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Sample records for action observation network

  1. Human parietofrontal networks related to action observation detected at rest.

    PubMed

    Molinari, Elisa; Baraldi, Patrizia; Campanella, Martina; Duzzi, Davide; Nocetti, Luca; Pagnoni, Giuseppe; Porro, Carlo A

    2013-01-01

    Recent data show a broad correspondence between human resting-state and task-related brain networks. We performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study to compare, in the same subjects, the spatial independent component analysis (ICA) maps obtained at rest and during the observation of either reaching/grasping hand actions or matching static pictures. Two parietofrontal networks were identified by ICA from action observation task data. One network, specific to reaching/grasping observation, included portions of the anterior intraparietal cortex and of the dorsal and ventral lateral premotor cortices. A second network included more posterior portions of the parietal lobe, the dorsomedial frontal cortex, and more anterior and ventral parts, respectively, of the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices, extending toward Broca's area; this network was more generally related to the observation of hand action and static pictures. A good spatial correspondence was found between the 2 observation-related ICA maps and 2 ICA maps identified from resting-state data. The anatomical connectivity among the identified clusters was tested in the same volunteers, using persistent angular structure-MRI and deterministic tractography. These findings extend available knowledge of human parietofrontal circuits and further support the hypothesis of a persistent coherence within functionally relevant networks during rest.

  2. Dynamic modulation of the action observation network by movement familiarity.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Tom; Goulden, Nia; Cross, Emily S

    2015-01-28

    When watching another person's actions, a network of sensorimotor brain regions, collectively termed the action observation network (AON), is engaged. Previous research suggests that the AON is more responsive when watching familiar compared with unfamiliar actions. However, most research into AON function is premised on comparisons of AON engagement during different types of task using univariate, magnitude-based approaches. To better understand the relationship between action familiarity and AON engagement, here we examine how observed movement familiarity modulates AON activity in humans using dynamic causal modeling, a type of effective connectivity analysis. Twenty-one subjects underwent fMRI scanning while viewing whole-body dance movements that varied in terms of their familiarity. Participants' task was to either predict the next posture the dancer's body would assume or to respond to a non-action-related attentional control question. To assess individuals' familiarity with each movement, participants rated each video on a measure of visual familiarity after being scanned. Parametric analyses showed more activity in left middle temporal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and inferior frontal gyrus as videos were rated as increasingly familiar. These clusters of activity formed the regions of interest for dynamic causal modeling analyses, which revealed attenuation of effective connectivity bidirectionally between parietal and temporal AON nodes when participants observed videos they rated as increasingly familiar. As such, the findings provide partial support for a predictive coding model of the AON, as well as illuminate how action familiarity manipulations can be used to explore simulation-based accounts of action understanding. PMID:25632133

  3. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  4. Both novelty and expertise increase action observation network activity.

    PubMed

    Liew, Sook-Lei; Sheng, Tong; Margetis, John L; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    Our experiences with others affect how we perceive their actions. In particular, activity in bilateral premotor and parietal cortices during action observation, collectively known as the action observation network (AON), is modulated by one's expertise with the observed actions or individuals. However, conflicting reports suggest that AON activity is greatest both for familiar and unfamiliar actions. The current study examines the effects of different types and amounts of experience (e.g., visual, interpersonal, personal) on AON activation. fMRI was used to scan 16 healthy participants without prior experience with individuals with amputations (novices), 11 experienced occupational therapists (OTs) who had varying amounts of experience with individuals with amputations, and one individual born with below-elbow residual limbs (participant CJ), as they viewed video clips of goal-matched actions performed by an individual with residual limbs and by an individual with hands. Participants were given increased visual exposure to actions performed by both effectors midway through the scanning procedure. Novices demonstrated a large AON response to the initial viewing of an individual with residual limbs compared to one with hands, but this signal was attenuated after they received visual exposure to both effectors. In contrast, OTs, who had moderate familiarity with residual limbs, demonstrated a lower AON response upon initial viewing-similar to novices after they received visual exposure. At the other extreme, CJ, who has extreme familiarity with residual limbs both visually and motorically, shows a largely increased left-lateralized AON response, exceeding that of novices and experienced OTs, when viewing the residual limb compared to hand actions. These results suggest that a nuanced model of AON engagement is needed to explain how cases of both extreme experience (CJ) and extreme novelty (novices) can result in the greatest AON activity.

  5. Beyond motor scheme: a supramodal distributed representation in the action-observation network.

    PubMed

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Vecchi, Tomaso; Fadiga, Luciano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The representation of actions within the action-observation network is thought to rely on a distributed functional organization. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that the action-observation network encodes not merely the observed motor act, but rather a representation that is independent from a specific sensory modality or sensory experience. In the present study, we wished to determine to what extent this distributed and 'more abstract' representation of action is truly supramodal, i.e. shares a common coding across sensory modalities. To this aim, a pattern recognition approach was employed to analyze neural responses in sighted and congenitally blind subjects during visual and/or auditory presentation of hand-made actions. Multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifiers discriminated action from non-action stimuli across sensory conditions (visual and auditory) and experimental groups (blind and sighted). Moreover, these classifiers labeled as 'action' the pattern of neural responses evoked during actual motor execution. Interestingly, discriminative information for the action/non action classification was located in a bilateral, but left-prevalent, network that strongly overlaps with brain regions known to form the action-observation network and the human mirror system. The ability to identify action features with a multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifier in both sighted and blind individuals and independently from the sensory modality conveying the stimuli clearly supports the hypothesis of a supramodal, distributed functional representation of actions, mainly within the action-observation network.

  6. Beyond Motor Scheme: A Supramodal Distributed Representation in the Action-Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Ricciardi, Emiliano; Handjaras, Giacomo; Bonino, Daniela; Vecchi, Tomaso; Fadiga, Luciano; Pietrini, Pietro

    2013-01-01

    The representation of actions within the action-observation network is thought to rely on a distributed functional organization. Furthermore, recent findings indicate that the action-observation network encodes not merely the observed motor act, but rather a representation that is independent from a specific sensory modality or sensory experience. In the present study, we wished to determine to what extent this distributed and ‘more abstract’ representation of action is truly supramodal, i.e. shares a common coding across sensory modalities. To this aim, a pattern recognition approach was employed to analyze neural responses in sighted and congenitally blind subjects during visual and/or auditory presentation of hand-made actions. Multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifiers discriminated action from non-action stimuli across sensory conditions (visual and auditory) and experimental groups (blind and sighted). Moreover, these classifiers labeled as ‘action’ the pattern of neural responses evoked during actual motor execution. Interestingly, discriminative information for the action/non action classification was located in a bilateral, but left-prevalent, network that strongly overlaps with brain regions known to form the action-observation network and the human mirror system. The ability to identify action features with a multivoxel pattern analyses-based classifier in both sighted and blind individuals and independently from the sensory modality conveying the stimuli clearly supports the hypothesis of a supramodal, distributed functional representation of actions, mainly within the action-observation network. PMID:23472216

  7. Sensitivity of the Action Observation Network to Physical and Observational Learning

    PubMed Central

    Cross, Emily S.; Kraemer, David J.M.; de C. Hamilton, Antonia F.; Kelley, William M.

    2009-01-01

    Human motor skills can be acquired by observation without the benefit of immediate physical practice. The current study tested if physical rehearsal and observational learning share common neural substrates within an action observation network (AON) including premotor and inferior parietal regions, that is, areas activated both for execution and observation of similar actions. Participants trained for 5 days on dance sequences set to music videos. Each day they physically rehearsed one set of dance sequences (“danced”), and passively watched a different set of sequences (“watched”). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained prior to and immediately following the 5 days of training. After training, a subset of the AON showed a degree of common activity for observational and physical learning. Activity in these premotor and parietal regions was sustained during observation of sequences that were danced or watched, but declined for unfamiliar sequences relative to the pretraining scan session. These imaging data demonstrate the emergence of action resonance processes in the human brain based on observational learning without physical practice and identify commonalities in the neural substrates for physical and observational learning. PMID:18515297

  8. Sensitivity of the action observation network to physical and observational learning.

    PubMed

    Cross, Emily S; Kraemer, David J M; Hamilton, Antonia F de C; Kelley, William M; Grafton, Scott T

    2009-02-01

    Human motor skills can be acquired by observation without the benefit of immediate physical practice. The current study tested if physical rehearsal and observational learning share common neural substrates within an action observation network (AON) including premotor and inferior parietal regions, that is, areas activated both for execution and observation of similar actions. Participants trained for 5 days on dance sequences set to music videos. Each day they physically rehearsed one set of dance sequences ("danced"), and passively watched a different set of sequences ("watched"). Functional magnetic resonance imaging was obtained prior to and immediately following the 5 days of training. After training, a subset of the AON showed a degree of common activity for observational and physical learning. Activity in these premotor and parietal regions was sustained during observation of sequences that were danced or watched, but declined for unfamiliar sequences relative to the pretraining scan session. These imaging data demonstrate the emergence of action resonance processes in the human brain based on observational learning without physical practice and identify commonalities in the neural substrates for physical and observational learning.

  9. Functional Organization of the Action Observation Network in Autism: A Graph Theory Approach

    PubMed Central

    Alaerts, Kaat; Geerlings, Franca; Herremans, Lynn; Swinnen, Stephan P.; Verhoeven, Judith; Sunaert, Stefan; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Background The ability to recognize, understand and interpret other’s actions and emotions has been linked to the mirror system or action-observation-network (AON). Although variations in these abilities are prevalent in the neuro-typical population, persons diagnosed with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) have deficits in the social domain and exhibit alterations in this neural network. Method Here, we examined functional network properties of the AON using graph theory measures and region-to-region functional connectivity analyses of resting-state fMRI-data from adolescents and young adults with ASD and typical controls (TC). Results Overall, our graph theory analyses provided convergent evidence that the network integrity of the AON is altered in ASD, and that reductions in network efficiency relate to reductions in overall network density (i.e., decreased overall connection strength). Compared to TC, individuals with ASD showed significant reductions in network efficiency and increased shortest path lengths and centrality. Importantly, when adjusting for overall differences in network density between ASD and TC groups, participants with ASD continued to display reductions in network integrity, suggesting that also network-level organizational properties of the AON are altered in ASD. Conclusion While differences in empirical connectivity contributed to reductions in network integrity, graph theoretical analyses provided indications that also changes in the high-level network organization reduced integrity of the AON. PMID:26317222

  10. Equipment Management for Sensor Networks: Linking Physical Infrastructure and Actions to Observational Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, A. S.; Horsburgh, J. S.; Matos, M.; Caraballo, J.

    2015-12-01

    Networks conducting long term monitoring using in situ sensors need the functionality to track physical equipment as well as deployments, calibrations, and other actions related to site and equipment maintenance. The observational data being generated by sensors are enhanced if direct linkages to equipment details and actions can be made. This type of information is typically recorded in field notebooks or in static files, which are rarely linked to observations in a way that could be used to interpret results. However, the record of field activities is often relevant to analysis or post-processing of the observational data. We have developed an underlying database schema and deployed a web interface for recording and retrieving information on physical infrastructure and related actions for observational networks. The database schema for equipment was designed as an extension to the Observations Data Model 2 (ODM2), a community-developed information model for spatially discrete, feature based earth observations. The core entities of ODM2 describe location, observed variable, and timing of observations, and the equipment extension contains entities to provide additional metadata specific to the inventory of physical infrastructure and associated actions. The schema is implemented in a relational database system for storage and management with an associated web interface. We designed the web-based tools for technicians to enter and query information on the physical equipment and actions such as site visits, equipment deployments, maintenance, and calibrations. These tools were implemented for the iUTAH (innovative Urban Transitions and Aridregion Hydrosustainability) ecohydrologic observatory, and we anticipate that they will be useful for similar large-scale monitoring networks desiring to link observing infrastructure to observational data to increase the quality of sensor-based data products.

  11. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  12. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  13. Action anticipation beyond the action observation network: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study in expert basketball players.

    PubMed

    Abreu, A M; Macaluso, E; Azevedo, R T; Cesari, P; Urgesi, C; Aglioti, S M

    2012-05-01

    The ability to predict the actions of others is quintessential for effective social interactions, particularly in competitive contexts (e.g. in sport) when knowledge about upcoming movements allows anticipating rather than reacting to opponents. Studies suggest that we predict what others are doing by using our own motor system as an internal forward model and that the fronto-parietal action observation network (AON) is fundamental for this ability. However, multiple-duty cells dealing with action perception and execution have been found in a variety of cortical regions. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore, in expert basketball athletes and novices, whether the ability to make early predictions about the fate of sport-specific actions (i.e. free throws) is underpinned by neural regions beyond the classical AON. We found that, although involved in action prediction, the fronto-parietal AON was similarly activated in novices and experts. Importantly, athletes exhibited relatively greater activity in the extrastriate body area during the prediction task, probably due to their expert reading of the observed action kinematics. Moreover, experts exhibited higher activation in the bilateral inferior frontal gyrus and in the right anterior insular cortex when producing errors, suggesting that they might become aware of their own errors. Correct action prediction induced higher posterior insular cortex activity in experts and higher orbito-frontal activity in novices, suggesting that body awareness is important for performance monitoring in experts, whereas novices rely more on higher-order decision-making strategies. This functional reorganization highlights the tight relationship between action anticipation, error awareness and motor expertise leading to body-related processing and differences in decision-making processes.

  14. Enhanced activation of motor execution networks using action observation combined with imagination of lower limb movements.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  15. Enhanced Activation of Motor Execution Networks Using Action Observation Combined with Imagination of Lower Limb Movements

    PubMed Central

    Villiger, Michael; Estévez, Natalia; Hepp-Reymond, Marie-Claude; Kiper, Daniel; Kollias, Spyros S.; Eng, Kynan; Hotz-Boendermaker, Sabina

    2013-01-01

    The combination of first-person observation and motor imagery, i.e. first-person observation of limbs with online motor imagination, is commonly used in interactive 3D computer gaming and in some movie scenes. These scenarios are designed to induce a cognitive process in which a subject imagines himself/herself acting as the agent in the displayed movement situation. Despite the ubiquity of this type of interaction and its therapeutic potential, its relationship to passive observation and imitation during observation has not been directly studied using an interactive paradigm. In the present study we show activation resulting from observation, coupled with online imagination and with online imitation of a goal-directed lower limb movement using functional MRI (fMRI) in a mixed block/event-related design. Healthy volunteers viewed a video (first-person perspective) of a foot kicking a ball. They were instructed to observe-only the action (O), observe and simultaneously imagine performing the action (O-MI), or imitate the action (O-IMIT). We found that when O-MI was compared to O, activation was enhanced in the ventralpremotor cortex bilaterally, left inferior parietal lobule and left insula. The O-MI and O-IMIT conditions shared many activation foci in motor relevant areas as confirmed by conjunction analysis. These results show that (i) combining observation with motor imagery (O-MI) enhances activation compared to observation-only (O) in the relevant foot motor network and in regions responsible for attention, for control of goal-directed movements and for the awareness of causing an action, and (ii) it is possible to extensively activate the motor execution network using O-MI, even in the absence of overt movement. Our results may have implications for the development of novel virtual reality interactions for neurorehabilitation interventions and other applications involving training of motor tasks. PMID:24015241

  16. Prediction of human actions: expertise and task-related effects on neural activation of the action observation network.

    PubMed

    Balser, Nils; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Stark, Rudolf; Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Williams, Andrew Mark; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-08-01

    The action observation network (AON) is supposed to play a crucial role when athletes anticipate the effect of others' actions in sports such as tennis. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to explore whether motor expertise leads to a differential activation pattern within the AON during effect anticipation and whether spatial and motor anticipation tasks are associated with a differential activation pattern within the AON depending on participant expertise level. Expert (N=16) and novice (N=16) tennis players observed video clips depicting forehand strokes with the instruction to either indicate the predicted direction of ball flight (spatial anticipation) or to decide on an appropriate response to the observed action (motor anticipation). The experts performed better than novices on both tennis anticipation tasks, with the experts showing stronger neural activation in areas of the AON, namely, the superior parietal lobe, the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior frontal gyrus, and the cerebellum. When novices were contrasted with experts, motor anticipation resulted in stronger activation of the ventral premotor cortex, the supplementary motor area, and the superior parietal lobe than spatial anticipation task did. In experts, the comparison of motor and spatial anticipation revealed no increased activation. We suggest that the stronger activation of areas in the AON during the anticipation of action effects in experts reflects their use of the more fine-tuned motor representations they have acquired and improved during years of training. Furthermore, results suggest that the neural processing of different anticipation tasks depends on the expertise level.

  17. Neural Network Development in Late Adolescents during Observation of Risk-Taking Action

    PubMed Central

    Higuchi, Shigekazu; Hida, Akiko; Enomoto, Minori; Umezawa, Jun; Mishima, Kazuo

    2012-01-01

    Emotional maturity and social awareness are important for adolescents, particularly college students beginning to face the challenges and risks of the adult world. However, there has been relatively little research into personality maturation and psychological development during late adolescence and the neural changes underlying this development. We investigated the correlation between psychological properties (neuroticism, extraversion, anxiety, and depression) and age among late adolescents (n = 25, from 18 years and 1 month to 22 years and 8 months). The results revealed that late adolescents became less neurotic, less anxious, less depressive and more extraverted as they aged. Participants then observed video clips depicting hand movements with and without a risk of harm (risk-taking or safe actions) during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The results revealed that risk-taking actions elicited significantly stronger activation in the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, temporal visual regions (superior/middle temporal areas), and parieto-occipital visual areas (cuneus, middle occipital gyri, precuneus). We found positive correlations of age and extraversion with neural activation in the insula, middle temporal gyrus, lingual gyrus, and precuneus. We also found a negative correlation of age and anxiety with activation in the angular gyrus, precentral gyrus, and red nucleus/substantia nigra. Moreover, we found that insula activation mediated the relationship between age and extraversion. Overall, our results indicate that late adolescents become less anxious and more extraverted with age, a process involving functional neural changes in brain networks related to social cognition and emotional processing. The possible neural mechanisms of psychological and social maturation during late adolescence are discussed. PMID:22768085

  18. CAN-DOO: The Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taubman, B.; Sherman, J. P.; Perry, L. B.; Markham, J.; Kelly, G.

    2011-12-01

    The urgency of climate change demands a greater understanding of our climate system, not only by the leaders of today, but by the scientists, policy makers, and citizens of tomorrow. Unfortunately, a large segment of the population currently possesses inadequate knowledge of climate science. In direct response to a need for greater scientific literacy with respect to climate science, researchers from Appalachian State University's Appalachian Atmospheric Interdisciplinary Research (AppalAIR) group, with support from NASA, have developed CAN-DOO: the Climate Action Network through Direct Observations and Outreach. CAN-DOO addresses climate science literacy by 1) Developing the infrastructure for sustaining and expanding public outreach through long-term climate measurements capable of complementing existing NASA measurements, 2) Enhancing public awareness of climate science and NASA's role in advancing our understanding of the Earth System, and 3) Introducing Science, Technology, Engineering, and Mathematics principles to homeschooled, public school, and Appalachian State University students through applied climate science activities. Project partners include the Grandfather Mountain Stewardship Foundation, Pisgah Astronomical Research Institute, and local elementary schools. In partnership with Grandfather Mountain, climate science awareness is promoted through citizen science activities, interactive public displays, and staff training. CAN-DOO engages students by involving them in the entire scientific investigative process as applied to climate science. We introduce local elementary and middle school students, homeschooled students throughout North Carolina, and undergraduate students in a new Global Climate Change course and select other courses at Appalachian State University to instrument assembly, measurement techniques, data collection, hypothesis testing, and drawing conclusions. Results are placed in the proper context via comparisons with other student

  19. Perturbing the action observation network during perception and categorization of actions' goals and grips: state-dependency and virtual lesion TMS effects.

    PubMed

    Jacquet, Pierre O; Avenanti, Alessio

    2015-03-01

    Watching others grasping and using objects activates an action observation network (AON), including inferior frontal (IFC), anterior intraparietal (AIP), and somatosensory cortices (S1). Yet, causal evidence of the differential involvement of such AON sensorimotor nodes in representing high- and low-level action components (i.e., end-goals and grip type) is meager. To address this issue, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation-adaptation (TMS-A) during 2 novel action perception tasks. Participants were shown adapting movies displaying a demonstrator performing goal-directed actions with a tool, using either power or precision grips. They were then asked to match the end-goal (Goal-recognition task) or the grip (Grip-recognition task) of actions shown in test pictures to the adapting movies. TMS was administered over IFC, AIP, or S1 during presentation of test pictures. Virtual lesion-like effects were found in the Grip-recognition task where IFC stimulation induced a general performance decrease, suggesting a critical role of IFC in perceiving grips. In the Goal-recognition task, IFC and S1 stimulation differently affected the processing of "adapted" and "nonadapted" goals. These "state-dependent" effects suggest that the overall goal of seen actions is encoded into functionally distinct and spatially overlapping neural populations in IFC-S1 and such encoding is critical for recognizing and understanding end-goals.

  20. The influence of expertise on brain activation of the action observation network during anticipation of tennis and volleyball serves

    PubMed Central

    Balser, Nils; Lorey, Britta; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Naumann, Tim; Kindermann, Stefan; Stark, Rudolf; Zentgraf, Karen; Williams, A. Mark; Munzert, Jörn

    2014-01-01

    In many daily activities, and especially in sport, it is necessary to predict the effects of others' actions in order to initiate appropriate responses. Recently, researchers have suggested that the action–observation network (AON) including the cerebellum plays an essential role during such anticipation, particularly in sport expert performers. In the present study, we examined the influence of task-specific expertise on the AON by investigating differences between two expert groups trained in different sports while anticipating action effects. Altogether, 15 tennis and 16 volleyball experts anticipated the direction of observed tennis and volleyball serves while undergoing functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). The expert group in each sport acted as novice controls in the other sport with which they had only little experience. When contrasting anticipation in both expertise conditions with the corresponding untrained sport, a stronger activation of AON areas (SPL, SMA), and particularly of cerebellar structures, was observed. Furthermore, the neural activation within the cerebellum and the SPL was linearly correlated with participant's anticipation performance, irrespective of the specific expertise. For the SPL, this relationship also holds when an expert performs a domain-specific anticipation task. Notably, the stronger activation of the cerebellum as well as of the SMA and the SPL in the expertise conditions suggests that experts rely on their more fine-tuned perceptual-motor representations that have improved during years of training when anticipating the effects of others' actions in their preferred sport. The association of activation within the SPL and the cerebellum with the task achievement suggests that these areas are the predominant brain sites involved in fast motor predictions. The SPL reflects the processing of domain-specific contextual information and the cerebellum the usage of a predictive internal model to solve the anticipation

  1. Linking perception, cognition, and action: psychophysical observations and neural network modelling.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Juan Carlos; Pérez, Oswaldo; Prado, Luis; Merchant, Hugo

    2014-01-01

    It has been argued that perception, decision making, and movement planning are in reality tightly interwoven brain processes. However, how they are implemented in neural circuits is still a matter of debate. We tested human subjects in a temporal categorization task in which intervals had to be categorized as short or long. Subjects communicated their decision by moving a cursor into one of two possible targets, which appeared separated by different angles from trial to trial. Even though there was a 1 second-long delay between interval presentation and decision communication, categorization difficulty affected subjects' performance, reaction (RT) and movement time (MT). In addition, reaction and movement times were also influenced by the distance between the targets. This implies that not only perceptual, but also movement-related considerations were incorporated into the decision process. Therefore, we searched for a model that could use categorization difficulty and target separation to describe subjects' performance, RT, and MT. We developed a network consisting of two mutually inhibiting neural populations, each tuned to one of the possible categories and composed of an accumulation and a memory node. This network sequentially acquired interval information, maintained it in working memory and was then attracted to one of two possible states, corresponding to a categorical decision. It faithfully replicated subjects' RT and MT as a function of categorization difficulty and target distance; it also replicated performance as a function of categorization difficulty. Furthermore, this model was used to make new predictions about the effect of untested durations, target distances and delay durations. To our knowledge, this is the first biologically plausible model that has been proposed to account for decision making and communication by integrating both sensory and motor planning information.

  2. Tactile perception during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vastano, Roberta; Inuggi, Alberto; Vargas, Claudia D; Baud-Bovy, Gabriel; Jacono, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry

    2016-09-01

    It has been suggested that tactile perception becomes less acute during movement to optimize motor control and to prevent an overload of afferent information generated during action. This empirical phenomenon, known as "tactile gating effect," has been associated with mechanisms of sensory feedback prediction. However, less attention has been given to the tactile attenuation effect during the observation of an action. The aim of this study was to investigate whether and how the observation of a goal-directed action influences tactile perception as during overt action. In a first experiment, we recorded vocal reaction times (RTs) of participants to tactile stimulations during the observation of a reach-to-grasp action. The stimulations were delivered on different body parts that could be either congruent or incongruent with the observed effector (the right hand and the right leg, respectively). The tactile stimulation was contrasted with a no body-related stimulation (an auditory beep). We found increased RTs for tactile congruent stimuli compared to both tactile incongruent and auditory stimuli. This effect was reported only during the observation of the reaching phase, whereas RTs were not modulated during the grasping phase. A tactile two-alternative forced-choice (2AFC) discrimination task was then conducted in order to quantify the changes in tactile sensitivity during the observation of the same goal-directed actions. In agreement with the first experiment, the tactile perceived intensity was reduced only during the reaching phase. These results suggest that tactile processing during action observation relies on a process similar to that occurring during action execution. PMID:27161552

  3. Peer Observation Action Research Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandt, Fred-Ole

    2012-01-01

    This paper outlines the initial findings of an action research project that focuses on the possible contribution of peer observation to a more collaborative environment and teachers' professional growth at The University High School. The research component played a significant part as previous attempts to change the culture at the school were…

  4. The ANTARES observation network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dogliotti, Ana I.; Ulloa, Osvaldo; Muller-Karger, Frank; Hu, Chuanmin; Murch, Brock; Taylor, Charles; Yuras, Gabriel; Kampel, Milton; Lutz, Vivian; Gaeta, Salvador; Gagliardini, Domingo A.; Garcia, Carlos A. E.; Klein, Eduardo; Helbling, Walter; Varela, Ramon; Barbieri, Elena; Negri, Ruben; Frouin, Robert; Sathyendranath, Shubha; Platt, Trevor

    2005-08-01

    The ANTARES network seeks to understand the variability of the coastal environment on a continental scale and the local, regional, and global factors and processes that effect this change. The focus are coastal zones of South America and the Caribbean Sea. The initial approach includes developing time series of in situ and satellite-based environmental observations in coastal and oceanic regions. The network is constituted by experts that seek to exchange ideas, develop an infrastructure for mutual logistical and knowledge support, and link in situ time series of observations located around the Americas with real-time and historical satellite-derived time series of relevant products. A major objective is to generate information that will be distributed publicly and openly in the service of coastal ocean research, resource management, science-based policy making and education in the Americas. As a first stage, the network has linked oceanographic time series located in Argentina, Brazil, Chile and Venezuela. The group has also developed an online tool to examine satellite data collected with sensors such as NASA's MODIS. Specifically, continental-scale high-resolution (1 km) maps of chlorophyll and of sea surface temperature are generated and served daily over the web according to specifications of users within the ANTARES network. Other satellite-derived variables will be added as support for the network is solidified. ANTARES serves data and offers simple analysis tools that anyone can use with the ultimate goal of improving coastal assessments, management and policies.

  5. Eye Movements During Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Falck-Ytter, Terje

    2015-01-01

    An important element in social interactions is predicting the goals of others, including the goals of others’ manual actions. Over a decade ago, Flanagan and Johansson demonstrated that, when observing other people reaching for objects, the observer’s gaze arrives at the goal before the action is completed. Moreover, those authors proposed that this behavior was mediated by an embodied process, which takes advantage of the observer’s motor knowledge. Here, we scrutinize work that has followed that seminal article. We include studies on adults that have used combined eye tracking and transcranial magnetic stimulation technologies to test causal hypotheses about underlying brain circuits. We also include developmental studies on human infants. We conclude that, although several aspects of the embodied process of predictive eye movements remain to be clarified, current evidence strongly suggests that the motor system plays a causal role in guiding predictive gaze shifts that focus on another person’s future goal. The early emergence of the predictive gaze in infant development underlines its importance for social cognition and interaction. PMID:26385998

  6. Visual Working Memory for Observed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.

    2007-01-01

    Human society depends on the ability to remember the actions of other individuals, which is information that must be stored in a temporary buffer to guide behavior after actions have been observed. To date, however, the storage capacity, contents, and architecture of working memory for observed actions are unknown. In this article, the author…

  7. Action-effect binding by observational learning.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus; van Dam, Wessel; Hunnius, Sabine; Lindemann, Oliver; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-10-01

    The acquisition of bidirectional action-effect associations plays a central role in the ability to intentionally control actions. Humans learn about actions not only through active experience, but also through observing the actions of others. In Experiment 1, we examined whether action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. To this end, participants observed how a model repeatedly pressed two buttons during an observation phase. Each of the buttonpresses led to a specific tone (action effect). In a subsequent test phase, the tones served as target stimuli to which the participants had to respond with buttonpresses. Reaction times were shorter if the stimulus-response mapping in the test phase was compatible with the action-effect association in the observation phase. Experiment 2 excluded the possibility that the impact of perceived action effects on own actions was driven merely by an association of spatial features with the particular tones. Furthermore, we demonstrated that the presence of an agent is necessary to acquire novel action-effect associations through observation. Altogether, the study provides evidence for the claim that bidirectional action-effect associations can be acquired by observational learning. Our findings are discussed in the context of the idea that the acquisition of action-effect associations through observation is an important cognitive mechanism subserving the human ability for social learning.

  8. Congruency of gaze metrics in action, imagery and action observation.

    PubMed

    Causer, Joe; McCormick, Sheree A; Holmes, Paul S

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to provide a review of eye movements during action execution, action observation, and movement imagery. Furthermore, the paper highlights aspects of congruency in gaze metrics between these states. The implications of the imagery, observation, and action gaze congruency are discussed in terms of motor learning and rehabilitation. Future research directions are outlined in order to further the understanding of shared gaze metrics between overt and covert states. Suggestions are made for how researchers and practitioners can structure action observation and movement imagery interventions to maximize (re)learning. PMID:24068996

  9. Distributed Observer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conroy, Michael; Mazzone, Rebecca; Little, William; Elfrey, Priscilla; Mann, David; Mabie, Kevin; Cuddy, Thomas; Loundermon, Mario; Spiker, Stephen; McArthur, Frank; Srey, Tate; Bonilla, Dennis

    2010-01-01

    The Distributed Observer network (DON) is a NASA-collaborative environment that leverages game technology to bring three-dimensional simulations to conventional desktop and laptop computers in order to allow teams of engineers working on design and operations, either individually or in groups, to view and collaborate on 3D representations of data generated by authoritative tools such as Delmia Envision, Pro/Engineer, or Maya. The DON takes models and telemetry from these sources and, using commercial game engine technology, displays the simulation results in a 3D visual environment. DON has been designed to enhance accessibility and user ability to observe and analyze visual simulations in real time. A variety of NASA mission segment simulations [Synergistic Engineering Environment (SEE) data, NASA Enterprise Visualization Analysis (NEVA) ground processing simulations, the DSS simulation for lunar operations, and the Johnson Space Center (JSC) TRICK tool for guidance, navigation, and control analysis] were experimented with. Desired functionalities, [i.e. Tivo-like functions, the capability to communicate textually or via Voice-over-Internet Protocol (VoIP) among team members, and the ability to write and save notes to be accessed later] were targeted. The resulting DON application was slated for early 2008 release to support simulation use for the Constellation Program and its teams. Those using the DON connect through a client that runs on their PC or Mac. This enables them to observe and analyze the simulation data as their schedule allows, and to review it as frequently as desired. DON team members can move freely within the virtual world. Preset camera points can be established, enabling team members to jump to specific views. This improves opportunities for shared analysis of options, design reviews, tests, operations, training, and evaluations, and improves prospects for verification of requirements, issues, and approaches among dispersed teams.

  10. Observability of Neuronal Network Motifs

    PubMed Central

    Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.

    2014-01-01

    We quantify observability in small (3 node) neuronal networks as a function of 1) the connection topology and symmetry, 2) the measured nodes, and 3) the nodal dynamics (linear and nonlinear). We find that typical observability metrics for 3 neuron motifs range over several orders of magnitude, depending upon topology, and for motifs containing symmetry the network observability decreases when observing from particularly confounded nodes. Nonlinearities in the nodal equations generally decrease the average network observability and full network information becomes available only in limited regions of the system phase space. Our findings demonstrate that such networks are partially observable, and suggest their potential efficacy in reconstructing network dynamics from limited measurement data. How well such strategies can be used to reconstruct and control network dynamics in experimental settings is a subject for future experimental work. PMID:25909092

  11. Distributed Observer Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    NASA s advanced visual simulations are essential for analyses associated with life cycle planning, design, training, testing, operations, and evaluation. Kennedy Space Center, in particular, uses simulations for ground services and space exploration planning in an effort to reduce risk and costs while improving safety and performance. However, it has been difficult to circulate and share the results of simulation tools among the field centers, and distance and travel expenses have made timely collaboration even harder. In response, NASA joined with Valador Inc. to develop the Distributed Observer Network (DON), a collaborative environment that leverages game technology to bring 3-D simulations to conventional desktop and laptop computers. DON enables teams of engineers working on design and operations to view and collaborate on 3-D representations of data generated by authoritative tools. DON takes models and telemetry from these sources and, using commercial game engine technology, displays the simulation results in a 3-D visual environment. Multiple widely dispersed users, working individually or in groups, can view and analyze simulation results on desktop and laptop computers in real time.

  12. Observability transition in real networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yang; Radicchi, Filippo

    2016-09-01

    We consider the observability model in networks with arbitrary topologies. We introduce a system of coupled nonlinear equations, valid under the locally treelike ansatz, to describe the size of the largest observable cluster as a function of the fraction of directly observable nodes present in the network. We perform a systematic analysis on 95 real-world graphs and compare our theoretical predictions with numerical simulations of the observability model. Our method provides almost perfect predictions in the majority of the cases, even for networks with very large values of the clustering coefficient. Potential applications of our theory include the development of efficient and scalable algorithms for real-time surveillance of social networks, and monitoring of technological networks.

  13. Action observation and robotic agents: learning and anthropomorphism.

    PubMed

    Press, Clare

    2011-05-01

    The 'action observation network' (AON), which is thought to translate observed actions into motor codes required for their execution, is biologically tuned: it responds more to observation of human, than non-human, movement. This biological specificity has been taken to support the hypothesis that the AON underlies various social functions, such as theory of mind and action understanding, and that, when it is active during observation of non-human agents like humanoid robots, it is a sign of ascription of human mental states to these agents. This review will outline evidence for biological tuning in the AON, examining the features which generate it, and concluding that there is evidence for tuning to both the form and kinematic profile of observed movements, and little evidence for tuning to belief about stimulus identity. It will propose that a likely reason for biological tuning is that human actions, relative to non-biological movements, have been observed more frequently while executing corresponding actions. If the associative hypothesis of the AON is correct, and the network indeed supports social functioning, sensorimotor experience with non-human agents may help us to predict, and therefore interpret, their movements.

  14. Differential activation of the lateral premotor cortex during action observation

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Action observation leads to neural activation of the human premotor cortex. This study examined how the level of motor expertise (expert vs. novice) in ballroom dancing and the visual viewpoint (internal vs. external viewpoint) influence this activation within different parts of this area of the brain. Results Sixteen dance experts and 16 novices observed ballroom dance videos from internal or external viewpoints while lying in a functional magnetic resonance imaging scanner. A conjunction analysis of all observation conditions showed that action observation activated distinct networks of premotor, parietal, and cerebellar structures. Experts revealed increased activation in the ventral premotor cortex compared to novices. An internal viewpoint led to higher activation of the dorsal premotor cortex. Conclusions The present results suggest that the ventral and dorsal premotor cortex adopt differential roles during action observation depending on the level of motor expertise and the viewpoint. PMID:20673366

  15. A neural network model of causative actions.

    PubMed

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to "do" anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the "causative actions" circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in "functional" actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  16. A neural network model of causative actions

    PubMed Central

    Lee-Hand, Jeremy; Knott, Alistair

    2015-01-01

    A common idea in models of action representation is that actions are represented in terms of their perceptual effects (see e.g., Prinz, 1997; Hommel et al., 2001; Sahin et al., 2007; Umiltà et al., 2008; Hommel, 2013). In this paper we extend existing models of effect-based action representations to account for a novel distinction. Some actions bring about effects that are independent events in their own right: for instance, if John smashes a cup, he brings about the event of the cup smashing. Other actions do not bring about such effects. For instance, if John grabs a cup, this action does not cause the cup to “do” anything: a grab action has well-defined perceptual effects, but these are not registered by the perceptual system that detects independent events involving external objects in the world. In our model, effect-based actions are implemented in several distinct neural circuits, which are organized into a hierarchy based on the complexity of their associated perceptual effects. The circuit at the top of this hierarchy is responsible for actions that bring about independently perceivable events. This circuit receives input from the perceptual module that recognizes arbitrary events taking place in the world, and learns movements that reliably cause such events. We assess our model against existing experimental observations about effect-based motor representations, and make some novel experimental predictions. We also consider the possibility that the “causative actions” circuit in our model can be identified with a motor pathway reported in other work, specializing in “functional” actions on manipulable tools (Bub et al., 2008; Binkofski and Buxbaum, 2013). PMID:26175685

  17. Action representation of sound: audiomotor recognition network while listening to newly acquired actions.

    PubMed

    Lahav, Amir; Saltzman, Elliot; Schlaug, Gottfried

    2007-01-10

    The discovery of audiovisual mirror neurons in monkeys gave rise to the hypothesis that premotor areas are inherently involved not only when observing actions but also when listening to action-related sound. However, the whole-brain functional formation underlying such "action-listening" is not fully understood. In addition, previous studies in humans have focused mostly on relatively simple and overexperienced everyday actions, such as hand clapping or door knocking. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to ask whether the human action-recognition system responds to sounds found in a more complex sequence of newly acquired actions. To address this, we chose a piece of music as a model set of acoustically presentable actions and trained non-musicians to play it by ear. We then monitored brain activity in subjects while they listened to the newly acquired piece. Although subjects listened to the music without performing any movements, activation was found bilaterally in the frontoparietal motor-related network (including Broca's area, the premotor region, the intraparietal sulcus, and the inferior parietal region), consistent with neural circuits that have been associated with action observations, and may constitute the human mirror neuron system. Presentation of the practiced notes in a different order activated the network to a much lesser degree, whereas listening to an equally familiar but motorically unknown music did not activate this network. These findings support the hypothesis of a "hearing-doing" system that is highly dependent on the individual's motor repertoire, gets established rapidly, and consists of Broca's area as its hub. PMID:17215391

  18. Observation and Initiation of Joint Action in Infants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Christine; Liszkowski, Ulf

    2012-01-01

    Infants imitate others' individual actions, but do they also replicate others' joint activities? To examine whether observing joint action influences infants' initiation of joint action, forty-eight 18-month-old infants observed object demonstrations by 2 models acting together (joint action), 2 models acting individually (individual action), or 1…

  19. Topology of the European Network of Earth Observation Networks and the need for an European Network of Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; McCallum, Ian; Blonda, Palma; Plag, Hans-Peter

    2016-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is an H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. The project will end in February 2017. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed of project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the European space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. This communication presents the complex panorama of Earth Observations Networks in Europe. The list of networks is classified by discipline, variables, geospatial scope, etc. We also capture the membership and relations with other networks and umbrella organizations like GEO. The result is a complex interrelation between networks that can not be clearly expressed in a flat list. Technically the networks can be represented as nodes with relations between them as lines connecting the nodes in a graph. We have chosen RDF as a language and an AllegroGraph 3.3 triple store that is visualized in several ways using for example Gruff 5.7. Our final aim is to identify gaps in the EO Networks and justify the need for a more structured coordination between them.

  20. Action research in developing knowledge networks.

    PubMed

    Seeley, Helen; Urquhart, Christine

    2008-12-01

    This paper describes the experiences of the Eastern Head Injury Study in creating a strategic regional head injury service framework using a collaborative action research methodology. The types of data, information and knowledge required to develop and support such a framework for both development and successful implementation are identified. This includes the identification of existing knowledge/information systems, the variability and gaps in these, and how the systems fit together, using a number of evidence-gathering and knowledge-sharing methods. The discussion debates the value of the action research approach and what principles are necessary in developing and maintaining knowledge networks. The project demonstrates that an understanding of the social learning cycle can help in understanding how the pieces fit together, and how the information systems need to be in place to provide the information (or data or knowledge) in the appropriate format to make the learning possible.

  1. Manipulation Action Understanding for Observation and Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yezhou

    2015-01-01

    Modern intelligent agents will need to learn the actions that humans perform. They will need to recognize these actions when they see them and they will need to perform these actions themselves. We want to propose a cognitive system that interprets human manipulation actions from perceptual information (image and depth data) and consists of…

  2. Targeted Cooperative Actions Shape Social Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wardil, Lucas; Hauert, Christoph

    2016-01-01

    Individual acts of cooperation give rise to dynamic social networks. Traditionally, models for cooperation in structured populations are based on a separation of individual strategies and of population structure. Individuals adopt a strategy—typically cooperation or defection, which determines their behaviour toward their neighbours as defined by an interaction network. Here, we report a behavioural experiment that amalgamates strategies and structure to empirically investigate the dynamics of social networks. The action of paying a cost c to provide a benefit b is represented as a directed link point from the donor to the recipient. Participants can add and/or remove links to up to two recipients in each round. First, we show that dense networks emerge, where individuals are characterized by fairness: they receive to the same extent they provide. More specifically, we investigate how participants use information about the generosity and payoff of others to update their links. It turns out that aversion to payoff inequity was the most consistent update rule: adding links to individuals that are worse off and removing links to individuals that are better off. We then investigate the effect of direct reciprocation, showing that the possibility of direct reciprocation does not increase cooperation as compared to the treatment where participants are totally unaware of who is providing benefits to them. PMID:26824240

  3. Modulation of the Intracortical LFP during Action Execution and Observation.

    PubMed

    Waldert, Stephan; Vigneswaran, Ganesh; Philipp, Roland; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander

    2015-06-01

    The activity of mirror neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex (PMv) and primary motor cortex (M1) is modulated by the observation of another's movements. This modulation could underpin well documented changes in EEG/MEG activity indicating the existence of a mirror neuron system in humans. Because the local field potential (LFP) represents an important link between macaque single neuron and human noninvasive studies, we focused on mirror properties of intracortical LFPs recorded in the PMv and M1 hand regions in two macaques while they reached, grasped and held different objects, or observed the same actions performed by an experimenter. Upper limb EMGs were recorded to control for covert muscle activity during observation.The movement-related potential (MRP), investigated as intracortical low-frequency LFP activity (<9 Hz), was modulated in both M1 and PMv, not only during action execution but also during action observation. Moreover, the temporal LFP modulations during execution and observation were highly correlated in both cortical areas. Beta power in both PMv and M1 was clearly modulated in both conditions. Although the MRP was detected only during dynamic periods of the task (reach/grasp/release), beta decreased during dynamic and increased during static periods (hold).Comparison of LFPs for different grasps provided evidence for partially nonoverlapping networks being active during execution and observation, which might be related to different inputs to motor areas during these conditions. We found substantial information about grasp in the MRP corroborating its suitability for brain-machine interfaces, although information about grasp was generally low during action observation. PMID:26041914

  4. Social Mimicry Enhances Mu-Suppression During Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Chartrand, Tanya L; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2015-08-01

    During social interactions, there is a tendency for people to mimic the gestures and mannerisms of others, which increases liking and rapport. Psychologists have extensively studied the antecedents and consequences of mimicry at the social level, but the neural basis of this behavior remains unclear. Many researchers have speculated that mimicry is related to activity in the human mirror system (HMS), a network of parietofrontal regions that are involved in both action execution and observation. However, activity of the HMS during reciprocal social interactions involving mimicry has not been demonstrated. Here, we took an electroencephalographic (EEG) index of mirror activity-mu-suppression during action observation-in a pretest/post-test design with 1 of 3 intervening treatments: 1) social interaction in which the participant was mimicked, 2) social interaction without mimicry, or 3) an innocuous computer task, not involving another human agent. The change in mu-suppression from pre- to post-test varied as a function of the intervening treatment, with participants who had been mimicked showing an increase in mu-suppression during the post-treatment action observation session. We propose that this specific modulation of HMS activity as a function of mimicry constitutes the first direct evidence for mirror system involvement in real social mimicry.

  5. Code 672 observational science branch computer networks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Shirk, H. G.

    1988-01-01

    In general, networking increases productivity due to the speed of transmission, easy access to remote computers, ability to share files, and increased availability of peripherals. Two different networks within the Observational Science Branch are described in detail.

  6. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  7. Using Action Research and Action Learning for Entrepreneurial Network Capability Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…

  8. Exercise Performance and Corticospinal Excitability during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Wrightson, James G.; Twomey, Rosie; Smeeton, Nicholas J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Observation of a model performing fast exercise improves simultaneous exercise performance; however, the precise mechanism underpinning this effect is unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the speed of the observed exercise influenced both upper body exercise performance and the activation of a cortical action observation network (AON). Method: In Experiment 1, 10 participants completed a 5 km time trial on an arm-crank ergometer whilst observing a blank screen (no-video) and a model performing exercise at both a typical (i.e., individual mean cadence during baseline time trial) and 15% faster than typical speed. In Experiment 2, 11 participants performed arm crank exercise whilst observing exercise at typical speed, 15% slower and 15% faster than typical speed. In Experiment 3, 11 participants observed the typical, slow and fast exercise, and a no-video, whilst corticospinal excitability was assessed using transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In Experiment 1, performance time decreased and mean power increased, during observation of the fast exercise compared to the no-video condition. In Experiment 2, cadence and power increased during observation of the fast exercise compared to the typical speed exercise but there was no effect of observation of slow exercise on exercise behavior. In Experiment 3, observation of exercise increased corticospinal excitability; however, there was no difference between the exercise speeds. Conclusion: Observation of fast exercise improves simultaneous upper-body exercise performance. However, because there was no effect of exercise speed on corticospinal excitability, these results suggest that these improvements are not solely due to changes in the activity of the AON. PMID:27014037

  9. Predictive motor activation during action observation in human infants.

    PubMed

    Southgate, Victoria; Johnson, Mark H; Osborne, Tamsin; Csibra, Gergely

    2009-12-23

    Certain regions of the human brain are activated both during action execution and action observation. This so-called 'mirror neuron system' has been proposed to enable an observer to understand an action through a process of internal motor simulation. Although there has been much speculation about the existence of such a system from early in life, to date there is little direct evidence that young infants recruit brain areas involved in action production during action observation. To address this question, we identified the individual frequency range in which sensorimotor alpha-band activity was attenuated in nine-month-old infants' electroencephalographs (EEGs) during elicited reaching for objects, and measured whether activity in this frequency range was also modulated by observing others' actions. We found that observing a grasping action resulted in motor activation in the infant brain, but that this activity began prior to observation of the action, once it could be anticipated. These results demonstrate not only that infants, like adults, display overlapping neural activity during execution and observation of actions, but that this activation, rather than being directly induced by the visual input, is driven by infants' understanding of a forthcoming action. These results provide support for theories implicating the motor system in action prediction. PMID:19675001

  10. Intentional binding in self-made and observed actions.

    PubMed

    Poonian, S K; Cunnington, Ross

    2013-09-01

    Sense of agency is the way in which we understand the causal relationships between our actions and sensory events. Agency is implicitly measured using intentional binding paradigms, where voluntary self-made actions and consequential sensory events are perceived as shifted closer together in time. However, a crucial question remains as to how we understand the relationship between others' actions and sensory events. Do we use similar binding processes as for our own actions? Previous attempts to investigate this phenomenon in others' have reached no clear consensus. Therefore, in an attempt to understand how we attribute the causal relationships between others' actions and sensory events, we investigated intentional binding in others' actions using an interval estimation paradigm. In a first experiment participants were required to make a button-press response to indicate the perceived interval between a self-made action and a tone, between a closely matched observed action and tone, and between two tones. For both self-made and observed actions, we found a significant perceived shortening of the interval between the actions and tones as compared with the interval between two tones, thus intentional binding was found for both self-made and observed actions. In a second experiment we validated the findings of the first by contrasting the perceived intervals between an observed action and tone with a matched visual-auditory stimulus and a tone. We again found a significant perceived shortening of the interval for observed action compared with the closely matched visual-auditory control stimulus. The occurrence of intentional binding when observing an action suggests we use similar processes to make causal attributions between our own actions, others' actions, and sensory events.

  11. Good is up—spatial metaphors in action observation

    PubMed Central

    Gottwald, Janna M.; Elsner, Birgit; Pollatos, Olga

    2015-01-01

    Positive objects or actions are associated with physical highness, whereas negative objects or actions are related to physical lowness. Previous research suggests that metaphorical connection (“good is up” or “bad is down”) between spatial experience and evaluation of objects is grounded in actual experience with the body. Prior studies investigated effects of spatial metaphors with respect to verticality of either static objects or self-performed actions. By presenting videos of object placements, the current three experiments combined vertically-located stimuli with observation of vertically-directed actions. As expected, participants’ ratings of emotionally-neutral objects were systematically influenced by the observed vertical positioning, that is, ratings were more positive for objects that were observed being placed up as compared to down. Moreover, effects were slightly more pronounced for “bad is down,” because only the observed downward, but not the upward, action led to different ratings as compared to a medium-positioned action. Last, some ratings were even affected by observing only the upward/downward action, without seeing the final vertical placement of the object. Thus, both, a combination of observing a vertically-directed action and seeing a vertically-located object, and observing a vertically-directed action alone, affected participants’ evaluation of emotional valence of the involved object. The present findings expand the relevance of spatial metaphors to action observation, thereby giving new impetus to embodied-cognition research. PMID:26539147

  12. Spreading paths in partially observed social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Onnela, Jukka-Pekka; Christakis, Nicholas A.

    2012-03-01

    Understanding how and how far information, behaviors, or pathogens spread in social networks is an important problem, having implications for both predicting the size of epidemics, as well as for planning effective interventions. There are, however, two main challenges for inferring spreading paths in real-world networks. One is the practical difficulty of observing a dynamic process on a network, and the other is the typical constraint of only partially observing a network. Using static, structurally realistic social networks as platforms for simulations, we juxtapose three distinct paths: (1) the stochastic path taken by a simulated spreading process from source to target; (2) the topologically shortest path in the fully observed network, and hence the single most likely stochastic path, between the two nodes; and (3) the topologically shortest path in a partially observed network. In a sampled network, how closely does the partially observed shortest path (3) emulate the unobserved spreading path (1)? Although partial observation inflates the length of the shortest path, the stochastic nature of the spreading process also frequently derails the dynamic path from the shortest path. We find that the partially observed shortest path does not necessarily give an inflated estimate of the length of the process path; in fact, partial observation may, counterintuitively, make the path seem shorter than it actually is.

  13. Using Walkthrough Observations to Document Dispositional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danley, Angela; Theiss, Deb

    2015-01-01

    Faculty from a Midwestern university implemented walkthrough observations in a Professional Development Schools (PDS) field experience with elementary and early childhood majors. The instructors researchers used walkthrough observation forms to track, evaluate, and monitor teacher candidate dispositions. The data were collected electronically and…

  14. Modulation of neural activity during observational learning of actions and their sequential orders.

    PubMed

    Frey, Scott H; Gerry, Valerie E

    2006-12-20

    How does the brain transform perceptual representations of others' actions into motor representations that can be used to guide behavior? Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to record human brain activity while subjects watched others construct multipart objects under varied task demands. We find that relative to resting baseline, passive action observation increases activity within inferior frontal and parietal cortices implicated in action encoding (mirror system) and throughout a distributed network of areas involved in motor representation, including dorsal premotor cortex, pre-supplementary motor area, cerebellum, and basal ganglia (experiments 1 and 2). Relative to passive observation, these same areas show increased activity when subjects observe with the intention to subsequently reproduce component actions using the demonstrated sequential procedures (experiment 1). Observing the same actions with the intention of reproducing component actions, but without the requirement to use the demonstrated sequential procedure, increases activity in the same regions, although to a lesser degree (experiment 2). These findings demonstrate that when attempting to learn behaviors through observation, the observers' intentions modulate responses in a widely distributed network of cortical and subcortical regions implicated previously in action encoding and/or motor representation. Among these regions, only activity within the right intraparietal sulcus predicts the accuracy with which observed procedures are subsequently performed. Successful formation of motor representations of sequential procedures through observational learning is dependent on computations implemented within this parietal region. PMID:17182769

  15. Eye Gaze Metrics Reflect a Shared Motor Representation for Action Observation and Movement Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCormick, Sheree A.; Causer, Joe; Holmes, Paul S.

    2012-01-01

    Action observation (AO) and movement imagery (MI) have been reported to share similar neural networks. This study investigated the congruency between AO and MI using the eye gaze metrics, dwell time and fixation number. A simple reach-grasp-place arm movement was observed and, in a second condition, imagined where the movement was presented from…

  16. Action observation: mirroring across our spontaneous movement tempo

    PubMed Central

    Avanzino, Laura; Lagravinese, Giovanna; Bisio, Ambra; Perasso, Luisa; Ruggeri, Piero; Bove, Marco

    2015-01-01

    During action observation (AO), the activity of the “mirror system” is influenced by the viewer’s expertise in the observed action. A question that remains open is whether the temporal aspects of the subjective motor repertoire can influence the “mirror system” activation. PMID:25989029

  17. Competing mechanisms for mapping action-related categorical knowledge and observed actions.

    PubMed

    Candidi, Matteo; Vicario, Carmelo Mario; Abreu, Ana Maria; Aglioti, Salvatore Maria

    2010-12-01

    Responses to pictures of famous tennis and soccer athletes are slower when the responding effector is a hand or foot, respectively, indicating that visual recognition of individuals characterized by skilled motor behavior interferes with the motor reactivity of nonproficient observers. By contrast, directly viewing actions induces motor facilitation, suggesting that actions are mapped in the observers' motor system. Here, we used single-pulse Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation to determine 1) whether observing and recognizing the identity of famous tennis and soccer athletes selectively reduce the corticospinal excitability of arm and leg representations (categorization), 2) whether any athlete-related inhibition effect contrasts the facilitation associated with direct action observation (categorization + action), and 3) whether the classic action observation-related facilitation effect is found when viewing "in action" nonathlete models (action). In 3 experiments, we found that amplitude of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from leg and arm muscles gradually shifted from reduction to facilitation, moving from the categorization to the action observation tasks. Thus, semantic derivation of motor skills is reflected in limb-specific reduction of MEP amplitude, indicating that even abstract action knowledge is embodied in the motor system and that mapping others' actions on the basis of categorization or of their direct observation relies on competing functional mechanisms.

  18. Reputation in an economic game modulates premotor cortex activity during action observation.

    PubMed

    Farmer, Harry; Apps, Matthew; Tsakiris, Manos

    2016-09-01

    Our interactions with other people - and our processing of their actions - are shaped by their reputation. Research has identified an Action Observation Network (AON) which is engaged when observing other people's actions. Yet, little is known about how the processing of others' actions is influenced by another's reputation. Is the response of the AON modulated by the reputation of the actor? We developed a variant of the ultimatum game in which participants watched either the visible or occluded actions of two 'proposers'. These actions were tied to decisions of how to split a pot of money although the proposers' decisions on each trial were not known to participants when observing the actions. One proposer made fair offers on the majority of trials, establishing a positive reputation, whereas the other made predominantly, unfair offers resulting in a negative reputation. We found significant activations in two regions of the left dorsal premotor cortex (dPMC). The first of these showed a main effect of reputation with greater activation for the negative reputation proposer than the positive reputation proposer. Furthermore individual differences in trust ratings of the two proposers covaried with activation in the right primary motor cortex (M1). The second showed an interaction between visibility and reputation driven by a greater effect of reputation when participants were observing an occluded action. Our findings show that the processing of others' actions in the AON is modulated by an actor's reputation, and suggest a predictive role for the PMC during action observation. PMID:27364606

  19. Representation of action in Parkinson's disease: imagining, observing, and naming actions.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Ellen

    2013-09-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit slowed movements and difficulty in initiating movements. This review addresses the issue of whether or not cognitive representations of actions in PD are affected, alongside these motor problems. In healthy people, the motor system can be involved in tasks such as observing a graspable object or another person's action, or imagining and naming actions, in the absence of overt movement. As described in this review, the fact that the slowed real movements exhibited by PD patients are coupled with slower motor imagery and verb processing provides additional evidence for the involvement of the motor system in these processes. On the other hand, PD patients can still engage in motor imagery and action observation to some extent, which is encouraging for the use of these processes in rehabilitation. Findings across the different domains of action-representation reveal several important factors. First, the nature of action is critical: patients' performance in observation and naming tasks is influenced by whether or not the action is in their repertoire and by the extent of motion required to execute the action. Second, people with PD may use alternative or compensatory mechanisms to represent actions, such as relying more on a third-person perspective or a visual strategy. Third, people with PD show a lack of specificity, responding as strongly to stimuli related and unrelated to actions. Investigating action-representation in PD has implications for our understanding of both the symptoms of PD and the cognitive representation of actions in the healthy system.

