Zhao, Tingdi; Wang, Baoqing; Wang, Jianghui; Zhu, Juxing

    2016-05-01

    In modern society, many infrastructures are interdependent owing to functional and logical relations among components in different systems. These networked infrastructures can be modeled as interdependent networks. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads whose values are dynamic and stem from the load redistribution in the same network and disturbance from the interdependent network. Interdependency makes interdependent networks so fragile that even a slight initial disturbance may lead to a cascading failure of the entire systems. In this paper, interdependencies among networks are modeled and a failure cascade process is studied considering their effects on failure propagation. Meanwhile, an in-process restoration strategy after the initial failure is investigated. The restoration effects depend strongly on the trigger timing, restoration probability and priority of the restoration actions along with the additional disturbances. Our findings highlight the necessity to decrease the large-scale cascading failure by structuring and managing an interdependent network reasonably.

  18. Congestive Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Scott, Michael C; Winters, Michael E

    2015-08-01

    Patients with acute decompensated heart failure are usually critically ill and require immediate treatment. However, most are not volume overloaded. Emergency department (ED) management is based on rapid initiation of noninvasive positive-pressure ventilation and aggressive titration of nitrates. Afterload reduction with an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor can be considered. A diuretic should not be administered before optimal preload and afterload reduction has been achieved. Short-term inotropic therapy can be considered in select patients with cardiogenic shock and acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) who fail to respond to standard therapy.

  19. Failure detection and identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Massoumnia, Mohammad-Ali; Verghese, George C.; Willsky, Alan S.

    1989-01-01

    Using the geometric concept of an unobservability subspace, a solution is given to the problem of detecting and identifying control system component failures in linear, time-invariant systems. Conditions are developed for the existence of a causal, linear, time-invariant processor that can detect and uniquely identify a component failure, first for the case where components can fail simultaneously, and then for the case where they fail only one at a time. Explicit design algorithms are provided when these conditions are satisfied. In addition to time-domain solvability conditions, frequency-domain interpretations of the results are given, and connections are drawn with results already available in the literature.

  20. Common Cause Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wetherholt, Jon; Heimann, Timothy J.; Anderson, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    High technology industries with high failure costs commonly use redundancy as a means to reduce risk. Redundant systems, whether similar or dissimilar, are susceptible to Common Cause Failures (CCF). CCF is not always considered in the design effort and, therefore, can be a major threat to success. There are several aspects to CCF which must be understood to perform an analysis which will find hidden issues that may negate redundancy. This paper will provide definition, types, a list of possible causes and some examples of CCF. Requirements and designs from NASA projects will be used in the paper as examples.

  1. Hypothyroid acute renal failure.

    PubMed

    Birewar, Sonali; Oppenheimer, Mark; Zawada, Edward T

    2004-03-01

    Muscular disorders and even hypothyroid myopathy with elevated muscle enzymes are commonly seen in hypothyroidism. In this paper, we report a case of acute renal failure in a 35-year old male patient with myalgia. His serum creatinine reached a level of 2.4 mg/dl. Later, his myalgia was found to be due to hypothyroidism with TSH of over 500 uiv/ml. With thyroid replacement therapy, myalgia and his serum creatinine stabilized and subsequently improved. Hypothyroidism, although rare, has been reported as a definite and authentic cause of rhabdomyolysis. As a result, hypothyroidism must be considered in patients presenting with acute renal failure and elevated muscle enzymes.

  2. Failure is an option: Reactions to failure in elementary engineering design projects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Matthew M.

    Recent reform documents in science education have called for teachers to use epistemic practices of science and engineering researchers to teach disciplinary content (NRC, 2007; NRC, 2012; NGSS Lead States, 2013). Although this creates challenges for classroom teachers unfamiliar with engineering, it has created a need for high quality research about how students and teachers engage in engineering activities to improve curriculum development and teaching pedagogy. While framers of the Next Generation Science Standards (NRC, 2012; NGSS Lead States 2013) focused on the similarities of the practices of science researchers and engineering designers, some have proposed that engineering has a unique set of epistemic practices, including improving from failure (Cunningham & Carlsen, 2014; Cunningham & Kelly, in review). While no one will deny failures occur in science, failure in engineering is thought of in fundamentally different ways. In the study presented here, video data from eight classes of elementary students engaged in one of two civil engineering units were analyzed using methods borrowed from psychology, anthropology, and sociolinguistics to investigate: 1) the nature of failure in elementary engineering design; 2) the ways in which teachers react to failure; and 3) how the collective actions of students and teachers support or constrain improvement in engineering design. I propose new ways of considering the types and causes of failure, and note three teacher reactions to failure: the manager, the cheerleader, and the strategic partner. Because the goal of iteration in engineering is improvement, I also studied improvement. Students only systematically improve when they have the opportunity, productive strategies, and fair comparisons between prototypes. I then investigate the use of student engineering journals to assess learning from the process of improvement after failure. After discussion, I consider implications from this work as well as future research

  3. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  4. Preventing Early Learning Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sornson, Bob, Ed.

    Noting that thousands of young children with the capacity to experience school success do not because they are unprepared for school learning activities, have experienced physical or emotional setbacks that cause them to be at risk for early learning failure, have never experienced limits on their behavior, or have mild sensory or motor deficits,…

  5. Learning from Failures.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saffran, Murray

    1991-01-01

    Describes mistakes made in trying to change the Nutrition and Digestion section of a medical biochemistry course. Author tried to make the section student taught and reports nine mistakes including the following: ignoring active opposition of colleagues, failure to assess the receptivity of the class to a new form of teaching, and overestimating…

  6. Kidney (Renal) Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... the ureter (s) or a tube connected to an external drainage bag. Both options are used to unblock the ureters in order to allow proper urine flow from the kidneys if this has been identified as the cause for the renal failure. Surgical treatment such as a urinary stent or ...

  7. Detecting dam failures

    SciTech Connect

    Knarr, C.M.; Barker, T.J.; McKenery, S.F. )

    1994-06-01

    This article describes efforts by Southern California Edison to meet Federal Energy Regulatory Commission requirements for unattended dam monitoring against failure. The topics include a description of the two dam systems, monitoring system design and operation including warning sirens for remote camping areas, and installation of the systems.

  8. Failure in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carpenter, Peter

    2009-01-01

    In this article, it is argued that Kurt Hahn felt that it was important for children to experience 'failure' at times and to learn how to cope with it. If this is no longer desirable in the classroom, it ought to be possible to encourage children to be adventurous and "take risks" in a wide range of Outward Bound activities.

  9. Action Recommendation for Cyber Resilience

    SciTech Connect

    Choudhury, Sutanay; Rodriguez, Luke R.; Curtis, Darren S.; Oler, Kiri J.; Nordquist, Peter L.; Chen, Pin-Yu; Ray, Indrajit

    2015-09-01

    This paper presents an unifying graph-based model for representing the infrastructure, behavior and missions of an enterprise. We describe how the model can be used to achieve resiliency against a wide class of failures and attacks. We introduce an algorithm for recommending resilience establishing actions based on dynamic updates to the models. Without loss of generality, we show the effectiveness of the algorithm for preserving latency based quality of service (QoS). Our models and the recommendation algorithms are implemented in a software framework that we seek to release as an open source framework for simulating resilient cyber systems.

  10. Action slips during whole-body vibration.

    PubMed

    Ishimatsu, Kazuma; Meland, Anders; Hansen, Tor Are S; Kåsin, Jan Ivar; Wagstaff, Anthony S

    2016-07-01

    Helicopter aircrew members engage in highly demanding cognitive tasks in an environment subject to whole-body vibration (WBV). Sometimes their actions may not be according to plan (e.g. action slips and lapses). This study used a Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART) to examine whether action slips were more frequent during exposure to WBV. Nineteen participants performed the SART in two blocks. In the WBV block participants were exposed to 17 Hz vertical WBV, which is typical of larger helicopter working environments. In the No-WBV block there was no WBV. There were more responses to the rare no-go digit 3 (i.e. action slips) in the WBV block, and participants responded faster in the WBV block. These results suggest that WBV influences response inhibition, and can induce impulsive responding. WBV may increase the likelihood of action slips, mainly due to failure of response inhibition.

  11. Endothelial Dysfunction in Renal Failure: Current Update.

    PubMed

    Radenkovic, Miroslav; Stojanovic, Marko; Prostran, Milica

    2016-01-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is principally characterized by impaired endothelium- dependent transduction mechanisms related to vascular relaxation, as an outcome of decreased release of endothelium-derived relaxing factors, mainly nitric oxide, as well as augmented oxidative stress, increased inflammation and predominance of vascular action produced by endothelium-derived contracting factors. Current data strongly suggest that pathological development of different types of kidney impairment with further progression to renal failure includes notable vascular changes associated with endothelial dysfunction. In accordance, this scientific field represents an advancing area of investigation, involving different biomarkers of endothelial dysfunction linked to renal impairment, as well as clinical findings with new information that can provide a more comprehensive understanding of the role of endothelial dysfunction in kidney disease. With regards to quoted facts, the aim of this article was to review the latest data related to endothelial dysfunction and renal failure by selection of relevant articles released from 2010 to 2015.

  12. Dynamic failure in brittle solids

    SciTech Connect

    Grady, D.E.

    1994-04-01

    Failure of brittle solids within the extremes of the shock loading environment is not well understood. Recent shock-wave data on compression shear failure and tensile spall failure for selected high-strength ceramics are presented and used to examine the mechanisms of dynamic failure. Energy-based theories are used to bound the measured strength properties. A new concept of failure waves in brittle solids is explored in light of the kinetic processes of high-rate fracture. Classical failure criteria are compared with the present base of dynamic strength data on ceramics.

  13. Aspects of the unity of consciousness and everyday memory failures.

    PubMed

    Gennaro, Rocco J; Herrmann, Douglas J; Sarapata, Michael

    2006-06-01

    We argue that analyzing everyday memory failures in terms of the "unity of consciousness" can elucidate the bases of such failures. A perfect unity amongst one's mental states is rare. In extreme cases the unity of consciousness can breakdown in dramatic fashion (e.g., in Dissociative Identity Disorder), but such breakdowns also occur in less dramatic ways that affect us in everyday life. For example, disruptions in the unity of consciousness can result in everyday memory failures, such as forgetting to put on a tie for an important formal meeting. After providing some philosophical background into the notions of "unity of consciousness" and "functionalism," we offer preliminary analyses of three examples of everyday memory failure. We then introduce and develop what we call the "unity model" of memory failure and show how it explains the examples. We also describe different ways that unity can break down which, in turn, can lead to memory failure and inappropriate behavior. We then show how slips of action and other kinds of cognitive failures (e.g., memory blocks) differ from everyday memory failures. Finally, we examine alternative models (e.g., Absentmindedness and Multimodal) arguing that the unity model is preferable, and then show how our model is consistent with some experimental results.

  14. Can failure carefully observed become a springboard to success?

    PubMed

    Adrian, Manuella

    2012-01-01

    Since its inception, the addictions field has had a history of failure: failures in conceptualizations, in treatment, in interventions, in policies, in process as well as outcome assessment. Certain actions and activities have had a less than stellar effect which may lead to feelings of personal failure among practitioners, the tagging of processes and programs as being failures when they are not so, as well as an identification of the person being intervened with, by self and others, as being a failure or loser. This paper discusses how to define success and failure and the need to identify both the short(er) and long(er) term, as well as temporary and permanent effects, including the implications of using binary (success or failure; success and failure) and nonbinary (and in addition) categories of assessment. The need to clarify expectations and to establish goals and measurable effects are noted. Being open to accepting results which may be personally disappointing, initially, but which offer opportunities for needed changes may lead to new developments in the field and the establishment of better interventions.

  15. Autoimmune premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF), also termed as primary ovarian insufficiency (POI), is a highly heterogenous condition affecting 0.5-3.0% of women in childbearing age. These young women comprise quite a formidable group with unique physical and psychological needs that require special attention. Premature ovarian senescence (POS) in all of its forms evolves insidiously as a basically asymptomatic process, leading to complete loss of ovarian function, and POI/POF diagnoses are currently made at relatively late stages. Well-known and well-documented risk factors exist, and the presence or suspicion of autoimmune disorder should be regarded as an important one. Premature ovarian failure is to some degree predictable in its occurrence and should be considered while encountering young women with loss of menstrual regularity, especially when there is a concomitant dysfunction in the immune system. PMID:28250725

  16. Observing a failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, Leonard

    1994-06-01

    Mars Observer was being sent to 'rewrite the book on Mars.' That was the claim of one NASA scientist as the interplanetary robot sat atop a Titan 3 booster that roared skyward from a Cape Canaveral launch pad. On August 21, 1993, only three days before entering Mars orbit, America's first mission to Mars in 17 years fell silent. This article reviews possible causes of this failure.

  17. Triggers of State Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-03-01

    insufficiently advanced for precise tipping points to be provided. It is not yet correct to suggest that if GDP falls by X amount in a single year, if...instability (described below). Some indicators will almost always denote impending state failure, such as rapidly decreasing GDP per capita, or an even...expectancy, caloric intake, democracy, GDP per capita, religious diversity and ethnic diversity. The dependent variable is the occurrence of conflict

  18. Structural Crashworthiness and Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-04-16

    the equivalent plastic strain reaches a critical failure strain that is a function of the stress triaxiality. An energy density theory is discussed in... SIMONS SRI International, Menlo Park, California 94025, USA W. J. STRONGE Department of Engineering, University of Cambridge, Trumpington Street...chapter covers the theoretical development of the model plus numerical applications that have been verified by carefully designed experiments. 2 THEORY

  19. The Neural Basis of Predicting the Outcomes of Imagined Actions

    PubMed Central

    Jahn, Andrew; Nee, Derek Evan; Brown, Joshua W.

    2011-01-01

    A key feature of human intelligence is the ability to predict the outcomes of one’s own actions prior to executing them. Action values are thought to be represented in part in the dorsal and ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), yet current studies have focused on the value of executed actions rather than the anticipated value of a planned action. Thus, little is known about the neural basis of how individuals think (or fail to think) about their actions and the potential consequences before they act. We scanned individuals with fMRI while they thought about performing actions that they knew would likely be rewarded or unrewarded. Here we show that merely imagining an unrewarded action, as opposed to imagining a rewarded action, increases activity in the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, independently of subsequent actions. This activity overlaps with regions that respond to actual unrewarded actions. The findings show a distinct network that signals the prospective outcomes of one’s possible actions. A number of clinical disorders such as schizophrenia and drug abuse involve a failure to take the potential consequences of an action into account prior to acting. Our results thus suggest how dysfunctions of the mPFC may contribute to such failures. PMID:22131965

  20. Heart Failure Society of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... hfsa.org Events Calendar>> Copyright © 2017 Heart Failure Society of America. All Rights Reserved 2017 Call for ... for Organ Sharing (UNOS) asks the Heart Failure Society of America (HFSA) members to comment on the ...

  1. Drug Treatment of Cardiac Failure

    PubMed Central

    Achong, M. R.; Kumana, C. R.

    1982-01-01

    Treatment of cardiac failure should first be aimed at reversing or ameliorating the underlying pathological processes. This review highlights the common problems and pitfalls in the use of digoxin, diuretics and vasodilators in patients with cardiac failure. PMID:21289849

  2. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2012-04-01 2009-04-01 true Failure to adhere to restrictions. 513.225 Section 513.225 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action §...

  3. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2011-04-01 2009-04-01 true Failure to adhere to restrictions. 513.225 Section 513.225 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action §...

  4. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Failure to adhere to restrictions. 513.225 Section 513.225 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action §...

  5. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2013-04-01 2009-04-01 true Failure to adhere to restrictions. 513.225 Section 513.225 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action §...

  6. 22 CFR 513.225 - Failure to adhere to restrictions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 true Failure to adhere to restrictions. 513.225 Section 513.225 Foreign Relations BROADCASTING BOARD OF GOVERNORS GOVERNMENT DEBARMENT AND SUSPENSION (NONPROCUREMENT) AND GOVERNMENTWIDE REQUIREMENTS FOR DRUG-FREE WORKPLACE (GRANTS) Effect of Action §...

  7. 76 FR 51274 - Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Major System Failures

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-18

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Food and Nutrition Service 7 CFR Parts 273 and 276 RIN 0584-AD98 Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program: Major System Failures AGENCY: Food and Nutrition Service, USDA. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: This rule proposes to amend Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program...

  8. Saturn component failure rate and failure rate modifiers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    Failure mode frequency ratios, environmental adjustment factors, and failure rates for mechanical and electromechanical component families are presented. The failure rates and failure rate modifiers resulted from a series of studies whose purpose was to provide design, tests, reliability, and systems engineers with accurate, up-to-date failure rate information. The results of the studies were achieved through an extensive engineering analysis of the Saturn Program test data and Unsatisfactory Condition Reports (UCR's) and the application of mathematical techniques developed for the studies.

  9. Data Driven Device Failure Prediction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-09-15

    solution is to use statistical machine learning to predict failure. However, since failure is still a relatively rare event, obtaining labelled training...were successful in creating realistic failure conditions that are accurately identified by statistical learning models. iv Acknowledgments Nothing...Jordan v Table of Contents Page Abstract

  10. Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team

    MedlinePlus

    ... Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Your Heart Failure Healthcare Team Updated:Sep 28,2016 Patients with ... to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  11. Warning Signs of Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Warning Signs of Heart Failure Updated:Feb 9,2017 By themselves, any one ... faster. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  12. Report of the NASA Ad Hoc Committee on failure of high strength structural materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, W. F., Jr. (Editor)

    1972-01-01

    An analysis of structural failures that have occurred in NASA programs was conducted. Reports of 231 examples of structural failure were reviewed. Attempts were made to identify those factors which contributed to the failures, and recommendations were formulated for actions which would minimize their effects on future NASA programs. Two classes of factors were identified: (1) those associated with deficiencies in existing materials and structures technology and (2) those attributable to inadequate documentation or communication of that technology.

  13. Lock-up failure of a four-bar linkage deployment mechanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zinn, Michael

    1993-01-01

    A successful failure investigation of a four-bar linkage deployment mechanism has been performed. Possible failure causes such as the mismatch of material coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE), excessive hinge friction, limit switch interference, and thermal gradient induced resistive preload were investigated and are discussed. The final conclusions and corrective actions taken are described. Finally, valuable lessons learned during the investigation are discussed.

  14. Linking Failure Feedback to Individual Creativity: The Moderation Role of Goal Orientation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    He, Yimin; Yao, Xiang; Wang, Shuhong; Caughron, Jay

    2016-01-01

    The sense-making theory of creativity is extended by identifying failure feedback as a process that shapes creative interpretations and actions. We also consider the moderating effect of goal orientation on the relationship between failure feedback and individual creativity, according to the sense-making theory. A 2-waves survey data from…

  15. Electrophysiological Remodeling in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanggan; Hill, Joseph A.

    2010-01-01

    Heart failure affects nearly 6 million Americans, with a half-million new cases emerging each year. Whereas up to 50% of heart failure patients die of arrhythmia, the diverse mechanisms underlying heart failure-associated arrhythmia are poorly understood. As a consequence, effectiveness of antiarrhythmic pharmacotherapy remains elusive. Here, we review recent advances in our understanding of heart failure-associated molecular events impacting the electrical function of the myocardium. We approach this from an anatomical standpoint, summarizing recent insights gleaned from pre-clinical models and discussing their relevance to human heart failure. PMID:20096285

  16. Failure Assessment of Stainless Steel and Titanium Brazed Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yury A.

    2012-01-01

    Following successful application of Coulomb-Mohr and interaction equations for evaluation of safety margins in Albemet 162 brazed joints, two additional base metal/filler metal systems were investigated. Specimens consisting of stainless steel brazed with silver-base filler metal and titanium brazed with 1100 Al alloy were tested to failure under combined action of tensile, shear, bending and torsion loads. Finite Element Analysis (FEA), hand calculations and digital image comparison (DIC) techniques were used to estimate failure stresses and construct Failure Assessment Diagrams (FAD). This study confirms that interaction equation R(sub sigma) + R(sub tau) = 1, where R(sub sigma) and R(sub t u) are normal and shear stress ratios, can be used as conservative lower bound estimate of the failure criterion in stainless steel and titanium brazed joints.

  17. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  18. Steam generator tube failures

    SciTech Connect

    MacDonald, P.E.; Shah, V.N.; Ward, L.W.; Ellison, P.G.

    1996-04-01

    A review and summary of the available information on steam generator tubing failures and the impact of these failures on plant safety is presented. The following topics are covered: pressurized water reactor (PWR), Canadian deuterium uranium (CANDU) reactor, and Russian water moderated, water cooled energy reactor (VVER) steam generator degradation, PWR steam generator tube ruptures, the thermal-hydraulic response of a PWR plant with a faulted steam generator, the risk significance of steam generator tube rupture accidents, tubing inspection requirements and fitness-for-service criteria in various countries, and defect detection reliability and sizing accuracy. A significant number of steam generator tubes are defective and are removed from service or repaired each year. This wide spread damage has been caused by many diverse degradation mechanisms, some of which are difficult to detect and predict. In addition, spontaneous tube ruptures have occurred at the rate of about one every 2 years over the last 20 years, and incipient tube ruptures (tube failures usually identified with leak detection monitors just before rupture) have been occurring at the rate of about one per year. These ruptures have caused complex plant transients which have not always been easy for the reactor operators to control. Our analysis shows that if more than 15 tubes rupture during a main steam line break, the system response could lead to core melting. Although spontaneous and induced steam generator tube ruptures are small contributors to the total core damage frequency calculated in probabilistic risk assessments, they are risk significant because the radionuclides are likely to bypass the reactor containment building. The frequency of steam generator tube ruptures can be significantly reduced through appropriate and timely inspections and repairs or removal from service.

  19. Intelligent failure-tolerant control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stengel, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    An overview of failure-tolerant control is presented, beginning with robust control, progressing through parallel and analytical redundancy, and ending with rule-based systems and artificial neural networks. By design or implementation, failure-tolerant control systems are 'intelligent' systems. All failure-tolerant systems require some degrees of robustness to protect against catastrophic failure; failure tolerance often can be improved by adaptivity in decision-making and control, as well as by redundancy in measurement and actuation. Reliability, maintainability, and survivability can be enhanced by failure tolerance, although each objective poses different goals for control system design. Artificial intelligence concepts are helpful for integrating and codifying failure-tolerant control systems, not as alternatives but as adjuncts to conventional design methods.

  20. Lunar Base Life Support Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2009-01-01

    Dynamic simulation of the lunar outpost habitat life support was undertaken to investigate the impact of life support failures and to investigate responses. Some preparatory static analysis for the Lunar Outpost life support model, an earlier version of the model, and an investigation into the impact of Extravehicular Activity (EVA) were reported previously. (Jones, 2008-01-2184, 2008-01-2017) The earlier model was modified to include possible resupply delays, power failures, recycling system failures, and atmosphere and other material storage failures. Most failures impact the lunar outpost water balance and can be mitigated by reducing water usage. Food solids, nitrogen can be obtained only by resupply from Earth. The most time urgent failure is a lass of carbon dioxide removal capability. Life support failures might be survivable if effective operational solutions are provided in the system design.

  1. Renal Failure in Pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Balofsky, Ari; Fedarau, Maksim

    2016-01-01

    Renal failure during pregnancy affects both mother and fetus, and may be related to preexisting disease or develop secondary to diseases of pregnancy. Causes include hypovolemia, sepsis, shock, preeclampsia, thrombotic microangiopathies, and renal obstruction. Treatment focuses on supportive measures, while pharmacologic treatment is viewed as second-line therapy, and is more useful in mitigating harmful effects than treating the underlying cause. When supportive measures and pharmacotherapy prove inadequate, dialysis may be required, with the goal being to prolong pregnancy until delivery is feasible. Outcomes and recommendations depend primarily on the underlying cause.

  2. Pharmacoepigenetics in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Mateo Leach, Irene; van der Harst, Pim

    2010-01-01

    Epigenetics studies inheritable changes of genes and gene expression that do not concern DNA nucleotide variation. Such modifications include DNA methylation, several forms of histone modification, and microRNAs. From recent studies, we know not only that genetic changes account for heritable phenotypic variation, but that epigenetic changes also play an important role in the variation of predisposition to disease and to drug response. In this review, we discuss recent evidence of epigenetic changes that play an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy and heart failure and may dictate response to therapy. PMID:20424992

  3. Why young elite athletes fear failure: consequences of failure.

    PubMed

    Sagar, Sam S; Lavallee, David; Spray, Christopher M

    2007-09-01

    Fear of failure can have negative effects on children in achievement settings, affecting many aspects of their lives. Perceiving the consequences of failure to be aversive provides the basis for fear of failure, and the anticipation of a threatening outcome elicits fear. Problems attributed to fear of failure in achievement settings are prevalent. Sport is a popular and significant achievement domain for children and adolescents and there is a lack of research on fear of failure in sport among this age group. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to investigate fear of failure in the sport domain among young elite athletes, and to explore their perceptions of the consequences of failure. Interviews were conducted individually with nine athletes aged 14 - 17 years (5 males, 4 females). Analysis identified and organized perceived consequences of failure into themes and categories. Results revealed that the most commonly perceived aversive consequences of failure were diminished perception of self, no sense of achievement, and the emotional cost of failure. These findings are consistent with those reported in adult population, suggesting the potential for generalizing existing results to young elite athletes.

  4. Failure Criteria for FRP Laminates in Plane Stress

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davila, Carlos G.; Camanho, Pedro P.

    2003-01-01

    A new set of six failure criteria for fiber reinforced polymer laminates is described. Derived from Dvorak's fracture mechanics analyses of cracked plies and from Puck's action plane concept, the physically-based criteria, denoted LaRC03, predict matrix and fiber failure accurately without requiring curve-fitting parameters. For matrix failure under transverse compression, the fracture plane is calculated by maximizing the Mohr-Coulomb effective stresses. A criterion for fiber kinking is obtained by calculating the fiber misalignment under load, and applying the matrix failure criterion in the coordinate frame of the misalignment. Fracture mechanics models of matrix cracks are used to develop a criterion for matrix in tension and to calculate the associated in-situ strengths. The LaRC03 criteria are applied to a few examples to predict failure load envelopes and to predict the failure mode for each region of the envelope. The analysis results are compared to the predictions using other available failure criteria and with experimental results. Predictions obtained with LaRC03 correlate well with the experimental results.

