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Sample records for action potential amplitude

  1. Pulsed magnetic stimulation modifies amplitude of action potentials in vitro via ionic channels-dependent mechanism.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Zaghloul; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2015-07-01

    This paper investigates the influence of pulsed magnetic fields (PMFs) on amplitude of evoked, compound action potential (CAP) recorded from the segments of sciatic nerve in vitro. PMFs were applied for 30 min at frequency of 0.16 Hz and intensity of 15 mT. In confirmation of our previous reports, PMF exposure enhanced amplitude of CAPs. The effect persisted beyond PMF activation period. As expected, CAP amplitude was attenuated by antagonists of sodium channel, lidocaine, and tetrodotoxin. Depression of the potential by sodium channels antagonists was reversed by subsequent exposure to PMFs. The effect of elevated potassium concentration and veratridine on the action potential was modified by exposure to PMFs as well. Neither inhibitors of protein kinase C and protein kinase A, nor known free radicals scavengers had any effects on PMF action. Possible mechanisms of PMF action are discussed.

  2. Amplitudes of sural and radial sensory nerve action potentials in orthodromic and antidromic studies in children.

    PubMed

    Melendrez, J L; MacMillan, L J; Vajsar, J

    1998-01-01

    Several previous studies of adults have reported that the amplitudes of the sural and superficial radial nerve action potentials (SN and SRN SNAP respectively) are larger with antidromic than with orthodromic recordings. However, this difference has not been documented in children. This study evaluated the amplitudes of SN and SRN SNAPs obtained with antidromic and orthodromic recordings in children with and without neuropathy and compared these data with findings in adults. The SN or SRN or both of 10 neurologically normal children, 6 children with neuropathy and 7 healthy adults were studied with surface stimulation and recording. The position of the stimulating and recording electrodes for the orthodromic recordings was the reverse of that for the antidromic recordings. Peak-to-peak SNAP amplitudes were measured and analyzed. The mean of the SRN SNAP amplitude was significantly higher with the antidromic than the orthodromic technique for the first and third groups (p < 0.05). The mean SN SNAP amplitude was higher in the three groups, but not statistically significant when the data for the children and adult normal groups were combined and reanalyzed (p < 0.05). Consistent responses were obtained with both techniques. However, the antidromic technique was superior to the orthodromic technique because of the greater amplitude of responses. We recommend the use of the antidromic technique because of its greater amplitudes, ease of use and potential reduction of discomfort to the patient.

  3. Action potential amplitude as a noninvasive indicator of motor unit-specific hypertrophy

    PubMed Central

    Pope, Zachary K.; Hester, Garrett M.; Benik, Franklin M.

    2016-01-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers hypertrophy in response to strength training, with type II fibers generally demonstrating the greatest plasticity in regards to cross-sectional area (CSA). However, assessing fiber type-specific CSA in humans requires invasive muscle biopsies. With advancements in the decomposition of surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals recorded using multichannel electrode arrays, the firing properties of individual motor units (MUs) can now be detected noninvasively. Since action potential amplitude (APSIZE) has a documented relationship with muscle fiber size, as well as with its parent MU's recruitment threshold (RT) force, our purpose was to examine if MU APSIZE, as a function of its RT (i.e., the size principle), could potentially be used as a longitudinal indicator of MU-specific hypertrophy. By decomposing the sEMG signals from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 subjects during maximal voluntary knee extensions, we noninvasively assessed the relationship between MU APSIZE and RT before and immediately after an 8-wk strength training intervention. In addition to significant increases in muscle size and strength (P < 0.02), our data show that training elicited an increase in MU APSIZE of high-threshold MUs. Additionally, a large portion of the variance (83.6%) in the change in each individual's relationship between MU APSIZE and RT was explained by training-induced changes in whole muscle CSA (obtained via ultrasonography). Our findings suggest that the noninvasive, electrophysiological assessment of longitudinal changes to MU APSIZE appears to reflect hypertrophy specific to MUs across the RT continuum. PMID:26936975

  4. Action potential amplitude as a noninvasive indicator of motor unit-specific hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Pope, Zachary K; Hester, Garrett M; Benik, Franklin M; DeFreitas, Jason M

    2016-05-01

    Skeletal muscle fibers hypertrophy in response to strength training, with type II fibers generally demonstrating the greatest plasticity in regards to cross-sectional area (CSA). However, assessing fiber type-specific CSA in humans requires invasive muscle biopsies. With advancements in the decomposition of surface electromyographic (sEMG) signals recorded using multichannel electrode arrays, the firing properties of individual motor units (MUs) can now be detected noninvasively. Since action potential amplitude (APSIZE) has a documented relationship with muscle fiber size, as well as with its parent MU's recruitment threshold (RT) force, our purpose was to examine if MU APSIZE, as a function of its RT (i.e., the size principle), could potentially be used as a longitudinal indicator of MU-specific hypertrophy. By decomposing the sEMG signals from the vastus lateralis muscle of 10 subjects during maximal voluntary knee extensions, we noninvasively assessed the relationship between MU APSIZE and RT before and immediately after an 8-wk strength training intervention. In addition to significant increases in muscle size and strength (P < 0.02), our data show that training elicited an increase in MU APSIZE of high-threshold MUs. Additionally, a large portion of the variance (83.6%) in the change in each individual's relationship between MU APSIZE and RT was explained by training-induced changes in whole muscle CSA (obtained via ultrasonography). Our findings suggest that the noninvasive, electrophysiological assessment of longitudinal changes to MU APSIZE appears to reflect hypertrophy specific to MUs across the RT continuum. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  5. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy. PMID:25221597

  6. Amplitude of sensory nerve action potential in early stage diabetic peripheral neuropathy: an analysis of 500 cases.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yunqian; Li, Jintao; Wang, Tingjuan; Wang, Jianlin

    2014-07-15

    Early diagnosis of diabetic peripheral neuropathy is important for the successful treatment of diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we recruited 500 diabetic patients from the Fourth Affiliated Hospital of Kunming Medical University in China from June 2008 to September 2013: 221 cases showed symptoms of peripheral neuropathy (symptomatic group) and 279 cases had no symptoms of peripheral impairment (asymptomatic group). One hundred healthy control subjects were also recruited. Nerve conduction studies revealed that distal motor latency was longer, sensory nerve conduction velocity was slower, and sensory nerve action potential and amplitude of compound muscle action potential were significantly lower in the median, ulnar, posterior tibial and common peroneal nerve in the diabetic groups compared with control subjects. Moreover, the alterations were more obvious in patients with symptoms of peripheral neuropathy. Of the 500 diabetic patients, neural conduction abnormalities were detected in 358 cases (71.6%), among which impairment of the common peroneal nerve was most prominent. Sensory nerve abnormality was more obvious than motor nerve abnormality in the diabetic groups. The amplitude of sensory nerve action potential was the most sensitive measure of peripheral neuropathy. Our results reveal that varying degrees of nerve conduction changes are present in the early, asymptomatic stage of diabetic peripheral neuropathy.

  7. Post-tetanic transcranial motor evoked potentials augment the amplitude of compound muscle action potentials recorded from innervated and non-innervated muscles.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Hideki; Kawaguchi, Masahiko; Hayashi, Hironobu; Takatani, Tsunenori; Iwata, Eiichiro; Tanaka, Masato; Okuda, Akinori; Morimoto, Yasuhiko; Masuda, Keisuke; Yamamoto, Yusuke; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2017-09-01

    Transcranial electrical stimulation used to produce motor evoked potentials (TES-MEPs) and subsequent compound muscle action potential (CMAP) recording is widely used to monitor motor function during surgery when there is risk of damaging the spinal cord. Nonetheless, some muscles do not produce CMAP amplitudes sufficient for intraoperative monitoring. This study aimed to investigate the utility of tetanic stimulation at single and multiple peripheral nerve sites for augmenting CMAP amplitudes recorded from innervated and non-innervated muscles. A retrospective study was carried out. The study sample comprised 24 patients with cervical myelopathy who underwent decompression surgery at our department between November 2005 and March 2007. Compound muscle action potential amplitude was a physiological measure. We used two patterns of tetanic peripheral nerve stimulation for each patient. The first pattern consisted of tetanic stimulation of the left tibial nerve only (Pattern 1), and the second pattern consisted of tetanic stimulation of the bilateral median nerves and left tibial nerve (Pattern 2). Compound muscle action potential amplitudes from all muscles were augmented by both tetanic stimulation patterns compared with conventional TES-MEP recording; however, Pattern 2 elicited the greatest augmentation of CMAP amplitudes, especially for CMAPs recorded from the bilateral abductor pollicis brevis muscles. Although tetanic stimulation of a single peripheral nerve increased CMAP amplitudes recorded from both innervated and non-innervated muscles, CMAP amplitudes were best augmented when the corresponding nerve received tetanic stimulation. Additionally, tetanic stimulation of multiple nerves rather than a single nerve appears to provide better augmentation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Differential effects of muscimol upon the firing frequency of large and small amplitude antidromic dorsal root action potentials in rat spinal cord in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bagust, J; Willis, W D

    2002-09-20

    The effects of bath applied muscimol upon spontaneous and evoked antidromic activity recorded from lumbar dorsal roots was investigated in hemisected, isolated preparations of rat spinal cord. In magnesium free medium containing 0.1 microM 4-aminopyridine, bursts of high amplitude (up to 1 mV), dorsal root reflexes were recorded. These were blocked by low concentrations of muscimol (2-5 microM). Higher concentrations (5-20 microM) of muscimol caused a concentration-dependent increase in the frequency of small amplitude (<200 microV) spontaneous dorsal root action potentials. The possibility that the large and small amplitude extracellular action potentials reflect activity in large and small diameter dorsal root axons, and that these respond in different ways to the GABA(A) agonist muscimol, is discussed.

  9. Early Afterdepolarizations with Growing Amplitudes via Delayed Subcritical Hopf Bifurcations and Unstable Manifolds of Saddle Foci in Cardiac Action Potential Dynamics

    PubMed Central

    Kügler, Philipp

    2016-01-01

    Early afterdepolarizations (EADs) are pathological oscillations in cardiac action potentials during the repolarization phase and may be caused by drug side effects, ion channel disease or oxidative stress. The most widely observed EAD pattern is characterized by oscillations with growing amplitudes. So far, its occurence has been explained in terms of a supercritical Hopf bifurcation in the fast subsystem of the action potential dynamics from which stable limit cycles with growing amplitudes emerge. The novel contribution of this article is the introduction of two alternative explanations of EAD genesis with growing amplitudes that do not involve stable limit cycles in fast subsystems. In particular, we demonstrate that EAD patterns with growing amplitudes may alternatively arise due to a delayed subcritical Hopf bifurcation or an unstable manifold of a saddle focus fixed point in the full fast-slow system modelling the action potential. Our work extends the list of possible dynamical EAD mechanisms and may contribute to a classification of drug effects in preclinical cardiotoxicity testing. PMID:26977805

  10. Presynaptic spike broadening reduces junctional potential amplitude.

    PubMed

    Spencer, A N; Przysiezniak, J; Acosta-Urquidi, J; Basarsky, T A

    1989-08-24

    Presynaptic modulation of action potential duration may regulate synaptic transmission in both vertebrates and invertebrates. Such synaptic plasticity is brought about by modifications to membrane currents at presynaptic release sites, which, in turn, lead to changes in the concentration of cytosolic calcium available for mediating transmitter release. The 'primitive' neuromuscular junction of the jellyfish Polyorchis penicillatus is a useful model of presynaptic modulation. In this study, we show that the durations of action potentials in the motor neurons of this jellyfish are negatively correlated with the amplitude of excitatory junctional potentials. We present data from in vitro voltage-clamp experiments showing that short duration voltage spikes, which elicit large excitatory junctional potentials in vivo, produce larger and briefer calcium currents than do long duration action potentials, which elicit small excitatory junctional potentials.

  11. Neuromodulation at single presynaptic boutons of cerebellar parallel fibers is determined by bouton size and basal action potential-evoked Ca transient amplitude

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Linden, David J.

    2010-01-01

    Most presynaptic terminals in the brain contain G-protein coupled receptors that function to reduce action potential-evoked neurotransmitter release. These neuromodulatory receptors, including those for glutamate, GABA, endocannabinoids and adenosine, exert a substantial portion of their effect by reducing evoked presynaptic Ca2+ transients. Many axons form synapses with multiple postsynaptic neurons, but it is unclear if presynaptic attenuation in these synapses is homogeneous, as suggested by population level Ca2+ imaging. We loaded Ca2+-sensitive dyes into cerebellar parallel fiber axons and imaged action potential-evoked Ca2+ transients in individual presynaptic boutons with application of three different neuromodulators and found that adjacent boutons on the same axon showed striking heterogeneity in their strength of attenuation. Moreover, attenuation was predicted by bouton size or basal Ca2+ response: smaller boutons were more sensitive to adenosine A1 agonist but less sensitive to CB1 agonist while boutons with high basal action potential-evoked Ca2+ transient amplitude were more sensitive to mGluR4 agonist. These results suggest that boutons within brief segment of a single parallel fiber axon can have different sensitivities towards neuromodulators and may have different capacities for both short-term and long-term plasticities. PMID:20007482

  12. Effect of action potential duration on Tpeak-Tend interval, T-wave area and T-wave amplitude as indices of dispersion of repolarization: Theoretical and simulation study in the rabbit heart.

    PubMed

    Arteyeva, Natalia V; Azarov, Jan E

    2017-07-11

    The aim of the study was to differentiate the effect of dispersion of repolarization (DOR) and action potential duration (APD) on T-wave parameters being considered as indices of DOR, namely, Tpeak-Tend interval, T-wave amplitude and T-wave area. T-wave was simulated in a wide physiological range of DOR and APD using a realistic rabbit model based on experimental data. A simplified mathematical formulation of T-wave formation was conducted. Both the simulations and the mathematical formulation showed that Tpeak-Tend interval and T-wave area are linearly proportional to DOR irrespectively of APD range, while T-wave amplitude is non-linearly proportional to DOR and inversely proportional to the minimal repolarization time, or minimal APD value. Tpeak-Tend interval and T-wave area are the most accurate DOR indices independent of APD. T-wave amplitude can be considered as an index of DOR when the level of APD is taken into account. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  14. Mechanomyographic amplitude and frequency responses during dynamic muscle actions: a comprehensive review

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Travis W; Housh, Terry J; Cramer, Joel T; Weir, Joseph P; Johnson, Glen O; Coburn, Jared W; Malek, Moh H; Mielke, Michelle

    2005-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to examine the literature that has investigated mechanomyographic (MMG) amplitude and frequency responses during dynamic muscle actions. To date, the majority of MMG research has focused on isometric muscle actions. Recent studies, however, have examined the MMG time and/or frequency domain responses during various types of dynamic activities, including dynamic constant external resistance (DCER) and isokinetic muscle actions, as well as cycle ergometry. Despite the potential influences of factors such as changes in muscle length and the thickness of the tissue between the muscle and the MMG sensor, there is convincing evidence that during dynamic muscle actions, the MMG signal provides valid information regarding muscle function. This argument is supported by consistencies in the MMG literature, such as the close relationship between MMG amplitude and power output and a linear increase in MMG amplitude with concentric torque production. There are still many issues, however, that have yet to be resolved, and the literature base for MMG during both dynamic and isometric muscle actions is far from complete. Thus, it is important to investigate the unique applications of MMG amplitude and frequency responses with different experimental designs/methodologies to continually reassess the uses/limitations of MMG. PMID:16364182

  15. Reduced evoked motor and sensory potential amplitudes in obstructive sleep apnea patients.

    PubMed

    Mihalj, Mario; Lušić, Linda; Đogaš, Zoran

    2016-06-01

    It is unknown to what extent chronic intermittent hypoxaemia in obstructive sleep apnea causes damage to the motor and sensory peripheral nerves. It was hypothesized that patients with obstructive sleep apnea would have bilaterally significantly impaired amplitudes of both motor and sensory peripheral nerve-evoked potentials of both lower and upper limbs. An observational study was conducted on 43 patients with obstructive sleep apnea confirmed by the whole-night polysomnography, and 40 controls to assess the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea and peripheral neuropathy. All obstructive sleep apnea subjects underwent standardized electroneurographic testing, with full assessment of amplitudes of evoked compound muscle action potentials, sensory neural action potentials, motor and sensory nerve conduction velocities, and distal motor and sensory latencies of the median, ulnar, peroneal and sural nerves, bilaterally. All nerve measurements were compared with reference values, as well as between the untreated patients with obstructive sleep apnea and control subjects. Averaged compound muscle action potential and sensory nerve action potential amplitudes were significantly reduced in the nerves of both upper and lower limbs in patients with obstructive sleep apnea compared with controls (P < 0.001). These results confirmed that patients with obstructive sleep apnea had significantly lower amplitudes of evoked action potentials of both motor and sensory peripheral nerves. Clinical/subclinical axonal damage exists in patients with obstructive sleep apnea to a greater extent than previously thought.

  16. Calculation of action potential propagation in nerve fiber.

    PubMed

    Bogatov, N M; Grigoryan, L R; Ponetaeva, E G; Sinisyn, A S

    2014-05-01

    This article introduces generalization of the action potential spreading model which considers generation of the action potential in each segment of the nerve fiber. Behavior of the impulse signal waveform during the propagation process was analyzed. A mechanism of distributed generation of the charge in nerve fiber results in decrease of phase velocity of signal spreading rate. Amplitude of the action potential decreases and pulse width increases in the action potential propagation process. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. K- nuclear potentials based on chiral meson-baryon amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mareš, J.; Cieplý, A.; Gazda, D.; Friedman, E.; Gal, A.

    2012-09-01

    K- nuclear optical potentials are constructed from in-medium subthreshold K¯N scattering amplitudes within a chirally motivated coupled-channel model. We demonstrate how the strong energy and density dependence of the scattering amplitudes at and below threshold leads to a deep K- nuclear potential VK- for kaonic atoms and K- nuclear quasibound states. Selfconsistent evaluations yield K- potential depths -ReVK- (ρ0) of order 100 MeV. Allowing for K- NN absorption, better agreement with K- atoms data is achieved, leading to increased potential depths, -ReVK- (ρ0) ˜ 175 MeV, in accord with density dependent potentials obtained in purely phenomenological fits. Self consistent dynamical calculations of K- nuclear quasibound states are reported and discussed, as well.

  18. Scattering amplitudes for the rationally extended PT symmetric complex potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumari, Nisha; Yadav, Rajesh Kumar; Khare, Avinash; Bagchi, Bijan; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2016-10-01

    In this paper, we consider the rational extensions of two different classes of PT symmetric complex potentials namely the asymptotically vanishing Scarf II and asymptotically non-vanishing Rosen-Morse II [ RM-II] and obtain the accompanying bound state eigenfunctions in terms of the exceptional Xm Jacobi polynomials and a certain class of orthogonal polynomials. By considering the asymptotic behavior of the exceptional polynomials, we also derive the reflection and transmission amplitudes for them and discuss the various novel properties of the corresponding amplitudes.

  19. Small-amplitude viscous motion on arbitrary potential flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, M. E.

    1984-02-01

    This paper is concerned with small-amplitude, unsteady, vortical and entropic motion imposed on steady potential flows. It is restricted to the case where the spatial scale of the unsteady motion is small compared to that of the mean flow. Under such conditions, the unsteady motion may be influenced by viscosity even if the mean flow is not. An exact high-frequency (small-wavelength) solution is obtained for the small-amplitude viscous motion imposed on a steady potential flow. It generalizes the one obtained by Pearson (1959) for the homogeneous-strain case to the case of quasi-homogeneous strain. This result is used to study the effect of viscosity on rapidly distorted turbulent flows. Specific numerical results are given for a turbulent flow near a two-dimensional stagnation point.

  20. K+-nucleus potentials from K+-nucleon amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedman, E.

    2016-10-01

    Optical potentials for K+-nucleus interactions are constructed from K+-nucleon amplitudes using recently developed algorithm based on K+-N kinematics in the nuclear medium. With the deep penetration of K+ mesons into the nucleus at momenta below 800 MeV / c it is possible to test this approach with greater sensitivity than hitherto done with K- and pions. The energy-dependence of experimental reaction and total cross sections on nuclei is better reproduced with this approach compared to fixed-energy amplitudes. The inclusion of Pauli correlations in the medium also improves the agreement between calculation and experiment. The absolute scale of the cross sections is reproduced very well for 6Li but for C, Si and Ca calculated cross sections are (23 ± 4)% smaller than experiment, in agreement with earlier analyses. Two phenomenological models that produce such missing strength suggest that the imaginary part of the potential needs about 40% enhancement.

  1. From intentions to actions: Neural oscillations encode motor processes through phase, amplitude and phase-amplitude coupling.

    PubMed

    Combrisson, Etienne; Perrone-Bertolotti, Marcela; Soto, Juan Lp; Alamian, Golnoush; Kahane, Philippe; Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Guillot, Aymeric; Jerbi, Karim

    2017-02-15

    Goal-directed motor behavior is associated with changes in patterns of rhythmic neuronal activity across widely distributed brain areas. In particular, movement initiation and execution are mediated by patterns of synchronization and desynchronization that occur concurrently across distinct frequency bands and across multiple motor cortical areas. To date, motor-related local oscillatory modulations have been predominantly examined by quantifying increases or suppressions in spectral power. However, beyond signal power, spectral properties such as phase and phase-amplitude coupling (PAC) have also been shown to carry information with regards to the oscillatory dynamics underlying motor processes. Yet, the distinct functional roles of phase, amplitude and PAC across the planning and execution of goal-directed motor behavior remain largely elusive. Here, we address this question with unprecedented resolution thanks to multi-site intracerebral EEG recordings in human subjects while they performed a delayed motor task. To compare the roles of phase, amplitude and PAC, we monitored intracranial brain signals from 748 sites across six medically intractable epilepsy patients at movement execution, and during the delay period where motor intention is present but execution is withheld. In particular, we used a machine-learning framework to identify the key contributions of various neuronal responses. We found a high degree of overlap between brain network patterns observed during planning and those present during execution. Prominent amplitude increases in the delta (2-4Hz) and high gamma (60-200Hz) bands were observed during both planning and execution. In contrast, motor alpha (8-13Hz) and beta (13-30Hz) power were suppressed during execution, but enhanced during the delay period. Interestingly, single-trial classification revealed that low-frequency phase information, rather than spectral power change, was the most discriminant feature in dissociating action from

  2. Experimental studies on spinal cord function using evoked action potentials.

    PubMed

    Soeda, S; Satomi, K; Hirabayashi, K

    1990-01-01

    Experiments were carried out on cats to determine the use of conductive evoked spinal cord action potentials in diagnosing motor function of the spinal cord. Direct stimulation from the dura produced three negative wave potentials, N1, N2 and N3. The intraspinal pathway of N2 and N3 was the dorsal column. The pathways of N1, determined by dorsal and ventral epidural recording, were the dorsilateral funicle and the extrapyramidal tracts. A collision experiment between potential N1 and pyramidal tract action potential did not reflect the function of the tract as the amplitude of the action potential was too small. Nevertheless, it is considered that conductive evoked spinal cord action potentials could become a valuable method of assessing spinal cord function as they reflect the function of the extrapyramidal tracts, as well as of the dorsilateral funicle and the dorsal column.

  3. Membrane, action, and oscillatory potentials in simulated protocells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syren, R. M.; Fox, S. W.; Przybylski, A. T.; Stratten, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical membrane potentials, oscillations, and action potentials are observed in proteinoid microspheres impaled with (3 M KCl) microelectrodes. Although effects are of greater magnitude when the vesicles contain glycerol and natural or synthetic lecithin, the results in the purely synthetic thermal protein structures are substantial, attaining 20 mV amplitude in some cases. The results add the property of electrical potential to the other known properties of proteinoid microspheres, in their role as models for protocells.

  4. Membrane, action, and oscillatory potentials in simulated protocells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Syren, R. M.; Fox, S. W.; Przybylski, A. T.; Stratten, W. P.

    1982-01-01

    Electrical membrane potentials, oscillations, and action potentials are observed in proteinoid microspheres impaled with (3 M KCl) microelectrodes. Although effects are of greater magnitude when the vesicles contain glycerol and natural or synthetic lecithin, the results in the purely synthetic thermal protein structures are substantial, attaining 20 mV amplitude in some cases. The results add the property of electrical potential to the other known properties of proteinoid microspheres, in their role as models for protocells.

  5. TRH regulates action potential shape in cerebral cortex pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Molina, Víctor; Patiño, Javier; Vargas, Yamili; Sánchez-Jaramillo, Edith; Joseph-Bravo, Patricia; Charli, Jean-Louis

    2014-07-07

    Thyrotropin releasing hormone (TRH) is a neuropeptide with a wide neural distribution and a variety of functions. It modulates neuronal electrophysiological properties, including resting membrane potential, as well as excitatory postsynaptic potential and spike frequencies. We explored, with whole-cell patch clamp, TRH effect on action potential shape in pyramidal neurons of the sensorimotor cortex. TRH reduced spike and after hyperpolarization amplitudes, and increased spike half-width. The effect varied with dose, time and cortical layer. In layer V, 0.5µM of TRH induced a small increase in spike half-width, while 1 and 5µM induced a strong but transient change in spike half-width, and amplitude; after hyperpolarization amplitude was modified at 5µM of TRH. Cortical layers III and VI neurons responded intensely to 0.5µM TRH; layer II neurons response was small. The effect of 1µM TRH on action potential shape in layer V neurons was blocked by G-protein inhibition. Inhibition of the activity of the TRH-degrading enzyme pyroglutamyl peptidase II (PPII) reproduced the effect of TRH, with enhanced spike half-width. Many cortical PPII mRNA+ cells were VGLUT1 mRNA+, and some GAD mRNA+. These data show that TRH regulates action potential shape in pyramidal cortical neurons, and are consistent with the hypothesis that PPII controls its action in this region. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. 17beta-Estradiol reduces excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) amplitude in rat basolateral amygdala neurons.

    PubMed

    Womble, Mark D; Andrew, James A; Crook, Joseph J

    2002-10-11

    We examined the actions of estrogen on excitatory synaptic transmission in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), a brain region involved in learning, emotions, and the effects of stress. Intracellular recordings of monosynaptic excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) were obtained from BLA neurons in a slice preparation. Bath application of 17beta-estradiol (2 micro M) reduced EPSP amplitude by an average of 77%. This reduction was readily reversed by washing with control saline and was not mimicked by the inactive isomer 17 alpha-estradiol. Other passive and active properties of BLA neurons were unaffected by 17beta-estradiol. The observed EPSP reduction is in sharp contrast to the potentiation of EPSPs by estrogen observed in other brain regions.

  7. Action currents, internodal potentials, and extracellular records of myelinated mammalian nerve fibers derived from node potentials.

    PubMed Central

    Marks, W B; Loeb, G E

    1976-01-01

    The potential distribution within the internodal axon of mammalian nerve fibers is derived by applying known node potential waveforms to the ends of an equivalent circuit model of the internode. The complete spatial/temporal profile of action potentials synthesized from the internodal profiles is used to compute the node current waveforn, and the extracellular action potential around fibers captured within a tubular electrode. For amphibia, the results agreed with empirical values. For mammals, the amplitude of the node currents plotted against conduction velocity was fitted by a straight line. The extracellular potential waveform depended on the location of the nodes within the tube. For tubes of length from 2 to 8 internodes, extracellular wave amplitude (mammals) was about one-third of the product of peak node current and tube resistance (center to ends). The extracellular potentials developed by longitudinal and radial currents in an anisotropic medium (fiber bundle) are compared. PMID:1276389

  8. The Characteristics of Action Potentials in Primo Vessels and the Effects of Acetylcholine Injection to the Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong Jin; Lim, Jaekwan; Yeon, Sun Hee; Kwon, O. Sang; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we found that Primo vessels generate different action potentials in smooth muscles, but this study compared the pulse shape to distinguish the two tissues. Thus, a more sophisticated extracellular experiment was performed in this study using an acetylcholine injection; we then observed changes in the amplitude, FWHM (full width at half maximum), and period to explore Primo vessel function. A third type of pulse was recorded for Primo vessels. We observed fast depolarizing and repolarizing phases for this pulse. Further, its FWHM was 30 ms between smooth muscles and neurons. Acetylcholine affected only the period. The amplitude and FWHM were consistent after injection. Primo-vessels generated action potentials at twice the frequency after injection. From the results, we speculate that Primo-vessels perform a role in transferring signals in a different manner, which may be relevant for acupuncture treatment. PMID:23861710

  9. Why do taste cells generate action potentials?

    PubMed Central

    Vandenbeuch, Aurelie; Kinnamon, Sue C

    2009-01-01

    Taste cells regularly generate action potentials, but their functional significance in taste signaling is unclear. A paper in BMC Neuroscience reveals the identity of the voltage-gated Na+ channels underlying action potentials, providing the foundation for insights into their function. PMID:19439032

  10. Modulation of short- and long-interval intracortical inhibition with increasing motor evoked potential amplitude in a human hand muscle.

    PubMed

    Opie, George M; Semmler, John G

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of increasing test motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude on short- (SICI) and long-interval intracortical inhibition (LICI) at rest and during activation of the first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. In 22 young subjects, a conditioning-test transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) paradigm was used to assess SICI and LICI at 5 different test TMS intensities (110-150% motor threshold) in resting and active FDI. In 9 additional subjects, SICI and LICI data were quantified when the test MEP amplitude represented specific proportions of the maximal compound muscle action potential (Mmax) in each subject. Test TMS intensity influenced SICI and LICI in rest and active FDI muscle. The normalised test MEP amplitude (%Mmax) did not influence SICI at rest, whereas there was a decrease in LICI at rest and an increase in SICI in active FDI with an increased normalised test MEP amplitude (%Mmax). Our results demonstrate differential effects of normalised test MEP amplitude (%Mmax) on SICI and LICI in resting and active FDI muscle. Estimation of SICI and LICI under some circumstances may be influenced by the normalised test MEP amplitude in subject populations with different Mmax characteristics. Copyright © 2013 International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Compound muscle action potential duration in critical illness neuromyopathy.

    PubMed

    Kramer, Christopher L; Boon, Andrea J; Harper, C Michel; Goodman, Brent P

    2017-06-23

    We sought to determine the specificity of compound muscle action potential (CMAP) durations and amplitudes in a large critical illness neuromyopathy (CINM) cohort relative to controls with other neuromuscular conditions. Fifty-eight patients with CINM who had been seen over a 17-year period were retrospectively studied. Electrodiagnostic findings of the CINM cohort were compared with patients with axonal peripheral neuropathy and myopathy due to other causes. Mean CMAP durations were prolonged, and mean CMAP amplitudes were severely reduced both proximally and distally in all nerves studied in the CINM cohort relative to the control groups. The specificity of prolonged CMAP durations for CINM approached 100% if they were encountered in more than 1 nerve. Prolonged, low-amplitude CMAPs occur more frequently and with greater severity in CINM patients than in neuromuscular controls with myopathy and axonal neuropathy and are highly specific for the diagnosis of CINM. Muscle Nerve, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Quadratic adaptive algorithm for solving cardiac action potential models.

    PubMed

    Chen, Min-Hung; Chen, Po-Yuan; Luo, Ching-Hsing

    2016-10-01

    An adaptive integration method is proposed for computing cardiac action potential models accurately and efficiently. Time steps are adaptively chosen by solving a quadratic formula involving the first and second derivatives of the membrane action potential. To improve the numerical accuracy, we devise an extremum-locator (el) function to predict the local extremum when approaching the peak amplitude of the action potential. In addition, the time step restriction (tsr) technique is designed to limit the increase in time steps, and thus prevent the membrane potential from changing abruptly. The performance of the proposed method is tested using the Luo-Rudy phase 1 (LR1), dynamic (LR2), and human O'Hara-Rudy dynamic (ORd) ventricular action potential models, and the Courtemanche atrial model incorporating a Markov sodium channel model. Numerical experiments demonstrate that the action potential generated using the proposed method is more accurate than that using the traditional Hybrid method, especially near the peak region. The traditional Hybrid method may choose large time steps near to the peak region, and sometimes causes the action potential to become distorted. In contrast, the proposed new method chooses very fine time steps in the peak region, but large time steps in the smooth region, and the profiles are smoother and closer to the reference solution. In the test on the stiff Markov ionic channel model, the Hybrid blows up if the allowable time step is set to be greater than 0.1ms. In contrast, our method can adjust the time step size automatically, and is stable. Overall, the proposed method is more accurate than and as efficient as the traditional Hybrid method, especially for the human ORd model. The proposed method shows improvement for action potentials with a non-smooth morphology, and it needs further investigation to determine whether the method is helpful during propagation of the action potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights

  13. Decision making and action implementation: evidence for an early visually triggered motor activation specific to potential actions.

    PubMed

    Tandonnet, Christophe; Garry, Michael I; Summers, Jeffery J

    2013-07-01

    To make a decision may rely on accumulating evidence in favor of one alternative until a threshold is reached. Sequential-sampling models differ by the way of accumulating evidence and the link with action implementation. Here, we tested a model's prediction of an early action implementation specific to potential actions. We assessed the dynamics of action implementation in go/no-go and between-hand choice tasks by transcranial magnetic stimulation of the motor cortex (single- or paired-pulse TMS; 3-ms interstimulus interval). Prior to implementation of the selected action, the amplitude of the motor evoked potential first increased whatever the visual stimulus but only for the hand potentially involved in the to-be-produced action. These findings suggest that visual stimuli can trigger an early motor activation specific to potential actions, consistent with race-like models with continuous transmission between decision making and action implementation.

  14. Simulation of action potential propagation in plants.

    PubMed

    Sukhov, Vladimir; Nerush, Vladimir; Orlova, Lyubov; Vodeneev, Vladimir

    2011-12-21

    Action potential is considered to be one of the primary responses of a plant to action of various environmental factors. Understanding plant action potential propagation mechanisms requires experimental investigation and simulation; however, a detailed mathematical model of plant electrical signal transmission is absent. Here, the mathematical model of action potential propagation in plants has been worked out. The model is a two-dimensional system of excitable cells; each of them is electrically coupled with four neighboring ones. Ion diffusion between excitable cell apoplast areas is also taken into account. The action potential generation in a single cell has been described on the basis of our previous model. The model simulates active and passive signal transmission well enough. It has been used to analyze theoretically the influence of cell to cell electrical conductivity and H(+)-ATPase activity on the signal transmission in plants. An increase in cell to cell electrical conductivity has been shown to stimulate an increase in the length constant, the action potential propagation velocity and the temperature threshold, while the membrane potential threshold being weakly changed. The growth of H(+)-ATPase activity has been found to induce the increase of temperature and membrane potential thresholds and the reduction of the length constant and the action potential propagation velocity. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Surface electromyographic amplitude-to-work ratios during isokinetic and isotonic muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Purkayastha, Sushmita; Cramer, Joel T; Trowbridge, Cynthia A; Fincher, A Louise; Marek, Sarah M

    2006-01-01

    Isokinetic and isotonic resistance training exercises are commonly used to increase strength during musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs. Our study was designed to examine the efficacy of isokinetic and isotonic muscle actions using surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude-to-work ratios (EMG/WK) and to extend previous findings to include a range of isokinetic velocities and isotonic loads. To examine work (WK), surface EMG amplitude, and EMG/WK during concentric-only maximal isokinetic muscle actions at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 degrees /s and isotonic muscle actions at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque during leg extension exercises. A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. A university-based human muscle physiology research laboratory. Ten women (mean age = 22.0 +/- 2.6 years) and 10 men (mean age = 20.8 +/- 1.7 years) who were apparently healthy and recreationally active. Using the dominant leg, each participant performed 5 maximal voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered angular velocities of 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300 degrees /s and 5 concentric isotonic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered loads of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the isometric MVIC. Work was recorded by a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, and surface EMG was recorded from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis) during the testing and was normalized to the MVIC. The EMG/WK ratios were calculated as the quotient of EMG amplitude (muVrms) and WK (J) during the concentric phase of each exercise. Isotonic EMG/WK remained unchanged ( P > .05) from 10% to 50% MVIC, but isokinetic EMG/WK increased ( P < .05) from 60 to 300 degrees /s. Isotonic EMG/WK was greater ( P < .05) than isokinetic EMG/WK for 50% MVIC versus 60 degrees /s, 40% MVIC versus 120 degrees /s, and 30% MVIC versus 180 degrees /s; however, no

  16. Surface Electromyographic Amplitude-to-Work Ratios During Isokinetic and Isotonic Muscle Actions

    PubMed Central

    Purkayastha, Sushmita; Cramer, Joel T; Trowbridge, Cynthia A; Fincher, A. Louise; Marek, Sarah M

    2006-01-01

    Context: Isokinetic and isotonic resistance training exercises are commonly used to increase strength during musculoskeletal rehabilitation programs. Our study was designed to examine the efficacy of isokinetic and isotonic muscle actions using surface electromyographic (EMG) amplitude-to-work ratios (EMG/WK) and to extend previous findings to include a range of isokinetic velocities and isotonic loads. Objective: To examine work (WK), surface EMG amplitude, and EMG/WK during concentric-only maximal isokinetic muscle actions at 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°/s and isotonic muscle actions at 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC) torque during leg extension exercises. Design: A randomized, counterbalanced, cross-sectional, repeated-measures design. Setting: A university-based human muscle physiology research laboratory. Patients or Other Participants: Ten women (mean age = 22.0 ± 2.6 years) and 10 men (mean age = 20.8 ± 1.7 years) who were apparently healthy and recreationally active. Intervention(s): Using the dominant leg, each participant performed 5 maximal voluntary concentric isokinetic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered angular velocities of 60, 120, 180, 240, and 300°/s and 5 concentric isotonic leg extension exercises at randomly ordered loads of 10%, 20%, 30%, 40%, and 50% of the isometric MVIC. Main Outcome Measure(s): Work was recorded by a Biodex System 3 dynamometer, and surface EMG was recorded from the superficial quadriceps femoris muscles (vastus lateralis, rectus femoris, and vastus medialis) during the testing and was normalized to the MVIC. The EMG/WK ratios were calculated as the quotient of EMG amplitude (μVrms) and WK (J) during the concentric phase of each exercise. Results: Isotonic EMG/WK remained unchanged ( P > .05) from 10% to 50% MVIC, but isokinetic EMG/WK increased ( P < .05) from 60 to 300°/s. Isotonic EMG/WK was greater ( P < .05) than isokinetic EMG/WK for 50% MVIC versus 60

  17. A physical action potential generator: design, implementation and evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Latorre, Malcolm A.; Chan, Adrian D. C.; Wårdell, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to develop a physical action potential generator (Paxon) with the ability to generate a stable, repeatable, programmable, and physiological-like action potential. The Paxon has an equivalent of 40 nodes of Ranvier that were mimicked using resin embedded gold wires (Ø = 20 μm). These nodes were software controlled and the action potentials were initiated by a start trigger. Clinically used Ag-AgCl electrodes were coupled to the Paxon for functional testing. The Paxon's action potential parameters were tunable using a second order mathematical equation to generate physiologically relevant output, which was accomplished by varying the number of nodes involved (1–40 in incremental steps of 1) and the node drive potential (0–2.8 V in 0.7 mV steps), while keeping a fixed inter-nodal timing and test electrode configuration. A system noise floor of 0.07 ± 0.01 μV was calculated over 50 runs. A differential test electrode recorded a peak positive amplitude of 1.5 ± 0.05 mV (gain of 40x) at time 196.4 ± 0.06 ms, including a post trigger delay. The Paxon's programmable action potential like signal has the possibility to be used as a validation test platform for medical surface electrodes and their attached systems. PMID:26539072

  18. A physical action potential generator: design, implementation and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Latorre, Malcolm A; Chan, Adrian D C; Wårdell, Karin

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to develop a physical action potential generator (Paxon) with the ability to generate a stable, repeatable, programmable, and physiological-like action potential. The Paxon has an equivalent of 40 nodes of Ranvier that were mimicked using resin embedded gold wires (Ø = 20 μm). These nodes were software controlled and the action potentials were initiated by a start trigger. Clinically used Ag-AgCl electrodes were coupled to the Paxon for functional testing. The Paxon's action potential parameters were tunable using a second order mathematical equation to generate physiologically relevant output, which was accomplished by varying the number of nodes involved (1-40 in incremental steps of 1) and the node drive potential (0-2.8 V in 0.7 mV steps), while keeping a fixed inter-nodal timing and test electrode configuration. A system noise floor of 0.07 ± 0.01 μV was calculated over 50 runs. A differential test electrode recorded a peak positive amplitude of 1.5 ± 0.05 mV (gain of 40x) at time 196.4 ± 0.06 ms, including a post trigger delay. The Paxon's programmable action potential like signal has the possibility to be used as a validation test platform for medical surface electrodes and their attached systems.

  19. Components of action potential repolarization in cerebellar parallel fibres.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Dobromila; Baginskas, Armantas; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Raastad, Morten

    2014-11-15

    Repolarization of the presynaptic action potential is essential for transmitter release, excitability and energy expenditure. Little is known about repolarization in thin, unmyelinated axons forming en passant synapses, which represent the most common type of axons in the mammalian brain's grey matter.We used rat cerebellar parallel fibres, an example of typical grey matter axons, to investigate the effects of K(+) channel blockers on repolarization. We show that repolarization is composed of a fast tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive component, determining the width and amplitude of the spike, and a slow margatoxin (MgTX)-sensitive depolarized after-potential (DAP). These two components could be recorded at the granule cell soma as antidromic action potentials and from the axons with a newly developed miniaturized grease-gap method. A considerable proportion of fast repolarization remained in the presence of TEA, MgTX, or both. This residual was abolished by the addition of quinine. The importance of proper control of fast repolarization was demonstrated by somatic recordings of antidromic action potentials. In these experiments, the relatively broad K(+) channel blocker 4-aminopyridine reduced the fast repolarization, resulting in bursts of action potentials forming on top of the DAP. We conclude that repolarization of the action potential in parallel fibres is supported by at least three groups of K(+) channels. Differences in their temporal profiles allow relatively independent control of the spike and the DAP, whereas overlap of their temporal profiles provides robust control of axonal bursting properties.

  20. Components of action potential repolarization in cerebellar parallel fibres

    PubMed Central

    Pekala, Dobromila; Baginskas, Armantas; Szkudlarek, Hanna J; Raastad, Morten

    2014-01-01

    Repolarization of the presynaptic action potential is essential for transmitter release, excitability and energy expenditure. Little is known about repolarization in thin, unmyelinated axons forming en passant synapses, which represent the most common type of axons in the mammalian brain's grey matter. We used rat cerebellar parallel fibres, an example of typical grey matter axons, to investigate the effects of K+ channel blockers on repolarization. We show that repolarization is composed of a fast tetraethylammonium (TEA)-sensitive component, determining the width and amplitude of the spike, and a slow margatoxin (MgTX)-sensitive depolarized after-potential (DAP). These two components could be recorded at the granule cell soma as antidromic action potentials and from the axons with a newly developed miniaturized grease-gap method. A considerable proportion of fast repolarization remained in the presence of TEA, MgTX, or both. This residual was abolished by the addition of quinine. The importance of proper control of fast repolarization was demonstrated by somatic recordings of antidromic action potentials. In these experiments, the relatively broad K+ channel blocker 4-aminopyridine reduced the fast repolarization, resulting in bursts of action potentials forming on top of the DAP. We conclude that repolarization of the action potential in parallel fibres is supported by at least three groups of K+ channels. Differences in their temporal profiles allow relatively independent control of the spike and the DAP, whereas overlap of their temporal profiles provides robust control of axonal bursting properties. PMID:25239461

  1. Imaging action potentials with calcium indicators.

    PubMed

    MacLean, Jason N; Yuste, Rafael

    2009-11-01

    The understanding of neuronal circuits has been, and will continue to be, greatly advanced by the simultaneous imaging of action potentials in neuronal ensembles. This protocol describes "bulk" loading of brain slices with acetoxymethyl (AM) ester calcium indicators in order to monitor action potential activity in large populations of neurons simultaneously. The imaging of calcium influx into neurons provides an indirect, but accurate, measure of action potential generation in individual neurons. Single-cell resolution, and thus the easy identification of every active cell, is the key advantage of the technique.

  2. The analysis of high amplitude of potential oscillations near the hollow cathode of ion thruster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Yu; Xie, Kan; Guo, Ning; Zhang, Zun; Zhang, Cen; Gu, Zengjie; Zhang, Yu; Jiang, Zhaorui; Ouyang, Jiting

    2017-05-01

    The influence of gas flow, current level, and different shapes of anode on the oscillation amplitude and the characteristics of the hollow cathode discharge were investigated. The average plasma potential, temporal measurements of plasma potential, ion density, the electron temperature, as well as waveforms of plasma potential for test conditions were measured. At the same time, the time-resolved images of the plasma plume were also recorded. The results show that the potential oscillations appear at high discharge current or low flow rate. The potential oscillation boundaries, the position of maximum amplitude of plasma potential, and the position where the highest ion density was observed, were found. Both of the positions are affected by different shapes of anode configurations. This high amplitude of potential oscillations is ionization-like instabilities. The xenon ions ionized in space was analyzed for the fast potential rise and spatial dissipation of the space xenon ions was the reason for the gradual potential delay.

  3. [Patterns of action potential firing in cortical neurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological property].

    PubMed

    Furong, Liu; Shengtian, L I

    2016-05-25

    To investigate patterns of action potential firing in cortical heurons of neonatal mice and their electrophysiological properties. The passive and active membrane properties of cortical neurons from 3-d neonatal mice were observed by whole-cell patch clamp with different voltage and current mode. Three patterns of action potential firing were identified in response to depolarized current injection. The effects of action potential firing patterns on voltage-dependent inward and outward current were found. Neurons with three different firing patterns had different thresholds of depolarized current. In the morphology analysis of action potential, the three type neurons were different in rise time, duration, amplitude and threshold of the first action potential evoked by 80 pA current injection. The passive properties were similar in three patterns of action potential firing. These results indicate that newborn cortical neurons exhibit different patterns of action potential firing with different action potential parameters such as shape and threshold.

  4. Psychosocial stress inhibits amplitude of gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II glucocorticoid receptor.

    PubMed

    Wagenmaker, Elizabeth R; Breen, Kellie M; Oakley, Amy E; Tilbrook, Alan J; Karsch, Fred J

    2009-02-01

    Our laboratory has developed a paradigm of psychosocial stress (sequential layering of isolation, blindfold, and predator cues) that robustly elevates cortisol secretion and decreases LH pulse amplitude in ovariectomized ewes. This decrease in LH pulse amplitude is due, at least in part, to a reduction in pituitary responsiveness to GnRH, caused by cortisol acting via the type II glucocorticoid receptor (GR). The first experiment of the current study aimed to determine whether this layered psychosocial stress also inhibits pulsatile GnRH release into pituitary portal blood. The stress paradigm significantly reduced GnRH pulse amplitude compared with nonstressed ovariectomized ewes. The second experiment tested if this stress-induced decrease in GnRH pulse amplitude is mediated by cortisol action on the type II GR. Ovariectomized ewes were allocated to three groups: nonstress control, stress, and stress plus the type II GR antagonist RU486. The layered psychosocial stress paradigm decreased GnRH and LH pulse amplitude compared with nonstress controls. Importantly, the stress also lowered GnRH pulse amplitude to a comparable extent in ewes in which cortisol action via the type II GR was antagonized. Therefore, we conclude that psychosocial stress reduces the amplitude of GnRH pulses independent of cortisol action on the type II GR. The present findings, combined with our recent observations, suggest that the mechanisms by which psychosocial stress inhibits reproductive neuroendocrine activity at the hypothalamic and pituitary levels are fundamentally different.

  5. Two Components of the Cardiac Action Potential

    PubMed Central

    de Carvalho, Antonio Paes; Hoffman, Brian Francis; de Paula Carvalho, Marilene

    1969-01-01

    Transmembrane potentials recorded from the rabbit heart in vitro were displayed as voltage against time (V, t display), and dV/dt against voltage (V, V or phase-plane display). Acetylcholine was applied to the recording site by means of a hydraulic system. Results showed that (a) differences in time course of action potential upstroke can be explained in terms of the relative magnitude of fast and slow phases of depolarization; (b) acetylcholine is capable of depressing the slow phase of depolarization as well as the plateau of the action potential; and (c) action potentials from nodal (SA and AV) cells seem to lack the initial fast phase. These results were construed to support a two-component hypothesis for cardiac electrogenesis. The hypothesis states that cardiac action potentials are composed of two distinct and physiologically separable "components" which result from discrete mechanisms. An initial fast component is a sodium spike similar to that of squid nerve. The slow component, which accounts for both a slow depolarization during phase 0 and the plateau, probably is dependent on the properties of a slow inward current having a positive equilibrium potential, coupled to a decrease in the resting potassium conductance. According to the hypothesis, SA and AV nodal action potentials are due entirely or almost entirely to the slow component and can therefore be expected to exhibit unique electrophysiological and pharmacological properties. PMID:5346531

  6. Click- and chirp-evoked human compound action potentials.

    PubMed

    Chertoff, Mark; Lichtenhan, Jeffery; Willis, Marie

    2010-05-01

    In the experiments reported here, the amplitude and the latency of human compound action potentials (CAPs) evoked from a chirp stimulus are compared to those evoked from a traditional click stimulus. The chirp stimulus was created with a frequency sweep to compensate for basilar membrane traveling wave delay using the O-Chirp equations from Fobel and Dau [(2004). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 116, 2213-2222] derived from otoacoustic emission data. Human cochlear traveling wave delay estimates were obtained from derived compound band action potentials provided by Eggermont [(1979). J. Acoust. Soc. Am. 65, 463-470]. CAPs were recorded from an electrode placed on the tympanic membrane (TM), and the acoustic signals were monitored with a probe tube microphone attached to the TM electrode. Results showed that the amplitude and latency of chirp-evoked N1 of the CAP differed from click-evoked CAPs in several regards. For the chirp-evoked CAP, the N1 amplitude was significantly larger than the click-evoked N1s. The latency-intensity function was significantly shallower for chirp-evoked CAPs as compared to click-evoked CAPs. This suggests that auditory nerve fibers respond with more unison to a chirp stimulus than to a click stimulus.

  7. Association between P3 event-related brain potential amplitude and adolescent problem behavior.

    PubMed

    Iacono, William G; McGue, Matt

    2006-09-01

    This study examined P3 event-related brain potential amplitude and the age of onset of adolescent problem behaviors associated with the development of externalizing psychopathology. Five hundred and one male and 627 female 17-year-old twins reported whether and when they had initiated tobacco, alcohol, or illicit drug use, had police contact, or had sexual intercourse. P3 amplitude was recorded using a visual oddball task. Each of these behaviors was associated with reduced P3 amplitude. When these five behaviors were used to create a composite early problem behavior scale reflecting onset prior to age 15, higher scores were associated with smaller P3 amplitudes. P3 amplitude reduction has been associated with genetic risk for alcoholism and other externalizing disorders associated with disinhibited behavior. Our results suggest that reduced P3 may also be associated with early expression of behaviors that predict the development of these disorders.

  8. Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling in the human nucleus accumbens tracks action monitoring during cognitive control.

    PubMed

    Dürschmid, Stefan; Zaehle, Tino; Kopitzki, Klaus; Voges, Jürgen; Schmitt, Friedhelm C; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Knight, Robert T; Hinrichs, Hermann

    2013-01-01

    The Nucleus Accumbens (NAcc) is an important structure for the transfer of information between cortical and subcortical structures, especially the prefrontal cortex and the hippocampus. However, the mechanism that allows the NAcc to achieve this integration is not well understood. Phase-amplitude cross-frequency coupling (PAC) of oscillations in different frequency bands has been proposed as an effective mechanism to form functional networks to optimize transfer and integration of information. Here we assess PAC between theta and high gamma oscillations as a potential mechanism that facilitates motor adaptation. To address this issue we recorded intracranial field potentials directly from the bilateral human NAcc in three patients while they performed a motor learning task that varied in the level of cognitive control needed to perform the task. As in rodents, PAC was observable in the human NAcc, transiently occurring contralateral to a movement following the motor response. Importantly, PAC correlated with the level of cognitive control needed to monitor the action performed. This functional relation indicates that the NAcc is engaged in action monitoring and supports the evaluation of motor programs during adaptive behavior by means of PAC.

  9. Narrow and wide field amacrine cells fire action potentials in response to depolarization and light stimulation.

    PubMed

    Heflin, Stephanie J; Cook, Paul B

    2007-01-01

    Action potentials in amacrine cells are important for lateral propagation of signals across the inner retina, but it is unclear how many subclasses of amacrine cells contain voltage-gated sodium channels or can fire action potentials. This study investigated the ability of amacrine cells with narrow ( <200 microm) and wide (>200 microm) dendritic fields to fire action potentials in response to depolarizing current injections and light stimulation. The pattern of action potentials evoked by current injections revealed two distinct classes of amacrine cells; those that responded with a single action potential (single-spiking cells) and those that responded with repetitive action potentials (repetitive-spiking cells). Repetitive-spiking cells differed from single-spiking cells in several regards: Repetitive-spiking cells were more often wide field cells, while single-spiking cells were more often narrow field cells. Repetitive-spiking cells had larger action potential amplitudes, larger peak voltage-gated NaV currents lower action potential thresholds, and needed less current to induce action potentials. However, there was no difference in the input resistance, holding current or time constant of these two classes of cells. The intrinsic capacity to fire action potentials was mirrored in responses to light stimulation; single-spiking amacrine cells infrequently fired action potentials to light steps, while repetitive-spiking amacrine cells frequently fired numerous action potentials. These results indicate that there are two physiologically distinct classes of amacrine cells based on the intrinsic capacity to fire action potentials.

  10. The origin of the skewed amplitude distribution of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials in poorly coupled smooth muscle cells

    PubMed Central

    Young, J.S.; Brain, K.L.; Cunnane, T.C.

    2007-01-01

    The skewed amplitude distribution of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (sEJPs) in the mouse vas deferens and other electrically-coupled smooth muscle syncytia has been attributed to electrically-attenuated depolarizations resulting from the spontaneous release of quantized packets of ATP acting on remote smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, in the present investigation surface SMCs of the mouse isolated vas deferens were poorly electrically coupled, with input resistances (176±18 MΩ, range: 141–221 MΩ, n=4) similar to those of dissociated cells. Furthermore, the amplitude of evoked EJPs was more variable in surface compared with deeper SMCs (F test, F=17.4, P<0.0001). Using simultaneous electrophysiology and confocal microscopy to investigate these poorly-coupled cells, it is shown that α-latrotoxin-stimulated sEJPs correlate, in timing (median delay ranged from −30 to −57 ms, P<0.05 in all experiments, n=5) and amplitude (Pearson product moment correlation, ρ>0.55 and P<0.001), with purinergic neuroeffector Ca2+ transients (NCTs) in SMCs. The temporal correlation between sEJPs of widely ranging amplitude with NCTs in the impaled SMC demonstrates that all sEJPs could arise from neurotransmitter action on the impaled cell and that the skewed distribution of sEJPs can be explained by the variable effect of packets of ATP on a single SMC. The amplitude correlation of sEJPs and NCTs argues against the attenuation of electrical signal amplitude along the length of a single SMC. The skewed sEJP amplitude distribution arising from neurotransmitter release on single SMCs is consistent with a broad neurotransmitter packet size distribution at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions. PMID:17208381

  11. The origin of the skewed amplitude distribution of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials in poorly coupled smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Young, J S; Brain, K L; Cunnane, T C

    2007-03-02

    The skewed amplitude distribution of spontaneous excitatory junction potentials (sEJPs) in the mouse vas deferens and other electrically-coupled smooth muscle syncytia has been attributed to electrically-attenuated depolarizations resulting from the spontaneous release of quantized packets of ATP acting on remote smooth muscle cells (SMCs). However, in the present investigation surface SMCs of the mouse isolated vas deferens were poorly electrically coupled, with input resistances (176+/-18 MOmega, range: 141-221 MOmega, n=4) similar to those of dissociated cells. Furthermore, the amplitude of evoked EJPs was more variable in surface compared with deeper SMCs (F test, F=17.4, P<0.0001). Using simultaneous electrophysiology and confocal microscopy to investigate these poorly-coupled cells, it is shown that alpha-latrotoxin-stimulated sEJPs correlate, in timing (median delay ranged from -30 to -57 ms, P<0.05 in all experiments, n=5) and amplitude (Pearson product moment correlation, rho>0.55 and P<0.001), with purinergic neuroeffector Ca2+ transients (NCTs) in SMCs. The temporal correlation between sEJPs of widely ranging amplitude with NCTs in the impaled SMC demonstrates that all sEJPs could arise from neurotransmitter action on the impaled cell and that the skewed distribution of sEJPs can be explained by the variable effect of packets of ATP on a single SMC. The amplitude correlation of sEJPs and NCTs argues against the attenuation of electrical signal amplitude along the length of a single SMC. The skewed sEJP amplitude distribution arising from neurotransmitter release on single SMCs is consistent with a broad neurotransmitter packet size distribution at sympathetic neuroeffector junctions.

  12. Decay constants and distribution amplitudes of B meson in the relativistic potential model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hao-Kai; Yang, Mao-Zhi

    2017-06-01

    In this work we study the decay constants of B and Bs mesons based on the wave function obtained in the relativistic potential model. Our results are in good agreement with experimental data which enables us to apply this method to the investigation of B -meson distribution amplitudes. A very compact form of the distribution amplitude is obtained. We also investigate the one-loop QCD corrections to the pure leptonic decays of B mesons. We find that, after subtracting the infrared divergence in the one-loop corrections using the factorization method, the QCD one-loop corrections to the hard amplitude of leptonic decay will be zero.

  13. Using extracellular action potential recordings to constrain compartmental models.

    PubMed

    Gold, Carl; Henze, Darrell A; Koch, Christof

    2007-08-01

    We investigate the use of extracellular action potential (EAP) recordings for biophysically faithful compartmental models. We ask whether constraining a model to fit the EAP is superior to matching the intracellular action potential (IAP). In agreement with previous studies, we find that the IAP method under-constrains the parameters. As a result, significantly different sets of parameters can have virtually identical IAP's. In contrast, the EAP method results in a much tighter constraint. We find that the distinguishing characteristics of the waveform--but not its amplitude-resulting from the distribution of active conductances are fairly invariant to changes of electrode position and detailed cellular morphology. Based on these results, we conclude that EAP recordings are an excellent source of data for the purpose of constraining compartmental models.

  14. Sodium action potentials in the dendrites of cerebellar Purkinje cells.

    PubMed

    Regehr, W G; Konnerth, A; Armstrong, C M

    1992-06-15

    We report here that in cerebellar Purkinje cells from which the axon has been removed, positive voltage steps applied to the voltage-clamped soma produce spikes of active current. The spikes are inward, are all-or-none, have a duration of approximately 1 ms, and are reversibly eliminated by tetrodotoxin, a Na channel poison. From cell to cell, the amplitude of the spikes ranges from 4 to 20 nA. Spike latency decreases as the depolarizing step is made larger. These spikes clearly arise at a site where the voltage is not controlled, remote from the soma. From these facts we conclude that Purkinje cell dendrites contain a sufficient density of Na channels to generate action potentials. Activation by either parallel fiber or climbing fiber synapses produces similar spikes, suggesting that normal input elicits Na action potentials in the dendrites. These findings greatly alter current views of how dendrites in these cells respond to synaptic input.

  15. Effects of troglitazone and pioglitazone on the action potentials and membrane currents of rabbit ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, S; Watanabe, T

    1998-09-18

    The effects of the antidiabetic thiazolidinediones troglitazone and pioglitazone on action potentials and membrane currents were studied in rabbit ventricular myocytes. Troglitazone (10 microM) reversibly reduced excitability of the myocytes and modified their action potential configuration. It significantly increased the stimulation threshold required to elicit action potentials and decreased action potential amplitude and the maximum upstroke velocity of the action potentials. The Inhibition of the maximum upstroke velocity by troglitazone was also significant at 1 microM. Voltage-clamp experiments revealed that troglitazone (10 microM) reversibly inhibited both the slow inward Ca2+ current and the steady-state K+ current. In contrast to troglitazone, pioglitazone (1-10 microM) had no significant effect on the excitability, action potential configuration, or membrane currents of myocytes. These results suggest that troglitazone, but not pioglitazone, modulates Na+, Ca2+ and K+ currents, leading to the changes in excitability and action potential configuration of ventricular myocytes.

  16. Clustered Ion Channels and Action Potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Shangyou; Shuai, Jianwei; Jung, Peter

    2002-03-01

    It is known that even in unmyelinated neurons the ion channels relevant for action potential generation are in many cases spatially clustered. We study the consequences of spatial clustering of the ion channels for the generation and propagation of action potentials. In particular we report on the frequency and temporal coherence of spontaneous spikes generated by clusters of various sizes and on cluster-cluster synchronization along an axon. For the channel dynamics, we are using a stochastic Hodgkin-Huxley model supplemented by synaptic noise. The axon is modeled by an one dimensional cable equation.

  17. Electrotonic and action potentials in the Venus flytrap.

    PubMed

    Volkov, Alexander G; Vilfranc, Chrystelle L; Murphy, Veronica A; Mitchell, Colee M; Volkova, Maia I; O'Neal, Lawrence; Markin, Vladislav S

    2013-06-15

    The electrical phenomena and morphing structures in the Venus flytrap have attracted researchers since the nineteenth century. We have observed that mechanical stimulation of trigger hairs on the lobes of the Venus flytrap induces electrotonic potentials in the lower leaf. Electrostimulation of electrical circuits in the Venus flytrap can induce electrotonic potentials propagating along the upper and lower leaves. The instantaneous increase or decrease in voltage of stimulating potential generates a nonlinear electrical response in plant tissues. Any electrostimulation that is not instantaneous, such as sinusoidal or triangular functions, results in linear responses in the form of small electrotonic potentials. The amplitude and sign of electrotonic potentials depend on the polarity and the amplitude of the applied voltage. Electrical stimulation of the lower leaf induces electrical signals, which resemble action potentials, in the trap between the lobes and the midrib. The trap closes if the stimulating voltage is above the threshold level of 4.4V. Electrical responses in the Venus flytrap were analyzed and reproduced in the discrete electrical circuit. The information gained from this study can be used to elucidate the coupling of intracellular and intercellular communications in the form of electrical signals within plants.

  18. Introducing the Action Potential to Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    For this simple active learning technique for teaching, students are assigned "roles" and act out the process of the action potential (AP), including the firing threshold, ion-specific channels for ions to enter and leave the cell, diffusion, and the refractory period. Pre-post test results indicated that students demonstrated increased…

  19. Introducing the Action Potential to Psychology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simon-Dack, Stephanie L.

    2014-01-01

    For this simple active learning technique for teaching, students are assigned "roles" and act out the process of the action potential (AP), including the firing threshold, ion-specific channels for ions to enter and leave the cell, diffusion, and the refractory period. Pre-post test results indicated that students demonstrated increased…

  20. Computer Simulation of the Neuronal Action Potential.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solomon, Paul R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    A series of computer simulations of the neuronal resting and action potentials are described. Discusses the use of simulations to overcome the difficulties of traditional instruction, such as blackboard illustration, which can only illustrate these events at one point in time. Describes systems requirements necessary to run the simulations.…

  1. Normalization of visual evoked potentials using underlying electroencephalogram levels improves amplitude reproducibility in rats.

    PubMed

    You, Yuyi; Thie, Johnson; Klistorner, Alexander; Gupta, Vivek K; Graham, Stuart L

    2012-03-15

    The visual evoked potential (VEP) is a frequently used noninvasive measurement of visual function. However, high-amplitude variability has limited its potential for evaluating axonal damage in both laboratory and clinical research. This study was conducted to improve the reliability of VEP amplitude measurement in rats by using electroencephalogram (EEG)-based signal correction. VEPs of Sprague-Dawley rats were recorded on three separate days within 2 weeks. The original VEP traces were normalized by EEG power spectrum, which was evaluated by Fourier transform. A comparison of intersession reproducibility and intersubject variability was made between the original and corrected signals. Corrected VEPs showed lower amplitude intersession within-subject SD (Sw), coefficient of variation (CoV), and repeatability (R(95)) than the original signals (P < 0.001). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) of the corrected traces (0.90) was also better than the original potentials (0.82). For intersubject variability, the EEG-based normalization improved the CoV from 44.64% to 30.26%. A linear correlation was observed between the EEG level and the VEP amplitude (r = 0.71, P < 0.0001). Underlying EEG signals should be considered in measuring the VEP amplitude. In this study, a useful technique was developed for VEP data processing that could also be used for other cortical evoked potential recordings and for clinical VEP interpretation in humans.