  20. Viewing Instructions Accompanying Action Observation Modulate Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; McCormick, Sheree A.; Williams, Jacqueline; Holmes, Paul S.

    2016-01-01

    Action observation interventions may have the potential to contribute to improved motor function in motor (re)learning settings by promoting functional activity and plasticity in the motor regions of the brain. Optimal methods for delivering such interventions, however, have yet to be established. This experiment investigated the effect on corticospinal excitability of manipulating the viewing instructions provided to participants (N = 21) prior to action observation. Specifically, motor evoked potential responses measured from the right hand muscles following single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to the left motor cortex were compared when participants were instructed to observe finger-thumb opposition movement sequences: (i) passively; (ii) with the intent to imitate the observed movement; or (iii) whilst simultaneously and actively imagining that they were performing the movement as they observed it. All three action observation viewing instructions facilitated corticospinal excitability to a greater extent than did observation of a static hand. In addition, the extent to which corticospinal excitability was facilitated was greater during combined observation and imagery, compared to passive observation. These findings have important implications for the design of action observation interventions in motor (re)learning settings, where instructions that encourage observers to simultaneously imagine themselves performing the observed movement may offer the current optimal method for improving motor function through action observation. PMID:26869901

  1. Somatosensory Experiences with Action Modulate Alpha and Beta Power during Subsequent Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Bouquet, Cedric A.; Shipley, Thomas F.

    2013-01-01

    How does prior experience with action change how we perceive a similar action performed by someone else? Previous research has examined the role of sensorimotor and visual experiences in action mirroring during subsequent observation, but the contribution of somatosensory experiences to this effect has not been adequately examined. The current study tests whether prior somatosensory stimulation experienced during action production modulates brain activity during observation of similar actions being performed by others. Specifically, changes in alpha- and beta-range oscillations in the electroencephalogram (EEG) during observation of reaching actions were examined in relation to the observer’s own prior experience of somatosensory stimulation while carrying out similar actions. Analyses revealed that alpha power over central electrodes was significantly decreased during observation of an action expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. Conversely, beta power was increased when an observed action was expected to result in somatosensory stimulation. These results suggest that somatosensory experiences may uniquely contribute to the way in which we process others people’s actions. PMID:23994217

  2. Learning Networks--Enabling Change through Community Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bleach, Josephine

    2016-01-01

    Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…

  3. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Action Observation in Adults with Down Syndrome

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virji-Babul, Naznin; Moiseev, Alexander; Cheung, Teresa; Weeks, Daniel J.; Cheyne, Douglas; Ribary, Urs

    2010-01-01

    Results of a magnetoencephalography (MEG) brain imaging study conducted to examine the cortical responses during action execution and action observation in 10 healthy adults and 8 age-matched adults with Down syndrome are reported. During execution, the motor responses were strongly lateralized on the ipsilateral rather than the contralateral side…

  4. Combined action observation and imagery facilitates corticospinal excitability

    PubMed Central

    Wright, David J.; Williams, Jacqueline; Holmes, Paul S.

    2014-01-01

    Observation and imagery of movement both activate similar brain regions to those involved in movement execution. As such, both are recommended as techniques for aiding the recovery of motor function following stroke. Traditionally, action observation and movement imagery (MI) have been considered as independent intervention techniques. Researchers have however begun to consider the possibility of combining the two techniques into a single intervention strategy. This study investigated the effect of combined action observation and MI on corticospinal excitability, in comparison to either observation or imagery alone. Single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was delivered to the hand representation of the left motor cortex during combined action observation and MI, passive observation (PO), or MI of right index finger abduction-adduction movements or control conditions. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles of the right hand. The combined action observation and MI condition produced MEPs of larger amplitude than were obtained during PO and control conditions. This effect was only present in the FDI muscle, indicating the facilitation of corticospinal excitability during the combined condition was specific to the muscles involved in the observed/imagined task. These findings have implications for stroke rehabilitation, where combined action observation and MI interventions may prove to be more effective than observation or imagery alone. PMID:25505880

  5. Chronic network stimulation enhances evoked action potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ide, A. N.; Andruska, A.; Boehler, M.; Wheeler, B. C.; Brewer, G. J.

    2010-02-01

    Neurons cultured on multielectrode arrays almost always lack external stimulation except during the acute experimental phase. We have investigated the effects of chronic stimulation during the course of development in cultured hippocampal neural networks by applying paired pulses at half of the electrodes for 0, 1 or 3 r/day for 8 days. Spike latencies increased from 4 to 16 ms as the distance from the stimulus increased from 200 to 1700 µm, suggesting an average of four synapses over this distance. Compared to no chronic stimulation, our results indicate that chronic stimulation increased evoked spike counts per stimulus by 50% at recording sites near the stimulating electrode and increased the instantaneous firing rate. On trials where both pulses elicited responses, spike count was 40-80% higher than when only one of the pulses elicited a response. In attempts to identify spike amplitude plasticity, we found mainly amplitude variation with different latencies suggesting recordings from neurons with different identities. These data suggest plastic network changes induced by chronic stimulation that enhance the reliability of information transmission and the efficiency of multisynaptic network communication.

  6. Goal anticipation during action observation is influenced by synonymous action capabilities, a puzzling developmental study.

    PubMed

    Gredebäck, Gustaf; Kochukhova, Olga

    2010-04-01

    Eighteen- and 25-month-old human toddlers' ability to manually solve a puzzle and their ability to anticipate the goal during observation of similar actions were investigated. Results demonstrate that goal anticipation during action observation is dependent on manual ability, both on a group level (only 25-month-olds solved the manual task and anticipated the goal during observation) and individually within the older age group (r (xy) = 0.53). These findings suggests a connection between manual ability and the ability to anticipate the goal of others' actions in toddlers, in accordance with the direct matching hypothesis. PMID:20041233

  7. Social interaction enhances motor resonance for observed human actions.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, Jeremy; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2012-04-25

    Understanding the neural basis of social behavior has become an important goal for cognitive neuroscience and a key aim is to link neural processes observed in the laboratory to more naturalistic social behaviors in real-world contexts. Although it is accepted that mirror mechanisms contribute to the occurrence of motor resonance (MR) and are common to action execution, observation, and imitation, questions remain about mirror (and MR) involvement in real social behavior and in processing nonhuman actions. To determine whether social interaction primes the MR system, groups of participants engaged or did not engage in a social interaction before observing human or robotic actions. During observation, MR was assessed via motor-evoked potentials elicited with transcranial magnetic stimulation. Compared with participants who did not engage in a prior social interaction, participants who engaged in the social interaction showed a significant increase in MR for human actions. In contrast, social interaction did not increase MR for robot actions. Thus, naturalistic social interaction and laboratory action observation tasks appear to involve common MR mechanisms, and recent experience tunes the system to particular agent types.

  8. Action-effect congruence during observational learning leads to faster action sequence learning.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Jared C; Gray, Zachary; Schilberg, Lukas; Vidrin, Ilya; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2015-01-01

    Common coding theory suggests that any action (pressing a piano key) is intimately linked with its resultant sensory effect (an auditory musical tone). We conducted two experiments to explore the effect of varying auditory action-effect patterns during complex action learning. In Experiment 1, participants were assigned to 1 of 4 groups, watched a silent video of a hand playing a sequence on a piano keyboard with no auditory action effect (observation) and were asked to practise and perform the sequence on an identical keyboard with varying action effects (reproduction). During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones (identical to observed video), Group 2 heard typical scale-ascending piano tones with each key press, Group 3 heard fixed but out-of-sequence piano tones with each key press, and Group 4 heard random piano tones with each key press. In Experiment two, new participants were assigned to 1 of 2 groups and watched an identical video; however, the video in this experiment contained typical, scale-ascending piano sounds. During reproduction, Group 1 heard no auditory tones while Group 2 heard typical, scale-ascending piano tones with each key press (identical to observed video). Our results showed that participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction matched those in the observed video learned the action sequence faster than participants whose action-effect patterns during reproduction differed from those in the observed video. Additionally, our results suggest that adding an effect during reproduction (when one is absent during observation) is somewhat more detrimental to action sequence learning than removing an effect during reproduction (when one is present during observation).

  9. Watching novice action degrades expert motor performance: causation between action production and outcome prediction of observed actions by humans.

    PubMed

    Ikegami, Tsuyoshi; Ganesh, Gowrishankar

    2014-01-01

    Our social skills are critically determined by our ability to understand and appropriately respond to actions performed by others. However despite its obvious importance, the mechanisms enabling action understanding in humans have remained largely unclear. A popular but controversial belief is that parts of the motor system contribute to our ability to understand observed actions. Here, using a novel behavioral paradigm, we investigated this belief by examining a causal relation between action production, and a component of action understanding--outcome prediction, the ability of a person to predict the outcome of observed actions. We asked dart experts to watch novice dart throwers and predict the outcome of their throws. We modulated the feedbacks provided to them, caused a specific improvement in the expert's ability to predict watched actions while controlling the other experimental factors, and exhibited that a change (improvement) in their outcome prediction ability results in a progressive and proportional deterioration in the expert's own darts performance. This causal relationship supports involvement of the motor system in outcome prediction by humans of actions observed in others. PMID:25384755

  10. Watching novice action degrades expert motor performance: Causation between action production and outcome prediction of observed actions by humans

    PubMed Central

    Ikegami, Tsuyoshi; Ganesh, Gowrishankar

    2014-01-01

    Our social skills are critically determined by our ability to understand and appropriately respond to actions performed by others. However despite its obvious importance, the mechanisms enabling action understanding in humans have remained largely unclear. A popular but controversial belief is that parts of the motor system contribute to our ability to understand observed actions. Here, using a novel behavioral paradigm, we investigated this belief by examining a causal relation between action production, and a component of action understanding - outcome prediction, the ability of a person to predict the outcome of observed actions. We asked dart experts to watch novice dart throwers and predict the outcome of their throws. We modulated the feedbacks provided to them, caused a specific improvement in the expert's ability to predict watched actions while controlling the other experimental factors, and exhibited that a change (improvement) in their outcome prediction ability results in a progressive and proportional deterioration in the expert's own darts performance. This causal relationship supports involvement of the motor system in outcome prediction by humans of actions observed in others. PMID:25384755

  11. Action observation treatment: a novel tool in neurorehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Buccino, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    This review focuses on a novel rehabilitation approach known as action observation treatment (AOT). It is now a well-accepted notion in neurophysiology that the observation of actions performed by others activates in the perceiver the same neural structures responsible for the actual execution of those same actions. Areas endowed with this action observation–action execution matching mechanism are defined as the mirror neuron system. AOT exploits this neurophysiological mechanism for the recovery of motor impairment. During one typical session, patients observe a daily action and afterwards execute it in context. So far, this approach has been successfully applied in the rehabilitation of upper limb motor functions in chronic stroke patients, in motor recovery of Parkinson's disease patients, including those presenting with freezing of gait, and in children with cerebral palsy. Interestingly, this approach also improved lower limb motor functions in post-surgical orthopaedic patients. AOT is well grounded in basic neuroscience, thus representing a valid model of translational medicine in the field of neurorehabilitation. Moreover, the results concerning its effectiveness have been collected in randomized controlled studies, thus being an example of evidence-based clinical practice. PMID:24778380

  12. Remote observing with NASA's Deep Space Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Majid, W. A.; Martinez, S.; Garcia-Miro, C.; Rizzo, J. R.

    2012-09-01

    The Deep Space Network (DSN) communicates with spacecraft as far away as the boundary between the Solar System and the interstellar medium. To make this possible, large sensitive antennas at Canberra, Australia, Goldstone, California, and Madrid, Spain, provide for constant communication with interplanetary missions. We describe the procedures for radioastronomical observations using this network. Remote access to science monitor and control computers by authorized observers is provided by two-factor authentication through a gateway at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) in Pasadena. To make such observations practical, we have devised schemes based on SSH tunnels and distributed computing. At the very minimum, one can use SSH tunnels and VNC (Virtual Network Computing, a remote desktop software suite) to control the science hosts within the DSN Flight Operations network. In this way we have controlled up to three telescopes simultaneously. However, X-window updates can be slow and there are issues involving incompatible screen sizes and multi-screen displays. Consequently, we are now developing SSH tunnel-based schemes in which instrument control and monitoring, and intense data processing, are done on-site by the remote DSN hosts while data manipulation and graphical display are done at the observer's host. We describe our approaches to various challenges, our experience with what worked well and lessons learned, and directions for future development.

  13. The Effect of Action Experience on Sensorimotor EEG Rhythms during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.

    2014-01-01

    A recent line of inquiry has examined how an observer’s experience with action changes the neural processing of similar actions when they are subsequently observed. The current study used electroencephalography (EEG) to test the hypothesis that giving participants different types and amounts of experience with specific objects would lead to differential patterns of sensorimotor rhythms during the observation of similar actions on those objects. While EEG was recorded, three groups of participants (n = 20 in each group; mean age = 22.0 years, SD = 2.7) watched video clips of an actor reaching, grasping, and lifting two objects. Participants then received information about differences in weight between the two objects. One group gained this information through extended sensorimotor experience with the objects, a second group received much briefer sensorimotor experience with the objects, and the third group read written information about the objects’ weights. Participants then viewed the action sequences again. For participants who had sensorimotor experience with the objects, the EEG response to viewing the actions was differentially sensitive to the anticipated weight of the objects. We conclude that this sensitivity was based on the participant’s prior sensorimotor experience with the objects. The participants who only received semantic information about the objects showed no such effects. The primary conclusion is that even brief experience with actions affects sensorimotor cortex activity during the subsequent observation of similar actions. PMID:24568874

  14. Evaluating Action Learning: A Critical Realist Complex Network Theory Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burgoyne, John G.

    2010-01-01

    This largely theoretical paper will argue the case for the usefulness of applying network and complex adaptive systems theory to an understanding of action learning and the challenge it is evaluating. This approach, it will be argued, is particularly helpful in the context of improving capability in dealing with wicked problems spread around…

  15. Using Action Research to Investigate Social Networking Technologies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Worrall, Lisa; Harris, Katy

    2013-01-01

    This article outlines the first cycle of an Action Research (AR) investigation into why professional learners are not using the Social Networking Technologies (SNTs) of their bespoke website. It presents the rationale of how this study came about, the ontological and epistemological stance of the authors and how this led to the particular choice…

  16. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall

    PubMed Central

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people’s actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant’s arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants’ grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant’s target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate’s grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings

  17. Observing end-state comfort favorable actions does not modulate action plan recall.

    PubMed

    Seegelke, Christian

    2015-01-01

    A large corpus of work demonstrates that observing other people's actions activates corresponding motor representations in the observer by running an internal simulation of the observed action. Recent evidence suggests that recalled action plans reflect a plan of how the observer would execute that action (based on the specific motor representation) rather than a plan of the actually observed action (based on the visual representation). This study examined whether people would recall an action plan based on a visual representation if the observed movement is biomechanically favorable for their own subsequent action. Participants performed an object manipulation task alongside a confederate. In the intra-individual task, the participant (or confederate) transported a plunger from an outer platform of fixed height to a center target platform located at different heights (home-to-target move), and then the same person transported the plunger back to the outer platform (target-back-to-home move). In the inter-individual task, the sequence was split between the two persons such that the participant (or confederate) performed the home-to-target move and the other person performed the target-back-to-home move. Importantly, the confederate always grasped the plunger at the same height. This grasp height was designated such that if participants would copy the action (i.e., grasp the object at the same height) it would place the participant's arm in a comfortable position at the end of the target-back-to-home move (i.e., end-state comfort). Results show that participants' grasp height was inversely related to center target height and similar regardless of direction (home-to-target vs. target-back-to-home move) and task (intra- vs. inter-individual). In addition, during the inter-individual task, participant's target-back-to-home grasp height was correlated with their own, but not with the confederate's grasp height during the home-to-target moves. These findings provide

  18. Mirror neurons encode the subjective value of an observed action.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Casile, Antonino; Giese, Martin A; Thier, Peter

    2012-07-17

    Objects grasped by an agent have a value not only for the acting agent, but also for an individual observing the grasping act. The value that the observer attributes to the object that is grasped can be pivotal for selecting a possible behavioral response. Mirror neurons in area F5 of the monkey premotor cortex have been suggested to play a crucial role in the understanding of action goals. However, it has not been addressed if these neurons are also involved in representing the value of the grasped object. Here we report that observation-related neuronal responses of F5 mirror neurons are indeed modulated by the value that the monkey associates with the grasped object. These findings suggest that during action observation F5 mirror neurons have access to key information needed to shape the behavioral responses of the observer.

  19. Mirror neurons encode the subjective value of an observed action

    PubMed Central

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rizzolatti, Giacomo; Casile, Antonino; Giese, Martin A.; Thier, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Objects grasped by an agent have a value not only for the acting agent, but also for an individual observing the grasping act. The value that the observer attributes to the object that is grasped can be pivotal for selecting a possible behavioral response. Mirror neurons in area F5 of the monkey premotor cortex have been suggested to play a crucial role in the understanding of action goals. However, it has not been addressed if these neurons are also involved in representing the value of the grasped object. Here we report that observation-related neuronal responses of F5 mirror neurons are indeed modulated by the value that the monkey associates with the grasped object. These findings suggest that during action observation F5 mirror neurons have access to key information needed to shape the behavioral responses of the observer. PMID:22753471

  20. Lidar network observations of tropospheric aerosols

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Hara, Yukari; Xie, Chenbo; Uno, Itsushi; Yumimoto, Keiya; Wang, Zifa; Yoon, Soon-Chang

    2008-12-01

    Observations of tropospheric aerosols (mineral dust, air-pollution aerosols, etc.) and clouds are being conducted using a network of two-wavelength (1064nm, 532nm) polarization (532nm) lidars in the East Asian region. Currently, the lidars are operated continuously at 23 locations in Japan, Korea, China, Mongolia and Thailand. A real-time data processing system was developed for the network, and the data products such as the attenuated backscatter coefficients and the estimated extinction coefficients for non-spherical and spherical aerosols are generated automatically for online network stations. The data are used in the real-time monitoring of Asian dust as well as in the studies of regional air pollution and climate change.

  1. Fluctuations in Mass-Action Equilibrium of Protein Binding Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Koon-Kiu; Walker, Dylan; Maslov, Sergei

    2008-12-01

    We consider two types of fluctuations in the mass-action equilibrium in protein binding networks. The first type is driven by slow changes in total concentrations of interacting proteins. The second type (spontaneous) is caused by quickly decaying thermodynamic deviations away from equilibrium. We investigate the effects of network connectivity on fluctuations by comparing them to scenarios in which the interacting pair is isolated from the network and analytically derives bounds on fluctuations. Collective effects are shown to sometimes lead to large amplification of spontaneous fluctuations. The strength of both types of fluctuations is positively correlated with the complex connectivity and negatively correlated with complex concentration. Our general findings are illustrated using a curated network of protein interactions and multiprotein complexes in baker’s yeast, with empirical protein concentrations.

  2. VLBI2010: Networks and Observing Strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petrachenko, Bill; Corey, Brian; Himwich, Ed; Ma, Chopo; Malkin, Zinovy; Niell, Arthur; Shaffer, David; Vandenberg, Nancy

    2004-01-01

    The Observing Strategies Sub-group of IVS's Working Group 3 has been tasked with producing a vision for the following aspects of geodetic VLBI: antenna-network structure and observing strategies; source strength/structure/distribution; frequency bands, RFI; and field system and scheduling. These are high level considerations that have far reaching impact since they significantly influence performance potential and also constrain requirements for a number of other \\VG3 sub-groups. The paper will present the status of the sub-group's work on these topics.

  3. Constraining the noncommutative spectral action via astrophysical observations.

    PubMed

    Nelson, William; Ochoa, Joseph; Sakellariadou, Mairi

    2010-09-01

    The noncommutative spectral action extends our familiar notion of commutative spaces, using the data encoded in a spectral triple on an almost commutative space. Varying a rather simple action, one can derive all of the standard model of particle physics in this setting, in addition to a modified version of Einstein-Hilbert gravity. In this Letter we use observations of pulsar timings, assuming that no deviation from general relativity has been observed, to constrain the gravitational sector of this theory. While the bounds on the coupling constants remain rather weak, they are comparable to existing bounds on deviations from general relativity in other settings and are likely to be further constrained by future observations.

  4. The Impact of Experience on Affective Responses during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Snagg, Arielle; Heerey, Erin

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving others in action elicits affective and aesthetic responses in observers. The present study investigates the extent to which these responses relate to an observer’s general experience with observed movements. Facial electromyographic (EMG) responses were recorded in experienced dancers and non-dancers as they watched short videos of movements performed by professional ballet dancers. Responses were recorded from the corrugator supercilii (CS) and zygomaticus major (ZM) muscles, both of which show engagement during the observation of affect-evoking stimuli. In the first part of the experiment, participants passively watched the videos while EMG data were recorded. In the second part, they explicitly rated how much they liked each movement. Results revealed a relationship between explicit affective judgments of the movements and facial muscle activation only among those participants who were experienced with the movements. Specifically, CS activity was higher for disliked movements and ZM activity was higher for liked movements among dancers but not among non-dancers. The relationship between explicit liking ratings and EMG data in experienced observers suggests that facial muscles subtly echo affective judgments even when viewing actions that are not intentionally emotional in nature, thus underscoring the potential of EMG as a method to examine subtle shifts in implicit affective responses during action observation. PMID:27149106

  5. The Stellar Observations Network Group - first results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Antoci, Victoria; Grundahl, Frank; Christensen-Dalsgaard, Joergen; Kjeldsen, Hans

    2015-08-01

    SONG - the Stellar Observations Network Group is a Danish-led project set to design and build a global network of 1-m telescopes to carry out detailed studies of solar-like stars using asteroseismology and to discover and characterise exo-planets and their star system. Here we present more than 100 nights of high-precision radial velocity measurements from 2014 of the subgiant mu Herculis. Preliminary analyses of the largest ground-based data set ever obtained for such as star clearly show the detection of stochastically excited pressure modes. The high quality of our data allows unique extraction of individual modes over many orders in the frequency spectrum, leading to studies of rotation, convection, near-surface effects, core structure using mixed modes and stellar activity.

  6. Astronomical network event and observation notification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, R. R.; Allan, A.; Barthelmy, S.; Bloom, J.; Graham, M.; Hessman, F. V.; Marka, S.; Rots, A.; Scholberg, K.; Seaman, R.; Stoughton, C.; Vestrand, W. T.; Williams, R.; Wozniak, P. R.

    2006-09-01

    Networks are becoming a key element in most current and all future, telescope and observatory projects. The ability to easily and efficiently pass observation data, alert data and instrumentation requests between distributed systems could enable science as never before. However, any effective large scale or meta-network of astronomical resources will require a common communication format or development resources will have to be continuously dedicated to creating interpreters. The necessary elements of any astronomy communication can be easily identified, efficiently described and rigidly formatted so that both robotic and human operations can use the same data. In this paper we will explore the current state of notification, what notification requirements are essential to create a successful standard and present a standard now under development by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA), called the VOEvent.

  7. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  8. EEG and behavioural correlates of different forms of motor imagery during action observation in rhythmical actions.

    PubMed

    Eaves, D L; Behmer, L P; Vogt, S

    2016-07-01

    Recent studies show that participants can engage in motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) simultaneously (AO+MI), indicating a capacity for dual action simulation. Here we studied the electrophysiological correlates and behavioural outcomes of two forms of AO+MI, along with pure MI and pure AO control conditions. In synchronised AO+MI, participants imagined performing a rhythmical action in synchrony with an observed distractor action. In contrast in static AO+MI, where the imagery served to conflict with AO, participants imagined holding a static hand posture during AO. Following synchronised AO+MI, rhythmical execution was strongly biased toward the cycle time of the previously observed rhythm ('imitation bias'), whereas a weaker bias was found following pure MI, and particularly for static AO+MI. In line with these findings, event-related desynchronisation (ERD) in primary sensorimotor and parietal regions was more pronounced in synchronised AO+MI compared to both pure AO and pure MI. These ERD amplitudes were, however, highly similar for static and synchronised AO+MI; suggesting that, regardless of co-represented content, both AO+MI states produced stronger motor activations than single action simulation. In contrast, synchronised AO+MI produced significantly stronger ERD in rostral prefrontal cortex compared to the other three conditions. This specific rostral prefrontal involvement most likely reflected additional cognitive processing for aligning dual action simulations. Together these results provide an important empirical validation of different AO+MI states, in that the imitation bias was strongly modulated by the content of the AO+MI instructions, and that synchronised AO+MI produced stronger behavioural and neurophysiological effects compared to pure AO or MI. PMID:27266395

  9. Towards a Community Environmental Observation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mertl, Stefan; Lettenbichler, Anton

    2014-05-01

    The Community Environmental Observation Network (CEON) is dedicated to the development of a free sensor network to collect and distribute environmental data (e.g. ground shaking, climate parameters). The data collection will be done with contributions from citizens, research institutions and public authorities like communities or schools. This will lead to a large freely available data base which can be used for public information, research, the arts,..... To start a free sensor network, the most important step is to provide easy access to free data collection and -distribution tools. The initial aims of the project CEON are dedicated to the development of these tools. A high quality data logger based on open hardware and free software is developed and a software suite of already existing free software for near-real time data communication and data distribution over the Internet will be assembled. Foremost, the development focuses on the collection of data related to the deformation of the earth (such as ground shaking, surface displacement of mass movements and glaciers) and the collection of climate data. The extent to other measurements will be considered in the design. The data logger is built using open hardware prototyping platforms like BeagleBone Black and Arduino. Main features of the data logger are: a 24Bit analog-to-digital converter; a GPS module for time reference and positioning; wireless mesh networking using Optimized Link State Routing; near real-time data transmission and communication; and near real-time differential GNSS positioning using the RTKLIB software. The project CEON is supported by the Internet Foundation Austria (IPA) within the NetIdee 2013 call.

  10. LCOGT Network observations of spacecraft target comets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lister, Tim; Knight, Matthew M.; Snodgrass, Colin; Samarasinha, Nalin H.

    2015-01-01

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) network currently has 12 telescopes at 6 locations in the northern and southern hemispheres with expansion plans for more. This network is versatile and can respond rapidly to target of opportunity events and also perform long term monitoring of slowly changing astronomical phenomena.We have been using the LCOGT Network to perform photometric monitoring of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko to support the ESA Rosetta comet mission and of C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring) as part of the ground-based observation teams for these important comets. This broadband photometry will allow a vital link between the detailed in-situ measurements made by the spacecraft and the global properties of the coma, at a time when the comet is only visible for short periods from single sites. The science we can extract includes the rotational state of the nucleus, characterization of the nucleus' activity, gas and dust properties in the coma (e.g., outflow velocities), chemical origin of gas species in the coma, and temporal behavior of the coma structure when the comet is close to the sun. Comet Siding Spring is a dynamically new comet on its first approach to the Sun that will pass close to Mars, so we can directly sample the composition of an original unaltered remnant of the protoplanetary disc. We will also be making use of specialized comet filters available at LCOGT's 2-m Faulkes Telescope North (FTN) to obtain a unique data set on comet C/2013 A1 (Siding Spring), as part of a large worldwide campaign. As one of only two robotic telescope equipped with cometary narrowband filters in the Northern hemisphere and having the largest aperture plus a high quality site, FTN can provide critical regular monitoring that cannot be achieved by any other single facility in the campaign.

  11. Adaptation of lift forces in object manipulation through action observation.

    PubMed

    Reichelt, Andreas F; Ash, Alyssa M; Baugh, Lee A; Johansson, Roland S; Flanagan, J Randall

    2013-07-01

    The ability to predict accurately the weights of objects is essential for skilled and dexterous manipulation. A potentially important source of information about object weight is through the observation of other people lifting objects. Here, we tested the hypothesis that when watching an actor lift an object, people naturally learn the object's weight and use this information to scale forces when they subsequently lift the object themselves. Participants repeatedly lifted an object in turn with an actor. Object weight unpredictably changed between 2 and 7 N every 5th to 9th of the actor's lifts, and the weight lifted by the participant always matched that previously lifted by the actor. Even though the participants were uninformed about the structure of the experiment, they appropriately adapted their lifting force in the first trial after a weight change. Thus, participants updated their internal representation about the object's weight, for use in action, when watching a single lift performed by the actor. This ability presumably involves the comparison of predicted and actual sensory information related to actor's actions, a comparison process that is also fundamental in action.

  12. Scotland's knowledge network: a progress report on Knowledge into Action.

    PubMed

    Wales, Ann; Boyle, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Launched in 2012, Knowledge into Action is the national knowledge management strategy for the health and social care workforce in Scotland. It is transforming the role of the national digital knowledge service--NHS Education for Scotlands' Knowledge Network--and the NHSS librarian role to offer more active, tailored support for translating knowledge into frontline clinical practice. This includes the development of a national evidence search and summary service, help with converting knowledge into practical and usable formats for easy use at point of care and with using digital tools to share clinicians' learning, experience and expertise. Through this practical support, Knowledge into Action is contributing to quality and safety outcomes across NHS Scotland, building clinicians' capacity and capability in applying knowledge in frontline practice and service improvement.

  13. Scotland's knowledge network: a progress report on Knowledge into Action.

    PubMed

    Wales, Ann; Boyle, Derek

    2015-11-01

    Launched in 2012, Knowledge into Action is the national knowledge management strategy for the health and social care workforce in Scotland. It is transforming the role of the national digital knowledge service--NHS Education for Scotlands' Knowledge Network--and the NHSS librarian role to offer more active, tailored support for translating knowledge into frontline clinical practice. This includes the development of a national evidence search and summary service, help with converting knowledge into practical and usable formats for easy use at point of care and with using digital tools to share clinicians' learning, experience and expertise. Through this practical support, Knowledge into Action is contributing to quality and safety outcomes across NHS Scotland, building clinicians' capacity and capability in applying knowledge in frontline practice and service improvement. PMID:26449922

  14. Observing Arctic Ecology using Networked Infomechanical Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Healey, N. C.; Oberbauer, S. F.; Hollister, R. D.; Tweedie, C. E.; Welker, J. M.; Gould, W. A.

    2012-12-01

    Understanding ecological dynamics is important for investigation into the potential impacts of climate change in the Arctic. Established in the early 1990's, the International Tundra Experiment (ITEX) began observational inquiry of plant phenology, plant growth, community composition, and ecosystem properties as part of a greater effort to study changes across the Arctic. Unfortunately, these observations are labor intensive and time consuming, greatly limiting their frequency and spatial coverage. We have expanded the capability of ITEX to analyze ecological phenomenon with improved spatial and temporal resolution through the use of Networked Infomechanical Systems (NIMS) as part of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) program. The systems exhibit customizable infrastructure that supports a high level of versatility in sensor arrays in combination with information technology that allows for adaptable configurations to numerous environmental observation applications. We observe stereo and static time-lapse photography, air and surface temperature, incoming and outgoing long and short wave radiation, net radiation, and hyperspectral reflectance that provides critical information to understanding how vegetation in the Arctic is responding to ambient climate conditions. These measurements are conducted concurrent with ongoing manual measurements using ITEX protocols. Our NIMS travels at a rate of three centimeters per second while suspended on steel cables that are ~1 m from the surface spanning transects ~50 m in length. The transects are located to span soil moisture gradients across a variety of land cover types including dry heath, moist acidic tussock tundra, shrub tundra, wet meadows, dry meadows, and water tracks. We have deployed NIMS at four locations on the North Slope of Alaska, USA associated with 1 km2 ARCSS vegetation study grids including Barrow, Atqasuk, Toolik Lake, and Imnavait Creek. A fifth system has been deployed in Thule, Greenland beginning in

  15. Action semantics and movement characteristics engage distinct processing streams during the observation of tool use.

    PubMed

    Hoeren, Markus; Kaller, Christoph P; Glauche, Volkmar; Vry, Magnus-Sebastian; Rijntjes, Michel; Hamzei, Farsin; Weiller, Cornelius

    2013-08-01

    The cortical motor system follows a modular organization in which different features of executed movements are supported by distinct streams. Accordingly, different levels of action recognition, such as movement characteristics or action semantics may be processed within distinct networks. The present study aimed to differentiate areas related to the analysis of action features involving semantic knowledge from regions concerned with the evaluation of movement characteristics determined by structural object properties. To this end, the assessment of (i) tool-associated actions in relation to semantically, but not functionally inappropriate recipients (factor "Semantics"), and the evaluation of (ii) tool-associated movements performed with awkward versus correct hand postures (factor "Hand") were experimentally manipulated in an fMRI study with an event-related 2 × 2 factorial design. The videos used as stimuli displayed actions performed with the right hand in third-person perspective. Conjunction analysis of all four experimental conditions showed that observing videos depicting tool-related actions compared to rest was associated with widespread bilateral activity within the frontal lobes, inferior and superior parietal lobules, parts of the temporal lobes, as well as the occipital lobes. Viewing actions executed with incorrect compared to correct hand postures (factor "Hand") elicited significantly more activity within right primary sensory cortex (Brodmann area 2) and superior parietal lobule. Conversely, tool-associated actions displayed after semantically incorrect compared to correct recipients elicited higher activation within a left-lateralized network comprising the ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), parts of the intraparietal sulcus and the angular gyrus (AG), as well as the supplementary motor area (SMA) and pre-SMA. Probabilistic diffusion tensor imaging-based tractography revealed two distinct fiber connections between AG and the frontal

  16. Multiple roles of motor imagery during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Vogt, Stefan; Di Rienzo, Franck; Collet, Christian; Collins, Alan; Guillot, Aymeric

    2013-01-01

    Over the last 20 years, the topics of action observation (AO) and motor imagery (MI) have been largely studied in isolation from each other, despite the early integrative account by Jeannerod (1994, 2001). Recent neuroimaging studies demonstrate enhanced cortical activity when AO and MI are performed concurrently (“AO+MI”), compared to either AO or MI performed in isolation. These results indicate the potentially beneficial effects of AO+MI, and they also demonstrate that the underlying neurocognitive processes are partly shared. We separately review the evidence for MI and AO as forms of motor simulation, and present two quantitative literature analyses that indeed indicate rather little overlap between the two bodies of research. We then propose a spectrum of concurrent AO+MI states, from congruent AO+MI where the contents of AO and MI widely overlap, over coordinative AO+MI, where observed and imagined action are different but can be coordinated with each other, to cases of conflicting AO+MI. We believe that an integrative account of AO and MI is theoretically attractive, that it should generate novel experimental approaches, and that it can also stimulate a wide range of applications in sport, occupational therapy, and neurorehabilitation. PMID:24324428

  17. The right temporoparietal junction encodes efforts of others during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social interactions require a deep understanding of others’ intentions and feelings. In the present study, to investigate brain regions that respond to inference of others’ effort level, we recorded brain activity during action observation of different effort levels using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a dumbbell curl movement to depict a movement requiring effort. To dissociate the factors of effort level of the actor and weight of the dumbbell, we used four combinations of dumbbell weight and actor physique: a thin actor or a built actor lifting a heavy or light dumbbell. During observation of dumbbell curls, the bilateral front-parietal action observation network (AON) was activated. This included the premotor cortices, parietal cortices, visual areas 5/superior temporal cortices (STS), amygdalae, hippocampi, right dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortices. When we evaluated brain regions associated with the actor’s effort level, activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and STS was observed. However, activity in the front-parietal AON was independent of the actor’s effort during action observation. This finding suggests that the right TPJ and STS play an important role in the inference of others’ effort levels during the observation of others’ movements. PMID:27458025

  18. The right temporoparietal junction encodes efforts of others during action observation.

    PubMed

    Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Nakata, Hiroki; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2016-01-01

    Smooth social interactions require a deep understanding of others' intentions and feelings. In the present study, to investigate brain regions that respond to inference of others' effort level, we recorded brain activity during action observation of different effort levels using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). We used a dumbbell curl movement to depict a movement requiring effort. To dissociate the factors of effort level of the actor and weight of the dumbbell, we used four combinations of dumbbell weight and actor physique: a thin actor or a built actor lifting a heavy or light dumbbell. During observation of dumbbell curls, the bilateral front-parietal action observation network (AON) was activated. This included the premotor cortices, parietal cortices, visual areas 5/superior temporal cortices (STS), amygdalae, hippocampi, right dorsolateral and ventrolateral frontal cortices. When we evaluated brain regions associated with the actor's effort level, activity in the right temporoparietal junction (TPJ) and STS was observed. However, activity in the front-parietal AON was independent of the actor's effort during action observation. This finding suggests that the right TPJ and STS play an important role in the inference of others' effort levels during the observation of others' movements. PMID:27458025

  19. What are you doing? How active and observational experience shape infants' action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-01-01

    From early in life, infants watch other people's actions. How do young infants come to make sense of actions they observe? Here, we review empirical findings on the development of action understanding in infancy. Based on this review, we argue that active action experience is crucial for infants' developing action understanding. When infants execute actions, they form associations between motor acts and the sensory consequences of these acts. When infants subsequently observe these actions in others, they can use their motor system to predict the outcome of the ongoing actions. Also, infants come to an understanding of others’ actions through the repeated observation of actions and the effects associated with them. In their daily lives, infants have plenty of opportunities to form associations between observed events and learn about statistical regularities of others’ behaviours. We argue that based on these two forms of experience—active action experience and observational experience—infants gradually develop more complex action understanding capabilities. PMID:24778386

  20. Gap analysis of the European Earth Observation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Closa, Guillem; Serral, Ivette; Maso, Joan

    2016-04-01

    Earth Observations (EO) are fundamental to enhance the scientific understanding of the current status of the Earth. Nowadays, there are a lot of EO services that provide large volume of data, and the number of datasets available for different geosciences areas is increasing by the day. Despite this coverage, a glance of the European EO networks reveals that there are still some issues that are not being met; some gaps in specific themes or some thematic overlaps between different networks. This situation requires a clarification process of the actual status of the EO European networks in order to set priorities and propose future actions that will improve the European EO networks. The aim of this work is to detect the existing gaps and overlapping problems among the European EO networks. The analytical process has been done by studying the availability and the completeness of the Essential Variables (EV) data captured by the European EO networks. The concept of EVs considers that there are a number of parameters that are essential to characterize the state and trends of a system without losing significant information. This work generated a database of the existing gaps in the European EO network based on the initial GAIA-CLIM project data structure. For each theme the missing or incomplete data about each EV was indentified. Then, if incomplete, the gap was described by adding its type (geographical extent, vertical extent, temporal extent, spatial resolution, etc), the cost, the remedy, the feasibility, the impact and the priority, among others. Gaps in EO are identified following the ConnectinGEO methodology structured in 5 threads; identification of observation requirements, incorporation of international research programs material, consultation process within the current EO actors, GEOSS Discovery and Access Broker analysis, and industry-driven challenges implementation. Concretely, the presented work focuses on the second thread, which is based on

  1. Encoding of point of view during action observation in the local field potentials of macaque area F5.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter; Casile, Antonino

    2015-02-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons compellingly shows that the monkey premotor area F5 is active not only during the execution but also during the observation of goal-directed motor acts. Previous studies have addressed the functioning of the mirror-neuron system at the single-unit level. Here, we tackled this research question at the network level by analysing local field potentials in area F5 while the monkey was presented with goal-directed actions executed by a human or monkey actor and observed either from a first-person or third-person perspective. Our analysis showed that rhythmic responses are not only present in area F5 during action observation, but are also modulated by the point of view. Observing an action from a subjective point of view produced significantly higher power in the low-frequency band (2-10 Hz) than observing the same action from a frontal view. Interestingly, an increase in power in the 2-10 Hz band was also produced by the execution of goal-directed motor acts. Independently of the point of view, action observation also produced a significant decrease in power in the 15-40 Hz band and an increase in the 60-100 Hz band. These results suggest that, depending on the point of view, action observation might activate different processes in area F5. Furthermore, they may provide information about the functional architecture of action perception in primates.

  2. European Marine Observation Data Network - EMODnet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manzella, Giuseppe M. R.; Novellino, Antonio; D'Angelo, Paolo; Gorringe, Patrick; Schaap, Dick; Pouliquen, Sylvie; Loubrieu, Thomas; Rickards, Lesley

    2015-04-01

    The EMODnet-Physics portal (www.emodnet-physics.eu) makes layers of physical data and their metadata available for use and contributes towards the definition of an operational European Marine Observation and Data Network (EMODnet). It is based on a strong collaboration between EuroGOOS associates and its regional operational systems (ROOSs), and it is bringing together two very different marine communities: the "real time" ocean observing institute/centers and the National Oceanographic Data Centres (NODCs) that are in charge of ocean data validation, quality check and update for marine environmental monitoring. The EMODnet-Physics is a Marine Observation and Data Information System that provides a single point of access to near real time and historical achieved data (www.emodnet-physics.eu/map) it is built on existing infrastructure by adding value and avoiding any unless complexity, it provides data access to users, it is aimed at attracting new data holders, better and more data. With a long-term vision for a pan European Ocean Observation System sustainability, the EMODnet-Physics is supporting the coordination of the EuroGOOS Regional components and the empowerment and improvement of their data management infrastructure. In turn, EMODnet-Physics already implemented high-level interoperability features (WMS, Web catalogue, web services, etc…) to facilitate connection and data exchange with the ROOS and the Institutes within the ROOSs (www.emodnet-physics.eu/services). The on-going EMODnet-Physics structure delivers environmental marine physical data from the whole Europe (wave height and period, temperature of the water column, wind speed and direction, salinity of the water column, horizontal velocity of the water column, light attenuation, and sea level) as monitored by fixed stations, ARGO floats, drifting buoys, gliders, and ferry-boxes. It does provide discovering of data sets (both NRT - near real time - and Historical data sets), visualization and free

  3. Melatonin action in a midbrain vocal-acoustic network

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Ni Y.; Bass, Andrew H.

    2014-01-01

    Melatonin is a well-documented time-keeping hormone that can entrain an individual's physiology and behavior to the day–night cycle, though surprisingly little is known about its influence on the neural basis of social behavior, including vocalization. Male midshipman fish (Porichthys notatus) produce several call types distinguishable by duration and by daily and seasonal cycles in their production. We investigated melatonin's influence on the known nocturnal- and breeding season-dependent increase in excitability of the midshipman's vocal network (VN) that directly patterns natural calls. VN output is readily recorded from the vocal nerve as a ‘fictive call’. Five days of constant light significantly increased stimulus threshold levels for calls electrically evoked from vocally active sites in the medial midbrain, supporting previous findings that light suppresses VN excitability, while 2-iodomelatonin (2-IMel; a melatonin analog) implantation decreased threshold. 2-IMel also increased fictive call duration evoked from medial sites as well as lateral midbrain sites that produced several-fold longer calls irrespective of photoregime or drug treatment. When stimulus intensity was incrementally increased, 2-IMel increased duration only at lateral sites, suggesting that melatonin action is stronger in the lateral midbrain. For animals receiving 5 days of constant darkness, known to increase VN excitability, systemic injections of either of two mammalian melatonin receptor antagonists increased threshold and decreased duration for calls evoked from medial sites. Our results demonstrate melatonin modulation of VN excitability and suggest that social context-dependent call types differing in duration may be determined by neuro-hormonal action within specific regions of a midbrain vocal-acoustic network. PMID:24265429

  4. Observability and Controllability of Nonlinear Networks: The Role of Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schiff, Steven; Whalen, Andrew; Brennan, Sean; Sauer, Timothy

    2015-03-01

    Observability and controllability are essential concepts to the design of predictive observer models and feedback controllers of networked systems. For example, noncontrollable mathematical models of real systems may have subspaces that influence model behavior, but cannot be controlled by an input. Such subspaces are difficult to determine in complex nonlinear networks. Since most of the present theory was developed for linear networks without symmetries, here we present a numerical and group representational framework, to quantify the observability and controllability of nonlinear networks with explicit symmetries that shows the connection between symmetries and measures of observability and controllability. We numerically observe and theoretically predict that not all symmetries have the same effect on network observation and control. We find that the presence of symmetry in a network may decrease observability and controllability, although networks containing only rotational symmetries remain controllable and observable. These results alter our view of the nature of observability and controllability in complex networks, change our understanding of structural controllability, and affect the design of mathematical models to observe and control such networks. National Academies - Keck Futures Initiative, NSF grant DMS 1216568, and Collaborative Research in Computational Neuroscience NIH Grant 1R01EB014641.

  5. Observability and Controllability of Nonlinear Networks: The Role of Symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whalen, Andrew J.; Brennan, Sean N.; Sauer, Timothy D.; Schiff, Steven J.

    2015-01-01

    Observability and controllability are essential concepts to the design of predictive observer models and feedback controllers of networked systems. For example, noncontrollable mathematical models of real systems have subspaces that influence model behavior, but cannot be controlled by an input. Such subspaces can be difficult to determine in complex nonlinear networks. Since almost all of the present theory was developed for linear networks without symmetries, here we present a numerical and group representational framework, to quantify the observability and controllability of nonlinear networks with explicit symmetries that shows the connection between symmetries and nonlinear measures of observability and controllability. We numerically observe and theoretically predict that not all symmetries have the same effect on network observation and control. Our analysis shows that the presence of symmetry in a network may decrease observability and controllability, although networks containing only rotational symmetries remain controllable and observable. These results alter our view of the nature of observability and controllability in complex networks, change our understanding of structural controllability, and affect the design of mathematical models to observe and control such networks.

  6. Specializing network analysis to detect anomalous insider actions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, You; Nyemba, Steve; Zhang, Wen; Malin, Bradley

    2012-01-01

    Collaborative information systems (CIS) enable users to coordinate efficiently over shared tasks in complex distributed environments. For flexibility, they provide users with broad access privileges, which, as a side-effect, leave such systems vulnerable to various attacks. Some of the more damaging malicious activities stem from internal misuse, where users are authorized to access system resources. A promising class of insider threat detection models for CIS focuses on mining access patterns from audit logs, however, current models are limited in that they assume organizations have significant resources to generate label cases for training classifiers or assume the user has committed a large number of actions that deviate from “normal” behavior. In lieu of the previous assumptions, we introduce an approach that detects when specific actions of an insider deviate from expectation in the context of collaborative behavior. Specifically, in this paper, we introduce a specialized network anomaly detection model, or SNAD, to detect such events. This approach assesses the extent to which a user influences the similarity of the group of users that access a particular record in the CIS. From a theoretical perspective, we show that the proposed model is appropriate for detecting insider actions in dynamic collaborative systems. From an empirical perspective, we perform an extensive evaluation of SNAD with the access logs of two distinct environments: the patient record access logs a large electronic health record system (6,015 users, 130,457 patients and 1,327,500 accesses) and the editing logs of Wikipedia (2,394,385 revisors, 55,200 articles and 6,482,780 revisions). We compare our model with several competing methods and demonstrate SNAD is significantly more effective: on average it achieves 20–30% greater area under an ROC curve. PMID:23399988

  7. Near-Earth asteroids: Observer alert network and physical observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Donald R.; Chapman, Clark R.

    1992-01-01

    This project strives to obtain physical observations on newly discovered Near-Earth Objects (NEO's) in order to provide fundamental data needed to assess the resources available in the population. The goal is acquiring data on all objects brighter than magnitude V= 17.0. To accomplish this, an electronic mail alert and observer information service that informs observers around the world as to the status of physical observations on currently observable NEO's was established. Such data is also acquired ourselves through a cooperative program with European colleagues that uses telescopes on La Palma to obtain spectra of NEO's and through observations made from a local telescope on Tumamoc Hill. This latter telescope has the advantage that large amounts of observing time are available, so that whenever a new NEO's discovered, we can be assured of getting time to observe it.

  8. Action Research Networks: Role and Purpose in the Evaluation of Research Outcomes and Impacts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen

    2016-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…

  9. Suppressing epidemics on networks by exploiting observer nodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takaguchi, Taro; Hasegawa, Takehisa; Yoshida, Yuichi

    2014-07-01

    To control infection spreading on networks, we investigate the effect of observer nodes that recognize infection in a neighboring node and make the rest of the neighbor nodes immune. We numerically show that random placement of observer nodes works better on networks with clustering than on locally treelike networks, implying that our model is promising for realistic social networks. The efficiency of several heuristic schemes for observer placement is also examined for synthetic and empirical networks. In parallel with numerical simulations of epidemic dynamics, we also show that the effect of observer placement can be assessed by the size of the largest connected component of networks remaining after removing observer nodes and links between their neighboring nodes.

  10. Predicting others' actions via grasp and gaze: evidence for distinct brain networks.

    PubMed

    Ramsey, Richard; Cross, Emily S; Hamilton, Antonia F de C

    2012-07-01

    During social interactions, how do we predict what other people are going to do next? One view is that we use our own motor experience to simulate and predict other people's actions. For example, when we see Sally look at a coffee cup or grasp a hammer, our own motor system provides a signal that anticipates her next action. Previous research has typically examined such gaze and grasp-based simulation processes separately, and it is not known whether similar cognitive and brain systems underpin the perception of object-directed gaze and grasp. Here we use functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine to what extent gaze- and grasp-perception rely on common or distinct brain networks. Using a 'peeping window' protocol, we controlled what an observed actor could see and grasp. The actor could peep through one window to see if an object was present and reach through a different window to grasp the object. However, the actor could not peep and grasp at the same time. We compared gaze and grasp conditions where an object was present with matched conditions where the object was absent. When participants observed another person gaze at an object, left anterior inferior parietal lobule (aIPL) and parietal operculum showed a greater response than when the object was absent. In contrast, when participants observed the actor grasp an object, premotor, posterior parietal, fusiform and middle occipital brain regions showed a greater response than when the object was absent. These results point towards a division in the neural substrates for different types of motor simulation. We suggest that left aIPL and parietal operculum are involved in a predictive process that signals a future hand interaction with an object based on another person's eye gaze, whereas a broader set of brain areas, including parts of the action observation network, are engaged during observation of an ongoing object-directed hand action.

  11. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  12. Inferring gene regulatory networks using a time-delayed mass action model.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yaou; Jiang, Mingyan; Chen, Yuehui

    2016-08-01

    This paper demonstrates a new time-delayed mass action model which applies a set of delay differential equations (DDEs) to represent the dynamics of gene regulatory networks (GRNs). The mass action model is a classical model which is often used to describe the kinetics of biochemical processes, so it is fit for GRN modeling. The ability to incorporate time-delayed parameters in this model enables different time delays of interaction between genes. Moreover, an efficient learning method which employs population-based incremental learning (PBIL) algorithm and trigonometric differential evolution (TDE) algorithm TDE is proposed to automatically evolve the structure of the network and infer the optimal parameters from observed time-series gene expression data. Experiments on three well-known motifs of GRN and a real budding yeast cell cycle network show that the proposal can not only successfully infer the network structure and parameters but also has a strong anti-noise ability. Compared with other works, this method also has a great improvement in performances.

  13. Multi-Telescope Observing: the LCOGT Network Scheduler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saunders, E.; Lampoudi, S.

    Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope (LCOGT) is developing a worldwide network of fully robotic optical telescopes dedicated to time-domain astronomy. Observatory automation, longitudinal spacing of the sites, and a centralised network scheduler enable a range of observing modes impossible with traditional manual observing from a single location. These include continuous coverage of targets across sites, simultaneous observing with multiple resources, and cadenced time-series monitoring without diurnal gaps. The network also provides resource redundancy, with the potential for observations to be rescheduled in response to changing weather conditions. The scheduling model supports a wide variety of observing programs, which typically have very different constraints, goals, contingencies and timescales. Heterogeneous requests in a networked observing environment present specific, unusual challenges for telescope scheduling that do not arise with single-resource schedulers. Here, we discuss the design of the LCOGT network scheduler. We outline the scheduler's modular architecture, describe the implementation of its components, and highlight its current and planned capabilities.

  14. Observing accidental and intentional unusual actions is associated with different subregions of the medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Desmet, Charlotte; Brass, Marcel

    2015-11-15

    The literature on action observation revealed contradictory results regarding the activation of different subregions of the medial prefrontal cortex when observing unusual behaviour. Error observation research has shown that the posterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when observing unusual behaviour compared to usual behaviour while action understanding research has revealed some mixed results concerning the role of the anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex during the observation of unusual actions. Here, we resolve this discrepancy in the literature by showing that different parts of the medial prefrontal cortex are active depending on whether an observed unusual behaviour is intentional or not. While the posterior medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual accidental actions compared to unusual intentional actions, a more anterior part of the medial prefrontal cortex is more active when we observe unusual intentional actions compared to unusual accidental actions.

  15. How Equivalent Are the Action Execution, Imagery, and Observation of Intransitive Movements? Revisiting the Concept of Somatotopy during Action Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lorey, Britta; Naumann, Tim; Pilgramm, Sebastian; Petermann, Carmen; Bischoff, Matthias; Zentgraf, Karen; Stark, Rudolf; Vaitl, Dieter; Munzert, Jorn

    2013-01-01

    Jeannerod (2001) hypothesized that action execution, imagery, and observation are functionally equivalent. This led to the major prediction that these motor states are based on the same action-specific and even effector-specific motor representations. The present study examined whether hand and foot movements are represented in a somatotopic…

  16. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Ipek G; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission.

  17. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens.

    PubMed

    Kulahci, Ipek G; Rubenstein, Daniel I; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-07-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  18. Social networks predict selective observation and information spread in ravens

    PubMed Central

    Rubenstein, Daniel I.; Bugnyar, Thomas; Hoppitt, William; Mikus, Nace; Schwab, Christine

    2016-01-01

    Animals are predicted to selectively observe and learn from the conspecifics with whom they share social connections. Yet, hardly anything is known about the role of different connections in observation and learning. To address the relationships between social connections, observation and learning, we investigated transmission of information in two raven (Corvus corax) groups. First, we quantified social connections in each group by constructing networks on affiliative interactions, aggressive interactions and proximity. We then seeded novel information by training one group member on a novel task and allowing others to observe. In each group, an observation network based on who observed whose task-solving behaviour was strongly correlated with networks based on affiliative interactions and proximity. Ravens with high social centrality (strength, eigenvector, information centrality) in the affiliative interaction network were also central in the observation network, possibly as a result of solving the task sooner. Network-based diffusion analysis revealed that the order that ravens first solved the task was best predicted by connections in the affiliative interaction network in a group of subadult ravens, and by social rank and kinship (which influenced affiliative interactions) in a group of juvenile ravens. Our results demonstrate that not all social connections are equally effective at predicting the patterns of selective observation and information transmission. PMID:27493780

  19. On the Relations between Action Planning, Object Identification, and Motor Representations of Observed Actions and Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vainio, Lari; Symes, Ed; Ellis, Rob; Tucker, Mike; Ottoboni, Giovanni

    2008-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests that viewing a static prime object (a hand grasp), can activate action representations that affect the subsequent identification of graspable target objects. The present study explored whether stronger effects on target object identification would occur when the prime object (a hand grasp) was made more action-rich and…

  20. A Numerical Climate Observing Network Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stammer, Detlef

    2003-01-01

    This project was concerned with three related questions of an optimal design of a climate observing system: 1. The spatial sampling characteristics required from an ARGO system. 2. The degree to which surface observations from ARGO can be used to calibrate and test satellite remote sensing observations of sea surface salinity (SSS) as it is anticipated now. 3. The more general design of an climate observing system as it is required in the near future for CLIVAR in the Atlantic. An important question in implementing an observing system is that of the sampling density required to observe climate-related variations in the ocean. For that purpose this project was concerned with the sampling requirements for the ARGO float system, but investigated also other elements of a climate observing system. As part of this project we studied the horizontal and vertical sampling characteristics of a global ARGO system which is required to make it fully complementary to altimeter data with the goal to capture climate related variations on large spatial scales (less thanAttachment: 1000 km). We addressed this question in the framework of a numerical model study in the North Atlantic with an 1/6 horizontal resolution. The advantage of a numerical design study is the knowledge of the full model state. Sampled by a synthetic float array, model results will therefore allow to test and improve existing deployment strategies with the goal to make the system as optimal and cost-efficient as possible. Attachment: "Optimal observations for variational data assimilation".

  1. Corticospinal excitability modulation to hand muscles during the observation of appropriate versus inappropriate actions.

    PubMed

    Cavallo, Andrea; Sartori, Luisa; Castiello, Umberto

    2011-06-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that the observation of an action causes subliminal activation within the motor system. However, the issue of whether such an effect is modulated by the match between the observed action and that the observer would have exhibited if acting under similar circumstances remains unclear. We address this issue by recording motor potentials evoked by single-pulse TMS from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles during the observation of video-clips representing prehensile actions towards small or large objects. In a separate behavioral study, participants were asked to evaluate which type of grasp would be the most appropriate for the tested objects. The TMS data revealed a selective motor facilitation during the observation of movements recruiting the targeted digits. We contend that, in action observation tasks, the human corticospinal system mediating action observation effects codes merely for the visual aspects of the observed action. PMID:24168477

  2. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, Masumi

    2014-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. PMID:24478668

  3. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. PMID:24478668

  4. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masumi

    2013-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception.