  5. Gene and Cell Therapy for Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Cardiac gene and cell therapy have both entered clinical trials aimed at ameliorating ventricular dysfunction in patients with chronic congestive heart failure. The transduction of myocardial cells with viral constructs encoding a specific cardiomyocyte Ca2+ pump in the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR), SRCa2+-ATPase has been shown to correct deficient Ca2+ handling in cardiomyocytes and improvements in contractility in preclinical studies, thus leading to the first clinical trial of gene therapy for heart failure. In cell therapy, it is not clear whether beneficial effects are cell-type specific and how improvements in contractility are brought about. Despite these uncertainties, a number of clinical trials are under way, supported by safety and efficacy data from trials of cell therapy in the setting of myocardial infarction. Safety concerns for gene therapy center on inflammatory and immune responses triggered by viral constructs, and for cell therapy with myoblast cells, the major concern is increased incidence of ventricular arrhythmia after cell transplantation. Principles and mechanisms of action of gene and cell therapy for heart failure are discussed, together with the potential influence of reactive oxygen species on the efficacy of these treatments and the status of myocardial-delivery techniques for viral constructs and cells. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 11, 2025–2042. PMID:19416058

  6. Heart Failure Readmission Reduction.

    PubMed

    Drozda, Joseph P; Smith, Donna A; Freiman, Paul C; Pursley, Janet; VanSlette, Jeffrey A; Smith, Timothy R

    Little is known regarding effectiveness of readmission reduction programs over time. The Heart Failure Management Program (HFMP) of St. John's Physician Group Practice (PGP) Demonstration provided an opportunity to assess outcomes over an extended period. Data from an electronic health record, an inpatient database, a disease registry, and the Social Security Death Master File were analyzed for patients admitted with heart failure (HF) for 5 years before (Period 1) and 5 years after (Period 2) inception of PGP. HF admissions decreased (Period 1, 58.3/month; Period 2, 52.4/month, P = .007). Thirty-day all-cause readmission rate dropped from Period 1 (annual average 18.8% [668/3545]) to year 1 of Period 2 (16.9% [136/804], P = .04) and remained stable thereafter (annual average 16.8% [589/3503]). Thirty-day mortality rate was flat throughout. HFMP was associated with decreased readmissions, primarily related to outpatient case management, while mortality remained stable.

  7. Scaling of structural failure

    SciTech Connect

    Bazant, Z.P.; Chen, Er-Ping

    1997-01-01

    This article attempts to review the progress achieved in the understanding of scaling and size effect in the failure of structures. Particular emphasis is placed on quasibrittle materials for which the size effect is complicated. Attention is focused on three main types of size effects, namely the statistical size effect due to randomness of strength, the energy release size effect, and the possible size effect due to fractality of fracture or microcracks. Definitive conclusions on the applicability of these theories are drawn. Subsequently, the article discusses the application of the known size effect law for the measurement of material fracture properties, and the modeling of the size effect by the cohesive crack model, nonlocal finite element models and discrete element models. Extensions to compression failure and to the rate-dependent material behavior are also outlined. The damage constitutive law needed for describing a microcracked material in the fracture process zone is discussed. Various applications to quasibrittle materials, including concrete, sea ice, fiber composites, rocks and ceramics are presented.

  8. Insomnia Self-Management in Heart Failure

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2016-12-07

    Cardiac Failure; Heart Failure; Congestive Heart Failure; Heart Failure, Congestive; Sleep Initiation and Maintenance Disorders; Chronic Insomnia; Disorders of Initiating and Maintaining Sleep; Fatigue; Pain; Depressive Symptoms; Sleep Disorders; Anxiety

  9. Classification and Quality Standards of Heart Failure Units: Scientific Consensus of the Spanish Society of Cardiology.

    PubMed

    Anguita Sánchez, Manuel; Lambert Rodríguez, José Luis; Bover Freire, Ramón; Comín Colet, Josep; Crespo Leiro, María G; González Vílchez, Francisco; Manito Lorite, Nicolás; Segovia Cubero, Javier; Ruiz Mateas, Francisco; Elola Somoza, Francisco Javier; Íñiguez Romo, Andrés

    2016-10-01

    The prevalence of heart failure remains high and represents the highest disease burden in Spain. Heart failure units have been developed to systematize the diagnosis, treatment, and clinical follow-up of heart failure patients, provide a structure to coordinate the actions of various entities and personnel involved in patient care, and improve prognosis and quality of life. There is ample evidence on the benefits of heart failure units or programs, which have become widespread in Spain. One of the challenges to the analysis of heart failure units is standardization of their classification, by determining which "programs" can be identified as heart failure "units" and by characterizing their complexity level. The aim of this article was to present the standards developed by the Spanish Society of Cardiology to classify and establish the requirements for heart failure units within the SEC-Excellence project.

  10. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  11. Report of the Tape Recorder Action Plan Committee, 21 March 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1972-01-01

    A NASA/AF Tape Recorder Action Plan Committee was formed in January 1972 to investigate tape recorder problems and to recommend an action plan to NASA management. The committee collected data on tape recorder failure history, pinpointed problem areas, discussed needed technical and management changes, and proposed an action plan for the recommended approaches.

  12. Non-linear sequencing and cognizant failure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gat, Erann

    1999-01-01

    Spacecraft are traditionally commanded using linear sequences of time-based commands. Linear sequences work fairly well, but they are difficult and expensive to generate, and are usually not capable of responding to contingencies. Any anomalous behavior while executing a linear sequence generally results in the spacecraft entering a safe mode. Critical sequences like orbit insertions which must be able to respond to faults without going into safe mode are particularly difficult to design and verify. The effort needed to generate command sequences can be reduced by extending the vocabulary of sequences to include more sophisticated control constructs. The simplest extensions are conditionals and loops. Adding these constructs would make a sequencing language look more or less like a traditional programming language or scripting language, and would come with all the difficulties associated with such a language. In particular, verifying the correctness of a sequence would be tantamount to verifying the correctness of a program, which is undecidable in general. We describe an extended vocabulary for non-linear sequencing based on the architectural notion of cognizant failure. A cognizant failure architecture is divided into components whose contract is to either achieve (or maintain) a certain condition, or report that they have failed to do so. Cognizant failure is an easier condition to verify than correctness, but it can provide high confidence in the safety of the spacecraft. Because cognizant failure inherently implies some kind of representation of the intent of an action, the system can respond to contingencies in more robust and general ways. We will describe an implemented non-linear sequencing system that is being flown on the NASA New Millennium Deep Space 1 Mission as part of the Remote Agent Experiment.

  13. Synthetic Sling Failure - Evaluations and Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, C. S.; Mackey, Thomas C.

    2009-10-26

    The information and evaluations provided in this report were compiled to address the recurring problem of synthetic sling failure. As safety is the number one priority in all work aspects, a solution must be devised to prevent accidents from occurring. A total of thirteen cases regarding synthetic sling failure were evaluated in order to determine their causes, effects, and preventative measures. From the collected data, it was found that all cases in which the synthetic sling contacted the edge of its load resulted in sling failure. It is required that adequate synthetic sling protection devices be used to protect slings in any lift where the sling comes in direct contact with the edge or corner of its load. However, there are no consensus codes or standards stating the type, material, or purpose of the type of protective device used to protect the sling from being cut. Numerous industry standards and codes provide vague descriptions on how to protect synthetic slings. Without a clear, concise statement of how to protect synthetic slings, it is common for inadequate materials and sling protection devices to be used in an attempt to meet the intent of these requirements. The use of an inadequate sling protection device is the main cause of synthetic sling failure in all researched cases. Commercial sling protection devices come in many shapes and sizes, and have a variety of names, as well as advertised uses. 'Abrasion pads' and 'wear protectors' are two different names for products with the same intended purpose. There is no distinguishable way to determine the extent of sling protection which these devices will provide, or what specific scenarios they are made for. This creates room for error in a field where error is unacceptable. This report provides a recommended action for hoisting and rigging activities which require synthetic slings to contact a load, as well as recommended changes to industry standards which will benefit overall industry safety.

  14. Component failure data handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Gentillon, C.D.

    1991-04-01

    This report presents generic component failure rates that are used in reliability and risk studies of commercial nuclear power plants. The rates are computed using plant-specific data from published probabilistic risk assessments supplemented by selected other sources. Each data source is described. For rates with four or more separate estimates among the sources, plots show the data that are combined. The method for combining data from different sources is presented. The resulting aggregated rates are listed with upper bounds that reflect the variability observed in each rate across the nuclear power plant industry. Thus, the rates are generic. Both per hour and per demand rates are included. They may be used for screening in risk assessments or for forming distributions to be updated with plant-specific data.

  15. Peripheral circulatory failure.

    PubMed

    Lodha, Rakesh; Kapoor, Vishal

    2003-02-01

    Shock is a syndrome arising from any of several initiating causes, resulting in inadequate tissue perfusion. Untreated shock due to any cause can lead to irreversible cellular damage. Early diagnosis and intervention are, therefore, key to improved outcomes. In children, hypotension is not a sensitive marker for diagnosing peripheral circulatory failure. A detailed evaluation to assess perfusion particularly estimating capillary refill time and end organ perfusion is required. Septic shock is a complex condition with varying contribution of hypovolemia, cardiac dysfunction and distributive shock. Aggressive fluid therapy in the early stages is essential to recovery. Understanding the pathophysiology will help in judicious use of vasoactive drugs. Newer modalities of treatment for severe sepsis and septic shock still need evaluation in children.

  16. Iridium: failures & successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Christensen, CarissaBryce; Beard, Suzette

    2001-03-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the Iridium business venture in terms of the challenges faced, the successes achieved, and the causes of the ultimate failure of the venture — bankruptcy and system de-orbit. The paper will address technical, business, and policy issues. The intent of the paper is to provide a balanced and accurate overview of the Iridium experience, to aid future decision-making by policy makers, the business community, and technical experts. Key topics will include the history of the program, the objectives and decision-making of Motorola, the market research and analysis conducted, partnering strategies and their impact, consumer equipment availability, and technical issues — target performance, performance achieved, technical accomplishments, and expected and unexpected technical challenges. The paper will use as sources trade media and business articles on the Iridium program, technical papers and conference presentations, Wall Street analyst's reports, and, where possible, interviews with participants and close observers.

  17. 14 CFR 21.3 - Reporting of failures, malfunctions, and defects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... paragraphs (a) and (b) of this section: (1) Fires caused by a system or equipment failure, malfunction, or..., or defect. (f) Whenever the investigation of an accident or service difficulty report shows that an... investigation and any action taken or proposed by the manufacturer to correct that defect. If action is...

  18. The war against heart failure: the Lancet lecture.

    PubMed

    Braunwald, Eugene

    2015-02-28

    Heart failure is a global problem with an estimated prevalence of 38 million patients worldwide, a number that is increasing with the ageing of the population. It is the most common diagnosis in patients aged 65 years or older admitted to hospital and in high-income nations. Despite some progress, the prognosis of heart failure is worse than that of most cancers. Because of the seriousness of the condition, a declaration of war on five fronts has been proposed for heart failure. Efforts are underway to treat heart failure by enhancing myofilament sensitivity to Ca(2+); transfer of the gene for SERCA2a, the protein that pumps calcium into the sarcoplasmic reticulum of the cardiomyocyte, seems promising in a phase 2 trial. Several other abnormal calcium-handling proteins in the failing heart are candidates for gene therapy; many short, non-coding RNAs--ie, microRNAs (miRNAs)--block gene expression and protein translation. These molecules are crucial to calcium cycling and ventricular hypertrophy. The actions of miRNAs can be blocked by a new class of drugs, antagomirs, some of which have been shown to improve cardiac function in animal models of heart failure; cell therapy, with autologous bone marrow derived mononuclear cells, or autogenous mesenchymal cells, which can be administered as cryopreserved off the shelf products, seem to be promising in both preclinical and early clinical heart failure trials; and long-term ventricular assistance devices are now used increasingly as a destination therapy in patients with advanced heart failure. In selected patients, left ventricular assistance can lead to myocardial recovery and explantation of the device. The approaches to the treatment of heart failure described, when used alone or in combination, could become important weapons in the war against heart failure.

  19. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  20. Metabolic mechanisms in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Ashrafian, Houman; Frenneaux, Michael P; Opie, Lionel H

    2007-07-24

    Although neurohumoral antagonism has successfully reduced heart failure morbidity and mortality, the residual disability and death rate remains unacceptably high. Though abnormalities of myocardial metabolism are associated with heart failure, recent data suggest that heart failure may itself promote metabolic changes such as insulin resistance, in part through neurohumoral activation. A detrimental self-perpetuating cycle (heart failure --> altered metabolism --> heart failure) that promotes the progression of heart failure may thus be postulated. Accordingly, we review the cellular mechanisms and pathophysiology of altered metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. It is hypothesized that the ensuing detrimental myocardial energetic perturbations result from neurohumoral activation, increased adverse free fatty acid metabolism, decreased protective glucose metabolism, and in some cases insulin resistance. The result is depletion of myocardial ATP, phosphocreatine, and creatine kinase with decreased efficiency of mechanical work. On the basis of the mechanisms outlined, appropriate therapies to mitigate aberrant metabolism include intense neurohumoral antagonism, limitation of diuretics, correction of hypokalemia, exercise, and diet. We also discuss more novel mechanistic-based therapies to ameliorate metabolism and insulin resistance in heart failure. For example, metabolic modulators may optimize myocardial substrate utilization to improve cardiac function and exercise performance beyond standard care. The ultimate success of metabolic-based therapy will be manifest by its capacity further to lessen the residual mortality in heart failure.

  1. Heart Failure in South America

    PubMed Central

    Bocchi, Edimar Alcides

    2013-01-01

    Continued assessment of temporal trends in mortality and epidemiology of specific heart failure in South America is needed to provide a scientific basis for rational allocation of the limited health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk and predict the future burden of heart failure. The epidemiology of heart failure in South America was reviewed. Heart failure is the main cause of hospitalization based on available data from approximately 50% of the South American population. The main etiologies of heart failure are ischemic, idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy, valvular, hypertensive and chagasic etiologies. In endemic areas, Chagas heart disease may be responsible by 41% of the HF cases. Also, heart failure presents high mortality especially in patients with Chagas etiology. Heart failure and etiologies associated with heart failure may be responsible for 6.3% of causes of deaths. Rheumatic fever is the leading cause of valvular heart disease. However, a tendency to reduction of HF mortality due to Chagas heart disease from 1985 to 2006, and reduction in mortality due to HF from 1999 to 2005 were observed in selected states in Brazil. The findings have important public health implications because the allocation of health care resources, and strategies to reduce risk of heart failure should also consider the control of neglected Chagas disease and rheumatic fever in South American countries. PMID:23597301

  2. Strategies of learning from failure.

    PubMed

    Edmondson, Amy C

    2011-04-01

    Many executives believe that all failure is bad (although it usually provides Lessons) and that Learning from it is pretty straightforward. The author, a professor at Harvard Business School, thinks both beliefs are misguided. In organizational life, she says, some failures are inevitable and some are even good. And successful learning from failure is not simple: It requires context-specific strategies. But first leaders must understand how the blame game gets in the way and work to create an organizational culture in which employees feel safe admitting or reporting on failure. Failures fall into three categories: preventable ones in predictable operations, which usually involve deviations from spec; unavoidable ones in complex systems, which may arise from unique combinations of needs, people, and problems; and intelligent ones at the frontier, where "good" failures occur quickly and on a small scale, providing the most valuable information. Strong leadership can build a learning culture-one in which failures large and small are consistently reported and deeply analyzed, and opportunities to experiment are proactively sought. Executives commonly and understandably worry that taking a sympathetic stance toward failure will create an "anything goes" work environment. They should instead recognize that failure is inevitable in today's complex work organizations.

  3. Public Choice, Market Failure, and Government Failure in Principles Textbooks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fike, Rosemarie; Gwartney, James

    2015-01-01

    Public choice uses the tools of economics to analyze how the political process allocates resources and impacts economic activity. In this study, the authors examine twenty-three principles texts regarding coverage of public choice, market failure, and government failure. Approximately half the texts provide coverage of public choice and recognize…

  4. Angiotensin II, sympathetic nerve activity and chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yutang; Seto, Sai-Wang; Golledge, Jonathan

    2014-03-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity has been reported to be increased in both humans and animals with chronic heart failure. One of the mechanisms believed to be responsible for this phenomenon is increased systemic and cerebral angiotensin II signaling. Plasma angiotensin II is increased in humans and animals with chronic heart failure. The increase in angiotensin II signaling enhances sympathetic nerve activity through actions on both central and peripheral sites during chronic heart failure. Angiotensin II signaling is enhanced in different brain sites such as the paraventricular nucleus, the rostral ventrolateral medulla and the area postrema. Blocking angiotensin II type 1 receptors decreases sympathetic nerve activity and cardiac sympathetic afferent reflex when therapy is administered to the paraventricular nucleus. Injection of an angiotensin receptor blocker into the area postrema activates the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In peripheral regions, angiotensin II elevates both norepinephrine release and synthesis and inhibits norepinephrine uptake at nerve endings, which may contribute to the increase in sympathetic nerve activity seen in chronic heart failure. Increased circulating angiotensin II during chronic heart failure may enhance the sympathoexcitatory chemoreflex and inhibit the sympathoinhibitory baroreflex. In addition, increased circulating angiotensin II can directly act on the central nervous system via the subfornical organ and the area postrema to increase sympathetic outflow. Inhibition of angiotensin II formation and its type 1 receptor has been shown to have beneficial effects in chronic heart failure patients.

  5. Failure cascade in interdependent network with traffic loads

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, Sheng; Wang, Baoqing; Ma, Xiaomin; Wang, Jianghui; Zhao, Tingdi

    2015-12-01

    Complex networks have been widely studied recent years, but most researches focus on the single, non-interacting networks. With the development of modern systems, many infrastructure networks are coupled together and therefore should be modeled as interdependent networks. For interdependent networks, failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in the other networks. This may happen recursively and lead to a failure cascade. In the real world, different networks carry different traffic loads. Overload and load redistribution may lead to more nodes’ failure. Considering the dependency between the interdependent networks and the traffic load, a small fraction of fault nodes may lead to complete fragmentation of a system. Based on the robust analysis of interdependent networks, we propose a costless defense strategy to suppress the failure cascade. Our findings highlight the need to consider the load and coupling preference when designing robust interdependent networks. And it is necessary to take actions in the early stage of the failure cascade to decrease the losses caused by the large-scale breakdown of infrastructure networks.

  6. Launch Vehicle Failure Dynamics and Abort Triggering Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanson, John M.; Hill, Ashely D.; Beard, Bernard B.

    2011-01-01

    Launch vehicle ascent is a time of high risk for an on-board crew. There are many types of failures that can kill the crew if the crew is still on-board when the failure becomes catastrophic. For some failure scenarios, there is plenty of time for the crew to be warned and to depart, whereas in some there is insufficient time for the crew to escape. There is a large fraction of possible failures for which time is of the essence and a successful abort is possible if the detection and action happens quickly enough. This paper focuses on abort determination based primarily on data already available from the GN&C system. This work is the result of failure analysis efforts performed during the Ares I launch vehicle development program. Derivation of attitude and attitude rate abort triggers to ensure that abort occurs as quickly as possible when needed, but that false positives are avoided, forms a major portion of the paper. Some of the potential failure modes requiring use of these triggers are described, along with analysis used to determine the success rate of getting the crew off prior to vehicle demise.

  7. Failure criteria for viscoelastic materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Knauss, W. G.

    1974-01-01

    Research projects concerned with developing a theory of fracture of materials are discussed. The effects of the geometry of the structure and the loads acting on the structure as they influence the failure process are analyzed. The effects of the viscoelastic deformation characteristics of the bulk elastomer on failure behavior are examined. Additional material parameters which control the fracture process are identified.

  8. Failure to Manage Constant Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Ann

    2010-01-01

    This study examines patterns of system failure (communication, typographic, material, economic, maintenance) and the resulting workarounds in signs that are intended to communicate frequently changing information in the built environment. The observed failures and workarounds in the communication of ephemeral data and the accompanying narratives…

  9. Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-12-01

    ARMY RESEARCH LABORATORY Failure Engineered Heavy Metal Penetrators, Phase I, SBIR ARL-CR-5· R. Cavalieri, W. Tiarn, and D. Nicholson prepared...REPORT DATE S. REPORT TYPE AND DATES COVERED December 1992 Final Report-1/1/92 - 7/31/92 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE FAILURE ENGINEERED HEAVY METAL PENETRATORS

  10. Failure detection system risk reduction assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aguilar, Robert B. (Inventor); Huang, Zhaofeng (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A process includes determining a probability of a failure mode of a system being analyzed reaching a failure limit as a function of time to failure limit, determining a probability of a mitigation of the failure mode as a function of a time to failure limit, and quantifying a risk reduction based on the probability of the failure mode reaching the failure limit and the probability of the mitigation.

  11. Failure to recall.

    PubMed

    Laming, Donald

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical analysis shows that if the pattern of rehearsal in free-recall experiments (of necessity, the pattern observed when participants rehearse aloud) be continued without any further interruption by stimuli (as happens during recall), it terminates with the retrieval of the same 1 word over and over again. Such a terminal state is commonly reached before some of the words in the list have been retrieved even once; those words are not recalled. The 1 minute frequently allowed for recall in free-recall experiments is ample time for retrieval to seize up in this way. The author proposes a model that represents the essential features of the pattern of rehearsal; validates that model by reference to the overt rehearsal data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and J. Metcalfe (1978) and the recall data from B. B. Murdock, Jr., and R. Okada (1970); demonstrates the long-term properties of continued sequences of retrievals and, also, a fundamental relation linking recall to the total time of presentation; and, finally, compares failure to recall in free-recall experiments with forgetting in general.

  12. Pharmacotherapy of autonomic failure

    PubMed Central

    Shibao, Cyndya; Okamoto, Luis; Biaggioni, Italo

    2012-01-01

    The clinical picture of autonomic failure is characterized by severe and disabling orthostatic hypotension. These disorders can develop as a result of damage of central neural pathways or peripheral autonomic nerves, caused either by a primary autonomic neurodegenerative disorder or secondary to systemic illness. Treatment should be focused on decreasing presyncopal symptoms instead of achieving blood pressure goals. Non-pharmacologic strategies such as physical counter-maneuvers, dietary changes (i.e. high salt diet, rapid water drinking or compression garments) are the first line therapy. Affected patients should be screened for co-morbid conditions such as post-prandial hypotension and supine hypertension that can worsen orthostatic hypotension if not treated. If symptoms are not controlled with these conservative measures the next step is to start pharmacological agents; these interventions should be aimed at increasing intravascular volume either by promoting water and salt retention (fludrocortisone) or by increasing red blood cell mass when anemia is present (recombinant erythropoietin). When pressor agents are needed, direct pressor agents (midodrine) or agents that potentiate sympathetic activity (atomoxetine, yohimbine, pyridostigmine) can be used. It is preferable to use short-acting pressor agents that can be taken on as needed basis in preparation for upright activities. PMID:21664375

  13. Rethinking Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fürstenwerth, Hauke

    2012-01-01

    An increasing body of clinical observations and experimental evidence suggests that cardiac dysfunction results from autonomic dysregulation of the contractile output of the heart. Excessive activation of the sympathetic nervous system and a decrease in parasympathetic tone are associated with increased mortality. Elevated levels of circulating catecholamines closely correlate with the severity and poor prognosis in heart failure. Sympathetic over-stimulation causes increased levels of catecholamines, which induce excessive aerobic metabolism leading to excessive cardiac oxygen consumption. Resulting impaired mitochondrial function causes acidosis, which results in reduction in blood flow by impairment of contractility. To the extent that the excessive aerobic metabolism resulting from adrenergic stimulation comes to a halt the energy deficit has to be compensated for by anaerobic metabolism. Glucose and glycogen become the essential nutrients. Beta-adrenergic blockade is used successfully to decrease hyperadrenergic drive. Neurohumoral antagonists block adrenergic over-stimulation but do not provide the heart with fuel for compensatory anaerobic metabolism. The endogenous hormone ouabain reduces catecholamine levels in healthy volunteers, promotes the secretion of insulin, induces release of acetylcholine from synaptosomes and potentiates the stimulation of glucose metabolism by insulin and acetylcholine. Ouabain stimulates glycogen synthesis and increases lactate utilisation by the myocardium. Decades of clinical experience with ouabain confirm the cardioprotective effects of this endogenous hormone. The so far neglected sympatholytic and vagotonic effects of ouabain on myocardial metabolism clearly make a clinical re-evaluation of this endogenous hormone necessary. Clinical studies with ouabain that correspond to current standards are warranted.

  14. Acute liver failure.

    PubMed

    Blackmore, Laura; Bernal, William

    2015-10-01

    Acute liver failure (ALF) is a rare critical illness with high mortality whose successful management requires early recognition and effective initial management. Though it may result from a wide variety of causes, in the UK and much of the developed world most cases result from paracetamol-induced hepatotoxicity, and administration of antidotal N-acetyl cysteine at first recognition is key. Involvement of local critical care services should occur at an early stage for stabilisation, monitoring and supportive care with parallel discussion with specialist liver centres to identify those patients who may benefit from transfer. Prognostic criteria are applied to identify patients for emergency liver transplantation, and candidates for surgery are prioritised on waitlisting schemes. Outcomes now approach that of elective surgery. However, the majority of cases, and particularly those with paracetamol-induced disease, recover with supportive medical care alone. Overall outcomes for patients with ALF have improved dramatically over the last three decades, but mortality remains unacceptable and further advances in care are required.

  15. [Premature ovarian failure: present aspects].

    PubMed

    Vilodre, Luiz Cesar; Moretto, Marcelo; Kohek, Maria Beatriz da Fonte; Spritzer, Poli Mara

    2007-08-01

    Premature ovarian failure occurs in approximately 1:1000 women before 30 years, 1:250 by 35 years and 1:100 by the age of 40. It is characterized by primary or secondary amenorrhea and cannot be considered as definitive because spontaneous conception may occur in 5 to 10% of cases. In 95% of cases, premature ovarian failure is sporadic. The known causes of premature ovarian failure include chromosomal defects, autoimmune diseases, exposure to radiation or chemotherapy, surgical procedures, and certain drugs. Frequently, however, the etiology is not clear and these cases are considered to be idiopathic. Premature ovarian failure is defined by gonadal failure and high serum follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) levels. Clinical approach includes emotional support, hormonal therapy with estrogens and progesterone or progestogens, infertility treatment, and prevention of osteoporosis and potential cardiovascular risk.

  16. Right side of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Guglin, Maya; Verma, Sameer

    2012-05-01

    The function of the right ventricle (RV) in heart failure (HF) has been mostly ignored until recently. A 2006 report of the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute identified a gap between RV research efforts and its clinical importance compared with that of the left ventricle. This recent shift in paradigm is fueled by the prognostic value ascribed to RV failure in HF and morbidity/mortality after myocardial infarction and surgery. In this review, we examine the significance of RV failure in the HF setting, its clinical presentation and pathophysiology, and ways to evaluate RV function using echocardiographic measurements. Furthermore, we discuss the medical management of RV failure including traditional therapies like beta-blockers and newer options like nitric oxide, phosphodiesterase inhibitors, and calcium sensitizers. Mechanical support is also examined. Finally, this review places an emphasis on RV failure in the setting of left ventricular assist devices and heart transplantation.