  2. Frequency-dependent action potential prolongation in Aplysia pleural sensory neurones.

    PubMed

    Edstrom, J P; Lukowiak, K D

    1985-10-01

    The effects of repetitive activity on action-potential shape in Aplysia californica pleural sensory cells are described. Action potentials were evoked by intracellular current injection at frequencies between 7.41 and 0.2 Hz. In contrast to other molluscan neurons having brief action potentials, it was found that at these firing rates the normally brief action potential develops a prominent shoulder or plateau during the repolarization phase. Higher stimulus rates broaden the action potential more rapidly and to a greater extent than lower stimulus rates. Inactivation is slow relative to activation; effects of 3-s 6-Hz trains are detectable after 1 min rest. The amplitude of the plateau voltage reaches a maximum of 50-70 mV at the highest stimulus rates tested. Frequency-dependent increases in action-potential duration measured at half-amplitude normally range between 6 and 15 ms. Cadmium, at concentrations between 0.05 and 0.5 mM, antagonizes frequency-dependent broadening. The increases in duration induced by repetitive activity are more sensitive to cadmium than are the increases in plateau amplitude. Tetraethylammonium, at concentrations between 0.5 and 10 mM, slightly increases the duration and amplitude of single action potentials. During repetitive activity at high stimulus rates the maximum duration and rate of broadening are both increased but the amplitude of the plateau potential is not affected by these tetraethylammonium concentrations. Above 10 mM, tetraethylammonium greatly increases the duration and amplitude of single action potentials as well as the rates of action-potential duration and amplitude increase during repetitive activity. These high tetraethylammonium concentrations also cause the normally smoothly increasing duration and amplitude to reach a maximum value early in a train and then decline slowly during the remainder of the train. The consequences of frequency-dependent spike broadening in these neurons have not yet been investigated

  3. The action potential of Dionaea muscipula Ellis.

    PubMed

    Hodick, D; Sievers, A

    1988-04-01

    The intention of this investigation was to acquire more concise information about the nature of the action potential of Dionaea muscipula Ellis and the different types of cells generating and conducting it. It is shown by microelectrode measurements that, besides the sensory cells, all the major tissues of the trap lobes are excitable, firing action potentials with pronounced after-hyperpolarizations. The action potentials are strictly dependent on Ca(2+). Their peak depolarizations are shifted 25-27 mV in a positive direction after a tenfold increase in external Ca(2+) concentration. Perfusions with 1 mM ethylene glycol-bis(β-aminoethyl ether)-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid (EGTA) or 1 mM LaCl3 completely inhibit excitability. Magnesium ions only slightly affect the peak depolarizations but considerably prolong action potentials. Sodium azide and 2,4-dinitrophenol also abolish excitation, probably by reducing the intracellular ATP concentration. Furthermore, it is tested whether the sensory cells can be distinguished from the other cells of the trap by their electrical behaviour. The resting potentials of sensory cells (-161±7 mV) and mesophyll cells (-155±8 mV) are of the same magnitude. Changes in external ion concentrations affect resting and action potentials in both cell types in a similar way. Additional freeze-fracture studies of both cell types reveal similar numbers and distributions of intramembrane particles on the fracture faces of the plasma membrane, which is most likely the mechanosensor. These findings stress the view that the high mechanosensitivity of the sensory hair results from its anatomy and not from a specialized perception mechanism. It is proposed that trap closure is triggered by a rise in the cytoplasmic concentration of Ca(2+) or a Ca(2+)-activated regulatory complex, which must exceed a threshold concentration. Since the Ca(2+) influx during a single action potential does not suffice to reach this threshold, at least two stimulations

  4. Cortical, auditory, evoked potentials in response to changes of spectrum and amplitude.

    PubMed

    Martin, B A; Boothroyd, A

    2000-04-01

    The acoustic change complex (ACC) is a scalp-recorded negative-positive voltage swing elicited by a change during an otherwise steady-state sound. The ACC was obtained from eight adults in response to changes of amplitude and/or spectral envelope at the temporal center of a three-formant synthetic vowel lasting 800 ms. In the absence of spectral change, the group mean waveforms showed a clear ACC to amplitude increments of 2 dB or more and decrements of 3 dB or more. In the presence of a change of second formant frequency (from perceived /u/ to perceived /i/), amplitude increments increased the magnitude of the ACC but amplitude decrements had little or no effect. The fact that the just detectable amplitude change is close to the psychoacoustic limits of the auditory system augurs well for the clinical application of the ACC. The failure to find a condition under which the spectrally elicited ACC is diminished by a small change of amplitude supports the conclusion that the observed ACC to a change of spectral envelope reflects some aspect of cortical frequency coding. Taken together, these findings support the potential value of the ACC as an objective index of auditory discrimination capacity.

  5. Non-relativistic scattering amplitude for a new multi-parameter exponential-type potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yazarloo, B. H.; Mehraban, H.; Hassanabadi, H.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we study the scattering properties of s-wave Schrödinger equation for the multi-parameter potential, which can be reduced into four special cases for different values of potential parameters, i.e., Hulthén, Manning-Rosen, and Eckart potentials. We also obtain and investigate the scattering amplitudes of these special cases. Some numerical results are also obtained and reported.

  6. Mechanical surface waves accompany action potential propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Hady, Ahmed; Machta, Benjamin B.

    2015-03-01

    Many diverse studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane accompanies the electrical pulse defining the action potential (AP). We present a model for these mechanical displacements as arising from the driving of surface wave modes in which potential energy is stored in elastic properties of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is carried by the axoplasmic fluid. In our model, these surface waves are driven by the travelling wave of electrical depolarization characterizing the AP, altering compressive electrostatic forces across the membrane. This driving leads to co-propagating mechanical displacements, which we term Action Waves (AWs). Our model allows us to estimate the shape of the AW that accompanies any travelling wave of voltage, making predictions that are in agreement with results from several experimental systems. Our model can serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs.

  7. Warm body temperature facilitates energy efficient cortical action potentials.

    PubMed

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P; McCormick, David A

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na(+) channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na(+), and outward K(+), currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na(+) entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37-42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code.

  8. Warm Body Temperature Facilitates Energy Efficient Cortical Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yuguo; Hill, Adam P.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    The energy efficiency of neural signal transmission is important not only as a limiting factor in brain architecture, but it also influences the interpretation of functional brain imaging signals. Action potential generation in mammalian, versus invertebrate, axons is remarkably energy efficient. Here we demonstrate that this increase in energy efficiency is due largely to a warmer body temperature. Increases in temperature result in an exponential increase in energy efficiency for single action potentials by increasing the rate of Na+ channel inactivation, resulting in a marked reduction in overlap of the inward Na+, and outward K+, currents and a shortening of action potential duration. This increase in single spike efficiency is, however, counterbalanced by a temperature-dependent decrease in the amplitude and duration of the spike afterhyperpolarization, resulting in a nonlinear increase in the spike firing rate, particularly at temperatures above approximately 35°C. Interestingly, the total energy cost, as measured by the multiplication of total Na+ entry per spike and average firing rate in response to a constant input, reaches a global minimum between 37–42°C. Our results indicate that increases in temperature result in an unexpected increase in energy efficiency, especially near normal body temperature, thus allowing the brain to utilize an energy efficient neural code. PMID:22511855

  9. Action potentials and twitch forces of rabbit masseter motor units at optimum jaw angle.

    PubMed

    van Eijden, T M G J; Turkawski, S J J

    2002-08-01

    This study examines mutual correlations between electrical and contractile motor-unit properties. Action potentials and twitch force responses of 42 masseter motor units were recorded in 14 rabbits. Motor units were excited by stimulating motoneurones in the trigeminal motor nucleus. Action potentials and twitches were measured at different jaw gapes between 0 and 21 degrees, in steps of 3 degrees. For each motor unit, the jaw angle-active force interrelation was determined and variables for action potential and force were compared at the jaw angle at which the motor unit produced the largest force. The results showed a large variation in variables for action potential and force, possibly related to the variation in motor-unit morphology. A weak correlation was found between the variables for action-potential amplitude and the magnitude of optimum force, indicating that motor units producing larger forces tended to have action potentials with larger amplitudes. Twitch-contraction time and the moment arm of the motor unit correlated positively with both the median frequency and the duration of the action potential. This indicates that slower contracting motor units had longer action potentials and is in accord with the earlier observation that slower motor units are preferentially located in the anterior regions of the masseter.

  10. Temperature dependence of action potential parameters in Aplysia neurons.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Nam Gyu; Hyun, Kwang-Ho; Lee, Kyungmin; Kaang, Bong-Kiun

    2012-01-01

    Although the effects of temperature changes on the activity of neurons have been studied in Aplysia, the reproducibility of the temperature dependence of the action potential (AP) parameters has not been verified. To this end, we performed experiments using Aplysia neurons. Fourteen AP parameters were analyzed using the long-term data series recorded during the experiments. Our analysis showed that nine of the AP parameters decreased as the temperature increased: the AP amplitude (A(AP)), membrane potential at the positive peak (V(pp)), interspike interval, first half (Δt(r1)) and last half (Δt(r2)) of the temperature rising phase, first half (Δt(f1)) and last half (Δt(f2)) of the temperature falling phase, AP (Δt(AP, 1/2)), and differentiated signal (Δt(DS, 1/2)) half-width durations. Five of the AP parameters increased with temperature: the differentiated signal amplitude (A(DS)), absolute value of the membrane potential at negative peak (|V(np)|), absolute value of the maximum slope of the AP during the temperature rising (|-MSR|) and falling (|MSF|) phases, and spiking frequency (Frequency). This work could provide the basis for a better understanding of the elementary processes underlying the temperature-dependent neuronal activity in Aplysia.

  11. Calculation of K →π π decay amplitudes with improved Wilson fermion action in lattice QCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizuka, N.; Ishikawa, K.-I.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshié, T.

    2015-10-01

    We present our result for the K →π π decay amplitudes for both the Δ I =1 /2 and 3 /2 processes with the improved Wilson fermion action. Expanding on the earlier works by Bernard et al. and by Donini et al., we show that mixings with four-fermion operators with wrong chirality are absent even for the Wilson fermion action for the parity odd process in both channels due to CPS symmetry. Therefore, after subtraction of an effect from the lower dimensional operator, a calculation of the decay amplitudes is possible without complications from operators with wrong chirality, as for the case with chirally symmetric lattice actions. As a first step to verify the possibility of calculations with the Wilson fermion action, we consider the decay amplitudes at an unphysical quark mass mK˜2 mπ . Our calculations are carried out with Nf=2 +1 gauge configurations generated with the Iwasaki gauge action and nonperturbatively O (a )-improved Wilson fermion action at a =0.091 fm , mπ=280 MeV , and mK=580 MeV on a 323×64 (L a =2.9 fm ) lattice. For the quark loops in the penguin and disconnected contributions in the I =0 channel, the combined hopping parameter expansion and truncated solver method work very well for variance reduction. We obtain, for the first time with a Wilson-type fermion action, that Re A0=60 (36 )×1 0-8 GeV and Im A0=-67 (56 )×1 0-12 GeV for a matching scale q*=1 /a . The dependence on the matching scale q* for these values is weak.

  12. Modulation of amplitude and latency of motor evoked potential by direction of transcranial magnetic stimulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sato, Aya; Torii, Tetsuya; Iwahashi, Masakuni; Itoh, Yuji; Iramina, Keiji

    2014-05-01

    The present study analyzed the effects of monophasic magnetic stimulation to the motor cortex. The effects of magnetic stimulation were evaluated by analyzing the motor evoked potentials (MEPs). The amplitude and latency of MEPs on the abductor pollicis brevis muscle were used to evaluate the effects of repetitive magnetic stimulation. A figure eight-shaped flat coil was used to stimulate the region over the primary motor cortex. The intensity of magnetic stimulation was 120% of the resting motor threshold, and the frequency of magnetic stimulation was 0.1 Hz. In addition, the direction of the current in the brain was posterior-anterior (PA) or anterior-posterior (AP). The latency of MEP was compared with PA and AP on initial magnetic stimulation. The results demonstrated that a stimulus in the AP direction increased the latency of the MEP by approximately 2.5 ms. MEP amplitude was also compared with PA and AP during 60 magnetic stimulations. The results showed that a stimulus in the PA direction gradually increased the amplitude of the MEP. However, a stimulus in the AP direction did not modulate the MEP amplitude. The average MEP amplitude induced from every 10 magnetic pulses was normalized by the average amplitude of the first 10 stimuli. These results demonstrated that the normalized MEP amplitude increased up to approximately 150%. In terms of pyramidal neuron indirect waves (I waves), magnetic stimulation inducing current flowing backward to the anterior preferentially elicited an I1 wave, and current flowing forward to the posterior elicited an I3 wave. It has been reported that the latency of the I3 wave is approximately 2.5 ms longer than the I1 wave elicitation, so the resulting difference in latency may be caused by this phenomenon. It has also been reported that there is no alteration of MEP amplitude at a frequency of 0.1 Hz. However, this study suggested that the modulation of MEP amplitude depends on stimulation strength and stimulation direction.

  13. A phantom axon setup for validating models of action potential recordings.

    PubMed

    Rossel, Olivier; Soulier, Fabien; Bernard, Serge; Guiraud, David; Cathébras, Guy

    2016-08-01

    Electrode designs and strategies for electroneurogram recordings are often tested first by computer simulations and then by animal models, but they are rarely implanted for long-term evaluation in humans. The models show that the amplitude of the potential at the surface of an axon is higher in front of the nodes of Ranvier than at the internodes; however, this has not been investigated through in vivo measurements. An original experimental method is presented to emulate a single fiber action potential in an infinite conductive volume, allowing the potential of an axon to be recorded at both the nodes of Ranvier and the internodes, for a wide range of electrode-to-fiber radial distances. The paper particularly investigates the differences in the action potential amplitude along the longitudinal axis of an axon. At a short radial distance, the action potential amplitude measured in front of a node of Ranvier is two times larger than in the middle of two nodes. Moreover, farther from the phantom axon, the measured action potential amplitude is almost constant along the longitudinal axis. The results of this new method confirm the computer simulations, with a correlation of 97.6 %.

  14. Two-pion exchange potential and the {pi}N amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    M. T. Pena; Franz Gross; Yohanes Surya

    1996-05-01

    The authors discuss the two-pion exchange potential which emerges from a box diagram with one nucleon (the spectator) restricted to its mass shell, and the other nucleon line replaced by a subtracted, covariant {pi}N scattering amplitude which includes {Delta}, Roper, and D{sub 13} isobars, as well as contact terms and off-shell (non-pole) dressed nucleon terms. The {pi}N amplitude satisfies chiral symmetry constraints and fits {pi}N data below {approximately} 700 MeV pion energy. They find that this TPE potential can be well approximated by the exchange of an effective sigma and delta meson, with parameters close to the ones used in one-boson-exchange models that fit NN data below the pion production threshold.

  15. Two-pion-exchange potential and the {pi}{ital N} amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Pena, M.T.; Gross, F.; Surya, Y.

    1996-11-01

    We discuss the two-pion-exchange (TPE) potential which emerges from a box diagram with one nucleon (the spectator) restricted to its mass shell, and the other nucleon line replaced by a subtracted, covariant {pi}{ital N} scattering amplitude which includes {Delta}, Roper, and {ital D}{sub 13} isobars, as well as contact terms and off-shell (nonpole) dressed nucleon terms. The {pi}{ital N} amplitude satisfies chiral symmetry constraints and fits {pi}{ital N} data below {approximately} 700 MeV pion energy. We find that this TPE potential can be well approximated by the exchange of an effective sigma and delta meson, with parameters close to the ones used in one-boson-exchange models that fit {ital NN} data below the pion production threshold. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}

  16. Effect of mechanical tactile noise on amplitude of visual evoked potentials: multisensory stochastic resonance.

    PubMed

    Méndez-Balbuena, Ignacio; Huidobro, Nayeli; Silva, Mayte; Flores, Amira; Trenado, Carlos; Quintanar, Luis; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Kristeva, Rumyana; Manjarrez, Elias

    2015-10-01

    The present investigation documents the electrophysiological occurrence of multisensory stochastic resonance in the human visual pathway elicited by tactile noise. We define multisensory stochastic resonance of brain evoked potentials as the phenomenon in which an intermediate level of input noise of one sensory modality enhances the brain evoked response of another sensory modality. Here we examined this phenomenon in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) modulated by the addition of tactile noise. Specifically, we examined whether a particular level of mechanical Gaussian noise applied to the index finger can improve the amplitude of the VEP. We compared the amplitude of the positive P100 VEP component between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high mechanical noise (HN). The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph for all the subjects, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a multisensory stochastic resonance in the P100 VEP.

  17. Effect of mechanical tactile noise on amplitude of visual evoked potentials: multisensory stochastic resonance

    PubMed Central

    Huidobro, Nayeli; Silva, Mayte; Flores, Amira; Trenado, Carlos; Quintanar, Luis; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Kristeva, Rumyana

    2015-01-01

    The present investigation documents the electrophysiological occurrence of multisensory stochastic resonance in the human visual pathway elicited by tactile noise. We define multisensory stochastic resonance of brain evoked potentials as the phenomenon in which an intermediate level of input noise of one sensory modality enhances the brain evoked response of another sensory modality. Here we examined this phenomenon in visual evoked potentials (VEPs) modulated by the addition of tactile noise. Specifically, we examined whether a particular level of mechanical Gaussian noise applied to the index finger can improve the amplitude of the VEP. We compared the amplitude of the positive P100 VEP component between zero noise (ZN), optimal noise (ON), and high mechanical noise (HN). The data disclosed an inverted U-like graph for all the subjects, thus demonstrating the occurrence of a multisensory stochastic resonance in the P100 VEP. PMID:26156387

  18. Sagdeev potential approach for large amplitude compressional Alfvenic double layers in viscous plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Panwar, Anuraj; Rizvi, H.; Ryu, C. M.

    2013-11-15

    Sagdeev’s technique is used to study the large amplitude compressional Alfvenic double layers in a magnetohydrodynamic plasma taking into account the small plasma β and small values of kinematic viscosity. Dispersive effect raised by non-ideal electron inertia currents perpendicular to the ambient magnetic field. The range of allowed values of the soliton speed, M (Mach number), plasma β (ratio of the plasma thermal pressure to the pressure in the confining magnetic field), and viscosity coefficient, wherein double layer may exist, are determined. In the absence of collisions, viscous dissipation modifies the Sagdeev potential and results in large amplitude compressional Alfvenic double layers. The depth of Sagdeev potential increases with the increasing Mach number and plasma β, however, decreases with the increasing viscosity. The double layer structure increases with the increasing plasma β, but decreases with increasing viscous dissipation μ(tilde sign)

  19. Weber potential from finite velocity of action?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wesley, J. P.

    1992-12-01

    The Weber potential energy U for charges q and q' separated by the distance R is U = (qq'/R)[1 - (dR/dt)2/2c2]. If this potential arises from a finite velocity c of energy transfer Q', where the retarded rate of transfer from q' to q is dQ(t-R/c)/dt = Q'[1 - (dR/dt)/c] and where the advanced rate from q to q' is dQ(t+R/c)/dt = Q'[1 + (dR/dt)/c], then the resultant time-average root-mean-square action is given by{{Q'}}sqrt {1 - {{({{{{{dR}}} {{{dt}}}}} )^2} {{{c}}^{{2}} }}} ≈ {{Q'}}[ {{{1 - }}{{( {{{{{dR}}} {{{dt}}}}} )^2 {{{{dR}}} {{{dt}}}}})^2 {2{{c}}^{{2}} }}}]. Identifying Q' with the Coulomb potential energy qq'/R, the Weber potential is obtained. Using the same argument, Newtonian gravitation yields a corresponding Weber potential energy, qq'/R being replaced by ( - Gmm'/R).

  20. Short latency compound action potentials from mammalian gravity receptor organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.

  1. Short latency compound action potentials from mammalian gravity receptor organs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, T. A.; Jones, S. M.

    1999-01-01

    Gravity receptor function was characterized in four mammalian species using far-field vestibular evoked potentials (VsEPs). VsEPs are compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve and central relays that are elicited by linear acceleration ramps applied to the cranium. Rats, mice, guinea pigs, and gerbils were studied. In all species, response onset occurred within 1.5 ms of the stimulus onset. Responses persisted during intense (116 dBSPL) wide-band (50 to 50 inverted question mark omitted inverted question mark000 Hz) forward masking, whereas auditory responses to intense clicks (112 dBpeSPL) were eliminated under the same conditions. VsEPs remained after cochlear extirpation but were eliminated following bilateral labyrinthectomy. Responses included a series of positive and negative peaks that occurred within 8 ms of stimulus onset (range of means at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms: P1=908 to 1062 micros, N1=1342 to 1475 micros, P2=1632 to 1952 micros, N2=2038 to 2387 micros). Mean response amplitudes at +6 dBre: 1.0 g/ms ranged from 0.14 to 0.99 microV. VsEP input/output functions revealed latency slopes that varied across peaks and species ranging from -19 to -51 micros/dB. Amplitude-intensity slopes also varied ranging from 0.04 to 0.08 microV/dB for rats and mice. Latency values were comparable to those of birds although amplitudes were substantially smaller in mammals. VsEP threshold values were considerably higher in mammals compared to birds and ranged from -8.1 to -10.5 dBre 1.0 g/ms across species. These results support the hypothesis that mammalian gravity receptors are less sensitive to dynamic stimuli than are those of birds.

  2. A postsleep decline in auditory evoked potential amplitude reflects sleep homoeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Hulse, Brad K.; Landsness, Eric C.; Sarasso, Simone; Ferrarelli, Fabio; Guokas, Jeffrey J.; Wanger, Tim; Tononi, Giulio

    2011-01-01

    Objective It has been hypothesized that slow wave activity, a well established measure of sleep homeostasis that increases after waking and decreases after sleep, may reflect changes in cortical synaptic strength. If so, the amplitude of sensory evoked responses should also vary as a function of time awake and asleep in a way that reflects sleep homeostasis. Methods Using 256-channel, high-density electroencephalography (EEG) in 12 subjects, auditory evoked potentials (AEP) and spontaneous waking data were collected during wakefulness before and after sleep. Results The amplitudes of the N1 and P2 waves of the AEP were reduced after a night of sleep. In addition, the decline in N1 amplitude correlated with low-frequency EEG power during non-rapid eye movement sleep and spontaneous wakefulness, both homeostatically regulated measures of sleep need. Conclusion The decline in AEP amplitude after a night of sleep may reflect a homeostatic reduction in synaptic strength. Significance These findings provide further evidence for a connection between synaptic plasticity and sleep homeostasis. PMID:21420904

  3. Action potential properties are gravity dependent

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Klaus; Hanke, Wolfgang

    2005-06-01

    The functional properties of neuronal tissue critically depend on cellular composition and intercellular comunication. A basic principle of such communication found in various types of neurons is the generation of action potentials (APs). These APs depend on the presence of voltage gated ion channels and propagate along cellular processes (e.g. axons) towards target neurons or other cells. It has already been shown that the properties of ion channels depend on gravity. To discover whether the properties of APs also depend on gravity, we examined the propagation of APs in earthworms (invertebrates) and isolated nerve fibres (i.e. bundles of axons) from earthworms under conditions of micro- and macro-gravity. In a second set of experiments we could verify our results on rat axons (vertebrates). Our experiments carried out during two parabolic flight campaigns revealed that microgravity slows AP propagation velocity and macrogravity accelerates the transmission of action potentials. The relevance for live-science related questions is considerable, taking into account that altered gravity conditions might affect AP velocity in man during space flight missions.

  4. Potential sensitivities in frequency modulation and heterodyne amplitude modulation Kelvin probe force microscopes

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, the potential sensitivity in Kelvin probe force microscopy (KPFM) was investigated in frequency modulation (FM) and heterodyne amplitude modulation (AM) modes. We showed theoretically that the minimum detectable contact potential difference (CPD) in FM-KPFM is higher than in heterodyne AM-KPFM. We experimentally confirmed that the signal-to-noise ratio in FM-KPFM is lower than that in heterodyne AM-KPFM, which is due to the higher minimum detectable CPD dependence in FM-KPFM. We also compared the corrugations in the local contact potential difference on the surface of Ge (001), which shows atomic resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM. In contrast, atomic resolution cannot be obtained in FM-KPFM under the same experimental conditions. The higher potential resolution in heterodyne AM-KPFM was attributed to the lower crosstalk and higher potential sensitivity between topographic and potential measurements. PMID:24350866

  5. Dipole characterization of single neurons from their extracellular action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Victor, Jonathan D.

    2011-01-01

    The spatial variation of the extracellular action potentials (EAP) of a single neuron contains information about the size and location of the dominant current source of its action potential generator, which is typically in the vicinity of the soma. Using this dependence in reverse in a three-component realistic probe + brain + source model, we solved the inverse problem of characterizing the equivalent current source of an isolated neuron from the EAP data sampled by an extracellular probe at multiple independent recording locations. We used a dipole for the model source because there is extensive evidence it accurately captures the spatial roll-off of the EAP amplitude, and because, as we show, dipole localization, beyond a minimum cell-probe distance, is a more accurate alternative to approaches based on monopole source models. Dipole characterization is separable into a linear dipole moment optimization where the dipole location is fixed, and a second, nonlinear, global optimization of the source location. We solved the linear optimization on a discrete grid via the lead fields of the probe, which can be calculated for any realistic probe + brain model by the finite element method. The global source location was optimized by means of Tikhonov regularization that jointly minimizes model error and dipole size. The particular strategy chosen reflects the fact that the dipole model is used in the near field, in contrast to the typical prior applications of dipole models to EKG and EEG source analysis. We applied dipole localization to data collected with stepped tetrodes whose detailed geometry was measured via scanning electron microscopy. The optimal dipole could account for 96% of the power in the spatial variation of the EAP amplitude. Among various model error contributions to the residual, we address especially the error in probe geometry, and the extent to which it biases estimates of dipole parameters. This dipole characterization method can be applied to

  6. [Effect of pulse magnetic field on distribution of neuronal action potential].

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yu; Cai, Di; Wang, Jin-Hai; Li, Gang; Lin, Ling

    2014-08-25

    The biological effect on the organism generated by magnetic field is widely studied. The present study was aimed to observe the change of sodium channel under magnetic field in neurons. Cortical neurons of Kunming mice were isolated, subjected to 15 Hz, 1 mT pulse magnetic stimulation, and then the currents of neurons were recorded by whole-cell patch clamp. The results showed that, under magnetic stimulation, the activation process of Na(+) channel was delayed, and the inactivation process was accelerated. Given the classic three-layer model, the polarization diagram of cell membrane potential distribution under pulse magnetic field was simulated, and it was found that the membrane potential induced was associated with the frequency and intensity of magnetic field. Also the effect of magnetic field-induced current on action potential was simulated by Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model. The result showed that the generation of action potential was delayed, and frequency and the amplitudes were decreased when working current was between -1.32 μA and 0 μA. When the working current was higher than 0 μA, the generation frequency of action potential was increased, and the change of amplitudes was not obvious, and when the working current was lower than -1.32 μA, the time of rising edge and amplitudes of action potential were decreased drastically, and the action potential was unable to generate. These results suggest that the magnetic field simulation can affect the distribution frequency and amplitude of action potential of neuron via sodium channel mediation.

  7. Hydrogen peroxide decelerates recovery of action potential after high-frequency fatigue in skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Oba, T; Ishikawa, T; Takaishi, T; Aoki, T; Yamaguchi, M

    2000-10-01

    Effects of reactive oxygen species (ROS), especially hydrogen peroxide (H(2)O(2)), on recovery of action potential by resting for 30 min after high-frequency fatigue were studied using frog skeletal muscle fibers. After stimulation at a frequency of 50 HZ for 2 min, the action potential amplitude was decreased by 14.5 mV from controls, and resting membrane was depolarized by 15.4 mV. Action potential duration was also prolonged by high-frequency stimulation (1.5 ms in controls to 2.6 ms). The high-frequency stimulation used here caused no muscle damage. The action potential was partially improved after a 30-min rest. Addition of catalase at 500 units/ml or H(2)O(2) at 0.5 mM to sartorius muscle did not alter any of the parameters of the action potential after high-frequency stimulation. Treatment with catalase accelerated post-fatigue recovery of the action potential. Application of H(2)O(2) delayed post-fatigue recovery of resting and action potentials. When added to detubulated toe muscle fibers, catalase no longer improved the attenuation of action potential induced by high-frequency stimulation, even after a 30-min rest. These findings suggest that removal of H(2)O(2) from transverse tubules is effective for post-fatigue recovery of action potential in skeletal muscle.

  8. Intracochlear and extracochlear ECAPs suggest antidromic action potentials.

    PubMed

    Miller, Charles A; Abbas, Paul J; Hay-McCutcheon, Marcia J; Robinson, Barbara K; Nourski, Kirill V; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng

    2004-12-01

    With experimental animals, the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP) can be recorded from multiple sites (e.g., round window, intracranial and intracochlear sites). However, human ECAPs are typically recorded from intracochlear electrodes of the implanted array. To bridge this difference, we obtained ECAPs from cats using both intracochlear and nerve-trunk recording sites. We also sought to determine how recording the site influences the acquired evoked potential and how those differences may provide insight into basic excitation properties. In the main experiment, ECAPs were recorded from four acutely deafened cats after implanting a Nucleus-style banded electrode array. Potentials were recorded from an electrode positioned on the nerve trunk and an intracochlear electrode. We manipulated stimulus level, electrode configuration (monopolar vs bipolar) and stimulus polarity, variables that influence the site of excitation. Intracochlear ECAPs were found to be an order of magnitude greater than those obtained with the nerve-trunk electrode. Also, compared with the nerve-trunk potentials, the intracochlear ECAPs more closely resembled those obtained from humans in that latencies were shorter and the waveform morphology was typically biphasic (a negative peak followed by a positive peak). With anodic monophasic stimuli, the ECAP had a unique positive-to-negative morphology which we attributed to antidromic action potentials resulting from a relatively central site of excitation. We also collected intracochlear ECAPs from twenty Nucleus 24 implant users. Compared with the feline ECAPs, the human potentials had smaller amplitudes and longer latencies. It is not clear what underlies these differences, although several factors are considered.

  9. Action-potential modulation during axonal conduction.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Takuya; Matsuki, Norio; Ikegaya, Yuji

    2011-02-04

    Once initiated near the soma, an action potential (AP) is thought to propagate autoregeneratively and distribute uniformly over axonal arbors. We challenge this classic view by showing that APs are subject to waveform modulation while they travel down axons. Using fluorescent patch-clamp pipettes, we recorded APs from axon branches of hippocampal CA3 pyramidal neurons ex vivo. The waveforms of axonal APs increased in width in response to the local application of glutamate and an adenosine A(1) receptor antagonist to the axon shafts, but not to other unrelated axon branches. Uncaging of calcium in periaxonal astrocytes caused AP broadening through ionotropic glutamate receptor activation. The broadened APs triggered larger calcium elevations in presynaptic boutons and facilitated synaptic transmission to postsynaptic neurons. This local AP modification may enable axonal computation through the geometry of axon wiring.

  10. Mechanical Surface Waves Accompany Action Potential Propagation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Machta, Benjamin; El Hady, Ahmed

    2015-03-01

    The action potential (AP) is the basic mechanism by which information is transmitted along neuronal axons. Although the excitable nature of axons is understood to be primarily electrical, many experimental studies have shown that a mechanical displacement of the axonal membrane co-propagates with the electrical signal. While the experimental evidence for co-propagating mechanical waves is diverse and compelling, there is no consensus for their physical underpinnings. We present a model in which these mechanical displacements arise from the driving of mechanical surface waves, in which potential energy is stored in elastic deformations of the neuronal membrane and cytoskeleton while kinetic energy is stored in the movement of the axoplasmic fluid. In our model these surface waves are driven by the traveling wave of electrical depolarization that characterizes the AP, altering the electrostatic forces across the membrane as it passes. Our model allows us to predict the shape of the displacement that should accompany any traveling wave of voltage, including the well-characterized AP. We expect our model to serve as a framework for understanding the physical origins and possible functional roles of these AWs in neurobiology. See Arxiv/1407.7600

  11. Electroencephalogram-based scaling of multifocal visual evoked potentials: effect on intersubject amplitude variability.

    PubMed

    Klistorner, A I; Graham, S L

    2001-08-01

    The interindividual variability of the visual evoked potential (VEP) has been recognized as a problem for interpretation of clinical results. This study examines whether VEP variability can be reduced by scaling responses according to underlying electroencephalogram (EEG) activity. A multifocal objective perimeter provided different random check patterns to each of 58 points extending out to 32 degrees nasally. A multichannel VEP was recorded (bipolar occipital cross electrodes, 7 min/eye). One hundred normal subjects (age 58.9 +/- 10.7 years) were tested. The amplitude and inter-eye asymmetry coefficient for each point of the field was calculated. VEP signals were then normalized according to underlying EEG activity recorded using Fourier transform to quantify EEG levels. High alpha-rhythm and electrocardiogram contamination were removed before scaling. High intersubject variability was present in the multifocal VEP, with amplitude in women on average 33% larger than in men. The variability for all left eyes was 42.2% +/- 3.9%, for right eyes 41.7% +/- 4.4% (coefficient of variability [CV]). There was a strong correlation between EEG activity and the amplitude of the VEP (left eye, r = 0.83; P < 0.001; right eye, r = 0.82; P < 0.001). When this was used to normalize VEP results, the CVs dropped to 24.6% +/- 3.1% (P < 0.0001) and 24.0% +/- 3.2% (P < 0.0001), respectively. The gender difference was effectively removed. Using underlying EEG amplitudes to normalize an individual's VEP substantially reduces intersubject variability, including differences between men and women. This renders the use of a normal database more reliable when applying the multifocal VEP in the clinical detection of visual field changes.

  12. Analysis of the relationship between the rise-time and the amplitude of single-fibre potentials in human muscles.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez, Javier; Navallas, Javier; Gila, Luis; Rodríguez, Ignacio; Malanda, Armando

    2010-12-01

    Using the core-conductor theory, a single fibre action potential (SFAP) can be expressed as the convolution of a biolectrical source and a weight function. In the Dimitrov-Dimitrova (D-D) SFAP convolutional model, the first temporal derivative of the intracellular action potential (IAP) is used as the source. The present work evaluates the relationship between the SFAP peak-to-peak amplitude (V(pp)) and peak-to-peak interval (rise-time, RT) at different fibre-to-electrode distances using simulated signals obtained by the D-D model as well as real recordings. With a single fibre electrode, we recorded 63 sets of consecutive SFAPs from the m. tibialis anterior of four normal subjects. The needle was intentionally moved whilst recording each SFAP set. We used the observed changes in RT and V(pp) within each SFAP set as a point of reference with which to evaluate how closely the relationship between RT and V(pp) provided by the D-D model reflects real data. We found that half of the recorded SFAP sets had rise-times higher than those generated by the D-D model. We also showed the influence of the IAP spatial length on the sensitivity of RT and V(pp) with radial distance. The study reveals some inaccuracies in simulated SFAPs whose origin might be related to the assumptions made in the core-conductor theory. Copyright © 2010. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. A simple derivation for amplitude and time period of charged particles in an electrostatic bathtub potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prathap Reddy, K.

    2016-11-01

    An ‘electrostatic bathtub potential’ is defined and analytical expressions for the time period and amplitude of charged particles in this potential are obtained and compared with simulations. These kinds of potentials are encountered in linear electrostatic ion traps, where the potential along the axis appears like a bathtub. Ion traps are used in basic physics research and mass spectrometry to store ions; these stored ions make oscillatory motion within the confined volume of the trap. Usually these traps are designed and studied using ion optical software, but in this work the bathtub potential is reproduced by making two simple modifications to the harmonic oscillator potential. The addition of a linear ‘k 1|x|’ potential makes the simple harmonic potential curve steeper with a sharper turn at the origin, while the introduction of a finite-length zero potential region at the centre reproduces the flat region of the bathtub curve. This whole exercise of modelling a practical experimental situation in terms of a well-known simple physics problem may generate interest among readers.

  14. Action Potential Initiation in Neocortical Inhibitory Interneurons

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tun; Tian, Cuiping; Scalmani, Paolo; Frassoni, Carolina; Mantegazza, Massimo; Wang, Yonghong; Yang, Mingpo; Wu, Si; Shu, Yousheng

    2014-01-01

    Action potential (AP) generation in inhibitory interneurons is critical for cortical excitation-inhibition balance and information processing. However, it remains unclear what determines AP initiation in different interneurons. We focused on two predominant interneuron types in neocortex: parvalbumin (PV)- and somatostatin (SST)-expressing neurons. Patch-clamp recording from mouse prefrontal cortical slices showed that axonal but not somatic Na+ channels exhibit different voltage-dependent properties. The minimal activation voltage of axonal channels in SST was substantially higher (∼7 mV) than in PV cells, consistent with differences in AP thresholds. A more mixed distribution of high- and low-threshold channel subtypes at the axon initial segment (AIS) of SST cells may lead to these differences. Surprisingly, NaV1.2 was found accumulated at AIS of SST but not PV cells; reducing NaV1.2-mediated currents in interneurons promoted recurrent network activity. Together, our results reveal the molecular identity of axonal Na+ channels in interneurons and their contribution to AP generation and regulation of network activity. PMID:25203314

  15. Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy

    PubMed Central

    Begum, Rahima; Bakiri, Yamina; Volynski, Kirill E.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2016-01-01

    Brain development and interictal function are unaffected in many paroxysmal neurological channelopathies, possibly explained by homoeostatic plasticity of synaptic transmission. Episodic ataxia type 1 is caused by missense mutations of the potassium channel Kv1.1, which is abundantly expressed in the terminals of cerebellar basket cells. Presynaptic action potentials of small inhibitory terminals have not been characterized, and it is not known whether developmental plasticity compensates for the effects of Kv1.1 dysfunction. Here we use visually targeted patch-clamp recordings from basket cell terminals of mice harbouring an ataxia-associated mutation and their wild-type littermates. Presynaptic spikes are followed by a pronounced afterdepolarization, and are broadened by pharmacological blockade of Kv1.1 or by a dominant ataxia-associated mutation. Somatic recordings fail to detect such changes. Spike broadening leads to increased Ca2+ influx and GABA release, and decreased spontaneous Purkinje cell firing. We find no evidence for developmental compensation for inherited Kv1.1 dysfunction. PMID:27381274

  16. Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy.

    PubMed

    Begum, Rahima; Bakiri, Yamina; Volynski, Kirill E; Kullmann, Dimitri M

    2016-07-06

    Brain development and interictal function are unaffected in many paroxysmal neurological channelopathies, possibly explained by homoeostatic plasticity of synaptic transmission. Episodic ataxia type 1 is caused by missense mutations of the potassium channel Kv1.1, which is abundantly expressed in the terminals of cerebellar basket cells. Presynaptic action potentials of small inhibitory terminals have not been characterized, and it is not known whether developmental plasticity compensates for the effects of Kv1.1 dysfunction. Here we use visually targeted patch-clamp recordings from basket cell terminals of mice harbouring an ataxia-associated mutation and their wild-type littermates. Presynaptic spikes are followed by a pronounced afterdepolarization, and are broadened by pharmacological blockade of Kv1.1 or by a dominant ataxia-associated mutation. Somatic recordings fail to detect such changes. Spike broadening leads to increased Ca(2+) influx and GABA release, and decreased spontaneous Purkinje cell firing. We find no evidence for developmental compensation for inherited Kv1.1 dysfunction.

  17. Action potential broadening in a presynaptic channelopathy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Begum, Rahima; Bakiri, Yamina; Volynski, Kirill E.; Kullmann, Dimitri M.

    2016-07-01

    Brain development and interictal function are unaffected in many paroxysmal neurological channelopathies, possibly explained by homoeostatic plasticity of synaptic transmission. Episodic ataxia type 1 is caused by missense mutations of the potassium channel Kv1.1, which is abundantly expressed in the terminals of cerebellar basket cells. Presynaptic action potentials of small inhibitory terminals have not been characterized, and it is not known whether developmental plasticity compensates for the effects of Kv1.1 dysfunction. Here we use visually targeted patch-clamp recordings from basket cell terminals of mice harbouring an ataxia-associated mutation and their wild-type littermates. Presynaptic spikes are followed by a pronounced afterdepolarization, and are broadened by pharmacological blockade of Kv1.1 or by a dominant ataxia-associated mutation. Somatic recordings fail to detect such changes. Spike broadening leads to increased Ca2+ influx and GABA release, and decreased spontaneous Purkinje cell firing. We find no evidence for developmental compensation for inherited Kv1.1 dysfunction.

  18. Cyclopiazonic acid disturbs the regulation of cytosolic calcium when repetitive action potentials are evoked in Dionaea traps.

    PubMed

    Trebacz, Kazimierz; Busch, Marion B; Hejnowicz, Zygmunt; Sievers, Andreas

    1996-04-01

    Evoking of action potentials (APs) in the trap of Dionaea muscipula Ellis at intervals shorter than 20 s caused a gradual decrease in the amplitude of the APs. At longer intervals the amplitude was constant. The calcium ionophore A23187 (1 μM) caused a considerable decrease of AP amplitude. Pretreatment of a segment of the Dionaea trap with cyclopiazonic acid (CPA), which is a specific inhibitor of the Ca(2+)-ATPase in the sarcoplasmic seticulum of animal cells and in ER vesicles isolated from plant cells, only slightly affected the amplitude when APs were evoked every 10 min; however, it caused a considerable decrease in the amplitude when the stimulation was repeated every 2 min. Assuming that APs increase the concentration of cytosolic Ca(2+) and the amplitude of AP depends on the gradient of Ca(2+) across the plasma membrane, the effect of CPA on the AP amplitude indicates that CPA inhibits the sequestration of Ca(2+) in Dionaea cells.

  19. Teachers in Action Research: Assumptions and Potentials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Yuen-Ling

    2008-01-01

    Research literature has long indicated that action research may stimulate practitioners themselves to actively evaluate the quality of their practice. This study is designed to report the use of action research for the development of early years professional practice by analyzing the pre-project and the post-project video-filmed teaching events.…

  20. Bepridil (CERM-1978) blockade of action potentials in cultured rat aortic smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Mras, S; Sperelakis, N

    1981-04-24

    Reaggregate cultures (primary) were prepared from enzyme-dispersed vascular smooth muscle (VSM) cells from rat aortas. The cultures were incubated for 7-10 days, and then studied by the intracellular microelectrode technique. The cells were electrically quiescent (mean resting potential of --47 mV), and extracellular electrical stimulation usually did not elicit a membrane response. Addition of 10 mM tetraethylammonium rapidly induced excitability, allowing the VSM cells to fire Ca2+-dependent action potentials in response to electrical stimulation. The electrical responses often had two components, an initial spike and a later plateau-like component. The action potential spikes had a mean amplitude of 22 mV but occasionally were overshooting; the plateaus had a mean duration (at 50% repolarization) of 3.8 sec. A new anti-anginal agent, bepridil (10(-8)-10(-5) M), depressed the amplitude and duration of the plateau and blocked the spike component of the action potential in a dose-dependent fashion without affecting the resting potential. This finding is consistent with the view that bepridil acts as a Ca2+-antagonistic agent to prevent the generation of the action potentials, and this action can explain its antianginal properties.

  1. Design and use of an "optrode" for optical recordings of cardiac action potentials.

    PubMed

    Neunlist, M; Zou, S Z; Tung, L

    1992-04-01

    An optical method was used to measure action potentials from frog ventricle, in vitro, under normal physiological conditions with 0.5-1 mM Ca2+ Ringer's solution. The approach presented in this paper involves a portable fluorimeter coupled to a multimode optical fiber running into a glass pipette ("optrode") to carry both excitation light to and fluorescence from the ventricle stained with the voltage sensitive dye di-4-ANEPPS. A suction technique was used to stabilize the optrode-tissue interface, significantly reducing motion artifacts from the beating ventricle. The typical fractional change in fluorescence intensity for an action potential was -9%. The optical recordings faithfully reproduced membrane action potentials as measured with microelectrode recordings. To confirm further the validity of our method we studied the effect of an increasing stimulation rate on the optical action potential. The amplitude of the action potential did not increase, and the change in action potential duration was similar to published results obtained with microelectrode recordings, suggesting that our optical action potentials are relatively free of motion artifacts. Finally, our optical recordings suggest that during anodal and cathodal point stimulation, the time course of membrane potential differs from that predicted simply by a passive cable model.

  2. Motor Unit Number Estimation and Motor Unit Action Potential Analysis in Carpal Tunnel Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Sohn, Min Kyun; Jee, Sung Ju; Kim, Young-Jae; Shin, Hyun-Dae

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the clinical significance of motor unit number estimation (MUNE) and quantitative analysis of motor unit action potential (MUAP) in carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) according to electrophysiologic severity, ultrasonographic measurement and clinical symptoms. Method We evaluated 78 wrists of 45 patients, who had been diagnosed with CTS and 42 wrists of 21 healthy controls. Median nerve conduction studies, amplitude and duration of MUAP, and the MUNE of the abductor pollicis brevis were measured. The cross sectional area (CSA) of the median nerve at the pisiform and distal radioulnar joint level was determined by high resolution ultrasonography. Clinical symptom of CTS was assessed using the Boston Carpal Tunnel Questionnaire (BCTQ). Results The MUNE, the amplitude and the duration of MUAP of the CTS group were significantly different from those found in the control group. The area under the ROC curve was 0.944 for MUNE, 0.923 for MUAP amplitude and 0.953 for MUAP duration. MUNE had a negative correlation with electrophysiologic stage of CTS, amplitude and duration of MUAP, CSA at pisiform level, and the score of BCTQ. The amplitude and duration of MUAP had a positive correlation with the score of BCTQ. The electrophysiologic stage was correlated with amplitude but not with the duration of MUAP. Conclusion MUNE, amplitude and duration of MUAP are useful tests for diagnosis of CTS. In addition, the MUNE serves as a good indicator of CTS severity. PMID:22506210

  3. Ontogeny of vestibular compound action potentials in the domestic chicken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of -0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately -25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6-P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 microV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ.

  4. Ontogeny of Vestibular Compound Action Potentials in the Domestic Chicken

    PubMed Central

    M. Jones, Sherri

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of –0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately –25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6–P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 μV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ. PMID:11545229

  5. Ontogeny of vestibular compound action potentials in the domestic chicken

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, S. M.; Jones, T. A.

    2000-01-01

    Compound action potentials of the vestibular nerve were measured from the surface of the scalp in 148 chickens (Gallus domesticus). Ages ranged from incubation day 18 (E18) to 22 days posthatch (P22). Responses were elicited using linear acceleration cranial pulses. Response thresholds decreased at an average rate of -0.45 dB/day. The decrease was best fit by an exponential model with half-maturity time constant of 5.1 days and asymptote of approximately -25.9 dB re:1.0 g/ms. Mean threshold approached within 3 dB of the asymptote by ages P6-P9. Similarly, response latencies decreased exponentially to within 3% of mature values at ages beyond P9. The half-maturity time constant for peripheral response peak latencies P1, N1, and P2 was comparable to thresholds and ranged from approximately 4.6 to 6.2 days, whereas central peaks (N2, P3, and N3) ranged from 2.9 to 3.4 days. Latency-intensity slopes for P1, N1, and P2 tended to decrease with age, reaching mature values within approximately 100 hours of hatching. Amplitudes increased as a function of age with average growth rates for response peaks ranging from 0.04 to 0.09 microV/day. There was no obvious asymptote to the growth of amplitudes over the ages studied. Amplitude-intensity slopes also increased modestly with age. The results show that gravity receptors are responsive to transient cranial stimuli as early as E19 in the chicken embryo. The functional response of gravity receptors continues to develop for many days after all major morphological structures are in place. Distinct maturational processes can be identified in central and peripheral neural relays. Functional improvements during maturation may result from refinements in the receptor epithelia, improvements in central and peripheral synaptic transmission, increased neural myelination, as well as changes in the mechanical coupling between the cranium and receptor organ.

  6. Intraoperative nerve action and compound motor action potential recordings in patients with obstetric brachial plexus lesions.

    PubMed

    Pondaag, Willem; van der Veken, Lieven P A J; van Someren, Paul J; van Dijk, J Gert; Malessy, Martijn J A

    2008-11-01

    A typical finding in supraclavicular exploration of infants with severe obstetric brachial plexus lesions (OBPLs) is a neuroma-in-continuity with the superior trunk and/or a root avulsion at C-5, C-6, or C-7. The operative strategy in these cases is determined by the intraoperative assessment of the severity of the lesion. Intraoperative nerve action potential (NAP) and evoked compound motor action potential (CMAP) recordings have been shown to be helpful diagnostic tools in adults, whereas their value in the intraoperative assessment of infants with OBPLs remains to be determined. Intraoperative NAPs and CMAPs were systematically recorded from damaged and normal nerves of the upper brachial plexus in a consecutive series of 95 infants (mean age 175 days) with OBPLs. A total of 599 intraoperative NAP and 836 CMAP recordings were analyzed. The severity of the nerve lesions was graded as normal, axonotmesis, neurotmesis, or root avulsion, based on surgical, clinical, histological, and radiographic criteria. The correlation of NAP and CMAP recordings with the severity of the lesion was assessed. The specificity of an absent NAP or CMAP to predict a severe lesion (neurotmesis or avulsion) was > 0.9. However, the sensitivity of an absent NAP or CMAP for predicting a severe lesion was low (typically < 0.3). The severity of the nerve lesion was related to CMAP and NAP amplitudes. Cutoff points useful for intraoperative decision making could not be found to differentiate between lesion types in individual patients. Intraoperative NAP and CMAP recordings do not assist in decision making in the surgical treatment of infants with OBPLs. The authors' findings in infants cannot be generalized to adults.

  7. Mechanisms and consequences of action potential burst firing in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Stephen R; Stuart, Greg J

    1999-01-01

    Electrophysiological recordings and pharmacological manipulations were used to investigate the mechanisms underlying the generation of action potential burst firing and its postsynaptic consequences in visually identified rat layer 5 pyramidal neurons in vitro.Based upon repetitive firing properties and subthreshold membrane characteristics, layer 5 pyramidal neurons were separated into three classes: regular firing and weak and strong intrinsically burst firing.High frequency (330 ± 10 Hz) action potential burst firing was abolished or greatly weakened by the removal of Ca2+ (n = 5) from, or by the addition of the Ca2+ channel antagonist Ni2+ (250–500 μm; n = 8) to, the perfusion medium.The blockade of apical dendritic sodium channels by the local dendritic application of TTX (100 nm; n = 5) abolished or greatly weakened action potential burst firing, as did the local apical dendritic application of Ni2+ (1 mm; n = 5).Apical dendritic depolarisation resulted in low frequency (157 ± 26 Hz; n = 6) action potential burst firing in regular firing neurons, as classified by somatic current injection. The intensity of action potential burst discharges in intrinsically burst firing neurons was facilitated by dendritic depolarisation (n = 11).Action potential amplitude decreased throughout a burst when recorded somatically, suggesting that later action potentials may fail to propagate axonally. Axonal recordings demonstrated that each action potential in a burst is axonally initiated and that no decrement in action potential amplitude is apparent in the axon > 30 μm from the soma.Paired recordings (n = 16) from synaptically coupled neurons indicated that each action potential in a burst could cause transmitter release. EPSPs or EPSCs evoked by a presynaptic burst of action potentials showed use-dependent synaptic depression.A postsynaptic, TTX-sensitive voltage-dependent amplification process ensured that later EPSPs in a burst were amplified when generated from

  8. Effects of tacrolimus on action potential configuration and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Szabó, László; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Pál, Balázs; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-03-01

    Tacrolimus is a commonly used immunosuppressive agent which causes cardiovascular complications, e.g., hypertension and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. In spite of it, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the immunosuppressive agent tacrolimus in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of tacrolimus on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes. Standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in myocytes enzymatically dispersed from canine ventricular myocardium. Tacrolimus (3-30 μM) caused a concentration-dependent reduction of maximum velocity of depolarization and repolarization, action potential amplitude, phase-1 repolarization, action potential duration, and plateau potential, while no significant change in the resting membrane potential was observed. Conventional voltage clamp experiments revealed that tacrolimus concentrations ≥3 μM blocked a variety of ion currents, including I(Ca), I(to), I(K1), I(Kr), and I(Ks). Similar results were obtained under action potential voltage clamp conditions. These effects of tacrolimus developed rapidly and were fully reversible upon washout. The blockade of inward currents with the concomitant shortening of action potential duration in canine myocytes is the opposite of those observed previously with tacrolimus in small rodents. It is concluded that although tacrolimus blocks several ion channels at higher concentrations, there is no risk of direct interaction with cardiac ion channels when applying tacrolimus in therapeutic concentrations.

  9. Relationships between skinfold thickness and electromyographic and mechanomyographic amplitude recorded during voluntary and non-voluntary muscle actions.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Michael A; Herda, Trent J; Vardiman, John P; Gallagher, Phillip M; Fry, Andrew C

    2014-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine possible correlations between skinfold thicknesses and the a terms from the log-transformed electromyographic (EMGRMS) and mechanomyographic amplitude (MMGRMS)-force relationships, EMG M-Waves, and MMG gross lateral movements (GLM). Forty healthy subjects performed a 6-s isometric ramp contraction from 5% to 85% of their maximal voluntary contraction with EMG and MMG sensors placed on the vastus lateralis (VL) and rectus femoris (RF). A single electrical stimulus was applied to the femoral nerve to record the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs. Skinfold thickness was assessed at the site of each electrode. Pearson's product correlation coefficients were calculated comparing skinfold thicknesses with the a terms from the log-transformed EMGRMS-and MMGRMS-force relationships, EMG M-waves, and MMG GLMs. There were no significant cor1relations (p>0.05) between the a terms and skinfold thicknesses for the RF and VL from the EMGRMS and MMGRMS-force relationships. However, there were significant correlations (p<0.05) between skinfold thicknesses and the EMG M-waves and MMG GLMs for the RF (r=-0.521, -0.376) and VL (r=-0.479, -0.484). Relationships were only present between skinfold thickness and the amplitudes of the EMG and MMG signals during the non-voluntary muscle actions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of postextrasystolic potentiation on amplitude and timing of regional left ventricular wall motion in ischaemic heart disease.

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, D G; Fleck, E; Rudolph, W

    1983-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of postextrasystolic potentiation on left ventricular wall motion, the left ventriculograms of 30 patients were digitised frame by frame and regional movement demonstrated by contour displays. Postextrasystolic potentiation caused significant increases in end-diastolic volume, ejection fraction, and peak ejection and filling rates. The amplitude of normally moving segments increased by 5.7 +/- 2.3 mm, regardless of initial amplitude. Hypokinetic segments moved normally if the initial amplitude was greater than 5 mm, and there was a reduced or absent response if 4 mm or less. Four specific abnormalities of timing of motion were studied during isovolumic contraction, early ejection, and isovolumic relaxation. Their timing and extent were all unaffected in postextrasystolic beats. These results thus give no evidence for the entity "reversible asynergy". Rather, they suggest that the response of local wall motion to postextrasystolic potentiation depends only on basal amplitude and increased volume change in postextrasystolic beats. PMID:6188474

  11. Responsivity to dyslexia training indexed by the N170 amplitude of the brain potential elicited by word reading.

    PubMed

    Fraga González, G; Žarić, G; Tijms, J; Bonte, M; Blomert, L; Leppänen, P; van der Molen, M W

    2016-07-01

    The present study examined training effects in dyslexic children on reading fluency and the amplitude of N170, a negative brain-potential component elicited by letter and symbol strings. A group of 18 children with dyslexia in 3rd grade (9.05±0.46years old) was tested before and after following a letter-speech sound mapping training. A group of 20 third-grade typical readers (8.78±0.35years old) performed a single time on the same brain potential task. The training was differentially effective in speeding up reading fluency in the dyslexic children. In some children, training had a beneficial effect on reading fluency ('improvers') while a training effect was absent in others ('non-improvers'). Improvers at pre-training showed larger N170 amplitude to words compared to non-improvers. N170 amplitude decreased following training in improvers but not in non-improvers. But the N170 amplitude pattern in improvers continued to differ from the N170 amplitude pattern across hemispheres seen in typical readers. Finally, we observed a positive relation between the decrease in N170 amplitude and gains in reading fluency. Collectively, the results that emerged from the present study indicate the sensitivity of N170 amplitude to reading fluency and its potential as a predictor of reading fluency acquisition. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Action potential initiation and propagation in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Stuart, G; Schiller, J; Sakmann, B

    1997-12-15

    1. Initiation and propagation of action potentials evoked by extracellular synaptic stimulation was studied using simultaneous dual and triple patch pipette recordings from different locations on neocortical layer 5 pyramidal neurons in brain slices from 4-week-old rats (P26-30) at physiological temperatures. 2. Simultaneous cell-attached and whole-cell voltage recordings from the apical trunk (up to 700 microns distal to the soma) and the soma indicated that proximal synaptic stimulation (layer 4) initiated action potentials first at the soma, whereas distal stimulation (upper layer 2/3) could initiate dendritic regenerative potentials prior to somatic action potentials following stimulation at higher intensity. 3. Somatic action potentials, once initiated, propagated back into the apical dendrites in a decremented manner which was frequency dependent. The half-width of back propagating action potentials increased and their maximum rate of rise decreased with distance from the soma, with the peak of these action potentials propagating with a conduction velocity of approximately 0.5 m s-1. 4. Back-propagation of action potentials into the dendritic tree was associated with dendritic calcium electrogenesis, which was particularly prominent during bursts of somatic action potentials. 5. When dendritic regenerative potentials were evoked prior to somatic action potentials, the more distal the dendritic recording was made from the soma the longer the time between the onset of the dendritic regenerative potential relative to somatic action potential. This suggested that dendritic regenerative potentials were initiated in the distal apical dendrites, possibly in the apical tuft. 6. At any one stimulus intensity, the initiation of dendritic regenerative potentials prior to somatic action potentials could fluctuate, and was modulated by depolarizing somatic or hyperpolarizing dendritic current injection. 7. Dendritic regenerative potentials could be initiated prior to

  13. The effects of stimulus rates on the amplitude of median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials: the developmental change.

    PubMed

    Araki, A; Takada, A; Yasuhara, A; Kobayashi, Y

    1999-03-01

    We examined the effects of stimulus rates on the somatosensory evoked potential (SEP) amplitudes following median nerve stimulation at the wrist in 42 children. We divided these subjects into five groups according to their age (0-6 months, 7-12 months, 1-3 years, 4-6 years and more than 7 years) and measured the peak-to-peak amplitude of every component (N9, P10, N11, P13/14, N18, N20, P23, N30) at stimulus rates of 1.0, 3.5 and 5.5 Hz. From N9 to N18, there was no significant change in amplitude nor latency with stimulus rate change in all groups. The amplitude attenuation was found at the N20 and N30 peaks in the young group (0 months to 3 years) and at P23 in all groups with an increasing stimulus rate. The attenuation rate of P23 amplitude was influenced by the age of subjects, being greater in younger groups and greatest in the youngest group (0-6 months). The differences of amplitude attenuation rate between this group and the rest were statistically significant. The results of this study indicate that the amplitudes of the cortical components of SEP in children are greatly influenced by the stimulus rate. Thus when we discuss the amplitude of cortical waves in childhood, we should also pay attention to the stimulus rates.

  14. Conduction velocity of antigravity muscle action potentials.

    PubMed

    Christova, L; Kosarov, D; Christova, P

    1992-01-01

    The conduction velocity of the impulses along the muscle fibers is one of the parameters of the extraterritorial potentials of the motor units allowing for the evaluation of the functional state of the muscles. There are no data about the conduction velocities of antigravity muscleaction potentials. In this paper we offer a method for measuring conduction velocity of potentials of single MUs and the averaged potentials of the interference electromiogram (IEMG) lead-off by surface electrodes from mm. sternocleidomastoideus, trapezius, deltoideus (caput laterale) and vastus medialis. The measured mean values of the conduction velocity of antigravity muscles potentials can be used for testing the functional state of the muscles.

  15. Naturalistic stimulation changes the dynamic response of action potential encoding in a mechanoreceptor

    PubMed Central

    Pfeiffer, Keram; French, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    Naturalistic signals were created from vibrations made by locusts walking on a Sansevieria plant. Both naturalistic and Gaussian noise signals were used to mechanically stimulate VS-3 slit-sense mechanoreceptor neurons of the spider, Cupiennius salei, with stimulus amplitudes adjusted to give similar firing rates for either stimulus. Intracellular microelectrodes recorded action potentials, receptor potential, and receptor current, using current clamp and voltage clamp. Frequency response analysis showed that naturalistic stimulation contained relatively more power at low frequencies, and caused increased neuronal sensitivity to higher frequencies. In contrast, varying the amplitude of Gaussian stimulation did not change neuronal dynamics. Naturalistic stimulation contained less entropy than Gaussian, but signal entropy was higher than stimulus in the resultant receptor current, indicating addition of uncorrelated noise during transduction. The presence of added noise was supported by measuring linear information capacity in the receptor current. Total entropy and information capacity in action potentials produced by either stimulus were much lower than in earlier stages, and limited to the maximum entropy of binary signals. We conclude that the dynamics of action potential encoding in VS-3 neurons are sensitive to the form of stimulation, but entropy and information capacity of action potentials are limited by firing rate. PMID:26578975

  16. Variations in onset of action potential broadening: effects on calcium current studied in chick ciliary ganglion neurones.

    PubMed

    Pattillo, J M; Artim, D E; Simples, J E; Meriney, S D

    1999-02-01

    1. The voltage dependence and kinetic properties of stage 40 ciliary ganglion calcium currents were determined using short (10 ms) voltage steps. These properties aided the interpretation of the action potential-evoked calcium current described below, and the comparison of our data with those observed in other preparations. 2. Three different natural action potential waveforms were modelled by a series of ramps to generate voltage clamp commands. Calcium currents evoked by these model action potentials were compared before and after alterations in the repolarization phase of each action potential. 3. Abrupt step repolarizations from various time points were used to estimate the time course of calcium current activation during each action potential. Calcium current evoked by fast action potentials (duration at half-amplitude, 0.5 or 1.0 ms) did not reach maximal activation until the action potential had repolarized by 40-50 %. In contrast, calcium current evoked by a slow action potential (duration at half-amplitude, 2.2 ms) was maximally activated near the peak of the action potential. 4. Slowing the rate of repolarization of the action potential (broadening) from different times was used to examine effects on peak and total calcium influx. With all three waveforms tested, broadening consistently increased total calcium influx (integral). However, peak calcium current was either increased or decreased depending on the duration of the control action potential tested and the specific timing of the initiation of broadening the repolarization phase. 5. The opposite effects on peak calcium current observed with action potential broadening beginning at different time points in repolarization may provide a mechanism for the variable effects of potassium channel blockers on transmitter release magnitude.

  17. [Nonlinear modelling of the propagation of action potentials].

    PubMed

    Volobuev, A N; Zhukov, B N; Ovchinnikov, E L; Bakhito, A U; Trufanov, L A

    1991-01-01

    The role of nerve fibre membrane inductance in the action potential spreading was studied. We received a nonlinear differential equation for the action potential. This equation has soliton solutions. On the basis of the suggested model the numeral calculation results were given in our paper.

  18. Variety of the Wave Change in Compound Muscle Action Potential in an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Zenya; Ando, Kei; Muramoto, Akio; Kobayashi, Kazuyoshi; Hida, Tetsuro; Ito, Kenyu; Ishikawa, Yoshimoto; Tsushima, Mikito; Matsumoto, Akiyuki; Tanaka, Satoshi; Morozumi, Masayoshi; Matsuyama, Yukihiro; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Animal study. Purpose To review the present warning point criteria of the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and investigate new criteria for spinal surgery safety using an animal model. Overview of Literature Little is known about correlation palesis and amplitude of spinal cord monitoring. Methods After laminectomy of the tenth thoracic spinal lamina, 2-140 g force was delivered to the spinal cord with a tension gage to create a bilateral contusion injury. The study morphology change of the CMAP wave and locomotor scale were evaluated for one month. Results Four different types of wave morphology changes were observed: no change, amplitude decrease only, morphology change only, and amplitude and morphology change. Amplitude and morphology changed simultaneously and significantly as the injury force increased (p<0.05) Locomotor scale in the amplitude and morphology group worsened more than the other groups. Conclusions Amplitude and morphology change of the CMAP wave exists and could be the key of the alarm point in CMAP. PMID:26713129

  19. Sodium-calcium exchange during the action potential in guinea-pig ventricular cells.

    PubMed Central

    Egan, T M; Noble, D; Noble, S J; Powell, T; Spindler, A J; Twist, V W

    1989-01-01

    1. Slow inward tail currents attributable to electrogenic sodium-calcium exchange can be recorded by imposing hyperpolarizing voltage clamp pulses during the normal action potential of isolated guinea-pig ventricular cells. The hyperpolarizations return the membrane to the resting potential (between -65 and -88 m V) allowing an inward current to be recorded. This current usually has peak amplitude when repolarization is imposed during the first 50 ms after the action potential upstroke, but becomes negligible once the final phase of repolarization is reached. The envelope of peak current tail amplitudes strongly resembles that of the intracellular calcium transient recorded in other studies. 2. Repetitive stimulation producing normal action potentials at a frequency of 2 Hz progressively augments the tail current recorded immediately after the stimulus train. Conversely, if each action potential is prematurely terminated at 0.1 Hz, repetitive stimulation produces a tail current much smaller than the control value. The control amplitude of inward current is only maintained if interrupted action potentials are separated by at least one full 'repriming' action potential. These effects mimic those on cell contraction (Arlock & Wohlfart, 1986) and suggest that progressive changes in tail current are controlled by variations in the amplitude and time course of the intracellular calcium transient. 3. When intracellular calcium is buffered sufficiently to abolish contraction, the tail current is abolished. Substitution of calcium with strontium greatly reduces the tail current. 4. The inward tail current can also be recorded at more positive membrane potentials using standard voltage clamp pulse protocols. In this way it was found that temperature has a large effect on the tail current, which can change from net inward at 22 degrees C to net outward at 37 degrees C. The largest inward currents are usually recorded at about 30 degrees C. It is shown that this effect is

  20. Development of action potentials and apamin-sensitive after-potentials in mouse vestibular nucleus neurones.

    PubMed

    Dutia, M B; Johnston, A R

    1998-01-01

    The postnatal maturation of medial vestibular nucleus (MVN) neurones was examined in slices of the dorsal brainstem prepared from balb/c mice at specific stages during the first postnatal month. Using spike-shape averaging to analyse the intracellularly recorded action potentials and after-hyperpolarizations (AHPs) in each cell, all the MVN neurones recorded in the young adult (postnatal day 30; P30) mouse were shown to have either a single deep AHP (type A cells), or an early fast and a delayed slow AHP (type B cells). The relative proportions of the two subtypes were similar to those in the young adult rat. At P5, all the MVN cells recorded showed immature forms of either the type A or the type B action potential shape. Immature type A cells had broad spontaneous spikes, and the characteristic single AHP was small in amplitude. Immature type B cells had somewhat narrower spontaneous spikes that were followed by a delayed, apamin-sensitive AHP. The delayed AHP was separated from the repolarisation phase of the spike by a period of isopotentiality. Over the period P10-P15, the mean resting potentials of the MVN cells became more negative, their action potential fall-times became shorter, the single AHP in type A cells became deeper, and the early fast AHP appeared in type B cells. Until P15 cells of varying degrees of electrophysiological maturity were found in the MVN but by P30 all MVN cells recorded were typical adult type A or type B cells. Exposure to the selective blocker of SK-type Ca-activated K channels, apamin (0.3 microM), induced depolarising plateaux and burst firing in immature type B cells at rest. The duration of the apamin-induced bursts and the spike frequency during the bursts were reduced but not abolished after blockade of Ca channels in Ca-free artificial cerebrospinal fluid containing Cd2+. By contrast, in mature type B cells at rest apamin selectively abolished the delayed slow AHP but did not induce bursting activity. Apamin had no effect

  1. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro.