  5. Your actions in my cerebellum: subclinical deficits in action observation in patients with unilateral chronic cerebellar stroke.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Fasanelli, Monica; Andreatta, Olaf; Bonifati, Domenico Marco; Barchiesi, Guido; Caruana, Fausto

    2012-03-01

    Empirical evidence indicates that cognitive consequences of cerebellar lesions tend to be mild and less important than the symptoms due to lesions to cerebral areas. By contrast, imaging studies consistently report strong cerebellar activity during tasks of action observation and action understanding. This has been interpreted as part of the automatic motor simulation process that takes place in the context of action observation. The function of the cerebellum as a sequencer during executed movements makes it a good candidate, within the framework of embodied cognition, for a pivotal role in understanding the timing of action sequences. Here, we investigated a cohort of eight patients with chronic, first-ever, isolated, ischemic lesions of the cerebellum. The experimental task consisted in identifying a plausible sequence of pictures from a randomly ordered group of still frames extracted from (a) a complex action performed by a human actor ("biological action" test) or (b) a complex physical event occurring to an inanimate object ("folk physics" test). A group of 16 healthy participants was used as control. The main result showed that cerebellar patients performed significantly worse than controls in both sequencing tasks, but performed much worse in the "biological action" test than in the "folk physics" test. The dissociation described here suggests that observed sequences of simple motor acts seem to be represented differentially from other sequences in the cerebellum.

  6. Observations on Electronic Networks: Appropriate Activities for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levin, James A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Discussion of the use of electronic networks for learning activities highlights the Noon Observation Project in which students in various locations measured the length of a noontime shadow to determine the earth's circumference. Electronic pen pals are discussed, and the roles of the network and of the class are described. (LRW)

  7. Towards the creation of a European Network of Earth Observation Networks within GEO. The ConnectinGEO project.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Masó, Joan; Serral, Ivette; Menard, Lionel; Wald, Lucien; Nativi, Stefano; Plag, Hans-Peter; Jules-Plag, Shelley; Nüst, Daniel; Jirka, Simon; Pearlman, Jay; De Maziere, Martine

    2015-04-01

    ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations" is a new H2020 Coordination and Support Action with the primary goal of linking existing Earth Observation networks with science and technology (S&T) communities, the industry sector, the Group on Earth Observations (GEO), and Copernicus. ConnectinGEO aims to facilitate a broader and more accessible knowledge base to support the needs of GEO, its Societal Benefit Areas (SBAs) and the users of the Global Earth Observing System of Systems (GEOSS). A broad range of subjects from climate, natural resources and raw materials, to the emerging UN Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) will be addressed. The project will generate a prioritized list of critical gaps within available observation data and models to translate observations into practice-relevant knowledge, based on stakeholder consultation and systematic analysis. Ultimately, it will increase coherency of European observation networks, increase the use of Earth observations for assessments and forecasts and inform the planning for future observation systems. ConnectinGEO will initiate a European Network of Earth Observation Networks (ENEON) that will encompass space-based, airborne and in-situ observations networks. ENEON will be composed by project partners representing thematic observation networks along with the GEOSS Science and Technology Stakeholder Network, GEO Communities of Practices, Copernicus services, Sentinel missions and in-situ support data representatives, representatives of the space-based, airborne and in-situ observations European networks (e.g. EPOS, EMSO and GROOM, etc), representatives of the industry sector and European and national funding agencies, in particular those participating in the future ERA-PlaNET. At the beginning, the ENEON will be created and managed by the project. Then the management will be transferred to the network itself to ensure

  8. Bayesian Network Models for Local Dependence among Observable Outcome Variables

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Almond, Russell G.; Mulder, Joris; Hemat, Lisa A.; Yan, Duanli

    2009-01-01

    Bayesian network models offer a large degree of flexibility for modeling dependence among observables (item outcome variables) from the same task, which may be dependent. This article explores four design patterns for modeling locally dependent observations: (a) no context--ignores dependence among observables; (b) compensatory context--introduces…

  9. Evolution under fluctuating environments explains observed robustness in metabolic networks.

    PubMed

    Soyer, Orkun S; Pfeiffer, Thomas

    2010-08-26

    A high level of robustness against gene deletion is observed in many organisms. However, it is still not clear which biochemical features underline this robustness and how these are acquired during evolution. One hypothesis, specific to metabolic networks, is that robustness emerges as a byproduct of selection for biomass production in different environments. To test this hypothesis we performed evolutionary simulations of metabolic networks under stable and fluctuating environments. We find that networks evolved under the latter scenario can better tolerate single gene deletion in specific environments. Such robustness is underlined by an increased number of independent fluxes and multifunctional enzymes in the evolved networks. Observed robustness in networks evolved under fluctuating environments was "apparent," in the sense that it decreased significantly as we tested effects of gene deletions under all environments experienced during evolution. Furthermore, when we continued evolution of these networks under a stable environment, we found that any robustness they had acquired was completely lost. These findings provide evidence that evolution under fluctuating environments can account for the observed robustness in metabolic networks. Further, they suggest that organisms living under stable environments should display lower robustness in their metabolic networks, and that robustness should decrease upon switching to more stable environments.

  10. Deactivation in the Sensorimotor Area during Observation of a Human Agent Performing Robotic Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimada, Sotaro

    2010-01-01

    It is well established that several motor areas, called the mirror-neuron system (MNS), are activated when an individual observes other's actions. However, whether the MNS responds similarly to robotic actions compared with human actions is still controversial. The present study investigated whether and how the motor area activity is influenced by…

  11. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    PubMed

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view.

  12. The interaction between felt touch and tactile consequences of observed actions: an action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm.

    PubMed

    Deschrijver, Eliane; Wiersema, Jan R; Brass, Marcel

    2016-07-01

    Action observation leads to a representation of both the motor aspect of an observed action (motor simulation) and its somatosensory consequences (action-based somatosensory simulation) in the observer's brain. In the current electroencephalography-study, we investigated the neuronal interplay of action-based somatosensory simulation and felt touch. We presented index or middle finger tapping movements of a human or a wooden hand, while simultaneously presenting 'tap-like' tactile sensations to either the corresponding or non-corresponding fingertip of the participant. We focused on an early stage of somatosensory processing [P50, N100 and N140 sensory evoked potentials (SEPs)] and on a later stage of higher-order processing (P3-complex). The results revealed an interaction effect of animacy and congruency in the early P50 SEP and an animacy effect in the N100/N140 SEPs. In the P3-complex, we found an interaction effect indicating that the influence of congruency was larger in the human than in the wooden hand. We argue that the P3-complex may reflect higher-order self-other distinction by signaling simulated action-based touch that does not match own tactile information. As such, the action-based somatosensory congruency paradigm might help understand higher-order social processes from a somatosensory point of view. PMID:26152577

  13. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    PubMed

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  14. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes.

    PubMed

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus-response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus-response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings. PMID:27683548

  15. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus–response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus–response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings. PMID:27683548

  16. Behavioral and TMS Markers of Action Observation Might Reflect Distinct Neuronal Processes

    PubMed Central

    Hétu, Sébastien; Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Meziane, Hadj Boumediene; Jackson, Philip L.; Mercier, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies have shown that observing an action induces muscle-specific changes in corticospinal excitability. From a signal detection theory standpoint, this pattern can be related to sensitivity, which here would measure the capacity to distinguish between two action observation conditions. In parallel to these TMS studies, action observation has also been linked to behavioral effects such as motor priming and interference. It has been hypothesized that behavioral markers of action observation could be related to TMS markers and thus represent a potentially cost-effective mean of assessing the functioning of the action-perception system. However, very few studies have looked at possible relationships between these two measures. The aim of this study was to investigate if individual differences in sensitivity to action observation could be related to the behavioral motor priming and interference effects produced by action observation. To this end, 14 healthy participants observed index and little finger movements during a TMS task and a stimulus–response compatibility task. Index muscle displayed sensitivity to action observation, and action observation resulted in significant motor priming+interference, while no significant effect was observed for the little finger in both task. Nevertheless, our results indicate that the sensitivity measured in TMS was not related to the behavioral changes measured in the stimulus–response compatibility task. Contrary to a widespread assumption, the current results indicate that individual differences in physiological and behavioral markers of action observation may be unrelated. This could have important impacts on the potential use of behavioral markers in place of more costly physiological markers of action observation in clinical settings.

  17. Objects Mediate Goal Integration in Ventrolateral Prefrontal Cortex during Action Observation.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Kühn, Anne B; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2015-01-01

    Actions performed by others are mostly not observed in isolation, but embedded in sequences of actions tied together by an overarching goal. Therefore, preceding actions can modulate the observer's expectations in relation to the currently perceived action. Ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC), and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in particular, is suggested to subserve the integration of episodic as well as semantic information and memory, including action scripts. The present fMRI study investigated if activation in IFG varies with the effort to integrate expected and observed action, even when not required by the task. During an fMRI session, participants were instructed to attend to short videos of single actions and to deliver a judgment about the actor's current goal. We manipulated the strength of goal expectation induced by the preceding action, implementing the parameter "goal-relatedness" between the preceding and the currently observed action. Moreover, since objects point to the probability of certain actions, we also manipulated whether the current and the preceding action shared at least one object or not. We found an interaction between the two factors goal-relatedness and shared object: IFG activation increased the weaker the goal-relatedness between the preceding and the current action was, but only when they shared at least one object. Here, integration of successive action steps was triggered by the re-appearing (shared) object but hampered by a weak goal-relatedness between the actually observed manipulation. These findings foster the recently emerging view that IFG is enhanced by goal-related conflicts during action observation. PMID:26218102

  18. Gender equality observations and actions by the European Research Council

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin

    2016-04-01

    Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.

  19. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  20. Controllability and observability of Boolean networks arising from biology.

    PubMed

    Li, Rui; Yang, Meng; Chu, Tianguang

    2015-02-01

    Boolean networks are currently receiving considerable attention as a computational scheme for system level analysis and modeling of biological systems. Studying control-related problems in Boolean networks may reveal new insights into the intrinsic control in complex biological systems and enable us to develop strategies for manipulating biological systems using exogenous inputs. This paper considers controllability and observability of Boolean biological networks. We propose a new approach, which draws from the rich theory of symbolic computation, to solve the problems. Consequently, simple necessary and sufficient conditions for reachability, controllability, and observability are obtained, and algorithmic tests for controllability and observability which are based on the Gröbner basis method are presented. As practical applications, we apply the proposed approach to several different biological systems, namely, the mammalian cell-cycle network, the T-cell activation network, the large granular lymphocyte survival signaling network, and the Drosophila segment polarity network, gaining novel insights into the control and/or monitoring of the specific biological systems.

  1. Responses of the human motor system to observing actions across species: A transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    White, Nicole C; Reid, Connor; Welsh, Timothy N

    2014-10-22

    Ample evidence suggests that the role of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in monkeys is to represent the meaning of actions. The MNS becomes active in monkeys during execution, observation, and auditory experience of meaningful, object-oriented actions, suggesting that these cells represent the same action based on a variety of cues. The present study sought to determine whether the human motor system, part of the putative human MNS, similarly represents and reflects the meaning of actions rather than simply the mechanics of the actions. To this end, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) of primary motor cortex was used to generate motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) from muscles involved in grasping while participants viewed object-oriented grasping actions performed by either a human, an elephant, a rat, or a body-less robotic arm. The analysis of MEP amplitudes suggested that activity in primary motor cortex during action observation was greatest during observation of the grasping actions of the rat and elephant, and smallest for the human and robotic arm. Based on these data, we conclude that the human action observation system can represent actions executed by non-human animals and shows sensitivity to species-specific differences in action mechanics. PMID:25463135

  2. Stimulation over primary motor cortex during action observation impairs effector recognition.

    PubMed

    Naish, Katherine R; Barnes, Brittany; Obhi, Sukhvinder S

    2016-04-01

    Recent work suggests that motor cortical processing during action observation plays a role in later recognition of the object involved in the action. Here, we investigated whether recognition of the effector making an action is also impaired when transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) - thought to interfere with normal cortical activity - is applied over the primary motor cortex (M1) during action observation. In two experiments, single-pulse TMS was delivered over the hand area of M1 while participants watched short clips of hand actions. Participants were then asked whether an image (experiment 1) or a video (experiment 2) of a hand presented later in the trial was the same or different to the hand in the preceding video. In Experiment 1, we found that participants' ability to recognise static images of hands was significantly impaired when TMS was delivered over M1 during action observation, compared to when no TMS was delivered, or when stimulation was applied over the vertex. Conversely, stimulation over M1 did not affect recognition of dot configurations, or recognition of hands that were previously presented as static images (rather than action movie clips) with no object. In Experiment 2, we found that effector recognition was impaired when stimulation was applied part way through (300ms) and at the end (500ms) of the action observation period, indicating that 200ms of action-viewing following stimulation was not long enough to form a new representation that could be used for later recognition. The findings of both experiments suggest that interfering with cortical motor activity during action observation impairs subsequent recognition of the effector involved in the action, which complements previous findings of motor system involvement in object memory. This work provides some of the first evidence that motor processing during action observation is involved in forming representations of the effector that are useful beyond the action observation period

  3. Modulation of Brain Activity during Action Observation: Influence of Perspective, Transitivity and Meaningfulness

    PubMed Central

    Hétu, Sébastien; Mercier, Catherine; Eugène, Fanny; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Jackson, Philip L.

    2011-01-01

    The coupling process between observed and performed actions is thought to be performed by a fronto-parietal perception-action system including regions of the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. When investigating the influence of the movements' characteristics on this process, most research on action observation has focused on only one particular variable even though the type of movements we observe can vary on several levels. By manipulating the visual perspective, transitivity and meaningfulness of observed movements in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study we aimed at investigating how the type of movements and the visual perspective can modulate brain activity during action observation in healthy individuals. Importantly, we used an active observation task where participants had to subsequently execute or imagine the observed movements. Our results show that the fronto-parietal regions of the perception action system were mostly recruited during the observation of meaningless actions while visual perspective had little influence on the activity within the perception-action system. Simultaneous investigation of several sources of modulation during active action observation is probably an approach that could lead to a greater ecological comprehension of this important sensorimotor process. PMID:21931832

  4. Observations of spontaneous oscillations in simple two-fluid networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storey, Brian D.; Hellen, Deborah V.; Karst, Nathaniel J.; Geddes, John B.

    2015-02-01

    We investigate the laminar flow of two-fluid mixtures inside a simple network of interconnected tubes. The fluid system is composed of two miscible Newtonian fluids of different viscosity which do not mix and remain as nearly distinct phases. Downstream of a diverging network junction the two fluids do not necessarily split in equal fraction and thus heterogeneity is introduced into network. We find that in the simplest network, a single loop with one inlet and one outlet, under steady inlet conditions, the flow rates and distribution of the two fluids within the network loop can undergo persistent spontaneous oscillations. We develop a simple model which highlights the basic mechanism of the instability and we demonstrate that the model can predict the region of parameter space where oscillations exist. The model predictions are in good agreement with experimental observations.

  5. Conscious and unconscious representations of observed actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Mattiassi, Alan D A; Mele, Sonia; Ticini, Luca F; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2014-09-01

    Action observation activates the observer's motor system. These motor resonance responses are automatic and triggered even when the action is only implied in static snapshots. However, it is largely unknown whether an action needs to be consciously perceived to trigger motor resonance. In this study, we used single-pulse TMS to study the facilitation of corticospinal excitability (a measure of motor resonance) during supraliminal and subliminal presentations of implied action images. We used a forward and backward dynamic masking procedure that successfully prevented the conscious perception of prime stimuli depicting a still hand or an implied abduction movement of the index or little finger. The prime was followed by the supraliminal presentation of a still or implied action probe hand. Our results revealed a muscle-specific increase of motor facilitation following observation of the probe hand actions that were consciously perceived as compared with observation of a still hand. Crucially, unconscious perception of prime hand actions presented before probe still hands did not increase motor facilitation as compared with observation of a still hand, suggesting that motor resonance requires perceptual awareness. However, the presentation of a masked prime depicting an action that was incongruent with the probe hand action suppressed motor resonance to the probe action such that comparable motor facilitation was recorded during observation of implied action and still hand probes. This suppression of motor resonance may reflect the processing of action conflicts in areas upstream of the motor cortex and may subserve a basic mechanism for dealing with the multiple and possibly incongruent actions of other individuals. PMID:24666166

  6. Iowa observation well network; past, present, and future

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Logel, John D.

    1980-01-01

    All present and past USGS observation wells for the State of Iowa since 1935 are listed and located on maps. It is recommended that improvement of the observation-well network by the addition of wells in specific areas should be undertaken as soon as possible.

  7. Selection-for-action emerges in neural networks trained to learn spatial associations between stimuli and actions.

    PubMed

    Simione, Luca; Nolfi, Stefano

    2015-09-01

    The objects present in our environment evoke multiple conflicting actions at every moment. Thus, a mechanism that resolves this conflict is needed in order to avoid the production of chaotic ineffective behaviours. A plausible candidate for such role is the selective attention, capable of inhibiting the neural representations of the objects irrelevant in the ongoing context and as a consequence the actions they afford. In this paper, we investigated whether a selective attention mechanism emerges spontaneously during the learning of context-dependent behaviour, whereas most neurocomputational models of selective attention and action selection imply the presence of architectural constraints. To this aim, we trained a deep neural network to learn context-dependent visual-action associations. Our main result was the spontaneous emergence of an inhibitory mechanism aimed to solve conflicts between multiple afforded actions by directly suppressing the irrelevant visual stimuli eliciting the incorrect actions for the current context. This suggests that such an inhibitory mechanism emerged as a result of the incorporation of context-independent probabilistic regularities occurring between stimuli and afforded actions. PMID:26232191

  8. Ventral Premotor to Primary Motor Cortical Interactions during Noxious and Naturalistic Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lago, Angel; Koch, Giacomo; Cheeran, Binith; Marquez, Gonzalo; Sanchez, Jose Andres; Ezquerro, Milagros; Giraldez, Manolo; Fernandez-del-Olmo, Miguel

    2010-01-01

    Within the motor system, cortical areas such as the primary motor cortex (M1) and the ventral premotor cortex (PMv), are thought to be activated during the observation of actions performed by others. However, it is not known how the connections between these areas become active during action observation or whether these connections are modulated…

  9. Effects of Brief Imitative Experience on EEG Desynchronization during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Bouquet, Cedric A.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Young, Thomas

    2009-01-01

    There is a good deal of evidence that observing the actions of other people is associated with activation of the observer's motor system, which may reflect involvement of the mirror neuron system (MNS) in certain aspects of action processing in humans. Furthermore, variation in the extent of this activation appears to be partly dependent on…

  10. Action observation as a tool for neurorehabilitation to moderate motor deficits and aphasia following stroke

    PubMed Central

    Ertelt, Denis; Binkofski, Ferdinand

    2012-01-01

    The mirror neuron system consists of a set of brain areas capable of matching action observation with action execution. One core feature of the mirror neuron system is the activation of motor areas by action observation alone. This unique capacity of the mirror neuron system to match action perception and action execution stimulated the idea that mirror neuron system plays a crucial role in the understanding of the content of observed actions and may participate in procedural learning. These features bear a high potential for neurorehabilitation of motor deficits and of aphasia following stroke. Since the first articles exploring this principle were published, a growing number of follow-up studies have been conducted in the last decade. Though, the combination of action observation with practice of the observed actions seems to constitute the most powerful approach. In the present review, we present the existing studies analyzing the effects of this neurorehabilitative approach in clinical settings especially in the rehabilitation of stroke associated motor deficits and give a perspective on the ongoing trials by our research group. The data obtained up to date showed significant positive effect of action observation on recovery of motor functions of the upper limbs even in the chronic state after stroke, indicating that our approach might become a new standardized add-on feature of modern neurorehabilitative treatment schemes. PMID:25624838

  11. Visual influences on sensorimotor EEG responses during observation of hand actions.

    PubMed

    Drew, Ashley R; Quandt, Lorna C; Marshall, Peter J

    2015-02-01

    There is growing interest within the field of social-cognitive neuroscience in the dynamics of sensorimotor EEG rhythms during the observation of actions performed by others. However, there remain important gaps in the literature regarding the effects of perceptual aspects of the observed hand movements. This study investigated two visual influences on the EEG response to hand actions. Specifically, the perspective of the action in relation to the participant (egocentric/allocentric) was varied and the effect of the hand used to carry out the action (left/right) was also assessed. While EEG was recorded, 28 undergraduate participants observed video clips showing an actor's hand reaching for, grasping, and lifting a cylindrical object across four conditions (right-hand egocentric, left-hand egocentric, right-hand allocentric, and left-hand allocentric). For actions viewed from an egocentric perspective, significantly greater event-related desynchronization (ERD) was present in the 7-9 Hz range over right mid-frontal, right central, and bilateral mid-parietal sites for right-handed actions compared to left-handed actions. In addition, greater ERD was observed within the 7-9 Hz band during the observation of right-handed egocentric actions compared to actions viewed from the allocentric perspective. This finding was present at bilateral central and mid-parietal sites, and emerged as an anticipatory effect prior to the onset of the observed hand movements.

  12. Walking but Not Barking Improves Verb Recovery: Implications for Action Observation Treatment in Aphasia Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Marangolo, Paola; Cipollari, Susanna; Fiori, Valentina; Razzano, Carmela; Caltagirone, Carlo

    2012-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that action observation treatment without concomitant verbal cue has a positive impact on the recovery of verb retrieval deficits in aphasic patients. In agreement with an embodied cognition viewpoint, a hypothesis has been advanced that gestures and language form a single communication system and words whose retrieval is facilitated by gestures are semantically represented through sensory-motor features. However, it is still an open question as to what extent this treatment approach works. Results from the recovery of motor deficits have suggested that action observation promotes motor recovery only for actions that are part of the motor repertoire of the observer. The aim of the present experiment was to further investigate the role of action observation treatment in verb recovery. In particular, we contrasted the effects induced by observing human actions (e.g. dancing, kicking, pointing, eating) versus non human actions (e.g. barking, printing). Seven chronic aphasic patients with a selective deficit in verb retrieval underwent an intensive rehabilitation training that included five daily sessions over two consecutive weeks. Each subject was asked to carefully observe 115 video-clips of actions, one at a time and, after observing them, they had to produce the corresponding verb. Two groups of actions were randomly presented: humans versus nonhuman actions. In all patients, significant improvement in verb retrieval was found only by observing video-clips of human actions. Moreover, follow-up testing revealed long-term verb recovery that was still present two months after the two treatments had ended. In support of the multimodal concept representation's proposal, we suggest that just the observation of actions pertaining to the human motor repertoire is an effective rehabilitation approach for verb recovery. PMID:22719906

  13. Observation Can Be as Effective as Action in Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Osman, Magda

    2008-01-01

    This study discusses findings that replicate and extend the original work of Burns and Vollmeyer (2002), which showed that performance in problem-solving tasks was more accurate when people were engaged in a non-specific goal than in a specific goal. The main innovation here was to examine the goal specificity effect under both observation-based…

  14. Results of Draconid 2011 observations from the BRAMS network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calders, Stijn; Verbeeck, Cis; Lamy, Herve; Ranvier, Sylvain; Gamby, Emmanuel

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the applicability of the Observability Function (OF) to the BRAMS network is pre- sented. Preliminary results are shown taking into account only geometry. Radiation patterns of the antennas are assumed to be isotropic. Manual counts for the Draconids outburst in 2011 obtained with the BRAMS network data are presented. The differences between the different stations are discussed in terms of the OFs and other parameters.

  15. Network Analysis Shows Novel Molecular Mechanisms of Action for Copper-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Mejía, Carmen; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms associated with the action of chemotherapeutic agents is fundamental to assess and account for possible side-effects of such treatments. Casiopeínas have demonstrated a cytotoxic effect by activation of pro-apoptotic processes in malignant cells. Such processes have been proved to activate the apoptotic intrinsic route, as well as cell cycle arrest. Despite this knowledge, the whole mechanism of action of Casiopeínas is yet to be completely understood. In this work we implement a systems biology approach based on two pathway analysis tools (Over-Representation Analysis and Causal Network Analysis) to observe changes in some hallmarks of cancer, induced by this copper-based chemotherapeutic agent in HeLa cell lines. We find that the metabolism of metal ions is exacerbated, as well as cell division processes being globally diminished. We also show that cellular migration and proliferation events are decreased. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of liver protection are increased in the cell cultures under the actions of Casiopeínas, unlike the case in many other cytotoxic drugs. We argue that this chemotherapeutic agent may be promising, given its protective hepatic function, concomitant with its cytotoxic participation in the onset of apoptotic processes in malignant cells. PMID:26793116

  16. Unknown input observer design and analysis for networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad F.; Elmahdi, Ahmed; Panchal, Jitesh H.; Sun, Dengfeng

    2015-05-01

    The insertion of communication networks in the feedback loops of control systems is a defining feature of modern control systems. These systems are often subject to unknown inputs in a form of disturbances, perturbations, or attacks. The objective of this paper is to design and analyse an observer for networked dynamical systems with unknown inputs. The network effect can be viewed as either a perturbation or time-delay to the exchanged signals. In this paper, we (1) review an unknown input observer (UIO) design for a non-networked system, (2) derive the networked unknown input observer (NetUIO) dynamics, (3) design a NetUIO such that the effect of higher delay order terms are nullified and (4) establish stability-guaranteeing bounds on the networked-induced time-delay and perturbation. The formulation and results derived in this paper can be generalised to scenarios and applications where the signals are perturbed due to a different source of perturbation or delay.

  17. Understanding and Developing Inclusive Practices in Schools: A Collaborative Action Research Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainscow, Mel; Booth, Tony; Dyson, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This paper provides an account of the methodological lessons and emerging findings of a collaborative action research network in England. The Network involves teams of researchers from three universities in working alongside school and local education authority practitioners as they explore ways of developing more inclusive practices. The analysis…

  18. An artificial network model for estimating the network structure underlying partially observed neuronal signals.

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Misako; Namikawa, Jun; Chao, Zenas C; Nagasaka, Yasuo; Fujii, Naotaka; Nakamura, Kiyohiko; Tani, Jun

    2014-01-01

    Many previous studies have proposed methods for quantifying neuronal interactions. However, these methods evaluated the interactions between recorded signals in an isolated network. In this study, we present a novel approach for estimating interactions between observed neuronal signals by theorizing that those signals are observed from only a part of the network that also includes unobserved structures. We propose a variant of the recurrent network model that consists of both observable and unobservable units. The observable units represent recorded neuronal activity, and the unobservable units are introduced to represent activity from unobserved structures in the network. The network structures are characterized by connective weights, i.e., the interaction intensities between individual units, which are estimated from recorded signals. We applied this model to multi-channel brain signals recorded from monkeys, and obtained robust network structures with physiological relevance. Furthermore, the network exhibited common features that portrayed cortical dynamics as inversely correlated interactions between excitatory and inhibitory populations of neurons, which are consistent with the previous view of cortical local circuits. Our results suggest that the novel concept of incorporating an unobserved structure into network estimations has theoretical advantages and could provide insights into brain dynamics beyond what can be directly observed.

  19. The wireless networking system of Earthquake precursor mobile field observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, C.; Teng, Y.; Wang, X.; Fan, X.; Wang, X.

    2012-12-01

    The mobile field observation network could be real-time, reliably record and transmit large amounts of data, strengthen the physical signal observations in specific regions and specific period, it can improve the monitoring capacity and abnormal tracking capability. According to the features of scatter everywhere, a large number of current earthquake precursor observation measuring points, networking technology is based on wireless broadband accessing McWILL system, the communication system of earthquake precursor mobile field observation would real-time, reliably transmit large amounts of data to the monitoring center from measuring points through the connection about equipment and wireless accessing system, broadband wireless access system and precursor mobile observation management center system, thereby implementing remote instrument monitoring and data transmition. At present, the earthquake precursor field mobile observation network technology has been applied to fluxgate magnetometer array geomagnetic observations of Tianzhu, Xichang,and Xinjiang, it can be real-time monitoring the working status of the observational instruments of large area laid after the last two or three years, large scale field operation. Therefore, it can get geomagnetic field data of the local refinement regions and provide high-quality observational data for impending earthquake tracking forecast. Although, wireless networking technology is very suitable for mobile field observation with the features of simple, flexible networking etc, it also has the phenomenon of packet loss etc when transmitting a large number of observational data due to the wireless relatively weak signal and narrow bandwidth. In view of high sampling rate instruments, this project uses data compression and effectively solves the problem of data transmission packet loss; Control commands, status data and observational data transmission use different priorities and means, which control the packet loss rate within

  20. Humans but Not Chimpanzees Vary Face-Scanning Patterns Depending on Contexts during Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Myowa-Yamakoshi, Masako; Yoshida, Chisato; Hirata, Satoshi

    2015-01-01

    Human and nonhuman primates comprehend the actions of other individuals by detecting social cues, including others’ goal-directed motor actions and faces. However, little is known about how this information is integrated with action understanding. Here, we present the ontogenetic and evolutionary foundations of this capacity by comparing face-scanning patterns of chimpanzees and humans as they viewed goal-directed human actions within contexts that differ in whether or not the predicted goal is achieved. Human adults and children attend to the actor’s face during action sequences, and this tendency is particularly pronounced in adults when observing that the predicted goal is not achieved. Chimpanzees rarely attend to the actor’s face during the goal-directed action, regardless of whether the predicted action goal is achieved or not. These results suggest that in humans, but not chimpanzees, attention to actor’s faces conveying referential information toward the target object indicates the process of observers making inferences about the intentionality of an action. Furthermore, this remarkable predisposition to observe others’ actions by integrating the prediction of action goals and the actor’s intention is developmentally acquired. PMID:26535901

  1. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Observing other people's actions facilitates the observer's motor system as compared with observing the same individuals at rest. This motor activation is thought to result from mirror-like activity in fronto-parietal areas, which enhances the excitability of the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways. Although covert motor activation in response to observed actions has been widely investigated between conspecifics, how humans cope with other species' actions has received less attention. For example, it remains unclear whether the human motor system is activated by observing other species' actions, and whether prior familiarity with the non-conspecific agent modulates this activation. Here, we combined single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor-evoked potential recording to explore the impact of familiarity on motor activation during the observation of non-conspecific actions. Videos displaying actions performed either by a conspecific (human) or by a non-conspecific (dog) were shown to individuals who had prior familiarity or no familiarity at all with the non-conspecific agent. We found that, whereas individuals with long-lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions. These findings suggest that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species, and that familiarity plays a key role in tuning this ability. PMID:26666833

  2. Update on the GGOS Bureau of Networks and Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Pavlis, Erricos; Ma, Chopo; Noll, Carey; Thaller, Daniela; Gross, Richard; Richter, Bernd; Mueller, Juergen; Neilan, Ruth; Barzaghi, Riccardo; Bergstrand, Sten; Saunier, Jerome; Tamisiea, Mark

    2016-04-01

    The recently reorganized GGOS Bureau of Networks and Observations has many elements that are associated with building and sustaining the infrastructure that supports the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) through the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames, improved gravity field models and their incorporation into the reference frame, the production of precision orbits for missions of interest to GGOS, and many other applications. The affiliated Service Networks (IVS, ILRS, IGS, IDS, and now the IGFS and the PSMSL) continue to grow geographically and to improve core and co-location site performance with newer technologies. Efforts are underway to expand GGOS participation and outreach. Several groups are undertaking initiatives and seeking partnerships to update existing sites and expand the networks in geographic areas void of coverage. New satellites are being launched by the Space Agencies in disciplines relevant to GGOS. Working groups now constitute an integral part of the Bureau, providing key service to GGOS. Their activities include: projecting future network capability and examining trade-off options for station deployment and technology upgrades, developing metadata collection and online availability strategies; improving coordination and information exchange with the missions for better ground-based network response and space-segment adequacy for the realization of GGOS goals; and standardizing site-tie measurement, archiving, and analysis procedures. This talk will present the progress in the Bureau's activities and its efforts to expand the networks and make them more effective in supporting GGOS.

  3. The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON): overview and update

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffith, David; Wennberg, Paul; Notholt, Justus

    2014-05-01

    The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON) is a network of ground-based Fourier Transform Spectrometers that record direct solar absorption spectra of the atmosphere in the near-infrared. From these spectra, accurate and precise column-averaged abundances of atmospheric constituents including CO2, CH4, N2O, HF, CO, H2O, and HDO, are retrieved. TCCON measurements are linked to WMO calibration scales by comparisons with co-incident in situ profiles measured from aircraft. For CO2, TCCON achieves 1-sigma precision of typically 0.2 ppm for single measurements, and a network wide comparability of better than 0.1 In this paper we present an overview and the current status of the network, ongoing efforts to improve network coverage, precision and accuracy, and examples of TCCON data and their application. Further information about TCCON and a full list of sites and TCCON partners is available from the TCCON wiki, https://tccon-wiki.caltech.edu/ and Wunch et al. (2011). Wunch, D., G.C. Toon, J.-F. Blavier, R. Washenfelder, J. Notholt, B. Connor, D.W.T. Griffith and P.O. Wennberg, The Total Carbon Column Observing Network (TCCON). Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society A 2011. 369: p. 2087-2112.

  4. Patients' Views on a Combined Action Observation and Motor Imagery Intervention for Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Webb, Jordan; Gowen, Emma; Vogt, Stefan; Crawford, Trevor J.; Sullivan, Matthew S.; Poliakoff, Ellen

    2016-01-01

    Background. Action observation and motor imagery activate neural structures involved in action execution, thereby facilitating movement and learning. Although some benefits of action observation and motor imagery have been reported in Parkinson's disease (PD), methods have been based on stroke rehabilitation and may be less suitable for PD. Moreover, previous studies have focused on either observation or imagery, yet combining these enhances effects in healthy participants. The present study explores the feasibility of a PD-specific home-based intervention combining observation, imagery, and imitation of meaningful everyday actions. Methods. A focus group was conducted with six people with mild to moderate PD and two companions, exploring topics relating to the utility and feasibility of a home-based observation and imagery intervention. Results. Five themes were identified. Participants reported their experiences of exercise and use of action observation and motor imagery in everyday activities, and the need for strategies to improve movement was expressed. Motivational factors including feedback, challenge, and social support were identified as key issues. The importance of offering a broad range of actions and flexible training was also highlighted. Conclusions. A home-based intervention utilising action observation and motor imagery would be useful and feasible in mild to moderate PD. PMID:27777809

  5. Contextual modulation of motor resonance during the observation of everyday actions.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-07-01

    Neuroimaging studies on action observation suggest that context plays a key role in coding high-level components of motor behavior, including the short-term and the end-goal of an action. However, little is known about the possible role of context in shaping lower-levels of action processing such as reading action kinematics and simulating muscular activity. Here, we combined single-pulse TMS and motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) recording to explore whether top-down contextual information is capable of modulating low-level motor representations. We recorded MEPs from FDI and FCR muscles while participants watched videos about everyday actions embedded in congruent, incongruent or ambiguous contexts. Videos were interrupted before action ending, and participants were requested to predict the course of the observed action. A contextual modulation of corticospinal excitability was observed only for the FDI muscle, which is specifically involved in the execution of reaching-to-grasping movements, and whose corticospinal pathway is influenced by the observation of the very same movements. This modulation was reflected in a selective decrease of corticospinal excitability during the observation of actions embedded in incongruent as compared to congruent and ambiguous contexts. These findings indicate that motor resonance is not an entirely automatic process, but it can be modulated by high-level contextual representations.

  6. Grid-Observing: Creating a Global Network of Telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessman, F. V.; Gelderman, R.; Naylor, T.; Pennypacker, C.; Steele, I.

    2004-12-01

    With the increasing switch from classical observing campaigns to service observations, the decreasing pressure on a large number of 1 - 2m telescopes, and the rapid growth in the number of robotic, autonomous telescopes, it has become possible to create a truly global network of telescopes - what we call ``Grid-Observing." Such a network would permit a variety of photometric and spectroscopic monitoring and temporal survey projects which cannot be performed either with current or proposed larger telescopes (e.g. LSST) or with individual telescopes operated by a single institution. Participating observatories can be ``paid" for the services they provide to the network by being able to extract an equivalent amount of time on other telescopes, scaled by aperture, spectral resolution, atmospheric conditions, and the costs of operation or willingness to provide such a service. An XML interface - Remote Telescope Markup Language - insures that communications within the network are simple and relatively easily adapted to existent observatory software and procedures. An eBay-like mechanism for the automatic scheduling of telescopes can provide the necessary flexibility needed to perform time-critical projects as well as insure that the participating institutions retain full control over their telescopes. We are planning on networking several robotic telescope in the near future and expect that many other robotic and non-robotic telescopes will follow.

  7. Multi-phenomenology Observation Network Evaluation Tool'' (MONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oltrogge, D.; North, P.; Vallado, D.

    2014-09-01

    Evaluating overall performance of an SSA "system-of-systems" observational network collecting against thousands of Resident Space Objects (RSO) is very difficult for typical tasking or scheduling-based analysis tools. This is further complicated by networks that have a wide variety of sensor types and phenomena, to include optical, radar and passive RF types, each having unique resource, ops tempo, competing customer and detectability constraints. We present details of the Multi-phenomenology Observation Network Evaluation Tool (MONET), which circumvents these difficulties by assessing the ideal performance of such a network via a digitized supply-vs-demand approach. Cells of each sensors supply time are distributed among RSO targets of interest to determine the average performance of the network against that set of RSO targets. Orbit Determination heuristics are invoked to represent observation quantity and geometry notionally required to obtain the desired orbit estimation quality. To feed this approach, we derive the detectability and collection rate performance of optical, radar and passive RF sensor physical and performance characteristics. We then prioritize the selected RSO targets according to object size, active/inactive status, orbit regime, and/or other considerations. Finally, the OD-derived tracking demands of each RSO of interest are levied against remaining sensor supply until either (a) all sensor time is exhausted; or (b) the list of RSO targets is exhausted. The outputs from MONET include overall network performance metrics delineated by sensor type, objects and orbits tracked, along with likely orbit accuracies which might result from the conglomerate network tracking.

  8. Design of an optimal snow observation network to estimate snowpack

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juan Collados Lara, Antonio; Pardo-Iguzquiza, Eulogio; Pulido-Velazquez, David

    2016-04-01

    Snow is an important water resource in many river basins that must be taken into account in hydrological modeling. Although the snow cover area may be nowadays estimated from satellite data, the snow pack thickness must be estimated from experimental data by using some interpolation procedure or hydrological models that approximates snow accumulation and fusion processes. The experimental data consist of hand probes and snow samples collected in a given number of locations that constitute the monitoring network. Assuming that there is an existing monitoring network, its optimization may imply the selection of an optimal network as a subset of the existing network (decrease of the existing network in the case that there are no funds for maintaining the full existing network) or to increase the existing network by one or more stations (optimal augmentation problem). In this work we propose a multicriterion approach for the optimal design of a snow network. These criteria include the estimation variance from a regression kriging approach for estimating thickness of the snowpack (using ground and satellite data), to minimize the total snow volume and accessibility criteria. We have also proposed a procedure to analyze the sensitivity of the results to the non-snow data deduced from the satellite information. We intent to minimize the uncertities in snowpack estimation. The methodology has been applied to estimation of the snow cover area and the design of the optimal snow observation network in Sierra Nevada mountain range in the Southern of Spain. Acknowledgments: This research has been partially supported by the GESINHIMPADAPT project (CGL2013-48424-C2-2-R) with Spanish MINECO funds. We would also like to thank ERHIN program and NASA DAAC for the data provided for this study.

  9. Functional deficits in the extrastriate body area during observation of sports-related actions in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Hidehiko; Kato, Motoichiro; Sassa, Takeshi; Shibuya, Tomohisa; Koeda, Michihiko; Yahata, Noriaki; Matsuura, Masato; Asai, Kunihiko; Suhara, Tetsuya; Okubo, Yoshiro

    2010-05-01

    Exercise and sports are increasingly being implemented in the management of schizophrenia. The process of action perception is as important as that of motor execution for learning and acquiring new skills. Recent studies have suggested that body-selective extrastriate body area (EBA) in the posterior temporal-occipital cortex is involved not only in static visual perception of body parts but also in the planning, imagination, and execution of actions. However, functional abnormality of the EBA in schizophrenia has yet to be investigated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) with a task designed to activate the EBA by sports-related actions, we aimed to elucidate functional abnormality of the EBA during observation of sports-related actions in patients with schizophrenia. Twelve schizophrenia patients and 12 age-sex-matched control participants participated in the study. Using sports-related motions as visual stimuli, we examined brain activations during observation of context-congruent actions relative to context-incongruent actions by fMRI. Compared with controls, the patients with schizophrenia demonstrated diminished activation in the EBA during observation of sports-related context-congruent actions. Furthermore, the EBA activation in patients was negatively correlated with the severity of negative and general psychopathology symptoms measured by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale. Dysfunction of the EBA might reflect a difficulty in representing dynamic aspects of human actions and possibly lead to impairments of simulation, learning, and execution of actions in schizophrenia.

  10. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-08-01

    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we investigated whether there was a biasing effect of these two forms of action capability on visual perception of location. In a virtual reality room, subjects had to stop a moving ball from hitting a pillar. On some trials, the ball disappeared automatically during its motion. Subjects had to estimate the location of the ball's disappearance in these trials. We expected that if action is necessary but action capability (inherent or momentary) is limiting performance, the location of approaching objects with respect to the observer is underestimated. By judging the objects to be nearer than they really are, the need to select and execute the appropriate action increases, thereby facilitating quick action (Cole et al. in Psychol Sci 24(1):34-40, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446953 ). As a manipulation of inherent action capability in a virtual environment, two groups of participants (video game players vs. non-video game players) were entered into the study (high and low action capability). Momentary action capability was manipulated by using two difficulty levels in the experiment (Easy vs. Difficult). Results indicated that inherent and momentary action capabilities interacted together to influence online location judgments: Non-players underestimated locations when the task was Difficult. Taken together, our data suggest that both inherent and momentary action capabilities influence location judgments. PMID:27117302

  11. Location estimation of approaching objects is modulated by the observer's inherent and momentary action capabilities.

    PubMed

    Kandula, Manasa; Hofman, Dennis; Dijkerman, H Chris

    2016-08-01

    Action capability may be one of the factors that can influence our percept of the world. A distinction can be made between momentary action capability (action capability at that particular moment) and inherent action capability (representing a stable action capability). In the current study, we investigated whether there was a biasing effect of these two forms of action capability on visual perception of location. In a virtual reality room, subjects had to stop a moving ball from hitting a pillar. On some trials, the ball disappeared automatically during its motion. Subjects had to estimate the location of the ball's disappearance in these trials. We expected that if action is necessary but action capability (inherent or momentary) is limiting performance, the location of approaching objects with respect to the observer is underestimated. By judging the objects to be nearer than they really are, the need to select and execute the appropriate action increases, thereby facilitating quick action (Cole et al. in Psychol Sci 24(1):34-40, 2013. doi: 10.1177/0956797612446953 ). As a manipulation of inherent action capability in a virtual environment, two groups of participants (video game players vs. non-video game players) were entered into the study (high and low action capability). Momentary action capability was manipulated by using two difficulty levels in the experiment (Easy vs. Difficult). Results indicated that inherent and momentary action capabilities interacted together to influence online location judgments: Non-players underestimated locations when the task was Difficult. Taken together, our data suggest that both inherent and momentary action capabilities influence location judgments.

  12. Distinct brain signatures of content and structure violation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Sammler, D; Kölsch, S; Campus, C; Olivier, E; Fadiga, L; D'Ausilio, A

    2015-08-01

    Sentences, musical phrases and goal-directed actions are composed of elements that are linked by specific rules to form meaningful outcomes. In goal-directed actions including a non-canonical element or scrambling the order of the elements alters the action's content and structure, respectively. In the present study we investigated event-related potentials of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during observation of both alterations of the action content (obtained by violating the semantic components of an action, e.g. making coffee with cola) and alterations of the action structure (obtained by inverting the order of two temporally adjacent pictures of sequences depicting daily life actions) interfering with the normal flow of the motor acts that compose an action. Action content alterations elicited a bilateral posterior distributed EEG negativity, peaking at around 400 ms after stimulus onset similar to the ERPs evoked by semantic violations in language studies. Alteration of the action structure elicited an early left anterior negativity followed by a late left anterior positivity, which closely resembles the ERP pattern found in language syntax violation studies. Our results suggest a functional dissociation between the processing of action content and structure, reminiscent of a similar dissociation found in the language or music domains. Importantly, this study provides further support to the hypothesis that some basic mechanisms, such as the rule-based structuring of sequential events, are shared between different cognitive domains.

  13. Distinct brain signatures of content and structure violation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Maffongelli, L; Bartoli, E; Sammler, D; Kölsch, S; Campus, C; Olivier, E; Fadiga, L; D'Ausilio, A

    2015-08-01

    Sentences, musical phrases and goal-directed actions are composed of elements that are linked by specific rules to form meaningful outcomes. In goal-directed actions including a non-canonical element or scrambling the order of the elements alters the action's content and structure, respectively. In the present study we investigated event-related potentials of the electroencephalographic (EEG) activity recorded during observation of both alterations of the action content (obtained by violating the semantic components of an action, e.g. making coffee with cola) and alterations of the action structure (obtained by inverting the order of two temporally adjacent pictures of sequences depicting daily life actions) interfering with the normal flow of the motor acts that compose an action. Action content alterations elicited a bilateral posterior distributed EEG negativity, peaking at around 400 ms after stimulus onset similar to the ERPs evoked by semantic violations in language studies. Alteration of the action structure elicited an early left anterior negativity followed by a late left anterior positivity, which closely resembles the ERP pattern found in language syntax violation studies. Our results suggest a functional dissociation between the processing of action content and structure, reminiscent of a similar dissociation found in the language or music domains. Importantly, this study provides further support to the hypothesis that some basic mechanisms, such as the rule-based structuring of sequential events, are shared between different cognitive domains. PMID:26004058

  14. Action of the mechanical disruption of the actin network on the gravisensitivity of the root statocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, A.; Jeune, B.; Driss-Ecole, D.; Perbal, G.

    Recent analyses on root gravisensing have lead to propose a model of action of statoliths in which mechanoreceptors are located in the plasma membrane. These mechanoreceptors should be connected together by bridging filaments as well as to the actin network. In order to test this hypothesis, we have subjected the actin network to partial disruption caused by the sedimentation of amyloplasts. Seedling roots were first inverted for 7 min and replaced in the upright position for 7 min before gravitropic stimulation. The period of inversion allowed the amyloplasts to move from the distal part to the proximal part of the statocyte, but not to reach a complete sedimentation. The same held true when the root were placed back in the upright position. In these conditions, to sediment the amyloplasts had to disrupt the actin network at least partially and these organelles were moving in the direction of the root tip just before gravistimulus. Gravisensitivity was estimated by the analysis of the dose-response curves of control and treated (inverted and replaced in the vertical position) roots. The only effect which has been observed on treated roots is a delay of about 1 to 2 min in their response to gravistimulus. This delay could correspond to the time which is necessary for the amyloplasts to move toward the lower longitudinal wall This result is in agreement with the hypothesis that with a partially disrupted actin network the amyloplasts have to sediment on the bridging filaments which connect the mechanoreceptors in order to trigger the transduction chain. of the gravitropic reaction.

  15. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals.

  16. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed

    Etzel, Joset A; Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people's actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner's Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  17. Is Brain Activity during Action Observation Modulated by the Perceived Fairness of the Actor?

    PubMed Central

    Gazzola, Valeria; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Perceiving other people’s actions triggers activity in premotor and parietal areas, brain areas also involved in executing and sensing our own actions. Paralleling this phenomenon, observing emotional states (including pain) in others is associated with activity in the same brain areas as activated when experiencing similar emotions directly. This emotion perception associated activity has been shown to be affected by the perceived fairness of the actor, and in-group membership more generally. Here, we examine whether action observation associated brain activity is also affected by the perceived social fairness of the actors. Perceived fairness was manipulated using an alternating iterated Prisoner’s Dilemma game between the participant and two confederates, one of whom played fairly and the other unfairly. During fMRI scanning the participants watched movies of the confederates performing object-directed hand actions, and then performed hand actions themselves. Mass-univariate analysis showed that observing the actions triggered robust activation in regions associated with action execution, but failed to identify a strong modulation of this activation based on perceived fairness. Multivariate pattern analysis, however, identified clusters potentially carrying information about the perceived fairness of the actor in the middle temporal gyrus, left postcentral gyrus, right inferior parietal lobule, right middle cingulate cortex, right angular gyrus, and right superioroccipital gyrus. Despite being identified by a whole-brain searchlight analysis (and so without anatomical restriction), these clusters fall into areas frequently associated with action observation. We conclude that brain activity during action observation may be modulated by perceived fairness, but such modulation is subtle; robust activity is associated with observing the actions of both fair and unfair individuals. PMID:26820995

  18. Effect of tactile stimulation on primary motor cortex excitability during action observation combined with motor imagery.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Megumi; Kubota, Shinji; Onmyoji, Yusuke; Hirano, Masato; Uehara, Kazumasa; Morishita, Takuya; Funase, Kozo

    2015-07-23

    We aimed to investigate the effects of the tactile stimulation to an observer's fingertips at the moment that they saw an object being pinched by another person on the excitability of observer's primary motor cortex (M1) using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). In addition, the above effects were also examined during action observation combined with the motor imagery. Motor evoked potentials (MEP) were evoked from the subjects' right first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles. Electrical stimulation (ES) inducing tactile sensation was delivered to the subjects' first and second fingertips at the moment of pinching action performed by another person. Although neither the ES nor action observation alone had significant effects on the MEP amplitude of the FDI or ADM, the FDI MEP amplitude which acts as the prime mover during pinching was reduced when ES and action observation were combined; however, no such changes were seen in the ADM. Conversely, that reduced FDI MEP amplitude was increased during the motor imagery. These results indicated that the M1 excitability during the action observation of pinching action combined with motor imagery could be enhanced by the tactile stimulation delivered to the observer's fingertips at the moment corresponding to the pinching being observed.

  19. Infants' Grip Strength Predicts Mu Rhythm Attenuation during Observation of Lifting Actions with Weighted Blocks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Upshaw, Michaela B.; Bernier, Raphael A.; Sommerville, Jessica A.

    2016-01-01

    Research has established that the body is fundamentally involved in perception: bodily experience influences activation of the shared neural system underlying action perception and production during action observation, and bodily characteristics influence perception of the spatial environment. However, whether bodily characteristics influence…

  20. The Early Development of Object Knowledge: A Study of Infants' Visual Anticipations during Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunnius, Sabine; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-01-01

    This study examined the developing object knowledge of infants through their visual anticipation of action targets during action observation. Infants (6, 8, 12, 14, and 16 months) and adults watched short movies of a person using 3 different everyday objects. Participants were presented with objects being brought either to a correct or to an…

  1. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P.

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of…

  2. Sensitivity of Alpha and Beta Oscillations to Sensorimotor Characteristics of Action: An EEG Study of Action Production and Gesture Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Beilock, Sian L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor experiences we gain when performing an action have been found to influence how our own motor systems are activated when we observe others performing that same action. Here we asked whether this phenomenon applies to the observation of gesture. Would the sensorimotor experiences we gain when performing an action on an object influence activation in our own motor systems when we observe others performing a gesture for that object? Participants were given sensorimotor experience with objects that varied in weight, and then observed video clips of an actor producing gestures for those objects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants first observed either an iconic gesture (pantomiming lifting an object) or a deictic gesture (pointing to an object) for an object, and then grasped and lifted the object indicated by the gesture. We analyzed EEG during gesture observation to determine whether oscillatory activity was affected by the observer’s sensorimotor experiences with the object represented in the gesture. Seeing a gesture for an object previously experienced as light was associated with a suppression of power in alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly at posterior electrodes. A similar pattern was found when participants lifted the light object, but over more diffuse electrodes. Moreover, alpha and beta bands at right parieto-occipital electrodes were sensitive to the type of gesture observed (iconic vs. deictic). These results demonstrate that sensorimotor experience with an object affects how a gesture for that object is processed, as measured by the gesture-observer’s EEG, and suggest that different types of gestures recruit the observer’s own motor system in different ways. PMID:22910276

  3. From blickets to synapses: inferring temporal causal networks by observation.

    PubMed

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    2013-01-01

    How do human infants learn the causal dependencies between events? Evidence suggests that this remarkable feat can be achieved by observation of only a handful of examples. Many computational models have been produced to explain how infants perform causal inference without explicit teaching about statistics or the scientific method. Here, we propose a spiking neuronal network implementation that can be entrained to form a dynamical model of the temporal and causal relationships between events that it observes. The network uses spike-time dependent plasticity, long-term depression, and heterosynaptic competition rules to implement Rescorla-Wagner-like learning. Transmission delays between neurons allow the network to learn a forward model of the temporal relationships between events. Within this framework, biologically realistic synaptic plasticity rules account for well-known behavioral data regarding cognitive causal assumptions such as backwards blocking and screening-off. These models can then be run as emulators for state inference. Furthermore, this mechanism is capable of copying synaptic connectivity patterns between neuronal networks by observing the spontaneous spike activity from the neuronal circuit that is to be copied, and it thereby provides a powerful method for transmission of circuit functionality between brain regions.

  4. Activity of human motor system during action observation is modulated by object presence.

    PubMed

    Villiger, Michael; Chandrasekharan, Sanjay; Welsh, Timothy N

    2011-03-01

    Neurons in the monkey mirror neuron system (MNS) become active when actions are observed or executed. Increases in activity are greater when objects are engaged than when the actions are mimed. This modulation occurs even when object manipulation is hidden from view. We examined whether human motor systems are similarly modulated during action observation because such observation-related modulations are potentially mediated by a putative human MNS. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) of a grasping muscle while participants observed actual or pantomimed grasping movements whose endpoints were sometimes hidden from view. MEP amplitudes were found to be modulated by object presence. Critically, the object-based modulation was found when the participant directly observed object manipulation and when the object manipulation had to be inferred because it was hidden. These findings parallel studies of MNS activity in monkeys and support the hypothesis that the MNS influences motor system activity during action observation. Although the object-based modulation of MEP amplitudes was consistent with the hypotheses, the direction of the modulation was not--MEP amplitudes decreased during action observation in contrast to the increase that has previously been observed. We suggest that the decrease in MEP amplitude on object-present trials resulted from inhibitory mechanisms that were activated to suppress the observation-evoked response codes from generating overt muscle activity.

  5. Infants' grip strength predicts mu rhythm attenuation during observation of lifting actions with weighted blocks.

    PubMed

    Upshaw, Michaela B; Bernier, Raphael A; Sommerville, Jessica A

    2016-03-01

    Research has established that the body is fundamentally involved in perception: bodily experience influences activation of the shared neural system underlying action perception and production during action observation, and bodily characteristics influence perception of the spatial environment. However, whether bodily characteristics influence action perception and its underlying neural system is unknown, particularly in early ontogeny. We measured grip strength in 12-month-old infants and investigated relations with mu rhythm attenuation, an electroencephalographic correlate of the neural system underlying action perception, during observation of lifting actions performed with differently weighted blocks. We found that infants with higher grip strength exhibited significant mu attenuation during observation of lifting actions, whereas infants with lower grip strength did not. Moreover, a progressively strong relation between grip strength and mu attenuation during observation of lifts was found with increased block weight. We propose that this relation is attributable to differences in infants' ability to recognize the effort associated with lifting objects of different weights, as a consequence of their developing strength. Together, our results extend the body's role in perception by demonstrating that bodily characteristics influence action perception by shaping the activation of its underlying neural system.

  6. Sensitivity of surface meteorological analyses to observation networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyndall, Daniel Paul

    A computationally efficient variational analysis system for two-dimensional meteorological fields is developed and described. This analysis approach is most efficient when the number of analysis grid points is much larger than the number of available observations, such as for large domain mesoscale analyses. The analysis system is developed using MATLAB software and can take advantage of multiple processors or processor cores. A version of the analysis system has been exported as a platform independent application (i.e., can be run on Windows, Linux, or Macintosh OS X desktop computers without a MATLAB license) with input/output operations handled by commonly available internet software combined with data archives at the University of Utah. The impact of observation networks on the meteorological analyses is assessed by utilizing a percentile ranking of individual observation sensitivity and impact, which is computed by using the adjoint of the variational surface assimilation system. This methodology is demonstrated using a case study of the analysis from 1400 UTC 27 October 2010 over the entire contiguous United States domain. The sensitivity of this approach to the dependence of the background error covariance on observation density is examined. Observation sensitivity and impact provide insight on the influence of observations from heterogeneous observing networks as well as serve as objective metrics for quality control procedures that may help to identify stations with significant siting, reporting, or representativeness issues.

  7. When Your Decisions Are Not (Quite) Your Own: Action Observation Influences Free Choices

    PubMed Central

    Cole, Geoff G.; Wright, Damien; Doneva, Silviya P.; Skarratt, Paul A.

    2015-01-01

    A growing number of studies have begun to assess how the actions of one individual are represented in an observer. Using a variant of an action observation paradigm, four experiments examined whether one person’s behaviour can influence the subjective decisions and judgements of another. In Experiment 1, two observers sat adjacent to each other and took turns to freely select and reach to one of two locations. Results showed that participants were less likely to make a response to the same location as their partner. In three further experiments observers were asked to decide which of two familiar products they preferred or which of two faces were most attractive. Results showed that participants were less likely to choose the product or face occupying the location of their partner’s previous reaching response. These findings suggest that action observation can influence a range of free choice preferences and decisions. Possible mechanisms through which this influence occurs are discussed. PMID:26024480

  8. GPS/Galileo Observation with the CONGO Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montenbruck, O.; Hauschild, A.; Steigenberger, P.; Weber, G.; Ramatschi, M.; Bonhoure, B.; Ruddick, R.