  17. Medical therapy for spermatogenic failure

    PubMed Central

    Ramasamy, Ranjith; Stahl, Peter J; Schlegel, Peter N

    2012-01-01

    Medical treatment of men with primary spermatogenic failure remains largely ineffective in contrast to those with secondary testicular failure. Treatment has been attempted with a multitude of agents ranging from hormones to nutritional supplements (antioxidants). While some studies have demonstrated benefit to some treatments, no treatments have consistently demonstrated efficacy nor has it been possible to reliably identify patients likely to benefit. Idiopathic spermatogenic failure likely results from multiple discrete defects in sperm production that are as yet unidentified. A better understanding of these defects will yield more effective treatment options and appropriate triage of patients to specific therapeutic regimens. This review focuses on the rationale and current evidence for hormonal and antioxidant therapy in medical treatment of male infertility, spermatogenic failure in particular. Although empiric medical therapy for spermatogenic failure has been largely replaced by assisted reproductive techniques, both treatment modalities could play a role, perhaps as combination therapy. PMID:22179517

  18. Intelligent Design and Intelligent Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jerman, Gregory

    2015-01-01

    Good Evening, my name is Greg Jerman and for nearly a quarter century I have been performing failure analysis on NASA's aerospace hardware. During that time I had the distinct privilege of keeping the Space Shuttle flying for two thirds of its history. I have analyzed a wide variety of failed hardware from simple electrical cables to cryogenic fuel tanks to high temperature turbine blades. During this time I have found that for all the time we spend intelligently designing things, we need to be equally intelligent about understanding why things fail. The NASA Flight Director for Apollo 13, Gene Kranz, is best known for the expression "Failure is not an option." However, NASA history is filled with failures both large and small, so it might be more accurate to say failure is inevitable. It is how we react and learn from our failures that makes the difference.

  19. Pure autonomic failure without synucleinopathy.

    PubMed

    Isonaka, Risa; Holmes, Courtney; Cook, Glen A; Sullivan, Patti; Sharabi, Yehonatan; Goldstein, David S

    2017-04-01

    Pure autonomic failure is a rare form of chronic autonomic failure manifesting with neurogenic orthostatic hypotension and evidence of sympathetic noradrenergic denervation unaccompanied by signs of central neurodegeneration. It has been proposed that pure autonomic failure is a Lewy body disease characterized by intra-neuronal deposition of the protein alpha-synuclein in Lewy bodies and neurites. A middle-aged man with previously diagnosed pure autonomic failure experienced a sudden, fatal cardiac arrest. He was autopsied, and tissues were harvested for neurochemical and immunofluorescence studies. Post-mortem microscopic neuropathology showed no Lewy bodies, Lewy neurites, or alpha-synuclein deposition by immunohistochemistry anywhere in the brain. The patient had markedly decreased immunofluorescent tyrosine hydroxylase in sympathetic ganglion tissue without detectable alpha-synuclein even in rare residual nests of tyrosine hydroxylase-containing ganglionic fibers. In pure autonomic failure, sympathetic noradrenergic denervation can occur without concurrent Lewy bodies or alpha-synuclein deposition in the brain or sympathetic ganglion tissue.

  20. STS-3 main parachute failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Runkle, R.; Henson, K.

    1982-01-01

    A failure analysis of the parachute on the Space Transportation System 3 flight's solid rocket booster's is presented. During the reentry phase of the two Solid Rocket Boosters (SRBs), one 115 ft diameter main parachute failed on the right hand SRB (A12). This parachute failure caused the SRB to impact the Ocean at 110 ft/sec in lieu of the expected 3 parachute impact velocity of 88 ft/sec. This higher impact velocity relates directly to more SRB aft skirt and more motor case damage. The cause of the parachute failure, the potential risks of losing an SRB as a result of this failure, and recommendations to ensure that the probability of chute failures of this type in the future will be low are discussed.

  1. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  2. American Lead Action Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACTION MEMORANDUM— Request for a Time-Critical Removal Action andExemption from the $2 Million and 12-Month Statutory Limits at the AmericanLead Site, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana (Site ID #B56J)

  3. Heart Failure in North America

    PubMed Central

    Blair, John E. A; Huffman, Mark; Shah, Sanjiv J

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem that affects patients and healthcare systems worldwide. Within the continent of North America, differences in economic development, genetic susceptibility, cultural practices, and trends in risk factors and treatment all contribute to both inter-continental and within-continent differences in heart failure. The United States and Canada represent industrialized countries with similar culture, geography, and advanced economies and infrastructure. During the epidemiologic transition from rural to industrial in countries such as the United States and Canada, nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases made way for degenerative diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, cancer, overweight/obesity, and diabetes. This in turn has resulted in an increase in heart failure incidence in these countries, especially as overall life expectancy increases. Mexico, on the other hand, has a less developed economy and infrastructure, and has a wide distribution in the level of urbanization as it becomes more industrialized. Mexico is under a period of epidemiologic transition and the etiology and incidence of heart failure is rapidly changing. Ethnic differences within the populations of the United States and Canada highlight the changing demographics of each country as well as potential disparities in heart failure care. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction makes up approximately half of all hospital admissions throughout North America; however, important differences in demographics and etiology exist between countries. Similarly, acute heart failure etiology, severity, and management differ between countries in North America. The overall economic burden of heart failure continues to be large and growing worldwide, with each country managing this burden differently. Understanding the inter-and within-continental differences may help improve understanding of the heart failure epidemic, and may aid healthcare systems in delivering

  4. Characterization of the complex formed by β-glucocerebrosidase and the lysosomal integral membrane protein type-2.

    PubMed

    Zunke, Friederike; Andresen, Lisa; Wesseler, Sophia; Groth, Johann; Arnold, Philipp; Rothaug, Michelle; Mazzulli, Joseph R; Krainc, Dimitri; Blanz, Judith; Saftig, Paul; Schwake, Michael

    2016-04-05

    The lysosomal integral membrane protein type-2 (LIMP-2) plays a pivotal role in the delivery of β-glucocerebrosidase (GC) to lysosomes. Mutations in GC result in Gaucher's disease (GD) and are the major genetic risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Variants in the LIMP-2 gene cause action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome and also have been linked to PD. Given the importance of GC and LIMP-2 in disease pathogenesis, we studied their interaction sites in more detail. Our previous data demonstrated that the crystal structure of LIMP-2 displays a hydrophobic three-helix bundle composed of helices 4, 5, and 7, of which helix 5 and 7 are important for ligand binding. Here, we identified a similar helical motif in GC through surface potential analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed a triple-helical interface region within GC as critical for LIMP-2 binding and lysosomal transport. Based on these findings, we generated a LIMP-2 helix 5-derived peptide that precipitated and activated recombinant wild-type and GD-associated N370S mutant GC in vitro. The helix 5 peptide fused to a cell-penetrating peptide also activated endogenous lysosomal GC and reduced α-synuclein levels, suggesting that LIMP-2-derived peptides can be used to activate endogenous as well as recombinant wild-type or mutant GC efficiently. Our data also provide a structural model of the LIMP-2/GC complex that will facilitate the development of GC chaperones and activators as potential therapeutics for GD, PD, and related synucleinopathies.

  5. Characterization of the complex formed by β-glucocerebrosidase and the lysosomal integral membrane protein type-2

    PubMed Central

    Zunke, Friederike; Andresen, Lisa; Wesseler, Sophia; Groth, Johann; Arnold, Philipp; Rothaug, Michelle; Mazzulli, Joseph R.; Krainc, Dimitri; Blanz, Judith; Saftig, Paul; Schwake, Michael

    2016-01-01

    The lysosomal integral membrane protein type-2 (LIMP-2) plays a pivotal role in the delivery of β-glucocerebrosidase (GC) to lysosomes. Mutations in GC result in Gaucher's disease (GD) and are the major genetic risk factor for the development of Parkinson's disease (PD). Variants in the LIMP-2 gene cause action myoclonus-renal failure syndrome and also have been linked to PD. Given the importance of GC and LIMP-2 in disease pathogenesis, we studied their interaction sites in more detail. Our previous data demonstrated that the crystal structure of LIMP-2 displays a hydrophobic three-helix bundle composed of helices 4, 5, and 7, of which helix 5 and 7 are important for ligand binding. Here, we identified a similar helical motif in GC through surface potential analysis. Coimmunoprecipitation and immunofluorescence studies revealed a triple-helical interface region within GC as critical for LIMP-2 binding and lysosomal transport. Based on these findings, we generated a LIMP-2 helix 5-derived peptide that precipitated and activated recombinant wild-type and GD-associated N370S mutant GC in vitro. The helix 5 peptide fused to a cell-penetrating peptide also activated endogenous lysosomal GC and reduced α-synuclein levels, suggesting that LIMP-2–derived peptides can be used to activate endogenous as well as recombinant wild-type or mutant GC efficiently. Our data also provide a structural model of the LIMP-2/GC complex that will facilitate the development of GC chaperones and activators as potential therapeutics for GD, PD, and related synucleinopathies. PMID:27001828

  6. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  7. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  8. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…

  9. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  10. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  11. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  12. Estimating the probability of failure when testing reveals no failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Keith W.; Morell, Larry J.; Noonan, Robert E.; Park, Stephen K.; Nicol, David M.; Murrill, Branson W.; Voas, Jeffrey M.

    1992-01-01

    Formulas for estimating the probability of failure when testing reveals no errors are introduced. These formulas incorporate random testing results, information about the input distribution, and prior assumptions about the probability of failure of the software. The formulas are not restricted to equally likely input distributions, and the probability of failure estimate can be adjusted when assumptions about the input distribution change. The formulas are based on a discrete sample space statistical model of software and include Bayesian prior assumptions. Reusable software and software in life-critical applications are particularly appropriate candidates for this type of analysis.

  13. Failure: A Source of Progress in Maintenance and Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaïb, R.; Taleb, M.; Benidir, M.; Verzea, I.; Bellaouar, A.

    This approach, allows using the failure as a source of progress in maintenance and design to detect the most critical components in equipment, to determine the priority order maintenance actions to lead and direct the exploitation procedure towards the most penalizing links in this equipment, even define the necessary changes and recommendations for future improvement. Thus, appreciate the pathological behaviour of the material and increase its availability, even increase its lifespan and improve its future design. In this context and in the light of these points, the failures are important in managing the maintenance function. Indeed, it has become important to understand the phenomena of failure and degradation of equipments in order to establish an appropriate maintenance policy for the rational use of mechanical components and move to the practice of proactive maintenance [1], do maintenance at the design [2].

  14. Premature ovarian failure

    PubMed Central

    Beck-Peccoz, Paolo; Persani, Luca

    2006-01-01

    Premature ovarian failure (POF) is a primary ovarian defect characterized by absent menarche (primary amenorrhea) or premature depletion of ovarian follicles before the age of 40 years (secondary amenorrhea). It is a heterogeneous disorder affecting approximately 1% of women <40 years, 1:10,000 women by age 20 and 1:1,000 women by age 30. The most severe forms present with absent pubertal development and primary amenorrhea (50% of these cases due to ovarian dysgenesis), whereas forms with post-pubertal onset are characterized by disappearance of menstrual cycles (secondary amenorrhea) associated with premature follicular depletion. As in the case of physiological menopause, POF presents by typical manifestations of climacterium: infertility associated with palpitations, heat intolerance, flushes, anxiety, depression, fatigue. POF is biochemically characterized by low levels of gonadal hormones (estrogens and inhibins) and high levels of gonadotropins (LH and FSH) (hypergonadotropic amenorrhea). Beyond infertility, hormone defects may cause severe neurological, metabolic or cardiovascular consequences and lead to the early onset of osteoporosis. Heterogeneity of POF is also reflected by the variety of possible causes, including autoimmunity, toxics, drugs, as well as genetic defects. POF has a strong genetic component. X chromosome abnormalities (e.g. Turner syndrome) represent the major cause of primary amenorrhea associated with ovarian dysgenesis. Despite the description of several candidate genes, the cause of POF remains undetermined in the vast majority of the cases. Management includes substitution of the hormone defect by estrogen/progestin preparations. The only solution presently available for the fertility defect in women with absent follicular reserve is ovum donation. PMID:16722528

  15. European drug market entries 2015 with new mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    van den Heuvel, Titus W P; Cohen, Adam F; Rissmann, Robert

    2016-10-01

    In this article, we consider the new drugs approved for the European market in 2015. We present a summary of the new mechanisms of action introduced and highlight three new mechanisms of action with a potentially high future impact: PCSK9 inhibition (alirocumab (Praluent®) and evolocumab (Repatha®)) for hypercholesterolaemia, neprilysin inhibition (sacubitril in combination with valsartan (Entresto®)) for heart failure, and interleukin-5 inhibition (mepolizumab (Nucala®)) for asthma.

  16. Organ protection possibilities in acute heart failure.

    PubMed

    Montero-Pérez-Barquero, M; Morales-Rull, J L

    2016-04-01

    Unlike chronic heart failure (HF), the treatment for acute HF has not changed over the last decade. The drugs employed have shown their ability to control symptoms but have not achieved organ protection or managed to reduce medium to long-term morbidity and mortality. Advances in our understanding of the pathophysiology of acute HF suggest that treatment should be directed not only towards correcting the haemodynamic disorders and achieving symptomatic relief but also towards preventing organ damage, thereby counteracting myocardial remodelling and cardiac and extracardiac disorders. Compounds that exert vasodilatory and anti-inflammatory action in the acute phase of HF and can stop cell death, thereby boosting repair mechanisms, could have an essential role in organ protection.

  17. Energy metabolism in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Clapier, Renée; Garnier, Anne; Veksler, Vladimir

    2004-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a syndrome resulting from the inability of the cardiac pump to meet the energy requirements of the body. Despite intensive work, the pathogenesis of the cardiac intracellular abnormalities that result from HF remains incompletely understood. Factors that lead to abnormal contraction and relaxation in the failing heart include metabolic pathway abnormalities that result in decreased energy production, energy transfer and energy utilization. Heart failure also affects the periphery. Patients suffering from heart failure always complain of early muscular fatigue and exercise intolerance. This is linked in part to intrinsic alterations of skeletal muscle, among which decreases in the mitochondrial ATP production and in the transfer of energy through the phosphotransfer kinases play an important role. Alterations in energy metabolism that affect both cardiac and skeletal muscles argue for a generalized metabolic myopathy in heart failure. Recent evidence shows that decreased expression of mitochondrial transcription factors and mitochondrial proteins are involved in mechanisms causing the energy starvation in heart failure. This review will focus on energy metabolism alterations in long-term chronic heart failure with only a few references to compensated hypertrophy when necessary. It will briefly describe the energy metabolism of normal heart and skeletal muscles and their alterations in chronic heart failure. It is beyond the scope of this review to address the metabolic switches occurring in compensated hypertrophy; readers could refer to well-documented reviews on this subject. PMID:14660709

  18. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1994-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within it, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  19. Failure environment analysis tool applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger L.; Wadsworth, David B.

    1993-01-01

    Understanding risks and avoiding failure are daily concerns for the women and men of NASA. Although NASA's mission propels us to push the limits of technology, and though the risks are considerable, the NASA community has instilled within, the determination to preserve the integrity of the systems upon which our mission and, our employees lives and well-being depend. One of the ways this is being done is by expanding and improving the tools used to perform risk assessment. The Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) was developed to help engineers and analysts more thoroughly and reliably conduct risk assessment and failure analysis. FEAT accomplishes this by providing answers to questions regarding what might have caused a particular failure; or, conversely, what effect the occurrence of a failure might have on an entire system. Additionally, FEAT can determine what common causes could have resulted in other combinations of failures. FEAT will even help determine the vulnerability of a system to failures, in light of reduced capability. FEAT also is useful in training personnel who must develop an understanding of particular systems. FEAT facilitates training on system behavior, by providing an automated environment in which to conduct 'what-if' evaluation. These types of analyses make FEAT a valuable tool for engineers and operations personnel in the design, analysis, and operation of NASA space systems.

  20. Periodontitis in Chronic Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Fröhlich, Hanna; Herrmann, Kristina; Franke, Jennifer; Karimi, Alamara; Täger, Tobias; Cebola, Rita; Katus, Hugo A.; Zugck, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Periodontal disease has been associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular events. The purpose of our study was to investigate whether a correlation between periodontitis and chronic heart failure exists, as well as the nature of the underlying cause. We enrolled 71 patients (mean age, 54 ± 13 yr; 56 men) who had stable chronic heart failure; all underwent complete cardiologic and dental evaluations. The periodontal screening index was used to quantify the degree of periodontal disease. We compared the findings to those in the general population with use of data from the 4th German Dental Health Survey. Gingivitis, moderate periodontitis, and severe periodontitis were present in 17 (24%), 17 (24%), and 37 (52%) patients, respectively. Severe periodontitis was more prevalent among chronic heart failure patients than in the general population. In contrast, moderate periodontitis was more prevalent in the general population (P <0.00001). The severity of periodontal disease was not associated with the cause of chronic heart failure or the severity of heart failure symptoms. Six-minute walking distance was the only independent predictor of severe periodontitis. Periodontal disease is highly prevalent in chronic heart failure patients regardless of the cause of heart failure. Prospective trials are warranted to clarify the causal relationship between both diseases. PMID:27547136

  1. Method of Testing and Predicting Failures of Electronic Mechanical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iverson, David L.; Patterson-Hine, Frances A.

    1996-01-01

    A method employing a knowledge base of human expertise comprising a reliability model analysis implemented for diagnostic routines is disclosed. The reliability analysis comprises digraph models that determine target events created by hardware failures human actions, and other factors affecting the system operation. The reliability analysis contains a wealth of human expertise information that is used to build automatic diagnostic routines and which provides a knowledge base that can be used to solve other artificial intelligence problems.

  2. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis (FMEA) Introductory Overview

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    effects based on how severe they are, how often they might occur, and how easily we can find them. 3. Effects: the consequences of failure. The...Actions ! 0 l!1 .. requirE-ments ~ l=ailure 1-’rP.vP.ntion .., llP.tP.c::tion Completion Dato Action• Taken P. il "’ ; · .. "’ = 0 i;r= ~ ~ " S pnrg

  3. Failure Analysis and Mechanisms of Failure of Fibrous Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Noor, A. K. (Compiler); Shuart, M. J. (Compiler); Starnes, J. H., Jr. (Compiler); Williams, J. G. (Compiler)

    1983-01-01

    The state of the art of failure analysis and current design practices, especially as applied to the use of fibrous composite materials in aircraft structures is discussed. Deficiencies in these technologies are identified, as are directions for future research.

  4. Failure probability under parameter uncertainty.

    PubMed

    Gerrard, R; Tsanakas, A

    2011-05-01

    In many problems of risk analysis, failure is equivalent to the event of a random risk factor exceeding a given threshold. Failure probabilities can be controlled if a decisionmaker is able to set the threshold at an appropriate level. This abstract situation applies, for example, to environmental risks with infrastructure controls; to supply chain risks with inventory controls; and to insurance solvency risks with capital controls. However, uncertainty around the distribution of the risk factor implies that parameter error will be present and the measures taken to control failure probabilities may not be effective. We show that parameter uncertainty increases the probability (understood as expected frequency) of failures. For a large class of loss distributions, arising from increasing transformations of location-scale families (including the log-normal, Weibull, and Pareto distributions), the article shows that failure probabilities can be exactly calculated, as they are independent of the true (but unknown) parameters. Hence it is possible to obtain an explicit measure of the effect of parameter uncertainty on failure probability. Failure probability can be controlled in two different ways: (1) by reducing the nominal required failure probability, depending on the size of the available data set, and (2) by modifying of the distribution itself that is used to calculate the risk control. Approach (1) corresponds to a frequentist/regulatory view of probability, while approach (2) is consistent with a Bayesian/personalistic view. We furthermore show that the two approaches are consistent in achieving the required failure probability. Finally, we briefly discuss the effects of data pooling and its systemic risk implications.

  5. 34 CFR 682.713 - Disqualification review of limitation, suspension, and termination actions taken by guarantee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary is satisfied that— (i) The school has corrected the failure that led to the limitation, suspension.... (7) The audit or program review report or documented basis that led to the action. (8) All...

  6. 34 CFR 682.712 - Disqualification review of limitation, suspension, and termination actions taken by guarantee...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Secretary is satisfied that— (i) The lender has corrected the failure that led to the limitation, suspension...) The audit or lender review report or documented basis that led to the action. (8) All other...

  7. 76 FR 70768 - Common-Cause Failure Analysis in Event and Condition Assessment: Guidance and Research, Draft...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-15

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION Common-Cause Failure Analysis in Event and Condition Assessment: Guidance and Research, Draft Report for Comment; Correction AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Draft NUREG; request...

  8. The Great Failure of "Education"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schievella, Pasqual S.

    1975-01-01

    The failure of todays education to develop critical and analytical skills in students is examined. This journal is available from the Department of Philosophy, Jersey City State College, 2039 Kennedy Blvd., Jersey City, New Jersey 07305. (Author/DE)

  9. Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Aneurysm More Lifestyle Changes for Heart Failure Updated:Mar 14,2017 Following recommendations about diet, exercise and ... liquid you get. Many people are prescribed diuretics (water pills) to help them get rid of extra ...

  10. Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Ejection Fraction Heart Failure Measurement Updated:Feb 15,2017 The ejection fraction (EF) is an important measurement in determining how well your heart is pumping ...

  11. Intestinal Failure (Short Bowel Syndrome)

    MedlinePlus

    ... N Vitamin deficiencies as a result of poor absorption in the intestine N Electrolyte and mineral deficiencies ... N Kidney stones or gallstones due to poor absorption of calcium or bile How is intestinal failure ...

  12. [Failures regarding the treatment plan].

    PubMed

    Lecocq, Guillaume

    2016-03-01

    Who has never had a treatment failure? Who has never regretted launching into a treatment plan? And who has never vowed to avoid falling again into the same trap? All of us, of course. Which simply allowed us to fall into other traps once we'd pulled ourselves out of our previous failures. And to start with, do we believe that a successful outcome means achieving a molar and canine bilateral Class I, a normal overjet and overbite, and centered and coinciding midlines? So, does that make any other kind of treatment plan a recipe for failure? In more realistic mode, we should consider a treatment plan a failure when we are unable to achieve the objectives we set ourselves at the beginning of treatment, due to a lack of realism, or excessive optimism...

  13. Data and Statistics: Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Related CDC Web Sites Heart Disease Stroke High Blood Pressure Salt ... to Prevent and Control Chronic Diseases Million Hearts® Web Sites with More Information About Heart Failure For ...

  14. Failure to Thrive (For Parents)

    MedlinePlus

    ... absorb foods that have milk proteins, such as yogurt and cheese, which could lead to failure to ... doctors will ask for a child's detailed health history, including a feeding history. This helps doctors see ...

  15. [Failure effects and gender differences in perfectionism].

    PubMed

    Masson, A M; Cadot, M; Ansseau, M

    2003-01-01

    explanation of the high rate of male dropouts and failure in the first year at the university of Liège; also a factor explaining the female domination at the university. In the same way the first choice of studies is moving towards shorter and less difficult orientation (46). In case of failure the model is very similar according to gender: SOP (self oriented perfectionism) and T1 (anxiety) are directly connected; SOP and SPP are in this case better correlated by boys but the path between SPP, sense of incompetence and anxiety is less significant than in girls. In conclusion, providing some modifications according to semantics, the choice of a four factor solution allows for confirmation of the original structure of MPS and for internal consistency. The different components of MPS vary according to gender: SOP and more OOP discriminate men and women; SPP allows for differentiating women with failure. A structural model enhances the role of perfectionism in the cognitive and behavioural contexts; for instance it clarifies its action on fear of failure and success rates according to gender.

  16. Analyses of Transistor Punchthrough Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nicolas, David P.

    1999-01-01

    The failure of two transistors in the Altitude Switch Assembly for the Solid Rocket Booster followed by two additional failures a year later presented a challenge to failure analysts. These devices had successfully worked for many years on numerous missions. There was no history of failures with this type of device. Extensive checks of the test procedures gave no indication for a source of the cause. The devices were manufactured more than twenty years ago and failure information on this lot date code was not readily available. External visual exam, radiography, PEID, and leak testing were performed with nominal results Electrical testing indicated nearly identical base-emitter and base-collector characteristics (both forward and reverse) with a low resistance short emitter to collector. These characteristics are indicative of a classic failure mechanism called punchthrough. In failure analysis punchthrough refers to an condition where a relatively low voltage pulse causes the device to conduct very hard producing localized areas of thermal runaway or "hot spots". At one or more of these hot spots, the excessive currents melt the silicon. Heavily doped emitter material diffuses through the base region to the collector forming a diffusion pipe shorting the emitter to base to collector. Upon cooling, an alloy junction forms between the pipe and the base region. Generally, the hot spot (punch-through site) is under the bond and no surface artifact is visible. The devices were delidded and the internal structures were examined microscopically. The gold emitter lead was melted on one device, but others had anomalies in the metallization around the in-tact emitter bonds. The SEM examination confirmed some anomalies to be cosmetic defects while other anomalies were artifacts of the punchthrough site. Subsequent to these analyses, the contractor determined that some irregular testing procedures occurred at the time of the failures heretofore unreported. These testing

  17. Success and Failure in Design

    SciTech Connect

    Petroski, Henry

    2005-12-14

    The evolution of suspension bridges will be used to illustrate the principle that designs based solely on models of success tend over time toward failures. Successful designs, on the other hand, will be shown to derive from a proper anticipation of how they can fail. This paradox of design will be shown to promote cyclic alternations between success and failure within a given genre of designed objects.

  18. Failure Mode/Mechanism Distributions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-09-01

    Boards: Flashover (24996-000,NR) Broken NR Terminal Boards: Mechanical Breakage (24996-000,NR) Cortact Failure MR Terminals: (Intermittent contact... mechanism data on of various discrete semiconductor device types. The data has been compiled from reports of reliability demonstration tests conducted in...Room 3C0, Fnrbes Bu ilinn. Order No. FMD-91 Failure Mode/ Mechanism Distributions DTiC QUALIi INSPECTED 5 1991 Ace 94taa Yor SNTTS ai Prepared by: ,= t

  19. [Heart failure - up to date].

    PubMed

    Müller-Edenborn, Björn; Eriksson, Urs

    2013-08-21

    Heart failure is a common disorder associated with high morbidity and mortality as well as increasing socio-economic costs. General practitioners take care of most of the affected patients. Knowledge on pathophysiology and modern treatment concepts are decisive for rational decision making. Patient management focuses on longer survival and higher quality of life. Major goals include reductions in unnecessary hospital admissions as well as appropriate and timely involvement of heart failure specialists.