    PubMed

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs.

  2. The Influence of Glutamate on Axonal Compound Action Potential In Vitro

    PubMed Central

    Abouelela, Ahmed; Wieraszko, Andrzej

    2016-01-01

    Background Our previous experiments demonstrated modulation of the amplitude of the axonal compound action potential (CAP) by electrical stimulation. To verify assumption that glutamate released from axons could be involved in this phenomenon, the modification of the axonal CAP induced by glutamate was investigated. Objectives The major objective of this research is to verify the hypothesis that axonal activity would trigger the release of glutamate, which in turn would interact with specific axonal receptors modifying the amplitude of the action potential. Methods Segments of the sciatic nerve were exposed to exogenous glutamate in vitro, and CAP was recorded before and after glutamate application. In some experiments, the release of radioactive glutamate analog from the sciatic nerve exposed to exogenous glutamate was also evaluated. Results The glutamate-induced increase in CAP was blocked by different glutamate receptor antagonists. The effect of glutamate was not observed in Ca-free medium, and was blocked by antagonists of calcium channels. Exogenous glutamate, applied to the segments of sciatic nerve, induced the release of radioactive glutamate analog, demonstrating glutamate-induced glutamate release. Immunohistochemical examination revealed that axolemma contains components necessary for glutamatergic neurotransmission. Conclusion The proteins of the axonal membrane can under the influence of electrical stimulation or exogenous glutamate change membrane permeability and ionic conductance, leading to a change in the amplitude of CAP. We suggest that increased axonal activity leads to the release of glutamate that results in changes in the amplitude of CAPs. PMID:28077958

  3. Phase to amplitude coupling as a potential biomarker for creative ideation: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Marmpena, Mina; Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Thakor, Nitish; Bezerianos, Anastasios

    2016-08-01

    The most consistent finding of creative ideation in the neuroscientific study of creativity is the increment of EEG α power. However, the majority of existing studies focused only on ERP experimental paradigms while only a few analyzed time-related changes of EEG α power patterns during the time unlocked creation of ideas. Here, we designed an experimental paradigm where the participants were asked to generate alternative uses of everyday objects (AU task). For the control task, we adopted an Object Characteristics (OC) task, for which participants were asked to list typical characteristics or properties of an object. We estimated relative power spectrum, global efficiency from brain networks constructed with the imaginary part of coherence and phase-to-amplitude coupling (PAC) as potential biomarkers of creativity. Both relative power spectrum and nodal global efficiency failed to reach significant level by comparing AU with OC. In contrast, statistically significant differences between AU and OC were detected with PAC estimated within sensors in frequency pairs θ-γ and α2-γ. Our results can be the ground for both detecting and designing a connectomic biomarker of creativity.

  4. Unique features of action potential initiation in cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Naundorf, Björn; Wolf, Fred; Volgushev, Maxim

    2006-04-20

    Neurons process and encode information by generating sequences of action potentials. For all spiking neurons, the encoding of single-neuron computations into sequences of spikes is biophysically determined by the cell's action-potential-generating mechanism. It has recently been discovered that apparently minor modifications of this mechanism can qualitatively change the nature of neuronal encoding. Here we quantitatively analyse the dynamics of action potential initiation in cortical neurons in vivo, in vitro and in computational models. Unexpectedly, key features of the initiation dynamics of cortical neuron action potentials--their rapid initiation and variable onset potential--are outside the range of behaviours described by the classical Hodgkin-Huxley theory. We propose a new model based on the cooperative activation of sodium channels that reproduces the observed dynamics of action potential initiation. This new model predicts that Hodgkin-Huxley-type dynamics of action potential initiation can be induced by artificially decreasing the effective density of sodium channels. In vitro experiments confirm this prediction, supporting the hypothesis that cooperative sodium channel activation underlies the dynamics of action potential initiation in cortical neurons.

  5. Understanding the electrical behavior of the action potential in terms of elementary electrical sources.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-03-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However, this model is unsuitably complex for teaching purposes. In addition, the Hodgkin and Huxley approach describes the shape of the action potential only in terms of ionic currents, i.e., it is unable to explain the electrical significance of the action potential or describe the electrical field arising from this source using basic concepts of electromagnetic theory. The goal of the present report was to propose a new model to describe the electrical behaviour of the action potential in terms of elementary electrical sources (in particular, dipoles). The efficacy of this model was tested through a closed-book written exam. The proposed model increased the ability of students to appreciate the distributed character of the action potential and also to recognize that this source spreads out along the fiber as function of space. In addition, the new approach allowed students to realize that the amplitude and sign of the extracellular electrical potential arising from the action potential are determined by the spatial derivative of this intracellular source. The proposed model, which incorporates intuitive graphical representations, has improved students' understanding of the electrical potentials generated by bioelectrical sources and has heightened their interest in bioelectricity. Copyright © 2015 The American Physiological Society.

  6. Determining the True Polarity and Amplitude of Synaptic Currents Underlying Gamma Oscillations of Local Field Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Makarov, Valeri A.; Herreras, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate afferent from

  7. Determining the true polarity and amplitude of synaptic currents underlying gamma oscillations of local field potentials.

    PubMed

    Martín-Vázquez, Gonzalo; Makarova, Julia; Makarov, Valeri A; Herreras, Oscar

    2013-01-01

    Fluctuations in successive waves of oscillatory local field potentials (LFPs) reflect the ongoing processing of neuron populations. However, their amplitude, polarity and synaptic origin are uncertain due to the blending of electric fields produced by multiple converging inputs, and the lack of a baseline in standard AC-coupled recordings. Consequently, the estimation of underlying currents by laminar analysis yields spurious sequences of inward and outward currents. We devised a combined analytical/experimental approach that is suitable to study laminated structures. The approach was essayed on an experimental oscillatory LFP as the Schaffer-CA1 gamma input in anesthetized rats, and it was verified by parallel processing of model LFPs obtained through a realistic CA1 aggregate of compartmental units. This approach requires laminar LFP recordings and the isolation of the oscillatory input from other converging pathways, which was achieved through an independent component analysis. It also allows the spatial and temporal components of pathway-specific LFPs to be separated. While reconstructed Schaffer-specific LFPs still show spurious inward/outward current sequences, these were clearly stratified into distinct subcellular domains. These spatial bands guided the localized delivery of neurotransmitter blockers in experiments. As expected, only Glutamate but not GABA blockers abolished Schaffer LFPs when applied to the active but not passive subcellular domains of pyramidal cells. The known chemical nature of the oscillatory LFP allowed an empirical offset of the temporal component of Schaffer LFPs, such that following reconstruction they yield only sinks or sources at the appropriate sites. In terms of number and polarity, some waves increased and others decreased proportional to the concomitant inputs in native multisynaptic LFPs. Interestingly, the processing also retrieved the initiation time for each wave, which can be used to discriminate afferent from

  8. The optimal distance between two electrode tips during recording of compound nerve action potentials in the rat median nerve.

    PubMed

    Li, Yongping; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin; Tian, Dong; Zhu, Yi; Wei, Xiaochun

    2014-01-15

    The distance between the two electrode tips can greatly influence the parameters used for recording compound nerve action potentials. To investigate the optimal parameters for these recordings in the rat median nerve, we dissociated the nerve using different methods and compound nerve action potentials were orthodromically or antidromically recorded with different electrode spacings. Compound nerve action potentials could be consistently recorded using a method in which the middle part of the median nerve was intact, with both ends dissociated from the surrounding fascia and a ground wire inserted into the muscle close to the intact part. When the distance between two stimulating electrode tips was increased, the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity of compound nerve action potentials were gradually decreased, but the amplitude was not changed significantly. When the distance between two recording electrode tips was increased, the amplitude was gradually increased, but the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity exhibited no significant change. Different distances between recording and stimulating sites did not produce significant effects on the aforementioned parameters. A distance of 5 mm between recording and stimulating electrodes and a distance of 10 mm between recording and stimulating sites were found to be optimal for compound nerve action potential recording in the rat median nerve. In addition, the orthodromic compound action potential, with a biphasic waveform that was more stable and displayed less interference (however also required a higher threshold and higher supramaximal stimulus), was found to be superior to the antidromic compound action potential.

  9. The optimal distance between two electrode tips during recording of compound nerve action potentials in the rat median nerve

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yongping; Lao, Jie; Zhao, Xin; Tian, Dong; Zhu, Yi; Wei, Xiaochun

    2014-01-01

    The distance between the two electrode tips can greatly influence the parameters used for recording compound nerve action potentials. To investigate the optimal parameters for these recordings in the rat median nerve, we dissociated the nerve using different methods and compound nerve action potentials were orthodromically or antidromically recorded with different electrode spacings. Compound nerve action potentials could be consistently recorded using a method in which the middle part of the median nerve was intact, with both ends dissociated from the surrounding fascia and a ground wire inserted into the muscle close to the intact part. When the distance between two stimulating electrode tips was increased, the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity of compound nerve action potentials were gradually decreased, but the amplitude was not changed significantly. When the distance between two recording electrode tips was increased, the amplitude was gradually increased, but the threshold and supramaximal stimulating intensity exhibited no significant change. Different distances between recording and stimulating sites did not produce significant effects on the aforementioned parameters. A distance of 5 mm between recording and stimulating electrodes and a distance of 10 mm between recording and stimulating sites were found to be optimal for compound nerve action potential recording in the rat median nerve. In addition, the orthodromic compound action potential, with a biphasic waveform that was more stable and displayed less interference (however also required a higher threshold and higher supramaximal stimulus), was found to be superior to the antidromic compound action potential. PMID:25206798

  10. Potential Vascular Actions of 2-Methoxyestradiol

    PubMed Central

    Dubey, Raghvendra K.; Jackson, Edwin K.

    2009-01-01

    2-Methoxyestradiol (2-ME) is a biologically active metabolite of 17β-estradiol that appears to inhibit key processes associated with cell replication in vitro; it may have potent growth-inhibitory effects on proliferating cells, including smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells and may be antiangiogenic. Because of these potential roles for 2-ME, its lack of cytotoxicity and its low estrogenic activity, we hypothesize that 2-ME could be a valuable therapeutic molecule for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular diseases. Whether 2-ME is as efficacious in vivo as it is in vitro at modulating vascular processes remains controversial. Here we discuss recent developments regarding mechanisms by which 2-ME might regulate vascular activity and angiogenesis and speculate on the therapeutic implications of these developments. PMID:19734053

  11. Action Potential Dynamics in Fine Axons Probed with an Axonally Targeted Optical Voltage Sensor.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yihe; Bayguinov, Peter O; Jackson, Meyer B

    2017-01-01

    The complex and malleable conduction properties of axons determine how action potentials propagate through extensive axonal arbors to reach synaptic terminals. The excitability of axonal membranes plays a major role in neural circuit function, but because most axons are too thin for conventional electrical recording, their properties remain largely unexplored. To overcome this obstacle, we used a genetically encoded hybrid voltage sensor (hVOS) harboring an axonal targeting motif. Expressing this probe in transgenic mice enabled us to monitor voltage changes optically in two populations of axons in hippocampal slices, the large axons of dentate granule cells (mossy fibers) in the stratum lucidum of the CA3 region and the much finer axons of hilar mossy cells in the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus. Action potentials propagated with distinct velocities in each type of axon. Repetitive firing broadened action potentials in both populations, but at an intermediate frequency the degree of broadening differed. Repetitive firing also attenuated action potential amplitudes in both mossy cell and granule cell axons. These results indicate that the features of use-dependent action potential broadening, and possible failure, observed previously in large nerve terminals also appear in much finer unmyelinated axons. Subtle differences in the frequency dependences could influence the propagation of activity through different pathways to excite different populations of neurons. The axonally targeted hVOS probe used here opens up the diverse repertoire of neuronal processes to detailed biophysical study.

  12. Effect of nanomaterials on the compound action potential of the shore crab, Carcinus maenas.

    PubMed

    Windeatt, Kirsten M; Handy, Richard D

    2013-06-01

    Little is known about the effects of manufactured nanomaterials on the function of nerves. The experiment aimed to test the effects of three different nanomaterials (1 mg l⁻¹ of TiO₂ NPs, Ag NPs or SWCNT) on the compound action potential of the shore crab (Carcinus maenas) compared with an appropriate bulk powder or metal salt control (bulk TiO₂ powder, AgNO₃ and carbon black respectively). In single action potential recordings, there were no effects of any of the nanomaterials on the peak amplitude, duration, rate of rise (depolarisation), or rate of decrease (repolarisation) of the compound action potential in crab saline, despite settling of each nanomaterial directly onto the nerve preparation. The ability of the crab nerve to be stimulated to tetanus was also unaffected by exposure to the nanomaterials compared with the appropriate bulk powder or metal salt control. Solvent controls with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) also had no effect on action potentials. Overall, the study concludes that there were no effects of the materials at the concentrations tested on the compound action potential of the shore crab in physiological saline.

  13. Wireless cardiac action potential transmission with ultrasonically inserted silicon microprobes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, C. J.; Ramkumar, A.; Lal, A.; Gilmour, R. F., Jr.

    2011-05-01

    This paper reports on the integration of ultrasonically inserted horn-shaped cardiac probes with wireless transmission of 3D cardiac action potential measurement for applications in ex vivo preparations such as monitoring the onset of ventricular fibrillation. Ultrasonically inserted silicon horn probes permit reduced penetration force during insertion, allowing silicon, a brittle material, to penetrate cardiac tissue. The probes also allow recording from multiple sites that are lithographically defined. An application-specific integrated circuit has been designed with a 40 dB amplifying stage and a frequency modulating oscillator at 95 MHz to wirelessly transmit the recorded action potentials. This ultrasonically inserted microprobe wireless system demonstrates the initial results in wireless monitoring of 3D action potential propagation, and the extraction of parameters of interest including the action potential duration and diastolic interval.

  14. Theophylline-induced potentiation of the antinociceptive action of baclofen.

    PubMed

    Sawynok, J

    1983-02-01

    1--Theophylline (35, 50 mg/kg) potentiated the antinociceptive action of intraperitoneally administered baclofen in the tail flick and hot plate tests. Potentiation was most marked when the pretreatment time was 1 h, but some potentiation was still apparent following a 2 h pretreatment. 2--Theophylline alone (50 mg/kg) produced only slight alterations in reaction latency in the two tests. 3--When baclofen was applied directly into the spinal subarachnoid space, a 1 h pretreatment with theophylline produced minimal effects, but a 2 h pretreatment produced an increase in the antinociceptive action of baclofen. 4--These results suggest that theophylline can potentiate the antinociceptive action of baclofen by actions at both supraspinal and spinal sites.

  15. Synchronization of action potentials during low-magnesium-induced bursting

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Sarah E.; Hudson, John L.

    2015-01-01

    The relationship between mono- and polysynaptic strength and action potential synchronization was explored using a reduced external Mg2+ model. Single and dual whole cell patch-clamp recordings were performed in hippocampal cultures in three concentrations of external Mg2+. In decreased Mg2+ medium, the individual cells transitioned to spontaneous bursting behavior. In lowered Mg2+ media the larger excitatory synaptic events were observed more frequently and fewer transmission failures occurred, suggesting strengthened synaptic transmission. The event synchronization was calculated for the neural action potentials of the cell pairs, and it increased in media where Mg2+ concentration was lowered. Analysis of surrogate data where bursting was present, but no direct or indirect connections existed between the neurons, showed minimal action potential synchronization. This suggests the synchronization of action potentials is a product of the strengthening synaptic connections within neuronal networks. PMID:25609103

  16. HEART ACTION POTENTIAL: DEPENDENCE ON EXTERNAL CALCIUM AND SODIUM IONS.

    PubMed

    ORKAND, R K; NIEDERGERKE, R

    1964-11-27

    The height of the overshoot of the action potential recorded from frog ventricles is markedly less sensitive to lowering the external sodium concentration than predicted by the sodium-hypothesis of excitation, and it is surprisingly sensitive to changes in the external calcium concentration. These observations are explained by a mechanism in which there is competition between sodium and calcium ions, in the excitable membrane, for anionic sites which control the inward current of sodium ions at the crest of the action potential.

  17. Dependence of transient and residual calcium dynamics on action-potential patterning during neuropeptide secretion.

    PubMed

    Muschol, M; Salzberg, B M

    2000-09-15

    Secretion of the neuropeptide arginine vasopressin (AVP) from the neurohypophysis is optimized by short phasic bursts of action potentials with a mean intraburst frequency around 10 Hz. Several hypotheses, most prominently action-potential broadening and buildup of residual calcium, have been proposed to explain this frequency dependence of AVP release. However, how either of these mechanisms would optimize release at any given frequency remains an open question. We have addressed this issue by correlating the frequency-dependence of intraterminal calcium dynamics and AVP release during action-potential stimulation. By monitoring the intraterminal calcium changes with low-affinity indicator dyes and millisecond time resolution, the signal could be dissected into three separate components: rapid Ca(2+) rises (Delta[Ca(2+)](tr)) related to action-potential depolarization, Ca(2+) extrusion and/or uptake, and a gradual increase in residual calcium (Delta[Ca(2+)](res)) throughout the stimulus train. Action-potential stimulation modulated all three components in a manner dependent on both the stimulation frequency and number of stimuli. Overall, the cumulative Delta[Ca(2+)](tr) amplitude initially increased with f(Stim) and then rapidly deteriorated, with a maximum around f(Stim) amplitudes, reaching its maximum between 5 and 10 Hz before returning to its 1 Hz level. Thus, AVP release responds to the temporal patterning of stimulation, is sensitive to both Delta[Ca(2+)](tr) and Delta[Ca(2+)](res), and is optimized at a frequency intermediate between the frequency-dependent maxima in Delta[Ca(2+)](tr) and Delta[Ca(2+)](res).

  18. Effects of Acetylcholine and Noradrenalin on Action Potentials of Isolated Rabbit Sinoatrial and Atrial Myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Verkerk, Arie O.; Geuzebroek, Guillaume S. C.; Veldkamp, Marieke W.; Wilders, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    The autonomic nervous system controls heart rate and contractility through sympathetic and parasympathetic inputs to the cardiac tissue, with acetylcholine (ACh) and noradrenalin (NA) as the chemical transmitters. In recent years, it has become clear that specific Regulators of G protein Signaling proteins (RGS proteins) suppress muscarinic sensitivity and parasympathetic tone, identifying RGS proteins as intriguing potential therapeutic targets. In the present study, we have identified the effects of 1 μM ACh and 1 μM NA on the intrinsic action potentials of sinoatrial (SA) nodal and atrial myocytes. Single cells were enzymatically isolated from the SA node or from the left atrium of rabbit hearts. Action potentials were recorded using the amphotericin-perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of ACh, NA, or a combination of both. In SA nodal myocytes, ACh increased cycle length and decreased diastolic depolarization rate, whereas NA decreased cycle length and increased diastolic depolarization rate. Both ACh and NA increased maximum upstroke velocity. Furthermore, ACh hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential. In atrial myocytes stimulated at 2 Hz, both ACh and NA hyperpolarized the maximum diastolic potential, increased the action potential amplitude, and increased the maximum upstroke velocity. Action potential duration at 50 and 90% repolarization was decreased by ACh, but increased by NA. The effects of both ACh and NA on action potential duration showed a dose dependence in the range of 1–1000 nM, while a clear-cut frequency dependence in the range of 1–4 Hz was absent. Intermediate results were obtained in the combined presence of ACh and NA in both SA nodal and atrial myocytes. Our data uncover the extent to which SA nodal and atrial action potentials are intrinsically dependent on ACh, NA, or a combination of both and may thus guide further experiments with RGS proteins. PMID:22754533

  19. [Phenibut potentiation of the therapeutic action of antiparkinson agents].

    PubMed

    Gol'dblat, Iu V; Lapin, I P

    1986-01-01

    It was observed in experiments on mice that the central action of phenibut (beta-phenyl-gamma-aminobutyric acid) diminished after destruction of brain dopaminergic neurons by 6-hydroxydopamine and after pretreatment with the dopamine receptor blocker haloperidol which suggests the dopaminergic component in the action of phenibut. In 13 of 16 patients receiving long-term treatment with antiparkinsonic drugs, addition of phenibut (0.25 g thrice daily for 10 days) resulted in marked clinical improvement with a significant increase of motor activity, as well as diminution of both rigidity and tremor. Follow-up showed a significant lowering of muscle tone of rigid muscles, augmentation of their strength and amplitude of movements. In 8 patients receiving phenibut without antiparkinsonic drugs the results were negligible.

  20. The antidromic compound action potential of the hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract, a tool for assessing posterior pituitary activity in vivo.

    PubMed

    Baertschi, A J; Dreifuss, J J

    1979-08-10

    A sensitive technique was developed for measuring continuously the summated neural activity of the rat hypothalamo-neurohypophysial tract. Large compound potentials of 4-9 mV peak amplitude were recorded from the fibre tract in response to electrical stimulation of the neurohypophysis. It was estimated that all fibres in the tract were electrically activated and contributed to the compound potential. It was shown that a decrease of peak amplitude could be used as a measure of changes in endogenous neural activity. The decrease in peak amplitude during an increase of endogenous neural activity was due to fatigue and temporal spread of the compound potential, and also to collision of antidromic and orthodromic action potentials. Decrease of the compound potentials was related to the intensity of vaginal distension, haemorrhage and plasma hyperosmolality, and it correlated with neurohypophysial hormone release. This method may usefully complement hormone assays and single cell analysis.

  1. Toward a system to measure action potential on mice brain slices with local magnetoresistive probes

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Sebastiao, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    This work combines an electrophysiological system with a magnetoresistive chip to measure the magnetic field created by the synaptic/action potential currents. The chip, with 15 spin valve sensors, was designed to be integrated in a recording chamber for submerged mice brain slices used for synaptic potential measurements. Under stimulation (rectangular pulses of 0.1 ms every 10 s) through a concentric electrode placed near the CA3/CA1 border of the hippocampus, the spin valve sensor readout signals with 20 {mu}V amplitude and a pulse length of 20 to 30 ms were recorded only in the pyramidal cell bodies region and can be interpreted as being derived from action potentials/currents.

  2. Toward a system to measure action potential on mice brain slices with local magnetoresistive probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, J.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Sebastião, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    This work combines an electrophysiological system with a magnetoresistive chip to measure the magnetic field created by the synaptic/action potential currents. The chip, with 15 spin valve sensors, was designed to be integrated in a recording chamber for submerged mice brain slices used for synaptic potential measurements. Under stimulation (rectangular pulses of 0.1 ms every 10 s) through a concentric electrode placed near the CA3/CA1 border of the hippocampus, the spin valve sensor readout signals with 20 μV amplitude and a pulse length of 20 to 30 ms were recorded only in the pyramidal cell bodies region and can be interpreted as being derived from action potentials/currents.

  3. Large Amplitude Cortical Evoked Potentials in Nonepileptic Patients. Reviving an Old Neurophysiologic Tool to Help Detect CNS Pathology.

    PubMed

    Martín-Palomeque, Guillermo; Castro-Ortiz, Antonio; Pamplona-Valenzuela, Pilar; Saiz-Sepúlveda, Miguel Á; Cabañes-Martínez, Lidia; López, Jaime R

    2017-01-01

    Although large amplitude evoked potentials (EPs) are typically associated with progressive myoclonic epilepsy patients, giant EPs imply central nervous system (CNS) hyperexcitability and can be seen in various nonepileptic disorders. We performed a retrospective chart review including history, physical examination, imaging and diagnostic studies of nonepileptic patients with large amplitude somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs) and visual evoked potentials (VEPs) during 2007 to 2013. Large amplitude EPs were defined as follows: VEPs (N75-P100) >18 μV; and SSEPs (N20-P25) >6.4 μV. Recording montage for VEPs was Oz-Cz and SSEPs C3'/C4'-Fz. Fifty-two patients (33 females, 19 males; age range, 9-90 years) were identified. No CNS pathology was detected in 7 patients. All remaining patients were diagnosed with new CNS disorders including: vascular (37%); myelopathies (13%); demyelinating (11%); space occupying lesions (8.7%); syringomyelia (8.7%); hydrocephalus (6.5%); Vitamin B-12 deficiency (4.3%); multiple system atrophy (4.3%); and toxins (2.2%). This study supports the notion that large amplitude EP implies CNS hyperexcitability and CNS disease. These results confirm the utility of EP studies in patients with suspected CNS pathology.

  4. Effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials evoked by electric pulse trains.

    PubMed

    Nourski, Kirill V; Abbas, Paul J; Miller, Charles A; Robinson, Barbara K; Jeng, Fuh-Cherng

    2005-04-01

    This study investigated the effects of acoustic noise on the auditory nerve compound action potentials in response to electric pulse trains. Subjects were adult guinea pigs, implanted with a minimally invasive electrode to preserve acoustic sensitivity. Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAP) were recorded from the auditory nerve trunk in response to electric pulse trains both during and after the presentation of acoustic white noise. Simultaneously presented acoustic noise produced a decrease in ECAP amplitude. The effect of the acoustic masker on the electric probe was greatest at the onset of the acoustic stimulus and it was followed by a partial recovery of the ECAP amplitude. Following cessation of the acoustic noise, ECAP amplitude recovered over a period of approximately 100-200 ms. The effects of the acoustic noise were more prominent at lower electric pulse rates (interpulse intervals of 3 ms and higher). At higher pulse rates, the ECAP adaptation to the electric pulse train alone was larger and the acoustic noise, when presented, produced little additional effect. The observed effects of noise on ECAP were the greatest at high electric stimulus levels and, for a particular electric stimulus level, at high acoustic noise levels.

  5. QRS complex duration enhancement as ventricular late potential indicator by signal-averaged ECG using time-amplitude alignments.

    PubMed

    Avitia, Roberto L; Reyna, Marco A; Bravo-Zanoguera, Miguel E; Cetto, Lucio A

    2013-04-01

    Ventricular late potentials (VLPs) are small-amplitude waves with a short duration that appear at the end part of the QRS complex, making a QRS complex duration larger. The signal-averaged electrocardiography (ECG) technique enhances VLPs and beats, assuming noise as the only random variable. However, ECG signals are not completely stationary and different elongations appear in both time and amplitude in each beat. This research proposes to use piecewise linear approximation to segment each beat and performs the alignment of the beats using the technique known as derivative dynamic time-warping to have beats better aligned and consequently enhance the presence of VLPs. We recorded high-resolution ECGs (HRECGs) from 50 subjects in supine position with no heart-stroke antecedents. VLPs were created synthetically and added to the HRECGs. Two cases were evaluated: (i) duration of the QRS complexes with VLPs without beats alignment, and (ii) duration of QRS complexes with VLPs using beats alignment in time and amplitude. Considering QRS duration as an indicative of VLP presence, results show that when using beats alignment in time and amplitude it is possible to reach a sensitivity of 0.96 and a specificity of 0.52, as opposed to 0.72 and 0.40, respectively, when using only averaging without beats alignment in time and amplitude.

  6. Cervical sympathetic block prolongs the latency and reduces the amplitude of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials on the contralateral side.

    PubMed

    Kawaguchi, Jun; Matsuura, Nobuyuki; Kasahara, Masataka; Ichinohe, Tatsuya

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the latency and amplitude of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials to clarify how nerve function on the contralateral side is affected after cervical sympathetic block (CSB). Subjects comprised 16 volunteers. For CSB, the tip of a needle was contacted with the transverse process of the sixth cervical vertebra on the right side, and lidocaine was injected. Trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded bilaterally from C5/C6 scalp positions. Pupil diameters were also measured. Electrical stimulations were applied to the left-side lower lip, and trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials waveforms derived from both sides of the scalp were recorded. Then, electrical stimulations were applied to the right-side of the lower lip, and recording was again performed. Recordings were performed at 5, 15, and 30 minutes after CSB. On the CSB side, pupil diameter decreased at 5 and 15 minutes after CSB. Trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials at contralateral stimulation showed a prolongation of the latency in both P20 and N25 components on bilateral recording sites 5 and 15 minutes after CSB. Trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials' amplitude at contralateral stimulation was smaller than at ipsilateral stimulation 5 minutes after CSB. Cervical sympathetic block prolongs the latency and reduces the amplitude of trigeminal somatosensory evoked potentials on the contralateral side.

  7. [Concentration-dependent changes in the latency and amplitude of somatosensory-evoked potentials by desflurane, isoflurane and sevoflurane].

    PubMed

    Rehberg, B; Rüschner, R; Fischer, M; Ebeling, B J; Hoeft, A

    1998-07-01

    Comparison of the influence of desflurane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane on the parameters of cortical somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP). A total of 41 patients were randomly allocated to either the isoflurane, desflurane or sevoflurane group. Following induction with propofol and intubation, concentration of the volatile anaesthetic was kept constant at 1.3, 1.0, and 0.7 MAC for 15 minutes each in randomised sequences. No opioids or N2O were used. Cortical somatosensory evoked potentials were recorded following median nerve stimulation at the wrist with 1.5 times motor threshold current. SEP were evaluated for latencies of peak N20 and P25 as well as peak-to-peak amplitude N20P25. Measurements at the end of the 15 minute equilibration intervals were compared by analysis of variance for repeated measurements. Latencies and the logarithm of the amplitudes were assumed to be normally distributed. SEP could be recorded in all patients and at all concentrations. Latency of cortical SEP increased with anaesthetic concentration in a linear manner. No differences in latency increase were found between the three anaesthetics (ANOVA). In contrast, the decrease in amplitude with increasing anaesthetic concentration was non-linear. It was large from control to 0.7 MAC, but small in the range between 0.7 and 1.3 MAC. Amplitude reduction was larger with isoflurane than with sevoflurane or desflurane. 1) Sevoflurane and desflurane are better suited for anaesthetic management during intraoperative electrophysiological monitoring than isoflurane, because SEP amplitudes are better preserved. 2) SEP amplitude is less altered by changing anaesthetic concentrations in the concentration range from 0.7 to 1.3 MAC than SEP latency.

  8. Short infrared laser pulses block action potentials in neurons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Tolstykh, Gleb P.; Martens, Stacey L.; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.

    2017-02-01

    Short infrared laser pulses have many physiological effects on cells including the ability to stimulate action potentials in neurons. Here we show that short infrared laser pulses can also reversibly block action potentials. Primary rat hippocampal neurons were transfected with the Optopatch2 plasmid, which contains both a blue-light activated channel rhodopsin (CheRiff) and a red-light fluorescent membrane voltage reporter (QuasAr2). This optogenetic platform allows robust stimulation and recording of action potential activity in neurons in a non-contact, low noise manner. For all experiments, QuasAr2 was imaged continuously on a wide-field fluorescent microscope using a Krypton laser (647 nm) as the excitation source and an EMCCD camera operating at 1000 Hz to collect emitted fluorescence. A co-aligned Argon laser (488 nm, 5 ms at 10Hz) provided activation light for CheRiff. A 200 mm fiber delivered infrared light locally to the target neuron. Reversible action potential block in neurons was observed following a short infrared laser pulse (0.26-0.96 J/cm2; 1.37-5.01 ms; 1869 nm), with the block persisting for more than 1 s with exposures greater than 0.69 J/cm2. Action potential block was sustained for 30 s with the short infrared laser pulsed at 1-7 Hz. Full recovery of neuronal activity was observed 5-30s post-infrared exposure. These results indicate that optogenetics provides a robust platform for the study of action potential block and that short infrared laser pulses can be used for non-contact, reversible action potential block.

  9. Dopamine gates action potential backpropagation in midbrain dopaminergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Gentet, Luc J; Williams, Stephen R

    2007-02-21

    Dopamine is released from both axonal and somatodendritic sites of midbrain dopaminergic neurons in an action potential-dependent manner. In contrast to the majority of central neurons, the axon of dopaminergic neurons typically originates from a dendritic site, suggesting a specialized computational function. Here, we examine the initiation and spread of action potentials in dopaminergic neurons of the substantia nigra pars reticulata and reveal that the displacement of the axon to a dendritic site allows highly compartmentalized electrical signaling. In response to a train of synaptic input, action potentials initiated at axon-bearing dendritic sites formed a variable trigger for invasion to the soma and contralateral dendritic tree, with action potentials often confined to the axon-bearing dendrite. The application of dopamine increased this form of electrical compartmentalization, an effect mediated by a tonic membrane potential hyperpolarization leading to an increased availability of a class of voltage-dependent potassium channel. These data suggest that the release of dopamine from axonal and somatodendritic sites are dissociable, and that dopamine levels within the midbrain are dynamically controlled by the somatodendritic spread of action potentials.

  10. [On the theory of action potential propagation in plant cells].

    PubMed

    Sizonenko, V L; Kovalenko, N I

    2012-01-01

    The distribution of an electric field in plant cells and zooblasts has been investigated at propagation of the action potential. The behavior of ions in the cytoplasm and in the extracellular fluid has been described with the equations of electric charge motion in the electrolytes. It has been shown that the action potential causes an electric potential change not only in the depth of the cytoplasm but also in the extracellular area far from the lipidic bilayer. The biomembrane resistance has been expressed by physical parameters of a cell, such as ionic diffusion coefficient in fluid, Debye-Huckel radius, dielectric conductivity etc. The presence of breakings in the action potential diagrams has been explained as a result of insufficient resolving power of the measuring devices at the instant the sodium ionic canals of the bilayer opens.

  11. Electrically evoked compound action potentials are different depending on the site of cochlear stimulation.

    PubMed

    van de Heyning, Paul; Arauz, Santiago L; Atlas, Marcus; Baumgartner, Wolf-Dieter; Caversaccio, Marco; Chester-Browne, Ronel; Estienne, Patricia; Gavilan, Javier; Godey, Benoit; Gstöttner, Wolfgang; Han, Demin; Hagen, Rudolph; Kompis, Martin; Kuzovkov, Vlad; Lassaletta, Luis; Lefevre, Franc; Li, Yongxin; Müller, Joachim; Parnes, Lorne; Kleine Punte, Andrea; Raine, Christopher; Rajan, Gunesh; Rivas, Adriana; Rivas, José Antonio; Royle, Nicola; Sprinzl, Georg; Stephan, Kurt; Walkowiak, Adam; Yanov, Yuri; Zimmermann, Kim; Zorowka, Patrick; Skarzynski, Henryk

    2016-11-01

    One of the many parameters that can affect cochlear implant (CI) users' performance is the site of presentation of electrical stimulation, from the CI, to the auditory nerve. Evoked compound action potential (ECAP) measurements are commonly used to verify nerve function by stimulating one electrode contact in the cochlea and recording the resulting action potentials on the other contacts of the electrode array. The present study aimed to determine if the ECAP amplitude differs between the apical, middle, and basal region of the cochlea, if double peak potentials were more likely in the apex than the basal region of the cochlea, and if there were differences in the ECAP threshold and recovery function across the cochlea. ECAP measurements were performed in the apical, middle, and basal region of the cochlea at fixed sites of stimulation with varying recording electrodes. One hundred and forty one adult subjects with severe to profound sensorineural hearing loss fitted with a Standard or FLEX(SOFT) electrode were included in this study. ECAP responses were captured using MAESTRO System Software (MED-EL). The ECAP amplitude, threshold, and slope were determined using amplitude growth sequences. The 50% recovery rate was assessed using independent single sequences that have two stimulation pulses (a masker and a probe pulse) separated by a variable inter-pulse interval. For all recordings, ECAP peaks were annotated semi-automatically. ECAP amplitudes were greater upon stimulation of the apical region compared to the basal region of the cochlea. ECAP slopes were steeper in the apical region compared to the basal region of the cochlea and ECAP thresholds were lower in the middle region compared to the basal region of the cochlea. The incidence of double peaks was greater upon stimulation of the apical region compared to the basal region of the cochlea. This data indicates that the site and intensity of cochlear stimulation affect ECAP properties.

  12. Direct detection of a single evoked action potential with MRS in Lumbricus terrestris.

    PubMed

    Poplawsky, Alexander J; Dingledine, Raymond; Hu, Xiaoping P

    2012-01-01

    Functional MRI (fMRI) measures neural activity indirectly by detecting the signal change associated with the hemodynamic response following brain activation. In order to alleviate the temporal and spatial specificity problems associated with fMRI, a number of attempts have been made to detect neural magnetic fields (NMFs) with MRI directly, but have thus far provided conflicting results. In this study, we used MR to detect axonal NMFs in the median giant fiber of the earthworm, Lumbricus terrestris, by examining the free induction decay (FID) with a sampling interval of 0.32 ms. The earthworm nerve cords were isolated from the vasculature and stimulated at the threshold of action potential generation. FIDs were acquired shortly after the stimulation, and simultaneous field potential recordings identified the presence or absence of single evoked action potentials. FIDs acquired when the stimulus did not evoke an action potential were summed as background. The phase of the background-subtracted FID exhibited a systematic change, with a peak phase difference of (-1.2 ± 0.3) × 10(-5) radians occurring at a time corresponding to the timing of the action potential. In addition, we calculated the possible changes in the FID magnitude and phase caused by a simulated action potential using a volume conductor model. The measured phase difference matched the theoretical prediction well in both amplitude and temporal characteristics. This study provides the first evidence for the direct detection of a magnetic field from an evoked action potential using MR. Copyright © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  13. Inhibitory effects of opioids on compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves and their chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi; Nakatsuka, Terumasa; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2008-08-01

    An opioid tramadol more effectively inhibits compound action potentials (CAPs) than its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1). To address further this issue, we examined the effects of opioids (morphine, codeine, ethylmorphine and dihydrocodeine) and cocaine on CAPs by applying the air-gap method to the frog sciatic nerve. All of the opioids at concentrations less than 10 mM reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a reversible and dose-dependent manner. The sequence of the CAP peak amplitude reductions was ethylmorphine>codeine>dihydrocodeine> or = morphine; the effective concentration for half-maximal inhibition (IC(50)) of ethylmorphine was 4.6 mM. All of the CAP inhibitions by opioids were resistant to a non-specific opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone. The CAP peak amplitude reductions produced by morphine, codeine and ethylmorphine were related to their chemical structures in such that this extent enhanced with an increase in the number of -CH(2) in a benzene ring, as seen in the inhibitory actions of tramadol and M1. Cocaine reduced CAP peak amplitudes with an IC(50) value of 0.80 mM. It is concluded that opioids reduce CAP peak amplitudes in a manner being independent of opioid-receptor activation and with an efficacy being much less than that of cocaine. It is suggested that the substituted groups of -OH bound to the benzene ring of morphine, codeine and ethylmorphine as well as of tramadol and M1, the structures of which are quite different from those of the opioids, may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block.

  14. The metabolic energy cost of action potential velocity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crotty, Patrick; Sangrey, Thomas; Levy, William

    2006-03-01

    Voltage changes in neurons and other active cells are caused by the passage of ions across the cell membrane. These ionic currents depend on the transmembrane ion concentration gradients, which in unmyelinated axons are maintained during rest and restored after electrical activity by an ATPase sodium-potassium exchanger in the membrane. The amount of ATP consumed by this exchanger can be taken as the metabolic energy cost of any electrical activity in the axon. We use this measure, along with biophysical models of voltage-gated sodium and potassium ion channels, to quantify the energy cost of action potentials propagating in squid giant axons. We find that the energy of an action potential can be naturally divided into three separate components associated with different aspects of the action potential. We calculate these energy components as functions of the ion channel densities and axon diameters and find that the component associated with the rising phase and velocity of the action potential achieves a minimum near the biological values of these parameters. This result, which is robust with respect to other parameters such as temperature, suggests that evolution has optimized the axon for the energy of the action potential wavefront.

  15. A fast algorithm for estimating actions in triaxial potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sanders, Jason L.; Binney, James

    2015-03-01

    We present an approach to approximating rapidly the actions in a general triaxial potential. The method is an extension of the axisymmetric approach presented by Binney, and operates by assuming that the true potential is locally sufficiently close to some Stäckel potential. The choice of Stäckel potential and associated ellipsoidal coordinates is tailored to each individual input phase-space point. We investigate the accuracy of the method when computing actions in a triaxial Navarro-Frenk-White potential. The speed of the algorithm comes at the expense of large errors in the actions, particularly for the box orbits. However, we show that the method can be used to recover the observables of triaxial systems from given distribution functions to sufficient accuracy for the Jeans equations to be satisfied. Consequently, such models could be used to build models of external galaxies as well as triaxial components of our own Galaxy. When more accurate actions are required, this procedure can be combined with torus mapping to produce a fast convergent scheme for action estimation.

  16. Properties of Ca2+ sparks evoked by action potentials in mouse ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bridge, John H B; Ershler, Philip R; Cannell, Mark B

    1999-01-01

    Calcium sparks were examined in enzymatically dissociated mouse cardiac ventricular cells using the calcium indicator fluo-3 and confocal microscopy. The properties of the mouse cardiac calcium spark are generally similar to those reported for other species.Examination of the temporal relationship between the action potential and the time course of calcium spark production showed that calcium sparks are more likely to occur during the initial repolarization phase of the action potential. The latency of their occurrence varied by less than 1·4 ms (s.d.) and this low variability may be explained by the interaction of the gating of L-type calcium channels with the changes in driving force for calcium entry during the action potential.When fixed sites within the cell are examined, calcium sparks have relatively constant amplitude but the amplitude of the sparks was variable among sites. The low variability of the amplitude of the calcium sparks suggests that more than one sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) release channel must be involved in their genesis. Noise analysis (with the assumption of independent gating) suggests that > 18 SR calcium release channels may be involved in the generation of the calcium spark. At a fixed site, the response is close to ‘all-or-none’ behaviour which suggests that calcium sparks are indeed elementary events underlying cardiac excitation-contraction coupling.A method for selecting spark sites for signal averaging is presented which allows the time course of the spark to be examined with high temporal and spatial resolution. Using this method we show the development of the calcium spark at high signal-to-noise levels. PMID:10381593

  17. Effects of pioglitazone on cardiac ion currents and action potential morphology in canine ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kistamás, Kornél; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Váczi, Krisztina; Bárándi, László; Horváth, Balázs; Szebeni, Andrea; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Kecskeméti, Valéria; Nánási, Péter P

    2013-06-15

    Despite its widespread therapeutical use there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the antidiabetic drug pioglitazone in larger mammals. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of pioglitazone on ion currents and action potential configuration were studied in isolated canine ventricular myocytes using standard microelectrode, conventional whole cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques. Pioglitazone decreased the maximum velocity of depolarization and the amplitude of phase-1 repolarization at concentrations ≥3 μM. Action potentials were shortened by pioglitazone at concentrations ≥10 μM, which effect was accompanied with significant reduction of beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration. Several transmembrane ion currents, including the transient outward K(+) current (Ito), the L-type Ca(2+) current (ICa), the rapid and slow components of the delayed rectifier K(+) current (IKr and IKs, respectively), and the inward rectifier K(+) current (IK1) were inhibited by pioglitazone under conventional voltage clamp conditions. Ito was blocked significantly at concentrations ≥3 μM, ICa, IKr, IKs at concentrations ≥10 μM, while IK1 at concentrations ≥30 μM. Suppression of Ito, ICa, IKr, and IK1 has been confirmed also under action potential voltage clamp conditions. ATP-sensitive K(+) current, when activated by lemakalim, was effectively blocked by pioglitazone. Accordingly, action potentials were prolonged by 10 μM pioglitazone when the drug was applied in the presence of lemakalim. All these effects developed rapidly and were readily reversible upon washout. In conclusion, pioglitazone seems to be a harmless agent at usual therapeutic concentrations.

  18. Selective effects of potassium elevations on glutamate signaling and action potential conduction in hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Mennerick, Steven

    2004-01-07

    High-frequency synaptic transmission is depressed by moderate rises in the extracellular potassium concentration ([K+]o). Previous reports have indicated that depression of action potential signaling may underlie the synaptic depression. Here, we investigated the specific contribution of K+-induced action potential changes to synaptic depression. We found that glutamatergic transmission in the hippocampal area CA1 was significantly depressed by 8-10 mM [K+]o, but that GABAergic transmission remained intact. Riluzole, a drug that slows recovery from inactivation of voltage-gated sodium channels (NaChs), interacts with subthreshold [K+]o to depress afferent volleys and EPSCs strongly. Thus, elevated [K+]o likely depresses synapses by slowing NaCh recovery from inactivation. It is unclear from previous studies whether [K+]o-induced action potential depression is caused by changes in initiation, reliability, or waveform. We investigated these possibilities explicitly. [K+]o-induced afferent volley depression was independent of stimulus strength, suggesting that changes in action potential initiation do not explain [K+]o-induced depression. Measurements of action potentials from single axons revealed that 8 mM [K+]o increased conduction failures in a subpopulation of fibers and depressed action potential amplitude in all fibers. Together, these changes quantitatively account for the afferent volley depression. We estimate that conduction failure explains more than half of the synaptic depression observed at 8 mM [K+]o, with the remaining depression likely explained by waveform changes. These mechanisms of selective sensitivity of glutamate release to [K+]o accumulation represent a unique neuromodulatory mechanism and a brake on runaway excitation.

  19. Drug-induced changes in action potential duration are proportional to action potential duration in rat ventricular myocardium.

    PubMed

    Bárándi, László; Harmati, Gábor; Horváth, Balázs; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Magyar, János; Varró, András; Nánási, Péter P; Bányász, Tamás

    2010-09-01

    Several cardioactive agents exhibit direct or reverse rate-dependent effects on action potential duration (APD) depending on the experimental conditions. Recently, a new theory has been proposed, suggesting that the reverse rate-dependent mode of drug-action may be a common property of canine, rabbit, guinea pig and human cardiac tissues, and this phenomenon is based on the dependence of drug-action on baseline APD. The aim of the present work was to examine the limitations of this hypothesis by studying the APD lengthening effect of K(+) channel blockers and the APD shortening effect of Ca(2+) channel blockers during the electrical restitution process of rat ventricular action potentials. Rat ventricular muscle was chosen because it has a set of ion currents markedly different from those of other species, its APD is shorter by one order of magnitude than that of the "plateau-forming" larger mammals, and most importantly, its APD increases at higher heart rates - opposite to many other species. The restitution of APD was studied as a function of the diastolic interval, a parameter indicating the proximity of action potentials. It was found that drug-induced APD changes in rat myocardium are proportional with the pre-drug value of APD but not with the diastolic interval, indicating that not the proximity of consecutive action potentials, but the baseline APD itself may determine the magnitude of drug-induced APD changes.

  20. Na+ current in presynaptic terminals of the crayfish opener cannot initiate action potentials

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Action potential (AP) propagation in presynaptic axons of the crayfish opener neuromuscular junction (NMJ) was investigated by simultaneously recording from a terminal varicosity and a proximal branch. Although orthodromically conducting APs could be recorded in terminals with amplitudes up to 70 mV, depolarizing steps in terminals to −20 mV or higher failed to fire APs. Patch-clamp recordings did detect Na+ current (INa) in most terminals. The INa exhibited a high threshold and fast activation rate. Local perfusion of Na+-free saline showed that terminal INa contributed to AP waveform by slightly accelerating the rising phase and increasing the peak amplitude. These findings suggest that terminal INa functions to “touch up” but not to generate APs. PMID:26561611

  1. Action potentials drive body wall muscle contractions in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Gao, Shangbang; Zhen, Mei

    2011-02-08

    The sinusoidal locomotion exhibited by Caenorhabditis elegans predicts a tight regulation of contractions and relaxations of its body wall muscles. Vertebrate skeletal muscle contractions are driven by voltage-gated sodium channel-dependent action potentials. How coordinated motor outputs are regulated in C. elegans, which does not have voltage-gated sodium channels, remains unknown. Here, we show that C. elegans body wall muscles fire all-or-none, calcium-dependent action potentials that are driven by the L-type voltage-gated calcium and Kv1 voltage-dependent potassium channels. We further demonstrate that the excitatory and inhibitory motoneuron activities regulate the frequency of action potentials to coordinate muscle contraction and relaxation, respectively. This study provides direct evidence for the dual-modulatory model of the C. elegans motor circuit; moreover, it reveals a mode of motor control in which muscle cells integrate graded inputs of the nervous system and respond with all-or-none electrical signals.

  2. Zinc-dependent action potentials in giant neurons of the snail, Euhadra quaestia.

    PubMed

    Kawa, K

    1979-09-14

    In giant neurons of subesophageal ganglion of the Japanese land snail, Euhadra quaestia Deshayes, permeation of Zn ions through Ca channels were investigated with a conventional current clamp method. All-or-none action potentials of long duration (90 to 120 sec) were evoked in 24 mM Zn containing salines. The overshoots were about +10 mV and the maximum rate of rises (MRRs) was about 2.9 V/sec. The amplitudes and the MRRs of the action potentials depended on external Zn ion concentrations. The action potentials were suppressed by specific Ca-channel inhibitors such as Co2+, La3+ and Verapamil, but they were resistant to Na-channel inhibitor, tetrodotoxin, even at 30 microM. It is concluded that these action potentials are generated by Zn ions permeating Ca channels in snail neuronal membrane. On the basis of Hagiwara and Takahashi's (S. Hagiwara & K. Takahashi, 1967, J. Gen. Physiol. 50:583) model of Ca channels, it is inferred that Zn ions are 5 to 10 times stronger in affinity to Ca channels than Ca ions, but 10 to 20 times less permeable.

  3. 4-Aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium-induced changes in action potentials of unmyelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Radicheva, N I; Kolev, V B

    1992-01-01

    The effects of different concentrations of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) and tetraethylammonium (TEA) on the intra- and extracellular action potentials (ICAPs, ECAPs) of unmyelinated axons of Lumbricus terrestris were studied. The results showed different sensitivity of the axons to both potassium current blockers (4-AP and TEA), added to the medium. 4-AP led to spontaneous and single stimulus- evoked repetitive activity, manifested as a slow "burst" action potential propagation like "plateau" ICAP with oscillations. The ICAP duration of the TEA-treated axons increased mainly at the expense of the repolarization phase which reflected the increased duration of the ECAP recorded at long radial distances. The amplitude of the ICAPs after treatment with both blockers was decreased to 20% as compared to the controls (untreated axons) and ECAPs decreased to 40% in the TEA-treated axons. The conduction velocity (CV) of the action potentials was not significantly changed. The calculated total ionic current during the action potential upon TEA treatment was decreased and the duration of the outward phase was prolonged.

  4. Antisense suppression of potassium channel expression demonstrates its role in maturation of the action potential.

    PubMed

    Vincent, A; Lautermilch, N J; Spitzer, N C

    2000-08-15

    A developmental increase in delayed rectifier potassium current (I(Kv)) in embryonic Xenopus spinal neurons is critical for the maturation of excitability and action potential waveform. Identifying potassium channel genes that generate I(Kv) is essential to understanding the mechanisms by which they are controlled. Several Kv genes are upregulated during embryogenesis in parallel with increases in I(Kv) and produce delayed rectifier current when heterologously expressed, indicating that they could encode channels underlying this current. We used antisense (AS) cRNA to test the contribution of xKv3.1 to the maturation of I(Kv), because xKv3.1 AS appears to suppress specifically heterologous expression of potassium current by xKv3.1 mRNA. The injection of xKv3.1 AS into embryos reduces endogenous levels of xKv3.1 mRNA in the developing spinal cord and reduces the amplitude and rate of activation of I(Kv) in 40% of cultured neurons, similar to the percentage of neurons in which endogenous xKv3.1 transcripts are detected. The current in these mature neurons resembles that at an earlier stage of differentiation before the appearance of xKv3.1 mRNA. Furthermore, AS expression increases the duration of the action potential in 40% of the neurons. No change in voltage-dependent calcium current is observed, suggesting that the decrease in I(Kv) is sufficient to account for lengthening of the action potential. Computer-simulated action potentials incorporating observed reductions in amplitude and rate of activation of I(Kv) exhibit an increase in duration similar to that observed experimentally. Thus xKv3.1 contributes to the maturation of I(Kv) in a substantial percentage of these developing spinal neurons.

  5. Expectation to feel more pain disrupts the habituation of laser-pain rating and laser-evoked potential amplitudes.

    PubMed

    Pazzaglia, Costanza; Testani, Elisa; Giordano, Rocco; Padua, Luca; Valeriani, Massimiliano

    2016-10-01

    Increased pain perception due to the expectation to feel more pain is called nocebo effect. The present study aimed at investigating whether: (1) the mere expectation to feel more pain after the administration of an inert drug can affect the laser-pain rating and the laser-evoked potential (LEP) amplitude, and (2) the learning potentiates the nocebo effect. Eighteen healthy volunteers were told that an inert cream, applied on the right hand, would increase the laser pain and LEP amplitude to right hand stimulation. They were randomly assigned to either "verbal session" or "conditioning session". In the "verbal session", LEPs to both right and left hand stimulation were recorded at the same intensity before (baseline) and after cream application. In the "conditioning session", after an initial cream application the laser stimulus intensity was increased surreptitiously to make the subjects believe that the treatment really increased the pain sensation. Then, the cream was reapplied, and LEPs were recorded at the same stimulus intensity as at the baseline. It was found that the verbal suggestion to feel more pain disrupted the physiological habituation of the laser-pain rating and LEP amplitude to treated (right) hand stimulation. Unlike previously demonstrated for the placebo effect, the learning did not potentiate the nocebo effect. Copyright © 2016 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Optical mapping of optogenetically shaped cardiac action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sarah A.; Lee, Shin-Rong; Tung, Leslie; Yue, David T.

    2014-01-01

    Light-mediated silencing and stimulation of cardiac excitability, an important complement to electrical stimulation, promises important discoveries and therapies. To date, cardiac optogenetics has been studied with patch-clamp, multielectrode arrays, video microscopy, and an all-optical system measuring calcium transients. The future lies in achieving simultaneous optical acquisition of excitability signals and optogenetic control, both with high spatio-temporal resolution. Here, we make progress by combining optical mapping of action potentials with concurrent activation of channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) or halorhodopsin (eNpHR3.0), via an all-optical system applied to monolayers of neonatal rat ventricular myocytes (NRVM). Additionally, we explore the capability of ChR2 and eNpHR3.0 to shape action-potential waveforms, potentially aiding the study of short/long QT syndromes that result from abnormal changes in action potential duration (APD). These results show the promise of an all-optical system to acquire action potentials with precise temporal optogenetics control, achieving a long-sought flexibility beyond the means of conventional electrical stimulation. PMID:25135113

  7. In vivo neuronal action potential recordings via three-dimensional microscale needle-electrode arrays

    PubMed Central

    Fujishiro, Akifumi; Kaneko, Hidekazu; Kawashima, Takahiro; Ishida, Makoto; Kawano, Takeshi

    2014-01-01

    Very fine needle-electrode arrays potentially offer both low invasiveness and high spatial resolution of electrophysiological neuronal recordings in vivo. Herein we report the penetrating and recording capabilities of silicon-growth-based three-dimensional microscale-diameter needle-electrodes arrays. The fabricated needles exhibit a circular-cone shape with a 3-μm-diameter tip and a 210-μm length. Due to the microscale diameter, our silicon needles are more flexible than other microfabricated silicon needles with larger diameters. Coating the microscale-needle-tip with platinum black results in an impedance of ~600 kΩ in saline with output/input signal amplitude ratios of more than 90% at 40 Hz–10 kHz. The needles can penetrate into the whisker barrel area of a rat's cerebral cortex, and the action potentials recorded from some neurons exhibit peak-to-peak amplitudes of ~300 μVpp. These results demonstrate the feasibility of in vivo neuronal action potential recordings with a microscale needle-electrode array fabricated using silicon growth technology. PMID:24785307

  8. Investigating the effect of thermal stress on nerve action potential using the soliton model.

    PubMed

    Haji Hasani, Mojtaba; Gharibzadeh, Shahriar; Farjami, Yaghoub; Tavakkoli, Jahan

    2015-06-01

    The thermal mechanism of acoustic modulation of the reversible electrical activities of peripheral nerves is investigated using the soliton model, and a numerical solution is presented for its non-homogenous version. Our results indicate that heating a small segment of the nerve will increase the action potential conduction velocity and decrease its amplitude. Moreover, cooling the nerve will have the reverse effects, and cooling to temperatures below the nerve melting point can reflect back a significant portion of the action potentials. These results are consistent with the theory of the soliton model, as well as with the experimental findings. Although there exists a discrepancy between the results of the soliton model and experimental pulse amplitude data, from the free energy point of view, the experiments are compatible with Heimburg and Jackson theory. We conclude that the presented model accompanied by the free energy view is capable of simulating the effects of thermal energy on nerve function. One potential application of the developed theoretical model will be investigation of the reversible and irreversible effects of thermal energy induced by various energy modalities, including therapeutic ultrasound, on nerve function. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Model-based source localization of extracellular action potentials.

    PubMed

    Somogyvári, Zoltán; Zalányi, László; Ulbert, István; Erdi, Péter

    2005-09-30

    A new model-based analysis method was set up for revealing information encrypted in extracellular spatial potential patterns of neocortical action potentials. Spikes were measured by extracellular linear multiple microelectrode in vivo cat's primary auditory cortex and were analyzed based on current source density (CSD) distribution models. Validity of the monopole and other point source approximations were tested on the measured potential patterns by numerical fitting. We have found, that point source models could not provide accurate description of the measured patterns. We introduced a new model of the CSD distribution on a spiking cell, called counter-current model (CCM). This new model was shown to provide better description of the spatial current distribution of the cell during the initial negative deflection of the extracellular action potential, from the onset of the spike to the negative peak. The new model was tested on simulated extracellular potentials. We proved numerically, that all the parameters of the model could be determined accurately based on measurements. Thus, fitting of the CCM allowed extraction of these parameters from the measurements. Due to model fitting, CSD could be calculated with much higher accuracy as done with the traditional method because distance dependence of the spatial potential patterns was explicitly taken into consideration in our method. Average CSD distribution of the neocortical action potentials was calculated and spatial decay constant of the dendritic trees was determined by applying our new method.

  10. Frequency-Amplitude Ratio of Ocular Vestibular-Evoked Myogenic Potentials for Detecting Meniere's Disease: A Preliminary Investigation.

    PubMed

    Singh, Niraj Kumar; Barman, Animesh

    2016-01-01

    Several parameters of ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potential (oVEMP) have been used to identify Meniere's disease. Nonetheless frequency-amplitude ratio (FAR), which is the ratio of amplitude between two frequencies, is one among the parameters that has failed to attract researchers' attention despite proving its worth in diagnosis of Meniere's disease when used in conjunction with cervical VEMP. Thus, the present study aimed at investigating the utility of FAR of oVEMP in identifying Meniere's disease and finding out an optimum frequency pair for its diagnosis. Using a case-control design, oVEMPs were recorded for tone bursts of 500, 750, 1000, and 1500 Hz from 36 individuals with unilateral definite Meniere's disease in the age range of 15 to 50 years. For comparison purposes, oVEMP at the above frequencies were also obtained from an equal number of age- and gender-matched healthy individuals. The amplitudes of 750, 1000, 1500 Hz and tuned frequency, which was the frequency with the largest peak to peak amplitude among the above-mentioned frequencies, were divided by the amplitude of 500 Hz to obtain FARs for 750/500, 1000/500, 1500/500, and tuned frequency/500 frequency pairs. The results revealed significantly higher FAR in the Meniere's disease group than the healthy controls for all the frequency pairs (p < 0.05). The sensitivity of almost 90% and the specificity 100% was obtained for 1000/500 and 750/500, whereas the other frequency pairs produced a sensitivity of about 56% while still showing a specificity of 100%. High sensitivity and specificity, coupled with considerably lowered test duration when using only two frequencies, makes the use of FAR a more attractive prerogative, with 1000/500 as the frequency pair of choice.

  11. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    SciTech Connect

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Highlights: •TRPA1 agonists inhibited compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves. •This inhibition was not mediated by TRPA1 channels. •This efficacy was comparable to those of lidocaine and cocaine. •We found for the first time an ability of TRPA1 agonists to inhibit nerve conduction. -- Abstract: Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC{sub 50} values of 1.2 and 1.5 mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC{sub 50} = 0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  12. Action prediction based on anticipatory brain potentials during simulated driving

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khaliliardali, Zahra; Chavarriaga, Ricardo; Gheorghe, Lucian Andrei; Millán, José del R.

    2015-12-01

    Objective. The ability of an automobile to infer the driver’s upcoming actions directly from neural signals could enrich the interaction of the car with its driver. Intelligent vehicles fitted with an on-board brain-computer interface able to decode the driver’s intentions can use this information to improve the driving experience. In this study we investigate the neural signatures of anticipation of specific actions, namely braking and accelerating. Approach. We investigated anticipatory slow cortical potentials in electroencephalogram recorded from 18 healthy participants in a driving simulator using a variant of the contingent negative variation (CNV) paradigm with Go and No-go conditions: count-down numbers followed by ‘Start’/‘Stop’ cue. We report decoding performance before the action onset using a quadratic discriminant analysis classifier based on temporal features. Main results. (i) Despite the visual and driving related cognitive distractions, we show the presence of anticipatory event related potentials locked to the stimuli onset similar to the widely reported CNV signal (with an average peak value of -8 μV at electrode Cz). (ii) We demonstrate the discrimination between cases requiring to perform an action upon imperative subsequent stimulus (Go condition, e.g. a ‘Red’ traffic light) versus events that do not require such action (No-go condition; e.g. a ‘Yellow’ light); with an average single trial classification performance of 0.83 ± 0.13 for braking and 0.79 ± 0.12 for accelerating (area under the curve). (iii) We show that the centro-medial anticipatory potentials are observed as early as 320 ± 200 ms before the action with a detection rate of 0.77 ± 0.12 in offline analysis. Significance. We show for the first time the feasibility of predicting the driver’s intention through decoding anticipatory related potentials during simulated car driving with high recognition rates.

  13. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  14. Propagation of Action Potentials: An Active Participation Exercise.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsten, Gary

    1998-01-01

    Describes an active participation exercise that demonstrates the propagation of action potentials (the ability to transmit information through the neural network, dependent upon chemical interactions in the brain). Students assume the structure and function of the network by lining up around the room and communicating through hand signals and…

  15. Passive Responses Resembling Action Potentials: A Device for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian A.; Pickard, Barbara G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a network of entirely passive electrical components that gives a response to an electrical shock similar to an action potential. The network of resistors, capacitors, and diodes was developed to produce responses that would mimic those observed, for example, when a dark-grown pea epicotyl is shocked…

  16. Action potential and contraction of Dionaea muscipula (Venus flytrap).

    PubMed

    DI PALMA, J R; MOHL, R; BEST, W

    1961-03-24

    Observation of the action potential and contraction of the leaf of Dionaea muscipula Ellis revealed several interesting phenomena. Two successive stimuli are generally necessary to cause contraction. The first and ineffective stimulus is associated with slow depolarization. The second stimulus has much more rapid depolarization and initiates contraction.

  17. Passive Responses Resembling Action Potentials: A Device for the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Ian A.; Pickard, Barbara G.

    1975-01-01

    Describes the construction and operation of a network of entirely passive electrical components that gives a response to an electrical shock similar to an action potential. The network of resistors, capacitors, and diodes was developed to produce responses that would mimic those observed, for example, when a dark-grown pea epicotyl is shocked…

  18. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential.

    PubMed

    Bezanilla, F; Rojas, E; Taylor, R E

    1970-12-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 musec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential.2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential.3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current-voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939).4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin-Huxley equations.5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential.

  19. Sodium and potassium conductance changes during a membrane action potential

    PubMed Central

    Bezanilla, Francisco; Rojas, Eduardo; Taylor, Robert E.

    1970-01-01

    1. A method for turning a membrane potential control system on and off in less than 10 μsec is described. This method was used to record membrane currents in perfused giant axons from Dosidicus gigas and Loligo forbesi after turning on the voltage clamp system at various times during the course of a membrane action potential. 2. The membrane current measured just after the capacity charging transient was found to have an almost linear relation to the controlled membrane potential. 3. The total membrane conductance taken from these current—voltage curves was found to have a time course during the action potential similar to that found by Cole & Curtis (1939). 4. The instantaneous current voltage curves were linear enough to make it possible to obtain a good estimate of the individual sodium and potassium channel conductances, either algebraically or by clamping to the sodium, or potassium, reversal potentials. Good general agreement was obtained with the predictions of the Hodgkin—Huxley equations. 5. We consider these results to constitute the first direct experimental demonstration of the conductance changes to sodium and potassium during the course of an action potential. PMID:5505231

  20. Slow recovery from inactivation of Na+ channels underlies the activity-dependent attenuation of dendritic action potentials in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Colbert, C M; Magee, J C; Hoffman, D A; Johnston, D

    1997-09-01

    Na+ action potentials propagate into the dendrites of pyramidal neurons driving an influx of Ca2+ that seems to be important for associative synaptic plasticity. During repetitive (10-50 Hz) firing, dendritic action potentials display a marked and prolonged voltage-dependent decrease in amplitude. Such a decrease is not apparent in somatic action potentials. We investigated the mechanisms of the different activity dependence of somatic and dendritic action potentials in CA1 pyramidal neurons of adult rats using whole-cell and cell-attached patch-clamp methods. There were three main findings. First, dendritic Na+ currents decreased in amplitude when repeatedly activated by brief (2 msec) depolarizations. Recovery was slow and voltage-dependent. Second, Na+ currents decreased much less in somatic than in dendritic patches. Third, although K+ currents remained constant during trains, K+ currents were necessary for dendritic action potential amplitude to decrease in whole-cell experiments. These results suggest that regional differences in Na+ and K+ channels determine the differences in the activity dependence of somatic and dendritic action potential amplitudes.