    2011-12-01

    New navigation satellite systems offer important prospects for surveying and geodesy through the availability of multiple signal frequencies, new high-performance open service signals, and, last but not least, the increased number of simultaneously visible satellites. In order to fully benefit from these advantages, a corresponding multi-constellation tracking and processing infrastructure is required. The poster presents the "COperative Network for GIOVE Observation" (CONGO), which has been initiated by DLR, BKG and TUM to promote research in multi-frequency and multi-GNSS tracking. With recent additions by GFZ, CNES, and GA, the CONGO network presently comprises a total of 20 stations offering global coverage for triple-frequency (L1/L2/L5) GPS and dual-frequency (E1/E5a) GIOVE (Galileo) tracking. A subset of stations, furthermore, supports GLONASS (L1/L2) and QZSS (L1/L2/L5) observations. Based on observations of the CONGO network, the orbits of the GIOVE satellites are routinely determined at TUM using the BERNESE software package. Recent results will be presented along with an assessment of the achieved performance. Special consideration is given to the occurrence of orbit periodic errors which have earlier been identified as a limiting factor for the analysis of the passive hydrogen maser on GIOVE-B. Subject to a timely launch, first results for the new Galileo-IOV satellites will, furthermore, be presented.

  9. Imitation and observational learning of hand actions: prefrontal involvement and connectivity.

    PubMed

    Higuchi, S; Holle, H; Roberts, N; Eickhoff, S B; Vogt, S

    2012-01-16

    The first aim of this event-related fMRI study was to identify the neural circuits involved in imitation learning. We used a rapid imitation task where participants directly imitated pictures of guitar chords. The results provide clear evidence for the involvement of dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, as well as the fronto-parietal mirror circuit (FPMC) during action imitation when the requirements for working memory are low. Connectivity analyses further indicated a robust connectivity between left prefrontal cortex and the components of the FPMC bilaterally. We conclude that a mechanism of automatic perception-action matching alone is insufficient to account for imitation learning. Rather, the motor representation of an observed, complex action, as provided by the FPMC, only serves as the 'raw material' for higher-order supervisory and monitoring operations associated with the prefrontal cortex. The second aim of this study was to assess whether these neural circuits are also recruited during observational practice (OP, without motor execution), or only during physical practice (PP). Whereas prefrontal cortex was not consistently activated in action observation across all participants, prefrontal activation intensities did predict the behavioural practice effects, thus indicating a crucial role of prefrontal cortex also in OP. In addition, whilst OP and PP produced similar activation intensities in the FPMC when assessed during action observation, during imitative execution, the practice-related activation decreases were significantly more pronounced for PP than for OP. This dissociation indicates a lack of execution-related resources in observationally practised actions. More specifically, we found neural efficiency effects in the right motor cingulate-basal ganglia circuit and the FPMC that were only observed after PP but not after OP. Finally, we confirmed that practice generally induced activation decreases in the FPMC during both action observation and

  10. The combined effects of action observation and passive proprioceptive training on adaptive motor learning.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yuming; Bao, Shancheng; Wang, Jinsung

    2016-09-01

    Sensorimotor adaptation can be induced by action observation, and also by passive training. Here, we investigated the effect of a protocol that combined action observation and passive training on visuomotor adaptation, by comparing it with the effect of action observation or passive training alone. Subjects were divided into five conditions during the training session: (1) action observation, in which the subjects watched a video of a model who adapted to a novel visuomotor rotation; (2) proprioceptive training, in which the subject's arm was moved passively to target locations that were associated with desired trajectories; (3) combined training, in which the subjects watched the video of a model during a half of the session and experienced passive movements during the other half; (4) active training, in which the subjects adapted actively to the rotation; and (5) a control condition, in which the subjects did not perform any task. Following that session, all subjects adapted to the same visuomotor rotation. Results showed that the subjects in the combined training condition adapted to the rotation significantly better than those in the observation or proprioceptive training condition, although their performance was not as good as that of those who adapted actively. These findings suggest that although a protocol that combines action observation and passive training consists of all the processes involved in active training (error detection and correction, effector-specific and proprioceptively based reaching movements), these processes in that protocol may work differently as compared to a protocol in which the same processes are engaged actively.

  11. Gravity wave observations using an all-sky imager network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wrasse, Cristiano Max; Almeida, Lazaro M.; Abalde Guede, Jose Ricardo; Fagundes, Paulo Roberto; Nicoli Candido, Claudia Maria; Alves Bolzan, Maurício José; Guarnieri, Fernando; Messias Almeida, Lazaro

    Gravity waves in the mesosphere were observed by airglow all-sky imager network of the UNI- VAP at São José dos Campos (23o S, 45o W), Braśpolis (22o S, 45o W) and Palmas (10o S, 48o W), a e o Brazil. Gravity wave characteristics like morphology, horizontal wavelength, period, phase speed and propagation direction will be analysed and discussed. The results will be compared with other observation sites in Brazil. Wave directionality will also be discussed in terms of wave sources and wind filtering.

  12. AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION): 5-Year Update.

    PubMed

    Barbhaiya, Medha; Andrade, Danieli; Erkan, Doruk

    2016-10-01

    Antiphospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking (APS ACTION) is the first-ever international network created to design and conduct large-scale, multicenter clinical trials and research in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Since its inception in 2010, the APS ACTION has made important strides toward our goal of international research collaboration and data sharing. Through the dedication and hard work of 50 APS ACTION members, collaborative international projects are currently underway including a multicenter web-based registry and repository of aPL-positive patients, a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for primary thrombosis prevention in persistently aPL-positive but thrombosis-free patients, standardization of aPL testing through the use of core laboratories worldwide, identification of the limitations in the existing aPL/APS literature, and conducting observational research studies to further our understanding of the disease. Thus far, APS ACTION has held annual workshops and summits with the aim of facilitating international collaboration and developing initiatives to recruit young scholars to APS research. This paper describes updates related to the organization's structure, ongoing research efforts, and recent accomplishments and discusses future directions. PMID:27646150

  13. AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION): 5-Year Update.

    PubMed

    Barbhaiya, Medha; Andrade, Danieli; Erkan, Doruk

    2016-10-01

    Antiphospholipid Syndrome Alliance for Clinical Trials and International Networking (APS ACTION) is the first-ever international network created to design and conduct large-scale, multicenter clinical trials and research in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. Since its inception in 2010, the APS ACTION has made important strides toward our goal of international research collaboration and data sharing. Through the dedication and hard work of 50 APS ACTION members, collaborative international projects are currently underway including a multicenter web-based registry and repository of aPL-positive patients, a randomized controlled clinical trial assessing the efficacy of hydroxychloroquine for primary thrombosis prevention in persistently aPL-positive but thrombosis-free patients, standardization of aPL testing through the use of core laboratories worldwide, identification of the limitations in the existing aPL/APS literature, and conducting observational research studies to further our understanding of the disease. Thus far, APS ACTION has held annual workshops and summits with the aim of facilitating international collaboration and developing initiatives to recruit young scholars to APS research. This paper describes updates related to the organization's structure, ongoing research efforts, and recent accomplishments and discusses future directions.

  14. The Potential of General Classroom Observation: Turkish EFL Teachers' Perceptions, Sentiments, and Readiness for Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merç, Ali

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine Turkish EFL teachers' attitudes towards classroom observation. 204 teachers from different school settings responded to an online questionnaire. Data were analyzed according to three types of attitudes towards classroom observation: perceptions, sentiments, and readiness for action. The findings revealed…

  15. Observing Children's Learning: Informing Effective Intervention. A Personal Story of Investigative Research in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lockett, Andrew

    This paper outlines the underlying principles that have guided the development of an observational orientation to assessing children's learning. The development of an observation orientation was achieved through a process of a number of action-type research projects within a range of early years settings in the United Kingdom. The paper outlines a…

  16. Cortical kinematic processing of executed and observed goal-directed hand actions.

    PubMed

    Marty, Brice; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; Hari, Riitta; De Tiège, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Motor information conveyed by viewing the kinematics of an agent's action helps to predict how the action will unfold. Still, how observed movement kinematics is processed in the brain remains to be clarified. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine at which frequency and where in the brain, the neural activity is coupled with the kinematics of executed and observed motor actions. Whole-scalp MEG signals were recorded from 11 right-handed healthy adults while they were executing (Self) or observing (Other) similar goal-directed hand actions performed by an actor placed in front of them. Actions consisted of pinching with the right hand green foam-made pieces mixed in a heap with pieces of other colors placed on a table, and put them in a plastic pot on the right side of the heap. Subjects' and actor's forefinger movements were monitored with an accelerometer. The coherence between movement acceleration and MEG signals was computed at the sensor level. Then, cortical sources coherent with movement acceleration were identified with Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources. Statistically significant sensor-level coherence peaked at the movement frequency (F0) and its first harmonic (F1) in both movement conditions. Apart from visual cortices, statistically significant local maxima of coherence were observed in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (F0), bilateral superior parietal lobule (F0 or F1) and primary sensorimotor cortex (F0 or F1) in both movement conditions. These results suggest that observing others' actions engages the viewer's brain in a similar kinematic-related manner as during own action execution. These findings bring new insights into how human brain activity covaries with essential features of observed movements of others. PMID:26123380

  17. Cortical kinematic processing of executed and observed goal-directed hand actions.

    PubMed

    Marty, Brice; Bourguignon, Mathieu; Jousmäki, Veikko; Wens, Vincent; Op de Beeck, Marc; Van Bogaert, Patrick; Goldman, Serge; Hari, Riitta; De Tiège, Xavier

    2015-10-01

    Motor information conveyed by viewing the kinematics of an agent's action helps to predict how the action will unfold. Still, how observed movement kinematics is processed in the brain remains to be clarified. Here, we used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to determine at which frequency and where in the brain, the neural activity is coupled with the kinematics of executed and observed motor actions. Whole-scalp MEG signals were recorded from 11 right-handed healthy adults while they were executing (Self) or observing (Other) similar goal-directed hand actions performed by an actor placed in front of them. Actions consisted of pinching with the right hand green foam-made pieces mixed in a heap with pieces of other colors placed on a table, and put them in a plastic pot on the right side of the heap. Subjects' and actor's forefinger movements were monitored with an accelerometer. The coherence between movement acceleration and MEG signals was computed at the sensor level. Then, cortical sources coherent with movement acceleration were identified with Dynamic Imaging of Coherent Sources. Statistically significant sensor-level coherence peaked at the movement frequency (F0) and its first harmonic (F1) in both movement conditions. Apart from visual cortices, statistically significant local maxima of coherence were observed in the right posterior superior temporal gyrus (F0), bilateral superior parietal lobule (F0 or F1) and primary sensorimotor cortex (F0 or F1) in both movement conditions. These results suggest that observing others' actions engages the viewer's brain in a similar kinematic-related manner as during own action execution. These findings bring new insights into how human brain activity covaries with essential features of observed movements of others.

  18. Inferring propagation paths for sparsely observed perturbations on complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Massucci, Francesco Alessandro; Wheeler, Jonathan; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Joven, Jorge; Sales-Pardo, Marta; Guimerà, Roger

    2016-01-01

    In a complex system, perturbations propagate by following paths on the network of interactions among the system’s units. In contrast to what happens with the spreading of epidemics, observations of general perturbations are often very sparse in time (there is a single observation of the perturbed system) and in “space” (only a few perturbed and unperturbed units are observed). A major challenge in many areas, from biology to the social sciences, is to infer the propagation paths from observations of the effects of perturbation under these sparsity conditions. We address this problem and show that it is possible to go beyond the usual approach of using the shortest paths connecting the known perturbed nodes. Specifically, we show that a simple and general probabilistic model, which we solved using belief propagation, provides fast and accurate estimates of the probabilities of nodes being perturbed.

  19. Constructing Networks of Action-Relevant Episodes: An In Situ Research Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barab, Sasha A.; Hay, Kenneth E.; Yamagata-Lynch, Lisa C.

    2001-01-01

    Advances a methodology for capturing and tracing the emergence, evolution, and diffusion of a practice, conceptual understanding, resource, or student-constructed artifact. Presents the Constructing Networks of Action-Relevant Episodes (CN-ARE) methodology which allows researchers to identify relevant data from a complex, evolving environment, and…

  20. Speech networks at rest and in action: interactions between functional brain networks controlling speech production.

    PubMed

    Simonyan, Kristina; Fuertinger, Stefan

    2015-04-01

    Speech production is one of the most complex human behaviors. Although brain activation during speaking has been well investigated, our understanding of interactions between the brain regions and neural networks remains scarce. We combined seed-based interregional correlation analysis with graph theoretical analysis of functional MRI data during the resting state and sentence production in healthy subjects to investigate the interface and topology of functional networks originating from the key brain regions controlling speech, i.e., the laryngeal/orofacial motor cortex, inferior frontal and superior temporal gyri, supplementary motor area, cingulate cortex, putamen, and thalamus. During both resting and speaking, the interactions between these networks were bilaterally distributed and centered on the sensorimotor brain regions. However, speech production preferentially recruited the inferior parietal lobule (IPL) and cerebellum into the large-scale network, suggesting the importance of these regions in facilitation of the transition from the resting state to speaking. Furthermore, the cerebellum (lobule VI) was the most prominent region showing functional influences on speech-network integration and segregation. Although networks were bilaterally distributed, interregional connectivity during speaking was stronger in the left vs. right hemisphere, which may have underlined a more homogeneous overlap between the examined networks in the left hemisphere. Among these, the laryngeal motor cortex (LMC) established a core network that fully overlapped with all other speech-related networks, determining the extent of network interactions. Our data demonstrate complex interactions of large-scale brain networks controlling speech production and point to the critical role of the LMC, IPL, and cerebellum in the formation of speech production network.

  1. The joint role of trained, untrained, and observed actions at the origins of goal recognition.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-02-01

    Recent findings across a variety of domains reveal the benefits of self-produced experience on object exploration, object knowledge, attention, and action perception. The influence of active experience may be particularly important in infancy, when motor development is undergoing great changes. Despite the importance of self-produced experience, we know that infants and young children are eventually able to gain knowledge through purely observational experience. In the current work, three-month-old infants were given experience with object-directed actions in one of three forms and their recognition of the goal of grasping actions was then assessed in a habituation paradigm. All infants were given the chance to manually interact with the toys without assistance (a difficult task for most three-month-olds). Two of the three groups were then given additional experience with object-directed actions, either through active training (in which Velcro mittens helped infants act more efficiently) or observational training. Findings support the conclusion that self-produced experience is uniquely informative for action perception and suggest that individual differences in spontaneous motor activity may interact with observational experience to inform action perception early in life.

  2. The joint role of trained, untrained, and observed actions at the origins of goal recognition.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Woodward, Amanda L

    2014-02-01

    Recent findings across a variety of domains reveal the benefits of self-produced experience on object exploration, object knowledge, attention, and action perception. The influence of active experience may be particularly important in infancy, when motor development is undergoing great changes. Despite the importance of self-produced experience, we know that infants and young children are eventually able to gain knowledge through purely observational experience. In the current work, three-month-old infants were given experience with object-directed actions in one of three forms and their recognition of the goal of grasping actions was then assessed in a habituation paradigm. All infants were given the chance to manually interact with the toys without assistance (a difficult task for most three-month-olds). Two of the three groups were then given additional experience with object-directed actions, either through active training (in which Velcro mittens helped infants act more efficiently) or observational training. Findings support the conclusion that self-produced experience is uniquely informative for action perception and suggest that individual differences in spontaneous motor activity may interact with observational experience to inform action perception early in life. PMID:24468646

  3. Empirical methods of reducing the observations in geodetic networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadaj, Roman

    2016-06-01

    The paper presents empirical methodology of reducing various kinds of observations in geodetic network. A special case of reducing the observation concerns cartographic mapping. For numerical illustration and comparison of methods an application of the conformal Gauss-Krüger mapping was used. Empirical methods are an alternative to the classic differential and multi-stages methods. Numerical benefits concern in particular very long geodesics, created for example by GNSS vectors. In conventional methods the numerical errors of reduction values are significantly dependent on the length of the geodesic. The proposed empirical methods do not have this unfavorable characteristics. Reduction value is determined as a difference (or especially scaled difference) of the corresponding measures of geometric elements (distances, angles), wherein these measures are approximated independently in two spaces based on the known and corresponding approximate coordinates of the network points. Since in the iterative process of the network adjustment, coordinates of the points are systematically improved, approximated reductions also converge to certain optimal values.

  4. Observed actions affect body-specific associations between space and valence.

    PubMed

    de la Fuente, Juanma; Casasanto, Daniel; Santiago, Julio

    2015-03-01

    Right-handers tend to associate "good" with the right side of space and "bad" with the left. This implicit association appears to arise from the way people perform actions, more or less fluently, with their right and left hands. Here we tested whether observing manual actions performed with greater or lesser fluency can affect observers' space-valence associations. In two experiments, we assigned one participant (the actor) to perform a bimanual fine motor task while another participant (the observer) watched. Actors were assigned to wear a ski glove on either the right or left hand, which made performing the actions on this side of space disfluent. In Experiment 1, observers stood behind the actors, sharing their spatial perspective. After motor training, both actors and observers tended to associate "good" with the side of the actors' free hand and "bad" with the side of the gloved hand. To determine whether observers' space-valence associations were computed from their own perspectives or the actors', in Experiment 2 we asked the observer to stand face-to-face with the actor, reversing their spatial perspectives. After motor training, both actors and observers associated "good" with the side of space where disfluent actions had occurred from their own egocentric spatial perspectives; if "good" was associated with the actor's right-hand side it was likely to be associated with the observer's left-hand side. Results show that vicarious experiences of motor fluency can shape valence judgments, and that observers spontaneously encode the locations of fluent and disfluent actions in egocentric spatial coordinates.

  5. The Things You Do: Internal Models of Others’ Expected Behaviour Guide Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Schenke, Kimberley C.; Wyer, Natalie A.; Bach, Patric

    2016-01-01

    Predictions allow humans to manage uncertainties within social interactions. Here, we investigate how explicit and implicit person models–how different people behave in different situations–shape these predictions. In a novel action identification task, participants judged whether actors interacted with or withdrew from objects. In two experiments, we manipulated, unbeknownst to participants, the two actors action likelihoods across situations, such that one actor typically interacted with one object and withdrew from the other, while the other actor showed the opposite behaviour. In Experiment 2, participants additionally received explicit information about the two individuals that either matched or mismatched their actual behaviours. The data revealed direct but dissociable effects of both kinds of person information on action identification. Implicit action likelihoods affected response times, speeding up the identification of typical relative to atypical actions, irrespective of the explicit knowledge about the individual’s behaviour. Explicit person knowledge, in contrast, affected error rates, causing participants to respond according to expectations instead of observed behaviour, even when they were aware that the explicit information might not be valid. Together, the data show that internal models of others’ behaviour are routinely re-activated during action observation. They provide first evidence of a person-specific social anticipation system, which predicts forthcoming actions from both explicit information and an individuals’ prior behaviour in a situation. These data link action observation to recent models of predictive coding in the non-social domain where similar dissociations between implicit effects on stimulus identification and explicit behavioural wagers have been reported. PMID:27434265

  6. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern “vitality forms”. Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing. PMID:27375461

  7. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern "vitality forms". Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing.

  8. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, H.; Tanaka, Y.; Hori, T.; Koyama, Y.; Kagitani, M.; Shinbori, A.; Abe, S.; Kouno, T.; Yoshida, D.; Ueno, S.; Kaneda, N.; Iugonet Project Team

    2010-12-01

    To investigate the mechanism of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere, we need to create integrated and organic links between various types of ground-based observation made at different locations and altitudes. The databases of such observations, however, have been maintained and made available to the community by each institution that conducted the observations. That is one of the reasons why those data have been used only for studies of specific phenomena. For the same reason some of the observational data have been used by only researcher groups who were involved in the observation campaign and have never been made available to other researchers. A six-year research project, Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET), was just initiated in 2009 to overcome such problems of data use by the five Japanese research institutes (NiPR, Tohoku Univ., Nagoya Univ., Kyoto Univ., and Kyushu Univ.) that have been leading ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere for decades. We are collaborating to build a database system for the metadata of our various kinds of observational data acquired by the global network of radars, magnetometers, optical sensors, helioscopes, etc. The metadata database (MDB) will be of great help to researchers in efficiently finding and obtaining various observational data we have accumulated over many years. The MDB system will significantly facilitate the analyses of a variety of observational data, which we believe will lead to more comprehensive studies of the mechanisms of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere. Moreover, we expect that researchers will become familiar with not only data in their area of expertise but also data from different atmospheric regions by using the MDB. This will contribute to the promotion of new interdisciplinary studies regarding the upper atmosphere. The IUGONET development team has designed the initial version of our metadata format based on the Space Physics

  9. M1 corticospinal mirror neurons and their role in movement suppression during action observation.

    PubMed

    Vigneswaran, Ganesh; Philipp, Roland; Lemon, Roger N; Kraskov, Alexander

    2013-02-01

    Evidence is accumulating that neurons in primary motor cortex (M1) respond during action observation, a property first shown for mirror neurons in monkey premotor cortex. We now show for the first time that the discharge of a major class of M1 output neuron, the pyramidal tract neuron (PTN), is modulated during observation of precision grip by a human experimenter. We recorded 132 PTNs in the hand area of two adult macaques, of which 65 (49%) showed mirror-like activity. Many (38 of 65) increased their discharge during observation (facilitation-type mirror neuron), but a substantial number (27 of 65) exhibited reduced discharge or stopped firing (suppression-type). Simultaneous recordings from arm, hand, and digit muscles confirmed the complete absence of detectable muscle activity during observation. We compared the discharge of the same population of neurons during active grasp by the monkeys. We found that facilitation neurons were only half as active for action observation as for action execution, and that suppression neurons reversed their activity pattern and were actually facilitated during execution. Thus, although many M1 output neurons are active during action observation, M1 direct input to spinal circuitry is either reduced or abolished and may not be sufficient to produce overt muscle activity.

  10. Self-selected conscious strategies do not modulate motor cortical output during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Obhi, Sukhvinder S.

    2015-01-01

    The human motor system is active not only when actions are performed but also when they are observed. Experimenters often manipulate aspects of the action or context to examine factors that influence this “mirror” response. However, little is known about the role of the observer's own top-down intentions and motivation. In this exploratory study, we investigated whether observers are able to exert conscious control over their mirror response, when they are explicitly instructed to either increase or decrease mirroring. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to elicit motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) in a thumb abductor muscle as participants (n = 13) watched a video of a hand squeezing a rubber ball. The size of these MEPs, relative to the size of MEPs elicited during fixation cross observation, was taken as an index of mirroring. In an initial block of trials, participants were instructed to merely observe the actions presented. After the first block, the concept of mirroring was explained to the participants, and in the second and third blocks participants were instructed to either increase or decrease their mirror response. We did not instruct them about how to achieve this increase or decrease. Our results showed no difference in either facilitation or absolute motor excitability (i.e., nonnormalized MEP size) between the three blocks, indicating that individuals do not seem to be able to exert control over motor excitability during action observation, at least in the absence of a specific and maintained strategy. PMID:26311182

  11. Bringing Ideals into Dialogue with Practices: On the Principles and Practices of the Nordic Network for Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rönnerman, Karin; Salo, Petri; Furu, Eli Moksnes; Lund, Torbjørn; Olin, Anette; Jakhelln, Rachel

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present the Nordic Network for Action Research, established in 2004. We describe how the network has explored, bridged and nurtured the inherent action research dynamics of ideology and methodology. This has been done through an understanding anchored in educational traditions, and by focus on three important ideal-shaping…

  12. Upgrade to the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akiyama, Y.; Wu, T.; Stock, M.; Nakamura, Y.; Kikuchi, H.; Yoshida, S.; Ushio, T.; Kawasaki, Z.

    2015-12-01

    Observation sensors for lightning discharges sense electromagnetic waves, mainly in the ELF to UHF range, and especially in the LF and VHF bands. VHF band sensor sensors can observe lightning discharge process in detail but its observation coverage is limited. On the other hand, LF band sensor can observe lightning at much great distances. Therefore, LF sensors are well adapted to observe lightning throughout a thunderstorm's life cycle. Our research group has been designing and developing the Broadband Observation network for Lightning and Thunderstorm (BOLT), which locates radiation sources associated with lightning discharge in three spatial dimensions. BOLT consists of 11 LF band sensors which detect lightning pulses wide frequency range from 5 kHz to 500 kHz. We have been operating BOLT in Kansai area of Japan, locating both cloud-to-ground and intracloud discharges. Currently, the BOLT system observes about 100 to 1000 lightning pulses per flash, but we are striving to improve both the detection efficiency and the location accuracy. Preliminary investigation show that the number of sources located, increases dramatically when only the highest portion of the BLOT frequency band is used far location. So, our research group has proposed improving a new "DDT" antenna sensor design to improve the high frequency sensitivity of the antenna. The DDT antenna consists of a modified charge amplifier circuit. In this research, we present a comparison of the DDT antenna and show the advantages of the DDT antenna.

  13. Recent Advances in Magnetoseismology Using Network Observations by Ground Magnetometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chi, P. J.; Russell, C. T.

    2011-12-01

    The rise of modern, synchronized networks of ground magnetometers in recent years has inspired and advanced research and development in magnetoseismology. Like the practice in other geophysical disciplines, magnetoseismology can infer the structure of the magnetosphere from the observations of normal-mode frequencies of the magnetic field. It can also time and locate impulsive events by measuring the signal arrival time at multiple ground stations. We highlight recent advances in using network observations by ground magnetometers for both types of magnetoseismic research. In the area of normal-mode magnetoseismology the increase in ground magnetometers has enabled ever more station pairs suitable for the gradient analysis. We demonstrate progress in automatic detection of field line resonance frequencies and the results that reveal longitudinal structure of the plasmasphere. As a relatively young research topic, travel-time magnetoseismology has shown its capability to time and locate sudden impulses and substorm onsets by using ground-based magnetometer observations. These initial successes in turn motivated detailed examination of MHD wave propagation in the magnetosphere. In the end we discuss how these magnetoseismic studies shed light on the regions in the world where future establishment of ground magnetometers is desirable.

  14. Network Design for CO2 Observation With High Resolution Inversions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patra, P. K.; Maksyutov, S.; Inoue, G.; Nakazawa, T.

    2002-12-01

    The atmospheric data inversion and flux data assimilation of trace gases are two potential ways to determine their sources near the surface. A simple approach to the network optimization of CO2 observation is used in this study (Patra and Maksyutov, Geophys. Res. Lett., 29, 28 May 2002). We have started with the well tested TransCom-3 inverse model setup for 22 land/ocean regions (Gurney et al., Nature, 415, 7 February 2002). In a high resolution (HiRes) inverse model setup at subcontinental scale, the 11 land regions are divided into 42 regions to study the impact of spatial resolution on network design. We also have constructed region specific networks, where the new stations are placed to constrain the flux uncertainty of a target region (e.g. North America or Boreal Asia). We have found that more observations (by a few times) are needed to equally constrain the \\it a posteriori flux uncertainty at HiRes setup, since impact of a single station in restricting the flux uncertainty gets reduced in HiRes case compared to the TransCom-3 case. In higher resolution inversion, the optimal station locations are distributed more evenly over the space. For instance, to better estimate the North American CO2 flux in TransCom-3 setup most of the suggested stations are located in the eastern part of United States and north-west part of Canada, where as in the HiRes case many new stations could be found in the south-eastern part of Canada and north-west United States. During similar test for Boreal Asia (BA) region, it is seen that most of the optimal stations were located in the downwind region of Eurasian emission, in the eastern and far-east of BA, while the TransCom-3 set up is used. In the HiRes case, we observed about half of 25 new stations are moved to the western part of BA region and its vicinity. The results with two inverse model setups suggest that high resolution inverse model based measurement network design would be required if the NACP observations are to be

  15. Human dorsal striatum encodes prediction errors during observational learning of instrumental actions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Jeffrey C; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O'Doherty, John P

    2012-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others.

  16. Groups' Actions Trump Injunctive Reaction in an Incidental Observation by Young Children

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Cameron R.; Nielsen, Mark; Collier-Baker, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to use social information to direct their behavior is key to their survival and development. However, in observing adult behavior, children are confronted with multiple forms of social information that may vary in reliability and adaptiveness. Two of the most well established biases influencing human behavior are: (1) following the majority (majority influence or conformity); and (2) the use of emotional signals. The current experiment aimed to evaluate how children respond when both information about the majority behavior of a group (descriptive norm) and attitudes of the group towards a behavior (injunctive norm, expressed through an emotional reaction) are present and what happens when they are in conflict. We used a method designed to mimic the manner in which children might observe group members' behavior during development. Novel apparatuses were constructed for which there were two discrete actions that could be performed to retrieve a reward. Three-year-olds observed four adults demonstrating one set of actions, followed by a fifth adult who presented an alternative set of actions. The first four adults' injunctive responses to this fifth adult's actions were manipulated between-groups: positive, negative, or neutral. It was found that children preferred to copy the majority action, regardless of the injunctive reaction of the group. We argue that this affirms the adaptive utility of copying the majority. PMID:25198163

  17. Groups' actions trump injunctive reaction in an incidental observation by young children.

    PubMed

    Turner, Cameron R; Nielsen, Mark; Collier-Baker, Emma

    2014-01-01

    Children's ability to use social information to direct their behavior is key to their survival and development. However, in observing adult behavior, children are confronted with multiple forms of social information that may vary in reliability and adaptiveness. Two of the most well established biases influencing human behavior are: (1) following the majority (majority influence or conformity); and (2) the use of emotional signals. The current experiment aimed to evaluate how children respond when both information about the majority behavior of a group (descriptive norm) and attitudes of the group towards a behavior (injunctive norm, expressed through an emotional reaction) are present and what happens when they are in conflict. We used a method designed to mimic the manner in which children might observe group members' behavior during development. Novel apparatuses were constructed for which there were two discrete actions that could be performed to retrieve a reward. Three-year-olds observed four adults demonstrating one set of actions, followed by a fifth adult who presented an alternative set of actions. The first four adults' injunctive responses to this fifth adult's actions were manipulated between-groups: positive, negative, or neutral. It was found that children preferred to copy the majority action, regardless of the injunctive reaction of the group. We argue that this affirms the adaptive utility of copying the majority.

  18. Action observation in the infant brain: The role of body form and motion

    PubMed Central

    Grossmann, Tobias; Cross, Emily S.; Ticini, Luca F.; Daum, Moritz M.

    2012-01-01

    Much research has been carried out to understand how human brains make sense of another agent in motion. Current views based on human adult and monkey studies assume a matching process in the motor system biased toward actions performed by conspecifics and present in the observer's motor repertoire. However, little is known about the neural correlates of action cognition in early ontogeny. In this study, we examined the processes involved in the observation of full body movements in 4-month-old infants using functional near-infrared spectroscopy to measure localized brain activation. In a 2 × 2 design, infants watched human or robotic figures moving in a smooth, familiar human-like manner, or in a rigid, unfamiliar robot-like manner. We found that infant premotor cortex responded more strongly to observe robot-like motion compared with human-like motion. Contrary to current views, this suggests that the infant motor system is flexibly engaged by novel movement patterns. Moreover, temporal cortex responses indicate that infants integrate information about form and motion during action observation. The response patterns obtained in premotor and temporal cortices during action observation in these young infants are very similar to those reported for adults. These findings thus suggest that the brain processes involved in the analysis of an agent in motion in adults become functionally specialized very early in human development. PMID:22694145

  19. Amplitude Correction Factors of Korean VLBI Network Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Sung; Byun, Do-Young; Oh, Chung Sik; Kim, Hyo Ryoung; Kim, Jongsoo; Jung, Taehyun; Oh, Se-Jin; Roh, Duk-Gyoo; Jung, Dong-Kyu; Yeom, Jae-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We report results of investigation of amplitude calibration for very long baseline interferometry (VLBI) observations with Korean VLBI Network (KVN). Amplitude correction factors are estimated based on comparison of KVN observations at 22~GHz correlated by Daejeon hardware correlator and DiFX software correlator in Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) with Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) observations at 22~GHz by DiFX software correlator in National Radio Astronomy Observatory (NRAO). We used the observations for compact radio sources, 3C~454.3, NRAO~512, OJ 287, BL Lac, 3C 279, 1633+382, and 1510-089, which are almost unresolved for baselines in a range of 350-477~km. Visibility data of the sources obtained with similar baselines at KVN and VLBA are selected, fringe-fitted, calibrated, and compared for their amplitudes. We find that visibility amplitudes of KVN observations should be corrected by factors of 1.10 and 1.35 when correlated by DiFX and Daejeon correlators, respectively. These correction factors are attributed to the combination of two steps of 2-bit quantization in KVN observing systems and characteristics of Daejeon correlator.

  20. Scotland's Knowledge Network: translating knowledge into action to improve quality of care.

    PubMed

    Wales, A; Graham, S; Rooney, K; Crawford, A

    2012-11-01

    The Knowledge Network (www.knowledge.scot.nhs.uk) is Scotland's online knowledge service for health and social care. It is designed to support practitioners to apply knowledge in frontline delivery of care, helping to translate knowledge into better health-care outcomes through safe, effective, person-centred care. The Knowledge Network helps to combine the worlds of evidence-based practice and quality improvement by providing access to knowledge about the effectiveness of clinical interventions ('know-what') and knowledge about how to implement this knowledge to support individual patients in working health-care environments ('know-how'). An 'evidence and guidance' search enables clinicians to quickly access quality-assured evidence and best practice, while point of care and mobile solutions provide knowledge in actionable formats to embed in clinical workflow. This research-based knowledge is complemented by social networking services and improvement tools which support the capture and exchange of knowledge from experience, facilitating practice change and systems improvement. In these cases, the Knowledge Network supports key components of the knowledge-to-action cycle--acquiring, creating, sharing and disseminating knowledge to improve performance and innovate. It provides a vehicle for implementing the recommendations of the national Knowledge into Action review, which outlines a new national approach to embedding knowledge in frontline practice and systems improvement.

  1. Burst analysis tool for developing neuronal networks exhibiting highly varying action potential dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kapucu, Fikret E; Tanskanen, Jarno M A; Mikkonen, Jarno E; Ylä-Outinen, Laura; Narkilahti, Susanna; Hyttinen, Jari A K

    2012-01-01

    In this paper we propose a firing statistics based neuronal network burst detection algorithm for neuronal networks exhibiting highly variable action potential dynamics. Electrical activity of neuronal networks is generally analyzed by the occurrences of spikes and bursts both in time and space. Commonly accepted analysis tools employ burst detection algorithms based on predefined criteria. However, maturing neuronal networks, such as those originating from human embryonic stem cells (hESCs), exhibit highly variable network structure and time-varying dynamics. To explore the developing burst/spike activities of such networks, we propose a burst detection algorithm which utilizes the firing statistics based on interspike interval (ISI) histograms. Moreover, the algorithm calculates ISI thresholds for burst spikes as well as for pre-burst spikes and burst tails by evaluating the cumulative moving average (CMA) and skewness of the ISI histogram. Because of the adaptive nature of the proposed algorithm, its analysis power is not limited by the type of neuronal cell network at hand. We demonstrate the functionality of our algorithm with two different types of microelectrode array (MEA) data recorded from spontaneously active hESC-derived neuronal cell networks. The same data was also analyzed by two commonly employed burst detection algorithms and the differences in burst detection results are illustrated. The results demonstrate that our method is both adaptive to the firing statistics of the network and yields successful burst detection from the data. In conclusion, the proposed method is a potential tool for analyzing of hESC-derived neuronal cell networks and thus can be utilized in studies aiming to understand the development and functioning of human neuronal networks and as an analysis tool for in vitro drug screening and neurotoxicity assays.

  2. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity. PMID:26885408

  3. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience.

    PubMed

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Luo, Cheng; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity.

  4. Functional Integration between Salience and Central Executive Networks: A Role for Action Video Game Experience

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Diankun; He, Hui; Ma, Weiyi; Liu, Dongbo; Huang, Mengting; Dong, Li; Gong, Jinnan; Li, Jianfu; Yao, Dezhong

    2016-01-01

    Action video games (AVGs) have attracted increasing research attention as they offer a unique perspective into the relation between active learning and neural plasticity. However, little research has examined the relation between AVG experience and the plasticity of neural network mechanisms. It has been proposed that AVG experience is related to the integration between Salience Network (SN) and Central Executive Network (CEN), which are responsible for attention and working memory, respectively, two cognitive functions essential for AVG playing. This study initiated a systematic investigation of this proposition by analyzing AVG experts' and amateurs' resting-state brain functions through graph theoretical analyses and functional connectivity. Results reveal enhanced intra- and internetwork functional integrations in AVG experts compared to amateurs. The findings support the possible relation between AVG experience and the neural network plasticity. PMID:26885408

  5. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks

    PubMed Central

    Fermin, Alan S. R.; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C.; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  6. Model-based action planning involves cortico-cerebellar and basal ganglia networks.

    PubMed

    Fermin, Alan S R; Yoshida, Takehiko; Yoshimoto, Junichiro; Ito, Makoto; Tanaka, Saori C; Doya, Kenji

    2016-01-01

    Humans can select actions by learning, planning, or retrieving motor memories. Reinforcement Learning (RL) associates these processes with three major classes of strategies for action selection: exploratory RL learns state-action values by exploration, model-based RL uses internal models to simulate future states reached by hypothetical actions, and motor-memory RL selects past successful state-action mapping. In order to investigate the neural substrates that implement these strategies, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment while humans performed a sequential action selection task under conditions that promoted the use of a specific RL strategy. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex and ventral striatum increased activity in the exploratory condition; the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum, and lateral cerebellum in the model-based condition; and the supplementary motor area, putamen, and anterior cerebellum in the motor-memory condition. These findings suggest that a distinct prefrontal-basal ganglia and cerebellar network implements the model-based RL action selection strategy. PMID:27539554

  7. Distributed Observer Network (DON), Version 3.0, User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazzone, Rebecca A.; Conroy, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    The Distributed Observer Network (DON) is a data presentation tool developed by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to distribute and publish simulation results. Leveraging the display capabilities inherent in modern gaming technology, DON places users in a fully navigable 3-D environment containing graphical models and allows the users to observe how those models evolve and interact over time in a given scenario. Each scenario is driven with data that has been generated by authoritative NASA simulation tools and exported in accordance with a published data interface specification. This decoupling of the data from the source tool enables DON to faithfully display a simulator's results and ensure that every simulation stakeholder will view the exact same information every time.

  8. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  9. Development of Functional Connectivity during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Using an Action-Observation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Successful interpersonal interactions rely on an ability to read the emotional states of others and to modulate one's own behavior in response. The actions of others serve as valuable social stimuli in this respect, offering the observer an insight into the actor's emotional state. Social cognition continues to mature throughout adolescence. Here…

  10. BDNF Val66Met Polymorphism Influences Visuomotor Associative Learning and the Sensitivity to Action Observation

    PubMed Central

    Taschereau-Dumouchel, Vincent; Hétu, Sébastien; Michon, Pierre-Emmanuel; Vachon-Presseau, Etienne; Massicotte, Elsa; De Beaumont, Louis; Fecteau, Shirley; Poirier, Judes; Mercier, Catherine; Chagnon, Yvon C.; Jackson, Philip L.

    2016-01-01

    Motor representations in the human mirror neuron system are tuned to respond to specific observed actions. This ability is widely believed to be influenced by genetic factors, but no study has reported a genetic variant affecting this system so far. One possibility is that genetic variants might interact with visuomotor associative learning to configure the system to respond to novel observed actions. In this perspective, we conducted a candidate gene study on the Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) Val66Met polymorphism, a genetic variant linked to motor learning in regions of the mirror neuron system, and tested the effect of this polymorphism on motor facilitation and visuomotor associative learning. In a single-pulse TMS study carried on 16 Met (Val/Met and Met/Met) and 16 Val/Val participants selected from a large pool of healthy volunteers, Met participants showed significantly less muscle-specific corticospinal sensitivity during action observation, as well as reduced visuomotor associative learning, compared to Val homozygotes. These results are the first evidence of a genetic variant tuning sensitivity to action observation and bring to light the importance of considering the intricate relation between genetics and associative learning in order to further understand the origin and function of the human mirror neuron system. PMID:27703276

  11. Peer Observation of Teaching in the Online Environment: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swinglehurst, D.; Russell, J.; Greenhalgh, T.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes a collaborative action research approach used to explore peer observation of teaching (POT) within the online environment. Although POT has become familiar in face-to-face teaching contexts, little is understood of its potential role in online settings. We conducted "virtual" focus groups to explore the experience and views of…

  12. Aplysia Locomotion: Network and Behavioral Actions of GdFFD, a D-Amino Acid-Containing Neuropeptide

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Dan-Dan; Wang, Zheng-Yang; Su, Yan-Nan; Yang, Shao-Zhong; Chen, Ting-Ting; Livnat, Itamar; Vilim, Ferdinand S.; Cropper, Elizabeth C.; Weiss, Klaudiusz R.; Sweedler, Jonathan V.; Jing, Jian

    2016-01-01

    One emerging principle is that neuromodulators, such as neuropeptides, regulate multiple behaviors, particularly motivated behaviors, e.g., feeding and locomotion. However, how neuromodulators act on multiple neural networks to exert their actions remains poorly understood. These actions depend on the chemical form of the peptide, e.g., an alternation of L- to D- form of an amino acid can endow the peptide with bioactivity, as is the case for the Aplysia peptide GdFFD (where dF indicates D-phenylalanine). GdFFD has been shown to act as an extrinsic neuromodulator in the feeding network, while the all L-amino acid form, GFFD, was not bioactive. Given that both GdFFD/GFFD are also present in pedal neurons that mediate locomotion, we sought to determine whether they impact locomotion. We first examined effects of both peptides on isolated ganglia, and monitored fictive programs using the parapedal commissural nerve (PPCN). Indeed, GdFFD was bioactive and GFFD was not. GdFFD increased the frequency with which neural activity was observed in the PPCN. In part, there was an increase in bursting spiking activity that resembled fictive locomotion. Additionally, there was significant activity between bursts. To determine how the peptide-induced activity in the isolated CNS is translated into behavior, we recorded animal movements, and developed a computer program to automatically track the animal and calculate the path of movement and velocity of locomotion. We found that GdFFD significantly reduced locomotion and induced a foot curl. These data suggest that the increase in PPCN activity observed in the isolated CNS during GdFFD application corresponds to a reduction, rather than an increase, in locomotion. In contrast, GFFD had no effect. Thus, our study suggests that GdFFD may act as an intrinsic neuromodulator in the Aplysia locomotor network. More generally, our study indicates that physiological and behavioral analyses should be combined to evaluate peptide actions

  13. NEON, Establishing a Standardized Network for Groundwater Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fitzgerald, M.; Schroeter, N.; Goodman, K. J.; Roehm, C. L.

    2013-12-01

    The National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) is establishing a standardized set of data collection systems comprised of in-situ sensors and observational sampling to obtain data fundamental to the analysis of environmental change at a continental scale. NEON will be collecting aquatic, terrestrial, and atmospheric data using Observatory-wide standardized designs and methods via a systems engineering approach. This approach ensures a wealth of high quality data, data algorithms, and models that will be freely accessible to all communities such as academic researchers, policy makers, and the general public. The project is established to provide 30 years of data which will enable prediction and forecasting of drivers and responses of ecological change at scales ranging from localized responses through regional gradients and up to the continental scale. The Observatory is a distributed system of sites spread across the United States, including Alaska, Hawaii, and Puerto Rico, which is subdivided into 20 statistically unique domains, based on a set of 18 ecologically important parameters. Each domain contains at least one core aquatic and terrestrial site which are located in unmanaged lands, and up to 2 additional sites selected to study domain specific questions such as nitrogen deposition gradients and responses of land use change activities on the ecosystem. Here, we present the development of NEON's groundwater observation well network design and the timing strategy for sampling groundwater chemistry. Shallow well networks, up to 100 feet in depth, will be installed at NEON aquatic sites and will allow for observation of localized ecohydrologic site conditions, by providing basic spatio-temporal near-real time data on groundwater parameters (level, temperature, conductivity) collected from in situ high-resolution instrumentation positioned in each well; and biannual sampling of geochemical and nutrient (N and P) concentrations in a subset of wells for each

  14. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  15. Motor facilitation during action observation: The role of M1 and PMv in grasp predictions.

    PubMed

    de Beukelaar, Toon T; Alaerts, Kaat; Swinnen, Stephan P; Wenderoth, Nicole

    2016-02-01

    Recent theories propose that movement observation is not a "passive mirror" of ongoing actions but might induce anticipatory activity when predictable movements are observed, e.g., because the action goal is known. Here we investigate this mechanism in a series of 3 experiments, by applying transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to primary motor cortex (M1) while subjects observed either whole hand or precision grasping performed by an actor. We show that corticomotor excitability changes in a grip-specific manner but only once the grip can be decoded based on the observed kinematic cues (Exp. 1). By contrast, presenting informative contextual precues evokes anticipatory modulations in M1 already during the reach phase, i.e., well before the grip type could be observed, a finding in line with a predictive coding account (Exp. 2). Finally, we used paired-pulse (PP) TMS to show that ventral premotor cortex (PMv) facilitates grip-specific representations in M1 but only while grip formation is observed. These findings suggest that PMv and M1 interact temporarily and mainly when motor aspects of hand-object interactions are extracted from visual information. By contrast, no sustained input from PMv to M1 seems to be required to maintain action representations that are anticipated based on contextual information or once the grip is formed (Exp. 3). PMID:26800203

  16. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability.

    PubMed

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A S; Rodrigues, Erika C; Vargas, Claudia D

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system. PMID:27625602

  17. Observing Grasping Actions Directed to Emotion-Laden Objects: Effects upon Corticospinal Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira-Campos, Anaelli A.; Saunier, Ghislain; Della-Maggiore, Valeria; De Oliveira, Laura A. S.; Rodrigues, Erika C.; Vargas, Claudia D.

    2016-01-01

    The motor system is recruited whenever one executes an action as well as when one observes the same action being executed by others. Although it is well established that emotion modulates the motor system, the effect of observing other individuals acting in an emotional context is particularly elusive. The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect induced by the observation of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects upon corticospinal excitability (CSE). Participants classified video-clips depicting the right-hand of an actor grasping emotion-laden objects. Twenty video-clips differing in terms of valence but balanced in arousal level were selected. Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) were then recorded from the first dorsal interosseous using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) while the participants observed the selected emotional video-clips. During the video-clip presentation, TMS pulses were randomly applied at one of two different time points of grasping: (1) maximum grip aperture, and (2) object contact time. CSE was higher during the observation of grasping directed to unpleasant objects compared to pleasant ones. These results indicate that when someone observes an action of grasping directed to emotion-laden objects, the effect of the object valence promotes a specific modulation over the motor system.

  18. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study.

    PubMed

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others' behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants' arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  19. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  20. Ice-Tethered Profiler Contributions to the Arctic Observing Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toole, J.; Krishfield, R.; Proshutinsky, A.; Timmermans, M.

    2008-12-01

    One of the hoped-for legacies of the International Polar Year is a sustained observational program such as the Arctic Observing Network to document and build understanding of future climate and ecosystem change. In the spirit of the now-operational international Argo float program, investigators from North America, Europe and Japan are collaborating to deploy drifting, ice-based observatory instrument systems on and below floes in the Arctic to sample the polar atmosphere-ice-ocean system and to make the resulting data available to researchers world-wide in real time. One element of these observatories is the WHOI Ice-Tethered Profiler, first deployed in August 2004. The ITP consists of a surface float and electronics package that sits atop an ice floe, a weighted, plastic-jacketed wire-rope tether extending from the surface float through the ice and down to 750-800 m depth, and a profiling vehicle with sensor package that moves up and down the tether. To date, 30 ITP systems (funded by research programs in 5 countries) have been deployed in the Arctic that together have returned more than 10,000 high-vertical-resolution temperature and salinity profiles spanning approximately 7 to 760 m depth over all seasons. Examples of the science being conducted with these data will be presented, along with performance statistics for the ITP instruments and engineering improvements/enhancements that are being implemented. Plans for sustaining the ITP contribution to the Arctic Observing Network will also be reviewed and future international collaborations invited.

  1. An observation-well network concept as applied to North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    A statewide observation-well program is proposed for North Carolina based on four networks of observation wells with different but clearly-defined objectives. These are referred to as the (1) climatic-effects network, (2) terrane-effects network, (3) local-effects network, and (4) areal-effects network. The characteristics of each network are related to natural and man-made stresses in aquifers, and the areas and hydrogeologic units in North Carolina where these networks are needed are identified. Formats for collection, processing, and publication of data from these networks is suggested.

  2. Dynamic noise from action errors enhances network reciprocity in the prisoner's dilemma game

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanimoto, Jun; Ogasawara, Takashi

    2015-01-01

    Inspired by the fact that people make mistakes in a transient, fluctuating or chaotic environment, we establish a spatial prisoner's dilemma model where an agent commits action errors proportionally varying with the increasing/decreasing rate of the global cooperation fraction. A series of numerical simulations reveal that the cooperation level is enhanced in games in which the stag hunt (SH)-type dilemma is dominant; however, it is slightly diminished in games in which the chicken-type dilemma is dominant, compared with the standard network reciprocity model. Intensive analysis reveals that the noise created by the action error contribute to the spatial expansion of a cooperators' cluster, because a dilemma that is less chicken-type and more SH-type makes it disadvantageous for defectors to neighbor cooperators. Our finding, that errors in behavior in a chaotic environment contribute to the evolution of cooperation, might aim to explain the problem of how network reciprocity works.

  3. The triangulation of the gigantic jets observed by the optical observation network in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Alfred B.; Huang, Chien-Fong; Peng, Kang-Ming; Su, Han-Tzong; Hsu, Rue-Ron

    2015-04-01

    The optical triangulation of sprites and elves by the multiple sites has been done in the past decades, but the similar observation on gigantic jets has never been reported yet. A ground optical observation network consisting of four stations at Kimen, Penghu, Tainan, and Taitung (from west to east) has been established in Taiwan since 2012. Each station equipped with two sets of Watec low-light sensitivity cameras, and the elevation and azimuth of the observation can be fully remote controlled to point toward the on-going convection system in the vicinity of Taiwan. In summer 2014, more than 6 gigantic jets were captured by at least two stations successfully. The triangulation and ULF sferics of these interesting events provides an excellent chance to explore the spatial and temporal evolution of the jets in different phases. In this presentation, this ground observation network will be introduced, the detail evolution of the recorded gigantic jets is presented. The preliminary result implies that the jets may not pop from the cloudtop straightforwardly, and some twists occur during the propagation of the jets. A more complicated analysis of the tomography for the advanced triangulation will be mentioned, too.

  4. Frederick National Lab and the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network Award Fellowships for KRAS Research | Poster

    Cancer.gov

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).

  5. The medial frontal-prefrontal network for altered awareness and control of action in corticobasal syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Moore, James W.; Rae, Charlotte L.; Rittman, Timothy; Altena, Ellemarije; Haggard, Patrick; Rowe, James B.

    2014-01-01

    The volitional impairments of alien limb and apraxia are a defining feature of the corticobasal syndrome, but a limited understanding of their neurocognitive aetiology has hampered progress towards effective treatments. Here we combined several key methods to investigate the mechanism of impairments in voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome. We used a quantitative measure of awareness of action that is based on well-defined processes of motor control; structural and functional anatomical information; and evaluation against the clinical volitional disorders of corticobasal syndrome. In patients and healthy adults we measured ‘intentional binding’, the perceived temporal attraction between voluntary actions and their sensory effects. Patients showed increased binding of the perceived time of actions towards their effects. This increase correlated with the severity of alien limb and apraxia, which we suggest share a core deficit in motor control processes, through reduced precision in voluntary action signals. Structural neuroimaging analyses showed the behavioural variability in patients was related to changes in grey matter volume in pre-supplementary motor area, and changes in its underlying white matter tracts to prefrontal cortex. Moreover, changes in functional connectivity at rest between the pre-supplementary motor area and prefrontal cortex were proportional to changes in binding. These behavioural, structural and functional results converge to reveal the frontal network for altered awareness and control of voluntary action in corticobasal syndrome, and provide candidate markers to evaluate new therapies. PMID:24293266

  6. Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork (IUGONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yatagai, A. I.; Koyama, Y.; Hori, T.; Abe, S.; Tanaka, Y.; Shinbori, A.; Ueno, S.; Umemura, N.; Sato, Y.; Yagi, M.; Hayashi, H.

    2012-12-01

    The Inter-university Upper atmosphere Global Observation NETwork, IUGONET, is a Japanese inter-university program by the National Institute of Polar Research (NIPR), Tohoku University, Nagoya University, Kyoto University, and Kyushu University to build a database of metadata for ground-based observations of the upper atmosphere. In order to investigate the mechanism of long-term variations in the upper atmosphere, we need to combine various types of in-situ observations and to accelerate data exchange. The IUGONET institutions have been archiving observed data by radars, magnetometers, photometers, radio telescopes, helioscopes, etc. in various altitude layers from the Earth's surface to the Sun. We have been developing systems for searching metadata of these observational data and developing software to analyze registered data to facilitate synthetic analyses. We released our metadata database (MDB) and analysis software, UDAS from our web site (http://www.iugonet.org) in the beginning of this year. Regarding meta-data, we are incorporating the metadata of the data obtained by the cooperative institutions such as NAOJ, NICT and Kakioka Magnetic Observatory of JMA. In addition, we are incorporating the metadata of the observation in the troposphere (such as X-band radar) which was taken in the same field sites with the MU radar at Shigaraki and the Meteor radar at Equatorial Atmosphere Radar (EAR). Further, the metadata of solar full-disk chromospheric imaging data (2005-2010) archived at Hida Observatory have been registered. With these updated metadata, research basis of the whole solar-terrestrial system as well as geo-magnetosphere is being established. The IUGONET project is currently in the fourth year of the 6-year plan. We welcome various kinds of cooperation and feedback from the users.

  7. Texas coastal ocean observation network: data access and archive software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffress, Gary A.; Duff, J. Scott

    2011-06-01

    The Conrad Blucher Institute for Surveying and Science (CBI) at Texas A&M University-Corpus Christi operates the Texas Coastal Ocean Observation Network (TCOON.) The network collects near real-time physical oceanographic data at 31 coastal stations along the Texas coast. The data includes water level, wind speed & direction, barometric pressure, water temperature, and air temperature from stations placed in bays and estuaries along the Texas coast. TCOON provides this critical data to many users, including those in the commercial shipping industry, marine construction, legal water-land boundaries, recreational boaters, and those responsible for marine safety and emergency evacuation in the event of a hurricane. Data sets are available in near real time via the Internet and some sets are accessible via voice over the telephone. All data collected since 1991 is available online along with data search tools. TCOON sponsors and developers believe that the more users and uses the system supports, the more valuable the data becomes. The highest scientific standards are used in collection the data as the data often ends up in litigation in the courts. Database software and the online tools used for data downloads are also open source.

  8. Observations of Leonids 2009 by the Tajikistan Fireball Network

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Borovicka, J.; Borovicka, J.

    2011-01-01

    The fireball network in Tajikistan has operated since 2009. Five stations of the network covering the territory of near eleven thousands square kilometers are equipped with all-sky cameras with the Zeiss Distagon "fish-eye" objectives and by digital SLR cameras Nikon with the Nikkor "fish-eye" objectives. Observations of the Leonid activity in 2009 were carried out during November 13-21. In this period, 16 Leonid fireballs have been photographed. As a result of astrometric and photometric reductions, the precise data including atmospheric trajectories, velocities, orbits, light curves, photometric masses and densities were determined for 10 fireballs. The radiant positions during the maximum night suggest that the majority of the fireball activity was caused by the annual stream component with only minor contribution from the 1466 trail. According to the PE criterion, the majority of Leonid fireballs belonged to the most fragile and weak fireball group IIIB. However, one detected Leonid belonged to the fireball group I. This is the first detection of an anomalously strong Leonid individual.

  9. APS ACTION--AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance For Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking.

    PubMed

    Erkan, D; Lockshin, M D

    2012-06-01

    AntiPhospholipid Syndrome Alliance For Clinical Trials and InternatiOnal Networking (APS ACTION) is the first-ever international research network that has been created specifically to design and conduct well-designed, large-scale, multi-center clinical trials in persistently antiphospholipid antibody (aPL)-positive patients. The founding principle of the APS ACTION is that it is an internationally collaborative effort, open to qualified investigators across the globe who are committed to furthering our understanding of APS and its management. Due to the hard work and collaborative spirit of APS ACTION members, in early 2012, APS ACTION launched two important collaborative international projects: 1) a randomized controlled trial of hydroxychloroquine in the primary thrombosis prevention of persistently aPL-positive but thrombosis-free patients without other systemic autoimmune diseases; and 2) a web-based registry of aPL-positive patients with or without systemic autoimmune diseases, which will also include annual blood collection for aPL-testing and future basic science studies. In the end, we hope to find better treatments for antiphospholipid syndrome, which is a leading cause of thrombosis, pregnancy morbidity and other life-altering consequences, and to heighten awareness about this life-threatening, autoimmune condition.