  20. Peyronie's disease and erectile failure

    SciTech Connect

    Metz, P.; Ebbehoj, J.; Uhrenholdt, A.; Wagner, G.

    1983-12-01

    A total of 20 patients with Peyronie's disease, including 15 with erectile failure and 5 with normal potency, underwent evaluation with dynamic xenon washout and infusion cavernosography. Abnormal drainage from the cavernous body was found in 13 of the 15 patients with erectile failure and in none of the 5 potent patients, indicating that this condition seems to be the underlying pathological mechanism leading to erectile impotence in patients with Peyronie's disease.

  1. [Does diastolic heart failure exist?].

    PubMed

    Guadalajara Boo, José Fernando

    2003-01-01

    This paper reviews the concepts of systolic function, diastolic function, heart failure, diastolic dysfunction, and diastolic heart failure. We refer to the historic evolution of the concept of heart failure and the origin of the term diastolic heart failure. Based on the current concepts of the physiology of the heart and its pathophysiology, we discuss the inappropriateness of the term and to the confusion it has generated in clinical practice, treatment, and prognosis, as well as in numerous research papers (of which some examples are given) when terming as "heart failure" the diastolic dysfunction and using both terms indistinctively. We conclude that an increasing need has arisen, ever more imperative, to identify clearly the concepts of heart failure and diastolic dysfunction, emphasizing on their differences to recognize them as distinct clinical entities with their own personality and, hence, having different prognosis and treatment. This would be of great help to achieve more accuracy in the clinical guidelines, standards, and consensus, especially regarding treatment. Besides it would be useful to avoid, inconsistencies in the design of research, which appear in some of the publications just by the lack of a clear meaning of the terms. Finally, at present we have the necessary elements to conclude that the terms "diastolic heart failure" and "cardiac failure with preserved systolic function" are inexact, poorly gauged, and far away from the actual problem they try to define. Therefore, they should be substituted by the concept of Diastolic Dysfunction, which defines clearly the pathophysiology of the functional alteration, without having to state that "the heart is failing".

  2. Common Cause Failures and Ultra Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harry W.

    2012-01-01

    A common cause failure occurs when several failures have the same origin. Common cause failures are either common event failures, where the cause is a single external event, or common mode failures, where two systems fail in the same way for the same reason. Common mode failures can occur at different times because of a design defect or a repeated external event. Common event failures reduce the reliability of on-line redundant systems but not of systems using off-line spare parts. Common mode failures reduce the dependability of systems using off-line spare parts and on-line redundancy.

  3. Common Criterion For Failure Of Different Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beyer, Rodney B.

    1992-01-01

    Common scaling criterion found to relate some physical quantities characterizing tensile failures of three different solid propellant materials. Tensile failures of different rubbery propellants characterized by similar plots.

  4. Occupational cognitive failures and safety performance in the workplace.

    PubMed

    Allahyari, Teimour; Rangi, Narmin Hassanzadeh; Khalkhali, Hamidreza; Khosravi, Yahya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction. The majority of industrial accidents occur because of human errors. Human error has different causes, however, in all cases cognitive abilities and limitations of human play an important role. Occupational cognitive failures are cognitively-based human errors that occur at work. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between occupational cognitive failures and safety consequences. Method. Personnel of a large industrial company in Iran filled out an occupational cognitive failure questionnaire (OCFQ) and answered questions on accidents. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were used to determine the relationship between cognitive failures and safety consequences. Results. According to developed regression models, personnel with a high rate of cognitive failure, in comparison to low rate, have a high risk of minor injury involvement (OR 5.1, 95% CI [2.62, 10.3]); similar results were for major injury and near miss. Discussion. The results of this study revealed usefulness of the OCFQ as a tool of predicting safety- related consequences and planning preventive actions.

  5. Scaling the Ivory Tower in Spite of Affirmative Action Guidelines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Effie K.; Jones, Ruby J.

    The purpose of this discussion is to examine the response of various organizations to Affirmative Action mandates, and to point up instances of practices which have met with both success and near failure. Since colleges and universities have seemingly grown more like big business and industry, they have become more political in their orientation…

  6. National Biofuels Action Plan

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Leading the Federal Interagency Biomass Research and Development Initiative October 2008 National Biofuels Action Plan Biomass Research and...REPORT DATE OCT 2008 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2008 to 00-00-2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE National Biofuels Action Plan 5a. CONTRACT...goal of the National Biofuels Action Plan is to maximize the environmental and economic benefi ts of biofuels use by advancing sustainable practices

  7. Abnormal Carbohydrate Metabolism in Chronic Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Rubenfeld, Sheldon; Garber, Alan J.

    1978-01-01

    To delineate the potential role of disordered glucose and glucose-precursor kinetics in the abnormal carbohydrate metabolism of chronic renal failure, alanine and glucose production and utilization and gluconeogenesis from alanine were studied in patients with chronic compensated renal insufficiency and in normal volunteers. With simultaneous primed injection-continuous infusions of radiolabeled alanine and glucose, rates of metabolite turnover and precursor-product interrelationships were calculated from the plateau portion of the appropriate specific activity curves. All subjects were studied in the postabsorption state. In 13 patients with chronic renal failure (creatinine = 10.7±1.2 mg/100 ml; mean±SEM), glucose turnover was found to be 1,035±99.3 μmol/min. This rate was increased 56% (P = 0.003) over that observed in control subjects (664±33.5 μmol/min). Alanine turnover was 474±96.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients. This rate was 191% greater (P = 0.007) than the rate determined in control subjects (163±19.4 μmol/min). Gluconeogenesis from alanine and the percent of glucose production contributed by gluconeogenesis from alanine were increased in patients with chronic renal failure (192% and 169%, respectively) as compared to controls (P < 0.05 for each). Alanine utilization for gluconeogenesis was increased from 40.2±3.86 μmol/min in control subjects to 143±39.0 μmol/min in azotemic patients (P < 0.05). The percent of alanine utilization accounted for by gluconeogenesis was not altered in chronic renal insufficiency. In nondiabetic azotemic subjects, mean fasting glucose and immunoreactive insulin levels were increased 24.3% (P = 0.005) and 130% (P = 0.046), respectively. These results in patients with chronic renal failure demonstrate (a) increased glucose production and utilization, (b) increased gluconeogenesis from alanine, (c) increased alanine production and utilization, and (d) a relative impairment to glucose disposal. We conclude that

  8. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  9. Action principles in nature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrow, John D.; Tipler, Frank J.

    1988-01-01

    Physical theories have their most fundamental expression as action integrals. This suggests that the total action of the universe is the most fundamental physical quantity, and hence finite. In this article it is argued that finite universal action implies that the universe is spatially closed. Further, the possible spatial topologies, the types of matter that can dominate the early universe dynamics, and the form of any quadratic additions to the lagrangian of general relativity are constrained. Initial and final cosmological curvature singularities are required to avoid a universal action singularity.

  10. Independent Review Support for Phoenix Mars Mission Robotic Arm Brush Motor Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McManamen, John P.; Pellicciotti, Joseph; DeKramer, Cornelis; Dube, Michael J.; Peeler, Deborah; Muirhead, Brian K.; Sevilla, Donald R.; Sabahi, Dara; Knopp, Michael D.

    2007-01-01

    The Phoenix Project requested the NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) perform an independent peer review of the Robotic Arm (RA) Direct Current (DC) motor brush anomalies that originated during the Mars Exploration Rover (MER) Project and recurred during the Phoenix Project. The request was to evaluate the Phoenix Project investigation efforts and provide an independent risk assessment. This includes a recommendation for additional work and assessment of the flight worthiness of the RA DC motors. Based on the investigation and findings contained within this report, the IRT concurs with the risk assessment Failure Cause / Corrective Action (FC/CA) by the project, "Failure Effect Rating "3"; Major Degradation or Total Loss of Function, Failure Cause/Corrective Action Rating Currently "4"; Unknown Cause, Uncertainty in Corrective Action."

  11. Modeling actions and operations to support mission preparation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Ryan, D. P.; Schreckenghost, D. L.

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes two linked technology development projects to support Space Shuttle ground operations personnel, both during mission preparation analysis and related analyses in missions. The Space Propulsion Robust Analysis Tool (SPRAT) will provide intelligent support and automation for mission analysis setup, interpretation, reporting and documentation. SPRAT models the actions taken by flight support personnel during mission preparation and uses this model to generate an action plan. CONFIG will provide intelligent automation for procedure analyses and failure impact analyses, by simulating the interactions between operations and systems with embedded failures. CONFIG models the actions taken by crew during space vehicle malfunctions and simulates how the planned action sequences in procedures affect a device model. Jointly the SPRAT and CONFIG projects provide an opportunity to investigate how the nature of a task affects the representation of actions, and to determine a more general action representation supporting a broad range of tasks. This paper describes the problems in representing actions for mission preparation and their relation to planning and scheduling.

  12. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  13. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  14. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  15. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  16. Affirmative Action Program Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura County Community Coll. District, CA.

    Guidelines relating to the affirmative action program of the Ventura County Community College District are provided in this manual. Affirmative action is defined as, "A set of specific and result-oriented procedures to which a contractor commits himself/herself to apply every good faith effort. The objective of those procedures, plus such efforts,…

  17. 25 Action Learning Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of Secondary School Principals, Reston, VA.

    This booklet on action-learning reflects an interest in preparing youth for the world of real experiences. Arranged in two major parts, the first offers information on the background and development of action-learning. Included in this section are the conclusions of the Panel on Youth of the President's Science Advisory Committee, the National…

  18. ACTION. 1977 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1977. The first section concentrates on reviews conducted, including a major review of ACTION's domestic volunteer programs and the management systems supporting them and an assessment of its programs using the Zero-Base Budget approach called for by…

  19. Action Learning and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  20. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  1. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  2. Workflow interruptions, cognitive failure and near-accidents in health care.

    PubMed

    Elfering, Achim; Grebner, Simone; Ebener, Corinne

    2015-01-01

    Errors are frequent in health care. A specific model was tested that affirms failure in cognitive action regulation to mediate the influence of nurses' workflow interruptions and safety conscientiousness on near-accidents in health care. One hundred and sixty-five nurses from seven Swiss hospitals participated in a questionnaire survey. Structural equation modelling confirmed the hypothesised mediation model. Cognitive failure in action regulation significantly mediated the influence of workflow interruptions on near-accidents (p < .05). An indirect path from conscientiousness to near-accidents via cognitive failure in action regulation was also significant (p < .05). Compliance with safety regulations was significantly related to cognitive failure and near-accidents; moreover, cognitive failure mediated the association between compliance and near-accidents (p < .05). Contrary to expectations, compliance with safety regulations was not related to workflow interruptions. Workflow interruptions caused by colleagues, patients and organisational constraints are likely to trigger errors in nursing. Work redesign is recommended to reduce cognitive failure and improve safety of nurses and patients.

  3. Everyday Attention Failures: An Individual Differences Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Unsworth, Nash; McMillan, Brittany D.; Brewer, Gene A.; Spillers, Gregory J.

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined individual differences in everyday attention failures. Undergraduate students completed various cognitive ability measures in the laboratory and recorded everyday attention failures in a diary over the course of a week. The majority of attention failures were failures of distraction or mind wandering in educational…

  4. Integrated Circuit Failure Analysis Hypertext Help System

    SciTech Connect

    Henderson, Christopher L.; Barton, Daniel L.; Campbell, Ann N.; Cole, Edward I; Mikawa, Russell E.; Peterson, Kenneth A.; Rife, James L.; Soden, Jerry M.

    1995-02-23

    This software assists a failure analyst performing failure analysis on integrated circuits. The software can also be used to train inexperienced failure analysts. The software also provides a method for storing information and making it easily available to experienced failure analysts.

  5. Understand Your Risk for Heart Failure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Causes and Risks for Heart Failure Updated:Feb 1,2017 Who Develops Heart Failure ( ... HF. This content was last reviewed April 2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  6. First passage failure: Analysis alternatives

    SciTech Connect

    PAEZ,THOMAS L.; NGUYEN,H.P.; WIRSCHING,PAUL H.

    2000-04-17

    Most mechanical and structural failures can be formulated as first passage problems. The traditional approach to first passage analysis models barrier crossings as Poisson events. The crossing rate is established and used in the Poisson framework to approximate the no-crossing probability. While this approach is accurate in a number of situations, it is desirable to develop analysis alternatives for those situations where traditional analysis is less accurate and situations where it is difficult to estimate parameters of the traditional approach. This paper develops an efficient simulation approach to first passage failure analysis. It is based on simulation of segments of complex random processes with the Karhunen-Loeve expansion, use of these simulations to estimate the parameters of a Markov chain, and use of the Markov chain to estimate the probability of first passage failure. Some numerical examples are presented.

  7. Failure models for textile composites

    SciTech Connect

    Cox, B.

    1995-08-01

    The goals of this investigation were to: (1) identify mechanisms of failure and determine how the architecture of reinforcing fibers in 3D woven composites controlled stiffness, strength, strain to failure, work of fracture, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life; and (2) to model composite stiffness, strength, and fatigue life. A total of 11 different angle and orthogonal interlock woven composites were examined. Composite properties depended on the weave architecture, the tow size, and the spatial distributions and strength of geometrical flaws. Simple models were developed for elastic properties, strength, and fatigue life. A more complicated stochastic model, called the `Binary Model,` was developed for damage tolerance and ultimate failure. These 3D woven composites possessed an extraordinary combination of strength, damage tolerance, and notch insensitivity.

  8. Failure models for textile composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cox, Brian

    1995-01-01

    The goals of this investigation were to: (1) identify mechanisms of failure and determine how the architecture of reinforcing fibers in 3D woven composites controlled stiffness, strength, strain to failure, work of fracture, notch sensitivity, and fatigue life; and (2) to model composite stiffness, strength, and fatigue life. A total of 11 different angle and orthogonal interlock woven composites were examined. Composite properties depended on the weave architecture, the tow size, and the spatial distributions and strength of geometrical flaws. Simple models were developed for elastic properties, strength, and fatigue life. A more complicated stochastic model, called the 'Binary Model,' was developed for damage tolerance and ultimate failure. These 3D woven composites possessed an extraordinary combination of strength, damage tolerance, and notch insensitivity.

  9. Thyroid hormones and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Felipe

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure is a major health problem and its relationship to thyroid dysfunction has been increasingly investigated in recent years. Since it has been demonstrated that thyroid hormones (TH) and mainly T3 have cardioprotective effects, it is easy to understand that in the scenario of thyroid disorder, cardiac function may be damaged, and inversely in cardiac dysfunction thyroid dysregulation may be seen. The increase in plasma TH produces a clear neurohormonal activation which impacts negatively on cardiac function. In hypothyroidism, and in addition to extracardiac dysfunction, myocardial and vascular remodelling is altered and they contribute to cardiac failure. Abnormal low plasma TSH has also been shown to be a risk factor for developing HF in several recent studies, and they suggest that TSH is an independent predictor of clinical outcome including death and cardiac hospitalizations. Therefore, physicians should consider all these concepts when managing a patient with heart failure, not only for a clear diagnosis, but also for better and accurate treatment.

  10. [Electric therapy for heart failure].

    PubMed

    Mendoza González, Celso; Iturralde Torres, Pedro; Medeiros Domingo, Argelia

    2002-01-01

    The different means for treating congestive heart failure have not yet achieved the improvement in quality of life and the prognosis of people with terminal stage cardiac disease. Some treatment resources, such as cardiac transplant, are only accessible for a selected group of patients. In the last decade, the interest on the role of electromechanic disturbances has grown and has motivated special interest for the use of the pacemaker as a tool for the treatment of congestive heart failure. During this period we have seen an important progress of this kind of treatment and, nowadays, multicenter studies have shown the hemodynamic improvement of the patients treated with this method. Selection of patients for this kind of treatment should be careful; although today it can be known which patients can benefit from this device in the treatment of congestive heart failure.

  11. Loess failure in northeast Afghanistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shroder, John F.; Schettler, Megan Jensen; Weihs, Brandon J.

    Mass movements in northeastern Afghanistan include large-scale rockslides and complex slope failures, as well as failures in loess. The loess region in northeastern Afghanistan occurs in the Badakhshan and Takhar provinces and was likely created by dust blown to the east from the Karakum Desert and the alluvial plains of northern Afghanistan. This loessic dust was deposited against the Hindu Kush mountain range which rises up along the eastern half of Afghanistan as a result of transpressional tectonism. It overlies less permeable crystalline and sedimentary bedrocks such as Triassic granite, Proterozoic gneiss, and Miocene and Pliocene clastics in the area with the largest concentration of slope failures. Thirty-four loess slides and flows were mapped and analyzed using remote satellite imagery over digital elevation models on Google Earth™. This source enabled location, classification, and measurement of failures. Findings revealed that most failed slopes faced north, west, and northwest. This trend can be explained possibly as different moisture contents resulting from the primarily westerly wind direction, which may cause more precipitation to be deposited on west-facing slopes, and sun position during the hottest part of the day. Additionally, the easterly rising Hindu Kush range may cause more slope area to face west in the study region. Other contributing factors could be the very high seismicity of the area, which may cause rapid dry fluidized loess flows, and landscape modification by humans. Several loess slope failures appear to be generated by water concentration through irrigation ditches and possible rutted tire tracks, which can create tunneling between the loess and its less permeable bedrock. Causes and effects of loess failure in Afghanistan need to be investigated in more depth. Further study may lead to the adoption of more sustainable and safe farming practices and more informed housing locations, which may prevent loss of property, crop, and

  12. Foundations of Pharmacotherapy for Heart Failure With Reduced Ejection Fraction: Evidence Meets Practice, Part I.

    PubMed

    Paul, Sara; Page, Robert L

    2016-01-01

    Pharmacologic treatment for systolic heart failure, otherwise known as heart failure with reduced ejection fraction, has been established through clinical trials and is formulated into guidelines to standardize the diagnosis and treatment. The premise of pharmacologic therapy in heart failure with reduced ejection fraction is aimed primarily at interrupting the neurohormonal cascade that is responsible for altering left ventricular shape and function. This is the first in a series of articles to describe the pharmacologic agents in the guidelines that impact the morbidity and mortality associated with heart failure. Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and vasodilators will be presented in the context of the mechanism of action in heart failure, investigational trials that showed beneficial effects, and the practical application for clinical use.

  13. Investigation into Cause of High Temperature Failure of Boiler Superheater Tube

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, D.; Ray, S.; Roy, H.; Shukla, A. K.

    2015-04-01

    The failure of the boiler tubes occur due to various reasons like creep, fatigue, corrosion and erosion. This paper highlights a case study of typical premature failure of a final superheater tube of 210 MW thermal power plant boiler. Visual examination, dimensional measurement, chemical analysis, oxide scale thickness measurement, microstructural examination are conducted as part of the investigations. Apart from these investigations, sulfur print, Energy Dispersive spectroscopy (EDS) and X ray diffraction analysis (XRD) are also conducted to ascertain the probable cause of failure of final super heater tube. Finally it has been concluded that the premature failure of the super heater tube can be attributed to the combination of localized high tube metal temperature and loss of metal from the outer surface due to high temperature corrosion. The corrective actions have also been suggested to avoid this type of failure in near future.

  14. Hyponatremia Associated with Heart Failure: Pathological Role of Vasopressin-Dependent Impaired Water Excretion.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, San-E

    2015-05-08

    An exaggerated increase in circulatory blood volume is linked to congestive heart failure. Despite this increase, reduction of the "effective circulatory blood volume" in congestive heart failure is associated with decreased cardiac output, and can weaken the sensitivity of baroreceptors. Thereafter, tonic inhibition of the baroreceptor-mediated afferent pathway of vagal nerves is removed, providing an increase in non-osmotic release of arginine vasopressin (AVP). In the renal collecting duct, the aquaporin-2 (AQP2) water channel is regulated by sustained elevation of AVP release, and this leads to augmented hydroosmotic action of AVP, that results in exaggerated water retention and dilutional hyponatremia. Hyponatremia is also a predictor for worsening heart failure in patients with known/new onset heart failure. Therefore, such a dilutional hyponatremia associated with organ damage is predictive of the short- and long-term outcome of heart failure.

  15. Established and Emerging Roles of Biomarkers in Heart Failure Clinical Trials.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Nasrien E; Gaggin, Hanna K; Konstam, Marvin A; Januzzi, James L

    2016-09-01

    The role of circulating biomarkers in heart failure clinical trials has evolved in recent decades. Increasing evidence behind the use of natriuretic peptides, emergence of novel biomarkers, and increased emphasis on targeting therapies toward physiological basis of disease (so-called precision medicine) have all contributed to the continued expansion of biomarker use in heart failure clinical trials. We will explore the advantages and pitfalls encountered through the use of biomarkers in clinical trials as an inclusion criterion, toxicity marker, and end point. We will also review their role in providing insights into the mechanism of action of therapeutics and guiding therapy in the management of patients with heart failure.

  16. Time and technology will tell: the pathophysiologic basis of neurohormonal modulation in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Reed, Brent N; Street, Sarah E; Jensen, Brian C

    2014-10-01

    The central roles of neurohormonal abnormalities in the pathobiology of heart failure have been defined in recent decades. Experiments have revealed both systemic involvement and intricate subcellular regulation by circulating effectors of the sympathetic nervous system, the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, and others. Randomized clinical trials substantiated these findings, establishing neurohormonal antagonists as cornerstones of heart failure pharmacotherapy, and occasionally offering further insight on mode of benefit. This review discusses the use of β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone receptor antagonists in the treatment of heart failure, with particular attention to the pathophysiologic basis and mechanisms of action.

  17. THE INDEPENDENT ACTION THEORY OF MORTALITY AS TESTED AT FORT DETRICK

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The independent action theory is compared with the probit and similar approaches. The basic question is the variation of susceptibility among...survival against dose and failure of estimates of virus population to conform to the dilution ratio are viewed as evidence against the independent action theory .

  18. Prediction of Failure at University--or Failure of Prediction?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nisbet, J.; Welsh, J.

    1976-01-01

    The validity of a procedure for identifying students at risk of failure on the basis of first term examination results was checked by following up 188 students at risk, from a total of 1902 in Aberdeen University Arts Faculty in session 1974-75. (Editor)

  19. Drug user treatment failure blindness?

    PubMed

    Einstein, Stan

    2012-01-01

    An ethnographic case study of a "failed" single goal (abstinence) based individual and group therapy treatment of a New York City, Harlem-based, single, young-adult of color, IDU, mother, which ended in "death by overdose," after a period of abstinence, is presented almost 50 years later, in which complex, multidimensional structural barriers, "normed," consensualized, ideologically-driven preconceptions and an array of contextual, situational and relevant stakeholder factors, which may have resulted in intervention "failure blindness," are reviewed. The need to introduce failure analysis, blindness and management, as well as success analysis, blindness and management, as integral parts of treatment planning, implementation and assessment is raised.

  20. Diastolic function in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Kovács, Sándor J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by "diastolic function". The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E', etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo "equilibrium volume" of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic "ringing" of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually "repair" the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in alleviation of

  1. Diastolic Function in Heart Failure

    PubMed Central

    Kovács, Sándor J

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure has reached epidemic proportions, and diastolic heart failure or heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) constitutes about 50% of all heart failure admissions. Long-term prognosis of both reduced ejection fraction heart failure and HFpEF are similarly dismal. No pharmacologic agent has been developed that actually treats or repairs the physiologic deficit(s) responsible for HFpEF. Because the physiology of diastole is both subtle and counterintuitive, its role in heart failure has received insufficient attention. In this review, the focus is on the physiology of diastole in heart failure, the dominant physiologic laws that govern the process in all hearts, how all hearts work as a suction pump, and, therefore, the elucidation and characterization of what actually is meant by “diastolic function”. The intent is for the reader to understand what diastolic function actually is, what it is not, and how to measure it. Proper measurement of diastolic function requires one to go beyond the usual E/A, E/E′, etc. phenomenological metrics and employ more rigorous causality (mathematical modeling) based parameters of diastolic function. The method simultaneously provides new physiologic insight into the meaning of in vivo “equilibrium volume” of the left ventricle (LV), longitudinal versus transverse volume accommodation of the chamber, diastatic “ringing” of the mitral annulus, and the mechanism of L-wave generation, as well as availability of a load-independent index of diastolic function (LIIDF). One important consequence of understanding what diastolic function is, is the recognition that all that current therapies can do is basically alter the load, rather than actually “repair” the functional components (chamber stiffness, chamber relaxation). If beneficial (biological/structural/metabolic) remodeling due to therapy does manifest ultimately as improved diastolic function, it is due to resumption of normal physiology (as in

  2. Management of advanced heart failure.

    PubMed

    Van Bakel, Adrian B; Chidsey, Geoffrey

    2002-01-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) due to progressive systolic dysfunction has become a modern-day epidemic. Despite the increased incidence and prevalence, significant progress has been made in the past 10 to 15 years in the treatment of CHF at all stages. The current outlook for patients with newly diagnosed, mild heart failure is encouraging. It should be noted, however, that most of the morbidity and health care expenditure is incurred by a minority of patients diagnosed with CHF who are in the advanced stages of their disease. The thrust of this article will be to provide practical advice beyond current guidelines on the management of advanced CHF.

  3. Heart failure in African Americans.

    PubMed

    Yancy, Clyde W

    2005-10-10

    The demographics of the United States are changing, and in the next few decades there will no longer be a racial/ethnic majority population. Increased awareness of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in special populations is warranted as these populations increase. Heart failure carries a substantial burden on those affected, particularly African Americans, who have a disproportionate burden of heart disease. Current treatments for heart failure include angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, beta-blockers, angiotensin II-receptor antagonists, and vasodilating agents. This review discusses the unique characteristics of CVD in African Americans and addresses the need for targeted treatments to reduce the excess burden found in this population.

  4. Graphical Displays Assist In Analysis Of Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, Ginger; Wadsworth, David; Razavipour, Reza

    1995-01-01

    Failure Environment Analysis Tool (FEAT) computer program enables people to see and better understand effects of failures in system. Uses digraph models to determine what will happen to system if set of failure events occurs and to identify possible causes of selected set of failures. Digraphs or engineering schematics used. Also used in operations to help identify causes of failures after they occur. Written in C language.

  5. A simple approach to modeling ductile failure.

    SciTech Connect

    Wellman, Gerald William

    2012-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has the need to predict the behavior of structures after the occurrence of an initial failure. In some cases determining the extent of failure, beyond initiation, is required, while in a few cases the initial failure is a design feature used to tailor the subsequent load paths. In either case, the ability to numerically simulate the initiation and propagation of failures is a highly desired capability. This document describes one approach to the simulation of failure initiation and propagation.

  6. Topological lattice actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bietenholz, W.; Gerber, U.; Pepe, M.; Wiese, U.-J.