  1. Age-dependent decline in motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude: with a comment on changes in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Eisen, A; Siejka, S; Schulzer, M; Calne, D

    1991-06-01

    Peak-to-peak measurement of the maximum amplitude motor evoked potential (MAXMEP) elicited by 20 consecutive transcranial magnetic stimuli recorded from the contracting thenar and hypothenar muscles measured 9.8 +/- 2.0 mV and 7.25 +/- 2.9 mV respectively (P less than 0.01). The ratio of MAXMEP/CMAP measured 92.6 +/- 25.8% and 54.8 +/- 12.3% respectively (P less than 0.001). Repeat studies showed good individual reproducibility. Amplitudes declined linearly with age (r = -0.836 for thenar MAXMEP P less than 0.001). It is argued that MAXMEP related to age is more meaningful than the MEP/CMAP wave ratio and is proportional to the number of fast conducting cortical motor neurons excited. In 7/18 patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) MAXMEP was increased; in 2 other patients MAXMEP was decreased for their age.

  2. Ionic currents underlying the action potential of Rana pipiens oocytes.

    PubMed

    Schlichter, L C

    1989-07-01

    Ionic currents in immature, ovulated Rana pipiens oocytes (metaphase I) were studied using the voltage-clamp technique. At this stage of maturity the oocyte can produce action potentials in response to depolarizing current or as an "off response" to hyperpolarizing current. Reducing external Na+ to 1/10 normal (choline substituted) eliminated the action potentials and both the negative-slope region and zero-crossing of the I-V relation. Reducing external Cl- to 1/10 or 1/100 normal (methanesulfonate substituted) lengthened the action potential. The outward current was reduced and a net inward current was revealed. By changing external Na+, Cl-, and K+ concentrations and using blocking agents (SITS, TEA), three voltage- and time-dependent currents were identified, INa, IK and ICl. The Na+ current activated at about 0 mV and reversed at very positive values which decreased during maturation. Inward Na+ current produced the upstroke of the action potential. During each voltage-clamp step the Na+ current activated slowly (seconds) and did not inactivate within many minutes. The Na+ current was not blocked by TTX at micromolar concentrations. The K+ current was present only in the youngest oocytes. Because IK was superimposed on a large leakage current, it appeared to reverse at the resting potential. When leakage currents were subtracted, the reversal potential for IK was more negative than -110 mV in Ringer's solution. IK was outwardly rectifying and strongly activated above -50 mV. The outward K+ current produced an after hyperpolarization at the end of each action potential. IK was blocked completely and reversibly by 20 mM external TEA. The Cl- current activated at about +10 mV and was outwardly rectifying. ICl was blocked completely and reversibly by 400 microM SITS added to the bathing medium. This current helped repolarize the membrane following an action potential in the youngest oocytes and was the only repolarizing current in more mature oocytes that had lost

  3. Action Potential Initiation in the Hodgkin-Huxley Model

    PubMed Central

    Colwell, Lucy J.; Brenner, Michael P.

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper of B. Naundorf et al. described an intriguing negative correlation between variability of the onset potential at which an action potential occurs (the onset span) and the rapidity of action potential initiation (the onset rapidity). This correlation was demonstrated in numerical simulations of the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to this antagonism, it is argued that Hodgkin-Huxley-type models are unable to explain action potential initiation observed in cortical neurons in vivo or in vitro. Here we apply a method from theoretical physics to derive an analytical characterization of this problem. We analytically compute the probability distribution of onset potentials and analytically derive the inverse relationship between onset span and onset rapidity. We find that the relationship between onset span and onset rapidity depends on the level of synaptic background activity. Hence we are able to elucidate the regions of parameter space for which the Hodgkin-Huxley model is able to accurately describe the behavior of this system. PMID:19148265

  4. Action potential initiation in the hodgkin-huxley model.

    PubMed

    Colwell, Lucy J; Brenner, Michael P

    2009-01-01

    A recent paper of B. Naundorf et al. described an intriguing negative correlation between variability of the onset potential at which an action potential occurs (the onset span) and the rapidity of action potential initiation (the onset rapidity). This correlation was demonstrated in numerical simulations of the Hodgkin-Huxley model. Due to this antagonism, it is argued that Hodgkin-Huxley-type models are unable to explain action potential initiation observed in cortical neurons in vivo or in vitro. Here we apply a method from theoretical physics to derive an analytical characterization of this problem. We analytically compute the probability distribution of onset potentials and analytically derive the inverse relationship between onset span and onset rapidity. We find that the relationship between onset span and onset rapidity depends on the level of synaptic background activity. Hence we are able to elucidate the regions of parameter space for which the Hodgkin-Huxley model is able to accurately describe the behavior of this system.

  5. The effect of recording site on extracted features of motor unit action potential.

    PubMed

    Artuğ, N Tuğrul; Goker, Imran; Bolat, Bülent; Osman, Onur; Kocasoy Orhan, Elif; Baslo, M Baris

    2016-06-01

    Motor unit action potential (MUAP), which consists of individual muscle fiber action potentials (MFAPs), represents the electrical activity of the motor unit. The values of the MUAP features are changed by denervation and reinnervation in neurogenic involvement as well as muscle fiber loss with increased diameter variability in myopathic diseases. The present study is designed to investigate how increased muscle fiber diameter variability affects MUAP parameters in simulated motor units. In order to detect this variation, simulated MUAPs were calculated both at the innervation zone where the MFAPs are more synchronized, and near the tendon, where they show increased temporal dispersion. Reinnervation in neurogenic state increases MUAP amplitude for the recordings at both the innervation zone and near the tendon. However, MUAP duration and the number of peaks significantly increased in a case of myopathy for recordings near the tendon. Furthermore, of the new features, "number of peaks×spike duration" was found as the strongest indicator of MFAP dispersion in myopathy. MUAPs were also recorded from healthy participants in order to investigate the biological counterpart of the simulation data. MUAPs which were recorded near to tendon revealed significantly prolonged duration and decreased amplitude. Although the number of peaks was increased by moving the needle near to tendon, this was not significant. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. K+-induced twitch potentiation is not due to longer action potential.

    PubMed

    Yensen, Craig; Matar, Wadih; Renaud, Jean-Marc

    2002-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether an increased duration of the action potential contributes to the K+-induced twitch potentiation at 37 degrees C. Twitch contractions were elicited by field stimulation, and action potentials were measured with conventional microelectrodes. For mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle, twitch force was greater at 7-13 mM K+ than at 4.7 mM (control). For soleus muscle, twitch force potentiation was observed between 7 and 11 mM K+. Time to peak and half-relaxation time were not affected by the increase in extracellular K+ concentration in EDL muscle, whereas both parameters became significantly longer in soleus muscle. Decrease in overshoot and prolongation of the action potential duration observed at 9 and 11 mM K+ were mimicked when muscles were respectively exposed to 25 and 50 nM tetrodotoxin (TTX; used to partially block Na+ channels). Despite similar action potentials, twitch force was not potentiated by TTX. It is therefore suggested that the K+-induced potentiation of the twitch in EDL muscle is not due to a prolongation of the action potential and contraction time, whereas a longer contraction, especially the relaxation phase, may contribute to the potentiation in soleus muscle.

  7. Interatomic potentials via the effective-action formalism

    SciTech Connect

    Rasamny, M.; Valiev, M. |; Fernando, G.W. |

    1998-10-01

    We present a method for generating interatomic potentials from first-principles calculations. Using the effective-action formalism we describe a classical system of interacting atoms in terms of the expectation value of the pair density operator. Such a description naturally leads to the concept of the effective two-body interatomic potential. This is similar in spirit to the Kohn-Sham potential that arises in density-functional theory; however, in this case, the system is reduced from a fully interacting many-body system to an auxiliary system that interacts via a renormalized two-body potential. This potential contains the effects of three- and higher-body correlations and can be calculated via a systematic self-consistent procedure. This method can be trivially extended to the generation of higher-order interatomic potentials. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. Attenuation of N2 amplitude of laser-evoked potentials by theta burst stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex.

    PubMed

    Poreisz, Csaba; Antal, Andrea; Boros, Klára; Brepohl, Nadine; Csifcsák, Gábor; Paulus, Walter

    2008-03-01

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a special repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) paradigm, where bursts of low-intensity stimuli are applied in the theta frequency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuronavigated TBS over primary somatosensory cortex (SI) on laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and acute pain perception induced with Tm : YAG laser stimulation. The amplitude changes of the N1, N2, and P2 components of LEPs and related subjective pain rating scores of 12 healthy subjects were analyzed prior to and following continuous TBS (cTBS), intermittent TBS (iTBS), intermediate TBS (imTBS), and sham stimulation. Our results demonstrate that all active TBS paradigms significantly diminished the amplitude of the N2 component, when the hand contralateral to the site of TBS was laser-stimulated. Sham stimulation condition had no significant effect. The subjective pain perception also decreased during the experimental sessions, but did not differ significantly from the sham stimulation condition. The main finding of our study is that TBS over SI diminished the amplitude of the N2 component evoked from the contralateral side without any significant analgesic effects. Furthermore, imTBS produced responses similar to those observed by other forms of TBS induced excitability changes in the SI.

  9. The effect of transcranial direct current stimulation on contrast sensitivity and visual evoked potential amplitude in adults with amblyopia

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Zhaofeng; Li, Jinrong; Spiegel, Daniel P.; Chen, Zidong; Chan, Lily; Luo, Guangwei; Yuan, Junpeng; Deng, Daming; Yu, Minbin; Thompson, Benjamin

    2016-01-01

    Amblyopia is a neurodevelopmental disorder of vision that occurs when the visual cortex receives decorrelated inputs from the two eyes during an early critical period of development. Amblyopic eyes are subject to suppression from the fellow eye, generate weaker visual evoked potentials (VEPs) than fellow eyes and have multiple visual deficits including impairments in visual acuity and contrast sensitivity. Primate models and human psychophysics indicate that stronger suppression is associated with greater deficits in amblyopic eye contrast sensitivity and visual acuity. We tested whether transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) of the visual cortex would modulate VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity in adults with amblyopia. tDCS can transiently alter cortical excitability and may influence suppressive neural interactions. Twenty-one patients with amblyopia and twenty-seven controls completed separate sessions of anodal (a-), cathodal (c-) and sham (s-) visual cortex tDCS. A-tDCS transiently and significantly increased VEP amplitudes for amblyopic, fellow and control eyes and contrast sensitivity for amblyopic and control eyes. C-tDCS decreased VEP amplitude and contrast sensitivity and s-tDCS had no effect. These results suggest that tDCS can modulate visual cortex responses to information from adult amblyopic eyes and provide a foundation for future clinical studies of tDCS in adults with amblyopia. PMID:26763954

  10. Attenuation of N2 amplitude of laser-evoked potentials by theta burst stimulation of primary somatosensory cortex

    PubMed Central

    Antal, Andrea; Boros, Klára; Brepohl, Nadine; Csifcsák, Gábor; Paulus, Walter

    2007-01-01

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS) is a special repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) paradigm, where bursts of low-intensity stimuli are applied in the theta frequency. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of neuronavigated TBS over primary somatosensory cortex (SI) on laser-evoked potentials (LEPs) and acute pain perception induced with Tm : YAG laser stimulation. The amplitude changes of the N1, N2, and P2 components of LEPs and related subjective pain rating scores of 12 healthy subjects were analyzed prior to and following continuous TBS (cTBS), intermittent TBS (iTBS), intermediate TBS (imTBS), and sham stimulation. Our results demonstrate that all active TBS paradigms significantly diminished the amplitude of the N2 component, when the hand contralateral to the site of TBS was laser-stimulated. Sham stimulation condition had no significant effect. The subjective pain perception also decreased during the experimental sessions, but did not differ significantly from the sham stimulation condition. The main finding of our study is that TBS over SI diminished the amplitude of the N2 component evoked from the contralateral side without any significant analgesic effects. Furthermore, imTBS produced responses similar to those observed by other forms of TBS induced excitability changes in the SI. PMID:18043910

  11. Calcium-sensitive action potential of long duration in the fertilized egg of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi.

    PubMed

    Barish, M E

    1984-09-01

    The membrane properties of fertilized eggs of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi were studied using standard microelectrode techniques. The resting potential was approximately -80 mV, and was dependent on the extracellular K concentration. Depolarizing current injections elicited an action potential with an initial peak amplitude of +20 to +40 mV (duration about 5 sec) and a long lasting (duration 3 to 10 min) plateau phase. The depolarizing phase and the plateau phase appeared to have different ionic mechanisms. The entire action potential could be prevented by removal of extracellular Ca, but only the amplitude of the depolarizing phase, not the plateau phase, was dependent on the extracellular Ca concentration. The plateau phase was not observed in the absence of Ca, but in the presence of Ca its duration was dependent on the external Ca concentration. The data suggest that the plateau phase is activated as a consequence of Ca influx during the initial depolarizing phase. Removal of external Na resulted in only minor changes in the waveform of repolarization. The action potential was resistant to low concentrations of Mn and Cd in the presence of Ca. The role of this action potential in ctenophore development is not known, but in its waveform and duration it resembles the sperm-gated potentials that have been seen in eggs of other phyla. These experiments show ctenophore embryos to be excitable at very early stages, and suggest their utility in the study of the differentiation of cellular electrical properties.

  12. Focused ultrasound effects on nerve action potential in vitro

    PubMed Central

    Colucci, Vincent; Strichartz, Gary; Jolesz, Ferenc; Vykhodtseva, Natalia; Hynynen, Kullervo

    2009-01-01

    Minimally invasive applications of thermal and mechanical energy to selective areas of the human anatomy have led to significant advances in treatment of and recovery from typical surgical interventions. Image-guided focused ultrasound allows energy to be deposited deep into the tissue, completely noninvasively. There has long been interest in using this focal energy delivery to block nerve conduction for pain control and local anesthesia. In this study, we have performed an in vitro study to further extend our knowledge of this potential clinical application. The sciatic nerves from the bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) were subjected to focused ultrasound (at frequencies of 0.661MHz and 1.986MHz) and to heated Ringer’s solution. The nerve action potential was shown to decrease in the experiments and correlated with temperature elevation measured in the nerve. The action potential recovered either completely, partially, or not at all, depending on the parameters of the ultrasound exposure. The reduction of the baseline nerve temperature by circulating cooling fluid through the sonication chamber did not prevent the collapse of the nerve action potential; but higher power was required to induce the same endpoint as without cooling. These results indicate that a thermal mechanism of focused ultrasound can be used to block nerve conduction, either temporarily or permanently. PMID:19647923

  13. Ionic channels underlying the ventricular action potential in zebrafish embryo.

    PubMed

    Alday, Aintzane; Alonso, Hiart; Gallego, Monica; Urrutia, Janire; Letamendia, Ainhoa; Callol, Carles; Casis, Oscar

    2014-06-01

    Over the last years zebrafish has become a popular model in the study of cardiac physiology, pathology and pharmacology. Recently, the application of the 3Rs regulation and the characteristics of the embryo have reduced the use of adult zebrafish use in many studies. However, the zebrafish embryo cardiac physiology is poorly characterized since most works have used indirect techniques and direct recordings of cardiac action potential and ionic currents are scarce. In order to optimize the zebrafish embryo model, we used electrophysiological, pharmacological and immunofluorescence tools to identify the characteristics and the ionic channels involved in the ventricular action potentials of zebrafish embryos. The application of Na(+) or T-type Ca(+2) channel blockers eliminated the cardiac electrical activity, indicating that the action potential upstroke depends on Na(+) and T-type Ca(+2) currents. The plateau phase depends on L-type Ca(+2) channels since it is abolished by specific blockade. The direct channel blockade indicates that the action potential repolarization and diastolic potential depends on ERG K(+) channels. The presence in the embryonic heart of the Nav1.5, Cav1.2, Cav3.2 and ERG channels was also confirmed by immunofluorescence, while the absence of effect of specific blockers and immunostaining indicate that two K(+) repolarizing currents present in human heart, Ito and IKs, are absent in the embryonic zebrafish heart. Our results describe the ionic channels present and its role in the zebrafish embryo heart and support the use of zebrafish embryos to study human diseases and their use for drug testing.

  14. Action potential broadening induced by lithium may cause a presynaptic enhancement of excitatory synaptic transmission in neonatal rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Colino, A; García-Seoane, J J; Valentín, A

    1998-07-01

    Lithium enhances excitatory synaptic transmission in CA1 pyramidal cells, but the mechanisms remain unclear. The present study demonstrates that lithium enhances the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and alpha-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA) receptor-mediated components of the excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC). Lithium decreased the magnitude of paired-pulse facilitation and presented an inverse correlation between the lithium-induced enhancement of synaptic transmission and initial paired-pulse facilitation, which is consistent with a presynaptic mode of action. The enhancement of synaptic strength is likely to act, at least in part, by increasing the amplitude of the presynaptic Ca2+ transient. One mechanism which could account for this change of the presynaptic Ca2+ transient is an increase in the duration of the action potential. We investigated action potential in hippocampal pyramidal neurons and found that lithium (0.5-6 mM) increased the half-amplitude duration and reduced the rate of repolarization, whereas the rate of depolarization remained similar. To find out whether the lithium synaptic effects might be explained by spike broadening, we investigated the field recording of the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) in hippocampal slices and found three lines of evidence. First, the prolongation of the presynaptic action potential with 4-aminopyridine and tetraethylammonium blocked or reduced the synaptic effects of lithium. Second, the lithium-induced synaptic enhancement was modulated when presynaptic Ca2+ influx was varied by changing the external Ca2+ concentration. Finally, both effects, the synaptic transmission increment and the action potential broadening, were independent of inositol depletion. These results suggest that lithium enhances synaptic transmission in the hippocampus via a presynaptic site of action: the mechanism underlying the potentiating effect may be attributable to an increased Ca2+ influx consequent

  15. Modelling in vivo action potential propagation along a giant axon.

    PubMed

    George, Stuart; Foster, Jamie M; Richardson, Giles

    2015-01-01

    A partial differential equation model for the three-dimensional current flow in an excitable, unmyelinated axon is considered. Where the axon radius is significantly below a critical value R(crit) (that depends upon intra- and extra-cellular conductivity and ion channel conductance) the resistance of the intracellular space is significantly higher than that of the extracellular space, such that the potential outside the axon is uniformly small whilst the intracellular potential is approximated by the transmembrane potential. In turn, since the current flow is predominantly axial, it can be shown that the transmembrane potential is approximated by a solution to the one-dimensional cable equation. It is noted that the radius of the squid giant axon, investigated by (Hodgkin and Huxley 1952e), lies close to R(crit). This motivates us to apply the three-dimensional model to the squid giant axon and compare the results thus found to those obtained using the cable equation. In the context of the in vitro experiments conducted in (Hodgkin and Huxley 1952e) we find only a small difference between the wave profiles determined using these two different approaches and little difference between the speeds of action potential propagation predicted. This suggests that the cable equation approximation is accurate in this scenario. However when applied to the it in vivo setting, in which the conductivity of the surrounding tissue is considerably lower than that of the axoplasm, there are marked differences in both wave profile and speed of action potential propagation calculated using the two approaches. In particular, the cable equation significantly over predicts the increase in the velocity of propagation as axon radius increases. The consequences of these results are discussed in terms of the evolutionary costs associated with increasing the speed of action potential propagation by increasing axon radius.

  16. Influence of the Latency Fluctuations and the Quantal Process of Transmitter Release on the End-Plate Potentials' Amplitude Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Souček, Branko

    1971-01-01

    Spontaneous synaptic potentials and their relation to the end-plate potential (e.p.p.) are studied. It has been suggested earlier that the e.p.p. at a single nerve-muscle junction is built up statistically of small all-or-none units which are identical in size with the spontaneous miniature end-plate potentials (m.e.p.p.'s). In this paper, a more general theory is developed which takes into account latency fluctuations of the unit components. A general equation for e.p.p. amplitude probability distribution is derived. This probability distribution is a function of the latency distribution, m.e.p.p.'s pulse shape, m.e.p.p.'s amplitude distribution, and the mean quantal content. The time course of transmitter release, or latency distribution, is derived from a histogram of synaptic delays in a frog muscle, but obtained equations can be used for other distribution functions as well. PMID:5542609

  17. Compound action potentials recorded in the human spinal cord during neurostimulation for pain relief.

    PubMed

    Parker, John L; Karantonis, Dean M; Single, Peter S; Obradovic, Milan; Cousins, Michael J

    2012-03-01

    Electrical stimulation of the spinal cord provides effective pain relief to hundreds of thousands of chronic neuropathic pain sufferers. The therapy involves implantation of an electrode array into the epidural space of the subject and then stimulation of the dorsal column with electrical pulses. The stimulation depolarises axons and generates propagating action potentials that interfere with the perception of pain. Despite the long-term clinical experience with spinal cord stimulation, the mechanism of action is not understood, and no direct evidence of the properties of neurons being stimulated has been presented. Here we report novel measurements of evoked compound action potentials from the spinal cords of patients undergoing stimulation for pain relief. The results reveal that Aβ sensory nerve fibres are recruited at therapeutic stimulation levels and the Aβ potential amplitude correlates with the degree of coverage of the painful area. Aβ-evoked responses are not measurable below a threshold stimulation level, and their amplitude increases with increasing stimulation current. At high currents, additional late responses are observed. Our results contribute towards efforts to define the mechanism of spinal cord stimulation. The minimally invasive recording technique we have developed provides data previously obtained only through microelectrode techniques in spinal cords of animals. Our observations also allow the development of systems that use neuronal recording in a feedback loop to control neurostimulation on a continuous basis and deliver more effective pain relief. This is one of numerous benefits that in vivo electrophysiological recording can bring to a broad range of neuromodulation therapies. Copyright © 2011 International Association for the Study of Pain. All rights reserved.

  18. Treating Cancer with Amplitude-Modulated Electromagnetic Fields: A Potential Paradigm Shift, Again?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zimmerman et al. (2011) study published here, coupled with the group's two preceding papers (Barbault et al. (2009), Costa et al. (2011)), identify a potential modality for treating tumors at a dramatic reduction in trauma and cost. This set of clinical and explanatory labora...

  19. Treating Cancer with Amplitude-Modulated Electromagnetic Fields: A Potential Paradigm Shift, Again?

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Zimmerman et al. (2011) study published here, coupled with the group's two preceding papers (Barbault et al. (2009), Costa et al. (2011)), identify a potential modality for treating tumors at a dramatic reduction in trauma and cost. This set of clinical and explanatory labora...

  20. Action Potentials and Ion Conductances in Wild-type and CALHM1-knockout Type II Taste Cells.

    PubMed

    Ma, Zhongming; Saung, Wint Thu; Foskett, J Kevin

    2017-02-15

    Taste bud type II cells fire action potentials in response to tastants, triggering non-vesicular ATP release to gustatory neurons via voltage-gated CALHM1-associated ion channels. Whereas CALHM1 regulates mouse cortical neuron excitability, its roles in regulating type II cell excitability are unknown. Here, we compared membrane conductances and action potentials in single identified TRPM5-GFP-expressing circumvallate papillae type II cells acutely isolated from wild-type (WT) and Calhm1-knockout (KO) mice. The activation kinetics of large voltage-gated outward currents were accelerated in cells from Calhm1-KO mice, and their associated non-selective tail currents, previously shown to be highly correlated with ATP release, were completely absent in Calhm1-KO cells, suggesting that CALHM1 contributes to all of these currents. Calhm1 deletion did not significantly alter resting membrane potential or input resistance, the amplitudes and kinetics of Na(+) currents either estimated from action potentials or recorded from steady-state voltage-pulses, or action potential threshold, overshoot peak, after-hyperpolarization and firing frequency. However, Calhm1-deletion reduced the half-widths of action potentials and accelerated the deactivation kinetics of transient outward currents, suggesting that the CALHM1-associated conductance becomes activated during the repolarization phase of action potentials.

  1. Stability of Cardiac Action Potential Duration under Periodic Pacing.

    PubMed

    Xiaodong, Han; Hailang, Song; Xiaomei, Wu; Cuiwei, Yang; Zuxiang, Fang

    2005-01-01

    Action potential duration (APD) alternans is believed to be a loss of stability and contributes much to the reentry arrhythmias. The purpose of this study is to analyze the stability conditions for one-dimension model and higher dimension model. These criterions are concluded by linear stability analysis in nonlinear dynamics. They should be useful for finding of cardiac control algorithms in low energy defibrillation and the designing of antiarrhythmic drug.

  2. Action potentials drive body wall muscle contractions in Caenorhabditis elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Shangbang; Zhen, Mei

    2011-01-01

    The sinusoidal locomotion exhibited by Caenorhabditis elegans predicts a tight regulation of contractions and relaxations of its body wall muscles. Vertebrate skeletal muscle contractions are driven by voltage-gated sodium channel–dependent action potentials. How coordinated motor outputs are regulated in C. elegans, which does not have voltage-gated sodium channels, remains unknown. Here, we show that C. elegans body wall muscles fire all-or-none, calcium-dependent action potentials that are driven by the L-type voltage-gated calcium and Kv1 voltage-dependent potassium channels. We further demonstrate that the excitatory and inhibitory motoneuron activities regulate the frequency of action potentials to coordinate muscle contraction and relaxation, respectively. This study provides direct evidence for the dual-modulatory model of the C. elegans motor circuit; moreover, it reveals a mode of motor control in which muscle cells integrate graded inputs of the nervous system and respond with all-or-none electrical signals. PMID:21248227

  3. Action potential fidelity during normal and epileptiform activity in paired soma-axon recordings from rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Meeks, Julian P; Jiang, Xiaoping; Mennerick, Steven

    2005-07-15

    Although action potential initiation and propagation are fundamental to nervous system function, there are few direct electrophysiological observations of propagating action potentials in small unmyelinated fibres, such as the axons within mammalian hippocampus. To circumvent limitations of previous studies that relied on extracellular stimulation, we performed dual recordings: whole-cell recordings from hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cell somas and extracellular recordings from their axons, up to 800 micro m away. During brief spike trains under normal conditions, axonal spikes were more resistant to amplitude reduction than somatic spikes. Axonal amplitude depression was greatest at the axon initial segment < 150 microm from the soma, and initiation occurred approximately 75 microm from the soma. Although prior studies, which failed to verify spike initiation, suggested substantial axonal depression during seizure-associated extracellular K+([K+]o) rises, we found that 8 mm [K+]o caused relatively small decreases in axonal spike amplitude during brief spike trains. However, during sustained, epileptiform spiking induced in 8 mm [K+]o, axonal waveforms decreased significantly in peak amplitude. During epileptiform spiking, bursts of two or more action potentials > 20 Hz failed to propagate in most cases. In normal [K+]o at 25 and 32 degrees C, spiking superimposed on sustained somatic depolarization, but not spiking alone, produced similar axonal changes as the epileptiform activity. These results highlight the likely importance of steady-state inactivation of axonal channels in maintaining action potential fidelity. Such changes in axonal propagation properties could encode information and/or serve as an endogenous brake on seizure propagation.

  4. Inhibition by TRPA1 agonists of compound action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Matsushita, Akitomo; Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-04-26

    Although TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists (vanilloid capsaicin and menthol, respectively) at high concentrations inhibit action potential conduction, it remains to be unknown whether TRPA1 agonists have a similar action. The present study examined the actions of TRPA1 agonists, cinnamaldehyde (CA) and allyl isothiocyanate (AITC), which differ in chemical structure from each other, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. CA and AITC concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP with the IC50 values of 1.2 and 1.5mM, respectively; these activities were resistant to a non-selective TRP antagonist ruthenium red or a selective TRPA1 antagonist HC-030031. The CA and AITC actions were distinct in property; the latter but not former action was delayed in onset and partially reversible, and CA but not AITC increased thresholds to elicit CAPs. A CAP inhibition was seen by hydroxy-α-sanshool (by 60% at 0.05 mM), which activates both TRPA1 and TRPV1 channels, a non-vanilloid TRPV1 agonist piperine (by 20% at 0.07 mM) and tetrahydrolavandulol (where the six-membered ring of menthol is opened; IC50=0.38 mM). It is suggested that TRPA1 agonists as well as TRPV1 and TRPM8 agonists have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction without TRP activation, although their agonists are quite different in chemical structure from each other.

  5. The Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential: From Laboratory to Clinic.

    PubMed

    He, Shuman; Teagle, Holly F B; Buchman, Craig A

    2017-01-01

    The electrically evoked compound action potential (eCAP) represents the synchronous firing of a population of electrically stimulated auditory nerve fibers. It can be directly recorded on a surgically exposed nerve trunk in animals or from an intra-cochlear electrode of a cochlear implant. In the past two decades, the eCAP has been widely recorded in both animals and clinical patient populations using different testing paradigms. This paper provides an overview of recording methodologies and response characteristics of the eCAP, as well as its potential applications in research and clinical situations. Relevant studies are reviewed and implications for clinicians are discussed.

  6. Cortical Interneuron Subtypes Vary in Their Axonal Action Potential Properties.

    PubMed

    Casale, Amanda E; Foust, Amanda J; Bal, Thierry; McCormick, David A

    2015-11-25

    The role of interneurons in cortical microcircuits is strongly influenced by their passive and active electrical properties. Although different types of interneurons exhibit unique electrophysiological properties recorded at the soma, it is not yet clear whether these differences are also manifested in other neuronal compartments. To address this question, we have used voltage-sensitive dye to image the propagation of action potentials into the fine collaterals of axons and dendrites in two of the largest cortical interneuron subtypes in the mouse: fast-spiking interneurons, which are typically basket or chandelier neurons; and somatostatin containing interneurons, which are typically regular spiking Martinotti cells. We found that fast-spiking and somatostatin-expressing interneurons differed in their electrophysiological characteristics along their entire dendrosomatoaxonal extent. The action potentials generated in the somata and axons, including axon collaterals, of somatostatin-expressing interneurons are significantly broader than those generated in the same compartments of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. In addition, action potentials back-propagated into the dendrites of somatostatin-expressing interneurons much more readily than fast-spiking interneurons. Pharmacological investigations suggested that axonal action potential repolarization in both cell types depends critically upon Kv1 channels, whereas the axonal and somatic action potentials of somatostatin-expressing interneurons also depend on BK Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels. These results indicate that the two broad classes of interneurons studied here have expressly different subcellular physiological properties, allowing them to perform unique computational roles in cortical circuit operations. Neurons in the cerebral cortex are of two major types: excitatory and inhibitory. The proper balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain is critical for its operation. Neurons contain three main

  7. Cortical Interneuron Subtypes Vary in Their Axonal Action Potential Properties

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Amanda E.; Foust, Amanda J.; Bal, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    The role of interneurons in cortical microcircuits is strongly influenced by their passive and active electrical properties. Although different types of interneurons exhibit unique electrophysiological properties recorded at the soma, it is not yet clear whether these differences are also manifested in other neuronal compartments. To address this question, we have used voltage-sensitive dye to image the propagation of action potentials into the fine collaterals of axons and dendrites in two of the largest cortical interneuron subtypes in the mouse: fast-spiking interneurons, which are typically basket or chandelier neurons; and somatostatin containing interneurons, which are typically regular spiking Martinotti cells. We found that fast-spiking and somatostatin-expressing interneurons differed in their electrophysiological characteristics along their entire dendrosomatoaxonal extent. The action potentials generated in the somata and axons, including axon collaterals, of somatostatin-expressing interneurons are significantly broader than those generated in the same compartments of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons. In addition, action potentials back-propagated into the dendrites of somatostatin-expressing interneurons much more readily than fast-spiking interneurons. Pharmacological investigations suggested that axonal action potential repolarization in both cell types depends critically upon Kv1 channels, whereas the axonal and somatic action potentials of somatostatin-expressing interneurons also depend on BK Ca2+-activated K+ channels. These results indicate that the two broad classes of interneurons studied here have expressly different subcellular physiological properties, allowing them to perform unique computational roles in cortical circuit operations. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Neurons in the cerebral cortex are of two major types: excitatory and inhibitory. The proper balance of excitation and inhibition in the brain is critical for its operation. Neurons

  8. Typical gray matter axons in mammalian brain fail to conduct action potentials faithfully at fever-like temperatures.

    PubMed

    Pekala, Dobromila; Szkudlarek, Hanna; Raastad, Morten

    2016-10-01

    We studied the ability of typical unmyelinated cortical axons to conduct action potentials at fever-like temperatures because fever often gives CNS symptoms. We investigated such axons in cerebellar and hippocampal slices from 10 to 25 days old rats at temperatures between 30 and 43°C. By recording with two electrodes along axonal pathways, we confirmed that the axons were able to initiate action potentials, but at temperatures >39°C, the propagation of the action potentials to a more distal recording site was reduced. This temperature-sensitive conduction may be specific for the very thin unmyelinated axons because similar recordings from myelinated CNS axons did not show conduction failures. We found that the conduction fidelity improved with 1 mmol/L TEA in the bath, probably due to block of voltage-sensitive potassium channels responsible for the fast repolarization of action potentials. Furthermore, by recording electrically activated antidromic action potentials from the soma of cerebellar granule cells, we showed that the axons failed less if they were triggered 10-30 msec after another action potential. This was because individual action potentials were followed by a depolarizing after-potential, of constant amplitude and shape, which facilitated conduction of the following action potentials. The temperature-sensitive conduction failures above, but not below, normal body temperature, and the failure-reducing effect of the spike's depolarizing after-potential, are two intrinsic mechanisms in normal gray matter axons that may help us understand how the hyperthermic brain functions. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  9. Effect of width, amplitude and position of a CMB hot spot on core convection and dynamo action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, W.; Wicht, J.; Hori, K.

    2015-10-01

    Within the fluid iron cores of terrestrial planets, convection and hence the generation of global magnetic fields are controlled by the overlying rocky mantle. The thermal structure of the lower mantle determines how much heat is allowed to escape the core. Hot lower mantle features, like the thermal footprint of a giant impact or hot mantle plumes will reduce locally the heat flux through the core mantle boundary (CMB) and thereby weaken core convection and affect the magnetic field generation process. In this study, we numerically investigate how parametrised hot spots at the CMB with arbitrary size, amplitude and position affect core convection and hence the dynamo. The effect of the heat flux anomaly is quantified by changes in global flow symmetry properties, such as the emergence of equatorial antisymmetric and axisymmetric (EAA) zonal flows. For pure hydrodynamic models the EAA symmetry scales almost linearly with its respective amplitude and size, whereas self-consistent dynamo simulations typically either suppress or drastically enhance EAA depending mainly on the length scale of the heat flux anomaly. Our results suggest, that the horizontal extent of the anomaly should be on the order of the outer core radius to significantly affect flow and field symmetries. As an implication to Mars, the study concludes that an ancient core field modified by a CMB heat flux anomaly is not able to heteroge- neously magnetise the crust to the present-day level of north-south asymmetry.

  10. Modulation by K+ channels of action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises in rat cerebellar basket cell axons

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Y P; Llano, I

    1999-01-01

    Action potential-evoked [Ca2+]i rises in basket cell axons of rat cerebellar slices were studied using two-photon laser scanning microscopy and whole-cell recording, to identify the K+ channels controlling the shape of the axonal action potential. Whole-cell recordings of Purkinje cell IPSCs were used to screen K+ channel subtypes which could contribute to axonal repolarization. α-Dendrotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, charybdotoxin and tetraethylammonium chloride increased IPSC rate and/or amplitude, whereas iberiotoxin and apamin failed to affect the IPSCs. The effects of those K+ channel blockers that enhanced transmitter release on the [Ca2+]i rises elicited in basket cell axons by action potentials fell into three groups: 4-aminopyridine strongly increased action potential-evoked [Ca2+]i; tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin were ineffective alone but augmented the effects of 4-aminopyridine; α-dendrotoxin had no effect. We conclude that cerebellar basket cells contain at least three pharmacologically distinct K+ channels, which regulate transmitter release through different mechanisms. 4-Aminopyridine-sensitive, α-dendrotoxin-insensitive K+ channels are mainly responsible for repolarization in basket cell presynaptic terminals. K+ channels blocked by charybdotoxin and tetraethylammonium have a minor role in repolarization. α-Dendrotoxin-sensitive channels are not involved in shaping the axonal action potential waveform. The two last types of channels must therefore exert control of synaptic activity through a pathway unrelated to axonal action potential broadening. PMID:10517801

  11. Modulation by K+ channels of action potential-evoked intracellular Ca2+ concentration rises in rat cerebellar basket cell axons.

    PubMed

    Tan, Y P; Llano, I

    1999-10-01

    1. Action potential-evoked [Ca2+]i rises in basket cell axons of rat cerebellar slices were studied using two-photon laser scanning microscopy and whole-cell recording, to identify the K+ channels controlling the shape of the axonal action potential. 2. Whole-cell recordings of Purkinje cell IPSCs were used to screen K+ channel subtypes which could contribute to axonal repolarization. alpha-Dendrotoxin, 4-aminopyridine, charybdotoxin and tetraethylammonium chloride increased IPSC rate and/or amplitude, whereas iberiotoxin and apamin failed to affect the IPSCs. 3. The effects of those K+ channel blockers that enhanced transmitter release on the [Ca2+]i rises elicited in basket cell axons by action potentials fell into three groups: 4-aminopyridine strongly increased action potential-evoked [Ca2+]i; tetraethylammonium and charybdotoxin were ineffective alone but augmented the effects of 4-aminopyridine; alpha-dendrotoxin had no effect. 4. We conclude that cerebellar basket cells contain at least three pharmacologically distinct K+ channels, which regulate transmitter release through different mechanisms. 4-Aminopyridine-sensitive, alpha-dendrotoxin-insensitive K+ channels are mainly responsible for repolarization in basket cell presynaptic terminals. K+ channels blocked by charybdotoxin and tetraethylammonium have a minor role in repolarization. alpha-Dendrotoxin-sensitive channels are not involved in shaping the axonal action potential waveform. The two last types of channels must therefore exert control of synaptic activity through a pathway unrelated to axonal action potential broadening.

  12. Electrophysiological Motor Unit Number Estimation (MUNE) Measuring Compound Muscle Action Potential (CMAP) in Mouse Hindlimb Muscles.

    PubMed

    Arnold, W David; Sheth, Kajri A; Wier, Christopher G; Kissel, John T; Burghes, Arthur H; Kolb, Stephen J

    2015-09-25

    Compound muscle action potential (CMAP) and motor unit number estimation (MUNE) are electrophysiological techniques that can be used to monitor the functional status of a motor unit pool in vivo. These measures can provide insight into the normal development and degeneration of the neuromuscular system. These measures have clear translational potential because they are routinely applied in diagnostic and clinical human studies. We present electrophysiological techniques similar to those employed in humans to allow recordings of mouse sciatic nerve function. The CMAP response represents the electrophysiological output from a muscle or group of muscles following supramaximal stimulation of a peripheral nerve. MUNE is an electrophysiological technique that is based on modifications of the CMAP response. MUNE is a calculated value that represents the estimated number of motor neurons or axons (motor control input) supplying the muscle or group of muscles being tested. We present methods for recording CMAP responses from the proximal leg muscles using surface recording electrodes following the stimulation of the sciatic nerve in mice. An incremental MUNE technique is described using submaximal stimuli to determine the average single motor unit potential (SMUP) size. MUNE is calculated by dividing the CMAP amplitude (peak-to-peak) by the SMUP amplitude (peak-to-peak). These electrophysiological techniques allow repeated measures in both neonatal and adult mice in such a manner that facilitates rapid analysis and data collection while reducing the number of animals required for experimental testing. Furthermore, these measures are similar to those recorded in human studies allowing more direct comparisons.

  13. Epac activator critically regulates action potential duration by decreasing potassium current in rat adult ventricle.

    PubMed

    Brette, Fabien; Blandin, Erick; Simard, Christophe; Guinamard, Romain; Sallé, Laurent

    2013-04-01

    Sympathetic stimulation is an important modulator of cardiac function via the classic cAMP-dependent signaling pathway, PKA. Recently, this paradigm has been challenged by the discovery of a family of guanine nucleotide exchange proteins directly activated by cAMP (Epac), acting in parallel to the classic signaling pathway. In cardiac myocytes, Epac activation is known to modulate Ca(2+) cycling yet their actions on cardiac ionic currents remain poorly characterized. This study attempts to address this paucity of information using the patch clamp technique to record action potential (AP) and ionic currents on rat ventricular myocytes. Epac was selectively activated by 8-CPT-AM (acetoxymethyl ester form of 8-CPT). AP amplitude, maximum depolarization rate and resting membrane amplitude were unaltered by 8-CPT-AM, strongly suggesting that Na(+) current and inward rectifier K(+) current are not regulated by Epac. In contrast, AP duration was significantly increased by 8-CPT-AM (prolongation of duration at 50% and 90% of repolarization by 41±10% and 43±8% respectively, n=11). L-type Ca(2+) current density was unaltered by 8-CPT-AM (n=16) so this cannot explain the action potential lengthening. However, the steady state component of K(+) current was significantly inhibited by 8-CPT-AM (-38±6%, n=15), while the transient outward K(+) current was unaffected by 8-CPT-AM. These effects were PKA-independent since they were observed in the presence of PKA inhibitor KT5720. Isoprenaline (100nM) induced a significant prolongation of AP duration, even in the presence of KT5720. This study provides the first evidence that the cAMP-binding protein Epac critically modulates cardiac AP duration by decreasing steady state K(+) current. These observations may be relevant to diseases in which Epac is upregulated, like cardiac hypertrophy.

  14. Anxiety affects the amplitudes of red and green color-elicited flash visual evoked potentials in humans.

    PubMed

    Hosono, Yuki; Kitaoka, Kazuyoshi; Urushihara, Ryo; Séi, Hiroyoshi; Kinouchi, Yohsuke

    2014-01-01

    It has been reported that negative emotional changes and conditions affect the visual faculties of humans at the neural level. On the other hand, the effects of emotion on color perception in particular, which are based on evoked potentials, are unknown. In the present study, we investigated whether different anxiety levels affect the color information processing for each of 3 wavelengths by using flash visual evoked potentials (FVEPs) and State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. In results, significant positive correlations were observed between FVEP amplitudes and state or trait anxiety scores in the long (sensed as red) and middle (sensed as green) wavelengths. On the other hand, short-wavelength-evoked FVEPs were not correlated with anxiety level. Our results suggest that negative emotional conditions may affect color sense processing in humans.

  15. Computer simulation of action potential propagation in septated nerve fibers.

    PubMed

    Barach, J P; Wikswo, J P

    1987-02-01

    The nonlinear, core-conductor model of action potential propagation down axisymmetric nerve fibers is adapted for an implicit, numerical simulation by computer solution of the differential equations. The calculation allows a septum to be inserted in the model fiber; the thin, passive septum is characterized by series resistance Rsz and shunt resistance Rss to the grounded bath. If Rsz is too large or Rss too small, the signal fails to propagate through the septum. Plots of the action potential profiles for various axial positions are obtained and show distortions due to the presence of the septum. A simple linear model, developed from these simulations, relates propagation delay through the septum and the preseptal risetime to Rsz and Rss. This model agrees with the simulations for a wide range of parameters and allows estimation of Rsz and Rss from measured propagation delays at the septum. Plots of the axial current as a function of both time and position demonstrate how the presence of the septum can cause prominent local reversals of the current. This result, not previously described, suggests that extracellular magnetic measurements of cellular action currents could be useful in the biophysical study of septated fibers.

  16. Short-term food deprivation increases amplitudes of heartbeat-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Schulz, André; Ferreira de Sá, Diana S; Dierolf, Angelika M; Lutz, Annika; van Dyck, Zoé; Vögele, Claus; Schächinger, Hartmut

    2015-05-01

    Nutritional state (i.e., fasting or nonfasting) may affect the processing of interoceptive signals, but mechanisms underlying this effect remain unclear. We investigated 16 healthy women on two separate days: when satiated (standardized food intake) and after an 18-h food deprivation period. On both days, heartbeat-evoked potentials (HEPs) and cardiac and autonomic nervous system activation indices (heart rate, normalized low frequency heart rate variability [nLF HRV]) were assessed. The HEP is an EEG pattern that is considered an index of cortical representation of afferent cardiovascular signals. Average HEP activity (R wave +455-595 ms) was enhanced during food deprivation compared to normal food intake. Cardiac activation did not differ between nutritional conditions. Our results indicate that short-term food deprivation amplifies an electrophysiological correlate of the cortical representation of visceral-afferent signals originating from the cardiovascular system. This effect could not be attributed to increased cardiac activation, as estimated by heart rate and nLF HRV, after food deprivation. © 2014 Society for Psychophysiological Research.

  17. Effects of ropinirole on action potential characteristics and the underlying ion currents in canine ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Simkó, József; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Harmati, Gábor; Bárándi, László; Horváth, Balázs; Magyar, János; Bányász, Tamás; Lorincz, István; Nánási, Péter P

    2010-09-01

    In spite of its widespread clinical application, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the dopamine receptor agonist ropinirole. In the present study, therefore, the concentration-dependent effects of ropinirole on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in enzymatically dispersed canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using standard microelectrode, conventional whole-cell patch clamp, and action potential voltage clamp techniques. At concentrations > or = 1 microM, ropinirole increased action potential duration (APD(90)) and suppressed the rapid delayed rectifier K(+) current (I (Kr)) with an IC(50) value of 2.7 +/- 0.25 microM and Hill coefficient of 0.92 +/- 0.09. The block increased with increasing depolarizations to more positive voltages, but paradoxically, the activation of I (Kr) was accelerated by 3 muM ropinirole (time constant decreased from 34 +/- 4 to 14 +/- 1 ms). No significant changes in the fast and slow deactivation time constants were observed with ropinirole. At higher concentrations, ropinirole decreased the amplitude of early repolarization (at concentrations > or = 10 microM), reduced the maximum rate of depolarization and caused depression of the plateau (at concentrations > or = 30 microM), and shortened APD measured at 50% repolarization (at 300 microM) indicating a concentration-dependent inhibition of I (to), I (Na), and I (Ca). Suppression of I (Kr), I (to), and I (Ca) has been confirmed under conventional patch clamp and action potential voltage clamp conditions. I (Ks) and I (K1) were not influenced significantly by ropinirole at concentrations less than 300 microM. All these effects of ropinirole were fully reversible upon washout. The results indicate that ropinirole treatment may carry proarrhythmic risk for patients with inherited or acquired long QT syndrome due to inhibition of I (Kr)-especially in cases of accidental overdose or intoxication.

  18. Activity dependence of action potential duration in rat supraoptic neurosecretory neurones recorded in vitro.

    PubMed

    Bourque, C W; Renaud, L P

    1985-06-01

    Action potential durations, measured at one-third peak amplitude, were examined during intracellular recordings in 134 supraoptic nucleus neurones maintained in vitro in perfused hypothalamic explants. Spike durations ranged between 1.2 and 3.9 ms and were dependent on firing frequency. Shortest measurements (1.74 +/- 0.03 ms; mean +/- S.E. of mean) were obtained during relative quiescence, i.e. less than or equal to 0.5 Hz. A gradual increase in firing frequency through continuous injection of depolarizing current prolonged spike duration, with maximum levels (2.68 +/- 0.05 ms) achieved at 20 Hz. When interspike interval variability was eliminated and firing was more precisely regulated by brief 15-20 ms intracellular current pulses given at pre-determined frequencies, a proportional relationship between increasing spike duration and firing frequency was retained but the change in spike duration at frequencies between 2 and 10 Hz was less pronounced. Once action potentials had achieved the long duration configuration, their return to the shorter duration took place gradually during any succeeding silent interval with a time constant of 4.9 s. Action potential broadening occurred progressively and was most pronounced at the onset of spontaneous or current-induced bursts. In thirty-six phasically active neurones, spike broadening at the onset of a burst was concurrent with the presence of 5-10 consecutive short (less than or equal to 100 ms) interspike intervals; thereafter, despite a greater than 50% reduction in firing frequency, action potential durations remained prolonged throughout the burst. In all of nineteen cells tested, frequency-dependent changes in spike duration were reversibly decreased or blocked by Cd2+, Co2+ and Mn2+, or when CaCl2 was exchanged for equimolar amounts of EGTA in the perfusion medium. These observations indicate that a Ca2+ conductance contributes to frequency- and firing-pattern-dependent changes in spike duration in rat supraoptic

  19. Back-propagating action potentials in pyramidal neurons: a putative signaling mechanism for the induction of Hebbian synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Colbert, C M

    2001-01-01

    A hallmark of synaptic plasticity is the associative, or Hebbian, nature of its induction. By associative, we mean that the timing relationships between activity of the pre- and postsynaptic elements of a synapse determine whether synaptic strengths are modified. lt is well-established that associativity results, in large part, from the dual requirements for activation of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-ionophore, namely presynaptic neurotransmitter release and postsynaptic depolarization. However, the specific dendritic events that provide the postsynaptic depolarization have been relatively unexplored. Increasing evidence suggests that back-propagating (i.e., antidromic) Na(+) action potentials provide the necessary postsynaptic depolarization to allow induction of associative synaptic plasticities. In hippocampal CAI and neocortical layer V pyramidal neurons, these action potentials provide much greater levels of dendritic depolarization than would be expected from synaptic currents alone. Moreover, they provide a relatively brief and synchronous depolarization throughout the dendritic arbor, allowing timing relationships to more directly reflect pre- and postsynaptic cell firing. Interestingly, certain properties of the back-propagating actions potentials differ from axonal or somatic action potentials in ways that seem to reflect their function. For example, the all-or-none property of action potential amplitude does not hold in the dendrites. In this review we discuss the back-propagating action potential as a dendritic signal that provides information to synapses about the firing state of the postsynaptic neuron. First, we consider the evidence that action potentials propagate back from the axon. Second, we describe the characteristics of the back-propagating action potential in terms of interactions of its underlying ionic currents. Third, we describe how these properties contribute to the timing aspects of the induction of long-term potentiation. Finally

  20. Effect of width, amplitude, and position of a core mantle boundary hot spot on core convection and dynamo action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dietrich, Wieland; Wicht, Johannes; Hori, Kumiko

    2015-12-01

    Within the fluid iron cores of terrestrial planets, convection and the resulting generation of global magnetic fields are controlled by the overlying rocky mantle. The thermal structure of the lower mantle determines how much heat is allowed to escape the core. Hot lower mantle features, such as the thermal footprint of a giant impact or hot mantle plumes, will locally reduce the heat flux through the core mantle boundary (CMB), thereby weakening core convection and affecting the magnetic field generation process. In this study, we numerically investigate how parametrised hot spots at the CMB with arbitrary sizes, amplitudes, and positions affect core convection and hence the dynamo. The effect of the heat flux anomaly is quantified by changes in global flow symmetry properties, such as the emergence of equatorial antisymmetric, axisymmetric (EAA) zonal flows. For purely hydrodynamic models, the EAA symmetry scales almost linearly with the CMB amplitude and size, whereas self-consistent dynamo simulations typically reveal either suppressed or drastically enhanced EAA symmetry depending mainly on the horizontal extent of the heat flux anomaly. Our results suggest that the length scale of the anomaly should be on the same order as the outer core radius to significantly affect flow and field symmetries. As an implication to Mars and in the range of our model, the study concludes that an ancient core field modified by a CMB heat flux anomaly is not able to heterogeneously magnetise the crust to the present-day level of north-south asymmetry on Mars. The resulting magnetic fields obtained using our model either are not asymmetric enough or, when they are asymmetric enough, show rapid polarity inversions, which are incompatible with thick unidirectional magnetisation.

  1. Information Encoding and Reconstruction from the Phase of Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Nadasdy, Zoltan

    2009-01-01

    Fundamental questions in neural coding are how neurons encode, transfer, and reconstruct information from the pattern of action potentials (APs) exchanged between different brain structures. We propose a general model of neural coding where neurons encode information by the phase of their APs relative to their subthreshold membrane oscillations. We demonstrate by means of simulations that AP phase retains the spatial and temporal content of the input under the assumption that the membrane potential oscillations are coherent across neurons and between structures and have a constant spatial phase gradient. The model explains many unresolved physiological observations and makes a number of concrete, testable predictions about the relationship between APs, local field potentials, and subthreshold membrane oscillations, and provides an estimate of the spatio-temporal precision of neuronal information processing. PMID:19668700

  2. Sural sensory nerve action potential: A study in healthy Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Aarthika; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A; Sharma, Alika; Balakrishnan, Lajita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is an important electrodiagnostic study for suspected peripheral neuropathies. Incorrect technique and unavailability of reference data can lead to erroneous conclusions. Objectives: To establish reference data for sural SNAP in age-stratified healthy subjects at three sites of stimulation. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 146 nerves from healthy subjects aged between 18 years and 90 years, stratified into six age groups (a = 18-30 years, b = 31–40 years, c = 41–50 years, d = 51–60 years, e = 61–70 years, and f >71 years). Sural SNAP was recorded antidromically, stimulating at three sites at distances of 14 cm, 12 cm, and 10 cm from the recording electrode. Mean – 2 standard deviation (SD) of the transformed data was used to generate reference values for amplitudes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for inter-group and between three sites comparisons of amplitudes. Results: The lower limits of amplitude at 14 cm were 12.4 μV, 10.4 μV, 6.5 μV, 5.3 μV, 2.9 μV, and 1.9 μV; at 12 cm were 13.5 μV, 13.6 μV, 8.5 μV, 7.8 μV, 3.5 μV, and 2.8 μV; and at 10 cm were 16.3 μV, 16.3 μV, 11.1 μV, 10.0 μV, 4.8 μV, and 3.7 μV for groups a, b, c, d, e, and f, respectively. A statistically significant difference in amplitudes was noted from the three different sites of stimulation (P < 0.001). The amplitude differed significantly above the age of 60 years (P < 0.01) but not between groups e and f (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study provides reference data for sural SNAP in Indian population at three different sites of stimulation along the calf in six age groups. It also shows significant variation in amplitude from the three different sites of stimulation. PMID:27570380

  3. Actions of the digitalis analogue strophanthidin on action potentials and L-type calcium current in single cells isolated from the rabbit atrioventricular node.

    PubMed Central

    Hancox, J. C.; Levi, A. J.

    1996-01-01

    1. The atrioventricular node (AVN) of the heart is vital to normal cardiac function and is a major site of antiarrhythmic drug action. This study describes the effects of the cardiac glycoside analogue strophanthidin on spontaneous action potentials and L-type calcium current recorded from single AVN cells isolated from the rabbit heart. 2. With a standard KCl-based internal dialysis solution, exposure to 50 microM strophanthidin produced a progressive depolarization of the maximum diastolic potential and a reduction in action potential amplitude and upstroke velocity. Sustained application resulted in the loss of action potentials and occurrence of spontaneous 'bell-shaped' depolarizations. 3. Cells were whole-cell voltage clamped at -40 mV and depolarizing voltage clamps applied. With a standard KCl-based internal dialysis solution, exposure to 50 microM strophanthidin caused a large reduction of ICa,L at all potentials between -30 and +40 mV (n = 4). At + 10 mV, the mean ICa,L amplitude was reduced from -232 +/- 65 pA to -48 +/- 26 pA (P < 0.05; 1 test; n = 5 cells). 4. To record ICa,L more selectively, cells were dialysed with a Cs-based pipette solution. A short strophanthidin exposure reduced ICa,L amplitude from -250 +/- 31 pA to -88 +/- 19 pA (P < 0.001; n = 8 cells). For both KCl and CsCl-based solutions it was observed that sustained exposure to strophanthidin for several minutes caused spontaneous inward fluctuations in the membrane current record similar to the 'ITI' (arrhythmogenic oscillatory transient inward) current shown for other cardiac cells. 5. When the calcium chelator BAPTA was added to the pipette solution (10 mM), the reduction in ICa,L by strophanthidin was largely eliminated (P > 0.1), and no spontaneous inward current fluctuations were observed after sustained exposure to strophanthidin (n = 8 cells). 6. When external Ca in the perfusate was replaced with Ba, strophanthidin did not significantly reduce the Ba current through L

  4. Characterization of action potential-evoked calcium transients in mouse postganglionic sympathetic axon bundles.

    PubMed

    Jackson, V M; Trout, S J; Brain, K L; Cunnane, T C

    2001-11-15

    1. Action potential-evoked Ca(2+) transients in postganglionic sympathetic axon bundles in mouse vas deferens have been characterized using confocal microscopy and Ca(2+) imaging. 2. Axonal Ca(2+) transients were tetrodotoxin sensitive. The amplitude depended on both the frequency of stimulation and the number of stimuli in a train. 3. Removal of extracellular Ca(2+) abolished the Ca(2+) transient. Cd(2+)(100 microM) inhibited the Ca(2+) transient by 78 +/- 10 %. The N-type Ca(2+) channel blocker omega-conotoxin GVIA (0.1 microM) reduced the amplitude by -35 +/-4 %, whereas nifedipine (10 microM; L-type) and omega-conotoxin MVIIC (0.1 microM; P/Q type) were ineffective. 4. Caffeine (10 mM), ryanodine (10 microM), cyclopiazonic acid (30 microM) or CCCP (10 microM) had no detectable effects. 5. Blockade of large and small conductance Ca(2+)-dependent K+ channels with iberiotoxin (0.1 microM) and apamin (1 microM), respectively, or Ca(2+)-dependent Cl(-) channels by niflumic acid (100 microM) did not alter Ca(2+) transients. 6. In contrast, the non-specific K+ channel blockers tetraethylammonium (10 mM) and 4-aminopyridine (10 mM) markedly increased the amplitude of the Ca(2+) transient. Blockade of delayed rectifiers and A-like K+ channels, by tityustoxin-K (alpha) (0.1 microM) and pandinustoxin-K (alpha) (10 nM), respectively, also increased the Ca(2+) transient amplitude. 7. Thus, Ca(2+) transients are evoked by Na(+)-dependent action potentials in axons. These transients originate mainly from Ca(2+) entry through voltage-dependent Ca(2+) channels (80 % Cd(2+) sensitive of which 40 % was attributable to N-type). Twenty per cent of the Ca(2+) transient was not due to Ca(2+) entry through voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels. Intracellular stores and mitochondria were not involved in the generation of the transient. Ca(2+) transients are modulated by A-like K+ channels and delayed rectifiers (possibly K(V)1.2) but not by Ca(2+)-activated ion channels.

  5. Antiarrhythmic action of beta-blockers: potential mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Dorian, Paul

    2005-06-01

    Sympathetic nervous system overactivity has been linked to ventricular tachyarrhythmias and sudden death. It has been hypothesized that the extent and nature of the arrhythmogenic effect of sympathetic stimulation depends on the underlying myocardial substrate, the mechanism of the arrhythmia, and the integrated effects of sympathetic stimulation in the particular individual circumstance. Multiple direct and indirect mechanisms of adrenergic action on the heart may benefit from the known antiarrhythmic actions of beta-blocker therapy and other interventions that decrease sympathetic tone. The antiarrhythmic mechanism of beta-blockade (and possibly alpha-blockade) will depend on the specific mechanism of the individual arrhythmia and will differ for those arrhythmias caused by tachycardia and ischemia, those caused by reentry and promoted by decreased conduction velocity and shortened refractoriness, and those caused by early or delayed afterdepolarizations, usually in the context of prolonged action potential duration. Antagonism of cardiac adrenergic activity by beta-blockade in particular is the best-established drug therapy to prevent ventricular arrhythmias.

  6. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  7. Influence of the Dirac-Hartree-Fock starting potential on the parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes in cesium and thallium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perger, W. F.; Das, B. P.

    1987-01-01

    The parity-nonconserving electric-dipole-transition amplitudes for the 6s1/2-7s1/2 transition in cesium and the 6p1/2-7p1/2 transition in thallium have been calculated by the Dirac-Hartree-Fock method. The effects of using different Dirac-Hartree-Fock atomic core potentials are examined and the transition amplitudes for both the length and velocity gauges are given. It is found that the parity-nonconserving transition amplitudes exhibit a greater dependence on the starting potential for thallium than for cesium.

  8. Repolarization of the presynaptic action potential and short-term synaptic plasticity in the chick ciliary ganglion.

    PubMed

    Poage, Robert E; Zengel, Janet E

    2002-12-01

    Stimulation-induced increases in synaptic efficacy have been described as being composed of multiple independent processes that arise from the activation of distinct mechanisms at the presynaptic terminal. In the chick ciliary ganglion, four components of short-term synaptic plasticity have been described: F1 and F2 components of facilitation, augmentation, and potentiation. In the present study, intracellular recording from the presynaptic calyciform nerve terminal of the chick ciliary ganglion revealed that the late repolarization and afterhypolarization (AHP) phases of the presynaptic action potential are affected by repetitive stimulation and that the time course of these effects parallel that of facilitation. The effects of these changes in the presynaptic action potential time course on calcium influx were tested by using the recorded action potential waveforms as voltage command stimuli during whole-cell patch-clamp recordings from acutely isolated chick ciliary ganglion neurons. The "facilitated" action potential waveform (slowed repolarization, decreased AHP amplitude) evoked calcium current with slightly but significantly greater total calcium influx. Taken together, these results are consistent with the hypothesis that activity-dependent changes in the presynaptic action potential are one of several mechanisms contributing to the facilitation phase of stimulation-induced increases in transmitter release in this preparation. Copyright 2002 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  9. Electrophysiological aspects of sensory conduction velocity in healthy adults. 2. Ratio between the amplitude of sensory evoked potentials at the wrist on stimulating different fingers in both hands.

    PubMed Central

    Cruz Martínez, A; Barrio, M; Pérez Conde, M C; Ferrer, M T

    1978-01-01

    The normal ratio between the amplitude of the sensory evoked potential (SEP) at the wrist on stimulating digits 1, 2, 3, and 5 was determined in 44 healthy adult subjects. The first digit had the larger amplitude, and the fifth digit the smallest SEP. The amplitude expresses the density of sensory innervation in each finger. The ratio between the amplitude of different fingers varied according to the age of the subject. The amplitude of the SEP from a digit innervated by the median nerve decreased in the elderly more than the SEP amplitude of the digit innervated by the ulnar nerve, probably because of a chronic compression in the carpal tunnel. The changes in the normal amplitude ratio can be applied to the topographic diagnosis of radicular and brachial plexus lesions if a fixed segmental sensory innervation of the hand is accepted. In 44 right handed subjects the amplitude of the sensory evoked potentials at the wrist was significantly larger in the left hand. This asymmetry of sensory innervation between hands could be physiological, and suggests a greater density of sensory innervation in the left hand of right handed subjects. PMID:731255

  10. Electrophysiological aspects of sensory conduction velocity in healthy adults. 2. Ratio between the amplitude of sensory evoked potentials at the wrist on stimulating different fingers in both hands.

    PubMed

    Cruz Martínez, A; Barrio, M; Pérez Conde, M C; Ferrer, M T

    1978-12-01

    The normal ratio between the amplitude of the sensory evoked potential (SEP) at the wrist on stimulating digits 1, 2, 3, and 5 was determined in 44 healthy adult subjects. The first digit had the larger amplitude, and the fifth digit the smallest SEP. The amplitude expresses the density of sensory innervation in each finger. The ratio between the amplitude of different fingers varied according to the age of the subject. The amplitude of the SEP from a digit innervated by the median nerve decreased in the elderly more than the SEP amplitude of the digit innervated by the ulnar nerve, probably because of a chronic compression in the carpal tunnel. The changes in the normal amplitude ratio can be applied to the topographic diagnosis of radicular and brachial plexus lesions if a fixed segmental sensory innervation of the hand is accepted. In 44 right handed subjects the amplitude of the sensory evoked potentials at the wrist was significantly larger in the left hand. This asymmetry of sensory innervation between hands could be physiological, and suggests a greater density of sensory innervation in the left hand of right handed subjects.

  11. Suppression of the cardiac electric field artifact from the heart action evoked potential.

    PubMed

    Pérez, J J; Guijarro, E; Barcia, J A

    2005-09-01

    The study of heart action-related brain potentials is strongly disrupted by the presence of an inherent cardiac electric artifact. The hypothesis is presented that most of the electric current coupled to the cardiac field surrounds the skull and flows through the scalp tissue without crossing the cranial cavity. This pseudo two-dimensional conduction model contrasts with the volumetric conduction of the brain electrical activity, and this property is exploited to cancel the cardiac electric artifact. QRS loop vector-cardiographic projections on saggital planes were recorded in 11 healthy subjects in the head and neck areas. Comparative analysis of the projection eccentricities, estimated by the correlation coefficients of the paired data on each area, supported the hypothesis and allowed the handling of the cardiac electric field at the scalp as if enclosed in a two-dimensional wrapped space. This approach permitted the combination of different heart action-related brain potentials recorded at different electrode positions to cancel the cardiac electric artifact. The cancellation method, applied to the subjects' EEG data, yielded a slow cortical potential with a negligible cardiac electric residue and an amplitude of about 1.5-2 microV, with a maximum around 150 ms and a minimum at 400 ms post-R wave.

  12. Stretch-induced excitation and action potential changes of single cardiac cells.

    PubMed

    Riemer, Tara L; Tung, Leslie

    2003-01-01

    Mechanoelectric coupling (MEC) has been studied extensively in the heart at the tissue and organ levels, but to only a limited extent in single cells because of the technical challenges. New results are presented in which MEC was studied in 57 single frog ventricular myocytes that were held on both ends by glass holding pipettes. Axial stretch was applied either by displacement of the pipettes, or by a glass fiber around which the cell was wrapped, that was displaced in a pulsatile or sinusoidal fashion. Electrical activity of the cell was monitored either by active contraction, by intracellular action potentials, or by focal extracellular potentials. Of more than 350 stretches applied to 57 cells with amplitudes ranging from 3% to 35%, only 4 cases of mechanically induced stimulation were observed. In 252 stretches applied to 32 cells in which action potential duration (APD) was measured, no change >20% was observed, except in 3 cells in which APD increased by >100%, and in 2 cells with extended triggered activity. Thus, in contrast to studies in intact tissue, single frog ventricular myocytes are generally insensitive to direct axial stretch. However, robust mechanosensitive responses were observed in 7 of 57 ( approximately 12%) cells. The results of other single cell studies are reviewed, and the significance of differences in tissue-level and single cell results is discussed.