  10. Sensory-motor interference abolishes repetition priming for observed actions, but not for action-related verbs.

    PubMed

    Busiello, Marianna; Costantini, Marcello; Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia

    2011-04-01

    Several studies on humans have shown a recruitment of the sensory-motor system in the perception of action-related visual and verbal material, suggesting that actions are represented through sensory-motor processes. To date, these studies have not disentangled whether such a recruitment is epiphenomenal or necessary to action representation. Here we took advantage of repetition priming as a tool to investigate the cognitive representation of actions, and systematically looked whether a concurrent motor or verbal task had a detrimental effect on this representation. In a first experiment participants discriminated images depicting meaningless and meaningful actions, while performing either a concurrent sensory-motor or an articulatory suppression task. Images were classified as depicting a repeated or a new action, relative to the previous image in the trial series. We found a facilitation by repetition priming, that was unaffected by the articulatory task but was completely abolished by the sensory-motor task. In a second experiment, we investigated whether the sensory-motor system is also causally involved in processing action-related verbs. In this experiment actions were presented as written infinitive verbs rather than as images. The facilitation by repetition priming was again unaffected by the concurrent articulatory task, while the sensory-motor concurrent task, although reducing the facilitation, did not abolish it. Our data provide evidence that the sensory-motor system is differentially involved during visual processing of actions and during processing of action-related verbs. Results are discussed within the theoretical frame of embodied cognition.

  11. Tajikistan fireball network and results of photographic observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokhirova, G. I.; Babadzhanov, P. B.; Khamroev, U. Kh.

    2015-07-01

    The fireball network was created in Tajikistan with the aim of obtaining new data on the near-Earth meteoroid environment concerning large bodies, entering in the Earth's atmosphere and producing fireballs, as well as new observational data on the activity of known meteor/fireball showers. The network consists of five observational stations equipped with the photographic fireball and digital all-sky cameras. Distances between the stations are from 53 to 184 km and the area covered by monitoring is around 11000 km2. For astrometric reduction of fireball photographs, a technique has been developed that allows positions of object details to be determined at an accuracy of about 1', which is a sufficiently good result for negatives of this scale. In the method of photometric reduction, a dependence of measured widths of diurnal star trails on their magnitudes is used. As a result of processing of multi-station photographs of more than 200 fireballs, photographed by the fireball network for 2006-2013, the data on their atmospheric trajectories, coordinates of radiants, velocities, decelerations, orbits in the interplanetary space, light curves, photometric masses, and densities, as well as on the nature of origin of meteoroids which produced the fireballs are obtained; membership of the fireballs to the known fireball/meteor showers is determined. A brightness of the majority of fireballs is within the maximum absolute magnitude range from -5 to -8. It is shown that 62% of fireball-producing meteoroids have a cometary origin and the remaining 38% are of an asteroidal nature. The greater part of the photographed fireballs belongs to the known meteor/fireball showers, while the lesser part (almost 30%) relates to the sporadic background. The obtained results will noticeably replenish the world database with new information on fireballs and are required for solving contemporary astronomy problems associated with studying meteoroid environment in the near-Earth space and

  12. Leadership in complex networks: the importance of network position and strategic action in a translational cancer research network

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Leadership behaviour in complex networks is under-researched, and little has been written concerning leadership of translational research networks (TRNs) that take discoveries made ‘at the bench’ and translate them into practices used ‘at the bedside.’ Understanding leaders’ opportunities and behaviours within TRNs working to solve this key problem in implementing evidence into clinical practice is therefore important. This study explored the network position of governing body members and perceptions of their role in a new TRN in Sydney, Australia. The paper asks three questions: Firstly, do the formal, mandated leaders of this TRN hold key positions of centrality or brokerage in the informal social network of collaborative ties? Secondly, if so, do they recognise the leadership opportunities that their network positions afford them? Thirdly, what activities associated with these key roles do they believe will maximise the TRN’s success? Methods Semi-structured interviews of all 14 governing body members conducted in early 2012 explored perceptions of their roles and sought comments on a list of activities drawn from review of successful transdisciplinary collaboratives combined with central and brokerage roles. An on-line, whole network survey of all 68 TRN members sought to understand and map existing collaborative connections. Leaders’ positions in the network were assessed using UCInet, and graphs were generated in NetDraw. Results Social network analysis identified that governing body members had high centrality and high brokerage potential in the informal network of work-related ties. Interviews showed perceived challenges including ‘silos’ and the mismatch between academic and clinical goals of research. Governing body members recognised their central positions, which would facilitate the leadership roles of leading, making decisions, and providing expert advice necessary for the co-ordination of effort and relevant input across

  13. Observation of radiation-pressure effects and back-action cancellation in interferometric measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heidmann, A.; Caniard, T.; Verlot, P.; Briant, T.; Cohadon, P.-F.

    2008-02-01

    Radiation pressure exerted by light in interferometric measurements is responsible for displacements of mirrors which appear as an additional back-action noise and limit the sensitivity of the measurement. We experimentally study these effects by monitoring in a very highfinesse optical cavity the displacements of a mirror with a sensitivity at the 10 -20 m/√Hz level. This unique sensitivity is a step towards the first observation of the fundamental quantum effects of radiation pressure and the resulting standard quantum limit in interferometric measurements. Our experiment may become a powerful facility to test quantum noise reduction schemes, and we already report the first experimental demonstration of a back-action noise cancellation. Using a classical radiation-pressure noise to mimic the quantum noise of light, we have observed a drastic improvement of sensitivity both in position and force measurements.

  14. Using accelerometers for physical actions recognition by a neural fuzzy network.

    PubMed

    Liu, Shing-Hong; Chang, Yuan-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Triaxial accelerometers were employed to monitor human actions under various conditions. This study aimed to determine an optimum classification scheme and sensor placement positions for recognizing different types of physical action. Three triaxial accelerometers were placed on the chest, waist, and thigh, and their abilities to recognize the three actions of walking, sitting down, and falling were determined. The features of the resultant triaxial signals from each accelerometer were extracted by an autoregression (AR) model. A self-constructing neural fuzzy inference network (SONFIN) was used to recognize the three actions. The performance of the SONFIN was assessed based on statistical parameters, sensitivity, specificity, and total classification accuracy. The results show that the SONFIN provided a stability total classification accuracy of 96.3% and 88.7% for the training and testing data, when the parameters of the 60-order AR model were used as the input feature vector, and the accelerometer was placed anywhere on the abdomen. Seven elderly individuals performing the three basic actions had 80.4% confirmation for the testing data.

  15. Deciphering Signaling Pathway Networks to Understand the Molecular Mechanisms of Metformin Action

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Jingchun; Zhao, Min; Jia, Peilin; Wang, Lily; Wu, Yonghui; Iverson, Carissa; Zhou, Yubo; Bowton, Erica; Roden, Dan M.; Denny, Joshua C.; Aldrich, Melinda C.; Xu, Hua; Zhao, Zhongming

    2015-01-01

    A drug exerts its effects typically through a signal transduction cascade, which is non-linear and involves intertwined networks of multiple signaling pathways. Construction of such a signaling pathway network (SPNetwork) can enable identification of novel drug targets and deep understanding of drug action. However, it is challenging to synopsize critical components of these interwoven pathways into one network. To tackle this issue, we developed a novel computational framework, the Drug-specific Signaling Pathway Network (DSPathNet). The DSPathNet amalgamates the prior drug knowledge and drug-induced gene expression via random walk algorithms. Using the drug metformin, we illustrated this framework and obtained one metformin-specific SPNetwork containing 477 nodes and 1,366 edges. To evaluate this network, we performed the gene set enrichment analysis using the disease genes of type 2 diabetes (T2D) and cancer, one T2D genome-wide association study (GWAS) dataset, three cancer GWAS datasets, and one GWAS dataset of cancer patients with T2D on metformin. The results showed that the metformin network was significantly enriched with disease genes for both T2D and cancer, and that the network also included genes that may be associated with metformin-associated cancer survival. Furthermore, from the metformin SPNetwork and common genes to T2D and cancer, we generated a subnetwork to highlight the molecule crosstalk between T2D and cancer. The follow-up network analyses and literature mining revealed that seven genes (CDKN1A, ESR1, MAX, MYC, PPARGC1A, SP1, and STK11) and one novel MYC-centered pathway with CDKN1A, SP1, and STK11 might play important roles in metformin’s antidiabetic and anticancer effects. Some results are supported by previous studies. In summary, our study 1) develops a novel framework to construct drug-specific signal transduction networks; 2) provides insights into the molecular mode of metformin; 3) serves a model for exploring signaling pathways

  16. Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) - Korea 2012 campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, J.; Holben, B. N.; Eck, T. F.; Jeong, U.; Kim, W. V.; Choi, M.; Kim, D. S.; Kim, B.; Kim, S.; Ghim, Y.; Kim, Y. J.; Kim, J. H.; Park, R.; Seo, M.; Song, C.; Yum, S.; Woo, J.; Yoon, S.; Lee, K.; Lee, M.; Lim, J.; Chang, I.; Jeong, M. J.; Bae, M.; Sorokin, M.; Giles, D. M.; Schafer, J.; Herman, J. R.

    2013-12-01

    One of the main objectives of Distributed Regional Aerosol Gridded Observation Network (DRAGON) campaign in Deriving Information on Surface conditions from Column and Vertically Resolved Observations Relevant to Air Quality (DISCOVER-AQ) mission is to understand the relationship between the column optical properties of the atmosphere and the surface level air quality in terms of aerosols and gases. Recently, with the cooperative efforts with NASA (National Aeronautics and Space Administration) / GSFC (Goddard Space Flight Center), Korean University research groups, and KME (Korea Ministry of Environment) / NIER (National Institute of Environmental Research), DRAGON-Korea 2012 campaign was successfully performed from March to May 2012. The campaign sites were divided into two groups, the National scale sites and Seoul metropolitan sites. Thirteen Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at National scale sites including two metropolitan cities and several remote sites. Nine Cimel sunphotometers were distributed at Seoul Metropolitan sites including several residential sites and traffic source areas. The measured datasets are being analyzed in diverse fields of air quality communities including in-situ measurement groups, satellite remote sensing groups, chemical modeling groups, and airplane measurement groups. We will introduce several preliminary results of the analysis and discuss the future planes and corporations in Korea.

  17. Persistent Observation of Dynamic Scenes in an Active Camera Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Bi; Ding, Chong; Roy-Chowdhury, Amit; Farrell, Jay

    This chapter deals with the problem of persistent observation of a wide area scene through decentralized, cooperative control of an active camera network. We focus on applications where events unfold over a large geographic area and need to be analyzed by multiple cameras. There is no central unit accumulating and analyzing all the data. The overall goal is to observe all objects (i.e., targets) in the region of deployment of the cameras, while selectively focusing at a high resolution on some particular target features based on application requirements. Efficient usage of resources in such a scenario requires that the cameras be active. However, this control cannot be based on separate analysis of the sensed video in each camera. They must act collaboratively to be able to acquire multiple targets at different resolutions. Our research focuses on developing accurate and efficient target acquisition and camera control algorithms in such scenarios using game theory. We show real-life experimental results of the approach.

  18. Human Dorsal Striatum Encodes Prediction Errors during Observational Learning of Instrumental Actions

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Jeffrey C.; Dunne, Simon; Furey, Teresa; O’Doherty, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The dorsal striatum plays a key role in the learning and expression of instrumental reward associations that are acquired through direct experience. However, not all learning about instrumental actions require direct experience. Instead, humans and other animals are also capable of acquiring instrumental actions by observing the experiences of others. In this study, we investigated the extent to which human dorsal striatum is involved in observational as well as experiential instrumental reward learning. Human participants were scanned with fMRI while they observed a confederate over a live video performing an instrumental conditioning task to obtain liquid juice rewards. Participants also performed a similar instrumental task for their own rewards. Using a computational model-based analysis, we found reward prediction errors in the dorsal striatum not only during the experiential learning condition but also during observational learning. These results suggest a key role for the dorsal striatum in learning instrumental associations, even when those associations are acquired purely by observing others. PMID:21812568

  19. Training the motor cortex by observing the actions of others during immobilization.

    PubMed

    Bassolino, Michela; Campanella, Martina; Bove, Marco; Pozzo, Thierry; Fadiga, Luciano

    2014-12-01

    Limb immobilization and nonuse are well-known causes of corticomotor depression. While physical training can drive the recovery from nonuse-dependent corticomotor effects, it remains unclear if it is possible to gain access to motor cortex in alternative ways, such as through motor imagery (MI) or action observation (AO). Transcranial magnetic stimulation was used to study the excitability of the hand left motor cortex in normal subjects immediately before and after 10 h of right arm immobilization. During immobilization, subjects were requested either to imagine to act with their constrained limb or to observe hand actions performed by other individuals. A third group of control subjects watched a nature documentary presented on a computer screen. Hand corticomotor maps and recruitment curves reliably showed that AO, but not MI, prevented the corticomotor depression induced by immobilization. Our results demonstrate the existence of a visuomotor mechanism in humans that links AO and execution which is able to effect cortical plasticity in a beneficial way. This facilitation was not related to the action simulation, because it was not induced by explicit MI.

  20. Modulation of Corticospinal Excitability during Acquisition of Action Sequences by Observation

    PubMed Central

    Sakamoto, Masanori; Moriyama, Noriyoshi; Mizuguchi, Nobuaki; Muraoka, Tetsuro; Kanosue, Kazuyuki

    2012-01-01

    Excitability of the corticospinal pathway increases during observation of an action. However, how corticospinal excitability changes during observation of sequential actions in the course of acquiring novel skills (observational learning) remains unexplored. To investigate this, we used a previously unpracticed sequence of ten hand postures. Participants were asked to repeat observation and replication of the sequence. This block of observation and replication was repeated 5 times. During observation of a given hand posture (OK sign), motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation were recorded from hand muscles. In experiment 1, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position of the sequence. Almost all participants could replicate the OK sign only at the 5th block of the experiment. MEP amplitude was greater than that in the control, and decreased with the stages. This suggested that during observational learning of sequential hand postures MEP changed with the progress of the learning. To evaluate this idea, we performed two additional experiments. In experiment 2, the OK sign appeared in the 2nd position. Almost all participants replicated the OK sign even in the 1st block. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. In experiment 3, the OK sign appeared in the 9th position, but the order of other signs was randomized in every stage. Many participants were not able to replicate the OK sign even during the 5th block of the experiment. The MEP amplitude did not change across stages. These results suggest that: (1) During observational learning modulation of corticospinal excitability is associated with the learning process. (2) Corticospinal excitability decreases as learning progresses. PMID:22615889

  1. Power-Hop: A Pervasive Observation for Real Complex Networks.

    PubMed

    Papalexakis, Evangelos; Hooi, Bryan; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been shown to exhibit universal properties, with one of the most consistent patterns being the scale-free degree distribution, but are there regularities obeyed by the r-hop neighborhood in real networks? We answer this question by identifying another power-law pattern that describes the relationship between the fractions of node pairs C(r) within r hops and the hop count r. This scale-free distribution is pervasive and describes a large variety of networks, ranging from social and urban to technological and biological networks. In particular, inspired by the definition of the fractal correlation dimension D2 on a point-set, we consider the hop-count r to be the underlying distance metric between two vertices of the network, and we examine the scaling of C(r) with r. We find that this relationship follows a power-law in real networks within the range 2 ≤ r ≤ d, where d is the effective diameter of the network, that is, the 90-th percentile distance. We term this relationship as power-hop and the corresponding power-law exponent as power-hop exponent h. We provide theoretical justification for this pattern under successful existing network models, while we analyze a large set of real and synthetic network datasets and we show the pervasiveness of the power-hop. PMID:26974560

  2. Power-Hop: A Pervasive Observation for Real Complex Networks

    PubMed Central

    Papalexakis, Evangelos; Hooi, Bryan; Pelechrinis, Konstantinos; Faloutsos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Complex networks have been shown to exhibit universal properties, with one of the most consistent patterns being the scale-free degree distribution, but are there regularities obeyed by the r-hop neighborhood in real networks? We answer this question by identifying another power-law pattern that describes the relationship between the fractions of node pairs C(r) within r hops and the hop count r. This scale-free distribution is pervasive and describes a large variety of networks, ranging from social and urban to technological and biological networks. In particular, inspired by the definition of the fractal correlation dimension D2 on a point-set, we consider the hop-count r to be the underlying distance metric between two vertices of the network, and we examine the scaling of C(r) with r. We find that this relationship follows a power-law in real networks within the range 2 ≤ r ≤ d, where d is the effective diameter of the network, that is, the 90-th percentile distance. We term this relationship as power-hop and the corresponding power-law exponent as power-hop exponent h. We provide theoretical justification for this pattern under successful existing network models, while we analyze a large set of real and synthetic network datasets and we show the pervasiveness of the power-hop. PMID:26974560

  3. A European Network for Atmospheric Hydrogen observations and studies: EUROHYDROS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, A.; Engel, A.

    2008-12-01

    and the EuroHydros team In a future energy supply chain, molecular hydrogen is expected to play an increasingly important role as a carrier of energy for mobile applications, in particular in the automotive sector. Such an increased use of molecular hydrogen is prone to lead to additional emissions into the atmosphere, due to leakages in the supply chain. While molecular hydrogen does not influence the radiation budget of the atmosphere directly, it affects its oxidation capacity, through reaction with the OH radical. This in turn leads to an increased atmospheric lifetime of many atmospheric constituents (e.g. Methane), making H2 an indirect greenhouse gas. An increase of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere also leads to increasing H2O in the stratosphere, influencing the radiation budget of the atmosphere and ozone chemistry. In the light of these uncertainties, a thorough understanding of hydrogen in the atmosphere is necessary, and, most notably, a good understanding of the present day global distribution and budget of atmospheric hydrogen. The EU funded project Eurohydros aims at improving the understanding of the budget of molecular hydrogen in the atmosphere through a combination of atmospheric monitoring, source-sink studies and modelling work. In this presentation we focus on the observational network, showing first results from different European and Global sites, from the calibration of the data sets and a first intercomparison experiment.

  4. On wireless sensing networks in hydrology: from observation to prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vereecken, H.; Bogena, H. R.; Huisman, J. A.; Wei, Q.; Fang, Z.; Vanderborght, J.; Kollet, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    The use of wireless sensor networks (WSN) has gained increasing attention in the field of hydrology, because WSNs offer a unique potential to monitor the spatial and temporal dynamics of soil moisture at scales beyond the field scale. In addition, they provide unique opportunities for the validation of numerical models, hydrogeophysical measurement techniques, as well as for the calibration and validation of remotely sensed soil moisture data. In this presentation, we will discuss results of temporal and spatially resolved measurements of soil moisture using WSNs installed in two different small-scale catchments under forest (Wüstebach, Germany) and grassland (Rollesbroich, Germany). In combination with measurements of hydrological fluxes, we were able to close the water balance of the Wüstebach catchment up to 3% of the yearly rainfall. In addition, changes between wet and dry states of the catchment could be observed and related to a critical soil moisture content. Using stochastic analysis of water flow in the unsaturated zone and pedotransfer functions, we were able to predict subgrid variability of soil moisture. This framework also allowed deriving the spatial variability of soil hydraulic parameters using the relationship between the variance of soil moisture and its mean soil water content. Finally, soil moisture data from the WSN in the Wüstebach catchment were used to validate a detailed hydrologic model of the catchment using empirical orthogonal functions and coherence wavelet analysis. Further development of wireless sensing technologies will include the monitoring of soil moisture potential and biogeochemical properties such as redox potential.

  5. Lessons Learnt from Applying Action Research to Support Strategy Formation Processes in Long-Term Care Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hendrik; Dewulf, Geert; Voordijk, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates how action research (AR) that is aimed at scaling-up experiments can be applied to support a strategy formation process (SFP) in a subsidized long-term care network. Previous research has developed numerous AR frameworks to support experiments in various domains, but has failed to explain how to apply AR and action learning…

  6. Novel dynamic Bayesian networks for facial action element recognition and understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Wei; Park, Jeong-Seon; Choi, Dong-You; Lee, Sang-Woong

    2011-12-01

    In daily life, language is an important tool of communication between people. Besides language, facial action can also provide a great amount of information. Therefore, facial action recognition has become a popular research topic in the field of human-computer interaction (HCI). However, facial action recognition is quite a challenging task due to its complexity. In a literal sense, there are thousands of facial muscular movements, many of which have very subtle differences. Moreover, muscular movements always occur simultaneously when the pose is changed. To address this problem, we first build a fully automatic facial points detection system based on a local Gabor filter bank and principal component analysis. Then, novel dynamic Bayesian networks are proposed to perform facial action recognition using the junction tree algorithm over a limited number of feature points. In order to evaluate the proposed method, we have used the Korean face database for model training. For testing, we used the CUbiC FacePix, facial expressions and emotion database, Japanese female facial expression database, and our own database. Our experimental results clearly demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed approach.

  7. The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH).

    PubMed

    García-Rojo, Marcial; Gonçalves, Luís; Blobel, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The COST Action IC0604 "Telepathology Network in Europe" (EURO-TELEPATH) is a European COST Action that has been running from 2007 to 2011. COST Actions are funded by the COST (European Cooperation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) Agency, supported by the Seventh Framework Programme for Research and Technological Development (FP7), of the European Union. EURO-TELEPATH's main objectives were evaluating and validating the common technological framework and communication standards required to access, transmit and manage digital medical records by pathologists and other medical professionals in a networked environment. The project was organized in four working groups. orking Group 1 "Business modeling in pathology" has designed main pathology processes - Frozen Study, Formalin Fixed Specimen Study, Telepathology, Cytology, and Autopsy -using Business Process Modeling Notation (BPMN). orking Group 2 "Informatics standards in pathology" has been dedicated to promoting the development and application of informatics standards in pathology, collaborating with Integrating the Healthcare Enterprise (IHE), Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine (DICOM), Health Level Seven (HL7), and other standardization bodies. Working Group 3 "Images: Analysis, Processing, Retrieval and Management" worked on the use of virtual or digital slides that are fostering the use of image processing and analysis in pathology not only for research purposes, but also in daily practice. Working Group 4 "Technology and Automation in Pathology" was focused on studying the adequacy of current existing technical solutions, including, e.g., the quality of images obtained by slide scanners, or the efficiency of image analysis applications. Major outcome of this action are the collaboration with international health informatics standardization bodies to foster the development of standards for digital pathology, offering a new approach for workflow analysis, based in business process

  8. The environmental actions of firms: examining the role of spillovers, networks and absorptive capacity.

    PubMed

    Albornoz, Facundo; Cole, Matthew A; Elliott, Robert J R; Ercolani, Marco G

    2014-12-15

    In the light of climate uncertainty and growing concern for the natural environment, an increasingly important aspect of global business is the environmental behaviour of firms. In this paper we consider the factors that influence firms' environmental actions (EAs). Our study of Argentinean firms concentrates on measures of environmental spillovers, informal and formal networks and absorptive capacity by testing four related hypotheses. We find that foreign-owned firms, large firms and those with a greater capacity to assimilate new environmental technologies are more likely to adopt EAs. We also show that formal and informal networks aid the adoption of EAs in the presence of traditional firm-level spillovers. Finally, we show that foreign-owned firms have different motives to domestic firms for undertaking EAs.

  9. Understanding IT-enabled social action networks: construction, sustainability, and user participation.

    PubMed

    Banks, M Shane

    2012-01-01

    Innovative, humanitarian individuals and organizations are seeking to leverage the power of information technologies by constructing IT-enabled social action networks (ITSANs), networks of actors, connected via an IT platform, working together to improve social conditions and the lives of others. ITSANs are primarily web-based platforms that allow users to collaborate, share information, and pool resources to enhance efforts to address a common social mission. The goal of this research is to investigate how ITSANs are used to positively affect social needs by examining how these platforms are constructed and sustained. Also of interest are factors influencing user participation. To develop an in-depth understanding of ITSANs, this research proposes a qualitative multi-case study approach that seeks to understand ITSANs through the lived experiences of key actors.

  10. Mass-action equilibrium and non-specific interactions in protein binding networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maslov, Sergei

    2009-03-01

    Large-scale protein binding networks serve as a paradigm of complex properties of living cells. These networks are naturally weighted with edges characterized by binding strength and protein-nodes -- by their concentrations. However, the state-of-the-art high-throughput experimental techniques generate just a binary (yes or no) information about individual interactions. As a result, most of the previous research concentrated just on topology of these networks. In a series of recent publications [1-4] my collaborators and I went beyond purely topological studies and calculated the mass-action equilibrium of a genome-wide binding network using experimentally determined protein concentrations, localizations, and reliable binding interactions in baker's yeast. We then studied how this equilibrium responds to large perturbations [1-2] and noise [3] in concentrations of proteins. We demonstrated that the change in the equilibrium concentration of a protein exponentially decays (and sign-alternates) with its network distance away from the perturbed node. This explains why, despite a globally connected topology, individual functional modules in such networks are able to operate fairly independently. In a separate study [4] we quantified the interplay between specific and non-specific binding interactions under crowded conditions inside living cells. We show how the need to limit the waste of resources constrains the number of types and concentrations of proteins that are present at the same time and at the same place in yeast cells. [1] S Maslov, I. Ispolatov, PNAS 104:13655 (2007). [2] S. Maslov, K. Sneppen, I. Ispolatov, New J. of Phys. 9: 273 (2007). [3] K-K. Yan, D. Walker, S. Maslov, PRL accepted (2008). [4] J. Zhang, S. Maslov, and E. I. Shakhnovich, Mol Syst Biol 4, 210 (2008).

  11. I know what I will see: action-specific motor preparation activity in a passive observation task.

    PubMed

    Bozzacchi, Chiara; Spinelli, Donatella; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Giusti, Maria Assunta; Di Russo, Francesco

    2015-06-01

    Literature on mirror neurons has shown that seeing someone preparing to move generates in the motor areas of the observers a brain activity similar to that generated when the subject prepares his own actions. Thus, the 'mirroring' of action would not be limited to the execution phase but also involves the preparation process. Here we confirm and extend this notion showing that, just as different brain activities prepare different voluntary actions, also different brain activities prepare to observe different predictable actions. Videos of two different actions from egocentric point of view were presented in separate blocks: (i) grasping of a cup and (ii) impossible grasping of a cup. Subjects had to passively observe the videos showing object-directed hand movements. Through the use of the event-related potentials, we found a cortical activity before observing the actions, which was very similar to the one recorded prior to the actual execution of that same action, in terms of both topography and latency. This anticipatory activity does not represent a general preparation state but an action-specific state, because being dependent on the specific meaning of the forthcoming action. These results reinforce our knowledge about the correspondence between action, perception and cognition. PMID:25261822

  12. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants’ Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions

    PubMed Central

    Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  13. Active Drumming Experience Increases Infants' Sensitivity to Audiovisual Synchrony during Observed Drumming Actions.

    PubMed

    Gerson, Sarah A; Schiavio, Andrea; Timmers, Renee; Hunnius, Sabine

    2015-01-01

    In the current study, we examined the role of active experience on sensitivity to multisensory synchrony in six-month-old infants in a musical context. In the first of two experiments, we trained infants to produce a novel multimodal effect (i.e., a drum beat) and assessed the effects of this training, relative to no training, on their later perception of the synchrony between audio and visual presentation of the drumming action. In a second experiment, we then contrasted this active experience with the observation of drumming in order to test whether observation of the audiovisual effect was as effective for sensitivity to multimodal synchrony as active experience. Our results indicated that active experience provided a unique benefit above and beyond observational experience, providing insights on the embodied roots of (early) music perception and cognition. PMID:26111226

  14. GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas-Perea, V.; Balzter, H.

    2012-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. GIONET is a partnership of leading Universities, research institutes and private companies from across Europe aiming to cultivate a community of early stage researchers in the areas of optical and radar remote sensing skilled for the emerging GMES land monitoring services during the GMES Initial Operations period (2011-2013) and beyond. GIONET is expected to satisfy the demand for highly skilled researchers and provide personnel for operational phase of the GMES and monitoring and emergency services. It will achieve this by: -Providing postgraduate training in Earth Observation Science that exposes students to different research disciplines and complementary skills, providing work experiences in the private and academic sectors, and leading to a recognized qualification (Doctorate). -Enabling access to first class training in both fundamental and applied research skills to early-stage researchers at world-class academic centers and market leaders in the private sector. -Building on the experience from previous GMES research and development projects in the land monitoring and emergency information services. The training program through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics (each carried out by an Early Stage Researchers based in one of the partner organization) divided in 5 main areas: Forest monitoring: Global biomass information systems Forest Monitoring of the Congo Basin using Synthetic Aperture radar (SAR) Multi-concept Earth Observation Capabilities for Biomass Mapping and Change Detection: Synergy of Multi-temporal and Multi-frequency Interferometric Radar and Optical Satellite Data Land cover and change: Multi-scale Remote Sensing Synergy for Land Process Studies: from field Spectrometry to Airborne Hyperspectral and

  15. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haukka, Harri; Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Siikonen, Timo; Palin, Matti

    2016-10-01

    A new kind of planetary exploration mission for Mars is under development in collaboration between the Finnish Meteorological Institute (FMI), Lavochkin Association (LA), Space Research Institute (IKI) and Institutio Nacional de Tecnica Aerospacial (INTA). The Mars MetNet mission is based on a new semi-hard landing vehicle called MetNet Lander (MNL).The scientific payload of the Mars MetNet Precursor mission is divided into three categories: Atmospheric instruments, Optical devices and Composition and structure devices. Each of the payload instruments will provide significant insights in to the Martian atmospheric behavior.The key technologies of the MetNet Lander have been qualified and the electrical qualification model (EQM) of the payload bay has been built and successfully tested.Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In the near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission is the demonstration of the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has been defined.

  16. Network-Based Analysis of Nutraceuticals in Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas Reveals Mechanisms of Chemopreventive Action

    PubMed Central

    Michailidou, M; Melas, IN; Messinis, DE; Klamt, S; Alexopoulos, LG; Kolisis, FN; Loutrari, H

    2015-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an essentially incurable cancer. Anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals have emerged as promising candidates against HCC, yet the mechanisms through which they influence the cell signaling machinery to impose phenotypic changes remain unresolved. Herein we implemented a systems biology approach in HCC cells, based on the integration of cytokine release and phospoproteomic data from high-throughput xMAP Luminex assays to elucidate the action mode of prominent nutraceuticals in terms of topology alterations of HCC-specific signaling networks. An optimization algorithm based on SigNetTrainer, an Integer Linear Programming formulation, was applied to construct networks linking signal transduction to cytokine secretion by combining prior knowledge of protein connectivity with proteomic data. Our analysis identified the most probable target phosphoproteins of interrogated compounds and predicted translational control as a new mechanism underlying their anticytokine action. Induced alterations corroborated with inhibition of HCC-driven angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:26225263

  17. Network-Based Analysis of Nutraceuticals in Human Hepatocellular Carcinomas Reveals Mechanisms of Chemopreventive Action.

    PubMed

    Michailidou, M; Melas, I N; Messinis, D E; Klamt, S; Alexopoulos, L G; Kolisis, F N; Loutrari, H

    2015-06-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with the development of human hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), an essentially incurable cancer. Anti-inflammatory nutraceuticals have emerged as promising candidates against HCC, yet the mechanisms through which they influence the cell signaling machinery to impose phenotypic changes remain unresolved. Herein we implemented a systems biology approach in HCC cells, based on the integration of cytokine release and phospoproteomic data from high-throughput xMAP Luminex assays to elucidate the action mode of prominent nutraceuticals in terms of topology alterations of HCC-specific signaling networks. An optimization algorithm based on SigNetTrainer, an Integer Linear Programming formulation, was applied to construct networks linking signal transduction to cytokine secretion by combining prior knowledge of protein connectivity with proteomic data. Our analysis identified the most probable target phosphoproteins of interrogated compounds and predicted translational control as a new mechanism underlying their anticytokine action. Induced alterations corroborated with inhibition of HCC-driven angiogenesis and metastasis. PMID:26225263

  18. Mars MetNet Mission - Martian Atmospheric Observational Post Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harri, Ari-Matti; Aleksashkin, Sergey; Arruego, Ignacio; Schmidt, Walter; Ponomarenko, Andrey; Apestigue, Victor; Genzer, Maria; Vazquez, Luis; Uspensky, Mikhail; Haukka, Harri

    2016-04-01

    3-axis accelerometer combined with a 3-axis gyrometer. The data will be sent via auxiliary beacon antenna throughout the descent phase starting shortly after separation from the spacecraft. MetNet Mission payload instruments are specially designed to operate under very low power conditions. MNL flexible solar panels provides a total of approximately 0.7-0.8 W of electric power during the daylight time. As the provided power output is insufficient to operate all instruments simultaneously they are activated sequentially according to a specially designed cyclogram table which adapts itself to the different environmental constraints. Mission Status Full Qualification Model (QM) of the MetNet landing unit with the Precursor Mission payload is currently under functional tests. In the near future the QM unit will be exposed to environmental tests with qualification levels including vibrations, thermal balance, thermal cycling and mechanical impact shock. One complete flight unit of the entry, descent and landing systems (EDLS) has been manufactured and tested with acceptance levels. Another flight-like EDLS has been exposed to most of the qualification tests, and hence it may be used for flight after refurbishments. Accordingly two flight-capable EDLS systems exist. The eventual goal is to create a network of atmospheric observational posts around the Martian surface. Even if the MetNet mission is focused on the atmospheric science, the mission payload will also include additional kinds of geophysical instrumentation. The next step in the MetNet Precursor Mission is the demonstration of the technical robustness and scientific capabilities of the MetNet type of landing vehicle. Definition of the Precursor Mission and discussions on launch opportunities are currently under way. The baseline program development funding exists for the next five years. Flight unit manufacture of the payload bay takes about 18 months, and it will be commenced after the Precursor Mission has

  19. Dissecting children's observational learning of complex actions through selective video displays.

    PubMed

    Flynn, Emma; Whiten, Andrew

    2013-10-01

    Children can learn how to use complex objects by watching others, yet the relative importance of different elements they may observe, such as the interactions of the individual parts of the apparatus, a model's movements, and desirable outcomes, remains unclear. In total, 140 3-year-olds and 140 5-year-olds participated in a study where they observed a video showing tools being used to extract a reward item from a complex puzzle box. Conditions varied according to the elements that could be seen in the video: (a) the whole display, including the model's hands, the tools, and the box; (b) the tools and the box but not the model's hands; (c) the model's hands and the tools but not the box; (d) only the end state with the box opened; and (e) no demonstration. Children's later attempts at the task were coded to establish whether they imitated the hierarchically organized sequence of the model's actions, the action details, and/or the outcome. Children's successful retrieval of the reward from the box and the replication of hierarchical sequence information were reduced in all but the whole display condition. Only once children had attempted the task and witnessed a second demonstration did the display focused on the tools and box prove to be better for hierarchical sequence information than the display focused on the tools and hands only.

  20. GIONET (GMES Initial Operations Network for Earth Observation Research Training)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nicolas, V.; Balzter, H.

    2013-12-01

    GMES Initial Operations - Network for Earth Observation Research Training (GIONET) is a Marie Curie funded project that aims to establish the first of a kind European Centre of Excellence for Earth Observation Research Training. Copernicus (previously known as GMES (Global Monitoring for Environment and Security) is a joint undertaking of the European Space Agency and the European Commission. It develops fully operational Earth Observation monitoring services for a community of end users from the public and private sector. The first services that are considered fully operational are the land monitoring and emergency monitoring core services. In GIONET, 14 early stage researchers are being trained at PhD level in understanding the complex physical processes that determine how electromagnetic radiation interacts with the atmosphere and the land surface ultimately form the signal received by a satellite. In order to achieve this, the researchers are based in industry and universities across Europe, as well as receiving the best technical training and scientific education. The training programme through supervised research focuses on 14 research topics. Each topic is carried out by an Early Stage Researcher based in one of the partner organisations and is expected to lead to a PhD degree. The 14 topics are grouped in 5 research themes: Forest monitoring Land cover and change Coastal zone and freshwater monitoring Geohazards and emergency response Climate adaptation and emergency response The methods developed and used in GIONET are as diverse as its research topics. GIONET has already held two summer schools; one at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena (Germany), on 'New operational radar satellite applications: Introduction to SAR, Interferometry and Polarimetry for Land Surface Mapping'. The 2nd summer school took place last September at the University of Leicester (UK )on 'Remote sensing of land cover and forest in GMES'. The next Summer School in September 2013

  1. Mirror-neuron system recruitment by action observation: effects of focal brain damage on mu suppression.

    PubMed

    Frenkel-Toledo, Silvi; Bentin, Shlomo; Perry, Anat; Liebermann, Dario G; Soroker, Nachum

    2014-02-15

    Mu suppression is the attenuation of EEG power in the alpha frequency range (8-12 Hz), recorded over the sensorimotor cortex during execution and observation of motor actions. Based on this dual characteristic mu suppression is thought to signalize activation of a human analogue of the mirror neuron system (MNS) found in macaque monkeys. However, much uncertainty remains concerning its specificity and full significance. To further explore the hypothesized relationship between mu suppression and MNS activation, we investigated how it is affected by damage to cortical regions, including areas where the MNS is thought to reside. EEG was recorded in 33 first-event stroke patients during observation of video clips showing reaching and grasping hand movements. We examined the modulation of EEG oscillations at central and occipital sites, and analyzed separately the lower (8-10 Hz) and higher (10-12 Hz) segments of the alpha/mu range. Suppression was determined relative to observation of a non-biological movement. Normalized lesion data were used to investigate how damage to regions of the fronto-parietal cortex affects the pattern of suppression. The magnitude of mu suppression during action observation was significantly reduced in the affected hemisphere compared to the unaffected hemisphere. Differences between the hemispheres were significant at central (sensorimotor) sites but not at occipital (visual) sites. Total hemispheric volume loss did not correlate with mu suppression. Suppression in the lower mu range in the unaffected hemisphere (C3) correlated with lesion extent within the right inferior parietal cortex. Our lesion study supports the role of mu suppression as a marker of MNS activation, confirming previous studies in normal subjects.

  2. Emergence of collective action and environmental networking in relation to radioactive waste management

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, R.G.; Payne, B.A.

    1985-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between the national environmental movement and nuclear technology in relation to a local emergent group. The historical development of nuclear technology in this conutry has followed a path leading to continued fear and mistrust of waste management by a portion of the population. At the forefront of opposition to nuclear technology are people and groups endorsing environmental values. Because of the antinuclear attitudes of environmentalists and the value orientation of appropriate technologists in the national environmental movement, it seems appropriate for local groups to call on these national groups for assistance regarding nuclear-related issues. A case study is used to illustrate how a local action group, once integrated into a national environmental network, can become an effective, legitimate participant in social change. The formation, emergence, mobilization, and networking of a local group opposed to a specific federal radioactive waste management plan is described based on organizational literature. However, inherent contradictions in defining the local versus national benefits plus inherent problems within the environmental movement could be acting to limit the effectiveness of such networks. 49 refs.

  3. Spatial Learning and Action Planning in a Prefrontal Cortical Network Model

    PubMed Central

    Martinet, Louis-Emmanuel; Sheynikhovich, Denis; Benchenane, Karim; Arleo, Angelo

    2011-01-01

    The interplay between hippocampus and prefrontal cortex (PFC) is fundamental to spatial cognition. Complementing hippocampal place coding, prefrontal representations provide more abstract and hierarchically organized memories suitable for decision making. We model a prefrontal network mediating distributed information processing for spatial learning and action planning. Specific connectivity and synaptic adaptation principles shape the recurrent dynamics of the network arranged in cortical minicolumns. We show how the PFC columnar organization is suitable for learning sparse topological-metrical representations from redundant hippocampal inputs. The recurrent nature of the network supports multilevel spatial processing, allowing structural features of the environment to be encoded. An activation diffusion mechanism spreads the neural activity through the column population leading to trajectory planning. The model provides a functional framework for interpreting the activity of PFC neurons recorded during navigation tasks. We illustrate the link from single unit activity to behavioral responses. The results suggest plausible neural mechanisms subserving the cognitive “insight” capability originally attributed to rodents by Tolman & Honzik. Our time course analysis of neural responses shows how the interaction between hippocampus and PFC can yield the encoding of manifold information pertinent to spatial planning, including prospective coding and distance-to-goal correlates. PMID:21625569

  4. [An exploration in the action targets for antidepressant bioactive components of Xiaoyaosan based on network pharmacology].

    PubMed

    Gao, Yao; Gao, Li; Gao, Xiao-xia; Zhou, Yu-zhi; Qin, Xue-mei; Tian, Jun-sheng

    2015-12-01

    The present study aims to predict the action targets of antidepressant active ingredients of Xiaoyaosan to understand the "multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways" mechanism. Using network pharmacology, the reported antidepressant active ingredients in Xiaoyaosan (saikosaponin A, saikosaponin C, saikosaponin D, ferulic acid, Z-ligustilide, atractylenolide I, atractylenolide II, atractylenolide III, paeoniflorin, albiflorin, liquiritin, glycyrrhizic acid and pachymic acid), were used to predict the targets of main active ingredients of Xiaoyaosan according to reversed pharmacophore matching method. The prediction was made via screening of the antidepressive drug targets approved by FDA in the DrugBank database and annotating the information of targets with the aid of MAS 3.0 biological molecular function software. The Cytoscape software was used to construct the Xiaoyaosan ingredients-targets-pathways network. The network analysis indicates that the active ingredients in Xiaoyaosan involve 25 targets in the energy metabolism-immune-signal transmutation relevant biological processes. The antidepressant effect of Xiaoyaosan reflects the features of traditional Chinese medicine in multi-components, multi-targets and multi-pathways. This research provides a scientific basis for elucidation of the antidepressant pharmacological mechanism of Xiaoyaosan. PMID:27169281

  5. Neural Correlates of Action Observation and Execution in 14-Month-Old Infants: An Event-Related EEG Desynchronization Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Peter J.; Young, Thomas; Meltzoff, Andrew N.

    2011-01-01

    There is increasing interest in neurobiological methods for investigating the shared representation of action perception and production in early development. We explored the extent and regional specificity of EEG desynchronization in the infant alpha frequency range (6-9 Hz) during action observation and execution in 14-month-old infants.…

  6. Ukrainian network of Optical Stations for man-made space objects observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sybiryakova, Yevgeniya

    2016-07-01

    The Ukrainian Network of Optical Stations (UNOS) for man-made objects research was founded in 2012 as an association of professional astronomers. The main goals of network are: positional and photometric observations of man-made space objects, calculation of orbital elements, research of shape and period of rotation. The network consists of 8 stations: Kiev, Nikolaev, Odesa, Uzhgorod, Lviv, Yevpatoriya, Alchevsk. UNOS has 12 telescopes for observation of man-made space objects. The new original methods of positional observation were developed for optical observation of geosynchronous and low earth orbit satellites. The observational campaigns of LEO satellites held in the network every year. The numerical model of space object motion, developed in UNOS, is using for orbit calculation. The results of orbital elements calculation are represented on the UNOS web-site http://umos.mao.kiev.ua/eng/. The photometric observation of selected objects is also carried out in network.

  7. Mirror neurons in monkey area F5 do not adapt to the observation of repeated actions.

    PubMed

    Caggiano, Vittorio; Pomper, Joern K; Fleischer, Falk; Fogassi, Leonardo; Giese, Martin; Thier, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive presentation of the same visual stimulus entails a response decrease in the action potential discharge of neurons in various areas of the monkey visual cortex. It is still unclear whether this repetition suppression effect is also present in single neurons in cortical premotor areas responding to visual stimuli, as suggested by the human functional magnetic resonance imaging literature. Here we report the responses of 'mirror neurons' in monkey area F5 to the repeated presentation of action movies. We find that most single neurons and the population at large do not show a significant decrease of the firing rate. On the other hand, simultaneously recorded local field potentials exhibit repetition suppression. As local field potentials are believed to be better linked to the blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) signal exploited by functional magnetic resonance imaging, these findings suggest caution when trying to derive conclusions on the spiking activity of neurons in a given area based on the observation of BOLD repetition suppression.

  8. The role of observational reference data for climate downscaling: Insights from the VALUE COST Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotlarski, Sven; Gutiérrez, José M.; Boberg, Fredrik; Bosshard, Thomas; Cardoso, Rita M.; Herrera, Sixto; Maraun, Douglas; Mezghani, Abdelkader; Pagé, Christian; Räty, Olle; Stepanek, Petr; Soares, Pedro M. M.; Szabo, Peter

    2016-04-01

    VALUE is an open European network to validate and compare downscaling methods for climate change research (http://www.value-cost.eu). A key deliverable of VALUE is the development of a systematic validation framework to enable the assessment and comparison of downscaling methods. Such assessments can be expected to crucially depend on the existence of accurate and reliable observational reference data. In dynamical downscaling, observational data can influence model development itself and, later on, model evaluation, parameter calibration and added value assessment. In empirical-statistical downscaling, observations serve as predictand data and directly influence model calibration with corresponding effects on downscaled climate change projections. We here present a comprehensive assessment of the influence of uncertainties in observational reference data and of scale-related issues on several of the above-mentioned aspects. First, temperature and precipitation characteristics as simulated by a set of reanalysis-driven EURO-CORDEX RCM experiments are validated against three different gridded reference data products, namely (1) the EOBS dataset (2) the recently developed EURO4M-MESAN regional re-analysis, and (3) several national high-resolution and quality-controlled gridded datasets that recently became available. The analysis reveals a considerable influence of the choice of the reference data on the evaluation results, especially for precipitation. It is also illustrated how differences between the reference data sets influence the ranking of RCMs according to a comprehensive set of performance measures.

  9. Measuring cerebral hemodynamic changes during action observation with functional transcranial doppler

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Seong-Sik; Lee, Byoung-Hee

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of action observation training (AOT) on cerebral hemodynamic changes including cerebral blood flow velocity (CBFV) and cerebral blood flow volume (CBFvol) in healthy subjects. [Subjects] Fifteen healthy subjects participated in this study. [Methods] All subjects were educated regarding AOT, and systolic peak velocity (Vs) as well as mean flow velocity (Vm) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA), anterior cerebral artery (ACA), and posterior cerebral artery (PCA) were evaluated using functional transcranial doppler with a 2-MHz probe, before and after performing AOT. [Results] Healthy subjects showed significant differences in Vs and Vm in the MCA, ACA, and PCA after AOT compared with those before AOT. [Conclusion] Our findings indicate that AOT has a positive effect in terms of an increase in CBFV and CBFvol in healthy subjects, since the brain requires more blood to meet the metabolic demand during AOT. PMID:26157224

  10. Optical shuttering action in nematic phase of SMHBLC: observation of a ribbon-like texture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pongali Sathya Prabu, N.; Madhu Mohan, M. L. N.

    2012-07-01

    In this study, complexes belonging to supramolecular hydrogen-bonded liquid crystal homologous series are synthesized and characterized. Hydrogen bond is formed between p-n-alkyloxy benzoic acids (nBAO, where n = 5-11) and chlorobenzoic acid (ClBAO), respectively. The isolated homologues are characterized by various techniques such as polarizing optical microscopic (POM) studies, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy. Based on the POM and DSC studies, the phase diagram has been constructed and discussed. A new smectic ordering, labeled as smectic R, has been characterized, which exhibits a ribbon-like texture. This phase is observed in the complexes pertaining to the higher homologous series. Tilt angle in this phase has been experimentally deduced and the results are fitted to the power law which concurs with the mean-field theory predicted value. Optical shuttering action in the homologue has been detected in the nematic phase and the results are also discussed.

  11. Mirroring multiple agents: motor resonance during action observation is modulated by the number of agents.

    PubMed

    Cracco, Emiel; De Coster, Lize; Andres, Michael; Brass, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Although social situations regularly involve multiple persons acting together, research on the mirror neuron system has focused on situations in which a single agent is observed. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to explore the role of the mirror mechanism in situations involving multiple agents. Specifically, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether mirror activation is modulated by the number of observed agents. Based on group contagion research, we hypothesized that multiple agents would provide a stronger trigger to the motor system and would therefore produce a stronger mirror response than a single agent. Participants observed movements performed by a single hand or by two hands while TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex. The results confirmed that activation in the motor system was stronger for two hands. This suggests that input to the motor system increases as the number of agents grows. Relating back to group contagion, our study suggests that groups may be more contagious simply because their actions resonate louder. Given that the mirror mechanism has been linked to a variety of social skills, our findings additionally have important implications for the understanding of social interaction at the group level.

  12. Mirroring multiple agents: motor resonance during action observation is modulated by the number of agents.

    PubMed

    Cracco, Emiel; De Coster, Lize; Andres, Michael; Brass, Marcel

    2016-09-01

    Although social situations regularly involve multiple persons acting together, research on the mirror neuron system has focused on situations in which a single agent is observed. Therefore, the goal of the current study was to explore the role of the mirror mechanism in situations involving multiple agents. Specifically, we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) to investigate whether mirror activation is modulated by the number of observed agents. Based on group contagion research, we hypothesized that multiple agents would provide a stronger trigger to the motor system and would therefore produce a stronger mirror response than a single agent. Participants observed movements performed by a single hand or by two hands while TMS was applied to the primary motor cortex. The results confirmed that activation in the motor system was stronger for two hands. This suggests that input to the motor system increases as the number of agents grows. Relating back to group contagion, our study suggests that groups may be more contagious simply because their actions resonate louder. Given that the mirror mechanism has been linked to a variety of social skills, our findings additionally have important implications for the understanding of social interaction at the group level. PMID:27118879

  13. Uncovering the Connection between Artist and Audience: Viewing Painted Brushstrokes Evokes Corresponding Action Representations in the Observer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, J. Eric T.; Witt, Jessica K.; Grimaldi, Phillip J.

    2012-01-01

    Observed actions are covertly and involuntarily simulated within the observer's motor system. It has been argued that simulation is involved in processing abstract, gestural paintings, as the artist's movements can be simulated by observing static brushstrokes. Though this argument is grounded in theory, empirical research has yet to examine the…

  14. Primary somatosensory contribution to action observation brain activity-combining fMRI and cTBS.

    PubMed

    Valchev, Nikola; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Keysers, Christian

    2016-08-01

    Traditionally the mirror neuron system (MNS) only includes premotor and posterior parietal cortices. However, somatosensory cortices, BA1/2 in particular, are also activated during action execution and observation. Here, we examine whether BA1/2 and the parietofrontal MNS integrate information by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-guided continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to perturb BA1/2. Measuring brain activity using fMRI while participants are under the influence of cTBS shows local cTBS effects in BA1/2 varied, with some participants showing decreases and others increases in the BOLD response to viewing actions vs control stimuli. We show how measuring cTBS effects using fMRI can harness this variance using a whole-brain regression. This analysis identifies brain regions exchanging action-specific information with BA1/2 by mapping voxels away from the coil with cTBS-induced, action-observation-specific BOLD contrast changes that mirror those under the coil. This reveals BA1/2 exchanges action-specific information with premotor, posterior parietal and temporal nodes of the MNS during action observation. Although anatomical connections between BA1/2 and these regions are well known, this is the first demonstration that these connections carry action-specific signals during observation and hence, that BA1/2 plays a causal role in the human MNS. PMID:26979966

  15. Primary somatosensory contribution to action observation brain activity—combining fMRI and cTBS

    PubMed Central

    Valchev, Nikola; Avenanti, Alessio; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Traditionally the mirror neuron system (MNS) only includes premotor and posterior parietal cortices. However, somatosensory cortices, BA1/2 in particular, are also activated during action execution and observation. Here, we examine whether BA1/2 and the parietofrontal MNS integrate information by using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)-guided continuous theta-burst stimulation (cTBS) to perturb BA1/2. Measuring brain activity using fMRI while participants are under the influence of cTBS shows local cTBS effects in BA1/2 varied, with some participants showing decreases and others increases in the BOLD response to viewing actions vs control stimuli. We show how measuring cTBS effects using fMRI can harness this variance using a whole-brain regression. This analysis identifies brain regions exchanging action-specific information with BA1/2 by mapping voxels away from the coil with cTBS-induced, action-observation-specific BOLD contrast changes that mirror those under the coil. This reveals BA1/2 exchanges action-specific information with premotor, posterior parietal and temporal nodes of the MNS during action observation. Although anatomical connections between BA1/2 and these regions are well known, this is the first demonstration that these connections carry action-specific signals during observation and hence, that BA1/2 plays a causal role in the human MNS. PMID:26979966

  16. Action of the mechanical disruption of the actin network on the gravisensitivity of the root statocyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lefranc, A.; Jeune, B.; Driss-Ecole, D.; Perbal, G.

    The effects of the mechanical disruption of the thin actin network of statocytes on gravisensitivity have been studied on lentil roots. Seedling roots were first inverted for 7 min (root tip upward) and then placed in the downward (normal) position for 7 min before gravitropic stimulation in the horizontal position. The period of inversion allowed the amyloplasts to move from the distal part to the proximal part of the statocyte, but did not fully sediment. When the roots were returned to the tip down position, the amyloplasts moved toward the distal part, but also did not completely sediment by the time the roots were placed horizontally. Thus, in these roots the amyloplasts could be still moving toward the distal wall after they had been replaced in the normal position and the actin network should not be fully restored. Gravisensitivity was estimated by the analysis of the dose-response curves of vertical and treated (inverted and returned to downward position) roots. The only effect, which has been observed on treated roots, was a delay of graviresponse for about 1 min. Our interpretation of this result is that in vertical roots the amyloplasts can exert tensions in the actin network that are directly transmitted to mechanoreceptors located in the plasma membrane. In roots with a partially disrupted actin network, a delay of 1 min is necessary for the amyloplasts to activate mechanoreceptors.

  17. Frequency decoding of periodically timed action potentials through distinct activity patterns in a random neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichenbach, Tobias; Hudspeth, A. J.

    2012-11-01

    Frequency discrimination is a fundamental task of the auditory system. The mammalian inner ear, or cochlea, provides a place code in which different frequencies are detected at different spatial locations. However, a temporal code based on spike timing is also available: action potentials evoked in an auditory-nerve fiber by a low-frequency tone occur at a preferred phase of the stimulus—they exhibit phase locking—and thus provide temporal information about the tone's frequency. Humans employ this temporal information for discrimination of low frequencies. How might such temporal information be read out in the brain? Here we employ statistical and numerical methods to demonstrate that recurrent random neural networks in which connections between neurons introduce characteristic time delays, and in which neurons require temporally coinciding inputs for spike initiation, can perform sharp frequency discrimination when stimulated with phase-locked inputs. Although the frequency resolution achieved by such networks is limited by the noise in phase locking, the resolution for realistic values reaches the tiny frequency difference of 0.2% that has been measured in humans.

  18. Global Observation Information Networking: Using the Distributed Image Spreadsheet (DISS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasler, Fritz

    1999-01-01

    The DISS and many other tools will be used to present visualizations which span the period from the original Suomi/Hasler animations of the first ATS-1 GEO weather satellite images in 1966 ....... to the latest 1999 NASA Earth Science Vision for the next 25 years. Hot off the SGI Onyx Graphics-Supercomputers are NASA's visualizations of Hurricanes Mitch, Georges, Fran and Linda. These storms have been recently featured on the covers of National Geographic, Time, Newsweek and Popular Science and used repeatedly this season on National and International network TV. Results will be presented from a new paper on automatic wind measurements in Hurricane Luis from 1-min GOES images that appeared in the November BAMS.

  19. Observed network dynamics from altering the balance between excitatory and inhibitory neurons in cultured networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xin; Dzakpasu, Rhonda

    2010-09-01

    Complexity in the temporal organization of neural systems may be a reflection of the diversity of their neural constituents. These constituents, excitatory and inhibitory neurons, comprise a well-defined ratio in vivo and form the substrate for rhythmic oscillatory activity. To begin to elucidate the dynamical implications that underlie this balance, we construct neural circuits not ordinarily found in nature and study the resulting temporal patterns. We culture several networks of neurons composed of varying fractions of excitatory and inhibitory cells and use a multielectrode array to study their temporal dynamics as this balance is modulated. We use the electrode burst as the temporal imprimatur to signify the presence of network activity. Burst durations, interburst intervals, and the number of spikes participating within a burst are used to illustrate the vivid differences in the temporal organization between the various cultured networks. When the network consists largely of excitatory neurons, no network temporal structure is apparent. However, the addition of inhibitory neurons evokes a temporal order. Calculation of the temporal autocorrelation shows that when the number of inhibitory neurons is a major fraction of the network, a striking network pattern materializes when none was previously present.

  20. A Bayesian network model for predicting aquatic toxicity mode of action using two dimensional theoretical molecular descriptors

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of toxic action (MoA) has been recognized as a key determinant of chemical toxicity, but development of predictive MoA classification models in aquatic toxicology has been limited. We developed a Bayesian network model to classify aquatic toxicity MoA using a recently pu...