    2010-12-01

    We consider lattice field theories with topological actions, which are invariant against small deformations of the fields. Some of these actions have infinite barriers separating different topological sectors. Topological actions do not have the correct classical continuum limit and they cannot be treated using perturbation theory, but they still yield the correct quantum continuum limit. To show this, we present analytic studies of the 1-d O(2) and O(3) model, as well as Monte Carlo simulations of the 2-d O(3) model using topological lattice actions. Some topological actions obey and others violate a lattice Schwarz inequality between the action and the topological charge Q. Irrespective of this, in the 2-d O(3) model the topological susceptibility {χ_t} = {{{left< {{Q^2}} rightrangle }} left/ {V} right.} is logarithmically divergent in the continuum limit. Still, at non-zero distance the correlator of the topological charge density has a finite continuum limit which is consistent with analytic predictions. Our study shows explicitly that some classically important features of an action are irrelevant for reaching the correct quantum continuum limit.

  7. Spacelike brane actions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  8. Conscious Control over Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-06-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges-challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown.

  9. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  10. Insulin Signaling and Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Riehle, Christian; Abel, E Dale

    2016-04-01

    Heart failure is associated with generalized insulin resistance. Moreover, insulin-resistant states such as type 2 diabetes mellitus and obesity increases the risk of heart failure even after adjusting for traditional risk factors. Insulin resistance or type 2 diabetes mellitus alters the systemic and neurohumoral milieu, leading to changes in metabolism and signaling pathways in the heart that may contribute to myocardial dysfunction. In addition, changes in insulin signaling within cardiomyocytes develop in the failing heart. The changes range from activation of proximal insulin signaling pathways that may contribute to adverse left ventricular remodeling and mitochondrial dysfunction to repression of distal elements of insulin signaling pathways such as forkhead box O transcriptional signaling or glucose transport, which may also impair cardiac metabolism, structure, and function. This article will review the complexities of insulin signaling within the myocardium and ways in which these pathways are altered in heart failure or in conditions associated with generalized insulin resistance. The implications of these changes for therapeutic approaches to treating or preventing heart failure will be discussed.

  11. Dynamic Constitutive/Failure Models

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    compressive failure--microfracture versus microplasticity . Actual traces observed in plate impact tests on ceramic targets are hardly ever as simple as the...observa- tions for microfracture and microplasticity . Unfortunately, each team of investigators has used slightly different experimental techniques and

  12. Early Prevention of School Failure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Kent C.

    The Early Prevention of School Failure (EPSF) program developed by Dr. Luceille Werner is presented. The program is designed to identify and remediate developmental deficiencies of four-, five-, and six-year-old children and has been accepted in the National Diffusion Network as a nationally validated program. The main program components are…

  13. Failure to use an interpreter.

    PubMed

    Bird, Sara

    2010-04-01

    Case studies are based on actual medical negligence claims or medicolegal referrals; however certain facts have been omitted or changed by the author to ensure the anonymity of the parties involved. This article discusses a Medical Board complaint involving an allegation of failure to use an interpreter, resulting in the death of a patient, aged 35 years.

  14. Failure Is Always an Option

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chudnov, Daniel

    2008-01-01

    Things are failing everywhere. A few years ago, several large companies disappeared almost overnight in a series of scandals. This year, the mortgage industry imploded. More recently, stalwart financial and insurance corporations have been dropping like flies. Failures happen on a smaller scale too. Recently, the all-caps word "FAIL" became a…

  15. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  16. Leveraging Failure in Design Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lobato, Joanne; Walters, C. David; Hohensee, Charles; Gruver, John; Diamond, Jaime Marie

    2015-01-01

    Even in the resource-rich, more ideal conditions of many design-based classroom interventions, unexpected events can lead to disappointing results in student learning. However, if later iterations in a design research study are more successful, the previous failures can provide opportunities for comparisons to reveal subtle differences in…

  17. Stabilizing bottomless action theories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greensite, J.; Halpern, M. B.

    1984-08-01

    We show how to construct the euclidean quantum theory corresponding to classical actions which are unbounded from below. Our method preserves the classical limit, the large- N limit, and the perturbative expansion of the unstabilized theories.

  18. Benzidine Dyes Action Plan

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Action Plan addresses the use of benzidine-based dyes and benzidine congener-based dyes, both metalized and non-metalized, in products that would result in consumer exposure, such as for use to color textiles.

  19. Oak Canyon Action Memo

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This memorandum requests approval for a time-critical removal action at the 27 residential properties that compose the Oak Canyon Site located in the Village of Paguate, Pueblo of Laguna, near Cibola County, New Mexico.

  20. Fault tree analysis of most common rolling bearing tribological failures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vencl, Aleksandar; Gašić, Vlada; Stojanović, Blaža

    2017-02-01

    Wear as a tribological process has a major influence on the reliability and life of rolling bearings. Field examinations of bearing failures due to wear indicate possible causes and point to the necessary measurements for wear reduction or elimination. Wear itself is a very complex process initiated by the action of different mechanisms, and can be manifested by different wear types which are often related. However, the dominant type of wear can be approximately determined. The paper presents the classification of most common bearing damages according to the dominant wear type, i.e. abrasive wear, adhesive wear, surface fatigue wear, erosive wear, fretting wear and corrosive wear. The wear types are correlated with the terms used in ISO 15243 standard. Each wear type is illustrated with an appropriate photograph, and for each wear type, appropriate description of causes and manifestations is presented. Possible causes of rolling bearing failure are used for the fault tree analysis (FTA). It was performed to determine the root causes for bearing failures. The constructed fault tree diagram for rolling bearing failure can be useful tool for maintenance engineers.

  1. Failure mode and effects analysis: too little for too much?

    PubMed

    Dean Franklin, Bryony; Shebl, Nada Atef; Barber, Nick

    2012-07-01

    Failure mode and effects analysis (FMEA) is a structured prospective risk assessment method that is widely used within healthcare. FMEA involves a multidisciplinary team mapping out a high-risk process of care, identifying the failures that can occur, and then characterising each of these in terms of probability of occurrence, severity of effects and detectability, to give a risk priority number used to identify failures most in need of attention. One might assume that such a widely used tool would have an established evidence base. This paper considers whether or not this is the case, examining the evidence for the reliability and validity of its outputs, the mathematical principles behind the calculation of a risk prioirty number, and variation in how it is used in practice. We also consider the likely advantages of this approach, together with the disadvantages in terms of the healthcare professionals' time involved. We conclude that although FMEA is popular and many published studies have reported its use within healthcare, there is little evidence to support its use for the quantitative prioritisation of process failures. It lacks both reliability and validity, and is very time consuming. We would not recommend its use as a quantitative technique to prioritise, promote or study patient safety interventions. However, the stage of FMEA involving multidisciplinary mapping process seems valuable and work is now needed to identify the best way of converting this into plans for action.

  2. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  3. [Anaemia in chronic heart failure].

    PubMed

    Hradec, J

    2010-08-01

    Anaemia is a relatively frequent co-morbidity of chronic heart as well as chronic renal failure. In both conditions, it represents a strong and independent predictor of increased morbidity and mortality. Aetiology of this anaemia is multi-factorial. A number of various factors play a role in its development, e.g. inadequate erythropoietin production in the kidneys, bone marrow inhibition, iron deficiency as well as haemodilution associated with fluid retention. Treatment strategies aim at two directions. One is the stimulation of erythropoiesis with recombinant human erythropoietin or its analogues such as darbepoetin alpha. The other involves iron substitution, administered preferably intravenously for improved efficacy and tolerability. Clinical studies evaluating treatment of anaemia in chronic heart failure with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents conducted so far were ofa small scale, were not controlled with placebo and usually assessed proxy parameters. Their results suggested that effective treatment of anaemia in patients with chronic heart failure improves exertion tolerance, clinical status (NYHA class) as well as the quality of life and reduces the need for blood transfusions. Recently completed TREAT study was the first large morbidity and mortality study evaluating treatment of anaemia with an erythropoietin analogue compared to placebo. On a sample of more than 4000 patients with diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure and significant anaemia, this study has shown that effective treatment of anaemia with darbepoetin alpha did not affect at all the incidence of cardiovascular and renal events; on the other hand, it had lead to a nearly two-fold increase in the incidence of cerebrovascular events. Some doubts about the safety of treatment with erythropoiesis-stimulating agents have occurred in the past based on the studies of anaemia treatment in patients with cancer and renal diseases. An answer to the question whether the treatment of anaemia

  4. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  5. Antisymmetric string actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aragone, C.

    1986-12-01

    An action is presented for the free bosonic string on external flat space in terms of an antisymmetric second-rank string background tensor which is classically equivalent to the Nambu-Goto action. Both action and field equations are entirely described in terms of 2D world-sheet forms, without any reference to a 2D metric tensor background. The analysis of its canonical formulation shows how the quadratic Virasoro constraints are generated in this case and what their connection with the Bianchi identities are. Since in the orthonormal gauge the reduced action coincides with the standard one, it has the same critical dimension D = 26. The existence of an interaction term of a purely geometric structure stemming in the extrinsic curvature is pointed out. Its action and the new string field equations are then derived. This polynomial antisymmetric string action is uniformly generalized in order to describe d < D-dimensional extended objects in D-dimensional flat space. On leave of absence from Departamento de Física, Universidad Simon Bolívar, Apartado 80659, Caracas 1080A, Venezuela.

  6. Failure analysis of a half-micron CMOS IC technology

    SciTech Connect

    Liang, A.Y.; Tangyunyong, P.; Bennett, R.S.; Flores, R.S.

    1996-08-01

    We present the results of recent failure analysis of an advanced, 0.5 {mu}m, fully planarized, triple metallization CMOS technology. A variety of failure analysis (FA) tools and techniques were used to localize and identify defects generated by wafer processing. These include light (photon) emission microscopy (LE), fluorescent microthermal imaging (FMI), focused ion beam cross sectioning, SEM/voltage contrast imaging, resistive contrast imaging (RCI), and e-beam testing using an IDS-5000 with an HP 82000. The defects identified included inter- and intra-metal shorts, gate oxide shorts due to plasma processing damage, and high contact resistance due to the contact etch and deposition process. Root causes of these defects were determined and corrective action was taken to improve yield and reliability.

  7. Plan for early action: Recommendations

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-31

    This report contains recommendations on the implementation of an action plan to reduce or recapture greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions in British Columbia. The report includes the consensus recommendations of the BC Greenhouse Gas Forum, as well as those items on which Forum participants have agreed to disagree, plus the reasons for those differences. The recommendations include: Umbrella actions which may affect several or all sectors of the economy, or support the success of other actions; actions to reduce vehicle kilometers travelled; actions to increase vehicle efficiency or increase the use of alternative fuels or technologies; actions to decrease GHG emissions from energy production; actions to increase end-use energy efficiency; and actions to reduce non-energy-related emissions. Appendices include work sheets on each action, with a description of the action and information on the action`s rationale, experience elsewhere, related policy initiatives, and key issues regarding feasibility and implementation.

  8. What's an Asthma Action Plan?

    MedlinePlus

    ... to 2-Year-Old What's an Asthma Action Plan? KidsHealth > For Parents > What's an Asthma Action Plan? ... normal everyday activities without having asthma symptoms. Action Plans Are Unique Each person's experience with asthma is ...

  9. Current role of neprilysin inhibitors in hypertension and heart failure.

    PubMed

    von Lueder, Thomas G; Atar, Dan; Krum, Henry

    2014-10-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) continue to represent the major cause of death, morbidity and healthcare expenditure worldwide. Current medical therapy fails to effectively halt disease progression and to reduce adverse clinical outcomes, reflecting incomplete understanding of pathomechanisms as well as the need to expand current pharmacotherapeutic strategies. Hypertension and heart failure, the most important CVD entities, are associated with imbalance in neurohormonal systems activity such as the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), the sympathetic nervous system and the endothelin system. Blockade of the RAAS constitutes the most successful pharmacotherapeutic concept in hypertension and heart failure to date. The RAAS-opposing natriuretic peptide system constitutes the body's own BP-lowering system, and mediates a multitude of beneficial actions within cardiovascular tissues. The metallopeptidase neprilysin (NEP) hydrolyzes natriuretic peptides. Conceptually, NEP inhibition would increase salutary natriuretic peptide actions in CVD. However, stand-alone NEP inhibitors (NEPi) lacked efficacy beyond standard pharmacotherapy. Combined blockers of NEP and the endothelin system demonstrated efficacy in preclinical studies but have not been evaluated in clinical trials. A decade ago, omapatrilat and other dual-acting NEPi-ACEi (vasopeptidase-inhibitors) were promising agents for hypertension and heart failure. Despite greater efficacy, development of vasopeptidase-inhibitors was halted due to significant off-target effects in some cohorts, most notably increased frequency of angioedema in hypertensive subjects. Novel angiotensin-receptor-neprilysin-inhibitors (ARNi) seek to fully exploit clinical efficacy of combined RAAS-blockade and NEPi-mediated natriuretic peptide augmentation, and hopefully do so with improved clinical safety. We herein review current knowledge of NEPi as stand-alone and combined pharmacotherapeutic agents in hypertension and heart

  10. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  11. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  12. Renal denervation and heart failure.

    PubMed

    Böhm, Michael; Ewen, Sebastian; Kindermann, Ingrid; Linz, Dominik; Ukena, Christian; Mahfoud, Felix

    2014-06-01

    Renal denervation has been developed in order to lower systolic blood pressure in resistant hypertension by a reduction in renal afferent and efferent sympathetic nerve activity. In heart failure sympathetic activation, in particular, renal norepinephrine release is closely associated with morbidity and mortality. Initial studies have shown that renal denervation is able to reduce not only blood pressure but also heart rate, and is associated with a reduction in myocardial hypertrophy, improved glucose tolerance, and ameliorated microalbuminuria. Since some experimental and observational data suggest an antiarrhythmic effect, it is possible that renal denervation might also play a therapeutic role in arrhythmias often occurring in chronic heart failure. The first proof-of-concept studies are planned to evaluate the clinical effect of this pathophysiologically plausible method, which might be able to change clinical practice.

  13. ATM CMG bearing failure analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The cause or causes for the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2) were investigated. Skylab telemetry data were reviewed and presented in the form of parameter distributions. The theory that the problems were caused by marginal bearing lubrication was studied along with the effects of orbital conditions on lubricants. Bearing tests were performed to investigate the effect of lubricant or lack of lubricant in the ATM CMG bearings and the dispersion and migration of the lubricant. The vacuum and weightless conditions of space were simulated in the bearing tests. Analysis of the results of the tests conducted points to inadequate lubrication as the predominant factor causing the failure of ATM CMG S/N 5 (Skylab 1) and the anomalies associated with ATM CMG S/N 6 (Skylab 2).

  14. Heart Failure Epidemiology: European Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Guha, K; McDonagh, T

    2013-01-01

    Heart failure poses an increasing problem for global healthcare systems. The epidemiological data which has been accrued over the last thirty years has predominantly been accumulated from experience within North America and Europe. Initial large cohort, prospective longitudinal studies produced the first publications; however latterly the focus has shifted onto epidemiological data governing hospitalisation and mortality. The emphasis behind this shift has been the resource implications with regards to repetitive, costly and prolonged hospitalisation. The European experience in heart failure, though similar to North America has recently demonstrated differences in hospitalisation which may underlie the differences between healthcare system configuration. Heart failure however remains an increasing global problem and the endpoint of a variety of cardiovascular diseases. Allied with the fact of increasingly elderly populations and prior data demonstrating a steep rise in prevalent cases within more elderly populations, it is likely that the increasing burden of disease will continue to pose challenges for modern healthcare. Despite the predicted increase in the number of patients affected by heart failure, over the last thirty years, a clear management algorithm has evolved for the use of pharmacotherapies (neuro-hormonal antagonists), device based therapies (Implantable Cardioverting Defibrillator (ICD) and Cardiac Resynchronisation Therapy (CRT)) and mechanical therapies including left ventricular assist devices and cardiac transplantation. Though the management of such patients has been clearly delineated in national and international guidelines, the underuse of all available and appropriate therapies remains a significant problem. When comparing various epidemiological studies from different settings and timepoints, it should be remembered that rates of prevalence and incidence may vary depending upon the definition used, methods of accumulating information (with

  15. Criteria for Matrix Dominated Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-02-01

    8217 L . .... ... .... . !A,! A ,- -I 1. INTRODUCTION When designing adhesively bonded fibre composite repairs for metallic or comn- pwsite structutes, two...behaviour of fibre composite lauiinates [20.21,22]. * 4 2i 4| It haas aso been used to design 6dhMavely bonded repairs for cracked metallic com- ponents...several methodsearvently used for analysis of the ltnt rix dominated failure In composite nmaterial an adhesivty hankdedl joints . Particular attention has

  16. Failure modes of electrospun nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zussman, E.; Rittel, D.; Yarin, A. L.

    2003-06-01

    Failure modes of electrospun polymer nanofibers are reported. The nanofibers have diameters in the range of 80-400 nm and lengths greater then several centimeters. The nanofibers fail by a multiple necking mechanism, sometimes followed by the development of a fibriliar structure. This phenomenon is attributed to a strong stretching of solidified nanofibers by the tapered accumulating wheel (electrostatic lens), if its rotation speed becomes too high. Necking has not been observed in the nanofibers collected on a grounded plate.

  17. Multiaxial failure characterization of composites

    SciTech Connect

    Groves, S.E.; Sanchez, R.J.; Feng, W.W.

    1991-02-01

    The primary objective of this research has been to develop a multiaxial testing capability for continuous fiber composites using the axial/torsion/internal pressurization of tubes. This capability enables one to generate the two-dimensional (in-plane) failure surface for these materials. The multiaxial test specimen consists of a 5.08 cm (2.0 in.) diameter composite tube with 15{degrees} cast epoxy end cones for gripping. The unique advancement with this new technique is the simple, but very efficient, gripping mechanism that provides a very smooth transition in load from the grip into the specimen. This has eliminated grip related stress risers in the composite tube. Consequently, most of the failures occur in the gage section of the tube. This system is coupled into a biaxial MTS servo hydraulic test machine capable of simultaneously applying axial load, torque, and internal pressure, providing one complete control of the axial, transverse, and shear stresses that develop in the wall of the composite tube. This paper will present the failure results obtained to date for various laminate configurations of Toray 1000/DER332-T403 filament wound carbon/epoxy tubes along with T300/F263 prepreg carbon/epoxy tubes. The goal of our efforts is to develop a more fully characterized three-dimensional failure criterion for these materials. This model will then be incorporated into a large three-dimensional orthotropic finite element model for structural analysis as well as a specialized three-dimensional orthotropic finite element model capable of detailed sub-ply level analysis on sub-structural components. 19 refs., 10 figs.

  18. Heart Failure: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, Medical Treatment Guidelines, and Nursing Management.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Chad; Bush, Nathania

    2015-12-01

    Heart failure (HF) is a debilitating chronic disease and is expected to increase in upcoming years due to demographic changes. Nurses in all settings have an essential role in supporting patients in managing this disease. This article describes the pathophysiology of HF, diagnosis, medical management, and nursing interventions. It is crucial for nurses to understand the pathophysiology of HF and the importance that nursing actions have on enhancing medical management to alleviate symptoms and to deter the advancement of the pathophysiologic state. Such an understanding can ultimately reduce morbidity and mortality and optimize quality of life in patients with HF.

  19. Morpheus 1.5A Lander Failure Investigation Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munday, Steve; Olansen, John

    2013-01-01

    On August 9th, 2012, the Morpheus 1.5 Vertical Testbed (VTB) crashed during Free Flight 2 (FF2) at KSC SLF, resulting in the loss of 1.5 VTB hardware. JSC/KSC Morpheus team immediately executed the pre-rehearsed Emergency Action Plan to protect personnel and property, so damage was limited to 1.5 VTB hardware. JSC/KSC Morpheus team secured data and mapped & recovered debris. Project had pre-declared loss of VTB to be a test failure, not a mishap.

  20. Detecting failure of climate predictions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Runge, Michael C.; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Barrett, Andrew P.; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2016-09-01

    The practical consequences of climate change challenge society to formulate responses that are more suited to achieving long-term objectives, even if those responses have to be made in the face of uncertainty. Such a decision-analytic focus uses the products of climate science as probabilistic predictions about the effects of management policies. Here we present methods to detect when climate predictions are failing to capture the system dynamics. For a single model, we measure goodness of fit based on the empirical distribution function, and define failure when the distribution of observed values significantly diverges from the modelled distribution. For a set of models, the same statistic can be used to provide relative weights for the individual models, and we define failure when there is no linear weighting of the ensemble models that produces a satisfactory match to the observations. Early detection of failure of a set of predictions is important for improving model predictions and the decisions based on them. We show that these methods would have detected a range shift in northern pintail 20 years before it was actually discovered, and are increasingly giving more weight to those climate models that forecast a September ice-free Arctic by 2055.

  1. Detecting failure of climate predictions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Runge, Michael C.; Stroeve, Julienne C.; Barrett, Andrew P.; McDonald-Madden, Eve

    2016-01-01

    The practical consequences of climate change challenge society to formulate responses that are more suited to achieving long-term objectives, even if those responses have to be made in the face of uncertainty1, 2. Such a decision-analytic focus uses the products of climate science as probabilistic predictions about the effects of management policies3. Here we present methods to detect when climate predictions are failing to capture the system dynamics. For a single model, we measure goodness of fit based on the empirical distribution function, and define failure when the distribution of observed values significantly diverges from the modelled distribution. For a set of models, the same statistic can be used to provide relative weights for the individual models, and we define failure when there is no linear weighting of the ensemble models that produces a satisfactory match to the observations. Early detection of failure of a set of predictions is important for improving model predictions and the decisions based on them. We show that these methods would have detected a range shift in northern pintail 20 years before it was actually discovered, and are increasingly giving more weight to those climate models that forecast a September ice-free Arctic by 2055.

  2. Predicting Electronic Failure from Smoke

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, T.J.

    1999-01-15

    Smoke can cause electronic equipment to fail through increased leakage currents and shorts. Sandia National Laboratories is studying the increased leakage currents caused by smoke with varying characteristics. The objective is to develop models to predict the failure of electronic equipment exposed to smoke. This requires the collection of data on the conductivity of smoke and knowledge of critical electrical systems that control high-consequence operations. We have found that conductivity is a function of the type of fuel, how it is burned, and smoke density. Video recordings of highly biased dc circuits exposed in a test chamber show that during a fire, smoke is attracted to high voltages and can build fragile carbon bridges that conduct leakage currents. The movement of air breaks the bridges, so the conductivity decreases after the fire is extinguished and the test chamber is vented. During the fire, however, electronic equipment may not operate correctly, leading to problems for critical operations dependent on electronic control. The potential for electronic failure is highly dependent on the type of electrical circuit, and Sandia National Laboratories plans to include electrical circuit modeling in the failure models.

  3. Model for heart failure education.

    PubMed

    Baldonado, Analiza; Dutra, Danette; Abriam-Yago, Katherine

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure (HF) is the heart's inability to meet the body's need for blood and oxygen. According to the American Heart Association 2013 update, approximately 5.1 million people are diagnosed with HF in the United States in 2006. Heart failure is the most common diagnosis for hospitalization. In the United States, the HF direct and indirect costs are estimated to be US $39.2 billion in 2010. To address this issue, nursing educators designed innovative teaching frameworks on HF management both in academia and in clinical settings. The model was based on 2 resources: the American Association of Heart Failure Nurses (2012) national nursing certification and the award-winning Pierce County Responsive Care Coordination Program. The HF educational program is divided into 4 modules. The initial modules offer foundational levels of Bloom's Taxonomy then progress to incorporate higher-levels of learning when modules 3 and 4 are reached. The applicability of the key components within each module allows formatting to enhance learning in all areas of nursing, from the emergency department to intensive care units to the medical-surgical step-down units. Also applicable would be to provide specific aspects of the modules to nurses who care for HF patients in skilled nursing facility, rehabilitation centers, and in the home-health care setting.

  4. Failure During Sheared Edge Stretching

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levy, B. S.; van Tyne, C. J.

    2008-12-01

    Failure during sheared edge stretching of sheet steels is a serious concern, especially in advanced high-strength steel (AHSS) grades. The shearing process produces a shear face and a zone of deformation behind the shear face, which is the shear-affected zone (SAZ). A failure during sheared edge stretching depends on prior deformation in the sheet, the shearing process, and the subsequent strain path in the SAZ during stretching. Data from laboratory hole expansion tests and hole extrusion tests for multiple lots of fourteen grades of steel were analyzed. The forming limit curve (FLC), regression equations, measurement uncertainty calculations, and difference calculations were used in the analyses. From these analyses, an assessment of the primary factors that contribute to the fracture during sheared edge stretching was made. It was found that the forming limit strain with consideration of strain path in the SAZ is a major factor that contributes to the failure of a sheared edge during stretching. Although metallurgical factors are important, they appear to play a somewhat lesser role.

  5. CSM RCS Design Considerations and Failure Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Objectives include: a) Define major Command and Service Module (CSM) design considerations; b) List Command Module (CM) RCS failures and lessons learned; and c) List Service Module (SM) RCS failures and lessons learned.

  6. Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure?

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_164475.html Can Stem Cell 'Patch' Help Heart Failure? Small improvement seen over ... Scientists report another step in the use of stem cells to help treat people with debilitating heart failure. ...

  7. Heart failure - what to ask your doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000224.htm Heart failure - what to ask your doctor To use the ... a pump that moves blood through your body. Heart failure occurs when blood does not move well and ...

  8. Make Program Failures Work for You.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, M. Jean; Mills, Helen H.

    1984-01-01

    Recreation program planners can learn from program failures. Failures should not be viewed as negative statements about personnel. Examining feelings in a supportive staff environment is suggested as a technique for developing competence. (DF)

  9. 75 FR 51869 - CAFTA-DR Consultation Request Regarding Guatemala's Apparent Failure to Effectively Enforce its...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Laws AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice; request for comments... Guatemala to discuss Guatemala's apparent failure to meet its obligation under Article 16.2.1(a) to effectively enforce its labor laws. The consultations request may be found at...

  10. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure..., STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents involving... (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must state the: (1) Name of the railroad; (2)...

  11. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure..., STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents involving... (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must state the: (1) Name of the railroad; (2)...

  12. 49 CFR 234.7 - Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Accidents involving grade crossing signal failure..., STATE ACTION PLANS, AND EMERGENCY NOTIFICATION SYSTEMS Reports and Plans § 234.7 Accidents involving... (accident/ incident report). (b) Each telephone report must state the: (1) Name of the railroad; (2)...