  13. Uncertainty Propagation in Nerve Impulses Through the Action Potential Mechanism.

    PubMed

    Torres Valderrama, Aldemar; Witteveen, Jeroen; Navarro, Maria; Blom, Joke

    2015-12-01

    We investigate the propagation of probabilistic uncertainty through the action potential mechanism in nerve cells. Using the Hodgkin-Huxley (H-H) model and Stochastic Collocation on Sparse Grids, we obtain an accurate probabilistic interpretation of the deterministic dynamics of the transmembrane potential and gating variables. Using Sobol indices, out of the 11 uncertain parameters in the H-H model, we unravel two main uncertainty sources, which account for more than 90 % of the fluctuations in neuronal responses, and have a direct biophysical interpretation. We discuss how this interesting feature of the H-H model allows one to reduce greatly the probabilistic degrees of freedom in uncertainty quantification analyses, saving CPU time in numerical simulations and opening possibilities for probabilistic generalisation of other deterministic models of great importance in physiology and mathematical neuroscience.

  14. Flexible graphene transistors for recording cell action potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaschke, Benno M.; Lottner, Martin; Drieschner, Simon; Bonaccini Calia, Andrea; Stoiber, Karolina; Rousseau, Lionel; Lissourges, Gaëlle; Garrido, Jose A.

    2016-06-01

    Graphene solution-gated field-effect transistors (SGFETs) are a promising platform for the recording of cell action potentials due to the intrinsic high signal amplification of graphene transistors. In addition, graphene technology fulfills important key requirements for in-vivo applications, such as biocompability, mechanical flexibility, as well as ease of high density integration. In this paper we demonstrate the fabrication of flexible arrays of graphene SGFETs on polyimide, a biocompatible polymeric substrate. We investigate the transistor’s transconductance and intrinsic electronic noise which are key parameters for the device sensitivity, confirming that the obtained values are comparable to those of rigid graphene SGFETs. Furthermore, we show that the devices do not degrade during repeated bending and the transconductance, governed by the electronic properties of graphene, is unaffected by bending. After cell culture, we demonstrate the recording of cell action potentials from cardiomyocyte-like cells with a high signal-to-noise ratio that is higher or comparable to competing state of the art technologies. Our results highlight the great capabilities of flexible graphene SGFETs in bioelectronics, providing a solid foundation for in-vivo experiments and, eventually, for graphene-based neuroprosthetics.

  15. Determinants of action potential propagation in cerebellar Purkinje cell axons.

    PubMed

    Monsivais, Pablo; Clark, Beverley A; Roth, Arnd; Häusser, Michael

    2005-01-12

    Axons have traditionally been viewed as highly faithful transmitters of action potentials. Recently, however, experimental evidence has accumulated to support the idea that under some circumstances axonal propagation may fail. Cerebellar Purkinje neurons fire highfrequency simple spikes, as well as bursts of spikes in response to climbing fiber activation (the "complex spike"). Here we have visualized the axon of individual Purkinje cells to directly investigate the relationship between somatic spikes and axonal spikes using simultaneous somatic whole-cell and cell-attached axonal patch-clamp recordings at 200-800 microm from the soma. We demonstrate that sodium action potentials propagate at frequencies up to approximately 260 Hz, higher than simple spike rates normally observed in vivo. Complex spikes, however, did not propagate reliably, with usually only the first and last spikes in the complex spike waveform being propagated. On average, only 1.7 +/- 0.2 spikes in the complex spike were propagated during resting firing, with propagation limited to interspike intervals above approximately 4 msec. Hyperpolarization improved propagation efficacy without affecting total axonal spike number, whereas strong depolarization could abolish propagation of the complex spike. These findings indicate that the complex spike waveform is not faithfully transmitted to downstream synapses and that propagation of the climbing fiber response may be modulated by background activity.

  16. A web portal for in-silico action potential predictions

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Geoff; Mirams, Gary R.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Multiple cardiac ion channels are prone to block by pharmaceutical compounds, and this can have large implications for cardiac safety. The effect of a compound on individual ion currents can now be measured in automated patch clamp screening assays. In-silico action potential models are proposed as one way of predicting the integrated compound effects on whole-cell electrophysiology, to provide an improved indication of pro-arrhythmic risk. Methods We have developed open source software to run cardiac electrophysiology simulations to predict the overall effect of compounds that block IKr, ICaL, INa, IKs, IK1 and Ito to varying degrees, using a choice of mathematical electrophysiology models. To enable safety pharmacology teams to run and evaluate these simulations easily, we have also developed an open source web portal interface to this simulator. Results The web portal can be found at https://chaste.cs.ox.ac.uk/ActionPotential. Users can enter details of compound affinities for ion channels in the form of IC50 or pIC50 values, run simulations, store the results for later retrieval, view summary graphs of the results, and export data to a spreadsheet format. Discussion This web portal provides a simple interface to reference versions of mathematical models, and well-tested state-of-the-art equation solvers. It provides safety teams easy access to the emerging technology of cardiac electrophysiology simulations for use in the drug-discovery process. PMID:25963830

  17. [Effects of nicorandil on spontaneous beating and action potentials of cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats].

    PubMed

    Wang, H X; Wang, W X

    1995-09-01

    To study the anti-arrhythmic mechanism of nicorandil (Nic). The myocardial cells of neonatal rats were cultured and effects of Nic on spontaneous beating and action potential of cultured myocardial cells were observed. Nic 32 mumol L-1 and 160 mumol L-1 decreased the spontaneous beating rates of cultured myocardial cells of neonatal rats. Nic 64 mumol L-1 prevented the beating rats induced by CaCl2 1 mmol L-1 and isoproterenol 2 mumol L-1. Nic 32 and 160 mumol L-1 reduced the amplitude, maximal rate of rise, and shortened APD50 and APD90 repolarization. Nic prolonged the spontaneous sinus cycle length. The antiarrhythmic mechanism of Nic is related to its direct effects on the myocardial cells.

  18. [Action potentials of the fast and slow muscle fibers of the bog turtle Emys orbicularis].

    PubMed

    Lebedinskaia, I I; Nasledov, G A

    1977-01-01

    In skeletal muscles of the tortoise E. orbicularis, fast and slow muscle fibers were found which differ in the lipid content and electrophysiological properties. Fast fibers contain small amounts of lipid inclusions. In response to direct electrical stimulation they produce fast action potentials (AP) which are capable of rhythmic activity during prolonged depolarization. Slow fibers are rich in lipid inclusions. Their AP differs from that of fast fibers by slow onset, and decay, lower gradient of rise, lower amplitude and lower velocity of propagation. These fibers are not capable of rhythmic activity. The data obtained show that with respect to their morphological and physiological properties slow muscle fibers of the tortoise differ from tonic amphibian fibers, but exhibit the most similarity to slow avian fibers.

  19. Dissociation of action potentials from contraction in single crab muscle fibers.

    PubMed

    Suarez-Kurtz, G; Sorenson, A L

    1979-06-01

    In single crab fibers (Callinectes danae) bathed in Ca2+-free media, Ba2+ action potentials did not elicit tension. In contrast, Sr2+ spikes evoked twitches similar in amplitude to those accompanying the control Ca2+ spikes. Tension development in these fibers, therefore, depends on the ionic species carrying the inward current during membrane excitation. The Ca2" or Sr2+ influx appears insufficient to evoke the observed twitch tensions, and it seems necessary to postulate mobilization of an intracellular source of Ca1+. Procaine, which suppresses release of Ca2+ from sarcoplasmic reticulum, depressed twitch tension but did not reduce the overshoot or duration of Ca2+ or Sr2+ spikes. This finding is compatible with the suggestion that the contractions results from release of Ca2+ from the sarcoplasmic reticulum initiated by signals given by the influx of Ca2+ or Sr2+, but not Ba2+.

  20. Contribution of I Kr and I K1 to ventricular repolarization in canine and human myocytes: is there any influence of action potential duration?

    PubMed

    Jost, Norbert; Acsai, Károly; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Baczkó, István; Bitay, Miklós; Bogáts, Gábor; Nánási, Péter P

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the profile of the rapid delayed rectifier potassium current (I (Kr)) and the inward rectifier potassium current (I (K1)) during ventricular repolarization as a function of action potential duration and rate of repolarization. Whole cell configuration of the patch clamp technique was used to monitor I (Kr) and I (K1) during the action potential plateau and terminal repolarization. Action potentials recorded at various cycle lengths (0.4-5 s) and repolarizing voltage ramps having various slopes (0.5-3 V/s) were used as command signals. I (Kr) and I (K1) were identified as difference currents dissected by E-4031 and BaCl(2), respectively. Neither peak amplitudes nor mean values of I (Kr) and I (K1) recorded during the plateau of canine action potentials were influenced by action potential duration. The membrane potential where I (Kr) and I (K1) peaked during the terminal repolarization was also independent of action potential duration. Similar results were obtained in undiseased human ventricular myocytes, and also in canine cells when I (Kr) and I (K1) were evoked using repolarizing voltage ramps of various slopes. Action potential voltage clamp experiments revealed that the peak values of I (Kr), I (K1), and net outward current during the terminal repolarization were independent of the pacing cycle length within the range of 0.4 and 5 s. The results indicate that action potential configuration fails to influence the amplitude of I (Kr) and I (K1) during the ventricular action potential in dogs and humans, suggesting that rate-dependent changes in action potential duration are not likely related to rate-dependent alterations in I (Kr) or I (K1) kinetics in these species.

  1. Regional variations in action potential alternans in isolated murine Scn5a (+/-) hearts during dynamic pacing.

    PubMed

    Matthews, G D K; Martin, C A; Grace, A A; Zhang, Y; Huang, C L-H

    2010-10-01

    clinical observations suggest that alternans in action potential (AP) characteristics presages breakdown of normal ordered cardiac electrical activity culminating in ventricular arrhythmogenesis. We compared such temporal nonuniformities in monophasic action potential (MAP) waveforms in left (LV) and right ventricular (RV) epicardia and endocardia of Langendorff-perfused murine wild-type (WT), and Scn5a(+/-) hearts modelling Brugada syndrome (BrS) for the first time. a dynamic pacing protocol imposed successively incremented steady pacing rates between 5.5 and 33 Hz. A signal analysis algorithm detected sequences of >10 beats showing alternans. Results were compared before and following the introduction of flecainide (10 microm) and quinidine (5 microm) known to exert pro- and anti-arrhythmic effects in BrS. sustained and transient amplitude and duration alternans were both frequently followed by ventricular ectopic beats and ventricular tachycardia or fibrillation. Diastolic intervals (DIs) that coincided with onsets of transient (tr) or sustained (ss) alternans in MAP duration (DI*) and amplitude (DI') were determined. Kruskal-Wallis tests followed by Bonferroni-corrected Mann-Whitney U-tests were applied to these DI results sorted by recording site, pharmacological conditions or experimental populations. WT hearts showed no significant heterogeneities in any DI. Untreated Scn5a (+/-) hearts showed earlier onsets of transient but not sustained duration alternans in LV endocardium compared with RV endocardium or LV epicardium. Flecainide administration caused earlier onsets of both transient and sustained duration alternans selectively in the RV epicardium in the Scn5a (+/-) hearts. these findings in a genetic model thus implicate RV epicardial changes in the arrhythmogenicity produced by flecainide challenge in previously asymptomatic clinical BrS.

  2. In-vitro characterization of a cochlear implant system for recording of evoked compound action potentials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern cochlear implants have integrated recording systems for measuring electrically evoked compound action potentials of the auditory nerve. The characterization of such recording systems is important for establishing a reliable basis for the interpretation of signals acquired in vivo. In this study we investigated the characteristics of the recording system integrated into the MED-EL PULSARCI100 cochlear implant, especially its linearity and resolution, in order to develop a mathematical model describing the recording system. Methods In-vitro setup: The cochlear implant, including all attached electrodes, was fixed in a tank of physiologic saline solution. Sinusoidal signals of the same frequency but with different amplitudes were delivered via a signal generator for measuring and recording on a single electrode. Computer simulations: A basic mathematical model including the main elements of the recording system, i.e. amplification and digitalization stage, was developed. For this, digital output for sinusoidal input signals of different amplitudes were calculated using in-vitro recordings as reference. Results Using an averaging of 100 measurements the recording system behaved linearly down to approximately -60 dB of the input signal range. Using the same method, a system resolution of 10 μV was determined for sinusoidal signals. The simulation results were in very good agreement with the results obtained from in-vitro experiments. Conclusions The recording system implemented in the MED-EL PULSARCI100 cochlear implant for measuring the evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve operates reliably. The developed mathematical model provides a good approximation of the recording system. PMID:22531599

  3. Analysis of components of compound action potentials in response to infrared laser light (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuo, Junqi; Lothet, Emilie H.; Jansen, E. Duco; Horn, Charles C.; Chiel, Hillel J.; Jenkins, Michael W.

    2017-02-01

    Many techniques may modulate peripheral nerve activity. Infrared light (IR) can excite or inhibit nerves. Compound action potentials (CAPs) are often measured as an endpoint, focusing on complete block, or overall amplitude reduction. To our knowledge, no standard techniques determine whether CAP sub-components have been modulated. Treatments may alter timing of CAP components as well as blocking them. How can these be distinguished? We developed a numerical simulation in which extracellularly recorded action potentials were summed, assuming a Gaussian distribution for their onset time. Onset time for sub-populations was delayed (shifting), or amplitudes were reduced to zero (blocking). We demonstrated that area under the rectified curve, divided by the entire duration of the CAP, provided a more stable measure of change than other options (e.g., power). Regions must be selected such that the CAP's individual components do not shift out of the analysis window. The largest reductions in area under the curve due to shifts were 55% due to destructive interference, which is likely to be much larger than typically observed experimentally. In contrast, blocking components could reduce the area under the curve to zero. The analysis was applied to sequential nerve stimulations. At every point, variance of the normalized area was computed. Choosing regions of lowest variance across stimulations defined an objective criterion for boundaries between CAP subcomponents. Analysis was applied to IR effects on CAPs recorded in the pleural-abdominal connective of Aplysia californica and musk shrew vagus. Slower conducting CAP subcomponents were selectively blocked before faster subcomponents.

  4. Effects of rosiglitazone on the configuration of action potentials and ion currents in canine ventricular cells

    PubMed Central

    Szentandrássy, N; Harmati, G; Bárándi, L; Simkó, J; Horváth, B; Magyar, J; Bányász, T; Lőrincz, I; Szebeni, A; Kecskeméti, V; Nánási, PP

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE In spite of its widespread clinical application, there is little information on the cellular cardiac effects of the antidiabetic drug rosiglitazone in larger experimental animals. In the present study therefore concentration-dependent effects of rosiglitazone on action potential morphology and the underlying ion currents were studied in dog hearts. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Standard microelectrode techniques, conventional whole cell patch clamp and action potential voltage clamp techniques were applied in enzymatically dispersed ventricular cells from dog hearts. KEY RESULTS At concentrations ≥10 µM rosiglitazone decreased the amplitude of phase-1 repolarization, reduced the maximum velocity of depolarization and caused depression of the plateau potential. These effects developed rapidly and were readily reversible upon washout. Rosiglitazone suppressed several transmembrane ion currents, concentration-dependently, under conventional voltage clamp conditions and altered their kinetic properties. The EC50 value for this inhibition was 25.2 ± 2.7 µM for the transient outward K+ current (Ito), 72.3 ± 9.3 µM for the rapid delayed rectifier K+ current (IKr) and 82.5 ± 9.4 µM for the L-type Ca2+ current (ICa) with Hill coefficients close to unity. The inward rectifier K+ current (IK1) was not affected by rosiglitazone up to concentrations of 100 µM. Suppression of Ito, IKr, and ICa was confirmed also under action potential voltage clamp conditions. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Alterations in the densities and kinetic properties of ion currents may carry serious pro-arrhythmic risk in case of overdose with rosiglitazone, especially in patients having multiple cardiovascular risk factors, like elderly diabetic patients. LINKED ARTICLE This article is commented on by Hancox, pp. 496–498 of this issue. To view this commentary visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2011.01281.x PMID:21232044

  5. Effect of chloramine-T and N-bromsuccinimide on intracellular and extracellular action potentials from unmyelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Radicheva, N I; Kolev, V B

    1990-01-01

    The change in intracellular (ICAPs) and extracellular (ECAPs) potentials of unmyelinated axons of Lumbricus terrestris under the effect of Chloramine-T (CT) and N-Bromsuccinimide (NBS), applied extracellularly, is studied. Delay of the repolarization phase of ICAPs was found under the effect of NBS, as well as slight decrease of the amplitude of ICAPs and ECAPs, with an insignificant decrease in the propagation velocity of the excitation. The first (V') and second (V") time derivatives and the total ionic current (Ii) are calculated from the intracellular action potential in norm and under the effect of NBS. A delay of the inactivation phase of the inward sodium current and a decrease of the amplitude of the total ionic current, calculated from ICAP, were found. Under the effect of CT there was a decrease in the amplitude of the action potentials, without a delay in the repolarization phase and the propagation velocity of the excitation decreases. CT leads to lasting inhibition of the excitability of the axon under prolonged impact (20 min).

  6. Bepridil blockade of Ca2+-dependent action potentials in vascular smooth muscle of dog coronary artery.

    PubMed

    Harder, D R; Sperelakis, N

    1981-01-01

    The effect of the new vasodilatory and antianginal compound, bepridil (CERM-1978), was examined on the electrical activity of the vascular smooth muscle of isolated dog coronary arteries. Tetraethylammonium (10 mM) was used to induce excitability in the muscle in the form of Ca2+-dependent overshooting action potentials, whose inward current is carried almost exclusively by Ca2+ ion through voltage-dependent slow channels. Bepridil (5 X 10(-7)--1 X 10(--5) M) produced a dose-dependent depression of the rate of rise and amplitude of these Ca2+ spikes. Complete blockade of the action potentials occurred at 1 X 10(-5) M bepridil. These effects of bepridil were antagonized by elevation of external Ca2+ concentration ([CA]o). The effects of bepridil were substantially reversed by washout after about 30 min. Bepridil (10(-5) M) also produced a small but significant (p less than 0.05) increase in resting membrane resistance (input resistance increased from a mean of 10.1 to 12.4 m omega), accompanied by a small but significant (p less than 0.05) depolarization of 6 mV (from a mean of --51 to --45 mV). These latter effects are consistent with a diminution of the resting K+ conductance (gK) by bepridil. It is concluded that the vasodilatory and antianginal properties of bepridil may be explained by the action of this drug in depressing and blocking the Ca2+ influx into the cells, presumably by acting directly on the voltage-dependent slow channels in the cell membrane, and thereby lowering [Ca]i and thus the degree of contraction. Bepridil has Ca2+-antagonistic (or Ca2+ entry blocking or slow channel blocking) properties much like verapamil, but it is somewhat less potent than verapamil in this action (i.e., complete blockade occurred at 10(-5) M bepridil vs. 2 X 10(-6) M verapamil).

  7. Inhibition by capsaicin and its related vanilloids of compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves.

    PubMed

    Tomohiro, Daisuke; Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi; Nishikubo, Yukiko; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2013-03-14

    Although capsaicin not only activates transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 (TRPV1) channels but also inhibits nerve conduction, the latter action has not yet been fully examined. The purpose of the present study was to know whether various vanilloids have an inhibitory action similar to that of capsaicin and further to compare their actions with that of local anesthetic procaine. Fast-conducting compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from frog sciatic nerve fibers by using the air-gap method. Capsaicin reversibly and concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP. TRPV1 antagonist capsazepine did not affect the capsaicin activity, and powerful TRPV1 agonist resiniferatoxin had no effect on CAPs, indicating no involvement of TRPV1 channels. Capsaicin analogs and other various vanilloids also inhibited CAPs in a concentration-dependent manner. An efficacy sequence of these inhibitions was capsaicin=dihydrocapsaicin>capsiate>eugenol>guaiacol≥zingerone≥vanillin>vanillylamine. Vanillic acid had almost no effect on CAPs; olvanil and curcumin appeared to be effective less than capsaicin. Capsaicin and eugenol were, respectively, ten- and two-fold effective more than procaine in CAP inhibition, while each of guaiacol, zingerone and vanillin was five-fold effective less than procaine. Various vanilloids exhibit CAP inhibition, the extent of which is determined by the property of the side chain bound to the vanillyl group, and some of them are more effective than procaine. These results may serve to unveil molecular mechanisms for capsaicin-induced conduction block and to develop antinociceptive drugs related to capsaicin. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. The Potential of Deweyan-Inspired Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jody L.

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…

  9. The Potential of Deweyan-Inspired Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stark, Jody L.

    2014-01-01

    In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…

  10. High concentrations of dexmedetomidine inhibit compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves without α2 adrenoceptor activation

    PubMed Central

    Kosugi, Toshifumi; Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi; Nakashima, Mikio; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Dexmedetomidine, an α2-adrenoceptor agonist, exhibits anti-nociceptive actions at the spinal cord and enhances the effect of local anaesthetics in the peripheral nervous system. Although the latter action may be attributed in part to inhibition of nerve conduction produced by dexmedetomidine, this has not been fully examined yet. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We examined the effects of various adrenoceptor agonists including dexmedetomidine, and tetracaine, a local anaesthetic, on compound action potentials (CAPs) recorded from the frog sciatic nerve, using the air-gap method. KEY RESULTS Dexmedetomidine reversibly and concentration-dependently reduced the peak amplitude of CAPs (IC50 = 0.40 mmol·L−1). This action was not antagonized by two α2-adrenoceptor antagonists, yohimbine and atipamezole; the latter antagonist itself reduced CAP peak amplitude. Clonidine and oxymetazoline, two other α2-adrenoceptor agonists, also inhibited CAPs; the maximum effect of clonidine was only 20%, while oxymetazoline was less potent (IC50 = 1.5 mmol·L−1) than dexmedetomidine. On the other hand, (±)-adrenaline, (±)-noradrenaline, α1-adrenoceptor agonist (-)-phenylephrine and β-adrenoceptor agonist (-)-isoprenaline (each 1 mmol·L−1) had no effect on CAPs. Tetracaine reversibly reduced CAP peak amplitude (IC50 of 0.014 mmol·L−1). CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Dexmedetomidine reduced CAP peak amplitude without α2-adrenoceptor activation (at concentrations >1000-fold higher than those used as α2 adrenoceptor agonist), with a lower potency than tetracaine. CAPs were inhibited by other α2 adrenoceptor agonists, oxymetazoline and clonidine, and also an α2 adrenoceptor antagonist atipamezole. Thus, some drugs acting on α2 adrenoceptors are able to block nerve conduction. PMID:20649570

  11. Cardiac dynamics: a simplified model for action potential propagation

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    This paper analyzes a new semiphysiological ionic model, used recently to study reexitations and reentry in cardiac tissue [I.R. Cantalapiedra et al, PRE 82 011907 (2010)]. The aim of the model is to reproduce action potencial morphologies and restitution curves obtained, either from experimental data, or from more complex electrophysiological models. The model divides all ion currents into four groups according to their function, thus resulting into fast-slow and inward-outward currents. We show that this simplified model is flexible enough as to accurately capture the electrical properties of cardiac myocytes, having the advantage of being less computational demanding than detailed electrophysiological models. Under some conditions, it has been shown to be amenable to mathematical analysis. The model reproduces the action potential (AP) change with stimulation rate observed both experimentally and in realistic models of healthy human and guinea pig myocytes (TNNP and LRd models, respectively). When simulated in a cable it also gives the right dependence of the conduction velocity (CV) with stimulation rate. Besides reproducing correctly these restitution properties, it also gives a good fit for the morphology of the AP, including the notch typical of phase 1. Finally, we perform simulations in a realistic geometric model of the rabbit’s ventricles, finding a good qualitative agreement in AP propagation and the ECG. Thus, this simplified model represents an alternative to more complex models when studying instabilities in wave propagation. PMID:23194429

  12. Atrial cell action potential parameter fitting using genetic algorithms.

    PubMed

    Syed, Z; Vigmond, E; Nattel, S; Leon, L J

    2005-09-01

    Understanding of the considerable variation in action potential (AP) shape throughout the heart is necessary to explain normal and pathological cardiac function. Existing mathematical models reproduce typical APs, but not all measured APs, as fitting the sets of non-linear equations is a tedious process. The study describes the integration of a pre-existing mathematical model of an atrial cell AP with a genetic algorithm to provide an automated tool to generate APs for arbitrary cells by fitting ionic channel conductances. Using the Nygren model as the base, the technique was first verified by starting with random values and fitting the Nygren model to itself with an error of only 0.03%. The Courtemanche model, which has a different morphology from that of the Nygren model, was successfully fitted. The AP duration restitution curve generated by the fit matched that of the target model very well. Finally, experimentally recorded APs were reproduced. To match AP duration restitution behaviour properly, it was necessary simultaneously to fit over several stimulation frequencies. Also, fitting of the upstroke was better if the stimulating current pulse replicated that found in situ as opposed to a rectangular pulse. In conclusion, the modelled parameters were successfully able to reproduce any given atrial AP. This tool can be useful for determining parameters in new AP models, reproducing specific APs, as well as determining the locus of drug action by examining changes in conductance values.

  13. The use of sensory action potential to evaluate inferior alveolar nerve damage after orthognathic surgery.

    PubMed

    Calabria, Francesca; Sellek, Lucy; Gugole, Fabio; Trevisiol, Lorenzo; Trevisol, Lorenzo; Bertolasi, Laura; D'Agostino, Antonio

    2013-03-01

    To assess and monitor the common event of neurosensory disturbance to the inferior alveolar nerve (IAN) after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy, we used clinical sensory tests and neurophysiologic test sensory action potentials. The diagnostic value of these tests was evaluated by comparing them with the degree of nerve damage reported by patients. Fourteen patients undergoing bilateral sagittal split osteotomy were analyzed preoperatively and 2 years postoperatively. Patients were evaluated bilaterally for positive and negative symptoms: light touch sensation, paraesthesia, hyperesthesia, and dysaesthesia; a "sensation score" was then calculated for each patient. Patients were also asked if they would be willing to repeat the procedure knowing the sensation loss they had now. Next, the right and left IAN were evaluated using sensory action potential and correlated with the other results. Before surgery, the medium latency difference between left and right was lower compared with postsurgery, with all patients having some deficit. The reduction in medium amplitude of 67% after the intervention was statistically significant. The frequency of abnormal findings in the electrophysiologic tests indicating IAN injury correlated with subjective sensory alteration. All patients said that they would repeat the surgery. Electrophysiologic testing is recommended for the evaluation of nerve dysfunction and seems a sensitive method for accurately assessing postsurgical nerve conduction.

  14. Action-potential-independent GABAergic tone mediated by nicotinic stimulation of immature striatal miniature synaptic transmission.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhi; Otsu, Yo; Vasuta, Cristina; Nawa, Hiroyuki; Murphy, Timothy H

    2007-08-01

    Stimulation of presynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) increases the frequency of miniature excitatory synaptic activity (mEPSCs) to a point where they can promote cell firing in hippocampal CA3 neurons. We have evaluated whether nicotine regulation of miniature synaptic activity can be extended to inhibitory transmission onto striatal medium spiny projection neurons (MSNs) in acute brain slices. Bath application of micromolar nicotine typically induced 12-fold increases in the frequency of miniature inhibitory synaptic currents (mIPSCs). Little effect was observed on the amplitude of mIPSCs or mEPSCs under these conditions. Nicotine stimulation of mIPSCs was dependent on entry of extracellular calcium because removal of calcium from perfusate was able to block its action. To assess the potential physiological significance of the nicotine-stimulated increase in mIPSC frequency, we also examined the nicotine effect on evoked IPSCs (eIPSCs). eIPSCs were markedly attenuated by nicotine. This effect could be attributed to two potential mechanisms: transmitter depletion due to extremely high mIPSC rates and/or a reduction in presynaptic excitability associated with nicotinic depolarization. Treatment with low concentrations of K(+) was able to in part mimic nicotine's stimulatory effect on mIPSCs and inhibitory effect on eIPSCs. Current-clamp recordings confirmed a direct depolarizing action of nicotine that could dampen eIPSC activity leading to a switch to striatal inhibitory synaptic transmission mediated by tonic mIPSCs.

  15. Decline of compound muscle action potentials and statistical MUNEs during Wallerian degeneration.

    PubMed

    Unlusoy Acar, Z; Yalinay Dikmen, P; Yayla, V; Başaran, K; Emekli, U; Öge, A E

    2014-09-01

    In two previous studies, we found that the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude loss was significantly higher than the loss of estimated motor unit numbers in the course of Wallerian degeneration (WD). In order to overcome some drawbacks of the method previously used, we performed a similar CMAP vs MUNE comparison by using the statistical motor unit number estimation (MUNE) method. Initial electrophysiological studies on 6 patients were performed between 22 and 98 hours after the injuries; it was possible to make repeated examinations, four times in 1 nerve, twice in 1 nerve and three times in 4 nerves, before the eventual complete disappearance of the CMAPs. The transected/intact (T/I) side CMAP ratios declined steeply as WD evolved. They were significantly lower than the relatively stable MUNE ratios 48 hours after the injury. This study, performed with the use of statistical MUNE, strengthens our previous observation by the incremental method that might have some relevance to the pathophysiology of early WD. CMAP amplitude loss that is more than expected from the amount of axonal degeneration may indicate a considerable amount of inactive muscle fibers in the motor units innervated by the nerve fibers, which are undergoing degeneration but still retain their excitability. Although technical sources of error cannot be totally excluded, our findings could more likely be explained by the failing of neuromuscular synapses in an asynchronous order before complete unresponsiveness of the motor unit ensues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  16. Effects of terpineol on the compound action potential of the rat sciatic nerve.

    PubMed

    Moreira, M R; Cruz, G M; Lopes, M S; Albuquerque, A A; Leal-Cardoso, J H

    2001-10-01

    Terpineol, a volatile terpenoid alcohol of low toxicity, is widely used in the perfumery industry. It is an important chemical constituent of the essential oil of many plants with widespread applications in folk medicine and in aromatherapy. The effects of terpineol on the compound action potential (CAP) of rat sciatic nerve were studied. Terpineol induced a dose-dependent blockade of the CAP. At 100 microM, terpineol had no demonstrable effect. At 300 microM terpineol, peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity of CAP were significantly reduced at the end of 180-min exposure of the nerve to the drug, from 3.28 +/- 0.22 mV and 33.5 +/- 7.05 m/s, respectively, to 1.91 +/- 0.51 mV and 26.2 +/- 4.55 m/s. At 600 microM, terpineol significantly reduced peak-to-peak amplitude and conduction velocity from 2.97 +/- 0.55 mV and 32.8 +/- 3.91 m/s to 0.24 +/- 0.23 mV and 2.72 +/- 2.72 m/s, respectively (N = 5). All these effects developed slowly and were reversible upon 180-min washout.

  17. Correlates of a single cortical action potential in the epidural EEG

    PubMed Central

    Teleńczuk, Bartosz; Baker, Stuart N; Kempter, Richard; Curio, Gabriel

    2015-01-01

    To identify the correlates of a single cortical action potential in surface EEG, we recorded simultaneously epidural EEG and single-unit activity in the primary somatosensory cortex of awake macaque monkeys. By averaging over EEG segments coincident with more than hundred thousand single spikes, we found short-lived (≈ 0.5 ms) triphasic EEG deflections dominated by high-frequency components > 800 Hz. The peak-to-peak amplitude of the grand-averaged spike correlate was 80 nV, which matched theoretical predictions, while single-neuron amplitudes ranged from 12 to 966 nV. Combining these estimates with post-stimulus-time histograms of single-unit responses to median-nerve stimulation allowed us to predict the shape of the evoked epidural EEG response and to estimate the number of contributing neurons. These findings establish spiking activity of cortical neurons as a primary building block of high-frequency epidural EEG, which thus can serve as a quantitative macroscopic marker of neuronal spikes. PMID:25554430

  18. Automatic analysis of auditory nerve electrically evoked compound action potential with an artificial neural network.

    PubMed

    Charasse, Basile; Thai-Van, Hung; Chanal, Jean Marc; Berger-Vachon, Christian; Collet, Lionel

    2004-07-01

    The auditory nerve's electrically evoked compound action potential is recorded in deaf patients equipped with the Nucleus 24 cochlear implant using a reverse telemetry system (NRT). Since the threshold of the NRT response (NRT-T) is thought to reflect the psychophysics needed for programming cochlear implants, efforts have been made by specialized management teams to develop its use. This study aimed at developing a valid tool, based on artificial neural networks (ANN) technology, for automatic estimation of NRT-T. The ANN used was a single layer perceptron, trained with 120 NRT traces. Learning traces differed from data used for the validation. A total of 550 NRT traces from 11 cochlear implant subjects were analyzed separately by the system and by a group of physicians with expertise in NRT analysis. Both worked to determine 37 NRT-T values, using the response amplitude growth function (AGF) (linear regression of response amplitudes obtained at decreasing stimulus intensity levels). The validity of the system was assessed by comparing the NRT-T values automatically determined by the system with those determined by the physicians. A strong correlation was found between automatic and physician-obtained NRT-T values (Pearson r correlation coefficient >0.9). ANOVA statistics confirmed that automatic NRT-Ts did not differ from physician-obtained values (F = 0.08999, P = 0.03). Moreover, the average error between NRT-Ts predicted by the system and NRT-Ts measured by the physicians (3.6 stimulation units) did not differ significantly from the average error between NRT-Ts measured by each of the three physicians (4.2 stimulation units). In conclusion, the automatic system developed in this study was found to be as efficient as human experts for fitting the amplitude growth function and estimating NRT-T, with the advantage of considerable time-saving.

  19. Modulation of presynaptic action potential kinetics underlies synaptic facilitation of type B photoreceptors after associative conditioning in Hermissenda.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, C C; Matzel, L D

    2000-03-01

    Descriptions of conditioned response generation in Hermissenda stipulate that the synaptic interaction between type B and A photoreceptors should be enhanced after associative pairings of light and rotation. Although evidence from several laboratories has confirmed this assumption, the mechanism underlying this synaptic facilitation has not been elucidated. Here we report that in vitro conditioning (i.e., light paired with stimulation of vestibular hair cells) modifies the kinetics of presynaptic action potentials in the B photoreceptor in a manner sufficient to account for this synaptic facilitation. After paired training, we observed an increase in the duration of evoked action potentials and a decrease in the amplitude of the spike afterhyperpolarization in the B-cell. As previously reported, paired training also enhanced the excitability (i.e., input resistance and evoked spike rate) of the B photoreceptor. In a second experiment, simultaneous recordings were made in type B and A photoreceptors, and paired training was found to produce an increase in the amplitude of the IPSP in the A photoreceptor in response to an evoked spike in the B-cell. Importantly, there was no change in the initial slope of the postsynaptic IPSP in the A photoreceptor, suggesting that spike duration-independent mechanisms of neurotransmitter exocytosis or postsynaptic receptor sensitivity did not contribute to the observed synaptic facilitation. Perfusion of 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) mimicked a known effect of behavioral conditioning in that it specifically reduced the amplitude of the transient voltage-dependent K(+) current (I(A)) in the B-cell, but in addition, produced action potential broadening and synaptic facilitation that was analogous to that observed after in vitro conditioning. Finally, the effect of 4-AP on B-cell action potentials and on the postsynaptic IPSP in the A-cell was occluded by previous paired (but not unpaired) training, suggesting that the prolongation of the B

  20. Calcium‐activated chloride current determines action potential morphology during calcium alternans in atrial myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Kanaporis, Giedrius

    2016-01-01

    Key points Cardiac alternans – periodic beat‐to‐beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude – is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat‐to‐beat alternations in intracellular Ca2+ ([Ca2+]i) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro‐arrhythmic alternans.Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans.CaT alternans leads to complex beat‐to‐beat changes in Ca2+‐regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology.We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca2+‐activated Cl− channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected.The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Abstract Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat‐to‐beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat‐to‐beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre‐recorded APs (AP‐clamp) during pacing‐induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca2+‐dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF–1 in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (−0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF–1; n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current

  1. Calcium-activated chloride current determines action potential morphology during calcium alternans in atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Kanaporis, Giedrius; Blatter, Lothar A

    2016-02-01

    Cardiac alternans--periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic calcium transient (CaT) amplitude--is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. However, it remains an unresolved issue whether beat-to-beat alternations in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]i ) or AP morphology are the primary cause of pro-arrhythmic alternans. Here we show that in atria AP alternans occurs secondary to CaT alternans. CaT alternans leads to complex beat-to-beat changes in Ca(2+)-regulated ion currents that determine alternans of AP morphology. We report the novel finding that alternans of AP morphology is largely sustained by the activity of Ca(2+)-activated Cl(-) channels (CaCCs). Suppression of the CaCCs significantly reduces AP alternans, while CaT alternans remains unaffected. The demonstration of a major role of CaCCs in the development of AP alternans opens new possibilities for atrial alternans and arrhythmia prevention. Cardiac alternans, described as periodic beat-to-beat alternations in contraction, action potential (AP) morphology or cytosolic Ca transient (CaT) amplitude, is a high risk indicator for cardiac arrhythmias and sudden cardiac death. We investigated mechanisms of cardiac alternans in single rabbit atrial myocytes. CaTs were monitored simultaneously with membrane currents or APs recorded with the patch clamp technique. Beat-to-beat alternations of AP morphology and CaT amplitude revealed a strong quantitative correlation. Application of voltage clamp protocols in the form of pre-recorded APs (AP-clamp) during pacing-induced CaT alternans revealed a Ca(2+)-dependent current consisting of a large outward component (4.78 ± 0.58 pA pF(-1) in amplitude) coinciding with AP phases 1 and 2 that was followed by an inward current (-0.42 ± 0.03 pA pF(-1); n = 21) during AP repolarization. Approximately 90% of the initial outward current was blocked by substitution of Cl(-) ions or application

  2. Potentiating Action of Propofol at GABAA Receptors of Retinal Bipolar Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yue, Lan; Xie, An; Bruzik, Karol S.; Frølund, Bente; Qian, Haohua

    2011-01-01

    Purpose. Propofol (2,6-diisopropyl phenol), a widely used systemic anesthetic, is known to potentiate GABAA receptor activity in a number of CNS neurons and to produce changes in electroretinographically recorded responses of the retina. However, little is known about propofol's effects on specific retinal neurons. The authors investigated the action of propofol on GABA-elicited membrane current responses of retinal bipolar cells, which have both GABAA and GABAC receptors. Methods. Single, enzymatically dissociated bipolar cells obtained from rat retina were treated with propofol delivered by brief application in combination with GABA or other pharmacologic agents or as a component of the superfusing medium. Results. When applied with GABA at subsaturating concentrations and with TPMPA (a known GABAC antagonist), propofol markedly increased the peak amplitude and altered the kinetics of the response. Propofol increased the response elicited by THIP (a GABAA-selective agonist), and the response was reduced by bicuculline (a GABAA antagonist). The response to 5-methyl I4AA, a GABAC-selective agonist, was not enhanced by propofol. Serial brief applications of (GABA + TPMPA + propofol) led to a progressive increase in peak response amplitude and, at higher propofol concentrations, additional changes that included a prolonged time course of response recovery. Pre-exposure of the cell to perfusing propofol typically enhanced the rate of development of potentiation produced by (GABA + TPMPA + propofol) applications. Conclusions. Propofol exerts a marked and selective potentiation on GABAA receptors of retinal bipolar cells. The data encourage the use of propofol in future studies of bipolar cell function. PMID:21071744

  3. Averaging methods for extracting representative waveforms from motor unit action potential trains.

    PubMed

    Malanda, Armando; Navallas, Javier; Rodriguez-Falces, Javier; Rodriguez-Carreño, Ignacio; Gila, Luis

    2015-08-01

    In the context of quantitative electromyography (EMG), it is of major interest to obtain a waveform that faithfully represents the set of potentials that constitute a motor unit action potential (MUAP) train. From this waveform, various parameters can be determined in order to characterize the MUAP for diagnostic analysis. The aim of this work was to conduct a thorough, in-depth review, evaluation and comparison of state-of-the-art methods for composing waveforms representative of MUAP trains. We evaluated nine averaging methods: Ensemble (EA), Median (MA), Weighted (WA), Five-closest (FCA), MultiMUP (MMA), Split-sweep median (SSMA), Sorted (SA), Trimmed (TA) and Robust (RA) in terms of three general-purpose signal processing figures of merit (SPMF) and seven clinically-used MUAP waveform parameters (MWP). The convergence rate of the methods was assessed as the number of potentials per MUAP train (NPM) required to reach a level of performance that was not significantly improved by increasing this number. Test material comprised 78 MUAP trains obtained from the tibialis anterioris of seven healthy subjects. Error measurements related to all SPMF and MWP parameters except MUAP amplitude descended asymptotically with increasing NPM for all methods. MUAP amplitude showed a consistent bias (around 4% for EA and SA and 1-2% for the rest). MA, TA and SSMA had the lowest SPMF and MWP error figures. Therefore, these methods most accurately preserve and represent MUAP physiological information of utility in clinical medical practice. The other methods, particularly WA, performed noticeably worse. Convergence rate was similar for all methods, with NPM values averaged among the nine methods, which ranged from 10 to 40, depending on the waveform parameter evaluated.

  4. Changes in axon birefringence during the action potential

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, L. B.; Hille, B.; Keynes, R. D.

    1970-01-01

    1. Observations have been made on the changes in optical retardation accompanying the passage of impulses along crab leg nerves and squid giant axons. 2. The nerves were mounted on the stage of a polarizing microscope, at 45° to the planes of polarization and analysis, brightly illuminated with white light. During the nerve impulse the intensity of the light passing the analyser decreased temporarily by 1 part in 103-106. Signal-averaging techniques were used to obtain an acceptable ratio of signal to noise. 3. The changes in light intensity recorded under these conditions were shown to arise almost entirely from alterations in retardation, with little or no interference from scattering, absorption, linear dichroism or optical rotation effects; the occurrence of stimulus and coupling artifacts was also ruled out. 4. In the squid giant axon, the retardation change was shown to be located in a thin cylinder immediately surrounding the axoplasm, and to have a radially oriented optic axis. 5. The time course of the decrease in optical retardation was very similar to that of the action potential recorded with an intracellular electrode, suggesting that the retardation closely followed the electrical potential across the membrane. ImagesFig. 2 PMID:5501012

  5. Melatonin potentiates the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Forcelli, Patrick A.; Soper, Colin; Duckles, Anne; Gale, Karen; Kondratyev, Alexei

    2013-01-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for neonatal seizures. However, questions regarding safety and efficacy of this drug make it particularly compelling to identify adjunct therapies that could boost therapeutic benefit. One potential adjunct therapy is melatonin. Melatonin is used clinically in neonatal and pediatric populations, and moreover, it exerts anticonvulsant actions in adult rats. However, it has not been previously evaluated for anticonvulsant effects in neonatal rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin would exert anticonvulsant effects, either alone, or in combination with phenobarbital, the most commonly utilized anticonvulsant in neonatal medicine. Postnatal day (P)7 rats were treated with phenobarbital (0–40 mg/kg) and/or melatonin (0–80 mg/kg) prior to chemoconvulsant challenge with pentylenetetrazole (100 mg/kg). We found that melatonin significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of phenobarbital, but did not exert anticonvulsant effects on its own. These data provide additional evidence for the further examination of melatonin as an adjunct therapy in neonatal/pediatric epilepsy. PMID:24206906

  6. Melatonin potentiates the anticonvulsant action of phenobarbital in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Forcelli, Patrick A; Soper, Colin; Duckles, Anne; Gale, Karen; Kondratyev, Alexei

    2013-12-01

    Phenobarbital is the most commonly utilized drug for neonatal seizures. However, questions regarding safety and efficacy of this drug make it particularly compelling to identify adjunct therapies that could boost therapeutic benefit. One potential adjunct therapy is melatonin. Melatonin is used clinically in neonatal and pediatric populations, and moreover, it exerts anticonvulsant actions in adult rats. However, it has not been previously evaluated for anticonvulsant effects in neonatal rats. Here, we tested the hypothesis that melatonin would exert anticonvulsant effects, either alone, or in combination with phenobarbital. Postnatal day (P)7 rats were treated with phenobarbital (0-40mg/kg) and/or melatonin (0-80mg/kg) prior to chemoconvulsant challenge with pentylenetetrazole (100mg/kg). We found that melatonin significantly potentiated the anticonvulsant efficacy of phenobarbital, but did not exert anticonvulsant effects on its own. These data provide additional evidence for the further examination of melatonin as an adjunct therapy in neonatal/pediatric epilepsy. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Potential anti-inflammatory actions of the elmiric (lipoamino) acids

    PubMed Central

    Burstein, Sumner H.; Adams, Jeffrey K.; Bradshaw, Heather B.; Fraioli, Cristian; Rossetti, Ronald G.; Salmonsen, Rebecca A.; Shaw, John W.; Walker, J. Michael; Zipkin, Robert E.; Zurier, Robert B.

    2007-01-01

    A library of amino acid-fatty acid conjugates (elmiric acids) was synthesized and evaluated for activity as potential anti-inflammatory agents. The compounds were tested in vitro for their effects on cell proliferation and prostaglandin production and compared with their effects on in vivo models of inflammation. LPS stimulated RAW 267.4 mouse macrophage cells was the in vitro model and phorbol ester-induced mouse ear edema served as the principal in vivo model. The prostaglandin responses were found to be strongly dependent on the nature of the fatty acid part of the molecule. Polyunsaturated acid conjugates produced a marked increase in media levels of i15-deoxy-PGJ2 with minimal effects on PGE production. It is reported in the literature that prostaglandin ratios in which the J series predominates over the E series promote the resolution of inflammatory conditions. Several of the elmiric acids tested here produced such favorable ratios suggesting that their potential anti-inflammatory activity occurs via a novel mechanism of action. The ear edema assay results were generally in agreement with the prostaglandin assay findings indicating a connection between them. PMID:17383881

  8. Modulation of action potential and calcium signaling by levetiracetam in rat sensory neurons.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Mete; Ayar, Ahmet

    2012-06-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV), a new anticonvulsant agent primarily used to treat epilepsy, has been used in pain treatment but the cellular mechanism of this action remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate effects of LEV on the excitability and membrane depolarization-induced calcium signaling in isolated rat sensory neurons using the whole-cell patch clamp and fura 2-based ratiometric Ca(2+)-imaging techniques. Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) were excised from neonatal rats, and cultured following enzymatic and mechanical dissociation. Under current clamp conditions, acute application of LEV (30 µM, 100 µM and 300 µM) significantly increased input resistance and caused the membrane to hyperpolarize from resting membrane potential in a dose-dependent manner. Reversal potentials of action potential (AP) after hyperpolarising amplitudes were shifted to more negative, toward to potassium equilibrium potentials, after application of LEV. It also caused a decrease in number of APs in neurons fired multiple APs in response to prolonged depolarization. Fura-2 fluorescence Ca(2+) imaging protocols revealed that HiK(+) (30 mM)-induced intracellular free Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) was inhibited to 97.8 ± 4.6% (n = 17), 92.6 ± 4.8% (n = 17, p < 0.01) and 89.1 ± 5.1% (n = 18, p < 0.01) after application of 30 µM, 100 µM and 300 µM LEV (respectively), without any significant effect on basal levels of [Ca(2+)](i). This is the first evidence for the effect of LEV on the excitability of rat sensory neurons through an effect which might involve activation of potassium channels and inhibition of entry of Ca(2+), providing new insights for cellular mechanism(s) of LEV in pain treatment modalities.

  9. State and location dependence of action potential metabolic cost in cortical pyramidal neurons.

    PubMed

    Hallermann, Stefan; de Kock, Christiaan P J; Stuart, Greg J; Kole, Maarten H P

    2012-06-03

    Action potential generation and conduction requires large quantities of energy to restore Na(+) and K(+) ion gradients. We investigated the subcellular location and voltage dependence of this metabolic cost in rat neocortical pyramidal neurons. Using Na(+)/K(+) charge overlap as a measure of action potential energy efficiency, we found that action potential initiation in the axon initial segment (AIS) and forward propagation into the axon were energetically inefficient, depending on the resting membrane potential. In contrast, action potential backpropagation into dendrites was efficient. Computer simulations predicted that, although the AIS and nodes of Ranvier had the highest metabolic cost per membrane area, action potential backpropagation into the dendrites and forward propagation into axon collaterals dominated energy consumption in cortical pyramidal neurons. Finally, we found that the high metabolic cost of action potential initiation and propagation down the axon is a trade-off between energy minimization and maximization of the conduction reliability of high-frequency action potentials.

  10. Similarity in shape, timing and amplitude of H- and T-reflex potentials concurrently recorded along the broad skin area over soleus muscle.

    PubMed

    Mineva, A; Dushanova, J; Gerilovsky, L

    1993-06-01

    Variations in shape, timing and amplitude of both mono- and bipolarly measured H- and T-reflex potentials can be influenced to a great extent by the muscle architecture and the peculiarities of the extracellular potential field. The "best point" for bipolar measurements, where the amplitude of the bipolar H- and T-potentials is maximal, occurred for the various subjects at a distance of 3.0 to 5.0 cm below the insertion of the gastrocnemii on the Achilles tendon. In contrast, the corresponding "best point" for monopolar H- and T-potentials is located 5.0 to 9.0 cm below the gastrocnemii insertion. The shape, total duration and timing of H- and T-potentials, concurrently measured at the various points along soleus muscle are similar. When the amplitude of the monopolar H- and T-potentials are levelled at the "best point" for monopolar measurements, the changes in the amplitude of both sets of potentials, monopolarly and bipolarly measured along soleus muscle, are identical. These results imply similar efferent outputs for both H- and T-reflexes, i.e. recruitment of motoneurons of comparable size.

  11. Resilient RTN fast spiking in Kv3.1 null mice suggests redundancy in the action potential repolarization mechanism.

    PubMed

    Porcello, Darrell M; Ho, Chi Shun; Joho, Rolf H; Huguenard, John R

    2002-03-01

    Fast spiking (FS), GABAergic neurons of the reticular thalamic nucleus (RTN) are capable of firing high-frequency trains of brief action potentials, with little adaptation. Studies in recombinant systems have shown that high-voltage-activated K(+) channels containing the Kv3.1 and/or Kv3.2 subunits display biophysical properties that may contribute to the FS phenotype. Given that RTN expresses high levels of Kv3.1, with little or no Kv3.2, we tested whether this subunit was required for the fast action potential repolarization mechanism essential to the FS phenotype. Single- and multiple-action potentials were recorded using whole-cell current clamp in RTN neurons from brain slices of wild-type and Kv3.1-deficient mice. At 23 degrees C, action potentials recorded from homozygous Kv3.1 deficient mice (Kv3.1(-/-)) compared with their wild-type (Kv3.1(+/+)) counterparts had reduced amplitudes (-6%) and fast after-hyperpolarizations (-16%). At 34 degrees C, action potentials in Kv3.1(-/-) mice had increased duration (21%) due to a reduced rate of repolarization (-30%) when compared with wild-type controls. Action potential trains in Kv3.1(-/-) were associated with a significantly greater spike decrement and broadening and a diminished firing frequency versus injected current relationship (F/I) at 34 degrees C. There was no change in either spike count or maximum instantaneous frequency during low-threshold Ca(2+) bursts in Kv3.1(-/-) RTN neurons at either temperature tested. Our findings show that Kv3.1 is not solely responsible for fast spikes or high-frequency firing in RTN neurons. This suggests genetic redundancy in the system, possibly in the form of other Kv3 members, which may suffice to maintain the FS phenotype in RTN neurons in the absence of Kv3.1.

  12. Spikelets in Pyramidal Neurons: Action Potentials Initiated in the Axon Initial Segment That Do Not Activate the Soma

    PubMed Central

    Michalikova, Martina; Kempter, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Spikelets are small spike-like depolarizations that can be measured in somatic intracellular recordings. Their origin in pyramidal neurons remains controversial. To explain spikelet generation, we propose a novel single-cell mechanism: somato-dendritic input generates action potentials at the axon initial segment that may fail to activate the soma and manifest as somatic spikelets. Using mathematical analysis and numerical simulations of compartmental neuron models, we identified four key factors controlling spikelet generation: (1) difference in firing threshold, (2) impedance mismatch, and (3) electrotonic separation between the soma and the axon initial segment, as well as (4) input amplitude. Because spikelets involve forward propagation of action potentials along the axon while they avoid full depolarization of the somato-dendritic compartments, we conjecture that this mode of operation saves energy and regulates dendritic plasticity while still allowing for a read-out of results of neuronal computations. PMID:28068338

  13. Regenerating mammalian nerve fibres: changes in action potential waveform and firing characteristics following blockage of potassium conductance.

    PubMed

    Kocsis, J D; Waxman, S G; Hildebrand, C; Ruiz, J A

    1982-12-22

    Extracellular application of potassium channel blocking agents is known to increase the amplitude and duration of the compound action potential in non-myelinated and demyelinated axons, but not in mature mammalian myelinated fibres. In the present study we used intra-axonal and whole nerve recording techniques to study the effects of the potassium channel blocking agent 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) on regenerating rat nerve fibres. Our results indicate that early regenerating (premyelinated) axons show considerable broadening of the action potential after 4-AP application and late regenerating (myelinated) axons give rise to burst activity following a single stimulus after 4-AP application. 4-AP did not affect spike waveform or firing properties of normal mature sciatic nerve fibres. These results demonstrate the importance of potassium conductance in stabilizing firing properties of myelinated regenerating axons.

  14. Metabolic Energy of Action Potentials Modulated by Spike Frequency Adaptation

    PubMed Central

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Li, Hui-Yan; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) exists in many types of neurons, which has been demonstrated to improve their abilities to process incoming information by synapses. The major carrier used by a neuron to convey synaptic signals is the sequences of action potentials (APs), which have to consume substantial metabolic energies to initiate and propagate. Here we use conductance-based models to investigate how SFA modulates the AP-related energy of neurons. The SFA is attributed to either calcium-activated K+ (IAHP) or voltage-activated K+ (IM) current. We observe that the activation of IAHP or IM increases the Na+ load used for depolarizing membrane, while produces few effects on the falling phase of AP. Then, the metabolic energy involved in Na+ current significantly increases from one AP to the next, while for K+ current it is less affected. As a consequence, the total energy cost by each AP gets larger as firing rate decays down. It is also shown that the minimum Na+ charge needed for the depolarization of each AP is unaffected during the course of SFA. This indicates that the activation of either adaptation current makes APs become less efficient to use Na+ influx for their depolarization. Further, our simulations demonstrate that the different biophysical properties of IM and IAHP result in distinct modulations of metabolic energy usage for APs. These investigations provide a fundamental link between adaptation currents and neuronal energetics, which could facilitate to interpret how SFA participates in neuronal information processing. PMID:27909394

  15. Ultrafast action potentials mediate kilohertz signaling at a central synapse.

    PubMed

    Ritzau-Jost, Andreas; Delvendahl, Igor; Rings, Annika; Byczkowicz, Niklas; Harada, Harumi; Shigemoto, Ryuichi; Hirrlinger, Johannes; Eilers, Jens; Hallermann, Stefan

    2014-10-01

    Fast synaptic transmission is important for rapid information processing. To explore the maximal rate of neuronal signaling and to analyze the presynaptic mechanisms, we focused on the input layer of the cerebellar cortex, where exceptionally high action potential (AP) frequencies have been reported in vivo. With paired recordings between presynaptic cerebellar mossy fiber boutons and postsynaptic granule cells, we demonstrate reliable neurotransmission up to ∼1 kHz. Presynaptic APs are ultrafast, with ∼100 μs half-duration. Both Kv1 and Kv3 potassium channels mediate the fast repolarization, rapidly inactivating sodium channels ensure metabolic efficiency, and little AP broadening occurs during bursts of up to 1.5 kHz. Presynaptic Cav2.1 (P/Q-type) calcium channels open efficiently during ultrafast APs. Furthermore, a subset of synaptic vesicles is tightly coupled to Ca(2+) channels, and vesicles are rapidly recruited to the release site. These data reveal mechanisms of presynaptic AP generation and transmitter release underlying neuronal kHz signaling.

  16. Metabolic Energy of Action Potentials Modulated by Spike Frequency Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Li, Hui-Yan; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2016-01-01

    Spike frequency adaptation (SFA) exists in many types of neurons, which has been demonstrated to improve their abilities to process incoming information by synapses. The major carrier used by a neuron to convey synaptic signals is the sequences of action potentials (APs), which have to consume substantial metabolic energies to initiate and propagate. Here we use conductance-based models to investigate how SFA modulates the AP-related energy of neurons. The SFA is attributed to either calcium-activated K(+) (IAHP) or voltage-activated K(+) (IM) current. We observe that the activation of IAHP or IM increases the Na(+) load used for depolarizing membrane, while produces few effects on the falling phase of AP. Then, the metabolic energy involved in Na(+) current significantly increases from one AP to the next, while for K(+) current it is less affected. As a consequence, the total energy cost by each AP gets larger as firing rate decays down. It is also shown that the minimum Na(+) charge needed for the depolarization of each AP is unaffected during the course of SFA. This indicates that the activation of either adaptation current makes APs become less efficient to use Na(+) influx for their depolarization. Further, our simulations demonstrate that the different biophysical properties of IM and IAHP result in distinct modulations of metabolic energy usage for APs. These investigations provide a fundamental link between adaptation currents and neuronal energetics, which could facilitate to interpret how SFA participates in neuronal information processing.

  17. Steroid inhibitors of androgen-potentiated actions on skin.

    PubMed

    Ebling, F J; Randall, V A

    1983-07-01

    Antiandrogens, such as cyproterone acetate, and oestrogens both inhibit sebaceous secretion in rats and have a potentiality for the treatment of hirsutism and acne in the human female. However, they act at different points. In castrated rats treated with testosterone, 3 micrograms/day oestradiol produced a greater decrease in sebum secretion than a dose of cyproterone acetate over 1000 times larger; moreover the antiandrogen reduced the incidence of sebaceous mitoses whereas the oestradiol did not. In hirsute women, oral administration of 100 mg of cyproterone acetate daily caused a 40% reduction in sebum secretion within 10 days; a further 20% was subsequently produced by combined therapy with cyproterone acetate and ethinyloestradiol. Significant decreases in the diameter and rate of growth of thigh hairs were not established until around the fourth monthly cycle of treatment. The actions were believed to be mainly peripheral, though contributory factors could also have been the small but significant reductions in plasma androgens produced by the antiandrogen, and the marked rise in sex hormone binding globulin produced by the oestrogen. That it is theoretically possible for cyproterone acetate or oestradiol to act locally follows from an unequivocal demonstration that either compound produced a local depression of sebum secretion when applied topically to rats.

  18. Adult-like action potential properties and abundant GABAergic synaptic responses in amygdala neurons from newborn marmosets

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Daisuke; Miyajima, Moeko; Ishibashi, Hidetoshi; Wada, Keiji; Seki, Kazuhiko; Sekiguchi, Masayuki

    2012-01-01

    The amygdala plays an important role in the processing of emotional events. This information processing is altered by development, but little is known about the development of electrophysiological properties of neurons in the amygdala. We studied the postnatal development of electrophysiological properties of neurons in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus). Whole-cell patch-clamp recordings were obtained from BLA pyramidal neurons in brain slices prepared from developing and adult marmosets, and electrophysiological properties known to change during development in rats were analysed. Two passive electrical properties of the neuronal membrane – the input resistance (Rin) and the membrane time constant (τ) – significantly decreased with postnatal development. In contrast, the action potential only showed a slight decrease in duration during the first month of life, whereas the amplitude did not change after birth. Passive electrical properties and action potentials in neurons of 4-week-old marmosets were similar to those in neurons of 4-year-old marmosets. The development of the action potential duration was not correlated with the development of Rin or τ, whereas the development of Rin and τ was correlated with each other. Abundant spontaneous and noradrenaline-induced GABAergic currents were present immediately after birth and did not change during postnatal development. These results suggest that newborn infant marmoset BLA pyramidal neurons possess relatively mature action potentials and receive vigorous GABAergic synaptic inputs, and that they acquire adult-like electrophysiological properties by the fourth week of life. PMID:22966158

  19. Analysis of electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve in children with bilateral cochlear implants.

    PubMed

    Caldas, Fernanda Ferreira; Cardoso, Carolina Costa; Barreto, Monique Antunes de Souza Chelminski; Teixeira, Marina Santos; Hilgenberg, Anacléia Melo da Silva; Serra, Lucieny Silva Martins; Bahmad Junior, Fayez

    2016-01-01

    The cochlear implant device has the capacity to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. The neural response telemetry is used in order to measure the electrically evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve. To analyze the electrically evoked compound action potential, through the neural response telemetry, in children with bilateral cochlear implants. This is an analytical, prospective, longitudinal, historical cohort study. Six children, aged 1-4 years, with bilateral cochlear implant were assessed at five different intervals during their first year of cochlear implant use. There were significant differences in follow-up time (p=0.0082) and electrode position (p=0.0019) in the T-NRT measure. There was a significant difference in the interaction between time of follow-up and electrode position (p=0.0143) when measuring the N1-P1 wave amplitude between the three electrodes at each time of follow-up. The electrically evoked compound action potential measurement using neural response telemetry in children with bilateral cochlear implants during the first year of follow-up was effective in demonstrating the synchronized bilateral development of the peripheral auditory pathways in the studied population. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  20. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (−10 ± 8%) and the time trial (−21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; −6 ± 8 and −12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; −21 ± 16 and −32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; −7 ± 11 and −12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction. PMID:27313522

  1. Movement-Related Cortical Potential Amplitude Reduction after Cycling Exercise Relates to the Extent of Neuromuscular Fatigue.

    PubMed

    Spring, Jérôme Nicolas; Place, Nicolas; Borrani, Fabio; Kayser, Bengt; Barral, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    Exercise-induced fatigue affects the motor control and the ability to generate a given force or power. Surface electroencephalography allows researchers to investigate movement-related cortical potentials (MRCP), which reflect preparatory brain activity 1.5 s before movement onset. Although the MRCP amplitude appears to increase after repetitive single-joint contractions, the effects of large-muscle group dynamic exercise on such pre-motor potential remain to be described. Sixteen volunteers exercised 30 min at 60% of the maximal aerobic power on a cycle ergometer, followed by a 10-km all-out time trial. Before and after each of these tasks, knee extensor neuromuscular function was investigated using maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) combined with electrical stimulations of the femoral nerve. MRCP was recorded during 60 knee extensions after each neuromuscular sequence. The exercise resulted in a significant decrease in the knee extensor MVC force after the 30-min exercise (-10 ± 8%) and the time trial (-21 ± 9%). The voluntary activation level (VAL; -6 ± 8 and -12 ± 10%), peak twitch (Pt; -21 ± 16 and -32 ± 17%), and paired stimuli (P100 Hz; -7 ± 11 and -12 ± 13%) were also significantly reduced after the 30-min exercise and the time trial. The first exercise was followed by a decrease in the MRCP, mainly above the mean activity measured at electrodes FC1-FC2, whereas the reduction observed after the time trial was related to the FC1-FC2 and C2 electrodes. After both exercises, the reduction in the late MRCP component above FC1-FC2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in P100 Hz (r = 0.61), and the reduction in the same component above C2 was significantly correlated with the reduction in VAL (r = 0.64). In conclusion, large-muscle group exercise induced a reduction in pre-motor potential, which was related to muscle alterations and resulted in the inability to produce a maximal voluntary contraction.

  2. Associative pairing enhances action potential back-propagation in radial oblique branches of CA1 pyramidal neurons

    PubMed Central

    Gasparini, Sonia; Losonczy, Attila; Chen, Xixi; Johnston, Daniel; Magee, Jeffrey C

    2007-01-01

    Back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) are involved in associative synaptic plasticity and the modulation of dendritic excitability. We have used high-speed confocal and two-photon imaging to measure calcium and voltage signals associated with action potential propagation into oblique branches of CA1 pyramidal neurons in adult hippocampal slices. The spatial profile of the bAP-associated Ca2+ influx was biphasic, with an initial increase in the proximity of the branch point followed by a progressive decrease. Voltage imaging in the branches showed that bAP amplitude was initially constant and then steadily declined with distance from the soma. To determine the role of transient K+ channels in this profile, we used external Ba2+ (150 μm) as a channel blocker, after characterizing its effect on A-type K+ channels in the apical trunk. Bath application of Ba2+ significantly reduced the A-type K+ current in outside-out patches and nearly eliminated the distance-dependent decrease in bAP amplitude and its associated Ca2+ signal. Finally, small amplitude bAPs at more distal oblique branch locations could be boosted by simultaneous branch depolarization, such that the paired Ca2+ signal became nearly the same for proximal and distal oblique dendrites. These data suggest that dendritic K+ channels regulate the amplitude of bAPs to create a dendritic Ca2+ signal whose magnitude is inversely related to the electrotonic distance from the soma when bAPs are not associated with a significant amount of localized synaptic input. This distance-dependent Ca2+ signal from bAPs, however, can be amplified and a strong associative signal is produced once the proper correlation between synaptic activation and AP output is achieved. We hypothesize that these two signals may be involved in the regulation of the expression and activity of dendritic voltage- and ligand-gated ion channels. PMID:17272353

  3. Influence of a change in stimulation rate on action potentials, currents and contractions in rat ventricular cells.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, M R; Powell, T; Terrar, D A; Twist, V W

    1985-07-01

    The effects of a change in stimulation rate on electrical activity and accompanying contraction were investigated in ventricular cells isolated from rat heart; the cells were stimulated to contract either by brief depolarization pulses which evoked action potentials, or, under voltage-clamp conditions, by step depolarizations. An increase in stimulation rate from 0.3 to 3 Hz resulted in a gradual reduction in the amplitude of contraction and attenuation of the late phase of the action potential. These changes were less marked at more depolarized potentials. The ventricular cells were voltage clamped at -40 mV and initially stimulated at 0.3 Hz by step depolarizations to 0 mV for 10 or 100 ms, which activated the second inward current (Isi) and an accompanying contraction. The amplitude and time course of contraction were similar with the two pulse durations. When the duration of the depolarization was 100 ms, an increase in stimulation rate to 3 Hz caused a gradual decline in the amplitude of Isi and of the evoked contraction; at the same time extra contractions and small, transient inward currents appeared in addition to the evoked contractions and Isis. There was a reduction in the early component of decay of Isi at 3 Hz. With a depolarizing pulse duration of 10 ms, an increase in stimulation rate to 3 or to 4.2 Hz did not change the amplitude of the evoked Isi or contraction and no extra contractions or currents appeared. Intracellular EGTA abolished all contractions in the cells and an increase in the rate of stimulation with 100 ms pulses did not then induce transient inward currents. There was some decrease in the Isi amplitude but this was not as marked as in the absence of EGTA and the time course of current decay was similar at the two rates. Ryanodine prevented the appearance of extra contractions and currents when the stimulation rate was increased to 3 Hz and, as in the presence of intracellular EGTA, there was a small decrease in Isi amplitude while

  4. Amphetamine elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine via an action potential-dependent mechanism that is modulated by endocannabinoids.