  1. Neural Correlates of Human Action Observation in Hearing and Deaf Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Corina, David; Chiu, Yi-Shiuan; Knapp, Heather; Greenwald, Ralf; Jose-Robertson, Lucia San; Braun, Allen

    2007-01-01

    Accumulating evidence has suggested the existence of a human action recognition system involving inferior frontal, parietal, and superior temporal regions that may participate in both the perception and execution of actions. However, little is known about the specificity of this system in response to different forms of human action. Here we present data from PET neuroimaging studies from passive viewing of three distinct action types, intransitive self-oriented actions (e.g., stretching, rubbing one’s eyes, etc.), transitive object-oriented actions (e.g., opening a door, lifting a cup to the lips to drink), and the abstract, symbolic actions–signs used in American Sign Language. Our results show that these different classes of human actions engage a frontal/parietal/STS human action recognition system in a highly similar fashion. However, the results indicate that this neural consistency across motion classes is true primarily for hearing subjects. Data from deaf signers shows a non-uniform response to different classes of human actions. As expected, deaf signers engaged left-hemisphere perisylvian language areas during the perception of signed language signs. Surprisingly, these subjects did not engage the expected frontal/parietal/STS circuitry during passive viewing of non-linguistic actions, but rather reliably activated middle-occipital temporal-ventral regions which are known to participate in the detection of human bodies, faces, and movements. Comparisons with data from hearing subjects establish statistically significant contributions of middle-occipital temporal-ventral during the processing of non-linguistic actions in deaf signers. These results suggest that during human motion processing, deaf individuals may engage specialized neural systems that allow for rapid, online differentiation of meaningful linguistic actions from non-linguistic human movements. PMID:17459349

  2. End or Means--The "What" and "How" of Observed Intentional Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesse, Maike D.; Sparing, Roland; Fink, Gereon R.

    2009-01-01

    Action understanding and learning are suggested to be mediated, at least in part, by the human mirror neuron system (hMNS). Static images as well as videos of actions with the outcome occluded have been shown to activate the hMNS. However, whether the hMNS preferentially responds to "end" or "means" of an action remains to be investigated. We,…

  3. Processing of action- but not stimulus-related prediction errors differs between active and observational feedback learning.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Stefan; Bellebaum, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Learning of stimulus-response-outcome associations is driven by outcome prediction errors (PEs). Previous studies have shown larger PE-dependent activity in the striatum for learning from own as compared to observed actions and the following outcomes despite comparable learning rates. We hypothesised that this finding relates primarily to a stronger integration of action and outcome information in active learners. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we investigated brain activations related to action-dependent PEs, reflecting the deviation between action values and obtained outcomes, and action-independent PEs, reflecting the deviation between subjective values of response-preceding cues and obtained outcomes. To this end, 16 active and 15 observational learners engaged in a probabilistic learning card-guessing paradigm. On each trial, active learners saw one out of five cues and pressed either a left or right response button to receive feedback (monetary win or loss). Each observational learner observed exactly those cues, responses and outcomes of one active learner. Learning performance was assessed in active test trials without feedback and did not differ between groups. For both types of PEs, activations were found in the globus pallidus, putamen, cerebellum, and insula in active learners. However, only for action-dependent PEs, activations in these structures and the anterior cingulate were increased in active relative to observational learners. Thus, PE-related activity in the reward system is not generally enhanced in active relative to observational learning but only for action-dependent PEs. For the cerebellum, additional activations were found across groups for cue-related uncertainty, thereby emphasising the cerebellum's role in stimulus-outcome learning.

  4. Uncovering the connection between artist and audience: viewing painted brushstrokes evokes corresponding action representations in the observer.

    PubMed

    Taylor, J Eric T; Witt, Jessica K; Grimaldi, Phillip J

    2012-10-01

    Observed actions are covertly and involuntarily simulated within the observer's motor system. It has been argued that simulation is involved in processing abstract, gestural paintings, as the artist's movements can be simulated by observing static brushstrokes. Though this argument is grounded in theory, empirical research has yet to examine the claim. Five experiments are described wherein participants executed arm movements resembling the act of painting horizontal brushstrokes while observing paintings featuring broad, discernable brushstrokes. Participants responded faster when their movement was compatible with the observed brushstrokes, even though the paintings were irrelevant to their task. Additional results suggest that this effect occurs outside of awareness. These results provide evidence that observers can simulate the actions of the painter by simply observing the painting, revealing a connection between artist and audience hitherto undemonstrated by cognitive science.

  5. An integrative neural model of social perception, action observation, and theory of mind.

    PubMed

    Yang, Daniel Y-J; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Keifer, Cara; Pelphrey, Kevin A

    2015-04-01

    In the field of social neuroscience, major branches of research have been instrumental in describing independent components of typical and aberrant social information processing, but the field as a whole lacks a comprehensive model that integrates different branches. We review existing research related to the neural basis of three key neural systems underlying social information processing: social perception, action observation, and theory of mind. We propose an integrative model that unites these three processes and highlights the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), which plays a central role in all three systems. Furthermore, we integrate these neural systems with the dual system account of implicit and explicit social information processing. Large-scale meta-analyses based on Neurosynth confirmed that the pSTS is at the intersection of the three neural systems. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis with 1000 subjects confirmed that the pSTS is connected to all other regions in these systems. The findings presented in this review are specifically relevant for psychiatric research especially disorders characterized by social deficits such as autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25660957

  6. An integrative neural model of social perception, action observation, and theory of mind

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Daniel Y.-J.; Rosenblau, Gabriela; Keifer, Cara; Pelphrey, Kevin A.

    2016-01-01

    In the field of social neuroscience, major branches of research have been instrumental in describing independent components of typical and aberrant social information processing, but the field as a whole lacks a comprehensive model that integrates different branches. We review existing research related to the neural basis of three key neural systems underlying social information processing: social perception, action observation, and theory of mind. We propose an integrative model that unites these three processes and highlights the posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), which plays a central role in all three systems. Furthermore, we integrate these neural systems with the dual system account of implicit and explicit social information processing. Large-scale meta-analyses based on Neurosynth confirmed that the pSTS is at the intersection of the three neural systems. Resting-state functional connectivity analysis with 1000 subjects confirmed that the pSTS is connected to all other regions in these systems. The findings presented in this review are specifically relevant for psychiatric research especially disorders characterized by social deficits such as autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25660957

  7. Actions, Observations, and Decision-Making: Biologically Inspired Strategies for Autonomous Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pisanich, Greg; Ippolito, Corey; Plice, Laura; Young, Larry A.; Lau, Benton

    2003-01-01

    This paper details the development and demonstration of an autonomous aerial vehicle embodying search and find mission planning and execution srrategies inspired by foraging behaviors found in biology. It begins by describing key characteristics required by an aeria! explorer to support science and planetary exploration goals, and illustrates these through a hypothetical mission profile. It next outlines a conceptual bio- inspired search and find autonomy architecture that implements observations, decisions, and actions through an "ecology" of producer, consumer, and decomposer agents. Moving from concepts to development activities, it then presents the results of mission representative UAV aerial surveys at a Mars analog site. It next describes hardware and software enhancements made to a commercial small fixed-wing UAV system, which inc!nde a ncw dpvelopnent architecture that also provides hardware in the loop simulation capability. After presenting the results of simulated and actual flights of bioinspired flight algorithms, it concludes with a discussion of future development to include an expansion of system capabilities and field science support.

  8. COST Action ES1401 TIDES: a European network on TIme DEpendent Seismology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morelli, Andrea

    2016-04-01

    Using the full-length records of seismic events and background ambient noise, today seismology is going beyond still-life snapshots of the interior of the Earth, and look into time-dependent changes of its properties. Data availability has grown dramatically with the expansion of seismographic networks and data centers, so as to enable much more detailed and accurate analyses. COST Action ES1401 TIDES (TIme DEpendent Seismology; http://tides-cost.eu) aims at structuring the EU seismological community to enable development of data-intensive, time-dependent techniques for monitoring Earth active processes (e.g., earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, landslides, glacial earthquakes) as well as oil/gas reservoirs. The main structure of TIDES is organised around working groups on: Workflow integration of data and computing resources; Seismic interferometry and ambient noise; Forward problems and High-performance computing applications; Seismic tomography, full waveform inversion and uncertainties; Applications in the natural environment and industry. TIDES is an open network of European laboratories with complementary skills, and is organising a series of events - workshops and advanced training schools - as well as supporting short-duration scientific stays. The first advanced training school was held in Bertinoro (Italy) on June 2015, with attendance of about 100 participants from 20 European countries, was devoted to how to manage and model seismic data with modern tools. The next school, devoted to ambient noise, will be held in 2016 Portugal: the program will be announced at the time of this conference. TIDES will strengthen Europe's role in a critical field for natural hazards and natural resource management.

  9. From Blickets to Synapses: Inferring Temporal Causal Networks by Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernando, Chrisantha

    2013-01-01

    How do human infants learn the causal dependencies between events? Evidence suggests that this remarkable feat can be achieved by observation of only a handful of examples. Many computational models have been produced to explain how infants perform causal inference without explicit teaching about statistics or the scientific method. Here, we…

  10. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions.

    PubMed

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M

    2015-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers' motor cortex to "resonate" with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor's BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor's FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view.

  11. A Relevant War Against Poverty. A Study of Community Action Programs and Observable Social Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Kenneth B.; Hopkins, Jeannette

    Twelve urban community action programs (CAP) were examined in depth to determine how each of them operationally defined community action and to evaluate their performance. The criteria used were: (1) a clear statement of purpose and programs consistent with that purpose; (2) strong independent leadership and a built-in evaluation and…

  12. Action Learning: Developing Innovative Networks of Practice ... for Ideas Worth Sharing--Design Event Held at Mersey Care NHS Trust Liverpool on 6 November, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harvey, Brendon

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author talks about the highlights of the first design event of the "Northern Action Learning Network" held in Mersey Care NHS Trust Liverpool last November 6, 2008. The intent of the event was to tap into the diverse and flourishing action learning (AL) community by growing an innovative network of practitioners keen to create…

  13. What would dense atmospheric observation networks bring to the quantification of city CO2 emissions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Lin; Broquet, Grégoire; Ciais, Philippe; Bellassen, Valentin; Vogel, Felix; Chevallier, Frédéric; Xueref-Remy, Irène; Wang, Yilong

    2016-06-01

    Cities currently covering only a very small portion ( < 3 %) of the world's land surface directly release to the atmosphere about 44 % of global energy-related CO2, but they are associated with 71-76 % of CO2 emissions from global final energy use. Although many cities have set voluntary climate plans, their CO2 emissions are not evaluated by the monitoring, reporting, and verification (MRV) procedures that play a key role for market- or policy-based mitigation actions. Here we analyze the potential of a monitoring tool that could support the development of such procedures at the city scale. It is based on an atmospheric inversion method that exploits inventory data and continuous atmospheric CO2 concentration measurements from a network of stations within and around cities to estimate city CO2 emissions. This monitoring tool is configured for the quantification of the total and sectoral CO2 emissions in the Paris metropolitan area (˜ 12 million inhabitants and 11.4 TgC emitted in 2010) during the month of January 2011. Its performances are evaluated in terms of uncertainty reduction based on observing system simulation experiments (OSSEs). They are analyzed as a function of the number of sampling sites (measuring at 25 m a.g.l.) and as a function of the network design. The instruments presently used to measure CO2 concentrations at research stations are expensive (typically ˜ EUR 50 k per sensor), which has limited the few current pilot city networks to around 10 sites. Larger theoretical networks are studied here to assess the potential benefit of hypothetical operational lower-cost sensors. The setup of our inversion system is based on a number of diagnostics and assumptions from previous city-scale inversion experiences with real data. We find that, given our assumptions underlying the configuration of the OSSEs, with 10 stations only the uncertainty for the total city CO2 emission during 1 month is significantly reduced by the inversion by ˜ 42 %. It can be

  14. NOAA's Global Network of N2O Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dlugokencky, E. J.; Crotwell, A. M.; Crotwell, M.; Masarie, K. A.; Lang, P. M.; Dutton, G. S.; Hall, B. D.

    2014-12-01

    Nitrous oxide has surpassed CFC-12 to become the third largest contributor to radiative forcing. When climate impacts for equal emitted masses of N2O and CO2 are integrated over 100 years, N2O impacts are about 300 times greater than those of CO2. Increasing the atmospheric burden of N2O also decreases the abundance of O3 in the stratosphere. With reductions in emissions of ODSs as a result of the Montreal Protocol, N2O now has the largest ODP-weighted emissions of all gases. Given its long lifetime of about 130 years, today's emissions will impact climate and stratospheric O3 for a long time. Because emission rates are very small and spread over enormous areas, the detailed N2O budget has large uncertainties. It also means measurement requirements on precision and accuracy are stringent, especially for the background atmosphere. The Carbon Cycle Group of NOAA ESRL's Global Monitoring Division began measuring N2O in discrete air samples collected as part of its global cooperative air sampling network in 1998. Data from about 60 air sampling sites provide important constraints on the large-scale budget of N2O and provide boundary conditions for continental and regional-scale studies. This presentation will briefly describe the procedures used to ensure the data are of sufficient quality to meet scientific demands, and describe remaining limitations. Although sampling is infrequent (weekly), the data are quite useful in N2O budget studies. Examples will be given of large scale constraints on N2O's budget, including the global burden, trends in the burden, global emissions, spatial distributions, vertical gradients, and seasonal patterns.

  15. Characterization of a Densely Placed Carbon Observation Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oney, B. J.; Brunner, D.; Henne, S.; Leuenberger, M.; Bamberger, I.; Gruber, N.

    2014-12-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the suitability of a network with four densely placed, continuous carbon measurement sites located on the Swiss Plateau for regional-scale (~100-500 km) carbon exchange studies. Two sites are located atop mountain ridges approximately 500 m above the valley floor, one site is a small tower in flat terrain, and one site is a 212 m tall tower atop a gentle hill. The analysis concentrates on the evaluation of a regional numerical weather prediction model's ability to represent the local meteorology, and on source sensitivities (footprints) simulated with a Lagrangian particle dispersion model. Simulated and measured meteorology compares very well for the flatland sites whereas the mountaintop site comparisons illustrate discrepancies in simulated meteorological variables due to the inability of the model to resolve the complex topography. Furthermore, the meteorological comparison suggests an accurate representation of the convective boundary layer over the Swiss Plateau on average. We find large differences between the simulated footprint extents in winter and summer and between summer's nocturnal and daily footprint, illustrating the ability of simulations to represent seasonal and diurnal variability. We find that far-field influence increases with increasing measurement height as well as being dependent on local topography-induced flow patterns. This study illustrates the fruitfulness of simulated and measured meteorology comparison and detailed analysis of footprint simulations, and we argue that similar analysis is a necessary initial step for regional carbon exchange studies. The four measurement sites with the CarboCount CH project complement one another to represent typical land cover types for Switzerland and Europe, and provide information rich data sets for forthcoming regional carbon exchange studies, of which we also present first results.

  16. Observations and analysis of self-similar branching topology in glacier networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bahr, D.B.; Peckham, S.D.

    1996-01-01

    Glaciers, like rivers, have a branching structure which can be characterized by topological trees or networks. Probability distributions of various topological quantities in the networks are shown to satisfy the criterion for self-similarity, a symmetry structure which might be used to simplify future models of glacier dynamics. Two analytical methods of describing river networks, Shreve's random topology model and deterministic self-similar trees, are applied to the six glaciers of south central Alaska studied in this analysis. Self-similar trees capture the topological behavior observed for all of the glaciers, and most of the networks are also reasonably approximated by Shreve's theory. Copyright 1996 by the American Geophysical Union.

  17. Weight dependent modulation of motor resonance induced by weight estimation during observation of partially occluded lifting actions

    PubMed Central

    Valchev, Nikola; Zijdewind, Inge; Keysers, Christian; Gazzola, Valeria; Avenanti, Alessio; Maurits, Natasha M.

    2016-01-01

    Seeing others performing an action induces the observers’ motor cortex to “resonate” with the observed action. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies suggest that such motor resonance reflects the encoding of various motor features of the observed action, including the apparent motor effort. However, it is unclear whether such encoding requires direct observation or whether force requirements can be inferred when the moving body part is partially occluded. To address this issue, we presented participants with videos of a right hand lifting a box of three different weights and asked them to estimate its weight. During each trial we delivered one transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulse over the left primary motor cortex of the observer and recorded the motor evoked potentials (MEPs) from three muscles of the right hand (first dorsal interosseous, FDI, abductor digiti minimi, ADM, and brachioradialis, BR). Importantly, because the hand shown in the videos was hidden behind a screen, only the contractions in the actor’s BR muscle under the bare skin were observable during the entire videos, while the contractions in the actor’s FDI and ADM muscles were hidden during the grasp and actual lift. The amplitudes of the MEPs recorded from the BR (observable) and FDI (hidden) muscle increased with the weight of the box. These findings indicate that the modulation of motor excitability induced by action observation extends to the cortical representation of muscles with contractions that could not be observed. Thus, motor resonance appears to reflect force requirements of observed lifting actions even when the moving body part is occluded from view. PMID:25462196

  18. COCONet (Continuously Operating Caribbean GPS Observational Network): Network Status and Project Highlights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feaux, K.; Braun, J. J.; Calais, E.; Dausz, K.; Friesen, B. T.; Mattioli, G. S.; Miller, M. M.; Normandeau, J.; Seider, E.; Wang, G.

    2012-12-01

    The beauty and diversity of the Caribbean region result from geological and atmospheric processes that also pose serious threats to the large population within reach of seismic faults, hurricanes tracks, or sea-level change. The capacity to understand, prepare for, adapt to, and in some cases predict these natural hazards requires Earth observations on both large and small scales. The COCONet project was funded by the National Science Foundation (NSF) with the aim of developing a large-scale geodetic and atmospheric infrastructure in the Caribbean that will form the backbone for a broad range of geoscience and atmospheric investigations and enable research on process-oriented science questions with direct relevance to geohazards. COCONet will consist of 50 new GPS and meteorological stations throughout the Caribbean region, 15 existing stations refurbished with new receivers, antennas, and meteorological instruments, and will also incorporate data from up to 61 existing operational GPS stations. Additional funding has recently been allocated to install 2 new collocated GPS and tide gauge sites and also add GPS instruments at two existing tide gauge sites in the Caribbean region. COCONet will provide free, high-quality, low-latency, open-format data and data products for researchers, educators, students, and the private sector. Data will be used by US and international scientists to study solid earth processes such as plate kinematics and dynamics as well as plate boundary interactions and deformation, with an emphasis on the earthquake cycle. COCNet will also serve atmospheric science objectives by providing more precise estimates of tropospheric water vapor and enabling better forecast of the dynamics of airborne moisture associated with the yearly Caribbean hurricane cycle. COCONet is being installed and will be maintained by UNAVCO on behalf of the science and other user communities in the United States and abroad, thus leveraging UNAVCO's proven record of

  19. Arctic Observing Network (AON): Enhancing Observing, Data Archiving and Data Discovery Capabilities as Arctic Environmental System Change Continues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffries, M. O.

    2008-12-01

    The National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, under the auspices of the U.S. Inter-Agency Arctic Research Policy Committee, are leading the development of the Arctic Observing Network (AON) as part of the implementation of the Study of Environmental Arctic Change (SEARCH) and as a legacy of International Polar Year (IPY). As the Observing Change component of SEARCH, AON complements the Understanding Change and Responding to Change components. AON addresses the need to enhance observing capabilities in a data-sparse region where environmental system changes are among the most rapid on Earth. AON data will contribute to research into understanding the causes and consequences of Arctic environmental system change and its global connections, and to improving predictive skill. AON is also a contribution to the development of a multi-nation, pan-Arctic observing network that is being discussed at the IPY 'Sustaining Arctic Observing Networks' (SAON) workshops. Enhancing Arctic observing capabilities faces many challenges, including coordination and integration of disparate observing elements and data systems that operate according to diverse policies and practices. There is wide agreement that data systems that provide archiving and discovery services are essential and integral to AON. In recognition of this, NSF is supporting the development of CADIS (Cooperative Arctic Data and Information Service) as an AON portal for data discovery, a repository for data storage, and a platform for data analysis. NSF is also supporting ELOKA (Exchange for Local Observations and Knowledge in the Arctic), a pilot project for a data management and networking service for community- based observing that keeps control of data in the hands of data providers while still allowing for broad searches and sharing of information. CADIS and ELOKA represent the application of cyberinfrastructure to meet AON data system needs that might also

  20. Reconfiguration of multiple motor networks by short- and long-term actions of an identified modulatory neuron.

    PubMed

    Faumont, Serge; Combes, Denis; Meyrand, Pierre; Simmers, John

    2005-11-01

    The pyloric and gastric motor pattern-generating networks in the stomatogastric ganglion of the lobster Homarus gammarus are reconfigured into a new functional circuit by burst discharge in an identified pair of modulatory projection interneurons, originally named the pyloric suppressor (PS) neurons because of their inhibitory effects on pyloric network activity. Here we elucidate the actions of the PS neurons on individual members of the neighbouring gastric circuit, as well as describing their ability to alter synaptic coupling between the two networks. PS neuron firing has two distinct effects on gastric network activity: an initial short-lasting action mediated by transient inhibition of most gastric motoneurons, followed by a long-lasting circuit activation associated with a prolonged PS-evoked depolarization of the medial gastric (MG) motoneuron and the single network interneuron, Int1. These long-lasting effects are voltage-dependent, and experiments with hyperpolarizing current injection and photoablation suggest that excitation of both the MG neuron and Int1 is critical for PS-elicited gastric network rhythmicity. In parallel, PS neuron discharge persistently (lasting several minutes) enhances the strength of an inhibitory synaptic influence of the MG neuron on the pyloric dilator (PD)-anterior burster (AB) pacemaker neurons, thereby facilitating operational fusion of the two networks. Therefore, a single modulatory neuron may influence disparate populations of neurons via a range of very different and highly target-specific mechanisms: conventional transient synaptic drive and up- or down-modulation of membrane properties and synaptic efficacy. Moreover, distinctly different time courses of these actions allow different circuit configurations to be specified sequentially by a given modulatory input. PMID:16307592

  1. Creating Actionable Data from an Optical Depth Measurement Network using RDF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freemantle, J. R.; O'Neill, N. T.; Lumb, L. I.; Abboud, I.; McArthur, B.

    2010-12-01

    The AEROCAN sunphotometery network has, for more than a decade, generated optical indicators of aerosol concentration and size on a regional and national scale. We believe this optical information can be rendered more “actionable” to the health care community by developing a technical and interpretative information-sharing geospatial strategy with that community. By actionable data we mean information that is presented in manner that can be understood and then used in the decision making process. The decision may be that of a technical professional, a policy maker or a machine. The information leading up to a decision may come from many sources; this means it is particularly important that data are well defined across knowledge fields, in our case atmospheric science and respiratory health science. As part of the AEROCAN operational quality assurance (QA) methodology we have written automatic procedures to make some of the AEROCAN data more accessible or “actionable”. Tim Berners-Lee has advocated making datasets, “Linked Data”, available on the web with a proper structural description (metadata). We have been using RDF (Resource Description Framework) to enhance the utility of our sunphotometer data; the resulting self-describing representation is structured so that it is machine readable. This allows semantically based queries (e.g., via SPARQL) on our dataset that in the past were only viewable as passive Web tables of data.

  2. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks.

    PubMed

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-12-17

    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, 'the cardinality curve', to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks.

  3. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-12-01

    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, ‘the cardinality curve’, to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks.

  4. Effect of edge pruning on structural controllability and observability of complex networks

    PubMed Central

    Mengiste, Simachew Abebe; Aertsen, Ad; Kumar, Arvind

    2015-01-01

    Controllability and observability of complex systems are vital concepts in many fields of science. The network structure of the system plays a crucial role in determining its controllability and observability. Because most naturally occurring complex systems show dynamic changes in their network connectivity, it is important to understand how perturbations in the connectivity affect the controllability of the system. To this end, we studied the control structure of different types of artificial, social and biological neuronal networks (BNN) as their connections were progressively pruned using four different pruning strategies. We show that the BNNs are more similar to scale-free networks than to small-world networks, when comparing the robustness of their control structure to structural perturbations. We introduce a new graph descriptor, ‘the cardinality curve’, to quantify the robustness of the control structure of a network to progressive edge pruning. Knowing the susceptibility of control structures to different pruning methods could help design strategies to destroy the control structures of dangerous networks such as epidemic networks. On the other hand, it could help make useful networks more resistant to edge attacks. PMID:26674854

  5. Controllability and observability analysis for vertex domination centrality in directed networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bingbo; Gao, Lin; Gao, Yong; Deng, Yue; Wang, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Topological centrality is a significant measure for characterising the relative importance of a node in a complex network. For directed networks that model dynamic processes, however, it is of more practical importance to quantify a vertex's ability to dominate (control or observe) the state of other vertices. In this paper, based on the determination of controllable and observable subspaces under the global minimum-cost condition, we introduce a novel direction-specific index, domination centrality, to assess the intervention capabilities of vertices in a directed network. Statistical studies demonstrate that the domination centrality is, to a great extent, encoded by the underlying network's degree distribution and that most network positions through which one can intervene in a system are vertices with high domination centrality rather than network hubs. To analyse the interaction and functional dependence between vertices when they are used to dominate a network, we define the domination similarity and detect significant functional modules in glossary and metabolic networks through clustering analysis. The experimental results provide strong evidence that our indices are effective and practical in accurately depicting the structure of directed networks. PMID:24954137

  6. Controllability and observability analysis for vertex domination centrality in directed networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Bingbo; Gao, Lin; Gao, Yong; Deng, Yue; Wang, Yu

    2014-06-01

    Topological centrality is a significant measure for characterising the relative importance of a node in a complex network. For directed networks that model dynamic processes, however, it is of more practical importance to quantify a vertex's ability to dominate (control or observe) the state of other vertices. In this paper, based on the determination of controllable and observable subspaces under the global minimum-cost condition, we introduce a novel direction-specific index, domination centrality, to assess the intervention capabilities of vertices in a directed network. Statistical studies demonstrate that the domination centrality is, to a great extent, encoded by the underlying network's degree distribution and that most network positions through which one can intervene in a system are vertices with high domination centrality rather than network hubs. To analyse the interaction and functional dependence between vertices when they are used to dominate a network, we define the domination similarity and detect significant functional modules in glossary and metabolic networks through clustering analysis. The experimental results provide strong evidence that our indices are effective and practical in accurately depicting the structure of directed networks.

  7. fMRI Adaptation between Action Observation and Action Execution Reveals Cortical Areas with Mirror Neuron Properties in Human BA 44/45

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Schillinger, Frieder L.; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Schultz, Johannes; Uludag, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Mirror neurons (MNs) are considered to be the supporting neural mechanism for action understanding. MNs have been identified in monkey’s area F5. The identification of MNs in the human homolog of monkeys’ area F5 Broadmann Area 44/45 (BA 44/45) has been proven methodologically difficult. Cross-modal functional MRI (fMRI) adaptation studies supporting the existence of MNs restricted their analysis to a priori candidate regions, whereas studies that failed to find evidence used non-object-directed (NDA) actions. We tackled these limitations by using object-directed actions (ODAs) differing only in terms of their object directedness in combination with a cross-modal adaptation paradigm and a whole-brain analysis. Additionally, we tested voxels’ blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) response patterns for several properties previously reported as typical MN response properties. Our results revealed 52 voxels in left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG; particularly BA 44/45), which respond to both motor and visual stimulation and exhibit cross-modal adaptation between the execution and observation of the same action. These results demonstrate that part of human IFG, specifically BA 44/45, has BOLD response characteristics very similar to monkey’s area F5. PMID:26973496

  8. Distributed Permafrost Observation Network in Western Alaska: the First Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romanovsky, V. E.; Cable, W.; Marchenko, S. S.; Panda, S. K.

    2014-12-01

    The area of Western Alaska including the Selawik National Wildlife Refuge (SNWR) is generally underrepresented in terms of permafrost thermal monitoring. Thus, the main objective of this study was to establish a permafrost monitoring network in Western Alaska in order to understand the spatial variability in permafrost thermal regime in the area and to have a baseline in order to detect future change. Present and future thawing of permafrost in the region will have a dramatic effect on the ecosystems and infrastructure because the permafrost here generally has a high ice content, as a result of preservation of old ground ice in these relatively cold regions even during the warmer time intervals of the Holocene. Over the summers of 2011 and 2012 a total of 26 automated monitoring stations were established to collect temperature data from the active layer and near-surface permafrost. While most of these stations were basic and only measured the temperature down to 1.5 m at 4 depths, three of the stations had higher vertical temperature resolution down to 3 m. The sites were selected using an ecotype (basic vegetation groups) map of very high resolution (30 m) that had been created for the area in 2009. We found the Upland Dwarf Birch-Tussock Shrub ecotype to be the coldest with a mean annual ground temperature at 1 meter (MAGT1.0) of -3.9 °C during the August 1st, 2012 to July 31st, 2013 measurement period. This is also the most widespread ecotype in the SNWR, covering approximately 28.4% by area. The next widespread ecotype in the SNWR is the Lowland and Upland Birch-Ericaceous Low Shrub. This ecotype had higher ground temperatures with an average MAGT1.0 of -2.4 °C during the same measurement period. We also found that within some ecotypes (White Spruce and Alder-Willow Shrub) the presence or absence of moss on the surface seems to indicate the presence or absence of near surface permafrost. In general, we found good agreement between ecotype classes and

  9. Final Results From the Circumarctic Lakes Observation Network (CALON) Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hinkel, K. M.; Arp, C. D.; Eisner, W. R.; Frey, K. E.; Grosse, G.; Jones, B. M.; Kim, C.; Lenters, J. D.; Liu, H.; Townsend-Small, A.

    2015-12-01

    Since 2012, the physical and biogeochemical properties of ~60 lakes in northern Alaska have been investigated under CALON, a project to document landscape-scale variability of Arctic lakes in permafrost terrain. The network has ten nodes along two latitudinal transects extending inland 200 km from the Arctic Ocean. A meteorological station is deployed at each node and six representative lakes instrumented and continuously monitored, with winter and summer visits for synoptic assessment of lake conditions. Over the 4-year period, winter and summer climatology varied to create a rich range of lake responses over a short period. For example, winter 2012-13 was very cold with a thin snowpack producing thick ice across the region. Subsequent years had relatively warm winters, yet regionally variable snow resulted in differing gradients of ice thickness. Ice-out timing was unusually late in 2014 and unusually early in 2015. Lakes are typically well-mixed and largely isothermal, with minor thermal stratification occurring in deeper lakes during calm, sunny periods in summer. Lake water temperature records and morphometric data were used to estimate the ground thermal condition beneath 28 lakes. Application of a thermal equilibrium steady-state model suggests a talik penetrating the permafrost under many larger lakes, but lake geochemical data do not indicate a significant contribution of subpermafrost groundwater. Biogeochemical data reveal distinct spatial and seasonal variability in chlorophyll biomass, chromophoric dissolved organic carbon (CDOM), and major cations/anions. Generally, waters sampled beneath ice in April had distinctly higher concentrations of inorganic solutes and methane compared with August. Chlorophyll concentrations and CDOM absorption were higher in April, suggesting significant biological/biogeochemical activity under lake ice. Lakes are a positive source of methane in summer, and some also emit nitrous oxide and carbon dioxide. As part of the

  10. Networking Sensor Observations, Forecast Models & Data Analysis Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falke, S. R.; Roberts, G.; Sullivan, D.; Dibner, P. C.; Husar, R. B.

    2009-12-01

    This presentation explores the interaction between sensor webs and forecast models and data analysis processes within service oriented architectures (SOA). Earth observation data from surface monitors and satellite sensors and output from earth science models are increasingly available through open interfaces that adhere to web standards, such as the OGC Web Coverage Service (WCS), OGC Sensor Observation Service (SOS), OGC Web Processing Service (WPS), SOAP-Web Services Description Language (WSDL), or RESTful web services. We examine the implementation of these standards from the perspective of forecast models and analysis tools. Interoperable interfaces for model inputs, outputs, and settings are defined with the purpose of connecting them with data access services in service oriented frameworks. We review current best practices in modular modeling, such as OpenMI and ESMF/Mapl, and examine the applicability of those practices to service oriented sensor webs. In particular, we apply sensor-model-analysis interfaces within the context of wildfire smoke analysis and forecasting scenario used in the recent GEOSS Architecture Implementation Pilot. Fire locations derived from satellites and surface observations and reconciled through a US Forest Service SOAP web service are used to initialize a CALPUFF smoke forecast model. The results of the smoke forecast model are served through an OGC WCS interface that is accessed from an analysis tool that extract areas of high particulate matter concentrations and a data comparison tool that compares the forecasted smoke with Unattended Aerial System (UAS) collected imagery and satellite-derived aerosol indices. An OGC WPS that calculates population statistics based on polygon areas is used with the extract area of high particulate matter to derive information on the population expected to be impacted by smoke from the wildfires. We described the process for enabling the fire location, smoke forecast, smoke observation, and

  11. Do monkey F5 mirror neurons show changes in firing rate during repeated observation of natural actions?

    PubMed Central

    Kraskov, A.; Lemon, R. N.

    2013-01-01

    Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 of macaque monkeys. In humans, noninvasive studies have demonstrated an increased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in homologous motor areas during action observation. One approach to demonstrating that this indicates the existence of mirror neurons in humans has been to employ functional (f)MRI adaptation to test whether the same population of neurons is active during both observation and execution conditions. Although a number of human studies have reported fMRI adaptation in these areas, a recent study has shown that macaque mirror neurons do not attenuate their firing rate with two repetitions. Here we investigated whether mirror neurons modulate their firing rate when monkeys observed the same repeated natural action multiple times. We recorded from 67 mirror neurons in area F5 of two macaque monkeys while they observed an experimenter perform a reach-to-grasp action on a small food reward using a precision grip. Although no changes were detectable for the first two repetitions, we show that both the firing rate and the latency at which mirror neurons discharged during observation were subtly modulated by the repetition of the observed action over 7–10 trials. Significant adaption was mostly found in the period immediately before the grasp was performed. We also found that the local field potential activity in F5 (beta-frequency range, 16–23 Hz), which is attenuated during action observation, also showed systematic changes with repeated observation. These LFP changes occurred well in advance of the mirror neuron adaptation. We conclude that macaque mirror neurons can show intra-modal adaptation, but whether this is related to fMRI adaptation of the BOLD signal requires further investigation. PMID:24371289

  12. Do monkey F5 mirror neurons show changes in firing rate during repeated observation of natural actions?

    PubMed

    Kilner, J M; Kraskov, A; Lemon, R N

    2014-03-01

    Mirror neurons were first discovered in area F5 of macaque monkeys. In humans, noninvasive studies have demonstrated an increased blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) signal in homologous motor areas during action observation. One approach to demonstrating that this indicates the existence of mirror neurons in humans has been to employ functional (f)MRI adaptation to test whether the same population of neurons is active during both observation and execution conditions. Although a number of human studies have reported fMRI adaptation in these areas, a recent study has shown that macaque mirror neurons do not attenuate their firing rate with two repetitions. Here we investigated whether mirror neurons modulate their firing rate when monkeys observed the same repeated natural action multiple times. We recorded from 67 mirror neurons in area F5 of two macaque monkeys while they observed an experimenter perform a reach-to-grasp action on a small food reward using a precision grip. Although no changes were detectable for the first two repetitions, we show that both the firing rate and the latency at which mirror neurons discharged during observation were subtly modulated by the repetition of the observed action over 7-10 trials. Significant adaption was mostly found in the period immediately before the grasp was performed. We also found that the local field potential activity in F5 (beta-frequency range, 16-23 Hz), which is attenuated during action observation, also showed systematic changes with repeated observation. These LFP changes occurred well in advance of the mirror neuron adaptation. We conclude that macaque mirror neurons can show intra-modal adaptation, but whether this is related to fMRI adaptation of the BOLD signal requires further investigation.

  13. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy.

  14. Marine vehicle sensor network architecture and protocol designs for ocean observation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shaowei; Yu, Jiancheng; Zhang, Aiqun; Yang, Lei; Shu, Yeqiang

    2012-01-01

    The micro-scale and meso-scale ocean dynamic processes which are nonlinear and have large variability, have a significant impact on the fisheries, natural resources, and marine climatology. A rapid, refined and sophisticated observation system is therefore needed in marine scientific research. The maneuverability and controllability of mobile sensor platforms make them a preferred choice to establish ocean observing networks, compared to the static sensor observing platform. In this study, marine vehicles are utilized as the nodes of mobile sensor networks for coverage sampling of a regional ocean area and ocean feature tracking. A synoptic analysis about marine vehicle dynamic control, multi vehicles mission assignment and path planning methods, and ocean feature tracking and observing techniques is given. Combined with the observation plan in the South China Sea, we provide an overview of the mobile sensor networks established with marine vehicles, and the corresponding simulation results.

  15. Consensus tracking of linear multi-agent systems under networked observability conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diao, Miao; Duan, Zhisheng; Wen, Guanghui

    2014-08-01

    This paper addresses the consensus tracking problem for both continuous- and discrete-time linear multi-agent systems with a dynamic leader under networked observability conditions. Among followers, the communication topology is assumed to be undirected and connected. Two networked observability conditions are introduced and discussed. The first one extends the traditional detectability condition for a single system, while the second one is a full rank condition, which is stronger than the first one. In the continuous-time case, two distributed observer-based protocols are designed under corresponding networked observability conditions, respectively. Specifically, the second protocol is an adaptive one, which has a better robustness performance than the first one. In the discrete-time case, a distributed observer-based protocol is presented under the full rank networked observability condition. It is found that under the networked observability conditions, consensus tracking can still be achieved even if there exists no follower being able to track the leader independently. Based on algebraic graph theory and Lyapunov stability theory, some sufficient conditions are derived for reaching consensus tracking. Finally, simulation examples are presented to verify the effectiveness of theoretical results.

  16. A distributed network critical for selecting among tool-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-04-01

    Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for "using" and "grasping-to-move" conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for "conflict" and "non-conflict" tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit an SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition.

  17. A Distributed Network Critical for Selecting Among Tool-Directed Actions

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2015-01-01

    Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for “using” and “grasping-to-move” conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for “conflict” and “non-conflict” tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit a SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition

  18. Influence of Perspective of Action Observation Training on Residual Limb Control in Naïve Prosthesis Usage.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Delisa T; Cusack, William F; Lawson, Regan; Hardy, Ashley; Kistenberg, Robert; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2016-01-01

    Prior work in amputees and partial limb immobilization have shown improved neural and behavioral outcomes in using their residual limb with prosthesis when undergoing observation-based training with a prosthesis-using actor compared to an intact limb. It was posited that these improvements are due to an alignment of user with the actor. It may be affected by visual angles that allow emphasis of critical joint actions which may promote behavioral changes. The purpose of this study was to examine how viewing perspective of observation-based training effects prosthesis adaptation in naïve device users. Twenty nonamputated prosthesis users learned how to use an upper extremity prosthetic device while viewing a training video from either a sagittal or coronal perspective. These views were chosen as they place visual emphasis on different aspects of task performance to the device. The authors found that perspective of actions has a significant role in adaptation of the residual limb while using upper limb prostheses. Perspectives that demonstrate elbow adaptations to prosthesis usage may enhance the functional motor outcomes of action observation therapy. This work has potential implications on how prosthetic device operation is conveyed to persons adapting to prostheses through action observation based therapy. PMID:27253208

  19. 2010 Strainmeter Network Observations Along the Western Coast of North America

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Boskirk, E.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Mencin, D.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, B.; Gallaher, W.; Fox, O.; Jackson, M. E.

    2010-12-01

    The PBO borehole strainmeter (BSM) network contains 75 sites along the Western Coast of the United States of America and Southern Canada. Each site contains a Gladwin tensor strainmeter, Malin borehole geophone, and in some cases GPS, pore pressure and/or tilt meter. The strainmeters and geophones are at depths between 400 to 800 feet, which is free of most surface noise. There are four additional geophone only sites in Humboldt County, California at depths of 400 feet. All sites in Anza, California also have borehole accelerometers. Over the course of 2010 the PBO BSM network has observed several tectonic events throughout the network. Along the Juan de Fuca plate episodic tremor and slip (ETS) events have been observed in late March and late August. The January 9, 2010 magnitude 6.5 and the February 4, 2010 magnitude 5.9 earthquakes offshore on the Gorda plate, near the Mendocino Triple Junction, are clearly recorded by the Humboldt CA array. In Parkfield, California, along the San Andreas fault creep events are observed in the southern portion of the BSM network on August 20, 2010. On July 9, 2010 there was a magnitude 5.4 very near the Anza regional network, near the Coyote Creek segment of the San Jacinto fault. These regional strainmeter observations will be presented as well as the ongoing research highlights produced from these instruments. Large magnitude events, such as the February 27, 2010 Chile magnitude 8.8 earthquake, are observed across the entire BSM network. Smaller events, including the slow slip motions of ETS in the Northwest and creep events in Parkfield, are captured by focused regional arrays in these locations. Geophysical monitoring at depth over a large network of strainmeters provides a window to observe the variety of tectonic observations that accommodate plate boundary deformation.

  20. Proposed observation-well network and ground-water level program for North Carolina

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Winner, M.D.

    1981-01-01

    An initial system of 223 observation wells is proposed for monitoring ground-water levels in North Carolina. These wells are suggested to replace and upgrade nearly 650 observation wells currently measured in separate State and Federal programs, and are arranged in four groups or networks each having specific objectives. These groups are (1) a climatic-effects network, (2) a terrane-effects network, (3) a local-effects network, and (4) an areal-effects network. Recommendations are also made regarding additional observation-well coverage in some areas of the State. Records-review and network-review procedures constituted the largest amount of effort in this study and required a considerable amount of organization to keep track of well records and water-level data. These procedures are outlined in this report as a guide for those who are contemplating an observation-well program review. The report also contains suggested organizational contents of a data file, including procedures for records processing, and various forms used to document the review and data-collection efforts.

  1. Experimental observation of chimera and cluster states in a minimal globally coupled network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hart, Joseph D.; Bansal, Kanika; Murphy, Thomas E.; Roy, Rajarshi

    2016-09-01

    A "chimera state" is a dynamical pattern that occurs in a network of coupled identical oscillators when the symmetry of the oscillator population is broken into synchronous and asynchronous parts. We report the experimental observation of chimera and cluster states in a network of four globally coupled chaotic opto-electronic oscillators. This is the minimal network that can support chimera states, and our study provides new insight into the fundamental mechanisms underlying their formation. We use a unified approach to determine the stability of all the observed partially synchronous patterns, highlighting the close relationship between chimera and cluster states as belonging to the broader phenomenon of partial synchronization. Our approach is general in terms of network size and connectivity. We also find that chimera states often appear in regions of multistability between global, cluster, and desynchronized states.

  2. Neural network modeling of the level of observation decision in an acute psychiatric ward.

    PubMed

    Penny, W D; Frost, D P

    1997-02-01

    Patients in an acute psychiatric ward need to be observed with varying levels of closeness. We report a series of experiments in which neural networks were trained to model this "level of observation" decision. One hundred eighty-seven such clinical decisions were used to train and test the networks which were evaluated by a multitrial v-fold cross-validation procedure. One neural network modeling approach was to break down the decision process into four subproblems, each of which was solved by a perceptron unit. This resulted in a hierarchical perceptron network having a structure that was equivalent to a sparsely connected two-layer perceptron. Neural network approaches were compared with nearest neighbor, linear regression, and naive Bayes classifiers. The hierarchical and sparse neural networks were the most accurate classifiers. This shows that the decision process is nonlinear, that neural nets can be more accurate than other statistical approaches, and that hierarchical decomposition is a useful methodology for neural network design.

  3. Field observations and morphodynamic modeling of spontaneous tidal network formation within a constructed salt marsh

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, A.; Lanzoni, S.; Marani, M.; Rinaldo, A.

    2007-12-01

    We have monitored and analyzed, through remote sensing and ancillary field surveys, the rapid (O(1) year) development of a tidal network within a newly established artificial salt marsh in the Venice Lagoon. After the construction of the salt marsh, a network of volunteer creeks established themselves away from an artificially constructed main channel (with mean and maximum annual headward-growth rates of 11 m/yr and 18 m/yr, respectively). The rapid formation of this system of tidal creeks provides a unique opportunity to test the reliability of a model of tidal network initiation and development, previously proposed by the authors. The restored marsh presents the characteristics of a controlled environment analogous to a large-scale field laboratory, as it allows comparison of the morphologic features of real and simulated network structures under the reasonable assumption of neglecting accretion and deposition processes over the timescales of observation. Our results compare favorably with observational evidence, showing that the model proves reasonably capable of reproducing the main features of the actual channel-network patterns. The model reproduces statistical network characteristics of eco-morphodynamic and hydrodynamic relevance and captures the dominant modes of the network-incision process.

  4. Spontaneous tidal network formation within a constructed salt marsh: Observations and morphodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Alpaos, Andrea; Lanzoni, Stefano; Marani, Marco; Bonometto, Andrea; Cecconi, Giovanni; Rinaldo, Andrea

    2007-11-01

    We have monitored and analyzed, through remote sensing and ancillary field surveys, the rapid (O(1) year) development of a tidal network within a newly established artificial salt marsh in the Venice Lagoon. After the construction of the salt marsh, a network of volunteer creeks established themselves away from an artificially constructed main channel (with mean and maximum annual headward-growth rates of 11 m/yr and 18 m/yr, respectively). The rapid formation of this system of tidal creeks provides a unique opportunity to test the reliability of a model of tidal network initiation and development, previously proposed by the authors. The restored marsh presents the characteristics of a controlled environment analogous to a large-scale field laboratory, as it allows comparison of the morphologic features of real and simulated network structures under the reasonable assumption of neglecting accretion and deposition processes over the timescales of observation. Our results compare favorably with observational evidence, showing that the model proves reasonably capable of reproducing the main features of the actual channel-network patterns. The model reproduces statistical network characteristics of eco-morphodynamic and hydrodynamic relevance and captures the dominant modes of the network-incision process.

  5. Combined flatland ST radar and digital-barometer network observations of mesoscale processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, W. L.; Vanzandt, T. E.; Gage, K. S.; Einaudi, F. E.; Rottman, J. W.; Hollinger, S. E.

    1991-01-01

    The paper describes a six-station digital-barometer network centered on the Flatland ST radar to support observational studies of gravity waves and other mesoscale features at the Flatland Atmospheric Observatory in central Illinois. The network's current mode of operation is examined, and a preliminary example of an apparent group of waves evident throughout the network as well as throughout the troposphere is presented. Preliminary results demonstrate the capabilities of the current operational system to study wave convection, wave-front, and other coherent mesoscale interactions and processes throughout the troposphere. Unfiltered traces for the pressure and horizontal zonal wind, for days 351 to 353 UT, 1990, are illustrated.

  6. The effect of action observation training on knee joint function and gait ability in total knee replacement patients

    PubMed Central

    Park, Seong Doo; Song, Hyun Seung; Kim, Jin Young

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate that effect of action observation training (AOT) on knee joint function and balance in total knee replacement (TKR) patients. The subjects consisted of eighteen post-TKR patients. All participants underwent conventional physical therapy. In addition, patients in the AOT group (n= 9) were asked to observe video clips showing daily actions and to imitate them afterward. Patients in the control group (n= 9) were asked to execute the same actions as patients in the AOT group. Outcome measures Western Ontario and Mc-Master Universities Osteoarthritis Index (WOMAC) included pain, stiffness, function and Timed Up and Go (TUG) test. After intervention, patients in the AOT group score better than patients in the control group. After TUG test, patients in the AOT group and control group were no significant difference between two groups. In addition to conventional physical therapy, AOT is effective in the rehabilitation of post-TKR patients. Action observation training is considered conducive to improving knee functions and ameliorating pain and stiffness, of patients who underwent TKR. PMID:25061596

  7. The effect of the action observation physical training on the upper extremity function in children with cerebral palsy.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jin-Young; Kim, Jong-Man; Ko, Eun-Young

    2014-06-01

    The purpose this study was to investigate the effect of action observation physical training (AOPT) on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with cerebral palsy (CP), using an evaluation framework based on that of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). The subjects were divided into an AOPT group and a physical training (PT) group. AOPT group practiced repeatedly the actions they observed on video clips, in which normal child performed an action with their upper extremities. PT group performed the same actions as the AOPT group did after observing landscape photographs. The subjects participated in twelve 30-min sessions, 3 days a week, for 4 weeks. Evaluation of upper extremity function using the following: the power of grasp and Modified Ashworth Scale for body functions and structures, a Box and Block test, an ABILHAND-Kids questionnaire, and the WeeFIM scale for activity and participation. Measurements were performed before and after the training, and 2 weeks after the end of training. The results of this study showed that, in comparison with the PT group, the functioning of the upper extremities in the AOPT group was significantly improved in body functions and activity and participation according to the ICF framework. This study demonstrates that AOPT has a positive influence on the functioning of the upper extremities in children with CP. It is suggested that this alternative approach for functioning of the upper extremities could be an effective method for rehabilitation in children with CP. PMID:25061598

  8. Groundwater observation network design for the Kansas groundwater management districts, U.S.A.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sophocleous, M.

    1983-01-01

    Concerns about the efficiency and economic soundness of the Kansas groundwater monitoring program led to a systematic redesign of this network, a tentative phase of which is presented in this study. The objectives of this paper include monitoring of major aquifers within each groundwater management district at a spatially more uniform level of accuracy, elimination of redundant measurements and optimization of the information gained from each observation well. The theory of regionalized variables is employed to estimate the amount of spatial variability of the water table, on which the network design is based. This study shows that it is not practical to attempt to reduce the already existing level of uncertainty uniformly throughout the various districts; to do so would tremendously increase the cost of well monitoring, which is already very high. Assuming that the currently existing network is satisfactory for the State's objectives, a reduced network consisting of one well every 6.4 km is equally satisfactory. The reduced network yields district-wide maps that do not differ significantly from those produced using the present network and at the same time it reduces the already-existing network by 18-47%. Therefore, adoption of a rearranged square well network is recommended, which is reduced to a 6.4-km spacing to achieve both a uniform level of information about the water table and a minimum required accuracy. ?? 1983.

  9. Upper limb children action-observation training (UP-CAT): a randomised controlled trial in Hemiplegic Cerebral Palsy

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Rehabilitation for children with hemiplegic cerebral palsy (HCP) aimed to improve function of the impaired upper limb (UL) uses a wide range of intervention programs. A new rehabilitative approach, called Action-Observation Therapy, based on the recent discovery of mirror neurons, has been used in adult stroke but not in children. The purpose of the present study is to design a randomised controlled trial (RCT) for evaluating the efficacy of Action-Observation Therapy in improving UL activity in children with HCP. Methods/Design The trial is designed according to CONSORT Statement. It is a randomised, evaluator-blinded, match-pair group trial. Children with HCP will be randomised within pairs to either experimental or control group. The experimental group will perform an Action-Observation Therapy, called UP-CAT (Upper Limb-Children Action-Observation Training) in which they will watch video sequences showing goal-directed actions, chosen according to children UL functional level, combined with motor training with their hemiplegic UL. The control group will perform the same tailored actions after watching computer games. A careful revision of psychometric properties of UL outcome measures for children with hemiplegia was performed. Assisting Hand Assessment was chosen as primary measure and, based on its calculation power, a sample size of 12 matched pairs was established. Moreover, Melbourne and ABILHAND-Kids were included as secondary measures. The time line of assessments will be T0 (in the week preceding the onset of the treatment), T1 and T2 (in the week after the end of the treatment and 8 weeks later, respectively). A further assessment will be performed at T3 (24 weeks after T1), to evaluate the retention of effects. In a subgroup of children enrolled in both groups functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging, exploring the mirror system and sensory-motor function, will be performed at T0, T1 and T2. Discussion The paper aims to describe the

  10. The European Marine Observing Network and the development of an Integrated European Ocean Observing System. An EuroGOOS perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Vicente; Gorringe, Patrick; Nolan, Glenn

    2016-04-01

    The ocean benefits many sectors of society, being the biggest reservoir of heat, water, carbon and oxygen and playing a fundamental role regulating the earth's climate. We rely on the oceans for food, transport, energy and recreation. Therefore, a sustained marine observation network is crucial to further our understanding of the oceanic environment and to supply scientific data to meet society's need. Marine data and observations in Europe, collected primarily by state governmental agencies, is offered via five Regional Operational Oceanographic Systems (ROOS) within the context of EuroGOOS (http://www.eurogos.eu), an International Non-Profit Association of national governmental agencies and research organizations (40 members from 19 member states) committed to European-scale operational oceanography within the context of the Intergovernmental Global Ocean Observing System (GOOS). Strong cooperation within these regions, enabling the involvement of additional partners and countries, forms the basis of EuroGOOS work. Ocean data collected from different type of sensors (e.g. moored buoys, tide gauges, Ferrybox systems, High Frequency radars, gliders and profiling floats) is accessible to scientist and other end users through data portals and initiatives such as the European Marine Observations and Data Network (EMODnet) (www.emodnet.eu) and the Copernicus Marine Service Copernicus (www.copernicus.eu). Although a relatively mature European ocean observing capability already exists and its well-coordinated at European level, some gaps have been identified, for example the demand for ecosystem products and services, or the case that biogeochemical observations are still relatively sparse particularly in coastal and shelf seas. Assessing gaps based on the capacity of the observing system to answer key societal challenges e.g. site suitability for aquaculture and ocean energy, oil spill response and contextual oceanographic products for fisheries and ecosystems is still

  11. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE PAGES

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2014-12-23

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore » network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  12. Designing optimal greenhouse gas observing networks that consider performance and cost

    DOE PAGES

    Lucas, D. D.; Yver Kwok, C.; Cameron-Smith, P.; Graven, H.; Bergmann, D.; Guilderson, T. P.; Weiss, R.; Keeling, R.

    2015-06-16

    Emission rates of greenhouse gases (GHGs) entering into the atmosphere can be inferred using mathematical inverse approaches that combine observations from a network of stations with forward atmospheric transport models. Some locations for collecting observations are better than others for constraining GHG emissions through the inversion, but the best locations for the inversion may be inaccessible or limited by economic and other non-scientific factors. We present a method to design an optimal GHG observing network in the presence of multiple objectives that may be in conflict with each other. As a demonstration, we use our method to design a prototypemore » network of six stations to monitor summertime emissions in California of the potent GHG 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane (CH2FCF3, HFC-134a). We use a multiobjective genetic algorithm to evolve network configurations that seek to jointly maximize the scientific accuracy of the inferred HFC-134a emissions and minimize the associated costs of making the measurements. The genetic algorithm effectively determines a set of "optimal" observing networks for HFC-134a that satisfy both objectives (i.e., the Pareto frontier). The Pareto frontier is convex, and clearly shows the tradeoffs between performance and cost, and the diminishing returns in trading one for the other. Without difficulty, our method can be extended to design optimal networks to monitor two or more GHGs with different emissions patterns, or to incorporate other objectives and constraints that are important in the practical design of atmospheric monitoring networks.« less

  13. Ground-Based Network and Supersite Observations to Complement and Enrich EOS Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsay, Si-Chee; Holben, Brent N.; Welton, Ellsworth J.

    2011-01-01

    Since 1997 NASA has been successfully launching a series of satellites - the Earth Observing System (EOS) - to intensively study, and gain a better understanding of, the Earth as an integrated system. Space-borne remote sensing observations, however, are often plagued by contamination of surface signatures. Thus, ground-based in-situ and remote-sensing measurements, where signals come directly from atmospheric constituents, the sun, and/or the Earth-atmosphere interactions, provide additional information content for comparisons that confirm quantitatively the usefulness of the integrated surface, aircraft, and satellite datasets. Through numerous participations, particularly but not limited to the EOS remote-sensing/retrieval and validation projects over the years, NASA/GSFC has developed and continuously refined ground-based networks and mobile observatories that proved to be vital in providing high temporal measurements, which complement and enrich the satellite observations. These are: the AERO NET (AErosol RObotic NETwork) a federation of ground-based globally distributed network of spectral sun-sky photometers; the MPLNET (Micro-Pulse Lidar NETwork, a similarly organized network of micro-pulse lidar systems measuring aerosol and cloud vertical structure continuously; and the SMART-COMMIT (Surface-sensing Measurements for Atmospheric Radiative Transfer - Chemical, Optical & Microphysical Measurements of In-situ Troposphere, mobile observatories, a suite of spectral radiometers and in-situ probes acquiring supersite measurements. Most MPLNET sites are collocated with those of AERONET, and both networks always support the deployment of SMART-COMMIT worldwide. These data products follow the data structure of EOS conventions: Level-0, instrument archived raw data; Level-1 (or 1.5), real-time data with no (or limited) quality assurance; Level-2, not real high temporal and spectral resolutions. In this talk, we will present NASA/GSFC groundbased facilities, serving

  14. μ-suppression during action observation and execution correlates with BOLD in dorsal premotor, inferior parietal, and SI cortices.

    PubMed

    Arnstein, Dan; Cui, Fang; Keysers, Christian; Maurits, Natasha M; Gazzola, Valeria

    2011-10-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons in the monkey, that fire during both the execution and the observation of the same action, sparked great interest in studying the human equivalent. For over a decade, both functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalography (EEG) have been used to quantify activity in the human mirror neuron system (MNS)-yet, little is still known about how fMRI and EEG measures of the MNS relate to each other. To test the frequent assumption that regions of the MNS as evidenced by fMRI are the origin of the suppression of the EEG μ-rhythm during both action execution and observation, we recorded EEG and BOLD-fMRI signals simultaneously while participants observed and executed actions. We found that the suppression of the μ-rhythm in EEG covaried with BOLD activity in typical MNS regions, inferior parietal lobe (IPL), dorsal premotor (dPM) and primary somatosensory cortex (BA2), during both action observation and execution. In contrast, in BA44, only nonoverlapping voxels correlated with μ-suppression during observation and execution. These findings provide direct support for the notion that μ-suppression is a valid indicator of MNS activity in BA2, IPL, and dPM, but argues against the idea that mirror neurons in BA44 are the prime source of μ-suppression. These results shed light on the neural basis of μ-suppression and provide a basis for integrating more closely the flourishing but often separate literatures on the MNS using fMRI and EEG.