  13. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  14. Mitigation Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    This Mitigation Action Plan (MAP) focuses on mitigation commitments stated in the Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS) and the Record of Decision (ROD) for the Naval Petroleum Reserve No. 1 (NPR-1). Specific commitments and mitigation implementation actions are listed in Appendix A-Mitigation Actions, and form the central focus of this MAP. They will be updated as needed to allow for organizational, regulatory, or policy changes. It is the intent of DOE to comply with all applicable federal, state, and local environmental, safety, and health laws and regulations. Eighty-six specific commitments were identified in the SEIS and associated ROD which pertain to continued operation of NPR-1 with petroleum production at the Maximum Efficient Rate (MER). The mitigation measures proposed are expected to reduce impacts as much as feasible, however, as experience is gained in actual implementation of these measures, some changes may be warranted.

  15. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies

    PubMed Central

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-01-01

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies. PMID:26503683

  16. Leadership solves collective action problems in small-scale societies.

    PubMed

    Glowacki, Luke; von Rueden, Chris

    2015-12-05

    Observation of leadership in small-scale societies offers unique insights into the evolution of human collective action and the origins of sociopolitical complexity. Using behavioural data from the Tsimane forager-horticulturalists of Bolivia and Nyangatom nomadic pastoralists of Ethiopia, we evaluate the traits of leaders and the contexts in which leadership becomes more institutional. We find that leaders tend to have more capital, in the form of age-related knowledge, body size or social connections. These attributes can reduce the costs leaders incur and increase the efficacy of leadership. Leadership becomes more institutional in domains of collective action, such as resolution of intragroup conflict, where collective action failure threatens group integrity. Together these data support the hypothesis that leadership is an important means by which collective action problems are overcome in small-scale societies.

  17. Phenomenological Studies of Macroscale Failure in Metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kashiwa, Bryan Andrew; Hull, Lawrence Mark

    2016-12-06

    Highlights of recent phenomenological studies of metal failure are given. Failure leading to spallation and fragmentation are typically of interest. The current ‘best model’ includes the following; a full history stress in tension; nucleation initiating dynamic relaxation; toward a tensile yield function; failure dependent on strain, strain rate, and temperature; a mean-preserving ‘macrodefect’ is introduced when failure occurs in tension; and multifield theoretical refinements

  18. Anemia and iron deficiency in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Gil, Victor M; Ferreira, Jorge S

    2014-01-01

    Heart failure is a common problem and a major cause of mortality, morbidity and impaired quality of life. Anemia is a frequent comorbidity in heart failure and further worsens prognosis and disability. Regardless of anemia status, iron deficiency is a common and usually unidentified problem in patients with heart failure. This article reviews the mechanisms, impact on outcomes and treatment of anemia and iron deficiency in patients with heart failure.

  19. Failure analysis: Status and future trends

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Soden, J.M.; Henderson, C.L.

    1995-02-01

    Failure analysis is a critical element in the integrated circuit manufacturing industry. This paper reviews the changing role of failure analysis and describes major techniques employed in the industry today. Several advanced failure analysis techniques that meet the challenges imposed by advancements in integrated circuit technology are described and their applications are discussed. Future trends in failure analysis needed to keep pace with the continuing advancements in integrated circuit technology are anticipated.

  20. Characterizations of proper actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biller, Harald

    2004-03-01

    Three kinds of proper actions of increasing strength are defined. We prove that the three definitions specialize to the definitions by Bourbaki, by Palais and by Baum, Connes and Higson in their respective settings. The third of these, which thus turns out to be the strongest, originally only concerns actions of second countable locally compact groups on metrizable spaces. In this situation, it is shown to coincide with the other two definitions if the total space locally has the Lindelöf property and the orbit space is regular.

  1. The utility of levosimendan in the treatment of heart failure.

    PubMed

    Lehtonen, Lasse; Põder, Pentti

    2007-01-01

    Calcium sensitizers are a new group of inotropic drugs. Levosimendan is the only calcium sensitizer in clinical use in Europe. Its mechanism of action includes both calcium sensitization of contractile proteins and the opening of adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-dependent potassium channels as mechanism of vasodilation. The combination of K-channel opening with positive inotropy offers potential benefits in comparison to currently available intravenous inotropes, since K-channel opening protects myocardium during ischemia. Due to the calcium-dependent binding of levosimendan to troponin C, the drug increases contractility without negative lusitropic effects. In patients with heart failure levosimendan dose-dependently increases cardiac output and reduces pulmonary capillary wedge pressure. Since levosimendan has an active metabolite OR-1896 with a half-life of some 80 hours, the duration of the hemodynamic effects significantly exceeds the 1-hour half-life of the parent compound. The hemodynamic effects of the levosimendan support its use in acute and postoperative heart failure. Several moderate-size trials (LIDO, RUSSLAN, CASINO) have previously suggested that the drug might even improve the prognosis of patients with decompensated heart failure. These trials were carried out in patients with high filling pressures. Recently two larger trials (SURVIVE and REVIVE) in patients who were hospitalized because of worsening heart failure have been finalized. These trials did not require filling pressures to be measured. The two trials showed that levosimendan improves the symptoms of heart failure, but does not improve survival. The results raise the question whether a 24-hour levosimendan infusion can be used without invasive hemodynamic monitoring.

  2. 30 CFR 56.7010 - Power failures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power failures. 56.7010 Section 56.7010 Mineral... Drilling § 56.7010 Power failures. In the event of power failure, drill controls shall be placed in the neutral position until power is restored....

  3. 30 CFR 57.7010 - Power failures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Power failures. 57.7010 Section 57.7010 Mineral... Drilling-Surface Only § 57.7010 Power failures. In the event of power failure, drill controls shall be placed in the neutral position until power is restored....

  4. Educational Leadership: Failure to Use Our Imagination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glickman, Carl

    2006-01-01

    Failure is inevitable and can be conducive to great learning and discovery. However, some failures exact too high a human cost to justify. All of this may sound like a contradiction: freedom to fail and avoidance of human cost at the same time. However, the crux of the matter is coming to understand how leadership supports failures in order to…

  5. Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor

    MedlinePlus

    ... Peripheral Artery Disease Venous Thromboembolism Aortic Aneurysm More Heart Failure Questions to Ask Your Doctor Updated:Oct 4, ... content was last reviewed on 04/06/2015. Heart Failure • Home • About Heart Failure • Causes and Risks for ...

  6. Development of Nonelectronic Part Cyclic Failure Rates

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-12-01

    for a short duration. The dc operation allows the current to build up to rated value during energization with no overshoot. Protective devices, such...failures/ houL 4.3 Part Classes and Failure Rates To update Sections 2.9, 2.10, and 2.11 of MIL-HDBK-217B, failure rate mathematical models and base

  7. Learning from Failures: Archiving and Designing with Failure and Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    VanWie, Michael; Bohm, Matt; Barrientos, Francesca; Turner, Irem; Stone, Robert

    2005-01-01

    Identifying and mitigating risks during conceptual design remains an ongoing challenge. This work presents the results of collaborative efforts between The University of Missouri-Rolla and NASA Ames Research Center to examine how an early stage mission design team at NASA addresses risk, and, how a computational support tool can assist these designers in their tasks. Results of our observations are given in addition to a brief example of our implementation of a repository based computational tool that allows users to browse and search through archived failure and risk data as related to either physical artifacts or functionality.

  8. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  9. Executive Mind, Timely Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torbert, William R.

    1983-01-01

    The idea of "Executive Mind" carries with it the notion of purposeful and effective action. Part I of this paper characterizes three complements to "Executive Mind"--"Observing Mind,""Theorizing Mind," and "Passionate Mind"--and offers historical figures exemplifying all four types. The concluding…

  10. College Comedy and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Rosanna

    1977-01-01

    A few materials such as yarn and scraps of paper and cloth can provide the media for recording limitless ideas from the imaginations of students. With a little encouragement and a few suggestions of actions, emotions, exaggerations and activities students will produce a vast array of amusing characters. (Author)

  11. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Triton Coll., River Grove, IL.

    In order to develop an affirmative action plan at Triton College, the college President appointed a committee made up of nine representatives from the various college constituencies, the majority of which were women and minorities, to determine the objectives to be achieved and how to implement them, and to establish appropriate review procedures.…

  12. Youth Engaged for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Post, Margaret; Little, Priscilla

    2005-01-01

    This article examines how out-of-school time programs can promote youth involvement in civic action by focusing on four interrelated programmatic strategies: establishing organizational readiness that fosters engagement; promoting youth-adult partnerships; engaging youth as leaders and decision makers; and involving youth in research and…

  13. Expert Teacher Action Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington, Eva

    The expert teacher action program is to improve classroom teaching performance. The program has been tested in workshop sessions involving more than 1,200 educators representing 50 school districts. A set of standards, consisting of 25 variables, lead to the definition of expert teaching. Each variable deals with a major aspect of the duties of…

  14. Court Action for Migrants.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ewald, Thomas R.

    Aiding attorneys who represent migrant farmworkers and their families when affirmative civil action is required, this book helps to raise the level of migrants' legal protection to a minimum standard of adequacy. The text is based on the Federal Rules of Civil Procedure, a national set of rules. The book is divided into 3 sections: the…

  15. Action for Children's Television.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ranly, Donald P.

    The origins, development, and effectiveness of Action for Children's Television (ACT) are examined in this pamphlet. The strategies used by ACT to obtain change at the congressional level and within television stations and networks include the following: a "tuneout" day when people are urged to turn off their television sets, a boycott…

  16. School Reform in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, A. Christine

    This study describes and analyzes the impact on student learning and the learning environment of 55 schools in Broward, Palm Beach, and Miami-Dade school districts as they implemented the schoolwide action-research framework for school improvement. Interviews, observations, document review during site visits, school framework reports, surveys,…

  17. Cognitive framing in action.

    PubMed

    Huhn, John M; Potts, Cory Adam; Rosenbaum, David A

    2016-06-01

    Cognitive framing effects have been widely reported in higher-level decision-making and have been ascribed to rules of thumb for quick thinking. No such demonstrations have been reported for physical action, as far as we know, but they would be expected if cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. To test for such effects, we asked participants to reach for a horizontally-oriented pipe to move it from one height to another while turning the pipe 180° to bring one end (the "business end") to a target on the left or right. From a physical perspective, participants could have always rotated the pipe in the same angular direction no matter which end was the business end; a given participant could have always turned the pipe clockwise or counter-clockwise. Instead, our participants turned the business end counter-clockwise for left targets and clockwise for right targets. Thus, the way the identical physical task was framed altered the way it was performed. This finding is consistent with the hypothesis that cognition for physical action is fundamentally similar to cognition for higher-level decision-making. A tantalizing possibility is that higher-level decision heuristics have roots in the control of physical action, a hypothesis that accords with embodied views of cognition.

  18. Nutrition Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockut, Joanne; Stumpe, Stephanie

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, these instructional materials integrate elementary school-level nutrition education into other disciplines--biology, sociology, physiology, mathematics, and art. Contents include four units consisting of twelve activities. Unit 1, Why You Need Food, is a self-examination of what is needed for growth, health,…

  19. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  20. Conjugate flow action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-01

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  1. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  2. From Awareness to Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Micklos, John, Jr.

    2012-01-01

    What inspires young people to become activists? Events such as wars or regime changes obviously raise high emotions. But some choose to get involved because they saw a need and felt compelled to take action. Young Americans have a long track record as activists. Among other things, they played a key role in the civil rights movement of the 1950s…

  3. Affirmative Action Fallout

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2005-01-01

    Race-conscious affirmative action in higher education survived a close challenge in 2003 when the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that race was a valid academic admission criteria in the "Grutter v. Bollinger" case. Two years later, a number of "pipeline" programs to help under-represented minorities gain admission to and complete graduate school have…

  4. Conjugate flow action functionals

    SciTech Connect

    Venturi, Daniele

    2013-11-15

    We present a new general framework to construct an action functional for a non-potential field theory. The key idea relies on representing the governing equations relative to a diffeomorphic flow of curvilinear coordinates which is assumed to be functionally dependent on the solution field. Such flow, which will be called the conjugate flow, evolves in space and time similarly to a physical fluid flow of classical mechanics and it can be selected in order to symmetrize the Gâteaux derivative of the field equations with respect to suitable local bilinear forms. This is equivalent to requiring that the governing equations of the field theory can be derived from a principle of stationary action on a Lie group manifold. By using a general operator framework, we obtain the determining equations of such manifold and the corresponding conjugate flow action functional. In particular, we study scalar and vector field theories governed by second-order nonlinear partial differential equations. The identification of transformation groups leaving the conjugate flow action functional invariant could lead to the discovery of new conservation laws in fluid dynamics and other disciplines.

  5. The Constitution in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potter, Lee Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author describes the experiences middle school students on a field trip to the new Constitution in Action Learning Lab in the Boeing Learning Center at the National Archives can expect. There, middle school students take on the roles of archivists and researchers collecting and analyzing primary sources from the holdings of…

  6. Jump into Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Stephen; Cohen, Ann; Meyer, Margaret

    2012-01-01

    Jump Into Action (JIA) is a school-based team-taught program to help fifth-grade students make healthy food choices and be more active. The JIA team (physical education teacher, classroom teacher, school nurse, and parent) work together to provide a supportive environment as students set goals to improve food choices and increase activity.…

  7. Hope for Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fleischer, Barbara J.; DeMoor, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Environmental consciousness-raising programs tend to emphasize the magnitude of imminent ecological disasters, if humans continue on their current trajectory. While these environmental literacy programs also call for action to avoid cataclysmic ecological changes, psychological research on "learned helplessness" suggests that information…

  8. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  9. Target: Development Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Freedom from Hunger Foundation, Washington, DC. Young World Development.

    This handbook, suggestive rather than prescriptive, is written for Young World Development and/or similar groups committed to active involvement in community, national, and world improvement. Emphasis is upon organizing high school, college, and adult courses and action programs in the community which will help sensitize participants and make them…

  10. Justifying Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Helskog, Guro Hansen

    2014-01-01

    In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…

  11. Classroom Assessment in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shermis, Mark D.; DiVesta, Francis J.

    2011-01-01

    "Classroom Assessment in Action" clarifies the multi-faceted roles of measurement and assessment and their applications in a classroom setting. Comprehensive in scope, Shermis and Di Vesta explain basic measurement concepts and show students how to interpret the results of standardized tests. From these basic concepts, the authors then…

  12. Quick action clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  13. SYRACUSE ACTION FOR YOUTH.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ADDINGTON, HAROLD E.; AND OTHERS

    A PROPOSAL WAS MADE TO PREVENT AND CONTROL JUVENILE DELINQUENCY BY OPENING OPPORTUNITIES AND DEVELOPING COMPETENCE AMONG DISADVANTAGED YOUTH. THE TOTAL COMMUNITY WAS MOBILIZED TO DEVELOP A PROGRAM TO ATTACK THE PROBLEM AT ALL LEVELS THEY WORKED FOR 18 MONTHS TO PLAN A SERIES OF CREATIVE ACTION PROGRAMS IN EDUCATION, EMPLOYMENT, AND COMMUNITY…

  14. Affirmative Action Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    North Carolina State Dept. of Public Instruction, Raleigh.

    This affirmative action (AA) guide is intended to identify and remove discriminatory employment practices that may still exist in the North Carolina State Department of Public Instruction (DPI). DPI extends equal employment opportunity (EEO) to all applicants and employees without regard to race, color, religion, sex, age, handicap, political…

  15. The Shape of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hard, Bridgette Martin; Recchia, Gabriel; Tversky, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    How do people understand the everyday, yet intricate, behaviors that unfold around them? In the present research, we explored this by presenting viewers with self-paced slideshows of everyday activities and recording looking times, subjective segmentation (breakpoints) into action units, and slide-to-slide physical change. A detailed comparison of…

  16. Malignant vagotonia due to selective baroreflex failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, J.; Shannon, J. R.; Black, B. K.; Costa, F.; Ertl, A. C.; Furlan, R.; Biaggioni, I.; Robertson, D.

    1997-01-01

    Baroreflex failure is characterized by dramatic fluctuations of sympathetic activity and paroxysms of hypertension and tachycardia. In contrast, unopposed parasympathetic activity has not been described in patients with baroreflex failure because of concurrent parasympathetic denervation of the heart. We describe the unusual case of a patient with baroreflex failure in a setting of preserved parasympathetic control of HR manifesting episodes of severe bradycardia and asystole. Thus, parasympathetic control of the HR may be intact in occasional patients with baroreflex failure. Patients with this selective baroreflex failure require a unique therapeutic strategy for the control of disease manifestations.

  17. Real-time failure control (SAFD)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Panossian, Hagop V.; Kemp, Victoria R.; Eckerling, Sherry J.

    1990-01-01

    The Real Time Failure Control program involves development of a failure detection algorithm, referred as System for Failure and Anomaly Detection (SAFD), for the Space Shuttle Main Engine (SSME). This failure detection approach is signal-based and it entails monitoring SSME measurement signals based on predetermined and computed mean values and standard deviations. Twenty four engine measurements are included in the algorithm and provisions are made to add more parameters if needed. Six major sections of research are presented: (1) SAFD algorithm development; (2) SAFD simulations; (3) Digital Transient Model failure simulation; (4) closed-loop simulation; (5) SAFD current limitations; and (6) enhancements planned for.

  18. Modified iterative aggregation procedure for maintenance optimisation of multi-component systems with failure interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhuoqi; Wu, Su; Lee, Seungchul; Ni, Jun

    2014-12-01

    This paper studies maintenance policies for multi-component systems which have failure interaction among their components. Component failure might accelerate deterioration processes or induce instantaneous failures of the remaining components. We formulate this maintenance problem as a Markov decision process (MDP) with an objective of minimising a total discounted maintenance cost. However, the action set and state space in MDP exponentially grow as the number of components increases. This makes traditional approaches computationally intractable. To deal with this curse of dimensionality, a modified iterative aggregation procedure (MIAP) is proposed. We mathematically prove that iterations in MIAP guarantee the convergence and the policy obtained is optimal. Numerical case studies find that failure interaction should not be ignored in a maintenance policy decision making and the proposed MIAP is faster and requires less computational memory size than that of linear programming.

  19. [The German National Disease Management Guideline "Chronic Heart Failure"].

    PubMed

    Weinbrenner, S; Langer, T; Scherer, M; Störk, S; Ertl, G; Muth, Ch; Hoppe, U C; Kopp, I; Ollenschläger, G

    2012-02-01

    Chronic heart failure (CHF) is an illness mostly affecting elderly people. In Germany CHF is one of the most common causes of death and at the same time one of the most common diagnosis in inpatient care. Due to the expected increase in life expectancy in the next few years experts predict a further step-up of the incidence. Against this background development of a national guideline on chronic heart failure was prioritised and accordingly the National Disease Management Guideline (NDMG) Chronic Heart Failure was developed by a multi- and interdisciplinary group. The guideline group comprised experts from all relevant scientific medical societies as well as a patient expert. The National Disease Management Guideline (NDMG) on Chronic Heart Failure aims at supporting patients and health care providers with respect to decisions on a specific health care problem by giving recommendations for actions. Recommendations are informed by the best available scientific evidence on this topic.Patients with CHF often suffer from multiple conditions. Due to this fact and the old age patients do have very complex and demanding health care needs. Thus accounting for co-morbidities is paramount in planning and providing health care for theses patients and communication between doctor and patient but also between all health care providers is crucial.Basic treatment strategies in chronic heart failure comprise management of risk factors and prognostic factors as well as appropriate consideration of co-morbidities accompanied by measures empowering patients in establishing a healthy life style and a self-dependant management of their illness.Psycho-social aspects have a very strong influence on patients' acceptance of the disease and their self-management. In addition they have a strong influence on therapy management of the treating physician thus they have to be addressed adequately during the consultation.The National Disease Management Guideline (NDMG) Chronic Heart Failure (CHF

  20. Predicting Failure Progression and Failure Loads in Composite Open-Hole Tension Coupons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arunkumar, Satyanarayana; Przekop, Adam

    2010-01-01

    Failure types and failure loads in carbon-epoxy [45n/90n/-45n/0n]ms laminate coupons with central circular holes subjected to tensile load are simulated using progressive failure analysis (PFA) methodology. The progressive failure methodology is implemented using VUMAT subroutine within the ABAQUS(TradeMark)/Explicit nonlinear finite element code. The degradation model adopted in the present PFA methodology uses an instantaneous complete stress reduction (COSTR) approach to simulate damage at a material point when failure occurs. In-plane modeling parameters such as element size and shape are held constant in the finite element models, irrespective of laminate thickness and hole size, to predict failure loads and failure progression. Comparison to published test data indicates that this methodology accurately simulates brittle, pull-out and delamination failure types. The sensitivity of the failure progression and the failure load to analytical loading rates and solvers precision is demonstrated.

  1. Buckling failures in insect exoskeletons.

    PubMed

    Parle, Eoin; Herbaj, Simona; Sheils, Fiona; Larmon, Hannah; Taylor, David

    2015-12-17

    Thin walled tubes are often used for load-bearing structures, in nature and in engineering, because they offer good resistance to bending and torsion at relatively low weight. However, when loaded in bending they are prone to failure by buckling. It is difficult to predict the loading conditions which cause buckling, especially for tubes whose cross sections are not simple shapes. Insights into buckling prevention might be gained by studying this phenomenon in the exoskeletons of insects and other arthropods. We investigated the leg segments (tibiae) of five different insects: the locust (Schistocerca gergaria), American cockroach (Periplaneta americana), death's head cockroach (Blaberus discoidalis), stick insect (Parapachymorpha zomproi) and bumblebee (Bombus terrestris audax). These were tested to failure in cantilever bending and modelled using finite element analysis (FEA). The tibiae of the locust and the cockroaches were found to be approximately circular in shape. Their buckling loads were well predicted by linear elastic FEA, and also by one of the analytical solutions available in the literature for elastic buckling. The legs of the stick insect are also circular in cross section but have several prominent longitudinal ridges. We hypothesised that these ridges might protect the legs against buckling but we found that this was not the case: the loads necessary for elastic buckling were not reached in practice because yield occurred in the material, causing plastic buckling. The legs of bees have a non-circular cross section due to a pollen-carrying feature (the corbicula). We found that this did not significantly affect their resistance to buckling. Our results imply that buckling is the dominant failure mode in the tibia of insects; it likely to be a significant consideration for other arthropods and any organisms with stiff exoskeletons. The interactions displayed here between material properties and cross sectional geometry may provide insights for the

  2. Renal failure in patients with multiple myeloma.

    PubMed

    Almueilo, Samir H

    2015-01-01

    Renal dysfunction is encountered in 20-25% of patients with multiple myeloma (MM) at the time of diagnosis. There is often a precipitating event. Several biochemical and clinical correlations with renal failure in MM have been reported. Renal failure in MM is associated with worse outcome of the disease. We retrospectively analyzed the medical records of 64 patients with MM admitted to our institution during the period January 1992 to December 2012. Abnormal renal function was observed in 24 (37.5%) patients and 17 (26.6%) of them had renal failure; 14 of the 17 (82.4%) of patients with renal failure had Stage III MM. Urine Bence- Jones protein was positive in ten (58.8%) patients with renal failure versus ten (21.3%) patients without renal failure (P = 0.004). Potential precipitating factors of renal failure were determined in nine patients. Renal function normalized in 11 patients with simple measures, while six patients required hemodialysis; one remained dialysis dependent till time of death. Early mortality occurred in five (29.4%) patients with renal failure as compared with two (4.3%) patients in the group without renal failure (P = 0.005). In conclusion, renal failure is associated with a higher tumor burden and Bence-Jones proteinuria in patients with MM. It is reversible in the majority of patients; however, early mortality tends to be higher in patients with persistent renal failure.

  3. Hypogonadism and renal failure: An update.

    PubMed

    Thirumavalavan, Nannan; Wilken, Nathan A; Ramasamy, Ranjith

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of both hypogonadism and renal failure is increasing. Hypogonadism in men with renal failure carries with it significant morbidity, including anemia and premature cardiovascular disease. It remains unclear whether testosterone therapy can affect the morbidity and mortality associated with renal failure. As such, in this review, we sought to evaluate the current literature addressing hypogonadism and testosterone replacement, specifically in men with renal failure. The articles chosen for this review were selected by performing a broad search using Pubmed, Embase and Scopus including the terms hypogonadism and renal failure from 1990 to the present. This review is based on both primary sources as well as review articles. Hypogonadism in renal failure has a multifactorial etiology, including co-morbid conditions such as diabetes, hypertension, old age and obesity. Renal failure can lead to decreased luteinizing hormone production and decreased prolactin clearance that could impair testosterone production. Given the increasing prevalence of hypogonadism and the potential morbidity associated with hypogonadism in men with renal failure, careful evaluation of serum testosterone would be valuable. Testosterone replacement therapy should be considered in men with symptomatic hypogonadism and renal failure, and may ameliorate some of the morbidity associated with renal failure. Patients with all stages of renal disease are at an increased risk of hypogonadism that could be associated with significant morbidity. Testosterone replacement therapy may reduce some of the morbidity of renal failure, although it carries risk.

  4. The intergenerational transmission of fear of failure.

    PubMed

    Elliot, Andrew J; Thrash, Todd M

    2004-08-01

    The intergenerational transmission of fear of failure was examined in two studies with undergraduates and their parents. Parent-undergraduate concordance in fear of failure was documented for mothers and fathers, controlling for parents' and undergraduate's impression management and self-deceptive enhancement response tendencies. Love withdrawal was validated as a mediator of parent-undergraduate concordance in fear of failure for mothers but not for fathers. Mothers' and fathers' fear of failure was also a positive predictor of undergraduate's adoption of performance-avoidance goals in the classroom, and undergraduate's fear of failure was shown to mediate this relationship. Fathers' fear of failure was also a negative predictor of undergraduate's mastery goal adoption, and this relationship was likewise mediated by undergraduate's fear of failure. The results are discussed in terms of the reorienting of positive, appetitive achievement motivation toward negative, aversive achievement motivation.

  5. Failure Analysis at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Victoria L.; Wright, Clara

    2010-01-01

    History has shown that failures occur in every engineering endeavor, and what we learn from those failures contributes to the knowledge base to safely complete future missions. The necessity of failure analysis is at its apex at the end of one aged program (i.e. Shuttle) and at the beginning of a new and untested program (i.e. Constellation). The information that we gain through failure analysis corrects the deficiencies in the current vehicle to make the next generation of vehicles more efficient and safe. The Failure Analysis and Materials Evaluation section in the Materials Science Division at the Kennedy Space Center performs metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, and non-metallic failure analysis and accident investigations on both flight hardware and ground support equipment (GSE) for the Shuttle, International Space Station, Constellation, and Launch Services Programs. This presentation will explore a variety of failure case studies at KSC and the lessons learned that can be applied in future programs.