    PubMed

    Covey, Dan P; Bunner, Kendra D; Schuweiler, Douglas R; Cheer, Joseph F; Garris, Paul A

    2016-06-01

    The reinforcing effects of abused drugs are mediated by their ability to elevate nucleus accumbens dopamine. Amphetamine (AMPH) was historically thought to increase dopamine by an action potential-independent, non-exocytotic type of release called efflux, involving reversal of dopamine transporter function and driven by vesicular dopamine depletion. Growing evidence suggests that AMPH also acts by an action potential-dependent mechanism. Indeed, fast-scan cyclic voltammetry demonstrates that AMPH activates dopamine transients, reward-related phasic signals generated by burst firing of dopamine neurons and dependent on intact vesicular dopamine. Not established for AMPH but indicating a shared mechanism, endocannabinoids facilitate this activation of dopamine transients by broad classes of abused drugs. Here, using fast-scan cyclic voltammetry coupled to pharmacological manipulations in awake rats, we investigated the action potential and endocannabinoid dependence of AMPH-induced elevations in nucleus accumbens dopamine. AMPH increased the frequency, amplitude and duration of transients, which were observed riding on top of slower dopamine increases. Surprisingly, silencing dopamine neuron firing abolished all AMPH-induced dopamine elevations, identifying an action potential-dependent origin. Blocking cannabinoid type 1 receptors prevented AMPH from increasing transient frequency, similar to reported effects on other abused drugs, but not from increasing transient duration and inhibiting dopamine uptake. Thus, AMPH elevates nucleus accumbens dopamine by eliciting transients via cannabinoid type 1 receptors and promoting the summation of temporally coincident transients, made more numerous, larger and wider by AMPH. Collectively, these findings are inconsistent with AMPH eliciting action potential-independent dopamine efflux and vesicular dopamine depletion, and support endocannabinoids facilitating phasic dopamine signalling as a common action in drug reinforcement.

  5. Anodal sensory nerve action potentials: From physiological understanding to potential clinical applicability.

    PubMed

    Leote, Joao; Pereira, Pedro; Cabib, Christopher; Cipullo, Federica; Valls-Sole, Josep

    2016-06-01

    Low-intensity electrical stimuli of digital nerves may generate a double peak potential (DPp), composed of a cathodal (caAP) and an anodal (anAP) potential in orthodromic recordings. We studied the effects on caAP and anAP of stimuli of variable intensity, duration, and frequency. We also applied a conditioning stimulus to study potential differences in recovery time. The anAP was obtained in 33 of 40 healthy subjects (82.5%) and 4 of 20 patients with various types of sensory neuropathies (20%). Changes in stimulus duration and intensity had reciprocal effects on the amplitude of the anAP and the caAP. There were significant differences in recovery time between caAP and anAP after a conditioning stimulus. The caAP and anAP are 2 interdependent waveforms generated by different effects of the same stimulus over axons at the verge of depolarization. Muscle Nerve 53: 897-905, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Action potential dynamics explain arrhythmic vulnerability in human heart failure: a clinical and modeling study implicating abnormal calcium handling.

    PubMed

    Narayan, Sanjiv M; Bayer, Jason D; Lalani, Gautam; Trayanova, Natalia A

    2008-11-25

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether abnormalities of calcium cycling explain ventricular action potential (AP) oscillations and cause electrocardiogram T-wave alternans (TWA). Mechanisms explaining why heart failure patients are at risk for malignant ventricular arrhythmias (ventricular tachycardia [VT]/ventricular fibrillation [VF]) are unclear. We studied whether oscillations in human ventricular AP explain TWA and predict VT/VF, and used computer modeling to suggest potential cellular mechanisms. We studied 53 patients with left ventricular ejection fraction 28 +/- 8% and 18 control subjects. Monophasic APs were recorded in the right ventricle (n = 62) and/or left ventricle (n = 9) at 109 beats/min. Alternans of AP amplitude, computed spectrally, had higher magnitude in study patients than in controls (p = 0.03), particularly in AP phase II (p = 0.02) rather than phase III (p = 0.10). The AP duration and activation restitution (n = 11 patients) were flat at 109 beats/min and did not explain TWA. In computer simulations, only reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake explained our results, causing calcium oscillations, AP amplitude alternans, and TWA that were all abolished by calcium clamping. On prospective follow-up for 949 +/- 553 days, 17 patients had VT/VF. The AP amplitude alternans predicted VT/VF (p = 0.04), and was 78% concordant with simultaneous TWA (p = 0.003). Patients with systolic dysfunction show ventricular AP amplitude alternans that prospectively predicted VT/VF. Alternans in AP amplitude, but not variations in AP duration or conduction, explained TWA at < or =109 beats/min. In computer models, these findings were best explained by reduced sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium uptake. Thus, in heart failure patients, in vivo AP alternans may reflect cellular calcium abnormalities and provide a mechanistic link with VT/VF.

  7. The impact of synaptic conductance on action potential waveform: evoking realistic action potentials with a simulated synaptic conductance.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Jamie; Postlethwaite, Michael; Forsythe, Ian D

    2009-10-15

    Most current clamp studies trigger action potentials (APs) by step current injection through the recording electrode and assume that the resulting APs are essentially identical to those triggered by orthodromic synaptic inputs. However this assumption is not always valid, particularly when the synaptic conductance is of large magnitude and of close proximity to the axon initial segment. We addressed this question of similarity using the Calyx of Held/MNTB synapse; we compared APs evoked by long duration step current injections, short step current injections and orthodromic synaptic stimuli. Neither injected current protocol evoked APs that matched the evoked orthodromic AP waveform, showing differences in AP height, half-width and after-hyperpolarization. We postulated that this 'error' could arise from changes in the instantaneous conductance during the combined synaptic and AP waveforms, since the driving forces for the respective ionic currents are integrating and continually evolving over this time-course. We demonstrate that a simple Ohm's law manipulation of the EPSC waveform, which accounts for the evolving driving force on the synaptic conductance during the AP, produces waveforms that closely mimic those generated by physiological synaptic stimulation. This stimulation paradigm allows supra-threshold physiological stimulation (single stimuli or trains) without the variability caused by quantal fluctuation in transmitter release, and can be implemented without a specialised dynamic clamp system. Combined with pharmacological tools this method provides a reliable means to assess the physiological roles of postsynaptic ion channels without confounding affects from the presynaptic input.

  8. Glycolysis selectively shapes the presynaptic action potential waveform.

    PubMed

    Lujan, Brendan; Kushmerick, Christopher; Banerjee, Tania Das; Dagda, Ruben K; Renden, Robert

    2016-12-01

    Mitochondria are major suppliers of cellular energy in neurons; however, utilization of energy from glycolysis vs. mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation (OxPhos) in the presynaptic compartment during neurotransmission is largely unknown. Using presynaptic and postsynaptic recordings from the mouse calyx of Held, we examined the effect of acute selective pharmacological inhibition of glycolysis or mitochondrial OxPhos on multiple mechanisms regulating presynaptic function. Inhibition of glycolysis via glucose depletion and iodoacetic acid (1 mM) treatment, but not mitochondrial OxPhos, rapidly altered transmission, resulting in highly variable, oscillating responses. At reduced temperature, this same treatment attenuated synaptic transmission because of a smaller and broader presynaptic action potential (AP) waveform. We show via experimental manipulation and ion channel modeling that the altered AP waveform results in smaller Ca(2+) influx, resulting in attenuated excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs). In contrast, inhibition of mitochondria-derived ATP production via extracellular pyruvate depletion and bath-applied oligomycin (1 μM) had no significant effect on Ca(2+) influx and did not alter the AP waveform within the same time frame (up to 30 min), and the resultant EPSC remained unaffected. Glycolysis, but not mitochondrial OxPhos, is thus required to maintain basal synaptic transmission at the presynaptic terminal. We propose that glycolytic enzymes are closely apposed to ATP-dependent ion pumps on the presynaptic membrane. Our results indicate a novel mechanism for the effect of hypoglycemia on neurotransmission. Attenuated transmission likely results from a single presynaptic mechanism at reduced temperature: a slower, smaller AP, before and independent of any effect on synaptic vesicle release or receptor activity. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Antidromic propagation of action potentials in branched axons: implications for the mechanisms of action of deep brain stimulation.

    PubMed

    Grill, Warren M; Cantrell, Meredith B; Robertson, Matthew S

    2008-02-01

    Electrical stimulation of the central nervous system creates both orthodromically propagating action potentials, by stimulation of local cells and passing axons, and antidromically propagating action potentials, by stimulation of presynaptic axons and terminals. Our aim was to understand how antidromic action potentials navigate through complex arborizations, such as those of thalamic and basal ganglia afferents-sites of electrical activation during deep brain stimulation. We developed computational models to study the propagation of antidromic action potentials past the bifurcation in branched axons. In both unmyelinated and myelinated branched axons, when the diameters of each axon branch remained under a specific threshold (set by the antidromic geometric ratio), antidromic propagation occurred robustly; action potentials traveled both antidromically into the primary segment as well as "re-orthodromically" into the terminal secondary segment. Propagation occurred across a broad range of stimulation frequencies, axon segment geometries, and concentrations of extracellular potassium, but was strongly dependent on the geometry of the node of Ranvier at the axonal bifurcation. Thus, antidromic activation of axon terminals can, through axon collaterals, lead to widespread activation or inhibition of targets remote from the site of stimulation. These effects should be included when interpreting the results of functional imaging or evoked potential studies on the mechanisms of action of DBS.

  10. Analogue modulation of back-propagating action potentials enables dendritic hybrid signalling

    PubMed Central

    Brunner, János; Szabadics, János

    2016-01-01

    We report that back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) are not simply digital feedback signals in dendrites but also carry analogue information about the overall state of neurons. Analogue information about the somatic membrane potential within a physiological range (from −78 to −64 mV) is retained by bAPs of dentate gyrus granule cells as different repolarization speeds in proximal dendrites and as different peak amplitudes in distal regions. These location-dependent waveform changes are reflected by local calcium influx, leading to proximal enhancement and distal attenuation during somatic hyperpolarization. The functional link between these retention and readout mechanisms of the analogue content of bAPs critically depends on high-voltage-activated, inactivating calcium channels. The hybrid bAP and calcium mechanisms report the phase of physiological somatic voltage fluctuations and modulate long-term synaptic plasticity in distal dendrites. Thus, bAPs are hybrid signals that relay somatic analogue information, which is detected by the dendrites in a location-dependent manner. PMID:27703164

  11. Analogue modulation of back-propagating action potentials enables dendritic hybrid signalling.

    PubMed

    Brunner, János; Szabadics, János

    2016-10-05

    We report that back-propagating action potentials (bAPs) are not simply digital feedback signals in dendrites but also carry analogue information about the overall state of neurons. Analogue information about the somatic membrane potential within a physiological range (from -78 to -64 mV) is retained by bAPs of dentate gyrus granule cells as different repolarization speeds in proximal dendrites and as different peak amplitudes in distal regions. These location-dependent waveform changes are reflected by local calcium influx, leading to proximal enhancement and distal attenuation during somatic hyperpolarization. The functional link between these retention and readout mechanisms of the analogue content of bAPs critically depends on high-voltage-activated, inactivating calcium channels. The hybrid bAP and calcium mechanisms report the phase of physiological somatic voltage fluctuations and modulate long-term synaptic plasticity in distal dendrites. Thus, bAPs are hybrid signals that relay somatic analogue information, which is detected by the dendrites in a location-dependent manner.

  12. Comparison of spontaneous atrial fibrillation electrogram potentials with the P-wave electrogram amplitude in dual chamber pacing with unipolar atrial sensing.

    PubMed

    Lewalter, T; Schimpf, R; Kulik, D; Wolpert, C; Jung, W; Lüderitz, B

    2000-04-01

    Although bipolar sensing is recommended and desirable in patients with dual chamber pacemakers (DDD) and intermittent atrial fibrillation (AF) it is a clinical reality that some patients who are given unipolar atrial leads without a prior history of AF may develop intermittent AF during follow-up. It was therefore the purpose of this prospective study to compare the electrogram amplitudes of AF potentials with sinus rhythm P-wave potentials as a relevant factor for appropriate mode switching in dual chamber pacing with unipolar atrial sensing. Forty-two patients with dual chamber pacemakers, unipolar atrial leads and intermittent AF were studied. Aside from measuring the P-wave potential, it was possible in 14 patients (4 women, 10 men; mean age: 61.8 (+/- 13.3) years) additionally to document spontaneous AF electrogram potentials using pacemaker telemetry. A prospective survey study was performed including a 6 month follow-up period with an outpatient clinic visit every 2-3 weeks. The mean P-wave electrogram amplitude was 3.4 (+/- 1.8) mV (range: 1.4-7.4) compared with the mean amplitude during AF of 2.04 (+/- 1.26) mV (range: 0.8-5.2 mV) indicating a significant attenuation of 40% during AF (P < 0.0001). A linear correlation regression analysis revealed that there was a significant correlation between the P-wave and the AF amplitude (P < 0.0001), with a correlation coefficient of r = 0.867. Once it is known that a substantial reduction exists in electrogram amplitude, compared with the P wave electrogram potential, an estimate can be made of whether AF potentials will be sensed, if the programming of atrial sensitivity is congruent with the P-wave characteristics and the presence or absence of myopotential triggering.

  13. Effects of norfluoxetine on the action potential and transmembrane ion currents in canine ventricular cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Bányász, Tamás; Kecskeméti, Valéria; Nánási, Péter P

    2004-09-01

    Norfluoxetine is the most important active metabolite of the widely used antidepressant compound fluoxetine. Although the cellular electrophysiological actions of fluoxetine are well characterized in cardiac cells, little is known about the effects of its metabolite. In this study, therefore, the effects of norfluoxetine on action potential (AP) configuration and transmembrane ion currents were studied in isolated canine cardiomyocytes using the whole cell configuration of patch clamp techniques. Micromolar concentrations of norfluoxetine (1-10 microM) modified AP configuration: amplitude and duration of the AP and maximum velocity of depolarization were decreased in addition to depression of the plateau and elimination of the incisura of AP. Voltage clamp experiments revealed a concentration-dependent suppression of both L-type Ca(2+) current, I(Ca) (EC(50)=1.13+/-0.08 microM) and transient outward K(+) current, I(to) (EC(50)=1.19+/-0.17 microM) having Hill coefficients close to unity. The midpoint potential of the steady-state inactivation of I(Ca) was shifted from -20.9+/-0.75 mV to -27.7+/-1.35 mV by 3 microM norfluoxetine ( P<0.05, n=7). No such shift in the steady-state inactivation curve was observed in the case of I(to). Similarly, norfluoxetine caused no change in the steady-state current-voltage relationship of the membrane or in the density of the inward rectifier K(+) current, I(K1). All these effects of norfluoxetine developed rapidly and were fully reversible. Comparing present results with those obtained previously with fluoxetine, it can be concluded that norfluoxetine displays stronger suppression of cardiac ion channels than fluoxetine. Consequently, the majority of the cardiac side effects observed during fluoxetine treatment are likely to be attributed to its metabolite norfluoxetine.

  14. Differential effects of K(+) channel blockers on frequency-dependent action potential broadening in supraoptic neurons.

    PubMed

    Hlubek, M D; Cobbett, P

    2000-09-15

    Recordings were made from magnocellular neuroendocrine cells dissociated from the supraoptic nucleus of the adult guinea pig to determine the role of voltage gated K(+) channels in controlling the duration of action potentials and in mediating frequency-dependent action potential broadening exhibited by these neurons. The K(+) channel blockers charybdotoxin (ChTx), tetraethylammonium (TEA), and 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) increased the duration of individual action potentials indicating that multiple types of K(+) channel are important in controlling action potential duration. The effect of these K(+) channel blockers was almost completely reversed by simultaneous blockade of voltage gated Ca(2+) channels with Cd(2+). Frequency-dependent action potential broadening was exhibited by these neurons during trains of action potentials elicited by membrane depolarizing current pulses presented at 10 Hz but not at 1 Hz. 4-AP but not ChTx or TEA inhibited frequency-dependent action potential broadening indicating that frequency-dependent action potential broadening is dependent on increasing steady-state inactivation of A-type K(+) channels (which are blocked by 4-AP). A model of differential contributions of voltage gated K(+) channels and voltage gated Ca(2+) channels to frequency-dependent action potential broadening, in which an increase of Ca(2+) current during each successive action potential is permitted as a result of the increasing steady-state inactivation of A-type K(+) channels, is presented.

  15. Developmental impairment of compound action potential in the optic nerve of myelin mutant taiep rats.

    PubMed

    Roncagliolo, Manuel; Schlageter, Carol; León, Claudia; Couve, Eduardo; Bonansco, Christian; Eguibar, José R

    2006-01-05

    The taiep rat is a myelin mutant with an initial hypomyelination, followed by a progressive demyelination of the CNS. The neurological correlates start with tremor, followed by ataxia, immobility episodes, epilepsy and paralysis. The optic nerve, an easily-isolable central tract fully myelinated by oligodendrocytes, is a suitable preparation to evaluate the developmental impairment of central myelin. We examined the ontogenic development of optic nerve compound action potentials (CAP) throughout the first 6 months of life of control and taiep rats. Control optic nerves (ON) develop CAPs characterized by three waves. Along the first month, the CAPs of taiep rats showed a delayed maturation, with lower amplitudes and longer latencies than controls; at P30, the conduction velocity has only a third of the normal value. Later, as demyelination proceeds, the conduction velocity of taiep ONs begins to decrease and CAPs undergo a gradual temporal dispersion. CAPs of control and taiep showed differences in their pharmacological sensitivity to TEA and 4-AP, two voltage dependent K+ channel-blockers. As compared with TEA, 4-AP induced a significant increase of the amplitudes and a remarkable broadening of CAPs. After P20, unlike controls, the greater sensitivity to 4-AP exhibited by taiep ONs correlates with the detachment and retraction of paranodal loops suggesting that potassium conductances could regulate the excitability as demyelination of CNS axons progresses. It is concluded that the taiep rat, a long-lived mutant, provides a useful model to study the consequences of partial demyelination and the mechanisms by which glial cells regulate the molecular organization and excitability of axonal membranes during development and disease.

  16. Assessment of cortical motor output: compound muscle action potential versus twitch force recording.

    PubMed

    Kiers, L; Clouston, P; Chiappa, K H; Cros, D

    1995-04-01

    To determine whether motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitude and area are accurate measurements of the magnitude of response to magnetic cortical stimulation, we simultaneously recorded the twitch and MEP in the first dorsal interosseous muscle of 8 normal subjects. Consecutive stimuli were delivered at increasing stimulus intensities (SI) or with increasing levels of background voluntary muscle contraction (BVC). There was stimulus to stimulus variability in MEP amplitude, area and twitch force. At low SI and at low levels of background contraction, there was a good correlation between twitch amplitude and MEP amplitude and area (r = 0.6-0.96, P < 0.005). Increasing either variable caused the correlation to decrease significantly (r = 0.02-0.31, P > 0.01). With increasing SI, MEP amplitude and area plateaued but twitch force continued to increase. A similar pattern was observed with higher levels of background muscle contraction although in some subjects a second increase in MEP amplitude and area was seen. Collision experiments demonstrated that the amplitude of the EMG activity resulting from repetitive motoneuron firing increased as SI was increased. This is due to multiple descending volleys which result in repetitive firing of some spinal motoneurons. Rapid, repetitive firing of some motor units is likely to result in phase cancellation and, therefore, the MEP amplitude, and to a lesser extent area, do not accurately reflect the net motor output.

  17. Potential distribution and single-fibre action potentials in a radially bounded muscle model.

    PubMed

    van Veen, B K; Rijkhoff, N J; Rutten, W L; Wallinga, W; Boom, H B

    1992-05-01

    In modelling the electrical behaviour of muscle tissue, we used to employ a frequency-dependent volume conductor network model, which was infinitely extended in all directions. Equations in this model could be solved using a finite-difference approach. The most important restriction of this model was the fact that no boundary effects could be incorporated. Analytical models of muscle tissue normally do not have this disadvantage, but in those models the microscopic structure of muscle tissue cannot be taken into account. In the paper, we present a combined numerical/analytical approach, which enables the study of potential distributions and SFAPs in simulated microscopic muscle tissue in which the influence of the muscle boundary has been considered. We considered muscle models with radii of 1.5 mm and 10 mm. Both models were compared with an unbounded network model. In the model with a radius of 1.5 mm we varied the position of the active fibre relative to the muscle surface. It appeared that in most cases the presence of a boundary had a considerable effect on the potential distribution. An increase in the peak-to-peak value of the SFAP amplitude up to 300 per cent was noticed when the active fibre was positioned 500 microns beneath the muscle surface in a model with a radius of 1.5 mm.

  18. [Shape and amplitude of stimulating postsynaptic potentials in a neuronal model with an N-shaped volt-ampere characteristic of the dendritic membrane].

    PubMed

    Baginskas, A; Gutman, A

    1989-01-01

    We developed a model of a neuron with N-shaped current--voltage characteristic of dendritic membrane and studied the change of shape and amplitude of excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSP) when changing the place of synapses on dendrites. Local EPSP can activate slow inward current. Consequently, the EPSP amplitude does not always diminish when the rise- and decay-time increases. In some cases the rise- and decay-time of a more distant synapse may become shorter than that of the more approximate one. The common method of judging about the location of synapses by means of the shape of EPSPs may be wrong.

  19. A model of inward and outward membrane currents in cultured embryonic amphibian spinal neurons and reconstruction of the action potential.

    PubMed

    Barish, M E

    1985-01-01

    A model of the membrane currents in embryonic amphibian neurons has been developed in order to investigate the ionic mechanisms underlying developmental changes in excitability. Differentiating amphibian neurons both in situ and in vitro show a gradual change in the ionic sensitivity of their action potential from Ca- to Na-dependent, with an intermediate period in which the action potential shows a mixed ionic sensitivity. The model developed incorporates quantitative descriptions of Na, Ca and voltage-dependent K currents recorded (using whole-cell gigaohm-seal recording techniques) from presumptive neurons isolated from neural plate stage embryos of the axolotl Amblystoma during their in vitro differentiation. The kinetic descriptions of the currents were developed using the form of those of Hodgkin and Huxley. Na and K currents were modeled as voltage-dependent conductances showing m3h and n4 kinetics, respectively. Ca current was modeled (using the constant field relation) as a voltage-dependent permeability with s2 activation kinetics. Ca currents in whole-cell recordings were non-inactivating, and no inactivation mechanism was specified in the model. When modeled current amplitudes and kinetics were scaled as appropriate for a cell at an intermediate stage of differentiation (when the action potential recorded with microelectrodes shows a mixed Na- and Ca-dependence), the action potential predicted by the model showed a similar waveform and ionic dependence. The utility of this model lies in its ability to indicate the activity of each ionic current during an action potential at any developmental stage, and to unambiguously test the effects on neuronal excitability of alterations in the magnitude and/or kinetics of any of the ionic currents present in the membrane.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Association between P3 event-related potential amplitude and externalizing disorders: a time-domain and time-frequency investigation of 29-year-old adults.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Henry H; Malone, Stephen M; Burwell, Scott J; Bernat, Edward M; Iacono, William G

    2013-07-01

    This study determined whether time-domain P3 amplitude and time-frequency principal component (TF-PC) reductions are present in adulthood (age 29) when participants have largely passed through the age of heaviest substance misuse. Participants were assessed from age 17 through 29 for lifetime externalizing (EXT) disorders. EEG comparisons from three topographic regions were examined for P3 amplitude and TF-PCs at delta and theta frequency ranges. Significant P3 amplitude reductions were found in those with EXT for both regional and site-Pz analyses, with stronger effects observed the greater the EXT comorbidity. Reductions were also observed in all eight TF-PCs extracted, with a delta component yielding frontal effects not apparent in the time domain. Overall, results suggest that these brain measures continue, at age 29, to provide effective indices of EXT that potentially tap a neural substrate related to behavioral disinhibition.

  1. Conopressin affects excitability, firing, and action potential shape through stimulation of transient and persistent inward currents in mulluscan neurons.

    PubMed

    van Soest, P F; Kits, K S

    1998-04-01

    The molluscan vasopressin/oxytocin-related neuropeptide conopressin activates two persistent inward currents in neurons from the anterior lobe of the right cerebral ganglion of Lymnaea stagnalis that are involved in the control of male copulatory behavior. The low-voltage-activated (LVA) current is activated at a wide range of membrane potentials, its amplitude being only weakly voltage dependent. The high-voltage-activated (HVA) current is activated at potentials positive to -40 mV only and shows a steep voltage dependence. Occurrence of both currents varies from cell to cell, some expressing both and others only the HVA current. In most neurons that have the LVA current, a conopressin-independent persistent inward current (INSR) is found that resembles the HVA current in its voltage dependence. The functional importance of the LVA and HVA currents was studied under current-clamp conditions in isolated anterior lobe neurons. In cells exhibiting both current types, the effect of activation of the LVA current alone was investigated as follows: previously recorded LVA current profiles were injected into the neurons, and the effects were compared with responses induced by conopressin. Both treatments resulted in a strong depolarization and firing activity. No differences in firing frequency and burst duration were observed, indicating that activation of the LVA current is sufficient to evoke bursts. In cells exhibiting only the HVA current, the effect of conopressin on the response to a depolarizing stimulus was tested. Conopressin reversibly increased the number of action potentials generated by the stimulus, suggesting that the HVA current enhances excitability and counteracts accommodation. Conopressin enhanced action potential broadening during depolarizing stimuli in many neurons. Voltage-clamp experiments performed under ion-selective conditions revealed the presence of transient sodium and calcium currents. Using the action potential clamp technique, it was

  2. Real topological string amplitudes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narain, K. S.; Piazzalunga, N.; Tanzini, A.

    2017-03-01

    We discuss the physical superstring correlation functions in type I theory (or equivalently type II with orientifold) that compute real topological string amplitudes. We consider the correlator corresponding to holomorphic derivative of the real topological amplitude G_{χ } , at fixed worldsheet Euler characteristic χ. This corresponds in the low-energy effective action to N=2 Weyl multiplet, appropriately reduced to the orientifold invariant part, and raised to the power g' = -χ + 1. We show that the physical string correlator gives precisely the holomorphic derivative of topological amplitude. Finally, we apply this method to the standard closed oriented case as well, and prove a similar statement for the topological amplitude F_g.

  3. Comparative effects of clarithromycin on action potential and ionic currents from rabbit isolated atrial and ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Gluais, Pascale; Bastide, Michìle; Caron, Jacques; Adamantidis, Monique

    2003-04-01

    Prolongation of QT interval by several antibacterial drugs is an unwanted side effect that may be associated with development of ventricular arrhythmias. The macrolide antibacterial agent clarithromycin has been shown to cause QT prolongation. To determine the electrophysiologic basis for this arrhythmogenic potential, we investigated clarithromycin effects on (i). action potentials recorded from rabbit Purkinje fibers and atrial and ventricular myocardium using conventional microelectrodes and (ii). potassium and calcium currents recorded from rabbit atrial and ventricular isolated myocytes using whole-cell patch clamp recordings. We found that (i). clarithromycin (3-100 microM) exerted concentration-dependent lengthening effects on action potential duration in all tissues, with higher efficacy and reverse frequency-dependence in Purkinje fibers. However, clarithromycin did not cause development of early afterdepolarizations, and the parameters other than action potential duration were almost unaffected; (ii). clarithromycin (10-100 microM) reduced the delayed rectifier current. Significant blockade (approximately 30%) was found at the concentration of 30 microM. At 100 microM, it decreased significantly the maximum peak of the calcium current amplitude but failed to alter the transient outward and inwardly rectifier currents. It was concluded that these effects might be an explanation for the QT prolongation observed in some patients treated with clarithromycin.

  4. On the impact of examiners on latencies and amplitudes in cervical and ocular vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials evaluated over a large sample (N = 1,038).

    PubMed

    Ertl, Matthias; Boegle, R; Kirsch, V; Dieterich, M

    2016-02-01

    Vestibular-evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) are frequently used in the clinical diagnosis and research of vertigo syndromes. Altered latencies or amplitudes are typically interpreted as an indication of disturbance in the processing of vestibular stimuli along the otolithic pathways. Correct interpretation, however, can be difficult as VEMP amplitudes can vary greatly across subjects and across laboratories, likely because they are very sensitive to measurement conditions. Here, we attempted to quantify the impact of examiner differences on VEMP data. We collected data from 1,038 people using eight different experimental examiners, and investigated the effect of examiner on VEMP latencies and amplitudes. We found that the examiner collecting the data had a strong effect on outcome measures with significant differences (p < 0.001) in cVEMP and oVEMP latencies and in oVEMP amplitudes. No significant differences between examiners were found for the cVEMP amplitudes. When we compared the healthy and pathological sides of patients with a clinically diagnosed unilateral disease, no significant differences between sides were found. Given our results and the results reported in the literature, we conclude that the signal features of VEMPs are very sensitive to variables that may be influenced by the examiner. The field should therefore work on a better standard for VEMP recordings.

  5. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,…

  6. Understanding the Electrical Behavior of the Action Potential in Terms of Elementary Electrical Sources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez-Falces, Javier

    2015-01-01

    A concept of major importance in human electrophysiology studies is the process by which activation of an excitable cell results in a rapid rise and fall of the electrical membrane potential, the so-called action potential. Hodgkin and Huxley proposed a model to explain the ionic mechanisms underlying the formation of action potentials. However,…

  7. Tramadol, but not its major metabolite (mono-O-demethyl tramadol) depresses compound action potentials in frog sciatic nerves

    PubMed Central

    Katsuki, R; Fujita, T; Koga, A; Liu, T; Nakatsuka, T; Nakashima, M; Kumamoto, E

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: Although tramadol is known to exhibit a local anaesthetic effect, how tramadol exerts this effect is not understood fully. Experimental approach: The effects of tramadol and its metabolite mono-O-demethyl-tramadol (M1) on compound action potentials (CAPs) were examined by applying the air-gap method to frog sciatic nerves, and the results were compared with those of other local anaesthetics, lidocaine and ropivacaine. Key results: Tramadol reduced the peak amplitude of the CAP in a dose-dependent manner (IC50=2.3 mM). On the other hand, M1 (1–2 mM), which exhibits a higher affinity for μ-opioid receptors than tramadol, did not affect CAPs. These effects of tramadol were resistant to the non-selective opioid receptor antagonist naloxone and the μ-opioid receptor agonist, DAMGO, did not affect CAPs. This tramadol action was not affected by a combination of the noradrenaline uptake inhibitor, desipramine, and the 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake inhibitor, fluoxetine. Lidocaine and ropivacaine also concentration-dependently reduced CAP peak amplitudes with IC50 values of 0.74 and 0.34 mM, respectively. Conclusions and implications: These results indicate that tramadol reduces the peak amplitude of CAP in peripheral nerve fibres with a potency which is less than those of lidocaine and ropivacaine, whereas M1 has much less effect on CAPs. This action of tramadol was not produced by activation of μ-opioid receptors nor by inhibition of noradrenaline and 5-hydroxytryptamine uptake. It is suggested that the methyl group present in tramadol but not in M1 may play an important role in producing nerve conduction block. PMID:16921387

  8. Intracellular recordings of action potentials by an extracellular nanoscale field-effect transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duan, Xiaojie; Gao, Ruixuan; Xie, Ping; Cohen-Karni, Tzahi; Qing, Quan; Choe, Hwan Sung; Tian, Bozhi; Jiang, Xiaocheng; Lieber, Charles M.

    2012-03-01

    The ability to make electrical measurements inside cells has led to many important advances in electrophysiology. The patch clamp technique, in which a glass micropipette filled with electrolyte is inserted into a cell, offers both high signal-to-noise ratio and temporal resolution. Ideally, the micropipette should be as small as possible to increase the spatial resolution and reduce the invasiveness of the measurement, but the overall performance of the technique depends on the impedance of the interface between the micropipette and the cell interior, which limits how small the micropipette can be. Techniques that involve inserting metal or carbon microelectrodes into cells are subject to similar constraints. Field-effect transistors (FETs) can also record electric potentials inside cells, and because their performance does not depend on impedance, they can be made much smaller than micropipettes and microelectrodes. Moreover, FET arrays are better suited for multiplexed measurements. Previously, we have demonstrated FET-based intracellular recording with kinked nanowire structures, but the kink configuration and device design places limits on the probe size and the potential for multiplexing. Here, we report a new approach in which a SiO2 nanotube is synthetically integrated on top of a nanoscale FET. This nanotube penetrates the cell membrane, bringing the cell cytosol into contact with the FET, which is then able to record the intracellular transmembrane potential. Simulations show that the bandwidth of this branched intracellular nanotube FET (BIT-FET) is high enough for it to record fast action potentials even when the nanotube diameter is decreased to 3 nm, a length scale well below that accessible with other methods. Studies of cardiomyocyte cells demonstrate that when phospholipid-modified BIT-FETs are brought close to cells, the nanotubes can spontaneously penetrate the cell membrane to allow the full-amplitude intracellular action potential to be

  9. Determining electrically evoked compound action potential thresholds: A comparison of computer versus human analysis methods

    PubMed Central

    Glassman, E. Katelyn; Hughes, Michelle L.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives Current cochlear implants (CIs) have telemetry capabilities for measuring the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP). Neural Response Telemetry (NRT™; Cochlear) and Neural Response Imaging (NRI; Advanced Bionics [AB]) can measure ECAP responses across a range of stimulus levels to obtain an amplitude growth function. Software-specific algorithms automatically mark the leading negative peak, N1, and the following positive peak/plateau, P2, and apply linear regression to estimate ECAP threshold. Alternatively, clinicians may apply expert judgments to modify the peak markers placed by the software algorithms, and/or use visual detection to identify the lowest level yielding a measurable ECAP response. The goals of this study were to: (1) assess the variability between human and computer decisions for (a) marking N1 and P2, and (b) determination of linear regression threshold (LRT) and visual detection threshold (VDT); and (2) compare LRT and VDT methods within and across human and computer decision methods. Design ECAP amplitude growth functions were measured for three electrodes in each of 20 ears (10 Cochlear Nucleus® 24RE/CI512, and 10 AB CII/90K). LRT, defined as the current level yielding an ECAP with zero amplitude, was calculated for both computer- (C-LRT) and human-picked peaks (H-LRT). VDT, defined as the lowest level resulting in a measurable ECAP response, was also calculated for both computer- (C-VDT) and human-picked peaks (H-VDT). Because NRI assigns peak markers to all waveforms but does not include waveforms with amplitudes less than 20 μV in its regression calculation, C-VDT for AB subjects was defined as the lowest current level yielding an amplitude ≥20 μV. Results Overall, there were significant correlations between human and computer decisions for peak-marker placement, LRT, and VDT for both manufacturers (r = 0.78 to 1.00, p < 0.001). For Cochlear devices, LRT and VDT correlated equally well for both computer- and

  10. Developing Resources for Family Potential: A Family Action Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cromwell, Ronald E.; Thomas, Vicky L.

    1976-01-01

    This paper describes an application of basic concepts and theory from family life education in a community program for families. Following a review of background theory and philosophy, an action program model is presented and discussed. Experiences with the model are highlighted and implications for future work noted. (Author)

  11. Low Somatic Sodium Conductance Enhances Action Potential Precision in Time-Coding Auditory Neurons.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Ramamurthy, Bina; Neef, Andreas; Xu-Friedman, Matthew A

    2016-11-23

    Auditory nerve fibers encode sounds in the precise timing of action potentials (APs), which is used for such computations as sound localization. Timing information is relayed through several cell types in the auditory brainstem that share an unusual property: their APs are not overshooting, suggesting that the cells have very low somatic sodium conductance (gNa). However, it is not clear how gNa influences temporal precision. We addressed this by comparing bushy cells (BCs) in the mouse cochlear nucleus with T-stellate cells (SCs), which do have normal overshooting APs. BCs play a central role in both relaying and refining precise timing information from the auditory nerve, whereas SCs discard precise timing information and encode the envelope of sound amplitude. Nucleated-patch recording at near-physiological temperature indicated that the Na current density was 62% lower in BCs, and the voltage dependence of gNa inactivation was 13 mV hyperpolarized compared with SCs. We endowed BCs with SC-like gNa using two-electrode dynamic clamp and found that synaptic activity at physiologically relevant rates elicited APs with significantly lower probability, through increased activation of delayed rectifier channels. In addition, for two near-simultaneous synaptic inputs, the window of coincidence detection widened significantly with increasing gNa, indicating that refinement of temporal information by BCs is degraded by gNa Thus, reduced somatic gNa appears to be an adaption for enhancing fidelity and precision in time-coding neurons.

  12. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Arthritis of the hand can limit a person’s ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Methods Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. Results All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. Discussion We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception. PMID:22575001

  13. Sensory nerve action potentials and sensory perception in women with arthritis of the hand.

    PubMed

    Calder, Kristina M; Martin, Alison; Lydiate, Jessica; MacDermid, Joy C; Galea, Victoria; MacIntyre, Norma J

    2012-05-10

    Arthritis of the hand can limit a person's ability to perform daily activities. Whether or not sensory deficits contribute to the disability in this population remains unknown. The primary purpose of this study was to determine if women with osteoarthritis (OA) or rheumatoid arthritis (RA) of the hand have sensory impairments. Sensory function in the dominant hand of women with hand OA or RA and healthy women was evaluated by measuring sensory nerve action potentials (SNAPs) from the median, ulnar and radial nerves, sensory mapping (SM), and vibratory and current perception thresholds (VPT and CPT, respectively) of the second and fifth digits. All SNAP amplitudes were significantly lower for the hand OA and hand RA groups compared with the healthy group (p < 0.05). No group differences were found for SNAP conduction velocities, SM, VPT, and CPT. We propose, based on these findings, that women with hand OA or RA may have axonal loss of sensory fibers in the median, ulnar and radial nerves. Less apparent were losses in conduction speed or sensory perception.

  14. Ionic mechanisms underlying human atrial action potential properties: insights from a mathematical model.

    PubMed

    Courtemanche, M; Ramirez, R J; Nattel, S

    1998-07-01

    The mechanisms underlying many important properties of the human atrial action potential (AP) are poorly understood. Using specific formulations of the K+, Na+, and Ca2+ currents based on data recorded from human atrial myocytes, along with representations of pump, exchange, and background currents, we developed a mathematical model of the AP. The model AP resembles APs recorded from human atrial samples and responds to rate changes, L-type Ca2+ current blockade, Na+/Ca2+ exchanger inhibition, and variations in transient outward current amplitude in a fashion similar to experimental recordings. Rate-dependent adaptation of AP duration, an important determinant of susceptibility to atrial fibrillation, was attributable to incomplete L-type Ca2+ current recovery from inactivation and incomplete delayed rectifier current deactivation at rapid rates. Experimental observations of variable AP morphology could be accounted for by changes in transient outward current density, as suggested experimentally. We conclude that this mathematical model of the human atrial AP reproduces a variety of observed AP behaviors and provides insights into the mechanisms of clinically important AP properties.

  15. Spatiotemporal reconstruction of auditory steady-state responses to acoustic amplitude modulations: Potential sources beyond the auditory pathway.

    PubMed

    Farahani, Ehsan Darestani; Goossens, Tine; Wouters, Jan; van Wieringen, Astrid

    2017-03-01

    Investigating the neural generators of auditory steady-state responses (ASSRs), i.e., auditory evoked brain responses, with a wide range of screening and diagnostic applications, has been the focus of various studies for many years. Most of these studies employed a priori assumptions regarding the number and location of neural generators. The aim of this study is to reconstruct ASSR sources with minimal assumptions in order to gain in-depth insight into the number and location of brain regions that are activated in response to low- as well as high-frequency acoustically amplitude modulated signals. In order to reconstruct ASSR sources, we applied independent component analysis with subsequent equivalent dipole modeling to single-subject EEG data (young adults, 20-30 years of age). These data were based on white noise stimuli, amplitude modulated at 4, 20, 40, or 80Hz. The independent components that exhibited a significant ASSR were clustered among all participants by means of a probabilistic clustering method based on a Gaussian mixture model. Results suggest that a widely distributed network of sources, located in cortical as well as subcortical regions, is active in response to 4, 20, 40, and 80Hz amplitude modulated noises. Some of these sources are located beyond the central auditory pathway. Comparison of brain sources in response to different modulation frequencies suggested that the identified brain sources in the brainstem, the left and the right auditory cortex show a higher responsiveness to 40Hz than to the other modulation frequencies.

  16. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 channels differentially regulate action potential initiation and conduction in neocortical myelinated axons.

    PubMed

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C; Kole, Maarten H P

    2014-03-05

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of K(v)7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Na(v)) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these K(v)7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Na(v) channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined K(v)7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. K(v)7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ~12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm(-2) (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by K(v)7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (~15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic K(v)7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal K(v)7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains K(v)7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Na(v) channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, K(v)7 clustering near axonal Na(v) channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential.

  17. Heteromeric Kv7.2/7.3 Channels Differentially Regulate Action Potential Initiation and Conduction in Neocortical Myelinated Axons

    PubMed Central

    Battefeld, Arne; Tran, Baouyen T.; Gavrilis, Jason; Cooper, Edward C.

    2014-01-01

    Rapid energy-efficient signaling along vertebrate axons is achieved through intricate subcellular arrangements of voltage-gated ion channels and myelination. One recently appreciated example is the tight colocalization of Kv7 potassium channels and voltage-gated sodium (Nav) channels in the axonal initial segment and nodes of Ranvier. The local biophysical properties of these Kv7 channels and the functional impact of colocalization with Nav channels remain poorly understood. Here, we quantitatively examined Kv7 channels in myelinated axons of rat neocortical pyramidal neurons using high-resolution confocal imaging and patch-clamp recording. Kv7.2 and 7.3 immunoreactivity steeply increased within the distal two-thirds of the axon initial segment and was mirrored by the conductance density estimates, which increased from ∼12 (proximal) to 150 pS μm−2 (distal). The axonal initial segment and nodal M-currents were similar in voltage dependence and kinetics, carried by Kv7.2/7.3 heterotetramers, 4% activated at the resting membrane potential and rapidly activated with single-exponential time constants (∼15 ms at 28 mV). Experiments and computational modeling showed that while somatodendritic Kv7 channels are strongly activated by the backpropagating action potential to attenuate the afterdepolarization and repetitive firing, axonal Kv7 channels are minimally recruited by the forward-propagating action potential. Instead, in nodal domains Kv7.2/7.3 channels were found to increase Nav channel availability and action potential amplitude by stabilizing the resting membrane potential. Thus, Kv7 clustering near axonal Nav channels serves specific and context-dependent roles, both restraining initiation and enhancing conduction of the action potential. PMID:24599470

  18. On the excitation of action potentials by protons and its potential implications for cholinergic transmission.

    PubMed

    Fillafer, Christian; Schneider, Matthias F

    2016-03-01

    One of the most conserved mechanisms for transmission of a nerve pulse across a synapse relies on acetylcholine (ACh). Ever since the Nobel Prize-winning works of Dale and Loewi, it has been assumed that ACh-subsequent to its action on a postsynaptic cell-is split into inactive by-products by acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Herein, the widespread assumption of inactivity of ACh's hydrolysis products is falsified. Excitable cells (Chara braunii internodes), which had previously been unresponsive to ACh, became ACh-sensitive in the presence of AChE. The latter was evidenced by a striking difference in cell membrane depolarization upon exposure to 10 mM intact ACh (∆V = -2 ± 5 mV) and its hydrolysate (∆V = 81 ± 19 mV), respectively, for 60 s. This pronounced depolarization, which also triggered action potentials, was clearly attributed to one of the hydrolysis products: acetic acid (∆V = 87 ± 9 mV at pH 4.0; choline ineffective in the range 1-10 mM). In agreement with our findings, numerous studies in the literature have reported that acids excite gels, lipid membranes, plant cells, erythrocytes, as well as neurons. Whether excitation of the postsynaptic cell in a cholinergic synapse is due to protons or due to intact ACh is a most fundamental question that has not been addressed so far.

  19. My action lasts longer: Potential link between subjective time and agency during voluntary action.

    PubMed

    Imaizumi, Shu; Asai, Tomohisa

    2017-05-01

    Time perception distorts across different phases of bodily movement. During motor execution, sensory feedback matching an internal sensorimotor prediction is perceived to last longer. The sensorimotor prediction also underlies sense of agency. We investigated association between subjective time and agency during voluntary action. Participants performed hand action while watching a video feedback of their hand with various delays to manipulate agency. The perceived duration and agency over the video feedback were judged. Minimal delay of the video feedback resulted in longer perceived duration than the actual duration and stronger agency, while substantial feedback delay resulted in shorter perceived duration and weaker agency. These fluctuations of perceived duration and agency were nullified by the feedback of other's hand instead of their own, but not by inverted feedback from a third-person perspective. Subjective time during action might be associated with agency stemming from sensorimotor prediction, and self-other distinction based on bodily appearance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. The role of potassium and sodium-calcium exchange currents in the action potential durations of normal Purkinje fibres and Purkinje fibres surviving infarction.

    PubMed

    Bril, A; Man, R Y

    1989-05-01

    Ventricular arrhythmias following myocardial infarction may originate from subendocardial Purkinje fibres in the infarcted area. The role of potassium and sodium-calcium exchange currents on action potential duration was therefore investigated in Purkinje fibres surviving infarction and in normal Purkinje fibres. Barium was used to reduce potassium conductance and replacement of sodium chloride by lithium chloride was used to reduce the sodium-calcium exchange current. Barium (1 x 10(-5) to 3 x 10(-5) M) produced a concentration dependent lengthening of action potential duration in normal Purkinje fibres but these concentrations had no effect in Purkinje fibres surviving infarction. The resting membrane potential, activation voltage, amplitude and Vmax were decreased in Purkinje fibres surviving infarction and in barium treated fibres v normal Purkinje fibres. These results show that action potential characteristics of barium treated normal Purkinje fibres closely resemble those seen in Purkinje fibres surviving infarction. A similar reduction of action potential duration was seen in normal Purkinje fibres, fibres surviving infarction and barium treated fibres when the sodium "window" current was decreased by lignocaine. Without any effect on the Vmax, the replacement of sodium chloride by lithium chloride resulted in a similar effect on the action potential duration in normal Purkinje fibres and fibres surviving infarction. The results show that the longer action potential duration found in Purkinje fibres surviving infarction can be explained by a decrease of the potassium conductance and not by an increase of the sodium "window" current or the sodium-calcium exchange current.

  1. Time-varying coupling of EEG oscillations predicts excitability fluctuations in the primary motor cortex as reflected by motor evoked potentials amplitude: an EEG-TMS study.

    PubMed

    Ferreri, Florinda; Vecchio, Fabrizio; Ponzo, David; Pasqualetti, Patrizio; Rossini, Paolo Maria

    2014-05-01

    Motor evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by a train of consecutive, individual transcranial magnetic stimuli demonstrate fluctuations in amplitude with respect to time when recorded from a relaxed muscle. The influence of time-varying, instantaneous modifications of the electroencephalography (EEG) properties immediately preceding the transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) has rarely been explored. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of the pre-TMS motor cortex and related areas EEG profile on time variants of the MEPs amplitude. MRI-navigated TMS and multichannel TMS-compatible EEG devices were used. For each experimental subject, post-hoc analysis of the MEPs amplitude that was based on the 50th percentile of the MEPs amplitude distribution provided two subgroups corresponding to "high" (large amplitude) and "low" (small amplitude). The pre-stimulus EEG characteristics (coherence and spectral profile) from the motor cortex and related areas were analyzed separately for the "high" and "low" MEPs and were then compared. On the stimulated hemisphere, EEG coupling was observed more often in the high compared to the low MEP trials. Moreover, a paradigmatic pattern in which TMS was able to lead to significantly larger MEPs was found when the EEG of the stimulated motor cortex was coupled in the beta 2 band with the ipsilateral prefrontal cortex and in the delta band with the bilateral centro-parietal-occipital cortices. This data provide evidence for a statistically significant influence of time-varying and spatially patterned synchronization of EEG rhythms in determining cortical excitability, namely motor cortex excitability in response to TMS. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. An experimental study of postoperative monitoring for innervated free muscle graft by the compound muscle action potential in rabbits.

    PubMed

    Tan, Soo-Heong; Shigetomi, Mitsunori; Doi, Kazuteru

    2012-07-01

    This experiment establishes the principles of using the compound muscle action potential (CMAP) as a possible postoperative monitor for free muscle grafts. Twenty rabbits were divided into two groups of ten each to investigate the effects of ischemia on CMAP of the muscles. Rectus femoris model was used and contralateral muscle was used as control. In all muscles total normothermic ischemia of 1.5 hours to mimic the time needed for transfer and inset of the flap was followed by occlusion of the artery in one group and vein in another group after 3 hours. During this ischemia of 1 hour, the CMAP amplitudes decreased and the latencies were prolonged. Latency prolongation was detected within 10 minutes of total, arterial, or venous ischemia. During the revascularization, both amplitude and latency improved, but not to the original values at the start. The results show that CMAP monitoring can provide easily detectable, objective indication of vascular compromise to a muscle graft within as early as 10 minutes of total, arterial, and venous ischemia. Changes in latency are more constant and predictable compared with amplitude changes. This method can provide continuous monitoring and can be used in buried muscle grafts.

  3. Oxidative shift in tissue redox potential increases beat-to-beat variability of action potential duration.

    PubMed

    Kistamás, Kornél; Hegyi, Bence; Váczi, Krisztina; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Magyar, János; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Nánási, Péter P

    2015-07-01

    Profound changes in tissue redox potential occur in the heart under conditions of oxidative stress frequently associated with cardiac arrhythmias. Since beat-to-beat variability (short term variability, SV) of action potential duration (APD) is a good indicator of arrhythmia incidence, the aim of this work was to study the influence of redox changes on SV in isolated canine ventricular cardiomyocytes using a conventional microelectrode technique. The redox potential was shifted toward a reduced state using a reductive cocktail (containing dithiothreitol, glutathione, and ascorbic acid) while oxidative changes were initiated by superfusion with H2O2. Redox effects were evaluated as changes in "relative SV" determined by comparing SV changes with the concomitant APD changes. Exposure of myocytes to the reductive cocktail decreased SV significantly without any detectable effect on APD. Application of H2O2 increased both SV and APD, but the enhancement of SV was the greater, so relative SV increased. Longer exposure to H2O2 resulted in the development of early afterdepolarizations accompanied by tremendously increased SV. Pretreatment with the reductive cocktail prevented both elevation in relative SV and the development of afterdepolarizations. The results suggest that the increased beat-to-beat variability during an oxidative stress contributes to the generation of cardiac arrhythmias.

  4. Potential effects of intrinsic heart pacemaker cell mechanisms on dysrhythmic cardiac action potential firing

    PubMed Central

    Yaniv, Yael; Tsutsui, Kenta; Lakatta, Edward G.

    2015-01-01

    The heart's regular electrical activity is initiated by specialized cardiac pacemaker cells residing in the sinoatrial node. The rate and rhythm of spontaneous action potential firing of sinoatrial node cells are regulated by stochastic mechanisms that determine the level of coupling of chemical to electrical clocks within cardiac pacemaker cells. This coupled-clock system is modulated by autonomic signaling from the brain via neurotransmitter release from the vagus and sympathetic nerves. Abnormalities in brain-heart clock connections or in any molecular clock activity within pacemaker cells lead to abnormalities in the beating rate and rhythm of the pacemaker tissue that initiates the cardiac impulse. Dysfunction of pacemaker tissue can lead to tachy-brady heart rate alternation or exit block that leads to long atrial pauses and increases susceptibility to other cardiac arrhythmia. Here we review evidence for the idea that disturbances in the intrinsic components of pacemaker cells may be implemented in arrhythmia induction in the heart. PMID:25755643

  5. Ionic differences between somatic and axonal action potentials in snail giant neurones

    PubMed Central

    Wald, Flora

    1972-01-01

    1. The ionic requirements of the somatic and axonal action potentials of `H' neurones of the snail Cryptomphallus aspersa were studied using intracellular micro-electrodes. 2. The overshoot of the somatic action potential increased by 10 mV for a tenfold increase in [Ca2+]o. In calcium-free media the action potential decreased gradually to values of 50 to 90% of the control and they could be completely eliminated with 2 mM-EGTA. The maximum rate of rise also varied with [Ca2+]o. 3. After 2 hr in sodium-free solution the somatic action potential decreased 6% in overshoot and 24% in rate of rise. 4. The somatic action potential was not affected by TTX, 5 × 10-6 g/ml. Procaine, 18 mM, reduced its rate of rise but did not eliminate it whereas 30 mM-CoCl2 did. 5. The size of the axonal action potential increased with increased [Na+]o, but decreased with an increase in [Ca2+]o. 6. Procaine, 18 mM, abolished the axonal action potential whereas it was not affected by TTX, 5 × 10-6 g/ml., nor, usually, by 30 mM-CoCl2. 7. The results obtained by studying the compound action potential of the nerves were similar to those from axonal action potentials. 8. The possibility that the somatic action potential is mainly calcium dependent while the axonal action potential is mainly produced by sodium is discussed. PMID:5014099

  6. Dynamics of Action Potential Initiation in the GABAergic Thalamic Reticular Nucleus In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold. PMID:22279567

  7. Dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus in vivo.

    PubMed

    Muñoz, Fabián; Fuentealba, Pablo

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the neural mechanisms of action potential generation is critical to establish the way neural circuits generate and coordinate activity. Accordingly, we investigated the dynamics of action potential initiation in the GABAergic thalamic reticular nucleus (TRN) using in vivo intracellular recordings in cats in order to preserve anatomically-intact axo-dendritic distributions and naturally-occurring spatiotemporal patterns of synaptic activity in this structure that regulates the thalamic relay to neocortex. We found a wide operational range of voltage thresholds for action potentials, mostly due to intrinsic voltage-gated conductances and not synaptic activity driven by network oscillations. Varying levels of synchronous synaptic inputs produced fast rates of membrane potential depolarization preceding the action potential onset that were associated with lower thresholds and increased excitability, consistent with TRN neurons performing as coincidence detectors. On the other hand the presence of action potentials preceding any given spike was associated with more depolarized thresholds. The phase-plane trajectory of the action potential showed somato-dendritic propagation, but no obvious axon initial segment component, prominent in other neuronal classes and allegedly responsible for the high onset speed. Overall, our results suggest that TRN neurons could flexibly integrate synaptic inputs to discharge action potentials over wide voltage ranges, and perform as coincidence detectors and temporal integrators, supported by a dynamic action potential threshold.

  8. Antimalarial action of hydroxamate-based iron chelators and potentiation of desferrioxamine action by reversed siderophores.

    PubMed Central

    Golenser, J; Tsafack, A; Amichai, Y; Libman, J; Shanzer, A; Cabantchik, Z I

    1995-01-01

    Hydroxamate-based chelators of iron are potent inhibitors of in vitro growth of Plasmodium falciparum. Two types of such chelators, the natural desferrioxamine and the synthetic reversed siderophore RSFileum2, are prototypes of antimalarial agents whose action spectra differ in the speed of action, stage dependence, and degree of reversibility of effects. This work explores the possibility of improving the antimalarial efficacy of these agents by using them in various combinations on in vitro cultures of P. falciparum. Growth assessment was based both on total nucleic acid synthesis and on parasitemia. The results indicate that the synthetic reversed siderophore more than complements the antimalarial action of desferrioxamine when applied during either ring, trophozoite, or mixed stages. The combined drug effects were significantly higher than the additive effect of the individual drugs. Qualitatively similar results were obtained for both reversible effects and irreversible (i.e., sustained) effects. Following an 8-h window of exposure the combined drug treatment caused parasite growth arrest and prevented its recovery, even 3 days after the treatment. The fact that such a combination of iron chelators displays a wider action spectrum than either drug alone has implications for the design of chemotherapy regimens. PMID:7695330

  9. Reactive species modify NaV1.8 channels and affect action potentials in murine dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Schink, Martin; Leipolcf, Enrico; Schirmeyer, Jana; Schönherr, Roland; Hoshi, Toshinori; Heinemann, Stefan H.

    2016-01-01

    Dorsal root ganglia (DRG) neurons are important relay stations between the periphery and the central nervous system and are essential for somatosensory signaling. Reactive species are produced in a variety of physiological and pathophysiological conditions and are known to alter electric signaling. Here we studied the influence of reactive species on the electrical properties of DRG neurons from mice with the whole-cell patch-clamp method. Even mild stress induced by either low concentrations of chloramine-T (10 µM) or low-intensity blue-light irradiation profoundly diminished action potential frequency but prolonged single action potentials in wild-type neurons. The impact on evoked action potentials was much smaller in neurons deficient of the tetrodotoxin (TTX)-resistant voltage-gated sodium channel NaV1.8 (NaV1.8−/−), the channel most important for the action potential upstroke in DRG neurons. Low concentrations of chloramine-T caused a significant reduction of NaV1.8 peak current and at higher concentrations progressively slowed down inactivation. Blue light had a smaller effect on amplitude but slowed down NaV1.8 channel inactivation. The observed effects were less apparent for TTX-sensitive NaV channels. NaV1.8 is an important reactive-species-sensitive component in the electrical signaling of DRG neurons, potentially giving rise to loss-of-function and gain-of-function phenomena depending on the type of reactive species and their effective concentration and time of exposure. PMID:26383867

  10. Cannabinoid receptor agonists potentiate action potential-independent release of GABA in the dentate gyrus through a CB1 receptor-independent mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Mackenzie E; Bhatia, Chinki; Frazier, Charles J

    2011-01-01

    Abstract We report a novel excitatory effect of cannabinoid agonists on action potential-independent GABAergic transmission in the rat dentate gyrus. Specifically, we find that both WIN55,212-2 and anandamide increase the frequency of miniature IPSCs (mIPSCs) recorded from hilar mossy cells without altering event amplitude, area, rise time, or decay. The effect of WIN55,212-2 on mIPSCs is insensitive to AM251 and preserved in CB1−/− animals, indicating that it does not depend on activation of CB1 receptors. It is also insensitive to AM630 and unaffected by capsazepine suggesting that neither CB2 nor TRPV1 receptors are involved. Further, it is blocked by pre-incubation in suramin and by a selective protein kinase A inhibitor (H-89), and is mimicked (and occluded) by bath application of forskolin. Similar CB1 receptor-independent facilitation of exocytosis is not apparent when recording evoked IPSCs in the presence of AM251, suggesting that the exocytotic mechanism that produces WIN55,212-2 sensitive mIPSCs is distinct from that which produces CB1 sensitive and action potential-dependent release. Despite clear independence from action potentials, WIN55,212-2 mediated facilitation of mIPSCs requires calcium, and yet is insensitive to chelation of calcium in the postsynaptic cell. Finally, we demonstrate that both bath application of 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) and depolarization-induced release of endogenous cannabinoids have minimal effect on mIPSC frequency. Cumulatively, our results indicate that cannabinoid ligands can selectively facilitate action potential-independent exocytosis of GABA in the rat dentate gyrus, and further emphasize that this new cannabinoid sensitive signalling system is distinct from previously described CB1 receptor-dependent systems in numerous respects. PMID:21646412

  11. Determination of cable parameters in skeletal muscle fibres during repetitive firing of action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Riisager, Anders; Duehmke, Rudy; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard; Huang, Christopher L; Pedersen, Thomas Holm

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies in rat muscle fibres show that repetitive firing of action potentials causes changes in fibre resting membrane conductance (Gm) that reflect regulation of ClC-1 Cl− and KATP K+ ion channels. Methodologically, these findings were obtained by inserting two microelectrodes at close proximity in the same fibres enabling measurements of fibre input resistance (Rin) in between action potential trains. Since the fibre length constant (λ) could not be determined, however, the calculation of Gm relied on the assumptions that the specific cytosolic resistivity (Ri) and muscle fibre volume remained constant during the repeated action potential firing. Here we present a three-microelectrode technique that enables determinations of multiple cable parameters in action potential-firing fibres including Rin and λ as well as waveform and conduction velocities of fully propagating action potentials. It is shown that in both rat and mouse extensor digitorum longus (EDL) fibres, action potential firing leads to substantial changes in both muscle fibre volume and Ri. The analysis also showed, however, that regardless of these changes, rat and mouse EDL fibres both exhibited initial decreases in Gm that were eventually followed by a ∼3-fold, fully reversible increase in Gm after the firing of 1450–1800 action potentials. Using this three-electrode method we further show that the latter rise in Gm was closely associated with excitation failures and loss of action potential signal above −20 mV. PMID:25128573

  12. Systematic review of compound action potentials as predictors for cochlear implant performance.

    PubMed

    van Eijl, Ruben H M; Buitenhuis, Patrick J; Stegeman, Inge; Klis, Sjaak F L; Grolman, Wilko

    2017-02-01

    The variability in speech perception between cochlear implant users is thought to result from the degeneration of the auditory nerve. Degeneration of the auditory nerve, histologically assessed, correlates with electrophysiologically acquired measures, such as electrically evoked compound action potentials (eCAPs) in experimental animals. To predict degeneration of the auditory nerve in humans, where histology is impossible, this paper reviews the correlation between speech perception and eCAP recordings in cochlear implant patients. PubMed and Embase. We performed a systematic search for articles containing the following major themes: cochlear implants, evoked potentials, and speech perception. Two investigators independently conducted title-abstract screening, full-text screening, and critical appraisal. Data were extracted from the remaining articles. Twenty-five of 1,429 identified articles described a correlation between speech perception and eCAP attributes. Due to study heterogeneity, a meta-analysis was not feasible, and studies were descriptively analyzed. Several studies investigating presence of the eCAP, recovery time constant, slope of the amplitude growth function, and spatial selectivity showed significant correlations with speech perception. In contrast, neural adaptation, eCAP threshold, and change with varying interphase gap did not significantly correlate with speech perception in any of the identified studies. Significant correlations between speech perception and parameters obtained through eCAP recordings have been documented in literature; however, reporting was ambiguous. There is insufficient evidence for eCAPs as a predictive factor for speech perception. More research is needed to further investigate this relation. Laryngoscope, 2016 127:476-487, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  13. Prolonged modification of action potential shape by synaptic inputs in molluscan neurones.

    PubMed

    Winlow, W

    1985-01-01

    1. Somatic action potentials of Lymnaea neurons are modified by excitatory or inhibitory synaptic inputs and have been studied using phase-plane techniques and an action potential duration monitor. 2. Excitatory synaptic inputs increase the rate of neuronal discharge, cause action potential broadening, a decrease in the maximum rate of depolarization (Vd) and a decrease in the maximum rate of repolarization (Vr). 3. Inhibitory synaptic inputs decrease the discharge rate and cause narrowing of action potentials, an increase in Vd and an increase in Vr. 4. The effects reported above outlast the original synaptic inputs by many seconds and, if the somatic action potentials are similar to those in the axon terminals, they may have far-reaching effects on transmitter release.

  14. Acute Effect of Pore-Forming Clostridium perfringens ε-Toxin on Compound Action Potentials of Optic Nerve of Mouse.

    PubMed

    Cases, Mercè; Llobet, Artur; Terni, Beatrice; Gómez de Aranda, Inmaculada; Blanch, Marta; Doohan, Briain; Revill, Alexander; Brown, Angus M; Blasi, Juan; Solsona, Carles

    2017-01-01

    ε-Toxin is a pore forming toxin produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D. It is synthesized as a less active prototoxin form that becomes fully active upon proteolytic activation. The toxin produces highly lethal enterotoxaemia in ruminants, has the ability to cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and specifically binds to myelinated fibers. We discovered that the toxin induced a release of ATP from isolated mice optic nerves, which are composed of myelinated fibers that are extended from the central nervous system. We also investigated the effect of the toxin on compound action potentials (CAPs) in isolated mice optic nerves. When nerves were stimulated at 100 Hz during 200 ms, the decrease of the amplitude and the area of the CAPs was attenuated in the presence of ε-toxin. The computational modelling of myelinated fibers of mouse optic nerve revealed that the experimental results can be mimicked by an increase of the conductance of myelin and agrees with the pore forming activity of the toxin which binds to myelin and could drill it by making pores. The intimate ultrastructure of myelin was not modified during the periods of time investigated. In summary, the acute action of the toxin produces a subtle functional impact on the propagation of the nerve action potential in myelinated fibers of the central nervous system with an eventual desynchronization of the information. These results may agree with the hypothesis that the toxin could be an environmental trigger of multiple sclerosis (MS).

  15. Nitrous oxide directly inhibits action potential-dependent neurotransmission from single presynaptic boutons adhering to rat hippocampal CA3 neurons.

    PubMed

    Wakita, Masahito; Kotani, Naoki; Yamaga, Toshitaka; Akaike, Norio

    2015-09-01

    We evaluated the effects of N2O on synaptic transmission using a preparation of mechanically dissociated rat hippocampal CA3 neurons that allowed assays of single bouton responses evoked from native functional nerve endings. We studied the effects of N2O on GABAA, glutamate, AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents (IGABA, IGlu, IAMPA and INMDA) elicited by exogenous application of GABA, glutamate, (S)-AMPA, and NMDA and spontaneous, miniature, and evoked GABAergic inhibitory and glutamatergic excitatory postsynaptic current (sIPSC, mIPSC, eIPSC, sEPSC, mEPSC and eEPSC) in mechanically dissociated CA3 neurons. eIPSC and eEPSC were evoked by focal electrical stimulation of a single bouton. Administration of 70% N2O altered neither IGABA nor the frequency and amplitude of both sIPSCs and mIPSCs. In contrast, N2O decreased the amplitude of eIPSCs, while increasing failure rates (Rf) and paired-pulse ratios (PPR) in a concentration-dependent manner. On the other hand, N2O decreased IGlu, IAMPA and INMDA. Again N2O did not change the frequency and amplitude of either sEPSCs of mEPSCs. N2O also decreased amplitudes of eEPSCs with increased Rf and PPR. The decay phases of all synaptic responses were unchanged. The present results indicated that N2O inhibits the activation of AMPA/KA and NMDA receptors and also that N2O preferentially depress the action potential-dependent GABA and glutamate releases but had little effects on spontaneous and miniature releases.