  15. Update on the activities of the GGOS Bureau of Networks and Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael R.; Pavlis, Erricos C.; Ma, Chopo; Noll, Carey; Thaller, Daniela; Richter, Bernd; Gross, Richard; Neilan, Ruth; Mueller, Juergen; Barzaghi, Ricardo; Bergstrand, Sten; Saunier, Jerome; Tamisiea, Mark

    2016-01-01

    The recently reorganized GGOS Bureau of Networks and Observations has many elements that are associated with building and sustaining the infrastructure that supports the Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) through the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial and Celestial Reference Frames, improved gravity field models and their incorporation into the reference frame, the production of precision orbits for missions of interest to GGOS, and many other applications. The affiliated Service Networks (IVS, ILRS, IGS, IDS, and now the IGFS and the PSMSL) continue to grow geographically and to improve core and co-location site performance with newer technologies. Efforts are underway to expand GGOS participation and outreach. Several groups are undertaking initiatives and seeking partnerships to update existing sites and expand the networks in geographic areas void of coverage. New satellites are being launched by the Space Agencies in disciplines relevant to GGOS. Working groups now constitute an integral part of the Bureau, providing key service to GGOS. Their activities include: projecting future network capability and examining trade-off options for station deployment and technology upgrades, developing metadata collection and online availability strategies; improving coordination and information exchange with the missions for better ground-based network response and space-segment adequacy for the realization of GGOS goals; and standardizing site-tie measurement, archiving, and analysis procedures. This poster will present the progress in the Bureau's activities and its efforts to expand the networks and make them more effective in supporting GGOS.

  16. The Sodankylä in-situ soil moisture observation network: an example application to Earth Observation data product evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikonen, J.; Vehviläinen, J.; Rautiainen, K.; Smolander, T.; Lemmetyinen, J.; Bircher, S.; Pulliainen, J.

    2015-12-01

    Soil moisture is one of the main drivers in water, energy, and carbon cycles. Both latent and sensible heat fluxes, governing the air temperature and humidity boundary layer over land, are affected by variations in soil moisture. During the last decade there has been considerable development in remote sensing techniques relating to soil moisture retrievals over large areas. Within the framework of the European Space Agency's (ESA) Climate Change Initiative (CCI) a new soil moisture product has been generated, merging different satellite-based surface soil moisture based products. Such remotely sensed data needs to be validated by means of in-situ observations in different climatic regions. In that context, a comprehensive, distributed network of in-situ measurement stations gathering information on soil moisture, as well as soil temperature, has been set up in recent years at the Finnish Meteorological Institute's (FMI) Sodankylä Arctic research station. The network forms a (CAL-VAL) reference site and is used as a tool to evaluate the validity of satellite retrievals of soil properties. In this paper we present the Sodankylä CAL-VAL reference site soil moisture observation network. The procedures for choosing the representative sites for individual soil moisture network stations are discussed, as well as the development of a weighted average of top layer (5-10 cm) soil moisture over the study area. Comparisons of top layer soil moisture around the Sodankylä CAL-VAL site between the years 2012 and 2014 using ESA CCI soil moisture data against in-situ network observations were conducted. The comparisons were made against a single CCI data product pixel encapsulating the Sodankylä observation sites. Comparisons have been made against both daily CCI soil moisture estimates and against weekly running average values. Soil moisture comparisons are only conducted during snow free and thawed periods, as the presence of snow and soil frost interfere with Earth

  17. Lognormal kriging for the assessment of reliability in groundwater quality control observation networks

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Candela, L.; Olea, R.A.; Custodio, E.

    1988-01-01

    Groundwater quality observation networks are examples of discontinuous sampling on variables presenting spatial continuity and highly skewed frequency distributions. Anywhere in the aquifer, lognormal kriging provides estimates of the variable being sampled and a standard error of the estimate. The average and the maximum standard error within the network can be used to dynamically improve the network sampling efficiency or find a design able to assure a given reliability level. The approach does not require the formulation of any physical model for the aquifer or any actual sampling of hypothetical configurations. A case study is presented using the network monitoring salty water intrusion into the Llobregat delta confined aquifer, Barcelona, Spain. The variable chloride concentration used to trace the intrusion exhibits sudden changes within short distances which make the standard error fairly invariable to changes in sampling pattern and to substantial fluctuations in the number of wells. ?? 1988.

  18. Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Habtezion, S.

    2015-12-01

    Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Fostering Earth Observation Regional Networks - Integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building Senay Habtezion (shabtezion@start.org) / Hassan Virji (hvirji@start.org)Global Change SySTem for Analysis, Training and Research (START) (www.start.org) 2000 Florida Avenue NW, Suite 200 Washington, DC 20009 USA As part of the Global Observation of Forest and Land Cover Dynamics (GOFC-GOLD) project partnership effort to promote use of earth observations in advancing scientific knowledge, START works to bridge capacity needs related to earth observations (EOs) and their applications in the developing world. GOFC-GOLD regional networks, fostered through the support of regional and thematic workshops, have been successful in (1) enabling participation of scientists for developing countries and from the US to collaborate on key GOFC-GOLD and Land Cover and Land Use Change (LCLUC) issues, including NASA Global Data Set validation and (2) training young developing country scientists to gain key skills in EOs data management and analysis. Members of the regional networks are also engaged and reengaged in other EOs programs (e.g. visiting scientists program; data initiative fellowship programs at the USGS EROS Center and Boston University), which has helped strengthen these networks. The presentation draws from these experiences in advocating for integrative and iterative approaches to capacity building through the lens of the GOFC-GOLD partnership effort. Specifically, this presentation describes the role of the GODC-GOLD partnership in nurturing organic networks of scientists and EOs practitioners in Asia, Africa, Eastern Europe and Latin America.

  19. Illinois ground-water observation network; a preliminary planning document for network design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Frost, L.R.; O'Hearn, Michael; Gibb, J.P.; Sherrill, M.G.

    1984-01-01

    Water-level and water-quality networks in Illinois were evaluated to determine the adequacy and completeness of available data bases. Ground-water data in present data bases are inadequate to provide information on ground-water quality and water levels in large areas of Illinois and in the major geohydrologic units underlying Illinois and surrounding areas. Data-management needs indicate that a new data base is desirable and could be developed by use of carefully selected available data and new data. Types of data needed to define ground-water quality and water levels in selected geohydrologic units were tentatively identified. They include data on concentrations of organic chemicals related to activities of man, and concentrations of inorganic chemicals which relate either to man 's activities or to the chemical composition of the source aquifer. Water-level data are needed which can be used to describe short- and long-term stresses on the ground-water resources of Illinois. Establishment of priorities for data collection has been deferred until existing hydrologic data files can be stored for usable data and until input from other local, State, and Federal agencies can be solicited and compiled. (USGS)

  20. Sensor Web Standards for Interoperability between in-situ Earth Observation Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieke, Matthes; Casas, Raquel; Garcia, Oscar; Jirka, Simon; Menard, Lionel; Ranchin, Thierry; Stasch, Christoph; Wald, Lucien

    2016-04-01

    Existing earth observation networks deliver a multitude of in-situ data capturing the state of the earth. The data sets delivered by these networks are of high value for scientists and other stakeholders from different domains and backgrounds. However, the access and integration of the data sets made available by these earth observation networks are often complex as different data delivery methods and formats are used. To strengthen and broaden the use of the available data sets, it is important to offer efficient methods for accessing the data from different types of applications (e.g. for data analysis or data visualisation). The Sensor Web Enablement (SWE) standards of the Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) are adopted by more and more stakeholders and may serve as a good baseline for increasing the interoperability of data flows. This harmonisation of standards is also one of the core objectives of the ENEON (European Network of Earth Observation Networks) initiative promoted by the European Horizon 2020 project ConnectinGEO (Coordinating an Observation Network of Networks EnCompassing saTellite and IN-situ to fill the Gaps in European Observations). In this contribution, we illustrate how domain-specific profiles of the OGC SWE standards may help to increase interoperability within specific domains. This includes for example the specification of SWE profiles for hydrology (e.g. resulting from the European GEOWOW project) or the e-Reporting SWE profiles for ambient air quality in Europe. Another example are SWE profiles for oceanology which are currently developed by several projects such as BRIDGES, Eurofleets 2, FixO3, IOOS, Jerico-Next, NeXOS, ODIP II, and SeaDataNet (e.g. using RelaxNG and Schematron for defining a structure of SWE encoded messages to be applied in tools, vessels and fixed stations). Finally, a Sensor Web-based scenario from the ConnectinGEO project covering energy and solar radiation will be introduced that connects data providers and users

  1. Cortical network differences in the sighted versus early blind for recognition of human-produced action sounds

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James W.; Frum, Chris; Brefczynski-Lewis, Julie A.; Talkington, William J.; Walker, Nathan A.; Rapuano, Kristina M.; Kovach, Amanda L.

    2012-01-01

    Both sighted and blind individuals can readily interpret meaning behind everyday real-world sounds. In sighted listeners, we previously reported that regions along the bilateral posterior superior temporal sulci (pSTS) and middle temporal gyri (pMTG) are preferentially activated when presented with recognizable action sounds. These regions have generally been hypothesized to represent primary loci for complex motion processing, including visual biological motion processing and audio-visual integration. However, it remained unclear whether, or to what degree, life-long visual experience might impact functions related to hearing perception or memory of sound-source actions. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we compared brain regions activated in congenitally blind versus sighted listeners in response to hearing a wide range of recognizable human-produced action sounds (excluding vocalizations) versus unrecognized, backward-played versions of those sounds. Here we show that recognized human action sounds commonly evoked activity in both groups along most of the left pSTS/pMTG complex, though with relatively greater activity in the right pSTS/pMTG by the blind group. These results indicate that portions of the postero-lateral temporal cortices contain domain-specific hubs for biological and/or complex motion processing independent of sensory-modality experience. Contrasting the two groups, the sighted listeners preferentially activated bilateral parietal plus medial and lateral frontal networks, while the blind listeners preferentially activated left anterior insula plus bilateral anterior calcarine and medial occipital regions, including what would otherwise have been visual-related cortex. These global-level network differences suggest that blind and sighted listeners may preferentially use different memory retrieval strategies when attempting to recognize action sounds. PMID:21305666

  2. Classifying chemical mode of action using gene networks and machine learning: a case study with the herbicide linuron.

    PubMed

    Ornostay, Anna; Cowie, Andrew M; Hindle, Matthew; Baker, Christopher J O; Martyniuk, Christopher J

    2013-12-01

    The herbicide linuron (LIN) is an endocrine disruptor with an anti-androgenic mode of action. The objectives of this study were to (1) improve knowledge of androgen and anti-androgen signaling in the teleostean ovary and to (2) assess the ability of gene networks and machine learning to classify LIN as an anti-androgen using transcriptomic data. Ovarian explants from vitellogenic fathead minnows (FHMs) were exposed to three concentrations of either 5α-dihydrotestosterone (DHT), flutamide (FLUT), or LIN for 12h. Ovaries exposed to DHT showed a significant increase in 17β-estradiol (E2) production while FLUT and LIN had no effect on E2. To improve understanding of androgen receptor signaling in the ovary, a reciprocal gene expression network was constructed for DHT and FLUT using pathway analysis and these data suggested that steroid metabolism, translation, and DNA replication are processes regulated through AR signaling in the ovary. Sub-network enrichment analysis revealed that FLUT and LIN shared more regulated gene networks in common compared to DHT. Using transcriptomic datasets from different fish species, machine learning algorithms classified LIN successfully with other anti-androgens. This study advances knowledge regarding molecular signaling cascades in the ovary that are responsive to androgens and anti-androgens and provides proof of concept that gene network analysis and machine learning can classify priority chemicals using experimental transcriptomic data collected from different fish species.

  3. Networks in Action: New Actors and Practices in Education Policy in Brazil

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shiroma, Eneida Oto

    2014-01-01

    This paper focuses on the role of networks in the policy-making process in education and discusses the potential of network analysis as an analytical tool for education policy research. Drawing on publically available data from personal or institutional websites, this paper reports the findings from research carried out between 2005 and 2011.…

  4. The Role of Action Research in the Development of Learning Networks for Entrepreneurs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brett, Valerie; Mullally, Martina; O'Gorman, Bill; Fuller-Love, Nerys

    2012-01-01

    Developing sustainable learning networks for entrepreneurs is the core objective of the Sustainable Learning Networks in Ireland and Wales (SLNIW) project. One research team drawn from the Centre for Enterprise Development and Regional Economy at Waterford Institute of Technology and the School of Management and Business from Aberystwyth…

  5. Relationships Between Long-Range Lightning Networks and TRMM/LIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. The present study intercompares long-range lightning data with observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study examines network detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by the long-range networks. Improved knowledge of relationships between these datasets will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  6. Shortwave surface radiation budget network for observing small-scale cloud inhomogeneity fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madhavan, B. L.; Kalisch, J.; Macke, A.

    2015-03-01

    As part of the High Definition Clouds and Precipitation for advancing Climate Prediction Observational Prototype Experiment (HOPE), a high spatial density network of 99 silicon photodiode pyranometers was set up around Jülich (10 km x 12 km area) from April to July 2013, to capture the variability in the radiation field at the surface induced by small-scale cloud inhomogeneity. Each of these autonomously operated pyranometer stations was equipped with weather sensors for simultaneous measurements of ambient air temperature and relative humidity. In this paper, we provide the details of this unique setup of the pyranometer network and the data analysis with initial quality screening procedure we adopted. We also present some exemplary cases consisting of the days with clear, broken cloudy and overcast skies to assess our spatio-temporal observations from the network, and validate their consistency with other collocated radiation measurements available during the HOPE period.

  7. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): overview and key principles.

    PubMed

    Swinburn, B; Sacks, G; Vandevijvere, S; Kumanyika, S; Lobstein, T; Neal, B; Barquera, S; Friel, S; Hawkes, C; Kelly, B; L'abbé, M; Lee, A; Ma, J; Macmullan, J; Mohan, S; Monteiro, C; Rayner, M; Sanders, D; Snowdon, W; Walker, C

    2013-10-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) dominate disease burdens globally and poor nutrition increasingly contributes to this global burden. Comprehensive monitoring of food environments, and evaluation of the impact of public and private sector policies on food environments is needed to strengthen accountability systems to reduce NCDs. The International Network for Food and Obesity/NCDs Research, Monitoring and Action Support (INFORMAS) is a global network of public-interest organizations and researchers that aims to monitor, benchmark and support public and private sector actions to create healthy food environments and reduce obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities. The INFORMAS framework includes two 'process' modules, that monitor the policies and actions of the public and private sectors, seven 'impact' modules that monitor the key characteristics of food environments and three 'outcome' modules that monitor dietary quality, risk factors and NCD morbidity and mortality. Monitoring frameworks and indicators have been developed for 10 modules to provide consistency, but allowing for stepwise approaches ('minimal', 'expanded', 'optimal') to data collection and analysis. INFORMAS data will enable benchmarking of food environments between countries, and monitoring of progress over time within countries. Through monitoring and benchmarking, INFORMAS will strengthen the accountability systems needed to help reduce the burden of obesity, NCDs and their related inequalities.

  8. Reflecting on mirror mechanisms: motor resonance effects during action observation only present with low-intensity transcranial magnetic stimulation.

    PubMed

    Loporto, Michela; Holmes, Paul S; Wright, David J; McAllister, Craig J

    2013-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) studies indicate that the observation of other people's actions influences the excitability of the observer's motor system. Motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes typically increase in muscles which would be active during the execution of the observed action. This 'motor resonance' effect is thought to result from activity in mirror neuron regions, which enhance the excitability of the primary motor cortex (M1) via cortico-cortical pathways. The importance of TMS intensity has not yet been recognised in this area of research. Low-intensity TMS predominately activates corticospinal neurons indirectly, whereas high-intensity TMS can directly activate corticospinal axons. This indicates that motor resonance effects should be more prominent when using low-intensity TMS. A related issue is that TMS is typically applied over a single optimal scalp position (OSP) to simultaneously elicit MEPs from several muscles. Whether this confounds results, due to differences in the manner that TMS activates spatially separate cortical representations, has not yet been explored. In the current study, MEP amplitudes, resulting from single-pulse TMS applied over M1, were recorded from the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) and abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles during the observation of simple finger abductions. We tested if the TMS intensity (110% vs. 130% resting motor threshold) or stimulating position (FDI-OSP vs. ADM-OSP) influenced the magnitude of the motor resonance effects. Results showed that the MEP facilitation recorded in the FDI muscle during the observation of index-finger abductions was only detected using low-intensity TMS. In contrast, changes in the OSP had a negligible effect on the presence of motor resonance effects in either the FDI or ADM muscles. These findings support the hypothesis that MN activity enhances M1 excitability via cortico-cortical pathways and highlight a methodological framework by which the neural

  9. Actions and Names: Observing Responses and the Role of Multiple Stimulus Control in Incidental Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahill, Claire S.

    2013-01-01

    The present research focuses on the possible relation between observing responses and language acquisition. In the first of three experiments, preschool aged participants with and without disabilities were presented with the opportunity to observe multiple aspects of a stimulus. A Naming experience was created in which the stimulus was presented…

  10. New Results from the NOAA CREST Lidar Network (CLN) Observations in the US Eastcoast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshary, Fred; Han, Zaw; Wu, Yonghua; Gross, Barry; Wesloh, Daniel; Hoff, Raymond M.; Delgado, Ruben; Su, Jia; Lei, Liqiao; Lee, Robert B.; McCormick, M. Pat; Diaz, Jesus; Cruz, Carlos; Parsiani, Hamed

    2016-06-01

    This paper presents coordinated ground-based observations by the NOAA-CREST Lidar Network (CLN) for profiling of aerosols, cloud, water vapor, and wind along the US east coast including Caribbean region at Puerto Rico. The instrumentation, methodology and observation capability are reviewed. The applications to continental and intercontinental-scale transport of smoke and dust plumes, and their large scale regional impact are discussed.

  11. Communication and cybercoping: coping with chronic illness through communicative action in online support networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Nam; Lee, Seungyoon

    2014-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication, specifically blogs, has expanded the range of the communicative action of patients with chronic disease from information seeking to information forwarding. The authors examine the effects of these 2 types of communicative action on perceived affective and physical coping outcomes. Using a survey dataset of 254 chronic disease patients, the authors tested 2 models using structural equation modeling: first, the effects of communicative action about chronic illness on coping outcomes; and second, the mediating role of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping processes. Findings indicate overall positive effects of communicative action on coping processes and outcomes, yet with different magnitudes of effects depending on the dimensions of communication behavior, the coping process, and outcome. Implications for patients and health care providers are discussed.

  12. From observation to experimentation: leptin action in the mediobasal hypothalamus1234

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kevin W; Scott, Michael M; Elmquist, Joel K

    2009-01-01

    The burgeoning obesity epidemic has fueled the drive to describe, mechanistically, metabolic homeostasis. From the early theories implicating glucose as a principal modulator grew an understanding of a complex array of metabolic signals, sensed by peripheral organs along with specific locations within the central nervous system (CNS). The discovery that leptin, an adipose-derived hormone, acts within the mediobasal hypothalamus to control food intake and energy expenditure ushered in a decade of research that went on to describe not only the specific nuclei and cell type, such as proopiomelanocortin neurons of the arcuate nucleus, that respond to leptin but also the signaling cascades that mediated its effects. This review thus highlights the sites and mechanisms of action of leptin, both in the hypothalamus and in extrahypothalamic sites within the CNS, and shows our current knowledge and direction of future research aimed at understanding the multifunctional role of leptin in maintaining metabolic homeostasis. PMID:19176744

  13. A Monte Carlo EM approach for partially observable diffusion processes: theory and applications to neural networks.

    PubMed

    Movellan, Javier R; Mineiro, Paul; Williams, R J

    2002-07-01

    We present a Monte Carlo approach for training partially observable diffusion processes. We apply the approach to diffusion networks, a stochastic version of continuous recurrent neural networks. The approach is aimed at learning probability distributions of continuous paths, not just expected values. Interestingly, the relevant activation statistics used by the learning rule presented here are inner products in the Hilbert space of square integrable functions. These inner products can be computed using Hebbian operations and do not require backpropagation of error signals. Moreover, standard kernel methods could potentially be applied to compute such inner products. We propose that the main reason that recurrent neural networks have not worked well in engineering applications (e.g., speech recognition) is that they implicitly rely on a very simplistic likelihood model. The diffusion network approach proposed here is much richer and may open new avenues for applications of recurrent neural networks. We present some analysis and simulations to support this view. Very encouraging results were obtained on a visual speech recognition task in which neural networks outperformed hidden Markov models.

  14. Congestion Control in TCP/AQM Networks Using a Disturbance Observer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubo, Ryogo; Kani, Junichi; Fujimoto, Yukihiro

    This paper presents a novel congestion controller for transmission control protocol/active queue management (TCP/AQM) networks. In order to maintain the queue length to a value less than the buffer size at the aggregation nodes, the queue management mechanism drops some packets depending on the probability calculated by a congestion controller. However, conventional controllers such as random early detection (RED) algorithms and proportional-integral-derivative (PID)-based controllers are not compatible with parameter variation in TCP/AQM networks. Parameter variation in TCP/AQM networks includes the change of the number of TCP connections, the inflow of user datagram protocol (UDP) flows and so on. In the proposed method, the effect of parameter variation is estimated as drop probability disturbance by using a disturbance observer (DOB). By using the DOB, disturbance suppression characteristics of the controlled system can be drastically improved. In addition, the TCP/AQM network system is analyzed on the basis of an acceleration control scheme. The proposed method is validated by simulation studies performed using a nonlinear model of a TCP/AQM network and verifications made using the network simulator ns-2.

  15. Direct observation of deterministic domain wall trajectory in magnetic network structures.

    PubMed

    Sethi, P; Murapaka, C; Goolaup, S; Chen, Y J; Leong, S H; Lew, W S

    2016-01-12

    Controlling the domain wall (DW) trajectory in magnetic network structures is crucial for spin-based device related applications. The understanding of DW dynamics in network structures is also important for study of fundamental properties like observation of magnetic monopoles at room temperature in artificial spin ice lattice. The trajectory of DW in magnetic network structures has been shown to be chirality dependent. However, the DW chirality periodically oscillates as it propagates a distance longer than its fidelity length due to Walker breakdown phenomenon. This leads to a stochastic behavior in the DW propagation through the network structure. In this study, we show that the DW trajectory can be deterministically controlled in the magnetic network structures irrespective of its chirality by introducing a potential barrier. The DW propagation in the network structure is governed by the geometrically induced potential barrier and pinning strength against the propagation. This technique can be extended for controlling the trajectory of magnetic charge carriers in an artificial spin ice lattice.

  16. Optimization of observation plan based on the stochastic characteristics of the geodetic network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pachelski, Wojciech; Postek, Paweł

    2016-06-01

    Optimal design of geodetic network is a basic subject of many engineering projects. An observation plan is a concluding part of the process. Any particular observation within the network has through adjustment a different contribution and impact on values and accuracy characteristics of unknowns. The problem of optimal design can be solved by means of computer simulation. This paper presents a new method of simulation based on sequential estimation of individual observations in a step-by-step manner, by means of the so-called filtering equations. The algorithm aims at satisfying different criteria of accuracy according to various interpretations of the covariance matrix. Apart of them, the optimization criterion is also amount of effort, defined as the minimum number of observations required. A numerical example of a 2-D network is illustrated to view the effectiveness of presented method. The results show decrease of the number of observations by 66% with respect to the not optimized observation plan, which still satisfy the assumed accuracy.

  17. The concept of salience network dysfunction in schizophrenia: from neuroimaging observations to therapeutic opportunities.

    PubMed

    Palaniyappan, L; White, T P; Liddle, P F

    2012-01-01

    A large body of neuroimaging literature suggests that distributed regions in the brain form coordinated largescale networks that show reliable patterns of connectivity when observed using either functional or structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) methods. Functional activation within these networks provides a robust and reliable representation of dynamic brain states observed during information processing. One such network comprised of anterior frontoinsular cortex (aFI) and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is called the Salience Network (SN). SN has been identified as a system that enables the switch between various dynamic brain states. SN dysfunction has been proposed as a mechanistic model for several core symptoms of schizophrenia. In this review, we explore how various risk factors of schizophrenia could operate through the dysfunctional SN to generate symptoms of psychosis. We also consider the putative neurochemical basis for the SN dysfunction in schizophrenia, and suggest that the SN dysfunction is a viable therapeutic target for a combined pharmacological and cognitive training treatment approach. This combination approach, termed as Brain Network Modulation, could exploit neuronal plasticity to reverse a key pathophysiological deficit in schizophrenia. PMID:23279173

  18. Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PA-ARN) Staff Development through Five Regional Staff Development Centers. Final Report, July 1998-June 1999.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    With the existence of 67 monographs and approximately 60 practitioners trained in action research in the western and central parts of Pennsylvania from project years 1995-98, the 1998-99 Section 353 project expanded the action research network (ARN) to include teachers, administrators, and researchers in the northeastern and southeastern parts of…

  19. Pennsylvania Action Research Network (PA-ARN) Staff Development through Five Regional Staff Development Centers. Final Report. July 1997-June 1998.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.

    The Pennsylvania Action Research Network project was initiated in 1995-1996 to provide Pennsylvania literacy educators with the following: a better method for taking published research findings and testing and adapting them in their own classrooms; a way to study their own research ideas on a daily-action basis; and a systematic way to share and…

  20. The Global Geodetic Observing System: Space Geodesy Networks for the Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pearlman, Michael; Pavlis, Erricos; Ma, Chopo; Altamini, Zuheir; Noll, Carey; Stowers, David

    2011-01-01

    Ground-based networks of co-located space geodetic techniques (VLBI, SLR, GNSS. and DORIS) are the basis for the development and maintenance of the International Terrestrial Reference frame (ITRF), which is our metric of reference for measurements of global change, The Global Geodetic Observing System (GGOS) of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) has established a task to develop a strategy to design, integrate and maintain the fundamental geodetic network and supporting infrastructure in a sustainable way to satisfy the long-term requirements for the reference frame. The GGOS goal is an origin definition at 1 mm or better and a temporal stability on the order of 0.1 mm/y, with similar numbers for the scale and orientation components. These goals are based on scientific requirements to address sea level rise with confidence, but other applications are not far behind. Recent studies including one by the US National Research Council has strongly stated the need and the urgency for the fundamental space geodesy network. Simulations are underway to examining accuracies for origin, scale and orientation of the resulting ITRF based on various network designs and system performance to determine the optimal global network to achieve this goal. To date these simulations indicate that 24 - 32 co-located stations are adequate to define the reference frame and a more dense GNSS and DORIS network will be required to distribute the reference frame to users anywhere on Earth. Stations in the new global network will require geologically stable sites with good weather, established infrastructure, and local support and personnel. GGOS wil seek groups that are interested in participation. GGOS intends to issues a Call for Participation of groups that would like to contribute in the network implementation and operation. Some examples of integrated stations currently in operation or under development will be presented. We will examine necessary conditions and challenges in

  1. Learning characteristics of a space-time neural network as a tether skiprope observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1993-01-01

    The Software Technology Laboratory at the Johnson Space Center is testing a Space Time Neural Network (STNN) for observing tether oscillations present during retrieval of a tethered satellite. Proper identification of tether oscillations, known as 'skiprope' motion, is vital to safe retrieval of the tethered satellite. Our studies indicate that STNN has certain learning characteristics that must be understood properly to utilize this type of neural network for the tethered satellite problem. We present our findings on the learning characteristics including a learning rate versus momentum performance table.

  2. Learning characteristics of a space-time neural network as a tether skiprope observer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lea, Robert N.; Villarreal, James A.; Jani, Yashvant; Copeland, Charles

    1992-01-01

    The Software Technology Laboratory at JSC is testing a Space Time Neural Network (STNN) for observing tether oscillations present during retrieval of a tethered satellite. Proper identification of tether oscillations, known as 'skiprope' motion, is vital to safe retrieval of the tethered satellite. Our studies indicate that STNN has certain learning characteristics that must be understood properly to utilize this type of neural network for the tethered satellite problem. We present our findings on the learning characteristics including a learning rate versus momentum performance table.

  3. Outline of Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uehira, Kenji; Kanazawa, Toshihiko; Mochizuki, Masashi; Fujimoto, Hiromi; Noguchi, Shin-ichi; Shinbo, Takashi; Shiomi, Katsuhiko; Kunugi, Takashi; Aoi, Shin; Matsumoto, Takumi; Sekiguchi, Shoji; Okada, Yoshimitsu; Shinohara, Masanao; Yamada, Tomoaki

    2016-04-01

    Seafloor Observation Network for Earthquakes and Tsunamis along the Japan Trench (S-net) project to construct a large-scale seafloor network of cable-linked observatories is in progress around Japan Trench and Kuril Trench in Japan. The main purpose of the S-net project is disaster prevention by providing ground motion and tsunami height data in real time. Such real-time data from the seafloor observatories make it possible to forecast the next-generation early tsunami warning which could precisely predict coastal tsunami height. Also the data may make it possible to forecast an earthquake warning much earlier than the present system. The network consists of 150 ocean bottom observation stations. Ocean bottom fiber optic cables, about 5,700 km in total length, connect the stations to land. Observation stations will be placed on the seafloor off Hokkaido, off Tohoku and off Kanto, in a spacing of about 30 km almost in the direction of East-West (perpendicular to the trench axis) and in a spacing of about 50 - 60 km almost in the direction of North-South (parallel to the trench axis). Each station is equipped with seismometers of three types and two hydro-pressure gauges (tsunami meters) of the same type for redundancy. The digitized data will be transmitted to the data centers, JMA (Japan Meteorological Agency), and so on, using IP network. S-net is supported by MEXT financially.

  4. How to most effectively expand the global surface ozone observing network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sofen, E. D.; Bowdalo, D.; Evans, M. J.

    2016-02-01

    Surface ozone observations with modern instrumentation have been made around the world for more than 40 years. Some of these observations have been made as one-off activities with short-term, specific science objectives and some have been made as part of wider networks which have provided a foundational infrastructure of data collection, calibration, quality control, and dissemination. These observations provide a fundamental underpinning to our understanding of tropospheric chemistry, air quality policy, atmosphere-biosphere interactions, etc. brought together eight of these networks to provide a single data set of surface ozone observations. We investigate how representative this combined data set is of global surface ozone using the output from a global atmospheric chemistry model. We estimate that on an area basis, 25 % of the globe is observed (34 % land, 21 % ocean). Whereas Europe and North America have almost complete coverage, other continents, Africa, South America, Australia, and Asia (12-17 %) show significant gaps. Antarctica is surprisingly well observed (78 %). Little monitoring occurs over the oceans, with the tropical and southern oceans particularly poorly represented. The surface ozone over key biomes such as tropical forests and savanna is almost completely unmonitored. A chemical cluster analysis suggests that a significant number of observations are made of polluted air masses, but cleaner air masses whether over the land or ocean (especially again in the tropics) are significantly under-observed. The current network is unlikely to see the impact of the El Niño-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) but may be capable of detecting other planetary-scale signals. Model assessment and validation activities are hampered by a lack of observations in regions where the models differ substantially, as is the ability to monitor likely changes in surface ozone over the next century. Using our methodology we are able to suggest new sites which

  5. Observer-based H(infinity) control for networked nonlinear systems with random packet losses.

    PubMed

    Li, Jian Guo; Yuan, Jing Qi; Lu, Jun Guo

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the observer-based H(infinity) control problem of networked nonlinear systems with global Lipschitz nonlinearities and random communication packet losses. The random packet loss is modelled as a Bernoulli distributed white sequence with a known conditional probability distribution. In the presence of random packet losses, sufficient conditions for the existence of an observer-based feedback controller are derived, such that the closed-loop networked nonlinear system is exponentially stable in the mean-square sense, and a prescribed H(infinity) disturbance-rejection-attenuation performance is also achieved. Then a linear matrix inequality (LMI) approach for designing such an observer-based H(infinity) controller is presented. Finally, a simulation example is used to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  6. The role of SANSA's geomagnetic observation network in space weather monitoring: A review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotzé, P. B.; Cilliers, P. J.; Sutcliffe, P. R.

    2015-10-01

    Geomagnetic observations play a crucial role in the monitoring of space weather events. In a modern society relying on the efficient functioning of its technology network such observations are important in order to determine the potential hazard for activities and infrastructure. Until recently, it was the perception that geomagnetic storms had no or very little adverse effect on radio communication and electric power infrastructure at middle- and low-latitude regions like southern Africa. The 2003 Halloween storm changed this perception. In this paper we discuss the role of the geomagnetic observation network operated by the South African National Space Agency (SANSA) in space weather monitoring. The primary objective is to describe the geomagnetic data sets available to characterize and monitor the various types of solar-driven disturbances, with the aim to better understand the physics of these processes in the near-Earth space environment and to provide relevant space weather monitoring and prediction.

  7. Observer-based fault-tolerant control for a class of nonlinear networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahmoud, M. S.; Memon, A. M.; Shi, Peng

    2014-08-01

    This paper presents a fault-tolerant control (FTC) scheme for nonlinear systems which are connected in a networked control system. The nonlinear system is first transformed into two subsystems such that the unobservable part is affected by a fault and the observable part is unaffected. An observer is then designed which gives state estimates using a Luenberger observer and also estimates unknown parameter of the system; this helps in fault estimation. The FTC is applied in the presence of sampling due to the presence of a network in the loop. The controller gain is obtained using linear-quadratic regulator technique. The methodology is applied on a mechatronic system and the results show satisfactory performance.

  8. Is Ecosystem-Atmosphere Observation in Long-Term Networks actually Science?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmid, H. P. E.

    2015-12-01

    Science uses observations to build knowledge by testable explanations and predictions. The "scientific method" requires controlled systematic observation to examine questions, hypotheses and predictions. Thus, enquiry along the scientific method responds to questions of the type "what if …?" In contrast, long-term observation programs follow a different strategy: we commonly take great care to minimize our influence on the environment of our measurements, with the aim to maximize their external validity. We observe what we think are key variables for ecosystem-atmosphere exchange and ask questions such as "what happens next?" or "how did this happen?" This apparent deviation from the scientific method begs the question whether any explanations we come up with for the phenomena we observe are actually contributing to testable knowledge, or whether their value remains purely anecdotal. Here, we present examples to argue that, under certain conditions, data from long-term observations and observation networks can have equivalent or even higher scientific validity than controlled experiments. Internal validity is particularly enhanced if observations are combined with modeling. Long-term observations of ecosystem-atmosphere fluxes identify trends and temporal scales of variability. Observation networks reveal spatial patterns and variations, and long-term observation networks combine both aspects. A necessary condition for such observations to gain validity beyond the anecdotal is the requirement that the data are comparable: a comparison of two measured values, separated in time or space, must inform us objectively whether (e.g.) one value is larger than the other. In turn, a necessary condition for the comparability of data is the compatibility of the sensors and procedures used to generate them. Compatibility ensures that we compare "apples to apples": that measurements conducted in identical conditions give the same values (within suitable uncertainty intervals

  9. Applications of neural network methods to the processing of earth observation satellite data.

    PubMed

    Loyola, Diego G

    2006-03-01

    The new generation of earth observation satellites carries advanced sensors that will gather very precise data for studying the Earth system and global climate. This paper shows that neural network methods can be successfully used for solving forward and inverse remote sensing problems, providing both accurate and fast solutions. Two examples of multi-neural network systems for the determination of cloud properties and for the retrieval of total columns of ozone using satellite data are presented. The developed algorithms based on multi-neural network are currently being used for the operational processing of European atmospheric satellite sensors and will play a key role in related satellite missions planed for the near future.

  10. First observations of sprites in the eastern Mediterranean using the Israeli infrasound network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Applbaum, David; Price, Colin; Ben Horin, Yochai; Yair, Yoav

    2014-05-01

    As outlined by Farges et al (2005) as part of the Sprite2003 campaign in Europe, sprites at close range (less than a few hundred km) exhibit a unique signal in infrasound. This signal consists of an 'inverted chirp,' lasting up to several minutes and in which the higher frequencies arrive prior to the lower frequencies. The ILAN (Imaging of Lightning and Nocturnal Flashes) science team at Tel Aviv University maintains a database of optically observed sprites occurring within a few hundred kilometers of the Mediterranean coast of Israel. Using the observed azimuths of these sprites' locations with respect to the detectors, combined with an acoustic propagation model and the observed delays associated with propagation of the signals between the sprites and the infrasound arrays, we present here observations of several sprites that are consistent with the observations made by Farges et al. These constitute the first observations of sprites made using the Israeli infrasound network.

  11. Neural-network-observer-based optimal control for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Derong; Huang, Yuzhu; Wang, Ding; Wei, Qinglai

    2013-09-01

    In this paper, an observer-based optimal control scheme is developed for unknown nonlinear systems using adaptive dynamic programming (ADP) algorithm. First, a neural-network (NN) observer is designed to estimate system states. Then, based on the observed states, a neuro-controller is constructed via ADP method to obtain the optimal control. In this design, two NN structures are used: a three-layer NN is used to construct the observer which can be applied to systems with higher degrees of nonlinearity and without a priori knowledge of system dynamics, and a critic NN is employed to approximate the value function. The optimal control law is computed using the critic NN and the observer NN. Uniform ultimate boundedness of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. The actor, critic, and observer structures are all implemented in real-time, continuously and simultaneously. Finally, simulation results are presented to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed control scheme.

  12. Building oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks by composition: unmanned vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, J. T.; Pinto, J.; Martins, R.; Costa, M.; Ferreira, F.; Gomes, R.

    2014-12-01

    The problem of developing mobile oceanographic and atmospheric observation networks (MOAO) with coordinated air and ocean vehicles is discussed in the framework of the communications and control software tool chain developed at Underwater Systems and Technologies Laboratory (LSTS) from Porto University. This is done with reference to field experiments to illustrate key capabilities and to assess future MOAO operations. First, the motivation for building MOAO by "composition" of air and ocean vehicles, communication networks, and planning and execution control frameworks is discussed - in networked vehicle systems information and commands are exchanged among multiple vehicles and operators, and the roles, relative positions, and dependencies of these vehicles and operators change during operations. Second, the planning and execution control framework developed at LSTS for multi-vehicle systems is discussed with reference to key concepts such as autonomy, mixed-initiative interactions, and layered organization. Third, the LSTS tool software tool chain is presented to show how to develop MOAO by composition. The tool chain comprises the Neptus command and control framework for mixed initiative interactions, the underlying IMC messaging protocol, and the DUNE on-board software. Fourth, selected LSTS operational deployments illustrate MOAO capability building. In 2012 we demonstrated the use of UAS to "ferry" data from UUVs located beyond line of sight (BLOS). In 2013 we demonstrated coordinated observations of coastal fronts with small UAS and UUVs, "bent" BLOS through the use of UAS as communication relays, and UAS tracking of juvenile hammer-head sharks. In 2014 we demonstrated UUV adaptive sampling with the closed loop controller of the UUV residing on a UAS; this was done with the help of a Wave Glider ASV with a communications gateway. The results from these experiments provide a background for assessing potential future UAS operations in a compositional MOAO.

  13. Combining solar science and asteroid science with the space weather observation network (SWON)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maiwald, Volker; Weiß, André; Jansen, Frank

    2012-12-01

    The peculiarity of space weather for Earth orbiting satellites, air traffic and power grids on Earth and especially the financial and operational risks posed by damage due to space weather, underline the necessity of space weather observation. The importance of such observations is even more increasing due to the impending solar maximum. In recognition of this importance we propose a mission architecture for solar observation as an alternative to already published mission plans like Solar Probe (NASA) or Solar Orbiter (ESA). Based upon a Concurrent Evaluation session in the Concurrent Engineering Facility of the German Aerospace Center, we suggest using several spacecraft in an observation network. Instead of placing such spacecraft in a solar orbit, we propose landing on several asteroids, which are in opposition to Earth during the course of the mission and thus allow observation of the Sun's far side. Observation of the far side is especially advantageous as it improves the warning time with regard to solar events by about 2 weeks. Landing on Inner Earth Object (IEO) asteroids for observation of the Sun has several benefits over traditional mission architectures. Exploiting shadowing effects of the asteroids reduces thermal stress on the spacecraft, while it is possible to approach the Sun closer than with an orbiter. The closeness to the Sun improves observation quality and solar power generation, which is intended to be achieved with a solar dynamic system. Furthermore landers can execute experiments and measurements with regard to asteroid science, further increasing the scientific output of such a mission. Placing the spacecraft in a network would also benefit the communication contact times of the network and Earth. Concluding we present a first draft of a spacecraft layout, mission objectives and requirements as well as an initial mission analysis calculation.

  14. Multifractal cross-correlation effects in two-variable time series of complex network vertex observables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    OświÈ©cimka, Paweł; Livi, Lorenzo; DroŻdŻ, Stanisław

    2016-10-01

    We investigate the scaling of the cross-correlations calculated for two-variable time series containing vertex properties in the context of complex networks. Time series of such observables are obtained by means of stationary, unbiased random walks. We consider three vertex properties that provide, respectively, short-, medium-, and long-range information regarding the topological role of vertices in a given network. In order to reveal the relation between these quantities, we applied the multifractal cross-correlation analysis technique, which provides information about the nonlinear effects in coupling of time series. We show that the considered network models are characterized by unique multifractal properties of the cross-correlation. In particular, it is possible to distinguish between Erdös-Rényi, Barabási-Albert, and Watts-Strogatz networks on the basis of fractal cross-correlation. Moreover, the analysis of protein contact networks reveals characteristics shared with both scale-free and small-world models.

  15. Information theoretic approach using neural network for determining radiometer observations from radar and vice versa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kannan, Srinivasa Ramanujam; Chandrasekar, V.

    2016-05-01

    Even though both the rain measuring instruments, radar and radiometer onboard the TRMM observe the same rain scenes, they both are fundamentally different instruments. Radar is an active instrument and measures backscatter component from vertical rain structure; whereas radiometer is a passive instrument that obtains integrated observation of full depth of the cloud and rain structure. Further, their spatial resolutions on ground are different. Nevertheless, both the instruments are observing the same rain scene and retrieve three dimensional rainfall products. Hence it is only natural to seek answer to the question, what type of information about radiometric observations can be directly retrieved from radar observations. While there are several ways to answer this question, an informational theoretic approach using neural networks has been described in the present work to find if radiometer observations can be predicted from radar observations. A database of TMI brightness temperature and collocated TRMM vertical attenuation corrected reflectivity factor from the year 2012 was considered. The entire database is further classified according to surface type. Separate neural networks were trained for land and ocean and the results are presented.

  16. Observer-based predictive controller design with network-enhanced time-delay compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florin Caruntu, Constantin

    2015-02-01

    State feedback control is very attractive due to the precise computation of the gain matrix, but the implementation of a state feedback controller is possible only when all state variables are directly measurable. This condition is almost impossible to accomplish due to the excess number of required sensors or unavailability of states for measurement in most of the practical situations. Hence, the need for an estimator or observer is obvious to estimate all the state variables by observing the input and the output of the controlled system. As such, the goal of this paper is to provide a control design methodology based on a Luenberger observer design that can assure the closed-loop performances of a vehicle drivetrain with backlash, while compensating the network-enhanced time-varying delays. This goal is achieved in a sequential manner: firstly, a piecewise linear model of two inertias drivetrain, which takes into consideration the backlash nonlinearity and the network-enhanced time-varying delay effects is derived; then, a Luenberger observer which estimates the state variables is synthesized and the robust full state-feedback predictive controller based on flexible control Lyapunov functions is designed to explicitly take into account the bounds of the disturbances caused by time-varying delays and to guarantee also the input-to-state stability of the system in a non-conservative way. The full state-feedback predictive control strategy based on the Luenberger observer design was experimentally tested on a vehicle drivetrain emulator controlled through controller area network, with the aim of minimizing the backlash effects while compensating the network-enhanced delays.

  17. Rapid learning of associations between sound and action through observed movement. A TMS study

    PubMed Central

    Dean, Roger T.; Bailes, Freya

    2016-01-01

    Research has established that there is a cognitive link between perception and production of the same movement. However, there has been relatively little research into the relevance of this for non-expert perceivers, such as music listeners who do not play instruments themselves. In two experiments we tested whether participants can quickly learn new associations between sounds and observed movement without performing those movements themselves. We measured motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of participants’ right hands while test tones were heard and single transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) pulses were used to trigger motor activity. In Experiment 1 participants in a ‘human’ condition (n=4) learnt to associate the test tone with finger movement of the experimenter, while participants in a ‘computer’ condition (n=4) learnt that the test tone was triggered by a computer. Participants in the human condition showed a larger increase in MEPs compared with those in the computer condition. In a second experiment pairing between sounds and movement occurred without participants repeatedly observing the movement and we found no such difference between the human (n=4) and computer (n=4) conditions. These results suggest that observers can quickly learn to associate sound with movement, so it should not be necessary to have played an instrument to experience some motor resonance when hearing that instrument. PMID:27182100

  18. Ace: Action-Communication-Expression. IMPACT II: Houston's Teacher-to-Teacher Network.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Margie

    The Action-Communication-Expression program, an extension of a speech communication class in a Houston (Texas) high school, involves visual and concrete communication, such as photography, script writing, and filmmaking. Students in two speech classes work in small groups of four or five, independently of the teacher, after receiving initial…

  19. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  20. Elucidating compound mechanism of action by network perturbation analysis | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Genome-wide identification of the mechanism of action (MoA) of small-molecule compounds characterizing their targets, effectors, and activity modulators represents a highly relevant yet elusive goal, with critical implications for assessment of compound efficacy and toxicity. Current approaches are labor intensive and mostly limited to elucidating high-affinity binding target proteins.

  1. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    PubMed

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology. PMID:26286804

  2. COST action TD1407: network on technology-critical elements (NOTICE)--from environmental processes to human health threats.

    PubMed

    Cobelo-García, A; Filella, M; Croot, P; Frazzoli, C; Du Laing, G; Ospina-Alvarez, N; Rauch, S; Salaun, P; Schäfer, J; Zimmermann, S

    2015-10-01

    The current socio-economic, environmental and public health challenges that countries are facing clearly need common-defined strategies to inform and support our transition to a sustainable economy. Here, the technology-critical elements (which includes Ga, Ge, In, Te, Nb, Ta, Tl, the Platinum Group Elements and most of the rare-earth elements) are of great relevance in the development of emerging key technologies-including renewable energy, energy efficiency, electronics or the aerospace industry. In this context, the increasing use of technology-critical elements (TCEs) and associated environmental impacts (from mining to end-of-life waste products) is not restricted to a national level but covers most likely a global scale. Accordingly, the European COST Action TD1407: Network on Technology-Critical Elements (NOTICE)-from environmental processes to human health threats, has an overall objective for creating a network of scientists and practitioners interested in TCEs, from the evaluation of their environmental processes to understanding potential human health threats, with the aim of defining the current state of knowledge and gaps, proposing priority research lines/activities and acting as a platform for new collaborations and joint research projects. The Action is focused on three major scientific areas: (i) analytical chemistry, (ii) environmental biogeochemistry and (iii) human exposure and (eco)-toxicology.

  3. When Do We Confuse Self and Other in Action Memory? Reduced False Memories of Self-Performance after Observing Actions by an Out-Group vs. In-Group Actor

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, Isabel; Schain, Cécile; Kopietz, René; Echterhoff, Gerald

    2012-01-01

    Observing another person performing an action can lead to a false memory of having performed the action oneself – the observation-inflation effect. In the experimental paradigm, participants first perform or do not perform simple actions, and then observe another person perform some of these actions. The observation-inflation effect is found when participants later remember performing actions that they have merely observed. In this case, self and other are confused in action memory. We examined social conditions of this self-other confusion when remembering actions, specifically whether the effect depends on the observed actor’s group membership. In our experiment, we manipulated group membership based on physical appearance, specifically complexion of the hands. Fair-skinned participants observed either an in-group (i.e., fair-skinned) or an out-group (i.e., dark-skinned) actor. Our results revealed that the observed actor’s group membership moderated the observation-inflation effect: False memories were significantly reduced when the actor was from the out-group (vs. in-group). We found no difference to a control condition in which the actor wore black gloves, suggesting that distinctiveness of perceptual or sensory features alone (due to the out-group member’s dark skin) is not critical. We discuss these findings in light of social-neuroscience studies demonstrating the impact of an observed person’s group membership on motor simulation. Overall, our findings suggest that action memory can be affected by a ubiquitous feature of people’s social perception, that is, group-based social categorization of others. PMID:23130007

  4. A bayesian approach for modeling cattle movements in the United States: scaling up a partially observed network.

    PubMed

    Lindström, Tom; Grear, Daniel A; Buhnerkempe, Michael; Webb, Colleen T; Miller, Ryan S; Portacci, Katie; Wennergren, Uno

    2013-01-01

    Networks are rarely completely observed and prediction of unobserved edges is an important problem, especially in disease spread modeling where networks are used to represent the pattern of contacts. We focus on a partially observed cattle movement network in the U.S. and present a method for scaling up to a full network based on bayesian inference, with the aim of informing epidemic disease spread models in the United States. The observed network is a 10% state stratified sample of Interstate Certificates of Veterinary Inspection that are required for interstate movement; describing approximately 20,000 movements from 47 of the contiguous states, with origins and destinations aggregated at the county level. We address how to scale up the 10% sample and predict unobserved intrastate movements based on observed movement distances. Edge prediction based on a distance kernel is not straightforward because the probability of movement does not always decline monotonically with distance due to underlying industry infrastructure. Hence, we propose a spatially explicit model where the probability of movement depends on distance, number of premises per county and historical imports of animals. Our model performs well in recapturing overall metrics of the observed network at the node level (U.S. counties), including degree centrality and betweenness; and performs better compared to randomized networks. Kernel generated movement networks also recapture observed global network metrics, including network size, transitivity, reciprocity, and assortativity better than randomized networks. In addition, predicted movements are similar to observed when aggregated at the state level (a broader geographic level relevant for policy) and are concentrated around states where key infrastructures, such as feedlots, are common. We conclude that the method generally performs well in predicting both coarse geographical patterns and network structure and is a promising method to generate full

  5. The magnetic network location of explosive events observed in the solar transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Dere, K. P.

    1991-01-01

    Compact short-lived explosive events have been observed in solar transition region lines with the High-Resolution Telescope and Spectrograph (HRTS) flown by the Naval Research Laboratory on a series of rockets and on Spacelab 2. Data from Spacelab 2 are coaligned with a simultaneous magnetogram and near-simultaneous He I 10,380 -A spectroheliogram obtained at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak. The comparison shows that the explosive events occur in the solar magnetic network lanes at the boundaries of supergranular convective cells. However, the events occur away from the larger concentrations of magnetic flux in the network, in contradiction to the observed tendency of the more energetic solar phenomena to be associated with the stronger magnetic fields.

  6. Evaluation of Long-Range Lightning Detection Networks Using TRMM/LIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rudlosky, Scott D.; Holzworth, Robert H.; Carey, Lawrence D.; Schultz, Chris J.; Bateman, Monte; Cecil, Daniel J.; Cummins, Kenneth L.; Petersen, Walter A.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Goodman, Steven J.

    2011-01-01

    Recent advances in long-range lightning detection technologies have improved our understanding of thunderstorm evolution in the data sparse oceanic regions. Although the expansion and improvement of long-range lightning datasets have increased their applicability, these applications (e.g., data assimilation, atmospheric chemistry, and aviation weather hazards) require knowledge of the network detection capabilities. Toward this end, the present study evaluates data from the World Wide Lightning Location Network (WWLLN) using observations from the Lightning Imaging Sensor (LIS) aboard the Tropical Rainfall Measurement Mission (TRMM) satellite. The study documents the WWLLN detection efficiency and location accuracy relative to LIS observations, describes the spatial variability in these performance metrics, and documents the characteristics of LIS flashes that are detected by WWLLN. Improved knowledge of the WWLLN detection capabilities will allow researchers, algorithm developers, and operational users to better prepare for the spatial and temporal coverage of the upcoming GOES-R Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM).

  7. The Study of Collective Actions in a University Anchored Community Wireless Network

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuchibhotla, Hari N.

    2012-01-01

    The emergence of wireless devices and the ease in setting up wireless devices has created opportunities for various entities, and in particular to universities, by partnering with their local communities in the form of a university anchored community wireless network. This provides opportunities for students to be part of the community-based…

  8. Complementary Schools in Action: Networking for Language Development in East London

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sneddon, Raymonde

    2014-01-01

    In a challenging economic and political context, complementary schools in East London are mentoring each other and forming networks across communities to gain recognition and status for community languages in education and the wider community. As issues of power and status impact in different ways on differently situated communities, complementary…

  9. Getting Ideas into Action: Building Networked Improvement Communities in Education. Carnegie Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bryk, Anthony S.; Gomez, Louis M.; Grunow, Alicia

    2010-01-01

    In this Carnegie essay by Anthony Bryk, Louis Gomez and Alicia Grunow, the authors argue that the social organization of the research enterprise is badly broken and a very different alternative is needed. They instead support a science of improvement research and introduce the idea of a networked improvement community that creates the purposeful…

  10. The Multilingual Education (MLE) Network Phenomenon: Advocacy and Action for Minoritized Language Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trudell, Barbara

    2014-01-01

    This article examines a new phenomenon in language activism variously called the multilingual education working group or the multilingual education network, and abbreviated as MLEN. After an analysis of the conceptual and organizational contexts for these activist groups, the six MLENs in existence as of 2013 are described. The groups are then…

  11. Minimum Number of Observation Points for LEO Satellite Orbit Estimation by OWL Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Maru; Jo, Jung Hyun; Cho, Sungki; Choi, Jin; Kim, Chun-Hwey; Park, Jang-Hyun; Yim, Hong-Suh; Choi, Young-Jun; Moon, Hong-Kyu; Bae, Young-Ho; Park, Sun-Youp; Kim, Ji-Hye; Roh, Dong-Goo; Jang, Hyun-Jung; Park, Young-Sik; Jeong, Min-Ji

    2015-12-01

    By using the Optical Wide-field Patrol (OWL) network developed by the Korea Astronomy and Space Science Institute (KASI) we generated the right ascension and declination angle data from optical observation of Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellites. We performed an analysis to verify the optimum number of observations needed per arc for successful estimation of orbit. The currently functioning OWL observatories are located in Daejeon (South Korea), Songino (Mongolia), and Oukaïmeden (Morocco). The Daejeon Observatory is functioning as a test bed. In this study, the observed targets were Gravity Probe B, COSMOS 1455, COSMOS 1726, COSMOS 2428, SEASAT 1, ATV-5, and CryoSat-2 (all in LEO). These satellites were observed from the test bed and the Songino Observatory of the OWL network during 21 nights in 2014 and 2015. After we estimated the orbit from systematically selected sets of observation points (20, 50, 100, and 150) for each pass, we compared the difference between the orbit estimates for each case, and the Two Line Element set (TLE) from the Joint Space Operation Center (JSpOC). Then, we determined the average of the difference and selected the optimal observation points by comparing the average values.

  12. INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support): summary and future directions.

    PubMed

    Kumanyika, S

    2013-10-01

    This supplement presents the foundational elements for INFORMAS (International Network for Food and Obesity/non-communicable diseases Research, Monitoring and Action Support). As explained in the overview article by Swinburn and colleagues, INFORMAS has a compelling rationale and has set forth clear objectives, outcomes, principles and frameworks for monitoring and benchmarking key aspects of food environments and the policies and actions that influence the healthiness of food environments. This summary highlights the proposed monitoring approaches for the 10 interrelated INFORMAS modules: public and private sector policies and actions; key aspects of food environments (food composition, labelling, promotion, provision, retail, prices, and trade and investment) and population outcomes (diet quality). This ambitious effort should be feasible when approached in a step-wise manner, taking into account existing monitoring efforts, data sources, country contexts and capacity, and when adequately resourced. After protocol development and pilot testing of the modules, INFORMAS aims to be a sustainable, low-cost monitoring framework. Future directions relate to institutionalization, implementation and, ultimately, to leveraging INFORMAS data in ways that will bring key drivers of food environments into alignment with public health goals.

  13. Networked high-speed auroral observations combined with radar measurements for multi-scale insights

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirsch, M.; Semeter, J. L.

    2015-12-01

    Networks of ground-based instruments to study terrestrial aurora for the purpose of analyzing particle precipitation characteristics driving the aurora have been established. Additional funding is pouring into future ground-based auroral observation networks consisting of combinations of tossable, portable, and fixed installation ground-based legacy equipment. Our approach to this problem using the High Speed Tomography (HiST) system combines tightly-synchronized filtered auroral optical observations capturing temporal features of order 10 ms with supporting measurements from incoherent scatter radar (ISR). ISR provides a broader spatial context up to order 100 km laterally on one minute time scales, while our camera field of view (FOV) is chosen to be order 10 km at auroral altitudes in order to capture 100 m scale lateral auroral features. The dual-scale observations of ISR and HiST fine-scale optical observations may be coupled through a physical model using linear basis functions to estimate important ionospheric quantities such as electron number density in 3-D (time, perpendicular and parallel to the geomagnetic field).Field measurements and analysis using HiST and PFISR are presented from experiments conducted at the Poker Flat Research Range in central Alaska. Other multiscale configuration candidates include supplementing networks of all-sky cameras such as THEMIS with co-locations of HiST-like instruments to fuse wide FOV measurements with the fine-scale HiST precipitation characteristic estimates. Candidate models for this coupling include GLOW and TRANSCAR. Future extensions of this work may include incorporating line of sight total electron count estimates from ground-based networks of GPS receivers in a sensor fusion problem.