  6. Failure Analysis at the Kennedy Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Salazar, Victoria L.; Wright, M. Clara

    2010-01-01

    History has shown that failures occur in every engineering endeavor, and what we learn from those failures contributes to the knowledge base to safely complete future missions. The necessity of failure analysis is at its apex at the end of one aged program and at the beginning of a new and untested program. The information that we gain through failure analysis corrects the deficiencies in the current vehicle to make the next generation of vehicles more efficient and safe. The Failure Analysis and Materials Evaluation Branch in the Materials Science Division at the Kennedy Space Center performs metallurgical, mechanical, electrical, and non-metallic materials failure analyses and accident investigations on both flight hardware and ground support equipment for the Space Shuttle, International Space Station, Constellation, and Launch Services Programs. This paper will explore a variety of failure case studies at the Kennedy Space Center and the lessons learned that can be applied in future programs.

  7. Anisotropic Failure Modeling for HY-100 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harstad, E. N.; Maudlin, P. J.; McKirgan, J. B.

    2004-07-01

    HY-100 steel is a material that behaves isotropically in the elastic and plastic region and acts anisotropically in failure. Since HY-100 is a ductile metal, a more gradual failure process is observed as opposed to the nearly instantaneous failure in brittle materials. We extend our elasto-plastic-damage constitutive model by including of a decohesion model to describe material behavior between the onset of failure and fracture. We also develop an anisotropic failure surface to account for directionality in material failure. Both the anisotropic failure and decohesion models have been implemented into a finite element code, where the effects of these models are studied in a uniaxial stress simulations, a plate impact simulations, and a quasistatic notched round bar tensile test simulations.

  8. Tolvaptan, hyponatremia, and heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Zmily, Hammam D; Daifallah, Suleiman; Ghali, Jalal K

    2011-01-01

    Tolvaptan is the first FDA-approved oral V2 receptor antagonist for the treatment of euvolemic and hypervolemic hyponatremia, in patients with conditions associated with free water excess such as heart failure, cirrhosis, and the syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion. Tolvaptan inhibits the binding of arginine vasopressin to the V2 receptors on the collecting ducts of the kidneys resulting in aquaresis, the electrolytes sparing excretion of water. This article reviews the accumulated experience with tolvaptan and all the major clinical trials that were conducted to study its safety and efficacy and concludes by summarizing clinicians’ views of its current application in clinical practice. PMID:21694950

  9. Mineralcorticoid antagonists in heart failure.

    PubMed

    D'Elia, Emilia; Krum, Henry

    2014-10-01

    Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists (MRAs) have become mandated therapy in patients with reduced ejection fraction (systolic) heart failure (HF) across all symptom classes. These agents should also be prescribed in the early post-myocardial infarction setting in those with reduced ejection fraction and either HF symptoms or diabetes. This article explores the pathophysiological role of aldosterone, an endogenous ligand for the mineralcorticoid receptor (MR), and summarizes the clinical data supporting guideline recommendations for these agents in systolic HF. The use of MRAs in novel areas beyond systolic HF ejection is also explored. Finally, the current status of newer agents will be examined.

  10. Fracture - An Unforgiving Failure Mode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goodin, James Ronald

    2006-01-01

    During the 2005 Conference for the Advancement for Space Safety, after a typical presentation of safety tools, a Russian in the audience simply asked, "How does that affect the hardware?" Having participated in several International System Safety Conferences, I recalled that most attention is dedicated to safety tools and little, if any, to hardware. The intent of this paper on the hazard of fracture and failure modes associated with fracture is my attempt to draw attention to the grass roots of system safety - improving hardware robustness and resilience.

  11. Failure Assessment of Brazed Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flom, Yuri

    2012-01-01

    Despite the great advances in analytical methods available to structural engineers, designers of brazed structures have great difficulties in addressing fundamental questions related to the loadcarrying capabilities of brazed assemblies. In this chapter we will review why such common engineering tools as Finite Element Analysis (FEA) as well as many well-established theories (Tresca, von Mises, Highest Principal Stress, etc) don't work well for the brazed joints. This chapter will show how the classic approach of using interaction equations and the less known Coulomb-Mohr failure criterion can be employed to estimate Margins of Safety (MS) in brazed joints.

  12. Micronutrients in chronic heart failure.

    PubMed

    Krim, Selim R; Campbell, Patrick; Lavie, Carl J; Ventura, Hector

    2013-03-01

    Heart failure (HF)-associated mortality remains high, despite guideline-recommended medical therapies. Poor nutritional status and unintentional cachexia have been shown to have a strong association with worse survival in HF patients. Importantly, micronutrient deficiencies are potential contributing factors to the progression of HF. This review aims to summarize contemporary evidence on the role of micronutrients in the pathophysiology and outcome of HF patients. Emphasis will be given to the most well-studied micronutrients, specifically, vitamin D, vitamin B complex, coenzyme Q10 and L-carnitine.

  13. Age, Action Orientation, and Self-Regulation during the Pursuit of a Dieting Goal.

    PubMed

    Hennecke, Marie; Freund, Alexandra M

    2016-03-01

    Two studies tested the hypotheses that (1) action orientation (vs. state orientation) is positively correlated with age across adulthood and (2) action orientation aids the self-regulation of one's feelings, thoughts, and behavior during the pursuit of a dieting goal. Hypotheses were partly confirmed. In Study 1, N = 126 overweight women (age: 19-77 years) intended to lose weight by means of a low-calorie diet. In Study 2, N = 322 adults (age: 18-82 years) reported on their action orientation to replicate the association of age and action orientation found in Study 1. Study 2 corroborated only the expected positive association of age and decision-related action orientation. In Study 1, decision-related action orientation predicted higher affective well-being during the diet as well as less self-reported deviations from the diet; failure-related action orientation predicted lower levels of rumination in response to dieting failures. Action orientation partially mediated the negative effects of age on deviations and rumination (see Hennecke & Freund, ). Weight loss was not predicted by action orientation. We discuss action orientation as one factor of increased motivational competence in older adulthood.

  14. Failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block among dental students and interns

    PubMed Central

    AlHindi, Maryam; Rashed, Bayan; AlOtaibi, Noura

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To report the failure rate of inferior alveolar nerve block (IANB) among dental students and interns, causes of failure, investigate awareness of different IANB techniques, and to report IANB-associated complications. Methods: A 3-page questionnaire containing 13 questions was distributed to a random sample of 350 third to fifth years students and interns at the College of Dentistry, King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia on January 2011. It included demographic questions (age, gender, and academic level) and questions on IANB failure frequency and reasons, actions taken to overcome the failure, and awareness of different anesthetic techniques, supplementary techniques, and complications. Results: Of the 250 distributed questionnaires, 238 were returned (68% response rate). Most (85.7%) of surveyed sample had experienced IANB failure once or twice. The participants attributed the failures most commonly (66.45%) to anatomical variations. The most common alternative technique used was intraligamentary injection (57.1%), although 42.8% of the sample never attempted any alternatives. Large portion of the samples stated that they either lacked both knowledge of and training for other techniques (44.9%), or that they had knowledge of them but not enough training to perform them (45.8%). Conclusion: To decrease IANB failure rates for dental students and interns, knowledge of landmarks, anatomical variation and their training in alternatives to IANB, such as the Gow-Gates and Akinosi techniques, both theoretically and clinically in the dental curriculum should be enhanced. PMID:26739980

  15. Cardiac rehabilitation in heart failure: a brief review and recommendations.

    PubMed

    Piña, Ileana L

    2010-05-01

    The number of heart failure patients continues to increase for men and women. Our current medical therapy includes a variety of agents that can reduce morbidity and mortality. However, many patients remain limited, in part, due to deconditioning. Adding to the functional loss are the multiple hospitalizations and even recommendations from providers to maintain bed rest and avoid physical activity. The multiple studies involving conditioning and exercise for patients with heart failure have mostly shown improvements, not only in function but also in quality of life and other physiologic parameters that should be of benefit to these patients. The HF ACTION (Heart Failure: A Controlled Trial Investigating Outcomes of Exercise Training) trial, which randomized 2,231 patients to a formal prescribed exercise or control, demonstrated the safety of aerobic training in this population. The benefits on the hard end points of mortality and hospitalizations were modest but significant when adjusted for prognostic factors. The guidelines currently recommend that activity be recommended in conjunction with medical therapy. A program can be adjusted to the patient's need but should include intensity, frequency, and duration, as well as a guide to progression.

  16. Heart Failure in South Asia

    PubMed Central

    Sivadasan Pillai, Harikrishnan; Ganapathi, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    South Asia (SA) is both the most populous and the most densely populated geographical region in the world. The countries in this region are undergoing epidemiological transition and are facing the double burden of infectious and non-communicable diseases. Heart failure (HF) is a major and increasing burden all over the world. In this review, we discuss the epidemiology of HF in SA today and its impact in the health system of the countries in the region. There are no reliable estimates of incidence and prevalence of HF (heart failure) from this region. The prevalence of HF which is predominantly a disease of the elderly is likely to rise in this region due to the growing age of the population. Patients admitted with HF in the SA region are relatively younger than their western counterparts. The etiology of HF in this region is also different from the western world. Untreated congenital heart disease and rheumatic heart disease still contribute significantly to the burden of HF in this region. Due to epidemiological transition, the prevalence of hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity and smoking is on the rise in this region. This is likely to escalate the prevalence of HF in South Asia. We also discuss potential developments in the field of HF management likely to occur in the nations in South Asia. Finally, we discuss the interventions for prevention of HF in this region PMID:23597297

  17. Cardiovascular failure and cardiogenic shock.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ankitkumar K; Hollenberg, Steven M

    2011-10-01

    Cardiovascular system failure is commonly faced by the intensivist. Heart failure can occur due to a host of predisposing cardiac disorders or as secondary effects of systemic illness. When the heart is unable to provide an adequate cardiac output to maintain adequate tissue perfusion, cardiogenic shock ensues. Without prompt diagnosis and appropriate management, these patients have significant morbidity and mortality, with in-hospital mortality approaching 60% for all age groups. Accurate and rapid identification of cardiogenic shock as a medical emergency, with expeditious implementation of appropriate therapy, can lead to improved clinical outcomes. In this review, we discuss optimal strategies for diagnosis and monitoring of cardiogenic shock. We discuss the diverse therapeutic strategies employed for cardiogenic shock, including pharmacological (e.g., vasoactive agents, fibrinolytic agents), mechanical (e.g., intraaortic balloon pumps, left ventricular assist devices, percutaneous coronary intervention [PCI]), and surgical approaches such as coronary artery bypass graft (CABG), valvular repair or replacement (e.g., for acute mitral regurgitation, ventricular septal rupture, or free wall rupture).

  18. Synergistic failure of BWR internals

    SciTech Connect

    A. G. Ware; T. Y. Chang

    1999-10-25

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. An initial phase has been completed in which background material was gathered and evaluated, and potential accident sequences were identified. A second phase is underway to perform a simplified, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment on a representative high-power BWR/4. Results of the initial study conducted on the jet pumps show that any cascading failures would not result in a significant increase in the core damage frequency. The methodology is currently being extended to other major reactor internals components.

  19. Synergistic Failure of BWR Internals

    SciTech Connect

    Ware, Arthur Gates; Chang, T-Y

    1999-10-01

    Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) core shrouds and other reactor internals important to safety are experiencing intergranular stress corrosion cracking (IGSCC). The United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission has followed the problem, and as part of its investigations, contracted with the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory to conduct a risk assessment. The overall project objective is to assess the potential consequences and risks associated with the failure of IGSCC-susceptible BWR vessel internals, with specific consideration given to potential cascading and common mode effects. An initial phase has been completed in which background material was gathered and evaluated, and potential accident sequences were identified. A second phase is underway to perform a simplified, quantitative probabilistic risk assessment on a representative high-power BWR/4. Results of the initial study conducted on the jet pumps show that any cascading failures would not result in a significant increase in the core damage frequency. The methodology is currently being extended to other major reactor internals components.

  20. The failure of cancer chemoprevention.

    PubMed

    Potter, John D

    2014-05-01

    Chemoprevention is proposed as a clinical analogue of population prevention, aimed at reducing likelihood of disease progression, not across the population, but in identified high-risk individuals and not by behavioral or lifestyle modification, but by the use of pharmaceutical agents. Cardiovascular chemoprevention is successful via control of hyperlipidemias and hypertension. However, chemoprevention of cancer is an almost universal failure: not only are some results null; even more frequently, there is an excess of disease, including disease that the agents were chosen specifically to reduce. A brief introduction is followed by the evidence for a wide variety of agents and their largely deleterious, sometimes null, and in one case, largely beneficial, consequences as possible chemopreventives. The agents include (i) those that are food derived and their synthetic analogues: β-carotene, folic acid, retinol and retinoids, vitamin E, multivitamin supplements, vitamin C, calcium and selenium and (ii) agents targeted at metabolic and hormonal pathways: statins, estrogen and antagonists, 5α-reductase inhibitors. There are two agents for which there is good evidence of benefit when the strategy is focused on those at defined high risk but where wider application is much more problematic: aspirin and tamoxifen. The major problems with cancer chemoprevention are presented. This is followed by a hypothesis to explain the failure of cancer chemoprevention as an enterprise, arguing that the central tenets that underpin it are flawed and showing why, far from doing good, cancer chemoprevention causes harm.

  1. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  2. Adipokines and insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Alexander J; Funnell, Alister PW; Pearson, Richard CM; Crossley, Merlin; Bell-Anderson, Kim S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern and a strong risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. The last two decades have seen a reconsideration of the role of white adipose tissue (WAT) in whole body metabolism and insulin action. Adipose tissue-derived cytokines and hormones, or adipokines, are likely mediators of metabolic function and dysfunction. While several adipokines have been associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes, a select group has been linked with insulin sensitivity, namely leptin, adiponectin, and more recently, adipolin. What is known about these insulin-sensitizing molecules and their effects in healthy and insulin resistant states is the subject of this review. There remains a significant amount of research to do to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action of these adipokines for development of therapeutics in metabolic disease. PMID:24719781

  3. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  4. Battle Space Action Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-14

    VREEDE, G. J. D., & KOLFSCHOTEN, G. L . (2008). Extending the contextual and organizational elements of adaptive structurization theory in GSS...Reiter-Palmon, R., & Harland, L . (2009). Computer Assisted Collaboration Engineering and Process Support Systems: The BattleSpace ActionCenters...Collaboration Science, 27 February, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE. 18. BRIGGS, R.O., VREEDE, G.J. DE, REITER-PALMON, R., HARLAND, L

  5. EUREX D: An expert system for failure diagnosis and recovery in the TCS of the European retrievable carrier EURECA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kellner, A.; Belau, W.; Schielow, N.

    1987-01-01

    An expert system for diagnosis and recovery of failures in the Freon cooling loop of the European retrievable experiment carrier EURECA is described. The system demonstrates the feasibility of a functional scope of expert diagnostic systems which appears to be essential for practical applications of such systems in space technology. The scope includes early warning and treatment of incomplete information, fault tolerance, identification of failure superpositions, intelligent reaction to unforeseen events, and detailed status display for optimal recovery action.

  6. Finding minimal action sequences with a simple evaluation of actions

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.

    2014-01-01

    Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326

  7. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  8. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  9. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  10. Postbuckling failure of composite plates with holes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. H.; Hyer, M. W.

    1992-01-01

    This paper summarizes a study focused on understanding the failure mechanisms present in a plate with a centrally located circular hole loaded inplane into the postbuckling range of deflections. The study was numerical and experimental in nature and had as a goal the a priori prediction of failure using existing failure data from several sources, together with a stress analysis. The maximum stress failure criterion was used to predict failure and both intra- and interlaminar stresses were considered. Four laminates were considered. The phenomenon of modal interaction, or the jumping from one deformed configuration to another, is discussed. With this jumping, the plate configuration may change from one half-wave in the loading direction to two half-waves in the loading direction. The study concludes that the failure in (+/-45/0/90)2s and (+/-45/2(2))2s laminates is due to fiber compression failure and is predictable. The failure load is, for the most part, independent of response configuration. The (+/-45/0/(6))s laminate fails due to interlaminar shear along the simple support, while the response and failure of the (+/-45)4s laminate is governed to a large degree by material nonlinearities and progressive failure.

  11. Plasma Glutamine Concentrations in Liver Failure

    PubMed Central

    Helling, Gunnel; Wahlin, Staffan; Smedberg, Marie; Pettersson, Linn; Tjäder, Inga; Norberg, Åke; Rooyackers, Olav; Wernerman, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Background Higher than normal plasma glutamine concentration at admission to an intensive care unit is associated with an unfavorable outcome. Very high plasma glutamine levels are sometimes seen in both acute and chronic liver failure. We aimed to systematically explore the relation between different types of liver failure and plasma glutamine concentrations. Methods Four different groups of patients were studies; chronic liver failure (n = 40), acute on chronic liver failure (n = 20), acute fulminant liver failure (n = 20), and post-hepatectomy liver failure (n = 20). Child-Pugh and Model for End-stage Liver Disease (MELD) scores were assessed as indices of liver function. All groups except the chronic liver failure group were followed longitudinally during hospitalisation. Outcomes were recorded up to 48 months after study inclusion. Results All groups had individuals with very high plasma glutamine concentrations. In the total group of patients (n = 100), severity of liver failure correlated significantly with plasma glutamine concentration, but the correlation was not strong. Conclusion Liver failure, regardless of severity and course of illness, may be associated with a high plasma glutamine concentration. Further studies are needed to understand whether high glutamine levels should be regarded as a biomarker or as a contributor to symptomatology in liver failure. PMID:26938452

  12. The shame of failure: examining the link between fear of failure and shame.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Holly A; Elliot, Andrew J

    2005-02-01

    The present research was designed to examine hypotheses derived from the proposition that shame is the core of fear of failure. Study 1 was conducted in a naturalistic setting and demonstrated that individuals high in fear of failure reported greater shame upon a perceived failure experience than those low in fear of failure. These findings were obtained controlling for other negative emotions. Study 2 was conducted in a controlled laboratory setting and demonstrated that high fear of failure individuals reported greater shame, overgeneralization, and closeness to their mother (controlling for baseline levels of these variables) than those low in fear of failure. Those high in fear of failure also reported that they would be less likely to tell their mother and father about their failure experience and would be more likely to tell their mother and father about their success experience. The implications of these findings for acquiring a deeper understanding of fear of failure are discussed.

  13. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  14. Nitric oxide, malnutrition and chronic renal failure.

    PubMed

    Brunini, Tatiana M C; Moss, Monique B; Siqueira, Mariana A S; Santos, Sérgio F F; Lugon, Jocemir R; Mendes-Ribeiro, Antônio C

    2007-04-01

    The conditionally essential amino acid L-arginine is the substrate for nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, a key second messenger involved in physiological functions including endothelium-dependent vascular relaxation and inhibition of platelet adhesion and aggregation. Extracellular L-arginine transport seems to be essential for the production of NO by the action of NO synthases (NOS), even when the intracellular levels of L-arginine are available in excess (L-arginine paradox). Chronic renal failure (CRF) is a complex clinical condition associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and thrombosis leading to cardiovascular events. Various studies document that markers of malnutrition and inflammation, such as low body mass index (BMI), C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6), are strong independent predictors of cardiovascular mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). There is considerable literature demonstrating that a disturbance in the nitric oxide control mechanism plays a role in mediating the haemodynamic and haemostatic disorders present in CRF. Endogenous analogues of L-arginine, ADMA and L-NMMA, which can inhibit NO synthesis and L-arginine transport, are increased whilst L-arginine is reduced in plasma from all stages of CRF patients. In this context, the uptake of L-arginine in blood cells is increased in undialysed CRF patients and in patients treated by CAPD and haemodialysis. In platelets obtained from haemodialysis patients, the activation of L-arginine transport and NO production was limited to well-nourished patients. Impairment in nitric oxide bioactivity, coupled with malnutrition and inflammation, may contribute to increased incidence of atherothrombotic events in CRF. This article summarizes the current knowledge of L-arginine-nitric oxide pathway and malnutrition in CRF and briefly describes possible therapeutic interventions.

  15. On the Inclusion of Externally Controlled Actions in Action Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsai, Jessica Chia-Chin; Knoblich, Gunther; Sebanz, Natalie

    2011-01-01

    According to ideomotor theories, perceiving action effects produced by others triggers corresponding action representations in the observer. We tested whether this principle extends to actions performed by externally controlled limbs and tools. Participants performed a go-no-go version of a spatial compatibility task in which their own actions…

  16. Light water reactor lower head failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Rempe, J.L.; Chavez, S.A.; Thinnes, G.L.

    1993-10-01

    This document presents the results from a US Nuclear Regulatory Commission-sponsored research program to investigate the mode and timing of vessel lower head failure. Major objectives of the analysis were to identify plausible failure mechanisms and to develop a method for determining which failure mode would occur first in different light water reactor designs and accident conditions. Failure mechanisms, such as tube ejection, tube rupture, global vessel failure, and localized vessel creep rupture, were studied. Newly developed models and existing models were applied to predict which failure mechanism would occur first in various severe accident scenarios. So that a broader range of conditions could be considered simultaneously, calculations relied heavily on models with closed-form or simplified numerical solution techniques. Finite element techniques-were employed for analytical model verification and examining more detailed phenomena. High-temperature creep and tensile data were obtained for predicting vessel and penetration structural response.

  17. Failure analyses of composite bolted joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, D. W.; Gillespie, J. W.; York, J. L.; Pipes, R. B.

    1980-01-01

    The complex failure behavior exhibited by bolted joints of graphite epoxy (Hercules AS/3501) was investigated for the net tension, bearing and shearout failure modes using combined analytical and experimental techniques. Plane stress, linear elastic, finite element methods were employed to determine the two dimensional state of stress resulting from a loaded hole in a finite width, semiinfinite strip. The stresses predicted by the finite element method were verified by experiment to lend credence to the analysis. The influence of joint geometric parameters on the state of stress and resultant strength of the joint was also studied. The resulting functional relationships found to exist between bolted joint strength and the geometric parameters, were applied in the formulation of semiempirical strength models for the basic failure modes. A point stress failure criterion was successfully applied as the failure criterion for the net tension and shearout failure modes.

  18. Idaho Chemical Processing Plant failure rate database

    SciTech Connect

    Alber, T.G.; Hunt, C.R.; Fogarty, S.P.; Wilson, J.R.

    1995-08-01

    This report represents the first major upgrade to the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) Failure Rate Database. This upgrade incorporates additional site-specific and generic data while improving on the previous data reduction techniques. In addition, due to a change in mission at the ICPP, the status of certain equipment items has changed from operating to standby or off-line. A discussion of how this mission change influenced the relevance of failure data also has been included. This report contains two data sources: the ICPP Failure Rate Database and a generic failure rate database. A discussion is presented on the approaches and assumptions used to develop the data in the ICPP Failure Rate Database. The generic database is included along with a short discussion of its application. A brief discussion of future projects recommended to strengthen and lend credibility to the ICPP Failure Rate Database also is included.

  19. A review of macroscopic ductile failure criteria.

    SciTech Connect

    Corona, Edmundo; Reedlunn, Benjamin

    2013-09-01

    The objective of this work was to describe several of the ductile failure criteria com- monly used to solve practical problems. The following failure models were considered: equivalent plastic strain, equivalent plastic strain in tension, maximum shear, Mohr- Coulomb, Wellman's tearing parameter, Johnson-Cook and BCJ MEM. The document presents the main characteristics of each failure model as well as sample failure predic- tions for simple proportional loading stress histories in three dimensions and in plane stress. Plasticity calculations prior to failure were conducted with a simple, linear hardening, J2 plasticity model. The resulting failure envelopes were plotted in prin- cipal stress space and plastic strain space, where the dependence on stress triaxiality and Lode angle are clearly visible. This information may help analysts select a ductile fracture model for a practical problem and help interpret analysis results.

  20. Failures in surgery for stapedial otosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Freeman, J

    1981-08-01

    The causes for failure in surgery for stapedial otosclerosis are many. Most of these occur in the early postoperative period. Failures occurring later are due to either a breakdown of the reconstructed transformer system or to a labyrinthitis due to failure of the vestibular seal. The role of cochlear otospongiosis in producing late failures has not been sufficiently emphasized. This clinical review of 105 surgical failures examined consecutively during the years of 1975 through 1979 will demonstrate the importance of cochlear otospongiosis in this consideration. The fate of the unoperated-on ear in unilateral surgical failures will be demonstrated. Control of the progressive sensorineural hearing loss in these instances can be gained by the use of sodium fluoride therapy.

  1. The lived experience of NCLEX failure.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Margaret J; Papastrat, Karen; Czekanski, Kathleen; Hagan, Kevin

    2004-07-01

    Educators help coach, focus, and prepare students for the National Council Licensure Examination (NCLEX), but often fall short in providing support when graduates are not successful. Most research to date has focused solely on predicting failure, with little to no attention given to interventions after failure. This study presents the voices of unsuccessful candidates, their responses to failure, their perspectives of the factors that contributed to their failure, and the changes they made that led to subsequent success. The results demonstrate common themes related to the failure experience, successful remediation strategies for retesting, and recommendations for faculty interventions during this vulnerable period. Nurse educators have a responsibility to identify, inform, and intervene with students who are at high risk of failing the NCLEX, and this responsibility is executed capably. However, the role extends beyond graduation. The responsibility to help nursing graduates transition from failure to licensure is the final step of successful undergraduate nursing education.

  2. Pediatric Heart Failure in the Developing World.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishnan, Sivasubramanian

    2014-01-01

    The exact prevalence of heart failure among children of developing countries is not known, as the data is limited. The relative frequency of different causes of pediatric heart failure varies widely across different countries and even among different parts of large countries like India. Children of developing countries face a double burden of etiologies. Conditions such us congenital heart disease, myocarditis and cardiomyopathies are common causes of pediatric of heart failure. In addition, diseases like rheumatic heart disease, nutritional deficiencies, and other tropical diseases also result in heart failure among children of the developing countries. However, most of the developing countries have low resources and hence management of pediatric heart failure becomes challenging. Advanced therapies for heart failure are rarely used in children of developing countries and cardiac transplant remains a distant dream.

  3. Renovascular heart failure: heart failure in patients with atherosclerotic renal artery disease.

    PubMed

    Kawarada, Osami; Yasuda, Satoshi; Noguchi, Teruo; Anzai, Toshihisa; Ogawa, Hisao

    2016-07-01

    Atherosclerotic renal artery disease presents with a broad spectrum of clinical features, including heart failure as well as hypertension, and renal failure. Although recent randomized controlled trials failed to demonstrate renal artery stenting can reduce blood pressure or the number of cardiovascular or renal events more so than medical therapy, increasing attention has been paid to flash pulmonary edema and congestive heart failure associated with atherosclerotic renal artery disease. This clinical entity "renovascular heart failure" is diagnosed retrospectively. Given the increasing global burden of heart failure, this review highlights the background and catheter-based therapeutic aspects for renovascular heart failure.