  16. Genotoxic potential of glyphosate formulations: mode-of-action investigations.

    PubMed

    Heydens, William F; Healy, Charles E; Hotz, Kathy J; Kier, Larry D; Martens, Mark A; Wilson, Alan G E; Farmer, Donna R

    2008-02-27

    A broad array of in vitro and in vivo assays has consistently demonstrated that glyphosate and glyphosate-containing herbicide formulations (GCHF) are not genotoxic. Occasionally, however, related and contradictory data are reported, including findings of mouse liver and kidney DNA adducts and damage following intraperitoneal (ip) injection. Mode-of-action investigations were therefore undertaken to determine the significance of these contradictory data while concurrently comparing results from ip and oral exposures. Exposure by ip injection indeed produced marked hepatic and renal toxicity, but oral administration did not. The results suggest that ip injection of GCHF may induce secondary effects mediated by local toxicity rather than genotoxicity. Furthermore, these results continue to support the conclusion that glyphosate and GCHF are not genotoxic under exposure conditions that are relevant to animals and humans.

  17. Neuroactive steroids have multiple actions to potentiate GABAA receptors.

    PubMed

    Akk, Gustav; Bracamontes, John R; Covey, Douglas F; Evers, Alex; Dao, Tim; Steinbach, Joe Henry

    2004-07-01

    The effects of neuroactive steroids on the function of GABAA receptors were studied using cell-attached records of single channel activity recorded from HEK293 cells transfected with alpha1 beta2 gamma2L subunits. Activity was elicited with a half-maximal (50 microM) concentration of GABA. Two steroids were studied in detail: ACN ((3alpha,5alpha,17beta)-3-hydroxyandrostane-17-carbonitrile) and B285 ((3alpha,5beta,17beta)-3-hydroxy-18-norandrostane-17-carbonitrile). Four effects on channel activity were seen, two on open time distributions and two on closed times. When clusters of openings were elicited in the absence of steroid, the open time distribution contained three components. ACN produced concentration-dependent alterations in the open time distribution. The prevalence of the longest duration class of open times was increased from about 15% to about 40% (EC50 about 180 nM ACN), while the duration of the longest class increased from 7.4 ms to 27 ms (EC50 about 35 nM ACN). B285 also increased the prevalence of the longest duration open times (EC50 about 18 nM B285) but increased the duration only at concentrations close to 10 microM. The differences in the actions of these two steroids suggest that the effects on proportion and duration of the long duration open time component are produced by independent mechanisms and that there are separate recognition sites for the steroids which are associated with the two functional actions. The closed time distributions also showed three components in the absence of steroid. The rate of occurrence of the two brief duration closed time components decreased with increasing ACN, with an EC50 of about 50 nM ACN. In contrast, B285 did not reduce the rate of occurrence of the brief closings until high concentrations were applied. However, both B285 and ACN reduced the rate of occurrence of the activation-related closed state selectively, with comparable IC50 concentrations (about 40 nM ACN, 20 nM B285). As in the case for

  18. Epidermal laser stimulation of action potentials in the frog sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jindra, Nichole M.; Goddard, Douglas; Imholte, Michelle; Thomas, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of laser-stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) are made using two infrared lasers. The dorsal sides of the frog's hind limbs are exposed to short-pulsed 1540- and 1064-nm wavelengths at three separate spot sizes: 2, 3, and 4 mm. Energy density thresholds are determined for eliciting an action potential at each experimental condition. Results from these exposures show similar evoked potential thresholds for both wavelengths. The 2-mm-diam spot sizes yield action potentials at radiant exposure levels almost double that seen with larger beam sizes.

  19. Age and hypertrophy related changes in contractile post-rest behavior and action potential properties in isolated rat myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Quan; Schuettel, Manuela; Thomas, Daniel; Dreiner, Ulrike; Grohé, Christian; Meyer, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    “Physiological” aging as well as early and progressive cardiac hypertrophy may affect action potential (AP) pattern, contractile function, and Ca2+ handling. We hypothesize that contractile function is disturbed in hypertrophy from early stages and is differently affected in aged myocardium. In vivo function, cardiomyocyte contractile behavior and APs were compared in Wistar-Kyoto (WIS) rats and spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) at different ages and degrees of hypertrophy (3–4, 9–11, 20–24 months). Post-rest (PR) behavior was used to investigate the relative contribution of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) and the Na/Ca exchanger (NCX) to cytosolic Ca2+ removal. APs were recorded by whole-cell current-clamp and sarcomere shortening by video microscopy. Cyclopiazonic acid was used to suppress Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) function. Heart weight/body weight ratio was increased in SHR versus WIS within all age groups. Myocyte steady state (SS) shortening amplitude was reduced in young SHR versus WIS. Aging led to a significant decay of SS contractile amplitude and relengthening velocity in WIS, but the PR potentiation was maintained. In contrast, aging in SHR led to a decrease of PR potentiation, while SS contraction and relengthening velocity increased. APD50% was always prolonged in SHR versus WIS. With aging, APD50% increased in both WIS and SHR, but was still shorter in WIS. However, in old WIS the late AP portion (APD90%) was prolonged. Ca2+ handling and AP properties are disturbed progressively with aging and with increasing hypertrophy. Decreased amplitude of shortening and velocity of relengthening in aged WIS may be attributed to reduced SERCA function. In SHR, an increase in SR leak and shift towards transmembraneous Ca handling via NCX may be responsible for the changes in contractile function. A prolonged APD90% in aged WIS may be an adaptive mechanism to preserve basal contractility. Therefore, the effects on contractile parameters and AP are

  20. Cross-correlation of instantaneous amplitudes of field potential oscillations: a straightforward method to estimate the directionality and lag between brain areas

    PubMed Central

    Adhikari, Avishek; Sigurdsson, Torfi; Topiwala, Mihir A.; Gordon, Joshua A.

    2010-01-01

    Researchers performing multi-site recordings are often interested in identifying the directionality of functional connectivity and estimating lags between sites. Current techniques for determining directionality require spike trains or involve multivariate autoregressive modeling. However, it is often difficult to sample large numbers of spikes from multiple areas simultaneously, and modeling can be sensitive to noise. A simple, model-independent method to estimate directionality and lag using local field potentials (LFPs) would be of general interest. Here we describe such a method using the cross-correlation of the instantaneous amplitudes of filtered LFPs. The method involves four steps. First, LFPs are band-pass filtered; second, the instantaneous amplitude of the filtered signals is calculated; third, these amplitudes are cross-correlated and the lag at which the cross-correlation peak occurs is determined; fourth, the distribution of lags obtained is tested to determine if it differs from zero. This method was applied to LFPs recorded from the ventral hippocampus and the medial prefrontal cortex in awake behaving mice. The results demonstrate that the hippocampus leads the mPFC, in good agreement with the time lag calculated from the phase locking of mPFC spikes to vHPC LFP oscillations in the same dataset. We also compare the amplitude cross-correlation method to partial directed coherence, a commonly used multivariate autoregressive model-dependent method, and find that the former is more robust to the effects of noise. These data suggest that the cross-correlation of instantaneous amplitude of filtered LFPs is a valid method to study the direction of flow of information across brain areas. PMID:20600317

  1. Ventricular action potential adaptation to regular exercise: role of β-adrenergic and KATP channel function.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xinrui; Fitts, Robert H

    2017-08-01

    Regular exercise training is known to affect the action potential duration (APD) and improve heart function, but involvement of β-adrenergic receptor (β-AR) subtypes and/or the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel is unknown. To address this, female and male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to voluntary wheel-running or control groups; they were anesthetized after 6-8 wk of training, and myocytes were isolated. Exercise training significantly increased APD of apex and base myocytes at 1 Hz and decreased APD at 10 Hz. Ca(2+) transient durations reflected the changes in APD, while Ca(2+) transient amplitudes were unaffected by wheel running. The nonselective β-AR agonist isoproterenol shortened the myocyte APD, an effect reduced by wheel running. The isoproterenol-induced shortening of APD was largely reversed by the selective β1-AR blocker atenolol, but not the β2-AR blocker ICI 118,551, providing evidence that wheel running reduced the sensitivity of the β1-AR. At 10 Hz, the KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide prolonged the myocyte APD more in exercise-trained than control rats, implicating a role for this channel in the exercise-induced APD shortening at 10 Hz. A novel finding of this work was the dual importance of altered β1-AR responsiveness and KATP channel function in the training-induced regulation of APD. Of physiological importance to the beating heart, the reduced response to adrenergic agonists would enhance cardiac contractility at resting rates, where sympathetic drive is low, by prolonging APD and Ca(2+) influx; during exercise, an increase in KATP channel activity would shorten APD and, thus, protect the heart against Ca(2+) overload or inadequate filling.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Our data demonstrated that regular exercise prolonged the action potential and Ca(2+) transient durations in myocytes isolated from apex and base regions at 1-Hz and shortened both at 10-Hz stimulation. Novel findings were that wheel running shifted the

  2. Layer I neurons of rat neocortex. I. Action potential and repetitive firing properties.

    PubMed

    Zhou, F M; Hablitz, J J

    1996-08-01

    1. Whole cell patch-clamp techniques, combined with direct visualization of neurons, were used to study action potential (AP) and repetitive firing properties of layer I neurons in slices of rat neocortex. 2. Layer I neurons had resting membrane potentials (RMP) of -59.8 +/- 4.7 mV (mean +/- SD) and input resistances (RN) of 592 +/- 284 M Omega. Layer II/III pyramidal neurons had RMPs and RNs of -61.5 +/- 5.6 mV and 320 +/- 113 M omega, respectively. A double exponential function was needed to describe the charging curves of both neuron types. In layer I neurons, tau(0) was 45 +/- 22 ms and tau(1) was 5 +/- 3.3 ms whereas in layer II/III pyramidal neurons, tau(0) was 41 +/- 11 ms and tau(1) was 3 +/- 2.6 ms. Estimates of specific membrane resistance (Rm) for layer I and layer II/III cells were 45 +/- 22 and 41 +/- 11 k omega cm2, respectively (Cm was assumed to be 1 microF/cm2). 3. AP threshold was -41 +/- 2 mV in layer I neurons. Spike amplitudes, measured from threshold to peak, were 90.6 +/- 7.7 mV. AP durations, measured both at the base and half maximal amplitude, were 2.5 +/- 0.4 and 1.1 +/- 0.2 ms, respectively. AP 10-90% rise and repolarization times were 0.6 +/- 0.1 and 1.1 +/- 0.2 ms, respectively. In layer II/III pyramidal neurons, AP threshold was -41 +/- 2.5 mV and spike amplitude was 97 +/- 9.7 mV. AP duration at base and half maximal amplitude was 5.4 +/- 1.1 ms and 1.8 +/- 0.2 ms, respectively. AP 10-90% rise and decay times were 0.6 +/- 0.1 ms and 2.8 +/- 0.6 ms, respectively. 4. Layer I neurons were fast spiking cells that showed little frequency adaptation, a large fast afterhyperpolarization (fAHP), and no slow afterhyperpolarization (sAHP). Some cells had a medium afterhyperpolarization (mAHP) and a slow afterdepolarization (sADP). All pyramidal cells in layer II/III and "atypical" pyramidal neurons in upper layer II showed regular spiking behavior, prominent frequency adaptation, and marked sAHPs. 5. In both layer I neurons and layer II

  3. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crago, Patrick E.; Makowski, Nathaniel S.

    2014-10-01

    Objective. Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main results. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  4. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location.

    PubMed

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathaniel S

    2014-10-01

    Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic interventions involving motor or sensory stimulation.

  5. Alteration of neural action potential patterns by axonal stimulation: the importance of stimulus location

    PubMed Central

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathan S

    2014-01-01

    Objective Stimulation of peripheral nerves is often superimposed on ongoing motor and sensory activity in the same axons, without a quantitative model of the net action potential train at the axon endpoint. Approach We develop a model of action potential patterns elicited by superimposing constant frequency axonal stimulation on the action potentials arriving from a physiologically activated neural source. The model includes interactions due to collision block, resetting of the neural impulse generator, and the refractory period of the axon at the point of stimulation. Main Results Both the mean endpoint firing rate and the probability distribution of the action potential firing periods depend strongly on the relative firing rates of the two sources and the intersite conduction time between them. When the stimulus rate exceeds the neural rate, neural action potentials do not reach the endpoint and the rate of endpoint action potentials is the same as the stimulus rate, regardless of the intersite conduction time. However, when the stimulus rate is less than the neural rate, and the intersite conduction time is short, the two rates partially sum. Increases in stimulus rate produce non-monotonic increases in endpoint rate and continuously increasing block of neurally generated action potentials. Rate summation is reduced and more neural action potentials are blocked as the intersite conduction time increases.. At long intersite conduction times, the endpoint rate simplifies to being the maximum of either the neural or the stimulus rate. Significance This study highlights the potential of increasing the endpoint action potential rate and preserving neural information transmission by low rate stimulation with short intersite conduction times. Intersite conduction times can be decreased with proximal stimulation sites for muscles and distal stimulation sites for sensory endings. The model provides a basis for optimizing experiments and designing neuroprosthetic

  6. Identifying the components of a postsynaptic potential and their amplitude, latency and shape fluctuations: analysis by means of autocovariance functions and a stochastic infinite cable model.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Octavio; Rudomín, Pablo

    2003-03-30

    In addition to amplitude fluctuations, physiological mechanisms may introduce latency and shape fluctuations in the components of a postsynaptic potential (PSP). Latency fluctuations may be originated mainly by presynaptic factors. Shape fluctuations may be produced by changes in the background synaptic activity received by the postsynaptic neuron, which affect the cell membrane resistance. This article aims to develop a unified approach for the analysis of amplitude, latency and shape fluctuations in the components of a PSP. The analysis is based on: (i) the Autocovariance Functions of the PSP (ACOVs); (ii) a mathematical model able to predict the average and ACOVs of a PSP with specified components and fluctuations (the 'Stochastic Infinite Cable Model' (SICM)); and (iii) a procedure to estimate the SICM parameters that best reproduce the average and ACOVs of a given PSP (the 'SICM-based PSP identification procedure' (SICM-IP)). The SICM-IP is tested with simulated PSPs. The results obtained support the feasibility of the approach.

  7. A model for compound action potentials and currents in a nerve bundle. III: A comparison of the conduction velocity distributions calculated from compound action currents and potentials.

    PubMed

    Wijesinghe, R S; Gielen, F L; Wikswo, J P

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we present the experimentally measured Compound Action Current (CACs) and Compound Action Potentials (CAPs) from frog sciatic nerves and earthworm nerve cords. We used histologically prepared cross sections of these nerve bundles to determine the distribution of fiber diameters. A modified volume conduction model that includes frequency-dependent conductivities was used to compute the Single Fiber Action Signals (SFASs). The recorded CACs and CAPs are used to predict the Conduction Velocity Distributions (CVDs) from the nerve bundles. The predicted CVDs are then compared with the histological CVDs. Analysis of Compound Action Signals from the three giant axons in the earthworm nerve cord and microelectrode data for the transmembrane action potential demonstrate the validity of our mathematical model. We found that the CVDs predicted from the recorded CACs and CAPs differ from the histological CVD for a variety of reasons. The validity of the assumption of a linear relationship between axon diameter and conduction velocity of a propagating action signal was investigated using CVDs from both the CAC and CAP. Variations of the CVDs with the propagation distance of the CASs and the recording temperature were investigated.

  8. Quantitative motor unit action potential analysis of supraspinatus, infraspinatus, deltoideus and biceps femoris muscles in adult Royal Dutch sport horses.

    PubMed

    Jose-Cunilleras, E; Wijnberg, I D

    2016-03-01

    Reference values for quantitative electromyography (QEMG) in shoulder and hindlimb muscles of horses are limited. To determine normative data on QEMG analysis of supraspinatus (SS), infraspinatus (IS), deltoideus (DT) and biceps femoris (BF) muscles. Experimental observational study and retrospective case series. Seven adult healthy Royal Dutch sport horses underwent quantitative motor unit action potential analysis of each muscle using commercial electromyography equipment. Measurements were made according to published methods. One-way ANOVA was used to compare quantitative motor unit action potential variables between muscles, with post hoc testing according to Bonferroni, with significance set at P<0.05. The QEMG and clinical information from horses with lower motor neuron disorders (n = 7) or myopathy (n = 4) were summarised retrospectively. The 95% confidence intervals of duration, amplitude, phases, turns, area and size index of quantitative motor unit action potential were 8.7-10.4 ms, 651-867 μV, 3.2-3.7, 3.7-4.7, 1054-1457 μV·ms and 1.1-1.5 for SS, 9.6-11.0 ms, 779-1082 μV, 3.3-3.7, 3.8-4.7, 1349-2204 μV·ms and 1.4-1.9 for IS, 6.0-9.1 ms, 370-691 μV, 2.9-3.7, 2.8-4.5, 380-1374 μV·ms and 0.3-1.3 for DT and 5.7-7.8 ms, 265-385 μV, 2.7-3.2, 2.6-3.1, 296-484 μV·ms and 0.2-0.5 for BF, respectively. Mean duration, amplitude, number of phases and turns, area and size index were significantly (P<0.01) higher in SS and IS than in DT and BF muscles. In addition, 4 of 7 normal horses had >15% polyphasic motor unit action potentials in SS and IS muscles. Differences between muscles should be taken into account when performing QEMG in order to be able to distinguish normal horses from horses with suspected neurogenic or myogenic disorders. These normal data provide the basis for objective QEMG assessment of shoulder and hindlimb muscles. Quantitative electromyography appears to be helpful in diagnosing neuropathies and discriminating

  9. Inducing repetitive action potential firing in neurons via synthesized photoresponsive nanoscale cellular prostheses.

    PubMed

    Lu, Siyuan; Madhukar, Anupam

    2013-02-01

    Recently we reported an analysis that examined the potential of synthesized photovoltaic functional abiotic nanosystems (PVFANs) to modulate membrane potential and activate action potential firing in neurons. Here we extend the analysis to delineate the requirements on the electronic energy levels and the attendant photophysical properties of the PVFANs to induce repetitive action potential under continuous light, a capability essential for the proposed potential application of PVFANs as retinal cellular prostheses to compensate for loss of photoreceptors. We find that repetitive action potential firing demands two basic characteristics in the electronic response of the PVFANs: an exponential dependence of the PVFAN excited state decay rate on the membrane potential and a three-state system such that, following photon absorption, the electron decay from the excited state to the ground state is via intermediate state(s) whose lifetime is comparable to the refractory time following an action potential. In this study, the potential of synthetic photovoltaic functional abiotic nanosystems (PVFANs) is examined under continuous light to modulate membrane potential and activate action potential firing in neurons with the proposed potential application of PVFANs as retinal cellular prostheses. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Cochlear Nerve Action Potential Monitoring for Preserving Function of an Unseen Cochlear Nerve in Vestibular Schwannoma Surgery.

    PubMed

    Ishikawa, Mami; Kojima, Atsuhiro; Terao, Satoshi; Nagai, Mutsumi; Kusaka, Gen; Naritaka, Heiji

    2017-07-26

    Intraoperative monitoring of cochlear nerve action potential (CNAP) has been used in patients with small vestibular schwannoma (<15 mm) to preserve cochlear nerve function. We performed surgery for a larger vestibular schwannoma under CNAP monitoring with the aim of preserving cochlear nerve function, and compared the data with findings from 10 patients with hemifacial spasm who underwent microvascular decompression surgery. We report the case of a patient with a 26-mm vestibular schwannoma and normal hearing function who underwent neurosurgery under electrophysiological monitoring of the facial and cochlear nerves. Amplitudes of evoked facial muscle responses were maintained at approximately 70% during the operation. The latency of wave V on brainstem auditory evoked potential (BAEP) increased by 0.5 ms, and amplitude was maintained at approximately 70% of the value at the beginning of the operation. Latencies of P1, N1, and P2 on CNAP did not change intraoperatively. These latencies were comparable to those of 10 normal patients with hemifacial spasm. CNAP monitoring proved very useful in confirming the location of the cochlear nerve in the operative field and preserving cochlear nerve function. Both facial nerve function and hearing acuity were completely preserved after tumor removal, and wave V latency on BAEP returned to normal and was maintained in the normal range for at least 2 years. CNAP monitoring is extremely useful for preserving the function of the unseen cochlear nerve during vestibular schwannoma surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Gene networks activated by specific patterns of action potentials in dorsal root ganglia neurons

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Philip R.; Cohen, Jonathan E.; Iacobas, Dumitru A.; Iacobas, Sanda; Fields, R. Douglas

    2017-01-01

    Gene regulatory networks underlie the long-term changes in cell specification, growth of synaptic connections, and adaptation that occur throughout neonatal and postnatal life. Here we show that the transcriptional response in neurons is exquisitely sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential firing patterns. Neurons were electrically stimulated with the same number of action potentials, but with different inter-burst intervals. We found that these subtle alterations in the timing of action potential firing differentially regulates hundreds of genes, across many functional categories, through the activation or repression of distinct transcriptional networks. Our results demonstrate that the transcriptional response in neurons to environmental stimuli, coded in the pattern of action potential firing, can be very sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential delivery rather than the intensity of stimulation or the total number of action potentials delivered. These data identify temporal kinetics of action potential firing as critical components regulating intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression in neurons to extracellular cues during early development and throughout life. PMID:28256583

  12. Reconstruction of action potential of repolarization in patients with congenital long-QT syndrome

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kandori, Akihiko; Shimizu, Wataru; Yokokawa, Miki; Kamakura, Shiro; Miyatake, Kunio; Murakami, Masahiro; Miyashita, Tsuyoshi; Ogata, Kuniomi; Tsukada, Keiji

    2004-05-01

    A method for reconstructing an action potential during the repolarization period was developed. This method uses a current distribution—plotted as a current-arrow map (CAM)—calculated using magnetocardiogram (MCG) signals. The current arrows are summarized during the QRS complex period and subtracted during the ST-T wave period in order to reconstruct the action-potential waveform. To ensure the similarity between a real action potential and the reconstructed action potential using CAM, a monophasic action potential (MAP) and an MCG of the same patient with type-I long-QT syndrome were measured. Although the MAP had one notch that was associated with early afterdepolarization (EAD), the reconstructed action potential had two large and small notches. The small notch timing agreed with the occurrence of the EAD in the MAP. On the other hand, the initiation time of an abnormal current distribution coincides with the appearance timing of the first large notch, and its end time coincides with that of the second small notch. These results suggest that a simple reconstruction method using a CAM based on MCG data can provide a similar action-potential waveform to a MAP waveform without having to introduce a catheter.

  13. The dependence of plateau currents in cardiac Purkinje fibres on the interval between action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Hauswirth, O.; Noble, D.; Tsien, R. W.

    1972-01-01

    1. The influence of diastolic interval on ionic currents that may determine the action potential duration in cardiac Purkinje fibres was investigated. As the diastolic interval is shortened from about 5 sec, the first effect on the action potential is to reduce and then abolish the notch at the beginning of the plateau. 2. This effect corresponds to the influence of diastolic interval on the magnitude of a transient outward chloride current known as the `dynamic current'. 3. Further shortening of the diastolic interval produces a slight shortening of the action potential until intervals less than about 500 msec are used. The action potential then becomes considerably shorter. The `time constant' of decay of this major influence of one action potential on the duration of the subsequent action potential is about 200 msec. 4. This effect corresponds to the time course of decay of an outward (mainly K) current known as ix1. 5. It is shown that variations in the magnitude of ix1 may be responsible for the alternation in action potential duration at the beginning of a train of stimuli known as `electrical alternans'. 6. The results in general are consistent with the view that ix1 is the main current involved in determining the interval—duration relation although they cannot exclude the possibility that an inward current with a reavailability time course similar to the decay time course of ix1 might also be involved. PMID:4113958

  14. Gene networks activated by specific patterns of action potentials in dorsal root ganglia neurons.

    PubMed

    Lee, Philip R; Cohen, Jonathan E; Iacobas, Dumitru A; Iacobas, Sanda; Fields, R Douglas

    2017-03-03

    Gene regulatory networks underlie the long-term changes in cell specification, growth of synaptic connections, and adaptation that occur throughout neonatal and postnatal life. Here we show that the transcriptional response in neurons is exquisitely sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential firing patterns. Neurons were electrically stimulated with the same number of action potentials, but with different inter-burst intervals. We found that these subtle alterations in the timing of action potential firing differentially regulates hundreds of genes, across many functional categories, through the activation or repression of distinct transcriptional networks. Our results demonstrate that the transcriptional response in neurons to environmental stimuli, coded in the pattern of action potential firing, can be very sensitive to the temporal nature of action potential delivery rather than the intensity of stimulation or the total number of action potentials delivered. These data identify temporal kinetics of action potential firing as critical components regulating intracellular signalling pathways and gene expression in neurons to extracellular cues during early development and throughout life.

  15. Disruption of action potential and calcium signaling properties in malformed myofibers from dystrophin-deficient mice.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Pratt, Stephen J P; Garcia-Pelagio, Karla P; Schneider, Martin F; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-04-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and severe muscular dystrophy, is caused by the absence of dystrophin. Muscle weakness and fragility (i.e., increased susceptibility to damage) are presumably due to structural instability of the myofiber cytoskeleton, but recent studies suggest that the increased presence of malformed/branched myofibers in dystrophic muscle may also play a role. We have previously studied myofiber morphology in healthy wild-type (WT) and dystrophic (MDX) skeletal muscle. Here, we examined myofiber excitability using high-speed confocal microscopy and the voltage-sensitive indicator di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS) to assess the action potential (AP) properties. We also examined AP-induced Ca(2+) transients using high-speed confocal microscopy with rhod-2, and assessed sarcolemma fragility using elastimetry. AP recordings showed an increased width and time to peak in malformed MDX myofibers compared to normal myofibers from both WT and MDX, but no significant change in AP amplitude. Malformed MDX myofibers also exhibited reduced AP-induced Ca(2+) transients, with a further Ca(2+) transient reduction in the branches of malformed MDX myofibers. Mechanical studies indicated an increased sarcolemma deformability and instability in malformed MDX myofibers. The data suggest that malformed myofibers are functionally different from myofibers with normal morphology. The differences seen in AP properties and Ca(2+) signals suggest changes in excitability and remodeling of the global Ca(2+) signal, both of which could underlie reported weakness in dystrophic muscle. The biomechanical changes in the sarcolemma support the notion that malformed myofibers are more susceptible to damage. The high prevalence of malformed myofibers in dystrophic muscle may contribute to the progressive strength loss and fragility seen in dystrophic muscles. © 2015 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley

  16. Action potential duration determines sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ reloading in mammalian ventricular myocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bassani, Rosana A; Altamirano, Julio; Puglisi, José L; Bers, Donald M

    2004-01-01

    After sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ depletion in intact ventricular myocytes, electrical activity promotes SR Ca2+ reloading and recovery of twitch amplitude. In ferret, recovery of twitch and caffeine-induced contracture required fewer twitches than in rabbit or rat. In rat, there was no difference in action potential duration at 90% repolarization (APD90) at steady state (SS) versus at the first post-depletion (PD) twitch. The SS APD90 was similar in ferret and rabbit (but longer than in rat). However, compared to SS, the PD APD90 was lengthened in ferret, but shortened in rabbit. When rabbit myocytes were subjected to AP-clamp patterns during SR Ca2+ reloading (ferret- or rabbit-type APs), reloading was much faster using the ferret AP templates. We conclude that the faster SR Ca2+ refilling in ferret is due to the increased Ca2+ influx during the longer PD AP. The PD versus SS APD90 difference was suppressed by thapsigargin in ferret (indicating Ca2+ dependence). In rabbit, the PD AP shortening depended on the preceding diastolic interval (rather than Ca2+), because rest produced the same AP shortening, and SS APD90 increased as a function of frequency (in contrast to ferret). Transient outward current (Ito) was larger and recovered from inactivation much faster in ferret than in rabbit. Moreover, slow Ito recovery (τ ∼ 3 s) in rabbit was a much larger fraction of Ito. Our data and a computational model (including two Ito components) suggest that in rabbit the slowly recovering Ito is responsible for short post-rest and PD APs, for the unusual frequency dependence of APD90, and ultimately for the slower post-depletion SR Ca2+ reloading. PMID:15243136

  17. Dynamics of the late Na(+) current during cardiac action potential and its contribution to afterdepolarizations.

    PubMed

    Horvath, Balazs; Banyasz, Tamas; Jian, Zhong; Hegyi, Bence; Kistamas, Kornel; Nanasi, Peter P; Izu, Leighton T; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2013-11-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the contribution of late Na(+) current (INa,L) to the cardiac action potential (AP) and arrhythmogenic activities. In spite of the rapidly growing interest toward this current, there is no publication available on experimental recording of the dynamic INa,L current as it flows during AP with Ca(2+) cycling. Also unknown is how the current profile changes when the Ca(2+)-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling is altered, and how the current contributes to the development of arrhythmias. In this study we use an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to directly record the INa,L current during the AP with Ca(2+) cycling in the guinea pig ventricular myocytes. First, we found that the magnitude of INa,L measured under AP-clamp is substantially larger than earlier studies indicated. CaMKII inhibition using KN-93 significantly reduced the current. Second, we recorded INa,L together with IKs, IKr, and IK1 in the same cell to understand how these currents counterbalance to shape the AP morphology. We found that the amplitude and the total charge carried by INa,L exceed that of IKs. Third, facilitation of INa,L by Anemone toxin II prolonged APD and induced Ca(2+) oscillations that led to early and delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered APs; these arrhythmogenic activities were eliminated by buffering Ca(2+) with BAPTA. In conclusion, INa,L contributes a significantly large inward current that prolongs APD and unbalances the Ca(2+) homeostasis to cause arrhythmogenic APs.

  18. Dynamics of the Late Na+ current during cardiac action potential and its contribution to afterdepolarizations

    PubMed Central

    Horvath, Balazs; Banyasz, Tamas; Jian, Zhong; Hegyi, Bence; Kistamas, Kornel; Nanasi, Peter P.; Izu, Leighton T.; Chen-Izu, Ye

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work is to examine the contribution of late Na+ current (INa,L) to the cardiac action potential (AP) and arrhythmogenic activities. In spite of the rapidly growing interest toward this current, there is no publication available on experimental recording of the dynamic INa,L current as it flows during AP with Ca2+ cycling. Also unknown is how the current profile changes when the Ca2+-calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) signaling is altered, and how the current contributes to the development of arrhythmias. In this study we use an innovative AP-clamp Sequential Dissection technique to directly record the INa,L current during the AP with Ca2+ cycling in the guinea pig ventricular myocytes. First, we found that the magnitude of INa,L measured under AP-clamp is substantially larger than earlier studies indicated. CaMKII inhibition using KN-93 significantly reduced the current. Second, we recorded INa,L together with IKs, IKr, and IK1 in the same cell to understand how these currents counterbalance to shape the AP morphology. We found that the amplitude and the total charge carried by INa,L exceed that of IKs. Third, facilitation of INa,L by Anemone toxin II prolonged APD and induced Ca2+ oscillations that led to early and delayed afterdepolarizations and triggered APs; these arrhythmogenic activities were eliminated by buffering Ca2+ with BAPTA. In conclusion, INa,L contributes a significantly large inward current that prolongs APD and unbalances the Ca2+ homeostasis to cause arrhythmogenic APs. PMID:24012538

  19. Disruption of action potential and calcium signaling properties in malformed myofibers from dystrophin-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Ochoa, Erick O; Pratt, Stephen J P; Garcia-Pelagio, Karla P; Schneider, Martin F; Lovering, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), the most common and severe muscular dystrophy, is caused by the absence of dystrophin. Muscle weakness and fragility (i.e., increased susceptibility to damage) are presumably due to structural instability of the myofiber cytoskeleton, but recent studies suggest that the increased presence of malformed/branched myofibers in dystrophic muscle may also play a role. We have previously studied myofiber morphology in healthy wild-type (WT) and dystrophic (MDX) skeletal muscle. Here, we examined myofiber excitability using high-speed confocal microscopy and the voltage-sensitive indicator di-8-butyl-amino-naphthyl-ethylene-pyridinium-propyl-sulfonate (di-8-ANEPPS) to assess the action potential (AP) properties. We also examined AP-induced Ca2+ transients using high-speed confocal microscopy with rhod-2, and assessed sarcolemma fragility using elastimetry. AP recordings showed an increased width and time to peak in malformed MDX myofibers compared to normal myofibers from both WT and MDX, but no significant change in AP amplitude. Malformed MDX myofibers also exhibited reduced AP-induced Ca2+ transients, with a further Ca2+ transient reduction in the branches of malformed MDX myofibers. Mechanical studies indicated an increased sarcolemma deformability and instability in malformed MDX myofibers. The data suggest that malformed myofibers are functionally different from myofibers with normal morphology. The differences seen in AP properties and Ca2+ signals suggest changes in excitability and remodeling of the global Ca2+ signal, both of which could underlie reported weakness in dystrophic muscle. The biomechanical changes in the sarcolemma support the notion that malformed myofibers are more susceptible to damage. The high prevalence of malformed myofibers in dystrophic muscle may contribute to the progressive strength loss and fragility seen in dystrophic muscles. PMID:25907787

  20. Inhibition by morphine and its analogs of action potentials in adult rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.

    PubMed

    Mizuta, Kotaro; Fujita, Tsugumi; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2012-09-01

    Although opioids inhibit action potential (AP) conduction in primary-afferent fibers, this has not yet been fully examined. We investigated by using the sharp glass microelectrode technique how opioids (morphine, codeine, and ethylmorphine) affect APs recorded from adult rat dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in response to sciatic nerve stimulation. The DRG neurons were classified into three types, Aα/β, Aδ, and C, according to AP characteristics, including the fiber conduction velocity (CV) of the neuron. AP of the Aα/β neuron was reduced in peak amplitude by each of the opioids in a reversible and concentration-dependent manner. The potency sequence was ethylmorphine > codeine = morphine (IC(50) = 0.70, 2.5, and 2.9 mM, respectively), indicating that this AP inhibition is related to the chemical structure of the opioid. Each of the Aδ and C neuron APs was also inhibited by the opioids; ethylmorphine had a tendency to inhibit APs more effectively than codeine and morphine. This inhibition was variable in extent among neurons and was either comparable to or greater than that of the Aα/β neuron AP. The opioid-induced AP inhibitions were unaffected by nonspecific opioid-receptor antagonist naloxone; opioid-receptor agonists did not affect APs. In conclusion, the opioids inhibited APs in DRG neurons without opioid-receptor activation; this inhibition was different among neurons having different primary-afferent fiber CVs and also among the three kinds of opioid. The inhibition by opioid of primary-afferent fiber AP conduction is suggested to be distinct in extent among fibers conveying distinct types of nociceptive information. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Digital nerve action potentials in healthy subjects, and in carpal tunnel and diabetic patients

    PubMed Central

    Casey, E. B.; Quesne, Pamela M. Le

    1972-01-01

    A technique is described for stimulating and recording from nerves in the finger using surface electrodes. A decrease in amplitude and velocity was found with increasing age. In control subjects the digital potential was approximately one and a half times larger than the potential recorded at the wrist. In patients with carpal tunnel syndrome there was some reduction in amplitude and velocity of the digital potential, but the changes were more marked at the wrist. In diabetic patients more uniform changes were found in the two segments. The technique was particularly useful in enabling conduction velocity to be calculated in the digital nerves when no potential could be recorded at the wrist. PMID:5084132

  2. Novel experimental results in human cardiac electrophysiology: measurement of the Purkinje fibre action potential from the undiseased human heart.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Norbert; Szél, Tamás; Jost, Norbert; Tóth, András; Gy Papp, Julius; Varró, András

    2015-09-01

    Data obtained from canine cardiac electrophysiology studies are often extrapolated to the human heart. However, it has been previously demonstrated that because of the lower density of its K(+) currents, the human ventricular action potential has a less extensive repolarization reserve. Since the relevance of canine data to the human heart has not yet been fully clarified, the aim of the present study was to determine for the first time the action potentials of undiseased human Purkinje fibres (PFs) and to compare them directly with those of dog PFs. All measurements were performed at 37 °C using the conventional microelectrode technique. At a stimulation rate of 1 Hz, the plateau potential of human PFs is more positive (8.0 ± 1.8 vs 8.6 ± 3.4 mV, n = 7), while the amplitude of the spike is less pronounced. The maximal rate of depolarization is significantly lower in human PKs than in canine PFs (406.7 ± 62 vs 643 ± 36 V/s, respectively, n = 7). We assume that the appreciable difference in the protein expression profiles of the 2 species may underlie these important disparities. Therefore, caution is advised when canine PF data are extrapolated to humans, and further experiments are required to investigate the characteristics of human PF repolarization and its possible role in arrhythmogenesis.

  3. Mathematical Distinction in Action Potential between Primo-Vessels and Smooth Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Seong-Jin; Lee, Sang-Hun; Zhang, Wenji; Lee, Sae-Bhom; Choi, Kwang-Ho; Choi, Sun-Mi; Ryu, Yeon-Hee

    2012-01-01

    We studied the action potential of Primo-vessels in rats to determine the electrophysiological characteristics of these structures. We introduced a mathematical analysis method, a normalized Fourier transform that displays the sine and cosine components separately, to compare the action potentials of Primo-vessels with those for the smooth muscle. We found that Primo-vessels generated two types of action potential pulses that differed from those of smooth muscle: (1) Type I pulse had rapid depolarizing and repolarizing phases, and (2) Type II pulse had a rapid depolarizing phase and a gradually slowing repolarizing phase. PMID:22319544

  4. Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential.

    PubMed

    Eickenscheidt, Max; Zeck, Günther

    2014-06-01

    The initiation of an action potential by extracellular stimulation occurs after local depolarization of the neuronal membrane above threshold. Although the technique shows remarkable clinical success, the site of action and the relevant stimulation parameters are not completely understood. Here we identify the site of action potential initiation in rabbit retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) interfaced to an array of extracellular capacitive stimulation electrodes. We determine which feature of the extracellular potential governs action potential initiation by simultaneous stimulation and recording RGCs interfaced in epiretinal configuration. Stimulation electrodes were combined to areas of different size and were presented at different positions with respect to the RGC. Based on stimulation by electrodes beneath the RGC soma and simultaneous sub-millisecond latency measurement we infer axonal initiation at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential. Stimulation by electrodes at different positions along the axon reveals a nearly constant threshold current density except for a narrow region close to the cell soma. These findings are explained by the concept of the activating function modified to consider a region of lower excitability close to the cell soma. We present a framework how to estimate the site of action potential initiation and the stimulus required to cross threshold in neurons tightly interfaced to capacitive stimulation electrodes. Our results underscore the necessity of rigorous electrical characterization of the stimulation electrodes and of the interfaced neural tissue.

  5. Action potentials in retinal ganglion cells are initiated at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eickenscheidt, Max; Zeck, Günther

    2014-06-01

    Objective. The initiation of an action potential by extracellular stimulation occurs after local depolarization of the neuronal membrane above threshold. Although the technique shows remarkable clinical success, the site of action and the relevant stimulation parameters are not completely understood. Approach. Here we identify the site of action potential initiation in rabbit retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) interfaced to an array of extracellular capacitive stimulation electrodes. We determine which feature of the extracellular potential governs action potential initiation by simultaneous stimulation and recording RGCs interfaced in epiretinal configuration. Stimulation electrodes were combined to areas of different size and were presented at different positions with respect to the RGC. Main results. Based on stimulation by electrodes beneath the RGC soma and simultaneous sub-millisecond latency measurement we infer axonal initiation at the site of maximal curvature of the extracellular potential. Stimulation by electrodes at different positions along the axon reveals a nearly constant threshold current density except for a narrow region close to the cell soma. These findings are explained by the concept of the activating function modified to consider a region of lower excitability close to the cell soma. Significance. We present a framework how to estimate the site of action potential initiation and the stimulus required to cross threshold in neurons tightly interfaced to capacitive stimulation electrodes. Our results underscore the necessity of rigorous electrical characterization of the stimulation electrodes and of the interfaced neural tissue.

  6. Inhibition of the compound action potentials of frog sciatic nerves by aroma oil compounds having various chemical structures.

    PubMed

    Ohtsubo, Sena; Fujita, Tsugumi; Matsushita, Akitomo; Kumamoto, Eiichi

    2015-03-01

    Plant-derived chemicals including aroma oil compounds have an ability to inhibit nerve conduction and modulate transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Although applying aroma oils to the skin produces a local anesthetic effect, this has not been yet examined throughly. The aim of the present study was to know how nerve conduction inhibitions by aroma oil compounds are related to their chemical structures and whether these activities are mediated by TRP activation. Compound action potentials (CAPs) were recorded from the frog sciatic nerve by using the air-gap method. Citral (aldehyde), which activates various types of TRP channels, attenuated the peak amplitude of CAP with the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) value of 0.46 mmol/L. Another aldehyde (citronellal), alcohol (citronellol, geraniol, (±)-linalool, (-)-linalool, (+)-borneol, (-)-borneol, α-terpineol), ester (geranyl acetate, linalyl acetate, bornyl acetate), and oxide (rose oxide) compounds also reduced CAP peak amplitudes (IC50: 0.50, 0.35, 0.53, 1.7, 2.0, 1.5, 2.3, 2.7, 0.51, 0.71, 0.44, and 2.6 mmol/L, respectively). On the other hand, the amplitudes were reduced by a small extent by hydrocarbons (myrcene and p-cymene) and ketone (camphor) at high concentrations (2-5 mmol/L). The activities of citral and other TRP agonists ((+)-borneol and camphor) were resistant to TRP antagonist ruthenium red. An efficacy sequence for the CAP inhibitions was generally aldehydes ≥ esters ≥ alcohols > oxides > hydrocarbons. The CAP inhibition by the aroma oil compound was not related to its octanol-water partition coefficient. It is suggested that aroma oil compounds inhibit nerve conduction in a manner specific to their chemical structures without TRP activation.

  7. Antioxidant properties of melatonin and its potential action in diseases.

    PubMed

    Karaaslan, Cigdem; Suzen, Sibel

    2015-01-01

    In recent years, relationship between free radicals and oxidative stress with aging, cancer, atherosclerosis, neurodegenerative disorders, diabetes, and inflammatory diseases became increasingly clear. Confirming the role of oxidants in numerous pathological conditions such as cancer, the antioxidants developed as therapeutics have been proven ineffective. It is well established that melatonin (MLT) and its metabolites are able to function as endogenous free-radical scavengers and broadspectrum antioxidants. Numerous studies also proved the role of MLT and its derivatives in many physiological processes and therapeutic functions, such as the regulation of circadian rhythm and immune functions. The aim of this review is to arouse attention to MLT as a potentially valuable agent in the prevention and/or treatment of some diseases.

  8. [Effects of panaxatriol saponins (PTS) isolated from panax notoginseng on the action potential and delayed rectifier current (Ix) in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers].

    PubMed

    Li, X J; Fan, J S; Liu, Y W; Zhang, B H

    1993-01-01

    The electrophysiological effects of PTS in sheep cardiac Purkinje fibers were studied. PTS was shown to increase the duration of action potential (APD30, APD50 and APD90) at the concentrations of 2.5 micrograms/ml and 5.0 micrograms/ml. However, the amplitude of action potential (APA) remained unchanged. The result of using double microelectrode voltage clamp method showed that PTS (1.25-10.0 micrograms/ml) depressed the delayed (outward) rectifier current (Ix) in time- and dose-dependent manners, when the holding potential was held at +20 mV, the command potential was held at +10 mV, 0.2 Hz and the clamping time at 1-1.5 s. It may be concluded that the effect of PTS on APD is mainly related to blocking the delayed rectifier potassium channel.

  9. Consequences of Converting Graded to Action Potentials upon Neural Information Coding and Energy Efficiency

    PubMed Central

    Sengupta, Biswa; Laughlin, Simon Barry; Niven, Jeremy Edward

    2014-01-01

    Information is encoded in neural circuits using both graded and action potentials, converting between them within single neurons and successive processing layers. This conversion is accompanied by information loss and a drop in energy efficiency. We investigate the biophysical causes of this loss of information and efficiency by comparing spiking neuron models, containing stochastic voltage-gated Na+ and K+ channels, with generator potential and graded potential models lacking voltage-gated Na+ channels. We identify three causes of information loss in the generator potential that are the by-product of action potential generation: (1) the voltage-gated Na+ channels necessary for action potential generation increase intrinsic noise and (2) introduce non-linearities, and (3) the finite duration of the action potential creates a ‘footprint’ in the generator potential that obscures incoming signals. These three processes reduce information rates by ∼50% in generator potentials, to ∼3 times that of spike trains. Both generator potentials and graded potentials consume almost an order of magnitude less energy per second than spike trains. Because of the lower information rates of generator potentials they are substantially less energy efficient than graded potentials. However, both are an order of magnitude more efficient than spike trains due to the higher energy costs and low information content of spikes, emphasizing that there is a two-fold cost of converting analogue to digital; information loss and cost inflation. PMID:24465197

  10. Properties and ionic basis of the action potentials in the periaqueductal grey neurones of the guinea-pig.

    PubMed Central

    Sánchez, D; Ribas, J

    1991-01-01

    1. Action potentials of neurones of the ventral part of the guinea-pig periaqueductal grey (PAG) were studied by intracellular recording in a mesencephalic slice preparation maintained in vitro. 2. Fast spikes spontaneously fired last 2.8 +/- 0.6 ms (mean +/- S.D.) and have an amplitude of 72.3 +/- 5.3 mV (n = 28). The neurones could be antidromically activated from the neighbouring white matter and these spikes show an initial segment component that triggers the soma-dendritic spike. These two components were dissociated by hyperpolarization. Action potentials are Na+ dependent and a Ca2+ conductance is responsible for the hump on the falling phase. Hyperpolarization makes the hump disappear and a faster rate of rise and fall are seen. Accommodation of the firing threshold is observed in response to depolarizing ramps, which is eliminated with hyperpolarization. 3. High-threshold Ca2+ spikes are evoked in either Na(+)-free solution or in the presence of tetrodotoxin (TTX). These presumed dendritic action potentials display a fast repolarization and a large after-hyperpolarization (AHP) that prevent repetitive firing. This AHP is mainly generated by Ca(2+)-dependent K+ conductances. 4. The repolarization of fast action potentials depends on the activation of K+ conductances as well as a Na+ inactivation process. A fast-activated tetraethyl-ammonium (TEA)-sensitive K+ conductance, that could be Ca2+ dependent, and a K+ conductance blocked by apamin seem to be involved in the repolarization. 5. Each fast action potential is followed by a pronounced AHP with two components, an initial fast and a slow decaying phase. Membrane hyperpolarization around -60 mV eliminated the first component and the AHP acquired a plateau-like shape. At -90 mV the AHP was nullified. The slow phase was Ca2+ dependent and an apamin-sensitive K+ conductance is involved in its generation. This conductance may be active during the early part of the AHP, but a fast-activated TEA-sensitive K

  11. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials.

    PubMed

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound

  12. Waveform Similarity Analysis: A Simple Template Comparing Approach for Detecting and Quantifying Noisy Evoked Compound Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Potas, Jason Robert; de Castro, Newton Gonçalves; Maddess, Ted; de Souza, Marcio Nogueira

    2015-01-01

    Experimental electrophysiological assessment of evoked responses from regenerating nerves is challenging due to the typical complex response of events dispersed over various latencies and poor signal-to-noise ratio. Our objective was to automate the detection of compound action potential events and derive their latencies and magnitudes using a simple cross-correlation template comparison approach. For this, we developed an algorithm called Waveform Similarity Analysis. To test the algorithm, challenging signals were generated in vivo by stimulating sural and sciatic nerves, whilst recording evoked potentials at the sciatic nerve and tibialis anterior muscle, respectively, in animals recovering from sciatic nerve transection. Our template for the algorithm was generated based on responses evoked from the intact side. We also simulated noisy signals and examined the output of the Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm with imperfect templates. Signals were detected and quantified using Waveform Similarity Analysis, which was compared to event detection, latency and magnitude measurements of the same signals performed by a trained observer, a process we called Trained Eye Analysis. The Waveform Similarity Analysis algorithm could successfully detect and quantify simple or complex responses from nerve and muscle compound action potentials of intact or regenerated nerves. Incorrectly specifying the template outperformed Trained Eye Analysis for predicting signal amplitude, but produced consistent latency errors for the simulated signals examined. Compared to the trained eye, Waveform Similarity Analysis is automatic, objective, does not rely on the observer to identify and/or measure peaks, and can detect small clustered events even when signal-to-noise ratio is poor. Waveform Similarity Analysis provides a simple, reliable and convenient approach to quantify latencies and magnitudes of complex waveforms and therefore serves as a useful tool for studying evoked compound

  13. Selective activation of heteromeric SK channels contributes to action potential repolarization in mouse atrial myocytes.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Jane M; Weatherall, Kate L; Choisy, Stéphanie C; James, Andrew F; Hancox, Jules C; Marrion, Neil V

    2015-05-01

    Activation of small conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels is proposed to contribute to repolarization of the action potential in atrial myocytes. This role is controversial, as these cardiac SK channels appear to exhibit an uncharacteristic pharmacology. The objectives of this study were to resolve whether activation of SK channels contributes to atrial action potential repolarization and to determine the likely subunit composition of the channel. The effect of 2 SK channel inhibitors was assessed on outward current evoked in voltage clamp and on action potential duration in perforated patch and whole-cell current clamp recording from acutely isolated mouse atrial myocytes. The presence of SK channel subunits was assessed using immunocytochemistry. A significant component of outward current was reduced by the SK channel blockers apamin and UCL1684. Block by apamin displayed a sensitivity indicating that this current was carried by homomeric SK2 channels. Action potential duration was significantly prolonged by UCL1684, but not by apamin. This effect was accompanied by an increase in beat-to-beat variability and action potential triangulation. This pharmacology was matched by that of expressed heteromeric SK2-SK3 channels in HEK293 cells. Immunocytochemistry showed that atrial myocytes express both SK2 and SK3 channels with an overlapping expression pattern. Only proposed heteromeric SK2-SK3 channels are physiologically activated to contribute to action potential repolarization, which is indicated by the difference in pharmacology of evoked outward current and prolongation of atrial action potential duration. The effect of blocking this channel on the action potential suggests that SK channel inhibition during cardiac function has the potential to be proarrhythmic. Copyright © 2015 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Weak action potential backpropagation is associated with high-frequency axonal firing capability in principal neurons of the gerbil medial superior olive.

    PubMed

    Scott, Luisa L; Hage, Travis A; Golding, Nace L

    2007-09-01

    Principal neurons of the medial superior olive (MSO) convey azimuthal sound localization cues through modulation of their rate of action potential firing. Previous intracellular studies in vitro have shown that action potentials appear highly attenuated at the soma of MSO neurons, potentially reflecting specialized action potential initiation and/or a physically distant site of generation. To examine this more directly, we made dual patch-clamp recordings from MSO principal neurons in gerbil brainstem slices. Using somatic and dendritic whole-cell recordings, we show that graded action potentials at the soma are highly sensitive to the rate of rise of excitation and undergo strong attenuation in their backpropagation into the dendrites (length constant, 76 microm), particularly during strong dendritic excitation. Using paired somatic whole-cell and axonal loose-patch recordings, we show that action potentials recorded in the axon at distances > 25 microm are all-or-none, and uniform in amplitude even when action potentials appear graded at the soma. This proximal zone corresponded to the start of myelination in the axon, as assessed with immunocytochemical staining for myelin basic protein in single-labelled neurons. Finally, the axon was capable of sustaining remarkably high firing rates, with perfect entrainment occurring at frequencies of up to 1 kHz. Together, our findings show that action potential signalling in MSO principal neurons is highly secure, but shows a restricted invasion of the somatodendritic compartment of the cell. This restriction may be important for minimizing distortions in synaptic integration during the high frequencies of synaptic input encountered in the MSO.

  15. Wheel-running exercise alters rat diaphragm action potentials and their regulation by K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Van Lunteren, Erik; Moyer, Michelle

    2003-08-01

    Endurance exercise modifies regulatory systems that control skeletal muscle Na+ and K+ fluxes, in particular Na+-K+-ATPase-mediated transport of these ions. Na+ and K+ ion channels also play important roles in the regulation of ionic movements, specifically mediating Na+ influx and K+ efflux that occur during contractions resulting from action potential depolarization and repolarization. Whether exercise alters skeletal muscle electrophysiological properties controlled by these ion channels is unclear. The present study tested the hypothesis that endurance exercise modifies diaphragm action potential properties. Exercised rats spent 8 wk with free access to running wheels, and they were compared with sedentary rats living in conventional rodent housing. Diaphragm muscle was subsequently removed under anesthesia and studied in vitro. Resting membrane potential was not affected by endurance exercise. Muscle from exercised rats had a slower rate of action potential repolarization than that of sedentary animals (P = 0.0098), whereas rate of depolarization was similar in the two groups. The K+ channel blocker 3,4-diaminopyridine slowed action potential repolarization and increased action potential area of both exercised and sedentary muscle. However, these effects were significantly smaller in diaphragm from exercised than sedentary rats. These data indicate that voluntary running slows diaphragm action potential repolarization, most likely by modulating K+ channel number or function.

  16. Molecular model of the action potential sodium channel.

    PubMed Central

    Guy, H R; Seetharamulu, P

    1986-01-01

    Secondary and tertiary structural models of sodium channel transmembrane segments were developed from its recently determined primary sequence in Electrophorus electricus. The model has four homologous domains, and each domain has eight homologous transmembrane segments, S1 through S8. Each domain contains three relatively apolar segments (S1, S2 and S3) and two very apolar segments (S5 and S8), all postulated to be transmembrane alpha-helices. S4 segments have positively charged residues, mainly arginines, at every third residue. The model channel lining is formed by four S4 transmembrane alpha-helices and four negatively charged S7 segments. S7 segments are postulated to be short, partially transmembrane amphipathic alpha-helices in three domains and a beta-strand in the last domain. S7 segments are preceded by short apolar segments (S6) postulated to be alpha-helices in three domains and a beta-strand in the last domain. Positively charged side chains of S4 form salt bridges with negatively charged side chains on S7 and near the ends of S1 and S3. Putative extracellular segments that contain 5 of the 10 potential N-glycosylation sites link S5 to S6. Channel activation may involve a 'helical screw' mechanism in which S4 helices rotate around their axes as they move toward the extracellular surface. Images PMID:2417247

  17. Pharmacological actions and potential uses of Momordica charantia: a review.

    PubMed

    Grover, J K; Yadav, S P

    2004-07-01

    Since ancient times, plants and herbal preparations have been used as medicine. Research carried out in last few decades has certified several such claims of use of several plants of traditional medicine. Popularity of Momordica charantia (MC) in various systems of traditional medicine for several ailments (antidiabetic, abortifacient, anthelmintic, contraceptive, dysmenorrhea, eczema, emmenagogue, antimalarial, galactagogue, gout, jaundice, abdominal pain, kidney (stone), laxative, leprosy, leucorrhea, piles, pneumonia, psoriasis, purgative, rheumatism, fever and scabies) focused the investigator's attention on this plant. Over 100 studies using modern techniques have authenticated its use in diabetes and its complications (nephropathy, cataract, insulin resistance), as antibacterial as well as antiviral agent (including HIV infection), as anthelmintic and abortifacient. Traditionally it has also been used in treating peptic ulcers, interestingly in a recent experimental studies have exhibited its potential against Helicobacter pylori. Most importantly, the studies have shown its efficacy in various cancers (lymphoid leukemia, lymphoma, choriocarcinoma, melanoma, breast cancer, skin tumor, prostatic cancer, squamous carcinoma of tongue and larynx, human bladder carcinomas and Hodgkin's disease). There are few reports available on clinical use of MC in diabetes and cancer patients that have shown promising results.

  18. Action potential-independent and nicotinic receptor-mediated concerted release of multiple quanta at hippocampal CA3-mossy fiber synapses.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Geeta; Grybko, Michael; Vijayaraghavan, Sukumar

    2008-03-05

    Presynaptic action potential-independent transmitter release is a potential means of information transfer across synapses. We show that in the hippocampal mossy fiber boutons, activation of the alpha7-subtype of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (alpha7-nAChRs) results in a large increase in the amplitude of spontaneous events, resulting from concerted release of multiple quanta from the mossy fiber boutons. This amplitude increase is abolished at low temperatures. Activation of alpha7-nAChRs causes a rise in intraterminal calcium at mossy fiber boutons, involving ryanodine receptors. Regulation of concerted release requires the subsequent activation of presynaptic calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII). Activation of CaMKII is required to drive presynaptic action potential-independent transmission at the mossy fiber-CA3 pyramidal cell synapse. The effects of alpha7-nAChR activation are mediated by biologically relevant doses of nicotine. Our results demonstrate a novel form of synaptic plasticity mediated by presynaptic alpha7-nAChRs and store calcium that is temporally different and might respond to a different history of synaptic activity than that mediated by incoming action potentials.

  19. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  20. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2011-01-01 2009-01-01 true Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  1. 7 CFR 1945.19 - Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reporting potential natural disasters and initial... Assistance-General § 1945.19 Reporting potential natural disasters and initial actions. (a) Purpose. The purpose of reporting potential natural disasters is to provide a systematic procedure for rapid...

  2. Primary cortical representation of sounds by the coordination of action-potential timing.

    PubMed

    deCharms, R C; Merzenich, M M

    1996-06-13

    Cortical population coding could in principle rely on either the mean rate of neuronal action potentials, or the relative timing of action potentials, or both. When a single sensory stimulus drives many neurons to fire at elevated rates, the spikes of these neurons become tightly synchronized, which could be involved in 'binding' together individual firing-rate feature representations into a unified object percept. Here we demonstrate that the relative timing of cortical action potentials can signal stimulus features themselves, a function even more basic than feature grouping. Populations of neurons in the primary auditory cortex can coordinate the relative timing of their action potentials such that spikes occur closer together in time during continuous stimuli. In this way cortical neurons can signal stimuli even when their firing rates do not change. Population coding based on relative spike timing can systemically signal stimulus features, it is topographically mapped, and it follows the stimulus time course even where mean firing rate does not.

  3. Axon initial segment Kv1 channels control axonal action potential waveform and synaptic efficacy.

    PubMed

    Kole, Maarten H P; Letzkus, Johannes J; Stuart, Greg J

    2007-08-16

    Action potentials are binary signals that transmit information via their rate and temporal pattern. In this context, the axon is thought of as a transmission line, devoid of a role in neuronal computation. Here, we show a highly localized role of axonal Kv1 potassium channels in shaping the action potential waveform in the axon initial segment (AIS) of layer 5 pyramidal neurons independent of the soma. Cell-attached recordings revealed a 10-fold increase in Kv1 channel density over the first 50 microm of the AIS. Inactivation of AIS and proximal axonal Kv1 channels, as occurs during slow subthreshold somatodendritic depolarizations, led to a distance-dependent broadening of axonal action potentials, as well as an increase in synaptic strength at proximal axonal terminals. Thus, Kv1 channels are strategically positioned to integrate slow subthreshold signals, providing control of the presynaptic action potential waveform and synaptic coupling in local cortical circuits.

  4. Potential anticancer properties and mechanisms of action of curcumin.

    PubMed

    Vallianou, Natalia G; Evangelopoulos, Angelos; Schizas, Nikos; Kazazis, Christos

    2015-02-01

    Curcumin, a yellow substance belonging to the polyphenols superfamily, is the active component of turmeric, a common Indian spice, which is derived from the dried rhizome of the Curcuma longa plant. Numerous studies have demonstrated that curcumin possesses anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory and anticancerous properties. The purpose of this review is to focus on the anti-tumor effects of curcumin. Curcumin inhibits the STAT3 and NF-κB signaling pathways, which play key-roles in cancer development and progression. Also, inhibition of Sp-1 and its housekeeping gene expressions may serve as an important hypothesis to prevent cancer formation, migration, and invasion. Recent data have suggested that curcumin may act by suppressing the Sp-1 activation and its downstream genes, including ADEM10, calmodulin, EPHB2, HDAC4, and SEPP1 in a concentration-dependent manner in colorectal cancer cell lines; these results are consistent with other studies, which have reported that curcumin could suppress the Sp-1 activity in bladder cancer and could decrease DNA binding activity of Sp-1 in non-small cell lung carcinoma cells. Recent data advocate that ER stress and autophagy may as well play a role in the apoptosis process, which is induced by the curcumin analogue B19 in an epithelial ovarian tumor cell line and that autophagy inhibition could increase curcumin analogue-induced apoptosis by inducing severe ER stress. The ability of curcumin to induce apoptosis in tumor cells and its anti-angiogenic potential will be discussed in this review. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  5. Influence of potential pulses amplitude sequence in a voltammetric electronic tongue (VET) applied to assess antioxidant capacity in aliso.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Esteban; Alcañiz, Miguel; Contat, Laura; Baldeón, Edwin O; Barat, José M; Grau, Raúl

    2017-06-01

    Four signals configurations were studied, two of them built by small increases of potential and two with bigger increments. The highest current values were obtained when pulses with bigger change of potential were used although the best results were shown by the pulse sequence which included an intermediate pulse before the relevant pulse. A mathematical model based on trolox pattern was developed to predict antioxidant capacity of aliso, employing information obtained from all the electrodes, although model validation could be done only employing the information from gold electrode.

  6. Distinct electrophysiological potentials for intention in action and prior intention for action.

    PubMed

    Vinding, Mikkel C; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2014-01-01

    The role of conscious intention in relation to motoric movements has become a major topic of investigation in neuroscience. Traditionally, reports of conscious intention have been compared to various features of the readiness-potential (RP)--an electrophysiological signal that appears before voluntary movements. Experiments, however, tend to study intentions in immediate relation to movements (proximal intentions), thus ignoring other aspects of intentions such as planning or deciding in advance of movement (distal intentions). The current study examines the difference in electrophysiological activity between proximal intention and distal intention, using electroencephalography (EEG). Participants had to form an intention to move and then wait 2.5 sec before performing the actual movement. In this way, the electrophysiological activity related to forming a conscious intention was separated from any confounding activity related to automated motor activity. This was compared to conditions in which participants had to act as soon as they had the intention and a condition where participants acted upon an external cue 2.5 sec prior to movement. We examined the RP for the three conditions. No difference was found in early RP, but late RP differed significantly depending on the type of intention. In addition, we analysed signals during a longer time-interval starting before the time of distal intention formation until after the actual movement concluded. Results showed a slow negative electrophysiological "intention potential" above the mid-frontal areas at the time participants formed a distal intention. This potential was only found when the distal intention was self-paced and not when the intention was formed in response to an external cue. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Action potential bursts in central snail neurons elicited by procaine: roles of ionic currents.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Lin, Pei-Lin; Tsai, Ming-Cheng; Hsu, Hui-Yu; Yang, Han-Yin; Chuang, Chieh-Min; Chen, Yi-Hung

    2010-10-31

    The role of ionic currents on procaine-elicited action potential bursts was studied in an identifiable RP1 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac, using the two-electrode voltage clamp method. The RP1 neuron generated spontaneous action potentials and bath application of procaine at 10 mM reversibly elicited action potential bursts in a concentration-dependent manner. Voltage clamp studies revealed that procaine at 10 mM decreased [1] the Ca2+ current, [2] the Na+ current, [3] the delayed rectifying K+ current I(KD), and [4] the fast-inactivating K+ current (I(A)). Action potential bursts were not elicited by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP), an inhibitor of I(A), whereas they were seen after application of tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA), a blocker of the I(K)(Ca) and I(KD) currents, and tacrine, an inhibitor of I(KD). Pretreatment with U73122, a phospholipase C inhibitor, blocked the action potential bursts elicited by procaine. U73122 did not affect the I(KD) of the RP1 neuron; however, U73122 decreased the inhibitory effect of procaine on the I(KD). Tacrine decreased the TEA-sensitive I(KD) of RP1 neuron but did not significantly affect the I(A). Tacrine also successfully induced action potential bursts in the RP1 neuron. It is concluded that the inhibition on the I(KD) is responsible for the generation of action potential bursts in the central snail RP1 neuron. Further, phospholipase C activity is involved in the procaine-elicited I(KD) inhibition and action potential bursts.