  14. The "Quasar" Network Observations in e-VLBI Mode Within the Russian Domestic VLBI Programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Finkelstein, Andrey; Ipatov, Alexander; Kaidanovsky, Michael; Bezrukov, Ilia; Mikhailov, Andrey; Salnikov, Alexander; Surkis, Igor; Skurikhina, Elena

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of the Russian VLBI "Quasar" Network is to carry out astrometrical and geodynamical investigations. Since 2006 purely domestic observational programs with data processing at the IAA correlator have been carried out. To maintain these geodynamical programs e-VLBI technology is being developed and tested. This paper describes the IAA activity of developing a real-time VLBI system using high-speed digital communication links.

  15. Equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics observations in the African sector using recently deployed magnetometer and GPS networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yizengaw, Endawoke

    Recent ground-and space-based observations have shown that geomagnetic storms can have dramatic longitudinal differences in equatorial ionospheric electrodynamics, such as enhanced generation of F-region plasma irregularities and super fountain effect at low latitudes. For example, satellite observations have shown very unique equatorial ionospheric density struc-tures in the African region. The African region is the longitude sector where the peak in large scale bubble activity (zonal width, depletion level, and spacing) is maximum. No other region in the globe shows similar characteristics. Most recent in situ density observations from C/NOFS also reveal similar maximal bubble activities in Africa. However, the dearth of ground-based in-strumentation in the region makes it impossible to confirm these unique equatorial ionospheric structures from the ground and that leads the investigation of the physics into speculative dead ends. This initiated several open questions, which include: What are the possible governing mechanisms that create unique equatorial structures in Africa? In order to answer such open questions, recently limited progress has been made and very few ground-based instruments, including AMBER magnetometers and ACORN GPS network, have been either deployed in the region or in process. Some of many objectives of AMBER magnetometers network, in coordination with ground-and space-based GPS receiver observations, is to understand the fundamental electrodynamics that govern equatorial ionospheric motion and the penetration of ULF Pc5 wave into equatorial latitudes and its impact on the equatorial electrodynamics. This paper presents initial results from AMBER magnetometer network. The initial electro-dynamics result in Africa is also compared with similar observations in the American sector. The electron density structure in response to the electrodynamics is also investigated using the available ground-based GPS receivers in the region as well as data

  16. Optimal observation network design for conceptual model discrimination and uncertainty reduction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, Hai V.; Tsai, Frank T.-C.

    2016-02-01

    This study expands the Box-Hill discrimination function to design an optimal observation network to discriminate conceptual models and, in turn, identify a most favored model. The Box-Hill discrimination function measures the expected decrease in Shannon entropy (for model identification) before and after the optimal design for one additional observation. This study modifies the discrimination function to account for multiple future observations that are assumed spatiotemporally independent and Gaussian-distributed. Bayesian model averaging (BMA) is used to incorporate existing observation data and quantify future observation uncertainty arising from conceptual and parametric uncertainties in the discrimination function. In addition, the BMA method is adopted to predict future observation data in a statistical sense. The design goal is to find optimal locations and least data via maximizing the Box-Hill discrimination function value subject to a posterior model probability threshold. The optimal observation network design is illustrated using a groundwater study in Baton Rouge, Louisiana, to collect additional groundwater heads from USGS wells. The sources of uncertainty creating multiple groundwater models are geological architecture, boundary condition, and fault permeability architecture. Impacts of considering homoscedastic and heteroscedastic future observation data and the sources of uncertainties on potential observation areas are analyzed. Results show that heteroscedasticity should be considered in the design procedure to account for various sources of future observation uncertainty. After the optimal design is obtained and the corresponding data are collected for model updating, total variances of head predictions can be significantly reduced by identifying a model with a superior posterior model probability.

  17. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A.

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes—including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans—can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  18. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes-including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans-can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions. PMID:26651750

  19. Estimating interevent time distributions from finite observation periods in communication networks.

    PubMed

    Kivelä, Mikko; Porter, Mason A

    2015-11-01

    A diverse variety of processes-including recurrent disease episodes, neuron firing, and communication patterns among humans-can be described using interevent time (IET) distributions. Many such processes are ongoing, although event sequences are only available during a finite observation window. Because the observation time window is more likely to begin or end during long IETs than during short ones, the analysis of such data is susceptible to a bias induced by the finite observation period. In this paper, we illustrate how this length bias is born and how it can be corrected without assuming any particular shape for the IET distribution. To do this, we model event sequences using stationary renewal processes, and we formulate simple heuristics for determining the severity of the bias. To illustrate our results, we focus on the example of empirical communication networks, which are temporal networks that are constructed from communication events. The IET distributions of such systems guide efforts to build models of human behavior, and the variance of IETs is very important for estimating the spreading rate of information in networks of temporal interactions. We analyze several well-known data sets from the literature, and we find that the resulting bias can lead to systematic underestimates of the variance in the IET distributions and that correcting for the bias can lead to qualitatively different results for the tails of the IET distributions.

  20. New observations of scintillation climatology from the Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Y.; Caton, R. G.; Wiens, K.; Groves, K. M.

    2012-12-01

    The Scintillation Network Decision Aid (SCINDA) was established with three ground sites in the mid-1990's by the Air Force Research Laboratory and has continued to grow into a global scintillation observation network. This system consists of an array of VHF and GPS receivers which continually measure scintillation in the equatorial region. In the past few years, the extended network of ground stations has expanded into the African sector. Initial results from yearly scintillation data obtained from two VHF receivers in Narobi, Kenya and Bahir Dar, Ethiopia in 2011 indicate the presence of scintillation activity throughout the June-July -August (northern summer) season which is inconsistent with current state-of-the-art ionospheric climatology models. It is well known that seasonal equatorial scintillation patterns vary with longitude based on geographical location. For example, the scintillation activity at VHF frequencies are absent in the Pacific sector during the months of November to February while observations from South America show nearly continuous scintillation during this same time period. With little to no ground-based observations, the scintillation climatology over the African region has not been well understood. In the paper, we will present S4 measurements various longitudinal sectors, including the first look at solar maximum type conditions over the African sector, and provide comparisons with output from a global climatology model.

  1. Integrated Meteorological Observation Network in Castile-León (Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merino, A.; Guerrero-Higueras, A. M.; Ortiz de Galisteo, J. P.; López, L.; García-Ortega, E.; Nafría, D. A.; Sánchez, J. L.

    2012-04-01

    In the region of Castile-Leon, in the northwest of Spain, the study of weather risks is extremely complex because of the topography, the large land area of the region and the variety of climatic features involved. Therefore, as far as the calibration and validation of the necessary tools for the identification and nowcasting of these risks are concerned, one of the most important difficulties is the lack of observed data. The same problem arises, for example, in the analysis of particularly relevant case studies. It was hence deemed necessary to create an INTEGRATED METEOROLOGICAL OBSERVATION NETWORK FOR CASTILE-LEON. The aim of this network is to integrate within one single platform all the ground truth data available. These data enable us to detect a number of weather risks in real time. The various data sources should include the networks from the weather stations run by different public institutions - national and regional ones (AEMET, Junta de Castilla y León, Universities, etc.) -, as well as the stations run by voluntary observers. The platform will contain real or cuasi-real time data from the ground weather stations, but it will also have applications to enable voluntary observers to indicate the presence or absence of certain meteors (snow, hail) or even provide detailed information about them (hailstone size, graupel, etc.). The data managed by this network have a high scientific potential, as they may be used for a number of different purposes: calibration and validation of remote sensing tools, assimilation of observation data from numerical models, study of extreme weather events, etc. An additional aim of the network is the drawing of maps of weather risks in real time. These maps are of great importance for the people involved in risk management in each region, as well as for the general public. Finally, one of the first applications developed has been the creation of observation maps in real time. These applications have been constructed using NCL

  2. Coastal Ocean Observing Network - Open Source Architecture for Data Management and Web-Based Data Services

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattabhi Rama Rao, E.; Venkat Shesu, R.; Udaya Bhaskar, T. V. S.

    2012-07-01

    The observations from the oceans are the backbone for any kind of operational services, viz. potential fishing zone advisory services, ocean state forecast, storm surges, cyclones, monsoon variability, tsunami, etc. Though it is important to monitor open Ocean, it is equally important to acquire sufficient data in the coastal ocean through coastal ocean observing systems for re-analysis, analysis and forecast of coastal ocean by assimilating different ocean variables, especially sub-surface information; validation of remote sensing data, ocean and atmosphere model/analysis and to understand the processes related to air-sea interaction and ocean physics. Accurate information and forecast of the state of the coastal ocean at different time scales is vital for the wellbeing of the coastal population as well as for the socio-economic development of the country through shipping, offshore oil and energy etc. Considering the importance of ocean observations in terms of understanding our ocean environment and utilize them for operational oceanography, a large number of platforms were deployed in the Indian Ocean including coastal observatories, to acquire data on ocean variables in and around Indian Seas. The coastal observation network includes HF Radars, wave rider buoys, sea level gauges, etc. The surface meteorological and oceanographic data generated by these observing networks are being translated into ocean information services through analysis and modelling. Centralized data management system is a critical component in providing timely delivery of Ocean information and advisory services. In this paper, we describe about the development of open-source architecture for real-time data reception from the coastal observation network, processing, quality control, database generation and web-based data services that includes on-line data visualization and data downloads by various means.

  3. The 1% Rule in Four Digital Health Social Networks: An Observational Study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In recent years, cyberculture has informally reported a phenomenon named the 1% rule, or 90-9-1 principle, which seeks to explain participatory patterns and network effects within Internet communities. The rule states that 90% of actors observe and do not participate, 9% contribute sparingly, and 1% of actors create the vast majority of new content. This 90%, 9%, and 1% are also known as Lurkers, Contributors, and Superusers, respectively. To date, very little empirical research has been conducted to verify the 1% rule. Objective The 1% rule is widely accepted in digital marketing. Our goal was to determine if the 1% rule applies to moderated Digital Health Social Networks (DHSNs) designed to facilitate behavior change. Methods To help gain insight into participatory patterns, descriptive data were extracted from four long-standing DHSNs: the AlcoholHelpCenter, DepressionCenter, PanicCenter, and StopSmokingCenter sites. Results During the study period, 63,990 actors created 578,349 posts. Less than 25% of actors made one or more posts. The applicability of the 1% rule was confirmed as Lurkers, Contributors, and Superusers accounted for a weighted average of 1.3% (n=4668), 24.0% (n=88,732), and 74.7% (n=276,034) of content. Conclusions The 1% rule was consistent across the four DHSNs. As social network sustainability requires fresh content and timely interactions, these results are important for organizations actively promoting and managing Internet communities. Superusers generate the vast majority of traffic and create value, so their recruitment and retention is imperative for long-term success. Although Lurkers may benefit from observing interactions between Superusers and Contributors, they generate limited or no network value. The results of this study indicate that DHSNs may be optimized to produce network effects, positive externalities, and bandwagon effects. Further research in the development and expansion of DHSNs is required. PMID:24496109

  4. Solar irradiance computations compared with observations at the Baseline Surface Radiation Network Payerne site

    SciTech Connect

    Nowak, Daniela; Vuilleumier, Laurent; Long, Charles N.; Ohmura, Atsumu

    2008-07-18

    Radiative transfer model calculations of solar fluxes during cloud free periods often show considerable discrepancies with surface radiation observations. Many efforts have been undertaken to explain the differences between modeled and observed shortwave downward radiation (SDR). In this study, MODTRAN4v3r1TM (designed later simply as MODTRANTM) was used for model simulations and compared with high quality radiation observations of the Baseline Surface Radiation Network (BSRN) site at Payerne, Switzerland. Results are presented for cloud free shortwave downward radiation calculations. The median differences of modeled minus observed global SDR are small (< 1%) and within the instrumental error. The differences of modeled and observed direct and diffuse SDR show larger discrepancies of -1.8% and 5.2% respectively. The diffuse SDR is generally overestimated by the model and more important, the model to observation linear regression slope and zero-intercept differs significantly from their ideal values of 1 and 0. Possible reasons for the discrepancies are presented and discussed and some modifications are investigated for decreasing such differences between modeled and observed diffuse SDR. However, we could not resolve all the discrepancies. The best agreement is obtained when comparing model simulations whose 550nm aerosol optical depth input is inferred from observations using nine spectral channels, and using BSRN observations performed with a new and more precise shading disk and sun tracker system. In this case, the median bias between model simulations and observed diffuse SDR is -0.4 Wm-2 (< 1%).

  5. The Vigil Network: a means of observing landscape change in drainage basins

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Osterkamp, W.R.; Emmett, W.W.; Leopold, L.B.

    1991-01-01

    Long-term monitoring of geomorphic, hydrological, and biological characteristics of landscapes provides an effective means of relating observed changes to possible causes of the change. Identification of changes in basin characteristics, especially in arid areas where the response to altered climate or land use is generally rapid and readily apparent, might provide the initial direct indications that factors such as global warming and cultural impacts have affected the environment. The Vigil Network is an ever-increasing group of sites and basins used to monitor landscape features with as much as 50 years of documented geomorphic and related observations. -from Authors

  6. A New Ground-Based Network for Synoptic Solar Observations: The Solar Physics Research Integrated Network Group (SPRING)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill, Frank; Roth, Markus; Thompson, Michael; Gusain, Sanjay

    2014-06-01

    SPRING is a project to develop a geographically distributed network of instrumentation to obtain synoptic solar observations. Building on the demonstrated success of networks to provide nearly-continuous long-term data for helioseismology, SPRING will provide data for a wide range of solar research areas. Scientific objectives include internal solar dynamics and structure; wave transport in the solar atmosphere; the evolution of the magnetic field over the activity cycle; irradiance fluctuations; and space weather origins. Anticipated data products include simultaneous full-disk multi-wavelength Doppler and vector magnetic field images; filtergrams in H-Alpha, CaK, and white light; and PSPT-type irradiance support. The data will be obtained with a duty cycle of around 90% and at a cadence no slower than one minute. The current concept is a multi-instrument platform installed in at least six locations, and which will also provide context information for large-aperture solar telescopes such as EST and the DKIST. There is wide support for the idea within the EU and the US solar research communities. The project is in the early planning stages, and we are open to and looking for participants in the science and instrument definition.

  7. Electrophysiological evaluation of nerve function in inferior alveolar nerve injury: relationship between nerve action potentials and histomorphometric observations.

    PubMed

    Murayama, M; Sasaki, K; Shibahara, T

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to improve the accuracy of diagnosis of inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) injury by determining degrees of nerve disturbance using the sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) and sensory nerve conduction velocity (SCV). Crush and partial and complete nerve amputation injuries were applied to the IAN of rabbits, then SNAPs and histomorphometric observations were recorded at 1, 5, and 10 weeks. For crush injury, most nerves were smaller in diameter at 5 weeks than at 1 week, however after 10 weeks, extensive nerve regeneration was observed. The SNAP showed a decrease in SCV at weeks 1 and 5, followed by an increase at week 10. For partial nerve amputation, small to medium-sized nerve fibres were observed at weeks 1 and 5, then larger nerves were seen at week 10. Minimal changes in SCV were observed at weeks 1 and 5, however SCV increased at week 10. For complete nerve amputation, nerve fibres were sparse at week 1, but gradual nerve regeneration was observed at weeks 5 and 10. SNAPs were detectable from week 10, however the SCV was extremely low. This study showed SCV to be an effective factor in the evaluation of nerve injury and regeneration. PMID:26433750

  8. The Quake-Catcher Network: Improving Earthquake Strong Motion Observations Through Community Engagement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cochran, E. S.; Lawrence, J. F.; Christensen, C. M.; Chung, A. I.; Neighbors, C.; Saltzman, J.

    2010-12-01

    The Quake-Catcher Network (QCN) involves the community in strong motion data collection by utilizing volunteer computing techniques and low-cost MEMS accelerometers. Volunteer computing provides a mechanism to expand strong-motion seismology with minimal infrastructure costs, while promoting community participation in science. Micro-Electro-Mechanical Systems (MEMS) triaxial accelerometers can be attached to a desktop computer via USB and are internal to many laptops. Preliminary shake table tests show the MEMS accelerometers can record high-quality seismic data with instrument response similar to research-grade strong-motion sensors. QCN began distributing sensors and software to K-12 schools and the general public in April 2008 and has grown to roughly 1500 stations worldwide. We also recently tested whether sensors could be quickly deployed as part of a Rapid Aftershock Mobilization Program (RAMP) following the 2010 M8.8 Maule, Chile earthquake. Volunteers are recruited through media reports, web-based sensor request forms, as well as social networking sites. Using data collected to date, we examine whether a distributed sensing network can provide valuable seismic data for earthquake detection and characterization while promoting community participation in earthquake science. We utilize client-side triggering algorithms to determine when significant ground shaking occurs and this metadata is sent to the main QCN server. On average, trigger metadata are received within 1-10 seconds from the observation of a trigger; the larger data latencies are correlated with greater server-station distances. When triggers are detected, we determine if the triggers correlate to others in the network using spatial and temporal clustering of incoming trigger information. If a minimum number of triggers are detected then a QCN-event is declared and an initial earthquake location and magnitude is estimated. Initial analysis suggests that the estimated locations and magnitudes are

  9. Graph analysis of functional brain networks for cognitive control of action in traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Caeyenberghs, Karen; Leemans, Alexander; Heitger, Marcus H; Leunissen, Inge; Dhollander, Thijs; Sunaert, Stefan; Dupont, Patrick; Swinnen, Stephan P

    2012-04-01

    Patients with traumatic brain injury show clear impairments in behavioural flexibility and inhibition that often persist beyond the time of injury, affecting independent living and psychosocial functioning. Functional magnetic resonance imaging studies have shown that patients with traumatic brain injury typically show increased and more broadly dispersed frontal and parietal activity during performance of cognitive control tasks. We constructed binary and weighted functional networks and calculated their topological properties using a graph theoretical approach. Twenty-three adults with traumatic brain injury and 26 age-matched controls were instructed to switch between coordination modes while making spatially and temporally coupled circular motions with joysticks during event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging. Results demonstrated that switching performance was significantly lower in patients with traumatic brain injury compared with control subjects. Furthermore, although brain networks of both groups exhibited economical small-world topology, altered functional connectivity was demonstrated in patients with traumatic brain injury. In particular, compared with controls, patients with traumatic brain injury showed increased connectivity degree and strength, and higher values of local efficiency, suggesting adaptive mechanisms in this group. Finally, the degree of increased connectivity was significantly correlated with poorer switching task performance and more severe brain injury. We conclude that analysing the functional brain network connectivity provides new insights into understanding cognitive control changes following brain injury.

  10. Observer-based tracking controller design for networked predictive control systems with uncertain Markov delays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Hui; Shi, Yang; Wang, Junmin

    2013-10-01

    This paper is concerned with a tracking controller design problem for discrete-time networked predictive control systems. The control law used here is a combined state-feedback control and integral control. Since not all the states are available in practice, a local Luenberger observer is utilised to estimate the state vector. The measured output and estimated state vector are packed together and transmitted to the tracking controller via a communication channel with a limited capacity. Meanwhile, the control signal is also transmitted through a communication network.Network-induced delays on both links are considered for the signal transmission and modelled by Markov chains. Moreover, it is assumed that the elements in Markov transition matrices are subject to uncertainties. In order to fully compensate for network-induced delays, the controller generates a sequence of control signals which are dependent on each possible delay in the feedforward channel. By taking the augmentation twice, we obtain delay-free stochastic closed-loop systems and the controlled output is chosen as the tracking error. Sufficient conditions are provided for the energy-to-peak performance of the closed-loop systems. The feedback gains of the controller can be derived by solving a minimisation problem. Two examples are illustrated to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed design method.

  11. Observations of drainage network change in a recently burned watershed using terrestrial laser scanning

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staley, Dennis; Wasklewicz, Thad; Kean, Jason

    2010-01-01

    Wildfire enhances the geomorphic response of a watershed to precipitation events, effectively altering the form of the hillslope and channel drainage network. Typically, drainage networks expand following rainfall on a recently burned watershed. Expansion of drainage networks following wildfire increases in erosion and sediment transport rates, and the probability of flash-flooding and debris-flows at downstream locations. Observations of the response of hillslope and channel drainage to individual precipitation events are vital to unraveling the dynamics of erosion processes in recently burned watersheds. Here, we apply terrestrial laser scanning (TLS) methods to produce digital terrain models (DTMs) of a recently burned watershed at an unprecedented spatial resolution. The DTM data aid the quantification of changes in the hillslope and channel drainage networks at several spatial scales. Two TLS surveys were conducted, one survey between 28-30 September 2008 to document pre-rainfall conditions, and one between 18-21 December 2008, three days after 52 mm of rainfall over a period of 22 hours. A Leica Geosystems ScanStation 2 TLS was used to generate 1 cm resolution DTMs, from which the hillslope and channel drainage networks were derived. The location and magnitude of erosion and deposition for each pixel within the basin was determined by calculating the topographic differences between DTMs. Changes in the drainage network morphology were identified through the analysis of bifurcation ratio, drainage density (including rills), rill length, horizontal migration of rills, width-depth ratios and upstream migration of knickpoints. Comparisons of these measures were made between morphologically distinct sub-basins within the study area, and between surveys. Analyses of bifurcation ratios, and measures of rill position and gullyhead migration indicate an expansion of the rill network and upstream migration of knickpoints. These results suggest that expansion of the

  12. Active volcanoes observed through Art: the contribution offered by the social networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neri, Marco; Neri, Emilia

    2015-04-01

    Volcanoes have always fascinated people for the wild beauty of their landscapes and also for the fear that they arouse with their eruptive actions, sometimes simply spectacular, but other times terrifying and catastrophic for human activities. In the past, volcanoes were sometimes imagined as a metaphysical gateway to the otherworld; they have inspired the creation of myths and legends ever since three thousand years ago, also represented by paintings of great artistic impact. Modern technology today offers very sophisticated and readily accessed digital tools, and volcanoes continue to be frequently photographed and highly appreciated natural phenomena. Moreover, in recent years, the spread of social networks (Facebook, Twitter, YouTube, Instagram, etc.) have made the widespread dissemination of graphic contributions even easier. The result is that very active and densely inhabited volcanoes such as Etna, Vesuvius and Aeolian Islands, in Italy, have become among the most photographed subjects in the world, providing a popular science tool with formidable influence and usefulness. The beauty of these landscapes have inspired both professional artists and photographers, as well as amateurs, who compete in the social networks for the publication of the most spectacular, artistic or simply most informative images. The end result of this often frantic popular scientific activity is at least two-fold: on one hand, it provides geoscientists and science communicators a quantity of documentation that is almost impossible to acquire through the normal systems of volcano monitoring, while on the other it raises awareness and respect for the land among the civil community.

  13. Optimal Observation Network Design for Model Discrimination using Information Theory and Bayesian Model Averaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pham, H. V.; Tsai, F. T. C.

    2014-12-01

    Groundwater systems are complex and subject to multiple interpretations and conceptualizations due to a lack of sufficient information. As a result, multiple conceptual models are often developed and their mean predictions are preferably used to avoid biased predictions from using a single conceptual model. Yet considering too many conceptual models may lead to high prediction uncertainty and may lose the purpose of model development. In order to reduce the number of models, an optimal observation network design is proposed based on maximizing the Kullback-Leibler (KL) information to discriminate competing models. The KL discrimination function derived by Box and Hill [1967] for one additional observation datum at a time is expanded to account for multiple independent spatiotemporal observations. The Bayesian model averaging (BMA) method is used to incorporate existing data and quantify future observation uncertainty arising from conceptual and parametric uncertainties in the discrimination function. To consider the future observation uncertainty, the Monte Carlo realizations of BMA predicted future observations are used to calculate the mean and variance of posterior model probabilities of the competing models. The goal of the optimal observation network design is to find the number and location of observation wells and sampling rounds such that the highest posterior model probability of a model is larger than a desired probability criterion (e.g., 95%). The optimal observation network design is implemented to a groundwater study in the Baton Rouge area, Louisiana to collect new groundwater heads from USGS wells. The considered sources of uncertainty that create multiple groundwater models are the geological architecture, the boundary condition, and the fault permeability architecture. All possible design solutions are enumerated using high performance computing systems. Results show that total model variance (the sum of within-model variance and between

  14. Ability of the current global observing network to constrain N2O sources and sinks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, D. B.; Wells, K. C.; Chaliyakunnel, S.; Griffis, T. J.; Henze, D. K.; Bousserez, N.

    2014-12-01

    The global observing network for atmospheric N2O combines flask and in-situ measurements at ground stations with sustained and campaign-based aircraft observations. In this talk we apply a new global model of N2O (based on GEOS-Chem) and its adjoint to assess the strengths and weaknesses of this network for quantifying N2O emissions. We employ an ensemble of pseudo-observation analyses to evaluate the relative constraints provided by ground-based (surface, tall tower) and airborne (HIPPO, CARIBIC) observations, and the extent to which variability (e.g. associated with pulsing or seasonality of emissions) not captured by the a priori inventory can bias the inferred fluxes. We find that the ground-based and HIPPO datasets each provide a stronger constraint on the distribution of global emissions than does the CARIBIC dataset on its own. Given appropriate initial conditions, we find that our inferred surface fluxes are insensitive to model errors in the stratospheric loss rate of N2O over the timescale of our analysis (2 years); however, the same is not necessarily true for model errors in stratosphere-troposphere exchange. Finally, we examine the a posteriori error reduction distribution to identify priority locations for future N2O measurements.

  15. Toward a national animal telemetry network for aquatic observations in the United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Block, Barbara A.; Holbrook, Christopher; Simmons, Samantha E; Holland, Kim N; Ault, Jerald S.; Costa, Daniel P.; Mate, Bruce R; Seitz, Andrew C; Arendt, Michael D.; Payne, John; Mahmoudi, Behzad; Moore, Peter L.; Price, James; J. J. Levenson,; Wilson, Doug; Kochevar, Randall E

    2016-01-01

    Animal telemetry is the science of elucidating the movements and behavior of animals in relation to their environment or habitat. Here, we focus on telemetry of aquatic species (marine mammals, sharks, fish, sea birds and turtles) and so are concerned with animal movements and behavior as they move through and above the world’s oceans, coastal rivers, estuaries and great lakes. Animal telemetry devices (“tags”) yield detailed data regarding animal responses to the coupled ocean–atmosphere and physical environment through which they are moving. Animal telemetry has matured and we describe a developing US Animal Telemetry Network (ATN) observing system that monitors aquatic life on a range of temporal and spatial scales that will yield both short- and long-term benefits, fill oceanographic observing and knowledge gaps and advance many of the U.S. National Ocean Policy Priority Objectives. ATN has the potential to create a huge impact for the ocean observing activities undertaken by the U.S. Integrated Ocean Observing System (IOOS) and become a model for establishing additional national-level telemetry networks worldwide.

  16. Knowledge acquisition by networks of interacting agents in the presence of observation errors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batista, J. B.; Costa, L. Da F.

    2010-07-01

    In this work we investigate knowledge acquisition as performed by multiple agents interacting as they infer, under the presence of observation errors, respective models of a complex system. We focus the specific case in which, at each time step, each agent takes into account its current observation as well as the average of the models of its neighbors. The agents are connected by a network of interaction of Erdős-Rényi or Barabási-Albert type. First, we investigate situations in which one of the agents has a different probability of observation error (higher or lower). It is shown that the influence of this special agent over the quality of the models inferred by the rest of the network can be substantial, varying linearly with the respective degree of the agent with different estimation error. In case the degree of this agent is taken as a respective fitness parameter, the effect of the different estimation error is even more pronounced, becoming superlinear. To complement our analysis, we provide the analytical solution of the overall performance of the system. We also investigate the knowledge acquisition dynamic when the agents are grouped into communities. We verify that the inclusion of edges between agents (within a community) having higher probability of observation error promotes the loss of quality in the estimation of the agents in the other communities.

  17. The Asian Dust and Aerosol Lidar Observation Network (AD-NET): Strategy and Progress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishizawa, Tomoaki; Sugimoto, Nobuo; Matsui, Ichiro; Shimizu, Atsushi; Higurashi, Akiko; Jin, Yoshitaka

    2016-06-01

    We have operated a ground-based lidar network AD-Net using dual wavelength (532, 1064nm) depolarization Mie lidar continuously and observed movement of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols in East Asia since 2001. This lidar network observation contributed to understanding of the occurrence and transport mechanisms of Asian dust, validation of chemical transport models, data assimilation and epidemiologic studies. To better understand the optical and microphysical properties, externally and internally mixing states, and the movements of Asian dust and airpollution aerosols, we go forward with introducing a multi-wavelength Raman lidar to the AD-Net and developing a multi-wavelength technique of HSRL in order to evaluate optical concentrations of more aerosol components. We will use this evolving AD-Net for validation of Earth-CARE satellite observation and data assimilation to evaluate emissions of air pollution and dust aerosols in East Asia. We go forward with deploying an in-situ instrument polarization optical particle counter (POPC), which can measure size distributions and non-sphericity of aerosols, to several main AD-Net sites and conducting simultaneous observation of POPC and lidar to clarify internally mixed state of Asian dust and air pollution aerosols transported from the Asian continent to Japan.

  18. Knowledge acquisition by networks of interacting agents in the presence of observation errors.

    PubMed

    Batista, J B; Costa, L da F

    2010-07-01

    In this work we investigate knowledge acquisition as performed by multiple agents interacting as they infer, under the presence of observation errors, respective models of a complex system. We focus the specific case in which, at each time step, each agent takes into account its current observation as well as the average of the models of its neighbors. The agents are connected by a network of interaction of Erdos-Rényi or Barabási-Albert type. First, we investigate situations in which one of the agents has a different probability of observation error (higher or lower). It is shown that the influence of this special agent over the quality of the models inferred by the rest of the network can be substantial, varying linearly with the respective degree of the agent with different estimation error. In case the degree of this agent is taken as a respective fitness parameter, the effect of the different estimation error is even more pronounced, becoming superlinear. To complement our analysis, we provide the analytical solution of the overall performance of the system. We also investigate the knowledge acquisition dynamic when the agents are grouped into communities. We verify that the inclusion of edges between agents (within a community) having higher probability of observation error promotes the loss of quality in the estimation of the agents in the other communities.

  19. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Actions between Pharmaceuticals and Proteins on the AD Network

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Jingyuan; Wang, Quan; Ruan, Jishou

    2015-01-01

    This study begins with constructing the mini metabolic networks (MMNs) of beta amyloid (Aβ) and acetylcholine (ACh) which stimulate the Alzheimer’s Disease (AD). Then we generate the AD network by incorporating MMNs of Aβ and ACh, and other MMNs of stimuli of AD. The panel of proteins contains 49 enzymes/receptors on the AD network which have the 3D-structure in PDB. The panel of drugs is formed by 5 AD drugs and 5 AD nutraceutical drugs, and 20 non-AD drugs. All of these complexes formed by these 30 drugs and 49 proteins are transformed into dyadic arrays. Utilizing the prior knowledge learned from the drug panel, we propose a statistical classification (dry-lab). According to the wet-lab for the complex of amiloride and insulin degrading enzyme, and the complex of amiloride and neutral endopeptidase, we are confident that this dry-lab is reliable. As the consequences of the dry-lab, we discover many interesting implications. Especially, we show that possible causes of Tacrine, donepezil, galantamine and huperzine A cannot improve the level of ACh which is against to their original design purpose but they still prevent AD to be worse as Aβ deposition appeared. On the other hand, we recommend Miglitol and Atenolol as the safe and potent drugs to improve the level of ACh before Aβ deposition appearing. Moreover, some nutrients such as NADH and Vitamin E should be controlled because they may harm health if being used in wrong way and wrong time. Anyway, the insights shown in this study are valuable to be developed further. PMID:26650760

  20. Uncovering the Molecular Mechanism of Actions between Pharmaceuticals and Proteins on the AD Network.

    PubMed

    Cao, Shujuan; Yu, Liang; Mao, Jingyuan; Wang, Quan; Ruan, Jishou

    2015-01-01

    This study begins with constructing the mini metabolic networks (MMNs) of beta amyloid (Aβ) and acetylcholine (ACh) which stimulate the Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Then we generate the AD network by incorporating MMNs of Aβ and ACh, and other MMNs of stimuli of AD. The panel of proteins contains 49 enzymes/receptors on the AD network which have the 3D-structure in PDB. The panel of drugs is formed by 5 AD drugs and 5 AD nutraceutical drugs, and 20 non-AD drugs. All of these complexes formed by these 30 drugs and 49 proteins are transformed into dyadic arrays. Utilizing the prior knowledge learned from the drug panel, we propose a statistical classification (dry-lab). According to the wet-lab for the complex of amiloride and insulin degrading enzyme, and the complex of amiloride and neutral endopeptidase, we are confident that this dry-lab is reliable. As the consequences of the dry-lab, we discover many interesting implications. Especially, we show that possible causes of Tacrine, donepezil, galantamine and huperzine A cannot improve the level of ACh which is against to their original design purpose but they still prevent AD to be worse as Aβ deposition appeared. On the other hand, we recommend Miglitol and Atenolol as the safe and potent drugs to improve the level of ACh before Aβ deposition appearing. Moreover, some nutrients such as NADH and Vitamin E should be controlled because they may harm health if being used in wrong way and wrong time. Anyway, the insights shown in this study are valuable to be developed further. PMID:26650760

  1. Automatic volcanic ash detection from MODIS observations using a back-propagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, T. M.; Bennartz, R.

    2015-08-01

    Due to the climate effects and aviation threats of volcanic eruptions, it is important to accurately locate ash in the atmosphere. This study aims to explore the accuracy and reliability of training a neural network to identify cases of ash using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Satellite images were obtained for the following eruptions: Kasatochi, Aleutian Islands, 2008; Okmok, Aleutian Islands, 2008; Grímsvötn, northeastern Iceland, 2011; Chaiteìn, southern Chile, 2008; Puyehue-Cordoìn Caulle, central Chile, 2011; Sangeang Api, Indonesia, 2014; and Kelut, Indonesia, 2014. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model (HYSPLIT) was used to obtain ash concentrations for the same archived eruptions. Two back-propagation neural networks were then trained using brightness temperature differences as inputs obtained via the following band combinations: 12-11, 11-8.6, 11-7.3, and 11 μm. Using the ash concentrations determined via HYSPLIT, flags were created to differentiate between ash (1) and no ash (0) and SO2-rich ash (1) and no SO2-rich ash (0) and used as output. When neural network output was compared to the test dataset, 93 % of pixels containing ash were correctly identified and 7 % were missed. Nearly 100 % of pixels containing SO2-rich ash were correctly identified. The optimal thresholds, determined using Heidke skill scores, for ash retrieval and SO2-rich ash retrieval were 0.48 and 0.47, respectively. The networks show significantly less accuracy in the presence of high water vapor, liquid water, ice, or dust concentrations. Significant errors are also observed at the edge of the MODIS swath.

  2. Automatic volcanic ash detection from MODIS observations using a back-propagation neural network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, T. M.; Bennartz, R.

    2015-12-01

    Due to the climate effects and aviation threats of volcanic eruptions, it is important to accurately locate ash in the atmosphere. This study aims to explore the accuracy and reliability of training a neural network to identify cases of ash using observations from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). Satellite images were obtained for the following eruptions: Kasatochi, Aleutian Islands, 2008; Okmok, Aleutian Islands, 2008; Grímsvötn, northeastern Iceland, 2011; Chaitén, southern Chile, 2008; Puyehue-Cordón Caulle, central Chile, 2011; Sangeang Api, Indonesia, 2014; and Kelut, Indonesia, 2014. The Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory (HYSPLIT) model was used to obtain ash concentrations for the same archived eruptions. Two back-propagation neural networks were then trained using brightness temperature differences as inputs obtained via the following band combinations: 12-11, 11-8.6, 11-7.3, and 11 μm. Using the ash concentrations determined via HYSPLIT, flags were created to differentiate between ash (1) and no ash (0) and SO2-rich ash (1) and no SO2-rich ash (0) and used as output. When neural network output was compared to the test data set, 93 % of pixels containing ash were correctly identified and 7 % were missed. Nearly 100 % of pixels containing SO2-rich ash were correctly identified. The optimal thresholds, determined using Heidke skill scores, for ash retrieval and SO2-rich ash retrieval were 0.48 and 0.47, respectively. The networks show significantly less accuracy in the presence of high water vapor, liquid water, ice, or dust concentrations. Significant errors are also observed at the edge of the MODIS swath.

  3. Novel sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica: Chemical structure and action on the fibrin network.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Raffo, María Paula; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-12-10

    The water-soluble sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica are constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2. Besides, partial glycosylation mostly on C2 with single stubs of β-d-xylopyranose, or single stubs of β-d-galactofuranose or short chains comprising (1→5)- and/or (1→6)-linkages, was also found. These compounds showed anticoagulant activity, although much lower than that of heparin. The effect of a purified fraction (F1) on the fibrin network was studied in detail. It modifies the kinetics of fibrin formation, suggesting an impaired polymerization process. Scanning electron microscopy showed a laxer conformation, with larger interstitial pores than the control. Accordingly, this network was lysed more easily. These fibrin properties would reduce the time of permanence of the clot in the blood vessel, inducing a lesser thrombogenic state. One of the possible mechanisms of its anticoagulant effect is direct thrombin inhibition.

  4. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular.

  5. Twitter K-H networks in action: Advancing biomedical literature for drug search.

    PubMed

    Hamed, Ahmed Abdeen; Wu, Xindong; Erickson, Robert; Fandy, Tamer

    2015-08-01

    The importance of searching biomedical literature for drug interaction and side-effects is apparent. Current digital libraries (e.g., PubMed) suffer infrequent tagging and metadata annotation updates. Such limitations cause absence of linking literature to new scientific evidence. This demonstrates a great deal of challenges that stand in the way of scientists when searching biomedical repositories. In this paper, we present a network mining approach that provides a bridge for linking and searching drug-related literature. Our contributions here are two fold: (1) an efficient algorithm called HashPairMiner to address the run-time complexity issues demonstrated in its predecessor algorithm: HashnetMiner, and (2) a database of discoveries hosted on the web to facilitate literature search using the results produced by HashPairMiner. Though the K-H network model and the HashPairMiner algorithm are fairly young, their outcome is evidence of the considerable promise they offer to the biomedical science community in general and the drug research community in particular. PMID:26065982

  6. Novel sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica: Chemical structure and action on the fibrin network.

    PubMed

    Arata, Paula X; Quintana, Irene; Raffo, María Paula; Ciancia, Marina

    2016-12-10

    The water-soluble sulfated xylogalactoarabinans from green seaweed Cladophora falklandica are constituted by a backbone of 4-linked β-l-arabinopyranose units partially sulfated mainly on C3 and also on C2. Besides, partial glycosylation mostly on C2 with single stubs of β-d-xylopyranose, or single stubs of β-d-galactofuranose or short chains comprising (1→5)- and/or (1→6)-linkages, was also found. These compounds showed anticoagulant activity, although much lower than that of heparin. The effect of a purified fraction (F1) on the fibrin network was studied in detail. It modifies the kinetics of fibrin formation, suggesting an impaired polymerization process. Scanning electron microscopy showed a laxer conformation, with larger interstitial pores than the control. Accordingly, this network was lysed more easily. These fibrin properties would reduce the time of permanence of the clot in the blood vessel, inducing a lesser thrombogenic state. One of the possible mechanisms of its anticoagulant effect is direct thrombin inhibition. PMID:27577905

  7. A Sparse Representation-Based Deployment Method for Optimizing the Observation Quality of Camera Networks

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chang; Qi, Fei; Shi, Guangming; Wang, Xiaotian

    2013-01-01

    Deployment is a critical issue affecting the quality of service of camera networks. The deployment aims at adopting the least number of cameras to cover the whole scene, which may have obstacles to occlude the line of sight, with expected observation quality. This is generally formulated as a non-convex optimization problem, which is hard to solve in polynomial time. In this paper, we propose an efficient convex solution for deployment optimizing the observation quality based on a novel anisotropic sensing model of cameras, which provides a reliable measurement of the observation quality. The deployment is formulated as the selection of a subset of nodes from a redundant initial deployment with numerous cameras, which is an ℓ0 minimization problem. Then, we relax this non-convex optimization to a convex ℓ1 minimization employing the sparse representation. Therefore, the high quality deployment is efficiently obtained via convex optimization. Simulation results confirm the effectiveness of the proposed camera deployment algorithms. PMID:23989826

  8. Realtime Delivery of Alarms and Key Observables in a Deployed Hydrological Sensor Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marshall, I. W.; Price, M. C.; Li, H.; Boyd, N.; Boult, S.

    2007-12-01

    It has widely [1-3] been proposed that sensor networks are a good solution for environmental monitoring. However, this application presents a number of major challenges for current technology. In particular environmental science involves the study of coupled non-equilibrium dynamic processes that generate time series with non-stationary means and strongly dependent variables and which operate in the presence of large amounts of noise/interference (thermal, chemical and biological) and multiple quasi-periodic forcing factors (diurnal cycles, tides, etc). This typically means that any analysis must be based on large data samples obtained at multiple scales of space and time. In addition the areas of interest are large, relatively inaccessible and typically extremely hostile to electronic instrumentation. Our analysis of these factors has encouraged us to focus on this list of generic requirements; a) Node lifetime (between visits) should be 1 yr or greater b) Communication range should be ~250m c) Nodes should be portable, unobtrusive, low cost, etc. d) Networks are expected to be sparse since areas of interest are large and budgets are small However, the characteristics of each environment, the dominant processes operating in it and the measurements that are of interest are sufficiently different that the design of an appropriate sensor network solution is normally most determined by site specific constraints. Most importantly the opportunities for exploiting contextual correlation to disambiguate observations and improve the maintenance and robustness of a deployed sensor network are always site specific. We will describe the design and initial deployment of a hydrological sensor network we are developing to assess the hydro-dynamics of surface water drainage into Great Crowden Brook in the Peak District (UK). The complete network will observe soil moisture, temperature and rainfall on a number of transects across the valley, and will also investigate water quality

  9. Proto-Type Development of Optical Wide-field Patrol Network and Test Observation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, J.; Choi, Y.; Jo, J.; Moon, H.; Yim, H.; Park, Y.; Hae, Y.; Park, S.; Choi, J.; Son, J.

    2014-09-01

    We present a prototype system developed for optical satellite tracking and its early test observation results. The main objective of the OWL (Optical Wide-field patroL) network is to get orbital information for Korean domestic satellites using optical means only and to maintain their orbital elements. The network is composed of 5 small wide-field telescopes deployed over the world. Each observing station is operated in fully robotic manner from receiving observation schedule to reporting the result, and controlled by the headquarter located in Daejeon, Korea, where orbit calculation and observation strategy will be determined. We developed a compact telescope system for robotic observation and easy maintenance. The telescope is 0.5m of aperture diameter with Rechey-Cretian configuration and its field of view is 1.1 deg. It is equipped with 4K CCD with 9um pixel size, and its pixel scale is 1.2 arcsec/pixel. A chopper wheel with variable speed is adopted to get more points in a single shot. The CCD camera and all the rotating parts (chopper wheel, de-rotator, and filter wheel) are integrated into one compact component called a wheel station. Each observing station is equipped with a fully automatic dome and heavy duty environment monitoring system. We could get an image every 20 seconds and up to ~100 trail points in a single exposure. Each point is time-tagged by ~1/1000 second precision. For one of best cases, we could estimate satellite position with RMS ~ 0.5km accuracy in the along-track with only 4 exposures (~100 points). The first system was installed at the Mongolian site after completing verification test at the testbed site in Daejeon, Korea. The second and third system will be installed in the end of this year.

  10. Actionable Science Lessons Emerging from the Department of Interior Climate Science Center Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McMahon, G.; Meadow, A. M.; Mikels-Carrasco, J.

    2015-12-01

    The DOI Advisory Committee on Climate Change and Natural Resource Science (ACCCNRS) has recommended that co-production of actionable science be the core programmatic focus of the Climate Science Center enterprise. Efforts by the Southeast Climate Science Center suggest that the complexity of many climate adaptation decision problems (many stakeholders that can influence implementation of a decision; the problems that can be viewed at many scales in space and time; dynamic objectives with competing values; complex, non-linear systems) complicates development of research-based information that scientists and non-scientists view as comprehensible, trustworthy, legitimate, and accurate. Going forward, organizers of actionable science efforts should consider inclusion of a broad set of stakeholders, beyond formal decisionmakers, and ensure that sufficient resources are available to explore the interests and values of this broader group. Co-produced research endeavors should foster agency and collaboration across a wide range of stakeholders. We recognize that stakeholder agency may be constrained by scientific or political power structures that limit the ability to initiate discussion, make claims, and call things into question. Co-production efforts may need to be preceded by more descriptive assessments that summarize existing climate science in ways that stakeholders can understand and link with their concerns. Such efforts can build rapport and trust among scientists and non-scientists, and may help stakeholders and scientists alike to frame adaptation decision problems amenable to a co-production effort. Finally, university and government researchers operate within an evaluation structure that rewards researcher-driven science that, at the extreme, "throws information over the fence" in the hope that information users will make better decisions. Research evaluation processes must reward more consultative, collaborative, and collegial research approaches if

  11. Thermodynamics based on the principle of least abbreviated action: Entropy production in a network of coupled oscillators

    SciTech Connect

    Garcia-Morales, Vladimir Pellicer, Julio; Manzanares, Jose A.

    2008-08-15

    We present some novel thermodynamic ideas based on the Maupertuis principle. By considering Hamiltonians written in terms of appropriate action-angle variables we show that thermal states can be characterized by the action variables and by their evolution in time when the system is nonintegrable. We propose dynamical definitions for the equilibrium temperature and entropy as well as an expression for the nonequilibrium entropy valid for isolated systems with many degrees of freedom. This entropy is shown to increase in the relaxation to equilibrium of macroscopic systems with short-range interactions, which constitutes a dynamical justification of the Second Law of Thermodynamics. Several examples are worked out to show that this formalism yields the right microcanonical (equilibrium) quantities. The relevance of this approach to nonequilibrium situations is illustrated with an application to a network of coupled oscillators (Kuramoto model). We provide an expression for the entropy production in this system finding that its positive value is directly related to dissipation at the steady state in attaining order through synchronization.

  12. Changing the culture of academic medicine: the C-Change learning action network and its impact at participating medical schools.

    PubMed

    Krupat, Edward; Pololi, Linda; Schnell, Eugene R; Kern, David E

    2013-09-01

    The culture of academic medicine has been described as hierarchical, competitive, and not highly supportive of female or minority faculty. In response to this, the authors designed the Learning Action Network (LAN), which was part of the National Initiative on Gender, Culture and Leadership in Medicine (C-Change). The LAN is a five-school consortium aimed at changing the organizational culture of its constituent institutions. The authors selected LAN schools to be geographically diverse and representative of U.S. medical schools. Institutional leaders and faculty representatives from constituent schools met twice yearly for four years (2006-2010), forming a cross-institutional learning community. Through their quarterly listing of institutional activities, schools reported a wide array of actions. Most common were increased faculty development and/or mentoring, new approaches to communication, and adoption of new policies and procedures. Other categories included data collection/management, engagement of key stakeholders, education regarding gender/diversity, and new/expanded leadership positions. Through exit interviews, most participants reported feeling optimistic about maintaining the momentum of change. However, some, especially in schools with leadership changes, expressed uncertainty. Participants reported that they felt that the LAN enabled, empowered, facilitated, and/or caused the reported actions.For others who might want to work toward changing the culture of academic medicine, the authors offer several lessons learned from their experiences with C-Change. Most notably, people, structures, policies, and reward systems must be put into place to support cultural values, and broad-based support should be created in order for changes to persist when inevitable transitions in leadership occur.

  13. The Research and Education Collaborative Occultation Network: A System for Coordinated TNO Occultation Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buie, Marc W.; Keller, John M.

    2016-03-01

    We describe a new system and method for collecting coordinated occultation observations of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). Occultations by objects in the outer solar system are more difficult to predict due to their large distance and limited span of the astrometric data used to determine their orbits and positions. This project brings together the research and educational community into a unique citizen-science partnership to overcome the difficulties of observing these distant objects. The goal of the project is to get sizes and shapes for TNOs with diameters larger than 100 km. As a result of the system design it will also serve as a probe for binary systems with spatial separations as small as contact systems. Traditional occultation efforts strive to get a prediction sufficiently good to place mobile ground stations in the shadow track. Our system takes a new approach of setting up a large number of fixed observing stations and letting the shadows come to the network. The nominal spacing of the stations is 50 km so that we ensure two chords at our limiting size. The spread of the network is roughly 2000 km along a roughly north-south line in the western United States. The network contains 56 stations that are committed to the project and we get additional ad hoc support from International Occultation Timing Association members. At our minimum size, two stations will record an event while the other stations will be probing the inner regions for secondary events. Larger objects will get more chords and will allow determination of shape profiles. The stations are almost exclusively sited and associated with schools, usually at the 9-12 grade level. We present a full description of the system we have developed for the continued exploration of the Kuiper Belt.

  14. Transport Vesicle Tethering at the Trans Golgi Network: Coiled Coil Proteins in Action.

    PubMed

    Cheung, Pak-Yan P; Pfeffer, Suzanne R

    2016-01-01

    The Golgi complex is decorated with so-called Golgin proteins that share a common feature: a large proportion of their amino acid sequences are predicted to form coiled-coil structures. The possible presence of extensive coiled coils implies that these proteins are highly elongated molecules that can extend a significant distance from the Golgi surface. This property would help them to capture or trap inbound transport vesicles and to tether Golgi mini-stacks together. This review will summarize our current understanding of coiled coil tethers that are needed for the receipt of transport vesicles at the trans Golgi network (TGN). How do long tethering proteins actually catch vesicles? Golgi-associated, coiled coil tethers contain numerous binding sites for small GTPases, SNARE proteins, and vesicle coat proteins. How are these interactions coordinated and are any or all of them important for the tethering process? Progress toward understanding these questions and remaining, unresolved mysteries will be discussed.

  15. The Predicted Proteomic Network Associated with the Antiarthritic Action of Qingfu Guanjieshu in Collagen-II-Induced Arthritis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ting Yu; Zhou, Hua; Wong, Yuen Fan; Wu, Pui Kei; Hsiao, Wen-Luan Wendy; Leung, Elaine Lai-Han; Liu, Liang

    2013-01-01

    Qingfu Guanjieshu (QFGJS) is an herbal preparation for treating rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Previous studies revealed that QFGJS significantly inhibited experimental arthritis and acute inflammation, accompanied by reduction of proinflammatory cytokines and elevation of anti-inflammatory cytokines. This study aims to identify the targeted proteins and predict the proteomic network associated with the drug action of QFGJS by using 2D gel and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS techniques. Thirty female Wistar rats were evenly grouped as normal and vehicle- and QFGJS-treated CIA rats. The antiarthritic effect of QFGJS was examined with a 19-day treatment course, and the knee synovial tissues of animals from each group were obtained for 2D gel and MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis. Results showed that QFGJS significantly ameliorated collagen II-induced arthritis when administrated at 2.8 g/kg body weight for 19 days. 2D gel image analysis revealed 89 differentially expressed proteins in the synovial tissues among the normal and vehicle- and QFGJS-treated CIA rats from over 1000 proteins of which 63 proteins were identified by MALDI-TOF-MS/MS analysis, and 32 proteins were included for classification of functions using Gene Ontology (GO) method. Finally, 14 proteins were analyzed using bioinformatics, and a predicted proteomic network related to the anti-arthritic effect of QFGJS was established, and Pgk1 plays a central role. PMID:23781264

  16. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    PubMed

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions.

  17. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network.

    PubMed

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions

  18. Physiological modules for generating discrete and rhythmic movements: action identification by a dynamic recurrent neural network

    PubMed Central

    Bengoetxea, Ana; Leurs, Françoise; Hoellinger, Thomas; Cebolla, Ana M.; Dan, Bernard; McIntyre, Joseph; Cheron, Guy

    2014-01-01

    In this study we employed a dynamic recurrent neural network (DRNN) in a novel fashion to reveal characteristics of control modules underlying the generation of muscle activations when drawing figures with the outstretched arm. We asked healthy human subjects to perform four different figure-eight movements in each of two workspaces (frontal plane and sagittal plane). We then trained a DRNN to predict the movement of the wrist from information in the EMG signals from seven different muscles. We trained different instances of the same network on a single movement direction, on all four movement directions in a single movement plane, or on all eight possible movement patterns and looked at the ability of the DRNN to generalize and predict movements for trials that were not included in the training set. Within a single movement plane, a DRNN trained on one movement direction was not able to predict movements of the hand for trials in the other three directions, but a DRNN trained simultaneously on all four movement directions could generalize across movement directions within the same plane. Similarly, the DRNN was able to reproduce the kinematics of the hand for both movement planes, but only if it was trained on examples performed in each one. As we will discuss, these results indicate that there are important dynamical constraints on the mapping of EMG to hand movement that depend on both the time sequence of the movement and on the anatomical constraints of the musculoskeletal system. In a second step, we injected EMG signals constructed from different synergies derived by the PCA in order to identify the mechanical significance of each of these components. From these results, one can surmise that discrete-rhythmic movements may be constructed from three different fundamental modules, one regulating the co-activation of all muscles over the time span of the movement and two others elliciting patterns of reciprocal activation operating in orthogonal directions

  19. Water-quality data from the observation-well network in Illinois, 1985-87

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Voelker, D.C.; Oberg, D.J.; Grober, M.J.

    1988-01-01

    The report presents water-quality and well-site information for public water-supply wells in Illinois. These wells were sampled during the period January 1985 through June 1987 as part of an ongoing cooperative ground-water observation network in the State. Water-quality data are tabulated for physical parameters, nutrients, common constituents, metals, phenols, cyanide, and volative organic compounds. A subnetwork of wells also have data on several pesticides and herbicides. Some well-site information is also presented in this report.

  20. EOP Determination from Domestic Observations of the Russian VLBI Network "QUASAR"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Finkelstein, A.; Ipatov, A.; Smolentsev, S.; Salnikov, A.; Surkis, I.; Gayazov, I.; Skurikhina, E.; Kurdubov, S.; Rahimov, I.; Diakov, A.; Sergeev, R.; Shpilevsky, V.; Melnikov, A.; Zimovsky, V.; Fedotov, L.; Ivanov, D.; Mardishkin, V.

    2012-12-01

    We present the state-of-the-art Russian VLBI network "Quasar". Domestic observations are carried out within the scope of two programs: Ru-U for the operational determination of Universal Time in near real-time and Ru-E for the determination of EOP from 24-hour sessions. Correlation of the data is performed at the IAA correlator ARC. The IAA Analysis Center performs data processing with the QUASAR and OCCAM/GROSS software packages. We show the progress in the EOP determination accuracy after upgrading the registration system to the R1002M DAS developed at IAA.

  1. Improving the Global Geodetic Observing System network by applying the Most Remote Point method to the selection of new sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hase, H.

    2013-12-01

    The Global Geodetic Observing System shall consist of globally well distributed geodetic observatories. The GGOS network will be based on a number of technique specific observatories which contribute their observation data to the international services like the IVS, ILRS, IGS, IGFS. The distribution of reference points in these global geodetic networks is not optimal. In order to establish the Global Geodetic Observing System the current distribution of observatory sites must be reviewed with a global perspective. We developed the most remote point (mrp) method to identify gaps in the geometry of global networks. This method is applied to the individual space geodetic VLBI and SLR network. In each iteration step the identified most remote point is assumed to become a new observatory site improving such the homogeneity of the global network. As a result possible new locations for GGOS observatories can be evaluated and suggested.

  2. Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) ecosystem network: current state and future perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gielen, B.; Op de Beeck, M.; Ceulemans, R.; Janssens, I.; Loustau, D.; Valentini, R.; Papale, D.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric concentrations of greenhouse gases (GHG) such as carbon dioxide (CO2) and methane (CH4) are increasing due to emissions related to human activity, affecting the global climate. Natural sinks remove a fraction of the GHG anthropogenic excess at the global level. The characterization of greenhouse gases atmospheric burden and fluxes, both anthropogenic and natural, are needed at the global and regional scale, making use of all available information in an integrated framework. The Integrated Carbon Observation System (ICOS) research infrastructure will address this issue by providing the community with systematic measurements of a suite of atmospheric, terrestrial ecosystem and oceanic measurements. The ecosystem network comprises three station classes, for which variables are collected with different intensity. These stations are well distributed among the major European ecosystem types and cover most climatic zones in Europe. The Ecosystem Thematic Center (ETC) is coordinating the ICOS ecosystem network providing assistance with instruments and methods, testing and developing new measurement techniques and associated processing algorithms; also ensuring a high level of data standardization, uncertainty analysis and database services in coordination with the ICOS carbon portal. The ETC is also coordinating the drafting of the protocols describing in detail how measurements will be collected at all ecosystem stations, in order to guarantee inter comparability. This is done in close collaboration with experts in the field and with the other existing ecological and meteorological networks (NEON, Ameriflux, ICP -forests, MWO, TERN, ...). This presentation will focus on the current state of the ICOS ecosystem network,