  4. Radiocontrast-Induced Renal Failure

    PubMed Central

    Misson, Robert T.; Cutler, Ralph E.

    1985-01-01

    Review of the literature concerning contrast-induced renal dysfunction shows that the currently used agents are remarkably safe with careful patient selection. Clinically apparent kidney failure after their use is essentially nonexistent in those without preexistent renal insufficiency. The incidence rises rapidly in those with azotemia from any cause, however, and diabetic persons with nephropathy are perhaps at special risk. Vigorous volume expansion is possibly effective as a preventive measure and may attenuate adverse effects in those in whom postcontrast dysfunction occurs. New agents are becoming available. It is not yet known if these will prove safer or cost-effective. They have some experimentally demonstrated and theoretic advantages over the presently used agents. PMID:4013281

  5. [Premature ovarian failure: which protocols?].

    PubMed

    Merviel, P; Lourdel, E; Boulard, V; Cabry, R; Claeys, C; Oliéric, M-F; Sanguinet, P; Brasseur, F; Henri, I; Copin, H

    2008-09-01

    This review shows the results of the various studies concerning the protocols applied to the women presenting a premature ovarian failure. Will be thus analyzed the natural cycles (or semi-natural), the increase in the dose of gonadotrophins, the clomiphene citrate and the anti-aromatases, the protocols with GnRH agonists long, short, stop or microdoses, the protocols with GnRH antagonists and the adjuvant treatments: aspirin, nitric oxyde, recombinant LH recombining, growth hormone and androgens. The interest of several protocols is to collect a sufficient number of oocytes (and thus of embryos to be transferred), making it possible to obtain reasonable rates of pregnancy. However, it arises that the rates of pregnancy observed among these women depend not only on their ovarian reserve and their age, but are also function of the type of infertility, of the cycle number and the uterus.

  6. Heart Failure Update: Outpatient Management.

    PubMed

    Wojnowich, Katherine; Korabathina, Ravi

    2016-03-01

    Outpatient management of heart failure (HF) is aimed at treating symptoms and preventing hospitalizations and readmissions. Management is initiated in a stepwise approach. Blockade of the renin-angiotensin system is a cornerstone of therapy and should be started, along with beta blockers, as soon as the diagnosis of HF is made. Other drugs, including diuretics, aldosterone antagonists, hydralazine, and nitrates, may be added based on symptoms and American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association stage. Despite a great interest in and theoretical benefit of naturoceutical products in the mitigation of oxidative stress and HF progression, none has been proven to be beneficial, and concerns exist regarding their interactions with standard HF drugs. Other nonpharmacologic interventions, including sodium restriction, regular exercise, and/or cardiac rehabilitation, should be initiated at diagnosis. HF often is progressive, and clinicians should be aware of late stage management options, including implantable devices, cardiac transplantation, and hospice care.

  7. Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert; Abraham, Jacob; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, J.; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, Bill; Chien, Andrew; Coteus, Paul; DeBardeleben, Nathan; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Fazzari, Saverio; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Rob; Stearley, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on Addressing failures in exascale computing' held in Park City, Utah, 4-11 August 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system, discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system, and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia, and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  8. Addressing failures in exascale computing

    SciTech Connect

    Snir, Marc; Wisniewski, Robert W.; Abraham, Jacob A.; Adve, Sarita; Bagchi, Saurabh; Balaji, Pavan; Belak, Jim; Bose, Pradip; Cappello, Franck; Carlson, William; Chien, Andrew A.; Coteus, Paul; Debardeleben, Nathan A.; Diniz, Pedro; Engelmann, Christian; Erez, Mattan; Saverio, Fazzari; Geist, Al; Gupta, Rinku; Johnson, Fred; Krishnamoorthy, Sriram; Leyffer, Sven; Liberty, Dean; Mitra, Subhasish; Munson, Todd; Schreiber, Robert; Stearly, Jon; Van Hensbergen, Eric

    2014-05-01

    We present here a report produced by a workshop on “Addressing Failures in Exascale Computing” held in Park City, Utah, August 4–11, 2012. The charter of this workshop was to establish a common taxonomy about resilience across all the levels in a computing system; discuss existing knowledge on resilience across the various hardware and software layers of an exascale system; and build on those results, examining potential solutions from both a hardware and software perspective and focusing on a combined approach. The workshop brought together participants with expertise in applications, system software, and hardware; they came from industry, government, and academia; and their interests ranged from theory to implementation. The combination allowed broad and comprehensive discussions and led to this document, which summarizes and builds on those discussions.

  9. IUD failures--possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Barwin, B N; Gillieson, M

    1983-09-01

    Failure rates with IUDs have decreased markedly due to better design and increased surface area, as well as the addition of copper and progesterone agents. There is a constant pregnancy rate for all devices varying between 0.7 and 3.6 for 100 woman years' use. Ultrasound scans were carried out in 23 patients with positive pregnancy tests. With the exception of 5 pregnancies, 18 IUDs were located in the lower segment of the uterus below the gestational sac. This was probably as a result of 1 or more of the following: poor IUD positioning, partial expulsion of the IUD, malposition of IUD, abnormal geometry of the uterine cavity, myometrial contractions, impeded or diminished immunological response to a foreign body, antiprostaglandins, and rate of calcium or other deposits on the copper IUD. When the IUD was below the gestational sac as demonstrated by ultrasound, IUD removal resulted in no spontaneous abortions.

  10. Techniques for Improving Pilot Recovery from System Failures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pritchett, Amy R.

    2001-01-01

    This project examined the application of intelligent cockpit systems to aid air transport pilots at the tasks of reacting to in-flight system failures and of planning and then following a safe four dimensional trajectory to the runway threshold during emergencies. Two studies were conducted. The first examined pilot performance with a prototype awareness/alerting system in reacting to on-board system failures. In a full-motion, high-fidelity simulator, Army helicopter pilots were asked to fly a mission during which, without warning or briefing, 14 different failures were triggered at random times. Results suggest that the amount of information pilots require from such diagnostic systems is strongly dependent on their training; for failures they are commonly trained to react to with a procedural response, they needed only an indication of which failure to follow, while for 'un-trained' failures, they benefited from more intelligent and informative systems. Pilots were also found to over-rely on the system in conditions were it provided false or mis-leading information. In the second study, a proof-of-concept system was designed suitable for helping pilots replan their flights in emergency situations for quick, safe trajectory generation. This system is described in this report, including: the use of embedded fast-time simulation to predict the trajectory defined by a series of discrete actions; the models of aircraft and pilot dynamics required by the system; and the pilot interface. Then, results of a flight simulator evaluation with airline pilots are detailed. In 6 of 72 simulator runs, pilots were not able to establish a stable flight path on localizer and glideslope, suggesting a need for cockpit aids. However, results also suggest that, to be operationally feasible, such an aid must be capable of suggesting safe trajectories to the pilot; an aid that only verified plans entered by the pilot was found to have significantly detrimental effects on performance and

  11. Fault failure with moderate earthquakes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnston, M.J.S.; Linde, A.T.; Gladwin, M.T.; Borcherdt, R.D.

    1987-01-01

    High resolution strain and tilt recordings were made in the near-field of, and prior to, the May 1983 Coalinga earthquake (ML = 6.7, ?? = 51 km), the August 4, 1985, Kettleman Hills earthquake (ML = 5.5, ?? = 34 km), the April 1984 Morgan Hill earthquake (ML = 6.1, ?? = 55 km), the November 1984 Round Valley earthquake (ML = 5.8, ?? = 54 km), the January 14, 1978, Izu, Japan earthquake (ML = 7.0, ?? = 28 km), and several other smaller magnitude earthquakes. These recordings were made with near-surface instruments (resolution 10-8), with borehole dilatometers (resolution 10-10) and a 3-component borehole strainmeter (resolution 10-9). While observed coseismic offsets are generally in good agreement with expectations from elastic dislocation theory, and while post-seismic deformation continued, in some cases, with a moment comparable to that of the main shock, preseismic strain or tilt perturbations from hours to seconds (or less) before the main shock are not apparent above the present resolution. Precursory slip for these events, if any occurred, must have had a moment less than a few percent of that of the main event. To the extent that these records reflect general fault behavior, the strong constraint on the size and amount of slip triggering major rupture makes prediction of the onset times and final magnitudes of the rupture zones a difficult task unless the instruments are fortuitously installed near the rupture initiation point. These data are best explained by an inhomogeneous failure model for which various areas of the fault plane have either different stress-slip constitutive laws or spatially varying constitutive parameters. Other work on seismic waveform analysis and synthetic waveforms indicates that the rupturing process is inhomogeneous and controlled by points of higher strength. These models indicate that rupture initiation occurs at smaller regions of higher strength which, when broken, allow runaway catastrophic failure. ?? 1987.

  12. Theory for Electromigration Failure in Cu Conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lloyd, J. R.; Murray, C. E.; Shaw, T. M.; Lane, M. W.; Liu, X.-H.; Liniger, E. G.

    2006-02-07

    A model for electromigration failure is proposed where the criterion for damage is not classical nucleation forming a void, but is a delamination at an interface. In addition, the anisotropy in the elastic constants of Cu metal is responsible for a bimodal failure distribution recognizing that the driving force for mass transport depends on the hydrostatic stress whereas the failure criterion depends on a normal stress. The agreement with published data is reasonably good.

  13. ASPH modeling of Material Damage and Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, J M

    2010-04-30

    We describe our new methodology for Adaptive Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (ASPH) and its application to problems in modeling material failure. We find that ASPH is often crucial for properly modeling such experiments, since in most cases the strain placed on materials is non-isotropic (such as a stretching rod), and without the directional adaptability of ASPH numerical failure due to SPH nodes losing contact in the straining direction can compete with or exceed the physical process of failure.

  14. Mechanical Failure Prognosis Through Oil Debris Monitoring

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-01-01

    AD/A-006 19U MECHANICAL FAILURE PROGNOSIS THROUGH OIL DEBRIS MONITORING Alan Beex"bower Exxon Research and Engineering Company Prepared...PERIOD COVERED Final Report 18 June 1973 to 1 August 197A 4. TITLE (•«id Subl/rl«) MECHANICAL FAILURE PROGNOSIS THROUGH OIL DEBRIS ...Company project entitled "Mechanical Failure Prognosis through Debris Analysis." This study was conducted for the Eustis Directorate, U.S. Army Air

  15. Probabilistic Anisotropic Failure Criteria for Composite Materials.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    worksheets were based on Microsoft Excel software. 55 55 ’. 2.’ 𔃼..’. -.. ’-,’€’.’’.’ :2.,2..’..’.2.’.’.,’.." .𔃼.. .2...analytically described the failure cri - terion and probabilistic failure states of a anisotropic composite in a combined stress state. Strength...APPENDIX F RELIABILITY/FAILURE FUNCTION WORKSHEET ........... 76 APPENDIX G PERCENTILE STRENGTH WORKSHEET ....................... 80 LIST OF

  16. Power Grid Defense Against Malicious Cascading Failure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    Power Grid Defense Against Malicious Cascading Failure Paulo Shakarian Dept. EECS and Network Science Center U.S. Military Academy West Point, NY...adversary looking to disrupt a power grid may look to target certain substations and sources of power genera- tion to initiate a cascading failure that...graph and introduce the cascad - ing failure game in which both the defender and attacker choose a subset of power stations such as to minimize (max

  17. Energy efficiency, market failures, and government policy

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, M.D.; Koomey, J.G.; McMahon, J.E.; Sanstad, A.H.; Hirst, E.

    1994-03-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating engineering-economic evidence on the diffusion of energy efficiency improvements. Four examples are evaluated within this framework. The analysis provides evidence of market failures related to energy efficiency. Specific market failures that may impede the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency are discussed. Two programs that have had a major impact in overcoming these market failures, utility DSM programs and appliance standards, are described.

  18. Failure mode analysis to predict product reliability.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zemanick, P. P.

    1972-01-01

    The failure mode analysis (FMA) is described as a design tool to predict and improve product reliability. The objectives of the failure mode analysis are presented as they influence component design, configuration selection, the product test program, the quality assurance plan, and engineering analysis priorities. The detailed mechanics of performing a failure mode analysis are discussed, including one suggested format. Some practical difficulties of implementation are indicated, drawn from experience with preparing FMAs on the nuclear rocket engine program.

  19. Failure analysis of high performance ballistic fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spatola, Jennifer S.

    High performance fibers have a high tensile strength and modulus, good wear resistance, and a low density, making them ideal for applications in ballistic impact resistance, such as body armor. However, the observed ballistic performance of these fibers is much lower than the predicted values. Since the predictions assume only tensile stress failure, it is safe to assume that the stress state is affecting fiber performance. The purpose of this research was to determine if there are failure mode changes in the fiber fracture when transversely loaded by indenters of different shapes. An experimental design mimicking transverse impact was used to determine any such effects. Three different indenters were used: round, FSP, and razor blade. The indenter height was changed to change the angle of failure tested. Five high performance fibers were examined: KevlarRTM KM2, SpectraRTM 130d, DyneemaRTM SK-62 and SK-76, and ZylonRTM 555. Failed fibers were analyzed using an SEM to determine failure mechanisms. The results show that the round and razor blade indenters produced a constant failure strain, as well as failure mechanisms independent of testing angle. The FSP indenter produced a decrease in failure strain as the angle increased. Fibrillation was the dominant failure mechanism at all angles for the round indenter, while through thickness shearing was the failure mechanism for the razor blade. The FSP indenter showed a transition from fibrillation at low angles to through thickness shearing at high angles, indicating that the round and razor blade indenters are extreme cases of the FSP indenter. The failure mechanisms observed with the FSP indenter at various angles correlated with the experimental strain data obtained during fiber testing. This indicates that geometry of the indenter tip in compression is a contributing factor in lowering the failure strain of the high performance fibers. TEM analysis of the fiber failure mechanisms was also attempted, though without

  20. Failure modes in surface micromachined microelectromechanical actuators

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, S.L.; Rodgers, M.S.; LaVigne, G.; Sniegowski, J.J.; Clews, P.; Tanner, D.M.; Peterson, K.A.

    1998-03-01

    In order for the rapidly emerging field of MicroElectroMechanical Systems (MEMS) to meet its extraordinary expectations regarding commercial impact, issues pertaining to how they fail must be understood. The authors identify failure modes common to a broad range of MEMS actuators, including adhesion (stiction) and friction induced failures caused by improper operational methods, mechanical instabilities, and electrical instabilities. Demonstrated methods to mitigate these failure modes include implementing optimized designs, model based operational methods, and chemical surface treatments.

  1. Failure of Non-Circular Composite Cylinders

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyer, M. W.

    2004-01-01

    In this study, a progressive failure analysis is used to investigate leakage in internally pressurized non-circular composite cylinders. This type of approach accounts for the localized loss of stiffness when material failure occurs at some location in a structure by degrading the local material elastic properties by a certain factor. The manner in which this degradation of material properties takes place depends on the failure modes, which are determined by the application of a failure criterion. The finite-element code STAGS, which has the capability to perform progressive failure analysis using different degradation schemes and failure criteria, is utilized to analyze laboratory scale, graphite-epoxy, elliptical cylinders with quasi-isotropic, circumferentially-stiff, and axially-stiff material orthotropies. The results are divided into two parts. The first part shows that leakage, which is assumed to develop if there is material failure in every layer at some axial and circumferential location within the cylinder, does not occur without failure of fibers. Moreover before fibers begin to fail, only matrix tensile failures, or matrix cracking, takes place, and at least one layer in all three cylinders studied remain uncracked, preventing the formation of a leakage path. That determination is corroborated by the use of different degradation schemes and various failure criteria. Among the degradation schemes investigated are the degradation of different engineering properties, the use of various degradation factors, the recursive or non-recursive degradation of the engineering properties, and the degradation of material properties using different computational approaches. The failure criteria used in the analysis include the noninteractive maximum stress criterion and the interactive Hashin and Tsai-Wu criteria. The second part of the results shows that leakage occurs due to a combination of matrix tensile and compressive, fiber tensile and compressive, and inplane

  2. Field failure mechanisms for photovoltaic modules

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, L. N.; Shumka, A.

    1981-01-01

    Beginning in 1976, Department of Energy field centers have installed and monitored a number of field tests and application experiments using current state-of-the-art photovoltaic modules. On-site observations of module physical and electrical degradation, together with in-depth laboratory analysis of failed modules, permits an overall assessment of the nature and causes of early field failures. Data on failure rates are presented, and key failure mechanisms are analyzed with respect to origin, effect, and prospects for correction. It is concluded that all failure modes identified to date are avoidable or controllable through sound design and production practices.

  3. Biomarkers for Heart Failure in Asia.

    PubMed

    Richards, Arthur Mark

    2015-10-01

    Contributions from the Asian biomedical community to knowledge of biomarkers in heart failure have grown rapidly since 2000. Japan has made world-leading contributions in the discovery and application of cardiac natriuretic peptides as biomarkers in heart failure, but there has been rapid growth in reports from China. Contributions also come from Taiwan, South Korea, Singapore, and Hong Kong. Centers in Asia have established clinical cohorts providing powerful platforms for the discovery and validation of biomarkers in heart failure. This century, Asian enquiry into biomarkers in heart failure will include peptides, cytokines, metabolites, nucleic acids, and other analytes.

  4. Structural system reliability under multiple failure modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mahadevan, S.; Chamis, C. C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes a computational method for system reliability estimation of propulsion structures. The failure domain of the entire structural system is computed through the union of failure regions for various critical system failure modes. The effect of non-critical progressive damage is incorporated through structural reanalysis, resulting in the construction of several linear segments to approximately cover the system failure domain. An adaptive damage imposition scheme is outlined for the sake of computational efficiency. The proposed method is used to construct the system survival cdf (cumulative distribution function) of a two-rotor system.

  5. Tailoring Therapies in Advanced Heart Failure.

    PubMed

    Puckett, Carrie; Mudd, James O

    2016-07-01

    Heart failure effects millions of people throughout the world and is a growing epidemic with a significant impact on the economics and systems of care delivery. The goal of therapy in advanced heart failure is to improve quality of life and prolong survival. Standard medical therapies may require tailoring as advanced therapies are considered in the context of patient and caregiver goals. The aim of this review is to summarize concepts for tailored medical therapy and monitoring in advanced heart failure and discuss the importance of tailoring systems of care and shared decision making in advanced heart failure.

  6. Modelling the failure behaviour of wind turbines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulstich, S.; Berkhout, V.; Mayer, J.; Siebenlist, D.

    2016-09-01

    Modelling the failure behaviour of wind turbines is an essential part of offshore wind farm simulation software as it leads to optimized decision making when specifying the necessary resources for the operation and maintenance of wind farms. In order to optimize O&M strategies, a thorough understanding of a wind turbine's failure behaviour is vital and is therefore being developed at Fraunhofer IWES. Within this article, first the failure models of existing offshore O&M tools are presented to show the state of the art and strengths and weaknesses of the respective models are briefly discussed. Then a conceptual framework for modelling different failure mechanisms of wind turbines is being presented. This framework takes into account the different wind turbine subsystems and structures as well as the failure modes of a component by applying several influencing factors representing wear and break failure mechanisms. A failure function is being set up for the rotor blade as exemplary component and simulation results have been compared to a constant failure rate and to empirical wind turbine fleet data as a reference. The comparison and the breakdown of specific failure categories demonstrate the overall plausibility of the model.

  7. Catastrophic cascade of failures in interdependent networks.

    PubMed

    Buldyrev, Sergey V; Parshani, Roni; Paul, Gerald; Stanley, H Eugene; Havlin, Shlomo

    2010-04-15

    Complex networks have been studied intensively for a decade, but research still focuses on the limited case of a single, non-interacting network. Modern systems are coupled together and therefore should be modelled as interdependent networks. A fundamental property of interdependent networks is that failure of nodes in one network may lead to failure of dependent nodes in other networks. This may happen recursively and can lead to a cascade of failures. In fact, a failure of a very small fraction of nodes in one network may lead to the complete fragmentation of a system of several interdependent networks. A dramatic real-world example of a cascade of failures ('concurrent malfunction') is the electrical blackout that affected much of Italy on 28 September 2003: the shutdown of power stations directly led to the failure of nodes in the Internet communication network, which in turn caused further breakdown of power stations. Here we develop a framework for understanding the robustness of interacting networks subject to such cascading failures. We present exact analytical solutions for the critical fraction of nodes that, on removal, will lead to a failure cascade and to a complete fragmentation of two interdependent networks. Surprisingly, a broader degree distribution increases the vulnerability of interdependent networks to random failure, which is opposite to how a single network behaves. Our findings highlight the need to consider interdependent network properties in designing robust networks.

  8. A failure management prototype: DR/Rx

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hammen, David G.; Baker, Carolyn G.; Kelly, Christine M.; Marsh, Christopher A.

    1991-01-01

    This failure management prototype performs failure diagnosis and recovery management of hierarchical, distributed systems. The prototype, which evolved from a series of previous prototypes following a spiral model for development, focuses on two functions: (1) the diagnostic reasoner (DR) performs integrated failure diagnosis in distributed systems; and (2) the recovery expert (Rx) develops plans to recover from the failure. Issues related to expert system prototype design and the previous history of this prototype are discussed. The architecture of the current prototype is described in terms of the knowledge representation and functionality of its components.

  9. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure.

    PubMed

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-02-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure.

  10. Redundancy relations and robust failure detection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chow, E. Y.; Lou, X. C.; Verghese, G. C.; Willsky, A. S.

    1984-01-01

    All failure detection methods are based on the use of redundancy, that is on (possible dynamic) relations among the measured variables. Consequently the robustness of the failure detection process depends to a great degree on the reliability of the redundancy relations given the inevitable presence of model uncertainties. The problem of determining redundancy relations which are optimally robust in a sense which includes the major issues of importance in practical failure detection is addressed. A significant amount of intuition concerning the geometry of robust failure detection is provided.

  11. Focus on renal congestion in heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Afsar, Baris; Ortiz, Alberto; Covic, Adrian; Solak, Yalcin; Goldsmith, David; Kanbay, Mehmet

    2016-01-01

    Hospitalizations due to heart failure are increasing steadily despite advances in medicine. Patients hospitalized for worsening heart failure have high mortality in hospital and within the months following discharge. Kidney dysfunction is associated with adverse outcomes in heart failure patients. Recent evidence suggests that both deterioration in kidney function and renal congestion are important prognostic factors in heart failure. Kidney congestion in heart failure results from low cardiac output (forward failure), tubuloglomerular feedback, increased intra-abdominal pressure or increased venous pressure. Regardless of the cause, renal congestion is associated with increased morbidity and mortality in heart failure. The impact on outcomes of renal decongestion strategies that do not compromise renal function should be explored in heart failure. These studies require novel diagnostic markers that identify early renal damage and renal congestion and allow monitoring of treatment responses in order to avoid severe worsening of renal function. In addition, there is an unmet need regarding evidence-based therapeutic management of renal congestion and worsening renal function. In the present review, we summarize the mechanisms, diagnosis, outcomes, prognostic markers and treatment options of renal congestion in heart failure. PMID:26798459

  12. Future technology challenges for failure analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.E.; Soden, J.M.; Henderson, C.L.

    1995-08-01

    Failure analysis is a critical element in the integrated circuit manufacturing industry. This paper explores the challenges for IC failure analysis in the environment of present and future silicon IC technology trends, using the 1994 National Technology Roadmap for Semiconductors as a technology guide. Advanced failure analysis techniques that meet the challenges of state-of-the-art IC technology are described and their applications are discussed. New paradigms will be required for failure analysis to keep pace with future advancements in IC technology.

  13. VIOLENT FRAMES IN ACTION

    SciTech Connect

    Sanfilippo, Antonio P.; McGrath, Liam R.; Whitney, Paul D.

    2011-11-17

    We present a computational approach to radical rhetoric that leverages the co-expression of rhetoric and action features in discourse to identify violent intent. The approach combines text mining and machine learning techniques with insights from Frame Analysis and theories that explain the emergence of violence in terms of moral disengagement, the violation of sacred values and social isolation in order to build computational models that identify messages from terrorist sources and estimate their proximity to an attack. We discuss a specific application of this approach to a body of documents from and about radical and terrorist groups in the Middle East and present the results achieved.

  14. Public affairs committee actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The AGU Public Affairs Committee will create an ad hoc committee to consider possible AGU position statements concerning the effects of nuclear war.The action was taken at the May 31, 1983, meeting of the Committee at the AGU Spring Meeting in Baltimore. Present were Carroll Ann Hodges, Chairman, and members Thomas J. Ahrens, David Cauffman, Jared Cohon, Stamatios Krimigis, Robert Murphy, Raymond Roble, and George Shaw. Also attending were the current Congressional Fellow Arthur Weissman and SPR—Cosmic Rays Section Secretary Miriam Forman.

  15. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  16. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  17. Transmission expansion with smart switching under demand uncertainty and line failures

    SciTech Connect

    Schumacher, Kathryn M.; Chen, Richard Li-Yang; Cohn, Amy E. M.

    2016-06-07

    One of the major challenges in deciding where to build new transmission lines is that there is uncertainty regarding future loads, renewal generation output and equipment failures. We propose a robust optimization model whose transmission expansion solutions ensure that demand can be met over a wide range of conditions. Specifically, we require feasible operation for all loads and renewable generation levels within given ranges, and for all single transmission line failures. Furthermore, we consider transmission switching as an allowable recovery action. This relatively inexpensive method of redirecting power flows improves resiliency, but introduces computational challenges. Lastly, we present a novel algorithm to solve this model. Computational results are discussed.

  18. Developing an action concept inventory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-06-01

    We report on progress towards the development of an Action Concept Inventory (ACI), a test that measures student understanding of action principles in introductory mechanics and optics. The ACI also covers key concepts of many-paths quantum mechanics, from which classical action physics arises. We used a multistage iterative development cycle for incorporating expert and student feedback into successive revisions of the ACI. The student feedback, including think-aloud interviews, enabled us to identify their misconceptions about action physics.

  19. Overweight and obesity: helping clients to take action.

    PubMed

    Tod, Angela Mary; Lacey, Anne

    2004-02-01

    This article presents the results of a qualitative research project to explore factors that encourage or discourage overweight people from low income groups to access weight loss services. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 16 people attending a commercial slimming organization in South Yorkshire. The study revealed weight loss decisions to be complex and fragile. The experiences reported mirror the 'stages of change' model described by Prochaska and DiClemente (1992). Triggers to action occurred cumulatively and decisions were reached gradually. The triggers included embarrassment and humiliation, health, fear, critical events and image. Disincentives to action were denial, previous bad experiences, previous failure and money. Decisions were linked to low self-esteem and confidence, making people vulnerable at the point they take action. The implications of this for nursing practice and services in primary care are considered.

  20. Collaborative Action Research: Historical Trends.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smulyan, Lisa

    This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…