  8. Uniform Action Potential Repolarization within the Sarcolemma of In Situ Ventricular Cardiomyocytes

    PubMed Central

    Bu, Guixue; Adams, Heather; Berbari, Edward J.; Rubart, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies have speculated, based on indirect evidence, that the action potential at the transverse (t)-tubules is longer than at the surface membrane in mammalian ventricular cardiomyocytes. To date, no technique has enabled recording of electrical activity selectively at the t-tubules to directly examine this hypothesis. We used confocal line-scan imaging in conjunction with the fast response voltage-sensitive dyes ANNINE-6 and ANNINE-6plus to resolve action potential-related changes in fractional dye fluorescence (ΔF/F) at the t-tubule and surface membranes of in situ mouse ventricular cardiomyocytes. Peak ΔF/F during action potential phase 0 depolarization averaged −21% for both dyes. The shape and time course of optical action potentials measured with the water-soluble ANNINE-6plus were indistinguishable from those of action potentials recorded with intracellular microelectrodes in the absence of the dye. In contrast, optical action potentials measured with the water-insoluble ANNINE-6 were significantly prolonged compared to the electrical recordings obtained from dye-free hearts, suggesting electrophysiological effects of ANNINE-6 and/or its solvents. With either dye, the kinetics of action potential-dependent changes in ΔF/F during repolarization were found to be similar at the t-tubular and surface membranes. This study provides what to our knowledge are the first direct measurements of t-tubule electrical activity in ventricular cardiomyocytes, which support the concept that action potential duration is uniform throughout the sarcolemma of individual cells. PMID:19289075

  9. Action potential broadening and frequency-dependent facilitation of calcium signals in pituitary nerve terminals.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M B; Konnerth, A; Augustine, G J

    1991-01-15

    Hormone release from nerve terminals in the neurohypophysis is a sensitive function of action potential frequency. We have investigated the cellular mechanisms responsible for this frequency-dependent facilitation by combining patch clamp and fluorimetric Ca2+ measurements in single neurosecretory terminals in thin slices of the rat posterior pituitary. In these terminals both action potential-induced changes in the intracellular Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]i) and action potential duration were enhanced by high-frequency stimuli, all with a frequency dependence similar to that of hormone release. Furthermore, brief voltage clamp pulses inactivated a K+ current with a very similar frequency dependence. These results support a model for frequency-dependent facilitation in which the inactivation of a K+ current broadens action potentials, leading to an enhancement of [Ca2+]i signals. Further experiments tested for a causal relationship between action potential broadening and facilitation of [Ca2+]i changes. First, increasing the duration of depolarization, either by broadening action potentials with the K(+)-channel blocker tetraethylammonium or by applying longer depolarizing voltage clamp steps, increased [Ca2+]i changes. Second, eliminating frequency-dependent changes in duration, by voltage clamping the terminal with constant duration pulses, substantially reduced the frequency-dependent enhancement of [Ca2+]i changes. These results indicate that action potential broadening contributes to frequency-dependent facilitation of [Ca2+]i changes. However, the small residual frequency dependence of [Ca2+]i changes seen with constant duration stimulation suggests that a second process, distinct from action potential broadening, also contributes to facilitation. These two frequency-dependent mechanisms may also contribute to activity-dependent plasticity in synaptic terminals.

  10. Epidermal Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Laser Stimulation of Action Potentials in the Frog Sciatic Nerve Nichole M. Jindra Robert J. Thomas Human Effectiveness Directorate Directed...in the Frog Sciatic Nerve 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 62202F 6. AUTHOR(S) .Nichole M. Jindra, Robert J. Thomas, Douglas N...Alan Rice 14. ABSTRACT Measurements of laser stimulated action potentials in the sciatic nerve of leopard frogs (Rana pipiens) were made using

  11. Action potential propagation through embryonic dorsal root ganglion cells in culture. II. Decrease of conduction reliability during repetitive stimulation.

    PubMed

    Lüscher, C; Streit, J; Lipp, P; Lüscher, H R

    1994-08-01

    1. The reliability of the propagation of action potentials (AP) through dorsal root ganglion (DRG) cells in embryonic slice cultures was investigated during repetitive stimulation at 1-20 Hz. Membrane potentials of DRG cells were recorded intracellularly while the axons were stimulated by an extracellular electrode. 2. In analogy to the double-pulse experiments reported previously, either one or two types of propagation failures were recorded during repetitive stimulation, depending on the cell morphology. In contrast to the double-pulse experiments, the failures appeared at longer interpulse intervals and usually only after several tens of stimuli with reliable propagation. 3. In the period with reliable propagation before the failures, a decrease in the conduction velocity and in the amplitude of the afterhyperpolarization (AHP), an increase in the total membrane conductance, and the disappearance of the action potential "shoulder" were observed. 4. The reliability of conduction during repetitive stimulation was improved by lowering the extracellular calcium concentration or by replacing the extracellular calcium by strontium. The reliability of conduction decreased by the application of cadmium, a calcium channel blocker, 4-amino pyridine, a fast potassium channel blocker, or apamin or muscarine, the blockers of calcium-dependent potassium channels. The reliability of conduction was not effected by blocking the sodium potassium pump with ouabain or by replacing extracellular sodium with lithium. 5. In the period with reliable propagation cadmium, apamin, and muscarine reduced the amplitude of the AHP. The shoulder of the action potential was more pronounced and not sensitive to repetitive stimulation when extracellular calcium was replaced by strontium. It disappeared when cadmium was applied. 6. In DRG somata changes of the intracellular Ca2+ concentration were monitored by measuring the fluorescence of the Ca2+ indicator Fluo-3 with a laser-scanning confocal

  12. Comparison of the myoplasmic calcium transient elicited by an action potential in intact fibres of mdx and normal mice.

    PubMed

    Hollingworth, Stephen; Zeiger, Ulrike; Baylor, Stephen M

    2008-11-01

    The myoplasmic free [Ca2+] transient elicited by an action potential (Delta[Ca2+]) was compared in fast-twitch fibres of mdx (dystrophin null) and normal mice. Methods were used that maximized the likelihood that any detected differences apply in vivo. Small bundles of fibres were manually dissected from extensor digitorum longus muscles of 7- to 14-week-old mice. One fibre within a bundle was microinjected with furaptra, a low-affinity rapidly responding fluorescent calcium indicator. A fibre was accepted for study if it gave a stable, all-or-nothing fluorescence response to an external shock. In 18 normal fibres, the peak amplitude and the full-duration at half-maximum (FDHM) of Delta[Ca2+] were 18.4 +/- 0.5 microm and 4.9 +/- 0.2 ms, respectively (mean +/- s.e.m.; 16 degrees C). In 13 mdx fibres, the corresponding values were 14.5 +/- 0.6 microm and 4.7 +/- 0.2 ms. The difference in amplitude is statistically highly significant (P = 0.0001; two-tailed t test), whereas the difference in FDHM is not (P = 0.3). A multi-compartment computer model was used to estimate the amplitude and time course of the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) calcium release flux underlying Delta[Ca2+]. Estimates were made based on several differing assumptions: (i) that the resting myoplasmic free Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+]R) and the total concentration of parvalbumin ([Parv(T)]) are the same in mdx and normal fibres, (ii) that [Ca2+](R) is larger in mdx fibres, (iii) that [Parv(T)] is smaller in mdx fibres, and (iv) that [Ca2+]R is larger and [Parv(T)] is smaller in mdx fibres. According to the simulations, the 21% smaller amplitude of Delta[Ca2+] in mdx fibres in combination with the unchanged FDHM of Delta[Ca2+] is consistent with mdx fibres having a approximately 25% smaller flux amplitude, a 6-23% larger FDHM of the flux, and a 9-20% smaller total amount of released Ca2+ than normal fibres. The changes in flux are probably due to a change in the gating of the SR Ca2+-release channels and

  13. Modeling of action potential generation in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2014-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility of identifying toxins based on their effect on the shape of action potentials, we created a computer model of the action potential generation in NG108-15 cells (a neuroblastoma/glioma hybrid cell line). To generate the experimental data for model validation, voltage-dependent sodium, potassium and high-threshold calcium currents, as well as action potentials, were recorded from NG108-15 cells with conventional whole-cell patch-clamp methods. Based on the classic Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and the linear thermodynamic description of the rate constants, ion-channel parameters were estimated using an automatic fitting method. Utilizing the established parameters, action potentials were generated using the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and were fitted to the recorded action potentials. To demonstrate the applicability of the method for toxin detection and discrimination, the effect of tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker) and tefluthrin (a pyrethroid that is a sodium channel opener) were studied. The two toxins affected the shape of the action potentials differently, and their respective effects were identified based on the predicted changes in the fitted parameters.

  14. Effects of sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin, moxifloxacin, and ciprofloxacin on cardiac action potential duration.

    PubMed

    Patmore, L; Fraser, S; Mair, D; Templeton, A

    2000-10-20

    Fluoroquinolone antibiotics have been associated with QT prolongation following administration to humans. This study compares the effects of four fluoroquinolones, sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin on action potential duration recorded from canine isolated cardiac Purkinje fibres. Left and right ventricular Purkinje fibres were isolated from canine hearts and continuously superfused with physiological salt solution. Action potential duration at 90% repolarization was recorded via intracellular microelectrodes. Sparfloxacin, grepafloxacin, moxifloxacin and ciprofloxacin prolonged action potential duration in a concentration dependent manner. Mean concentrations causing a 15% prolongation of action potential duration recorded at a stimulation frequency of 1 Hz were: sparfloxacin 4.2+/-0.7 microg/ml; grepafloxacin 9.3+/-0.9 microg/ml; moxifloxacin 9.9+/-1.6 microg/ml and ciprofloxacin 72.8+/-26.4 microg/ml. Prolongation was inverse frequency dependent with larger increases in action potential duration occurring when the stimulation frequency was reduced to 0.5 Hz. These results indicate that effects on action potential duration vary within this class of compound. Rank order of potency was sparfloxacin > grepafloxacin = moxifloxacin > ciprofloxacin.

  15. A Rabbit Ventricular Action Potential Model Replicating Cardiac Dynamics at Rapid Heart Rates

    PubMed Central

    Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G.; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N.

    2008-01-01

    Mathematical modeling of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential model accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Cai) cycling at rapid heart rates relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a model. Using an existing rabbit ventricular action potential model, we modified the L-type calcium (Ca) current (ICa,L) and Cai cycling formulations based on new experimental patch-clamp data obtained in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, using the perforated patch configuration at 35–37°C. Incorporating a minimal seven-state Markovian model of ICa,L that reproduced Ca- and voltage-dependent kinetics in combination with our previously published dynamic Cai cycling model, the new model replicates experimentally observed action potential duration and Cai transient alternans at rapid heart rates, and accurately reproduces experimental action potential duration restitution curves obtained by either dynamic or S1S2 pacing. PMID:18160660

  16. Modeling of action potential generation in NG108-15 cells.

    PubMed

    Molnar, Peter; Hickman, James J

    2007-01-01

    In order to explore the possibility of identifying toxins based on their effect on the shape of action potentials, we created a computer model of the action potential generation in NG108-15 cells (a neuroblastoma/glioma hybrid cell line). To generate the experimental data for model validation, voltage-dependent sodium, potassium, and high-threshold calcium currents, as well as action potentials, were recorded from NG108-15 cells with conventional whole-cell patch-clamp methods. Based on the classic Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and the linear thermodynamic description of the rate constants, ion channel parameters were estimated using an automatic fitting method. Utilizing the established parameters, action potentials were generated using the Hodgkin-Huxley formalism and were fitted to the recorded action potentials. To demonstrate the applicability of the method for toxin detection and discrimination, the effect of tetrodotoxin (a sodium channel blocker) and tefluthrin (a pyrethroid that is a sodium channel opener) was studied. The two toxins affected the shape of the action potentials differently, and their respective effects were identified based on the predicted changes in the fitted parameters.

  17. A rabbit ventricular action potential model replicating cardiac dynamics at rapid heart rates.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Aman; Shiferaw, Yohannes; Sato, Daisuke; Baher, Ali; Olcese, Riccardo; Xie, Lai-Hua; Yang, Ming-Jim; Chen, Peng-Sheng; Restrepo, Juan G; Karma, Alain; Garfinkel, Alan; Qu, Zhilin; Weiss, James N

    2008-01-15

    Mathematical modeling of the cardiac action potential has proven to be a powerful tool for illuminating various aspects of cardiac function, including cardiac arrhythmias. However, no currently available detailed action potential model accurately reproduces the dynamics of the cardiac action potential and intracellular calcium (Ca(i)) cycling at rapid heart rates relevant to ventricular tachycardia and fibrillation. The aim of this study was to develop such a model. Using an existing rabbit ventricular action potential model, we modified the L-type calcium (Ca) current (I(Ca,L)) and Ca(i) cycling formulations based on new experimental patch-clamp data obtained in isolated rabbit ventricular myocytes, using the perforated patch configuration at 35-37 degrees C. Incorporating a minimal seven-state Markovian model of I(Ca,L) that reproduced Ca- and voltage-dependent kinetics in combination with our previously published dynamic Ca(i) cycling model, the new model replicates experimentally observed action potential duration and Ca(i) transient alternans at rapid heart rates, and accurately reproduces experimental action potential duration restitution curves obtained by either dynamic or S1S2 pacing.

  18. Permeability Changes Associated with the Action Potential in Procaine-Treated Crayfish Abdominal Muscle Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Takeda, Kimihisa

    1967-01-01

    Permeability changes associated with prolonged action potentials have been analyzed in procaine-treated crayfish abdominal muscle fibers. The effect of external Ca indicates that the increase in membrane conductance observed during the rising phase of the action potential is primarily due to a permeability increase for Ca. A remnant of the permeability increase may cause the succeeding plateau as shown by its high conductance and by the effect of low Mn. A delayed increase in conductance precedes the termination of the plateau phase. This is due to a delayed increase in permeability, probably for K, that is observed when depolarizing electrogenesis is eliminated. High external Ca reduces the action potential duration, the falling phase starting at a higher depolarization. These changes may be related to an earlier onset of the delayed increase in permeability, induced by a larger inside positivity in the presence of higher Ca. No "anomalous rectification" is seen in early or late I-V curves for small depolarizations. Ba may replace Ca in its role in depolarizing electrogenesis, and the first action potential induced in Ba saline has a large overshoot and a long duration. In higher Ba salines, action potentials are greatly prolonged. Long term soaking in Rb-containing or K-free saline also augments and prolongs the action potential. These changes are assumed to be related to depression of the K permeability of the membrane. PMID:4226776

  19. All optical experimental design for neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walsh, Alex J.; Tolstykh, Gleb; Martens, Stacey; Sedelnikova, Anna; Ibey, Bennett L.; Beier, Hope T.

    2016-03-01

    Recently, infrared light has been shown to both stimulate and inhibit excitatory cells. However, studies of infrared light for excitatory cell inhibition have been constrained by the use of invasive and cumbersome electrodes for cell excitation and action potential recording. Here, we present an all optical experimental design for neuronal excitation, inhibition, and action potential detection. Primary rat neurons were transfected with plasmids containing the light sensitive ion channel CheRiff. CheRiff has a peak excitation around 450 nm, allowing excitation of transfected neurons with pulsed blue light. Additionally, primary neurons were transfected with QuasAr2, a fast and sensitive fluorescent voltage indicator. QuasAr2 is excited with yellow or red light and therefore does not spectrally overlap CheRiff, enabling imaging and action potential activation, simultaneously. Using an optic fiber, neurons were exposed to blue light sequentially to generate controlled action potentials. A second optic fiber delivered a single pulse of 1869nm light to the neuron causing inhibition of the evoked action potentials (by the blue light). When used in concert, these optical techniques enable electrode free neuron excitation, inhibition, and action potential recording, allowing research into neuronal behaviors with high spatial fidelity.

  20. Rate Dependence and Regulation of Action Potential and Calcium Transient in a Canine Cardiac Ventricular Cell Model

    PubMed Central

    Hund, Thomas J.; Rudy, Yoram

    2007-01-01

    Background Computational biology is a powerful tool for elucidating arrhythmogenic mechanisms at the cellular level, where complex interactions between ionic processes determine behavior. A novel theoretical model of the canine ventricular epicardial action potential and calcium cycling was developed and used to investigate ionic mechanisms underlying Ca2+ transient (CaT) and action potential duration (APD) rate dependence. Methods and Results The Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase (CaMKII) regulatory pathway was integrated into the model, which included a novel Ca2+-release formulation, Ca2+ subspace, dynamic chloride handling, and formulations for major ion currents based on canine ventricular data. Decreasing pacing cycle length from 8000 to 300 ms shortened APD primarily because of ICa(L) reduction, with additional contributions from Ito1, INaK, and late INa. CaT amplitude increased as cycle length decreased from 8000 to 500 ms. This positive rate–dependent property depended on CaMKII activity. Conclusions CaMKII is an important determinant of the rate dependence of CaT but not of APD, which depends on ion-channel kinetics. The model of CaMKII regulation may serve as a paradigm for modeling effects of other regulatory pathways on cell function. PMID:15505083

  1. Intraoperative observation of changes in cochlear nerve action potentials during exposure to electromagnetic fields generated by mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Colletti, Vittorio; Mandalà, Marco; Manganotti, Paolo; Ramat, Stefano; Sacchetto, Luca; Colletti, Liliana

    2011-07-01

    The rapid spread of devices generating electromagnetic fields (EMF) has raised concerns as to the possible effects of this technology on humans. The auditory system is the neural organ most frequently and directly exposed to electromagnetic activity owing to the daily use of mobile phones. In recent publications, a possible correlation between mobile phone usage and central nervous system tumours has been detected. Very recently a deterioration in otoacoustic emissions and in the auditory middle latency responses after intensive and long-term magnetic field exposure in humans has been demonstrated. To determine with objective observations if exposure to mobile phone EMF affects acoustically evoked cochlear nerve compound action potentials, seven patients suffering from Ménière's disease and undergoing retrosigmoid vestibular neurectomy were exposed to the effects of mobile phone placed over the craniotomy for 5 min. All patients showed a substantial decrease in amplitude and a significant increase in latency of cochlear nerve compound action potentials during the 5 min of exposure to EMF. These changes lasted for a period of around 5 min after exposure. The possibility that EMF can produce relatively long-lasting effects on cochlear nerve conduction is discussed and analysed in light of contrasting previous literature obtained under non-surgical conditions. Limitations of this novel approach, including the effects of the anaesthetics, craniotomy and surgical procedure, are presented in detail.

  2. Detachable glass microelectrodes for recording action potentials in active moving organs.

    PubMed

    Barbic, Mladen; Moreno, Angel; Harris, Tim D; Kay, Matthew W

    2017-06-01

    Here, we describe new detachable floating glass micropipette electrode devices that provide targeted action potential recordings in active moving organs without requiring constant mechanical constraint or pharmacological inhibition of tissue motion. The technology is based on the concept of a glass micropipette electrode that is held firmly during cell targeting and intracellular insertion, after which a 100-µg glass microelectrode, a "microdevice," is gently released to remain within the moving organ. The microdevices provide long-term recordings of action potentials, even during millimeter-scale movement of tissue in which the device is embedded. We demonstrate two different glass micropipette electrode holding and detachment designs appropriate for the heart (sharp glass microdevices for cardiac myocytes in rats, guinea pigs, and humans) and the brain (patch glass microdevices for neurons in rats). We explain how microdevices enable measurements of multiple cells within a moving organ that are typically difficult with other technologies. Using sharp microdevices, action potential duration was monitored continuously for 15 min in unconstrained perfused hearts during global ischemia-reperfusion, providing beat-to-beat measurements of changes in action potential duration. Action potentials from neurons in the hippocampus of anesthetized rats were measured with patch microdevices, which provided stable base potentials during long-term recordings. Our results demonstrate that detachable microdevices are an elegant and robust tool to record electrical activity with high temporal resolution and cellular level localization without disturbing the physiological working conditions of the organ.NEW & NOTEWORTHY Cellular action potential measurements within tissue using glass micropipette electrodes usually require tissue immobilization, potentially influencing the physiological relevance of the measurement. Here, we addressed this limitation with novel 100-µg detachable

  3. Multistage Nonlinear Optimization to Recover Neural Activation Patterns From Evoked Compound Action Potentials of Cochlear Implant Users.

    PubMed

    Cosentino, Stefano; Gaudrain, Etienne; Deeks, John M; Carlyon, Robert P

    2016-04-01

    Electrically evoked compound action potentials (ECAPs) have been employed as a measure of neural activation evoked by cochlear implant (CI) stimulation. A forward-masking procedure is commonly used to reduce stimulus artefacts. This method estimates the joint neural activation produced by two electrodes-one acting as probe and the other as masker; as such, the measured ECAPs depend on the activation patterns produced by both. We describe an approach--termed panoramic ECAP ("PECAP")--that allows reconstruction of the underlying neural activation pattern of individual channels from ECAP amplitudes. The proposed approach combines two constrained nonlinear optimization stages. PECAP was validated against simulated and physiological data from CI users. The physiological data consisted of ECAPs measured from four users of Cochlear devices. For each subject, an 18 ×18 ECAP amplitude matrix was measured using a forward-masking method. The results from computer simulations indicate that our approach can reliably estimate the underlying activation patterns from ECAP amplitudes even for instances of neural "dead regions" or cross-turn stimulation. The operating signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) for the proposed algorithm was 5 dB or higher, which matched well the SNR measured from human physiological data. Human ECAPs were fitted with our procedure to determine neural activation patterns. PECAP can be used to identify undesirable features of the neural activation pattern of individual CI users. Our approach may have clinical application as an objective measure of electrode-to-neuron interface and may be used to devise ad hoc stimulation strategies.

  4. Direct depolarization and antidromic action potentials transiently suppress dendritic IPSPs in hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells.

    PubMed

    Morishita, W; Alger, B E

    2001-01-01

    Whole-cell current-clamp recordings were made from distal dendrites of rat hippocampal CA1 pyramidal cells. Following depolarization of the dendritic membrane by direct injection of current pulses or by back-propagating action potentials elicited by antidromic stimulation, evoked gamma-aminobutyric acid-A (GABA(A)) receptor-mediated inhibitory postsynaptic potentials (IPSPs) were transiently suppressed. This suppression had properties similar to depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition (DSI): it was enhanced by carbachol, blocked by dendritic hyperpolarization sufficient to prevent action potential invasion, and reduced by 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) application. Thus DSI or a DSI-like process can be recorded in CA1 distal dendrites. Moreover, localized application of TTX to stratum pyramidale blocked somatic action potentials and somatic IPSPs, but not dendritic IPSPs or DSI induced by direct dendritic depolarization, suggesting DSI is expressed in part in the dendrites. These data extend the potential physiological roles of DSI.

  5. The Flash-Triggering Action Potential of the Luminescent Dinoflagellate Noctiluca

    PubMed Central

    Eckert, Roger; Sibaoka, Takao

    1968-01-01

    The action potential which elicits luminescence in Noctiluca is recorded from the flotation vacuole as a transient all-or-none hyperpolarization in response to either local or general application of inward (bath to vacuole) current. Experiments were performed to determine whether the unorthodox polarities of both the stimulus current and the potential response resulted from uncommon bioelectric mechanisms or from special morphological features of this species. The findings all indicate that the action potential belongs to the familiar class of responses which have their origin in voltage- and time-dependent selective increases in membrane permeability, and that morphological factors account for the observed deviations from normal behavior. Both the stimulus and the response have orthodox polarities provided the vacuole is designated as an "external" extracytoplasmic compartment. Differential recording between vacuole and cytoplasm showed that the action potential occurs across the vacuolar membrane, with the cytoplasmic potential, which at rest is negative with respect to the vacuole, overshooting zero and reversing sign to become transiently electropositive. The rising phase of the action potential therefore depends on active current flow through the vacuolar membrane from the vacuole into the cytoplasm. Propagation of the action potential over the subspherical cell from the locus of stimulation is thought to depend largely on the core conductor properties of the thin perivacuolar shell of cytoplasm which is bounded on its inner surface by the excitable membrane and on its outer surface by inexcitable membranes. PMID:5672004

  6. Minocycline inhibits D-amphetamine-elicited action potential bursts in a central snail neuron.

    PubMed

    Chen, Y-H; Lin, P-L; Wong, R-W; Wu, Y-T; Hsu, H-Y; Tsai, M-C; Lin, M-J; Hsu, Y-C; Lin, C-H

    2012-10-25

    Minocycline is a second-generation tetracycline that has been reported to have powerful neuroprotective properties. In our previous studies, we found that d-amphetamine (AMPH) elicited action potential bursts in an identifiable RP4 neuron of the African snail, Achatina fulica Ferussac. This study sought to determine the effects of minocycline on the AMPH-elicited action potential pattern changes in the central snail neuron, using the two-electrode voltage clamping method. Extracellular application of AMPH at 300 μM elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron. Minocycline dose-dependently (300-900 μM) inhibited the action potential bursts elicited by AMPH. The inhibitory effects of minocycline on AMPH-elicited action potential bursts were restored by forskolin (50 μM), an adenylate cyclase activator, and by dibutyryl cAMP (N(6),2'-O-Dibutyryladenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate; 1mM), a membrane-permeable cAMP analog. Co-administration of forskolin (50 μM) plus tetraethylammonium chloride (TEA; 5mM) or co-administration of TEA (5mM) plus dibutyryl cAMP (1mM) also elicited action potential bursts, which were prevented and inhibited by minocycline. In addition, minocycline prevented and inhibited forskolin (100 μM)-elicited action potential bursts. Notably, TEA (50mM)-elicited action potential bursts in the RP4 neuron were not affected by minocycline. Minocycline did not affect steady-state outward currents of the RP4 neuron. However, minocycline did decrease the AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. Similarly, minocycline decreased the effects of forskolin-elicited steady-state current changes. Pretreatment with H89 (N-[2-(p-Bromocinnamylamino)ethyl]-5-isoquinolinesulfonamide dihydrochloride; 10 μM), a protein kinase A inhibitor, inhibited AMPH-elicited action potential bursts and decreased AMPH-elicited steady-state current changes. These results suggest that the cAMP-protein kinase A signaling pathway and the steady-state current are involved in

  7. Assessing the Electrode-Neuron Interface with the Electrically Evoked Compound Action Potential, Electrode Position, and Behavioral Thresholds.

    PubMed

    DeVries, Lindsay; Scheperle, Rachel; Bierer, Julie Arenberg

    2016-06-01

    Variability in speech perception scores among cochlear implant listeners may largely reflect the variable efficacy of implant electrodes to convey stimulus information to the auditory nerve. In the present study, three metrics were applied to assess the quality of the electrode-neuron interface of individual cochlear implant channels: the electrically evoked compound action potential (ECAP), the estimation of electrode position using computerized tomography (CT), and behavioral thresholds using focused stimulation. The primary motivation of this approach is to evaluate the ECAP as a site-specific measure of the electrode-neuron interface in the context of two peripheral factors that likely contribute to degraded perception: large electrode-to-modiolus distance and reduced neural density. Ten unilaterally implanted adults with Advanced Bionics HiRes90k devices participated. ECAPs were elicited with monopolar stimulation within a forward-masking paradigm to construct channel interaction functions (CIF), behavioral thresholds were obtained with quadrupolar (sQP) stimulation, and data from imaging provided estimates of electrode-to-modiolus distance and scalar location (scala tympani (ST), intermediate, or scala vestibuli (SV)) for each electrode. The width of the ECAP CIF was positively correlated with electrode-to-modiolus distance; both of these measures were also influenced by scalar position. The ECAP peak amplitude was negatively correlated with behavioral thresholds. Moreover, subjects with low behavioral thresholds and large ECAP amplitudes, averaged across electrodes, tended to have higher speech perception scores. These results suggest a potential clinical role for the ECAP in the objective assessment of individual cochlear implant channels, with the potential to improve speech perception outcomes.

  8. Sensitivity to structure in action sequences: An infant event-related potential study.

    PubMed

    Monroy, Claire D; Gerson, Sarah A; Domínguez-Martínez, Estefanía; Kaduk, Katharina; Hunnius, Sabine; Reid, Vincent

    2017-05-06

    Infants are sensitive to structure and patterns within continuous streams of sensory input. This sensitivity relies on statistical learning, the ability to detect predictable regularities in spatial and temporal sequences. Recent evidence has shown that infants can detect statistical regularities in action sequences they observe, but little is known about the neural process that give rise to this ability. In the current experiment, we combined electroencephalography (EEG) with eye-tracking to identify electrophysiological markers that indicate whether 8-11-month-old infants detect violations to learned regularities in action sequences, and to relate these markers to behavioral measures of anticipation during learning. In a learning phase, infants observed an actor performing a sequence featuring two deterministic pairs embedded within an otherwise random sequence. Thus, the first action of each pair was predictive of what would occur next. One of the pairs caused an action-effect, whereas the second did not. In a subsequent test phase, infants observed another sequence that included deviant pairs, violating the previously observed action pairs. Event-related potential (ERP) responses were analyzed and compared between the deviant and the original action pairs. Findings reveal that infants demonstrated a greater Negative central (Nc) ERP response to the deviant actions for the pair that caused the action-effect, which was consistent with their visual anticipations during the learning phase. Findings are discussed in terms of the neural and behavioral processes underlying perception and learning of structured action sequences. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Cellular uncoupling can unmask dispersion of action potential duration in ventricular myocardium. A computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lesh, M D; Pring, M; Spear, J F

    1989-11-01

    Although slow conduction is a requirement for the preparation of sustained reentry, it alone is not sufficient for the initiation of reentry. Additionally, unidirectional block and recovery of excitability distal to the site of block must occur. Thus, a comprehensive description of the electrophysiological determinants of reentry must explain both slow conduction and unidirectional block. Although there is a growing body of research exploring the influence of axial resistivity and anisotropy on slow conduction, somewhat less is known about the relation of axial resistivity to spatial dispersion of action potential duration, a condition favorable to the development of unidirectional block. We hypothesized that when cells are well coupled, local differences in intrinsic action potential duration are not evident and that, as axial resistivity increases, local variation in action potential duration becomes manifest. We tested this hypothesis in a numerical model of electrical propagation in a grid of resistively coupled ionic current sources simulating a sheet of ventricular myocardium. Spatial dispersion of intrinsic action potential duration was simulated by varying the magnitude of the fully activated slow inward conductance in Beeler-Reuter membrane ionic kinetics. By then altering coupling resistance, we showed that dispersion of manifest action potential duration is masked in the setting of normal low-resistance cellular coupling and unmasked by increased axial resistance. When nonuniform anisotropy was simulated, dramatic pacing-site-dependent changes in both the pattern of activation and dispersion of action potential duration were noted. These findings may be important in understanding the mechanism of reentrant tachycardia initiation in the border zone of chronic, healed myocardial infarctions where evidence suggests that abnormal cellular coupling is the predominant electrophysiological derangement. In this study, we have shown, using a detailed ionic

  10. Active action potential propagation but not initiation in thalamic interneuron dendrites

    PubMed Central

    Casale, Amanda E.; McCormick, David A.

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory interneurons of the dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus of the thalamus modulate the activity of thalamocortical cells in response to excitatory input through the release of inhibitory neurotransmitter from both axons and dendrites. The exact mechanisms by which release can occur from dendrites are, however, not well understood. Recent experiments using calcium imaging have suggested that Na/K based action potentials can evoke calcium transients in dendrites via local active conductances, making the back-propagating action potential a candidate for dendritic neurotransmitter release. In this study, we employed high temporal and spatial resolution voltage-sensitive dye imaging to assess the characteristics of dendritic voltage deflections in response to Na/K action potentials in interneurons of the mouse dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus. We found that trains or single action potentials elicited by somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation led to action potentials that rapidly and actively back-propagated throughout the entire dendritic arbor and into the fine filiform dendritic appendages known to release GABAergic vesicles. Action potentials always appeared first in the soma or proximal dendrite in response to somatic current injection or local synaptic stimulation, and the rapid back-propagation into the dendritic arbor depended upon voltage-gated sodium and TEA-sensitive potassium channels. Our results indicate that thalamic interneuron dendrites integrate synaptic inputs that initiate action potentials, most likely in the axon initial segment, that then back-propagate with high-fidelity into the dendrites, resulting in a nearly synchronous release of GABA from both axonal and dendritic compartments. PMID:22171033

  11. A comparison of two methods of using transtympanic electrocochleography for the diagnosis of Meniere's disease: click summating potential/action potential ratio measurements and tone burst summating potential measurements.

    PubMed

    Gibson, William P R

    2009-02-01

    Transtympanic electrocochleography (TT ECochG) is helpful for the confirmation of Meniere's disease using tone burst stimuli to measure the amplitude of the frequency specific summating potentials (SP) but not when using the click evoked summating potential versus action potential ratio (SP/AP). To evaluate the effectiveness of TT ECochG as a means of confirming the clinical diagnosis of Meniere's disease. A total of 2,717 patients were referred for TT ECochG between August 1998 and September 2008. Each patient was assessed prospectively on clinical grounds according to the AAOHNS criteria and a scale devised by the author. A Meniere's group and a non-Meniere's group were determined and the TT ECochG results were compared between the groups that had similar hearing levels for the particular stimulus employed. Click SP/AP measurements did not significantly differentiate between populations of Meniere's ears and non-Meniere's ears. Tone burst SP amplitude measurements were significantly different between the populations, especially using frequencies at 500 Hz, 1 kHz, and 2 kHz.

  12. Effect of an educational game on university students' learning about action potentials.

    PubMed

    Luchi, Kelly Cristina Gaviao; Montrezor, Luís Henrique; Marcondes, Fernanda K

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an educational game that is used for teaching the mechanisms of the action potentials in cell membranes. The game was composed of pieces representing the intracellular and extracellular environments, ions, ion channels, and the Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase pump. During the game activity, the students arranged the pieces to demonstrate how the ions move through the membrane in a resting state and during an action potential, linking the ion movement with a graph of the action potential. To test the effect of the game activity on student understanding, first-year dental students were given the game to play at different times in a series of classes teaching resting membrane potential and action potentials. In all experiments, students who played the game performed better in assessments. According to 98% of the students, the game supported the learning process. The data confirm the students' perception, indicating that the educational game improved their understanding about action potentials. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  13. Extracellular calcium transients and action potential configuration changes related to post-stimulatory potentiation in rabbit atrium.

    PubMed

    Hilgemann, D W

    1986-05-01

    Extracellular calcium transients were monitored with 2 mM tetramethylmurexide at low calcium (250 microM total, 130 microM free), and action potentials were monitored together with developed tension at normal calcium (1.3 mM) during the production and decay of post-stimulatory potentiation in rabbit left atrial strips. At normal calcium, the contractile potentiation produced by a brief burst of 4 Hz stimulation is lost in three to five post-stimulatory excitations, which correlate with a negative staircase of the late action potential. At low calcium, stimulation at 4 Hz for 3-8 s results in a net extracellular calcium depletion of 5-15 microM. At the subsequent potentiated contraction (1-45 s rest), total extracellular calcium increases by 4-8 microM. The contractile response at a second excitation is greatly suppressed and results in little or no further calcium shift; the sequence can be repeated immediately thereafter. Reducing external sodium to 60 mM (sucrose replacement) enhances post-rest contractions, suppresses the late action potential, nearly eliminates loss of contractility and net calcium efflux at post-rest excitations, and markedly reduces extracellular calcium depletion during rapid stimulation. 4-Aminopyridine (1 mM) markedly suppresses the rapid early repolarization of this preparation at post-rest excitations and the loss of contractility at post-rest stimulation from the rested state; during a post-stimulatory potentiation sequence at low calcium, replenishment of extracellular calcium takes several post-stimulatory excitations. Ryanodine (10 nM to 5 microM) abolishes the post-stimulatory contraction at rest periods of greater than 5 s. If the initial repolarization is rapid, ryanodine suppresses the late action potential, calcium efflux during quiescence is greatly accelerated, and subsequent excitations do not result in an accumulation of extracellular calcium. A positive staircase of the early action potential correlates with the magnitude

  14. Intraoperative Motor-Evoked Potential Disappearance versus Amplitude-Decrement Alarm Criteria During Cervical Spinal Surgery: A Long-Term Prognosis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dong-Gun; Choi, Young-Doo; Jin, Seung-Hyun; Kim, Chi Heon; Lee, Kwang-Woo; Park, Kyung Seok

    2017-01-01

    Background and Purpose We studied the clinical significance of amplitude-reduction and disappearance alarm criteria for transcranial electric muscle motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) during cervical spinal surgery according to different lesion locations [intramedullary (IM) vs. nonintramedullary (NIM)] by evaluating the long-term postoperative motor status. Methods In total, 723 patients were retrospectively dichotomized into the IM and NIM groups. Each limb was analyzed respectively. One hundred and sixteen limbs from 30 patients with IM tumors and 2,761 limbs from 693 patients without IM tumors were enrolled. Postoperative motor deficits were assessed up to 6 months after surgery. Results At the end of surgery, 61 limbs (2.2%) in the NIM group and 14 limbs (12.1%) in the IM group showed MEP amplitudes that had decreased to below 50% of baseline, with 13 of the NIM limbs (21.3%) and 2 of the IM limbs (14.3%) showing MEP disappearance. Thirteen NIM limbs (0.5%) and 5 IM limbs (4.3%) showed postoperative motor deficits. The criterion for disappearance showed a lower sensitivity for the immediate motor deficit than did the criterion for amplitude decrement in both the IM and NIM groups. However, the disappearance criterion showed the same sensitivity as the 70%-decrement criterion in IM (100%) and NIM (83%) surgeries for the motor deficit at 6 months after surgery. Moreover, it has the highest specificity for the motor deficits among diverse alarm criteria, from 24 hours to 6 months after surgery, in both the IM and NIM groups. Conclusions The MEP disappearance alarm criterion had a high specificity in predicting the long-term prognosis after cervical spinal surgery. However, because it can have a low sensitivity in predicting an immediate postoperative deficit, combining different MEP alarm criteria according to the aim of specific instances of cervical spinal surgery is likely to be useful in practical intraoperative monitoring. PMID:27730765

  15. Analytical solutions of the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley equations I: minimal model for backpropagation of action potentials in sparsely excitable dendrites.

    PubMed

    Poznanski, Roman R

    2004-09-01

    Hodgkin and Huxley's ionic theory of the nerve impulse embodies principles, applicable also to the impulses in vertebrate nerve fibers, as demonstrated by Bernhard Frankenhaeuser and Andrew Huxley 40 years ago. Frankenhaeuser and Huxley reformulated the classical Hodgkin-Huxley equations, in terms of electrodiffusion theory, and computed action potentials specifically for saltatory conduction in myelinated axons. In this paper, we obtain analytical solutions to the most difficult nonlinear partial differential equations in classical neurophysiology. We solve analytically the Frankenhaeuser-Huxley equations pertaining to a model of sparsely excitable, nonlinear dendrites with clusters of transiently activating, TTX-sensitive Na(+) channels, discretely distributed as point sources of inward current along a continuous (non-segmented) leaky cable structure. Each cluster or hot-spot, corresponding to a mesoscopic level description of Na(+) ion channels, includes known cumulative inactivation kinetics observed at the microscopic level. In such a third-order system, the 'recovery' variable is an electrogenic sodium-pump imbedded in the passive membrane, and the system is stabilized by the presence of a large leak conductance mediated by a composite number of ligand-gated channels permeable to monovalent cations Na(+) and K(+). In order to reproduce antidromic propagation and attenuation of action potentials, a nonlinear integral equation must be solved (in the presence of suprathreshold input, and a constant-field equation of electrodiffusion at each hot-spot with membrane gates controlling the flow of current). A perturbative expansion of the non-dimensional membrane potential (Phi) is used to obtain time-dependent analytical solutions, involving a voltage-dependent Na(+) activation (micro) and a state-dependent inactivation (eta) gating variables. It is shown that action potentials attenuate in amplitude in accordance with experimental findings, and that the spatial

  16. Position-dependent patterning of spontaneous action potentials in immature cochlear inner hair cells

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Stuart L.; Eckrich, Tobias; Kuhn, Stephanie; Zampini, Valeria; Franz, Christoph; Ranatunga, Kishani M.; Roberts, Terri P.; Masetto, Sergio; Knipper, Marlies; Kros, Corné J.; Marcotti, Walter

    2011-01-01

    Spontaneous action potential activity is crucial for mammalian sensory system development. In the auditory system, patterned firing activity has been observed in immature spiral ganglion cells and brain-stem neurons and is likely to depend on cochlear inner hair cell (IHC) action potentials. It remains uncertain whether spiking activity is intrinsic to developing IHCs and whether it shows patterning. We found that action potentials are intrinsically generated by immature IHCs of altricial rodents and that apical IHCs exhibit bursting activity as opposed to more sustained firing in basal cells. We show that the efferent neurotransmitter ACh, by fine-tuning the IHC’s resting membrane potential (Vm), is crucial for the bursting pattern in apical cells. Endogenous extracellular ATP also contributes to the Vm of apical and basal IHCs by activating SK2 channels. We hypothesize that the difference in firing pattern along the cochlea instructs the tonotopic differentiation of IHCs and auditory pathway. PMID:21572434

  17. TRPM4 non-selective cation channels influence action potentials in rabbit Purkinje fibres.

    PubMed

    Hof, Thomas; Sallé, Laurent; Coulbault, Laurent; Richer, Romain; Alexandre, Joachim; Rouet, René; Manrique, Alain; Guinamard, Romain

    2016-01-15

    The transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) inhibitor 9-phenanthrol reduces action potential duration in rabbit Purkinje fibres but not in ventricle. TRPM4-like single channel activity is observed in isolated rabbit Purkinje cells but not in ventricular cells. The TRPM4-like current develops during the notch and early repolarization phases of the action potential in Purkinje cells. Transient receptor potential melastatin 4 (TRPM4) Ca(2+)-activated non-selective cation channel activity has been recorded in cardiomyocytes and sinus node cells from mammals. In addition, TRPM4 gene mutations are associated with human diseases of cardiac conduction, suggesting that TRPM4 plays a role in this aspect of cardiac function. Here we evaluate the TRPM4 contribution to cardiac electrophysiology of Purkinje fibres. Ventricular strips with Purkinje fibres were isolated from rabbit hearts. Intracellular microelectrodes recorded Purkinje fibre activity and the TRPM4 inhibitor 9-phenanthrol was applied to unmask potential TRPM4 contributions to the action potential. 9-Phenanthrol reduced action potential duration measured at the point of 50 and 90% repolarization with an EC50 of 32.8 and 36.1×10(-6) mol l(-1), respectively, but did not modulate ventricular action potentials. Inside-out patch-clamp recordings were used to monitor TRPM4 activity in isolated Purkinje cells. TRPM4-like single channel activity (conductance = 23.8 pS; equal permeability for Na(+) and K(+); sensitivity to voltage, Ca(2+) and 9-phenanthrol) was observed in 43% of patches from Purkinje cells but not from ventricular cells (0/16). Action potential clamp experiments performed in the whole-cell configuration revealed a transient inward 9-phenanthrol-sensitive current (peak density = -0.65 ± 0.15 pA pF(-1); n = 5) during the plateau phases of the Purkinje fibre action potential. These results show that TRPM4 influences action potential characteristics in rabbit Purkinje fibres and thus could modulate

  18. Prolonged action potential duration in cardiac ablation of PDK1 mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Zhonglin; Jiang, Yu; Yang, Zhongzhou; Cao, Kejiang; Wang, Dao W

    2015-01-01

    The involvement of the AGC protein kinase family in regulating arrhythmia has drawn considerable attention, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. The aim of this study is to explore the role of 3-phosphoinositide-dependent protein kinase-1 (PDK1), one of upstream protein kinases of the AGC protein kinase family, in the pathogenesis of dysregulated electrophysiological basis. PDK1(F/F) αMHC-Cre mice and PDK1(F/F) mice were divided into experiment group and control group. Using patch clamping technology, we explored action potential duration in both groups, and investigated the functions of transient outward potassium channel and L-type Ca(2+) channel to explain the abnormal action potential duration. Significant prolongation action potential duration was found in mice with PDK1 deletion. Further, the peak current of transient outward potassium current and L-type Ca(2+) current were decreased by 84% and 49% respectively. In addition, dysregulation of channel kinetics lead to action potential duration prolongation further. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that PDK1 participates in action potential prolongation in cardiac ablation of PDK1 mice. This effect is likely to be mediated largely through downregulation of transient outward potassium current. These findings indicate the modulation of the PDK1 pathway could provide a new mechanism for abnormal electrophysiological basis.

  19. Unmyelinated visceral afferents exhibit frequency dependent action potential broadening while myelinated visceral afferents do not.

    PubMed

    Li, Bai-Yan; Feng, Bin; Tsu, Hwa Y; Schild, John H

    2007-06-21

    Sensory information arising from visceral organ systems is encoded into action potential trains that propagate along afferent fibers to target nuclei in the central nervous system. These information streams range from tight patterns of action potentials that are well synchronized with the sensory transduction event to irregular, patternless discharge with no clear correlation to the sensory input. In general terms these afferent pathways can be divided into unmyelinated and myelinated fiber types. Our laboratory has a long standing interest in the functional differences between these two types of afferents in terms of the preprocessing of sensory information into action potential trains (synchrony, frequency, duration, etc.), the reflexogenic consequences of this sensory input to the central nervous system and the ionic channels that give rise to the electrophysiological properties of these unique cell types. The aim of this study was to determine whether there were any functional differences in the somatic action potential characteristics of unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents in response to different rates of sensory nerve stimulation. Our results showed that activity and frequency-dependent widening of the somatic action potential was quite prominent in unmyelinated but not myelinated vagal afferents. Spike broadening often leads to increased influx of Ca(2+) ions that has been associated with a diverse range of modulatory mechanisms both at the cell body and central synaptic terminations (e.g. increased neurotransmitter release.) We conclude that our observations are indicative of fundamentally different mechanisms for neural integration of sensory information arising from unmyelinated and myelinated vagal afferents.

  20. Modeling state transition of hippocampal local field potential between theta rhythm and large irregular amplitude activity by bifurcation between a limit cycle and chaotic dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokuda, K.; Katori, Y.; Aihara, K.

    2013-01-01

    Here we propose a possible mathematical structure of the state transition of the hippocampal local field potential (LFP) between theta rhythm and large irregular amplitude activity (LIA) in terms of nonlinear dynamics. The basic idea is that the alternation of the state between theta rhythm and LIA can be interpreted as a bifurcation of the attractor between a limit cycle and chaotic dynamics. Tsuda et al. reported that a network composed of simple class 1 model neurons connected with gap junctions shows both synchronous periodic behavior and asynchronous chaotic behavior [1]. Here we model the network of hippocampal interneurons extending their model. The network is composed of electrically coupled simple 2-dimensional neurons with natural resonant frequency in the theta frequency. We incorporate a periodic external force representing the medial septal afferent. The system converges on a limit cycle under this external force, but shows chaotic dynamics without this external force. Furthermore, the external noise realized rapid alteration of the state obeying the change of the amplitude of the septal input.

  1. Application of a folding-model optical potential to analyzing inelastic pion–nucleus scattering and the in-medium effect on a pion–nucleon amplitude

    SciTech Connect

    Lukyanov, V. K. Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Abdul-Magead, I. A. M.

    2016-11-15

    The folding-model optical potential is generalized in such a way as to apply it to calculating the cross sections for inelastic scattering of π{sup ±}-mesons on {sup 28}Si, {sup 40}Ca, {sup 58}Ni, and {sup 208}Pb nuclei at the energies of 162, 180, 226, and 291 MeV leading to the excitation of the 2{sup +} and 3{sup −} collective states. In doing this, use is made of known nucleon-density distributions in nuclei and the pion–nucleon scattering amplitude whose parameters were obtained previously by fitting the elastic scattering cross sections for the same nuclei. Thus, the values of quadrupole (β{sub 2}) and octupole (β{sub 3}) deformations of nuclei appear here as the only adjustable parameters. The scattering cross section is calculated by solving the relativistic wave equation, whereby effects of relativization and distortion in the entrance and exit scattering channels are taken exactly into account. The cross sections calculated in this way for inelastic scattering are in good agreement with respective experimental data. The importance of the inclusion of in-medium effects in choosing parameters of the pion–nucleon amplitude is emphasized.

  2. Application of a folding-model optical potential to analyzing inelastic pion-nucleus scattering and the in-medium effect on a pion-nucleon amplitude

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukyanov, V. K.; Zemlyanaya, E. V.; Lukyanov, K. V.; Abdul-Magead, I. A. M.

    2016-11-01

    The folding-model optical potential is generalized in such a way as to apply it to calculating the cross sections for inelastic scattering of π ±-mesons on 28Si, 40Ca, 58Ni, and 208Pb nuclei at the energies of 162, 180, 226, and 291 MeV leading to the excitation of the 2+ and 3- collective states. In doing this, use is made of known nucleon-density distributions in nuclei and the pion-nucleon scattering amplitude whose parameters were obtained previously by fitting the elastic scattering cross sections for the same nuclei. Thus, the values of quadrupole ( β 2) and octupole ( β 3) deformations of nuclei appear here as the only adjustable parameters. The scattering cross section is calculated by solving the relativistic wave equation, whereby effects of relativization and distortion in the entrance and exit scattering channels are taken exactly into account. The cross sections calculated in this way for inelastic scattering are in good agreement with respective experimental data. The importance of the inclusion of in-medium effects in choosing parameters of the pion-nucleon amplitude is emphasized.

  3. Calcium-Induced calcium release during action potential firing in developing inner hair cells.

    PubMed

    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J

    2015-03-10

    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  4. Calcium-Induced Calcium Release during Action Potential Firing in Developing Inner Hair Cells

    PubMed Central

    Iosub, Radu; Avitabile, Daniele; Grant, Lisa; Tsaneva-Atanasova, Krasimira; Kennedy, Helen J.

    2015-01-01

    In the mature auditory system, inner hair cells (IHCs) convert sound-induced vibrations into electrical signals that are relayed to the central nervous system via auditory afferents. Before the cochlea can respond to normal sound levels, developing IHCs fire calcium-based action potentials that disappear close to the onset of hearing. Action potential firing triggers transmitter release from the immature IHC that in turn generates experience-independent firing in auditory neurons. These early signaling events are thought to be essential for the organization and development of the auditory system and hair cells. A critical component of the action potential is the rise in intracellular calcium that activates both small conductance potassium channels essential during membrane repolarization, and triggers transmitter release from the cell. Whether this calcium signal is generated by calcium influx or requires calcium-induced calcium release (CICR) is not yet known. IHCs can generate CICR, but to date its physiological role has remained unclear. Here, we used high and low concentrations of ryanodine to block or enhance CICR to determine whether calcium release from intracellular stores affected action potential waveform, interspike interval, or changes in membrane capacitance during development of mouse IHCs. Blocking CICR resulted in mixed action potential waveforms with both brief and prolonged oscillations in membrane potential and intracellular calcium. This mixed behavior is captured well by our mathematical model of IHC electrical activity. We perform two-parameter bifurcation analysis of the model that predicts the dependence of IHCs firing patterns on the level of activation of two parameters, the SK2 channels activation and CICR rate. Our data show that CICR forms an important component of the calcium signal that shapes action potentials and regulates firing patterns, but is not involved directly in triggering exocytosis. These data provide important insights

  5. Photodynamic action of chlorin e6 on thymocyte plasmatic and mitochondrial membrane potentials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gyulkhandanyan, Grigor V.

    2005-08-01

    Transmembrane potentials appear to be cell state sensitive characteristics and can give information about cell damage initial stage. Photodynamic action of the photosensitizer chlorin e6 on plasmatic and mitochondrial membrane potentials of the rat thymus lymphocytes was studied using voltage-sensitive dye rhodamine 6G. It has been revealed that mitochondrial membrane potential is more sensitive characteristic of membrane disfunction than plasmatic one at the cell photodamage.

  6. 9-Anthracene carboxylic acid is more suitable than DIDS for characterization of calcium-activated chloride current during canine ventricular action potential.

    PubMed

    Váczi, Krisztina; Hegyi, Bence; Ruzsnavszky, Ferenc; Kistamás, Kornél; Horváth, Balázs; Bányász, Tamás; Nánási, Péter P; Szentandrássy, Norbert; Magyar, János

    2015-01-01

    Understanding the role of ionic currents in shaping the cardiac action potential (AP) has great importance as channel malfunctions can lead to sudden cardiac death by inducing arrhythmias. Therefore, researchers frequently use inhibitors to selectively block a certain ion channel like 4,4'-diisothiocyanostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DIDS) and 9-anthracene carboxylic acid (9-AC) for calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca)). This study aims to explore which blocker is preferable to study ICl(Ca). Whole-cell voltage-clamp technique was used to record ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1, while action potentials were measured using sharp microelectrodes. DIDS- (0.2 mM) and 9-AC-sensitive (0.5 mM) currents were identical in voltage-clamp conditions, regardless of intracellular Ca(2+) buffering. DIDS-sensitive current amplitude was larger with the increase of stimulation rate and correlated well with the rate-induced increase of calcium transients. Both drugs increased action potential duration (APD) to the same extent, but the elevation of the plateau potential was more pronounced with 9-AC at fast stimulation rates. On the contrary, 9-AC did not influence either the AP amplitude or the maximal rate of depolarization (V max), but DIDS caused marked reduction of V max. Both inhibitors reduced the magnitude of phase-1, but, at slow stimulation rates, this effect of DIDS was larger. All of these actions on APs were reversible upon washout of the drugs. Increasing concentrations of 9-AC between 0.1 and 0.5 mM in a cumulative manner gradually reduced phase-1 and increased APD. 9-AC at 1 mM had no additional actions upon perfusion after 0.5 mM. The half-effective concentration of 9-AC was approximately 160 μM with a Hill coefficient of 2. The amplitudes of ICa,L, IKs, IKr and IK1 were not changed by 0.5 mM 9-AC. These results suggest that DIDS is equally useful to study ICl(Ca) during voltage-clamp but 9-AC is superior in AP measurements for studying the physiological role of

  7. Optical coherence tomography for detection of compound action potential in Xenopus Laevis sciatic nerve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Troiani, Francesca; Nikolic, Konstantin; Constandinou, Timothy G.

    2016-03-01

    Due to optical coherence tomography (OCT) high spatial and temporal resolution, this technique could be used to observe the quick changes in the refractive index that accompany action potential. In this study we explore the use of time domain Optical Coherence Tomography (TD-OCT) for real time action potential detection in ex vivo Xenopus Laevis sciatic nerve. TD-OCT is the easiest and less expensive OCT technique and, if successful in detecting real time action potential, it could be used for low cost monitoring devices. A theoretical investigation into the order of magnitude of the signals detected by a TD-OCT setup is provided by this work. A linear dependence between the refractive index and the intensity changes is observed and the minimum SNR for which the setup could work is found to be SNR = 2 x 104.

  8. Improving Cardiac Action Potential Measurements: 2D and 3D Cell Culture.

    PubMed

    Daily, Neil J; Yin, Yue; Kemanli, Pinar; Ip, Brian; Wakatsuki, Tetsuro

    2015-11-01

    Progress in the development of assays for measuring cardiac action potential is crucial for the discovery of drugs for treating cardiac disease and assessing cardiotoxicity. Recently, high-throughput methods for assessing action potential using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cardiomyocytes in both two-dimensional monolayer cultures and three-dimensional tissues have been developed. We describe an improved method for assessing cardiac action potential using an ultra-fast cost-effective plate reader with commercially available dyes. Our methods improve dramatically the detection of the fluorescence signal from these dyes and make way for the development of more high-throughput methods for cardiac drug discovery and cardiotoxicity.

  9. Fish oil curtails the human action potential dome in a heterogeneous manner: implication for arrhythmogenesis.

    PubMed

    Verkerk, Arie O; den Ruijter, Hester M; de Jonge, Nicolaas; Coronel, Ruben

    2009-02-06

    Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (omega 3-PUFAs) from fish oil modulate various ion channels, including the L-type calcium current (I(Ca,L)). As a result, fish oil shortens the cardiac action potential and may cause a loss of the dome of the action potential (AP). Under conditions of increased preexisting heterogeneity in repolarization this may aggravate dispersion in action potential duration. We isolated ventricular myocytes of explanted hearts from patients with cardiomyopathy at the time of cardiac transplantation, and characterized spike-and-dome morphology in the presence of acutely administered fish oil. Fish oil omega 3-PUFA eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), but not the control omega 9-PUFA oleic acid (OA), curtails the AP-dome in a heterogeneous manner and may even result in loss of the AP-dome in some but not all myocytes.

  10. Initiation and blocking of the action potential in an axon in weak ultrasonic or microwave fields.

    PubMed

    Shneider, M N; Pekker, M

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of the redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in an axon caused by longitudinal acoustic vibrations of the membrane. These oscillations can be excited by an external source of ultrasound and weak microwave radiation interacting with the charges sitting on the surface of the lipid membrane. It is shown, using the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the axon, that the density redistribution of transmembrane sodium channels may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At the significant redistribution of sodium channels in the membrane, the rarefaction zones of the transmembrane channel density are formed, blocking the propagation of the action potential. Blocking the action potential propagation along the axon is shown to cause anesthesia in the example case of a squid axon. Various approaches to experimental observation of the effects considered in this paper are discussed.

  11. DBI potential, DBI inflation action and general Lagrangian relative to phantom, K-essence and quintessence

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Qing; Huang, Yong-Chang

    2011-11-01

    We derive a Dirac-Born-Infeld (DBI) potential and DBI inflation action by rescaling the metric. The determinant of the induced metric naturally includes the kinetic energy and the potential energy. In particular, the potential energy and kinetic energy can convert into each other in any order, which is in agreement with the limit of classical physics. This is quite different from the usual DBI action. We show that the Taylor expansion of the DBI action can be reduced into the form in the non-linear classical physics. These investigations are the support for the statement that the results of string theory are consistent with quantum mechanics and classical physics. We deduce the Phantom, K-essence, Quintessence and Generalized Klein-Gordon Equation from the DBI model.

  12. Initiation and blocking of the action potential in an axon in weak ultrasonic or microwave fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shneider, M. N.; Pekker, M.

    2014-05-01

    In this paper, we analyze the effect of the redistribution of the transmembrane ion channels in an axon caused by longitudinal acoustic vibrations of the membrane. These oscillations can be excited by an external source of ultrasound and weak microwave radiation interacting with the charges sitting on the surface of the lipid membrane. It is shown, using the Hodgkin-Huxley model of the axon, that the density redistribution of transmembrane sodium channels may reduce the threshold of the action potential, up to its spontaneous initiation. At the significant redistribution of sodium channels in the membrane, the rarefaction zones of the transmembrane channel density are formed, blocking the propagation of the action potential. Blocking the action potential propagation along the axon is shown to cause anesthesia in the example case of a squid axon. Various approaches to experimental observation of the effects considered in this paper are discussed.

  13. Optical magnetic detection of single-neuron action potentials using NV-diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Matthew; Barry, John; Schloss, Jennifer; Glenn, David; Walsworth, Ron

    2016-05-01

    A key challenge for neuroscience is noninvasive, label-free sensing of action potential dynamics in whole organisms with single-neuron resolution. Here, we report a new approach to this problem: using nitrogen-vacancy (NV) color centers in diamond to measure the time-dependent magnetic fields produced by single-neuron action potentials. We demonstrate our method using excised single neurons from two invertebrate species, marine worm and squid; and then by single-neuron action potential magnetic sensing exterior to whole, live, opaque marine worms for extended periods with no adverse effect. The results lay the groundwork for real-time, noninvasive 3D magnetic mapping of functional mammalian neuronal networks.

  14. Effects of sustained, voluntary attention on amplitude and latency of steady-state visual evoked potential: a costs and benefits analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Russo, F; Spinelli, D

    2002-11-01

    Steady-state visual evoked potentials (VEPs) were recorded to study the mechanisms that underlie visual attention. VEPs were recorded from 1 cycle/degree sinusoidal grating contrast reversed at various temporal frequencies (6-10 Hz). This was displayed in one hemifield. A letter search display was flashed at a random rate in the other hemifield. The subject performed a demanding task on the recording stimulus (attended condition) or on the opposite side stimulus (unattended condition). Alternatively, he/she passively fixated on the fixation point (passive condition). Relative to the passive condition, attended stimuli elicited enhanced-amplitude and shortened-latency VEP (benefits). Costs (i.e. responses to passive vs. unattended stimuli) were more marked for latency. VEP latency may be the key of a priority-based attention mechanism acting at an early level.

  15. Incorporated fish oil fatty acids prevent action potential shortening induced by circulating fish oil fatty acids.

    PubMed

    Den Ruijter, Hester M; Verkerk, Arie O; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy.

  16. Channel sialic acids limit hERG channel activity during the ventricular action potential.

    PubMed

    Norring, Sarah A; Ednie, Andrew R; Schwetz, Tara A; Du, Dongping; Yang, Hui; Bennett, Eric S

    2013-02-01

    Activity of human ether-a-go-go-related gene (hERG) 1 voltage-gated K(+) channels is responsible for portions of phase 2 and phase 3 repolarization of the human ventricular action potential. Here, we questioned whether and how physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in surface N-glycosylation modified hERG channel function. Voltage-dependent hERG channel gating and activity were evaluated as expressed in a set of Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cell lines under conditions of full glycosylation, no sialylation, no complex N-glycans, and following enzymatic deglycosylation of surface N-glycans. For each condition of reduced glycosylation, hERG channel steady-state activation and inactivation relationships were shifted linearly by significant depolarizing ∼9 and ∼18 mV, respectively. The hERG window current increased significantly by 50-150%, and the peak shifted by a depolarizing ∼10 mV. There was no significant change in maximum hERG current density. Deglycosylated channels were significantly more active (20-80%) than glycosylated controls during phases 2 and 3 of action potential clamp protocols. Simulations of hERG current and ventricular action potentials corroborated experimental data and predicted reduced sialylation leads to a 50-70-ms decrease in action potential duration. The data describe a novel mechanism by which hERG channel gating is modulated through physiologically and pathophysiologically relevant changes in N-glycosylation; reduced channel sialylation increases hERG channel activity during the action potential, thereby increasing the rate of action potential repolarization.

  17. Incorporated Fish Oil Fatty Acids Prevent Action Potential Shortening Induced by Circulating Fish Oil Fatty Acids

    PubMed Central

    Ruijter, Hester M. Den; Verkerk, Arie O.; Coronel, Ruben

    2010-01-01

    Increased consumption of fatty fish, rich in omega-3-polyunsaturated fatty acids (ω3-PUFAs) reduces the severity and number of arrhythmias. Long-term ω3-PUFA-intake modulates the activity of several cardiac ion channels leading to cardiac action potential shortening. Circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream and incorporated ω3-PUFAs in the cardiac membrane have a different mechanism to shorten the action potential. It is, however, unknown whether circulating ω3-PUFAs in the bloodstream enhance or diminish the effects of incorporated ω3-PUFAs. In the present study, we address this issue. Rabbits were fed a diet rich in fish oil (ω3) or sunflower oil (ω9, as control) for 3 weeks. Ventricular myocytes were isolated by enzymatic dissociation and action potentials were measured using the perforated patch-clamp technique in the absence and presence of acutely administered ω3-PUFAs. Plasma of ω3 fed rabbits contained more free eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and isolated myocytes of ω3 fed rabbits contained higher amounts of both EPA and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) in their sarcolemma compared to control. In the absence of acutely administered fatty acids, ω3 myocytes had a shorter action potential with a more negative plateau than ω9 myocytes. In the ω9 myocytes, but not in the ω3 myocytes, acute administration of a mixture of EPA + DHA shortened the action potential significantly. From these data we conclude that incorporated ω3-PUFAs into the sarcolemma and acutely administered ω3 fatty acids do not have a cumulative effect on action potential duration and morphology. As a consequence, patients with a high cardiac ω3-PUFA status will probably not benefit from short term ω3 supplementation as an antiarrhythmic therapy. PMID:21423389

  18. Cardiac action potential repolarization re-visited: early repolarization shows all-or-none behaviour.

    PubMed

    Trenor, Beatriz; Cardona, Karen; Saiz, Javier; Noble, Denis; Giles, Wayne

    2017-08-17

    In healthy mammalian hearts the action potential (AP) waveform initiates and modulates each contraction, or heartbeat. As a result, action potential height and duration are key physiological variables. In addition, rate-dependent changes in ventricular action potential duration (APD), and variations in APD at a fixed heart rate, are both reliable biomarkers of electrophysiological stability. Present guidelines for the likelihood that candidate drugs will increase arrhythmias rely on small changes in APD and Q-T intervals as criteria for Safety Pharmacology decisions. However, both of these measurements correspond to the final repolarization of the AP. Emerging clinical evidence also draws attention to the early repolarization phase of the action potential (and the J wave of the ECG) as a biomarker for arrhythmogenesis. Here we provide mechanistic background to this Early Repolarization Syndrome by summarizing the evidence that both the initial depolarization and repolarization phases of the cardiac action potential can exhibit distinct time- and voltage-dependent thresholds; and demonstrating that both can show regenerative all-or-none behaviour. An important consequence of this is that not all of the dynamics of action potential repolarization in human ventricle can be captured by data from single myocytes when these results are expressed as 'repolarization reserve'. For example, the complex pattern of cell-to-cell current flow that is responsible for AP conduction (propagation) within the mammalian myocardium can change APD and the Q-T interval of the electrocardiogram as well as alter APD stability, and modulate responsiveness to pharmacological agents (such as Class III anti-arrhythmic drugs). This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  19. Resurgent sodium current and action potential formation in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons.

    PubMed

    Raman, I M; Bean, B P

    1997-06-15

    Voltage-dependent sodium channels were studied in dissociated cerebellar Purkinje neurons from rats. In whole-cell recordings, a tetrodotoxin (TTX)-sensitive inward current was elicited when the membrane was repolarized to voltages between -60 and -20 mV after depolarizations to +30 mV long enough to produce maximal inactivation. At -40 mV, this "resurgent" current peaked in 8 msec and decayed with a time constant of 30 msec. With 50 mM sodium as a charge carrier, the resurgent current was on average approximately 120 pA. CA3 pyramidal neurons had no such current. The current may reflect recovery of inactivated channels through open states, because in Purkinje neurons (but not CA3 neurons) there was partial recovery from inactivation at -40 mV, coinciding with the rise of resurgent current. In single-channel recordings, individual channels gave openings corresponding to resurgent and conventional transient current. Action potentials were recorded from dissociated neurons under current clamp to investigate the role of the resurgent current in action potential formation. Purkinje neurons fired spontaneously at approximately 30 Hz. Hyperpolarization to -85 mV prevented spontaneous firing, and brief depolarization then induced all-or-none firing of conglomerate action potentials comprising three to four spikes. When conglomerate action potentials were used as command voltages in voltage-clamp experiments, TTX-sensitive sodium current was elicited between spikes. The falling phase of an action potential is similar to voltage patterns that activate resurgent sodium current, and thus, resurgent sodium current likely contributes to the formation of conglomerate action potentials in Purkinje neurons.

  20. Muscle response to simultaneous stimulated and physiological action potential trains--a simulation study.

    PubMed

    Crago, Patrick E; Makowski, Nathaniel S

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the mechanisms responsible for the experimentally observed nonlinear addition of forces produced by voluntary contractions during superimposed electrical stimulation of the same muscle. A model of action potential interaction predicts increased motor unit firing rates during superimposed stimulation. The resulting effects on force production reproduce experimental results, confirming that motor unit force saturation contributes to nonlinear force addition. The model further predicts that the voluntary EMG will be reduced by stimulation, due to collision block and phase resetting of motor unit action potentials. Both effects have implications for the design of FES neuroprosthesis systems.