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Sample records for action praca system

  1. Intercenter Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System (PRACAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, G. H.; Paley, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center is transforming the PRACA bath automatic data processing (ADP) system of today into a fully integrated data base with on-line update and retrieval capabilities. The present manual system of reporting (Datafax, mail, and telephone) to the off-site design and engineering organizations is to be replaced by direct access to the most current information as it accrues at KSC or VAFB. Two major goals of the Intercenter PRACA are to provide a single data depository for both launch sites and to fully integrate the problem data with engineering data as well as other relevant information. The resulting ADP system can provide a closed loop system for problem reporting, corrective action and recurrence control that should serve the engineering community as well as reliability and quality assurance at the launch sites, KSC and VAFB, and at the design centers, JSC and MSFC.

  2. Lessons Learned for Cx PRACA. Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.

  3. PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study Report: Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety), DFS-IC-0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David; Schreiner, John

    2002-01-01

    This technology evaluation report documents the findings and recommendations of the Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety) PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP's) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. A team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) performed this Study. This Study was initiated as a follow-on to the NASA chartered Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) review (performed in the Fall of 1999) which identified deficiencies in the current PRACA implementation. The Pilot Study was launched with an initial qualitative assessment and technical review performed during January 2000 with the quantitative formal Study (the subject of this report) started in March 2000. The goal of the PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study is to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP PRACA systems and recommend enhancements to address deficiencies and in preparation for future system upgrades.

  4. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  5. Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeryer, D. J.; Schreiner, J. A.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Programs Study of the Space Shuttle Programs (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were: to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The Study determined that the extant SSP PRACA systems accomplished a project level support capability through the use of a large pool of domain experts and a variety of distributed formal and informal database systems. This operational model is vulnerable to staff turnover and loss of the vast corporate knowledge that is not currently being captured by the PRACA system. A need for a Program-level PRACA system providing improved insight, unification, knowledge capture, and collaborative tools was defined in this study.

  6. Determining Component Probability using Problem Report Data for Ground Systems used in Manned Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Gillespie, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    During the shuttle era NASA utilized a failure reporting system called the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) it purpose was to identify and track system non-conformance. The PRACA system over the years evolved from a relatively nominal way to identify system problems to a very complex tracking and report generating data base. The PRACA system became the primary method to categorize any and all anomalies from corrosion to catastrophic failure. The systems documented in the PRACA system range from flight hardware to ground or facility support equipment. While the PRACA system is complex, it does possess all the failure modes, times of occurrence, length of system delay, parts repaired or replaced, and corrective action performed. The difficulty is mining the data then to utilize that data in order to estimate component, Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and system reliability analysis metrics. In this paper, we identify a methodology to categorize qualitative data from the ground system PRACA data base for common ground or facility support equipment. Then utilizing a heuristic developed for review of the PRACA data determine what reports identify a credible failure. These data are the used to determine inter-arrival times to perform an estimation of a metric for repairable component-or LRU reliability. This analysis is used to determine failure modes of the equipment, determine the probability of the component failure mode, and support various quantitative differing techniques for performing repairable system analysis. The result is that an effective and concise estimate of components used in manned space flight operations. The advantage is the components or LRU's are evaluated in the same environment and condition that occurs during the launch process.

  7. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system. PMID:10858918

  8. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  9. Remedial Action Assessment System

    1997-02-01

    RAAS1.1 is a software-based system designed to assist remediation professionals at each stage of the environmental analysis process. RAAS1.1 provides a template for environmental restoration analysis, and provides the user with key results at each step in the analysis. RAAS1.1 assists the user to develop a coherent and consistent site description, estimate baseline and residual risk to public health from the contaminated site, identify applicable environmental restoration technologies, and formulate feasible remedial response alternatives. Inmore » addition, the RAAS1.1 methodology allows the user to then assess and compare those remedial response alternatives across EPA criteria, including: compliance with objectives; short-term and long-term effectiveness; extent of treatment; and implementability of the technologies. The analytic methodology is segmented and presented in a standardized, concise, easy-to-use format that can be viewed on the personal computer screen, saved and further manipulated, or printed for later use. Each screen and analytic step is accessed via a user-friendly personal computer graphical interface. Intuitively-designed buttons, menus, and lists help the user focus in on the particular information and analysis component of interest; the corresponding results are presented in a format that facilitates their use in decision-making.« less

  10. COST ESTIMATING SYSTEMS FOR REMEDIAL ACTION PROJECTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper details the ongoing collaboration between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the development of complementary micro-computer based cost estimating systems for hazardous waste remediations. he U.S. EPA system, "Remedial Action Cost Estimating System" (...

  11. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant opportunity for learning and…

  12. Advanced action manipulator system (ADAMS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kugath, D. A.; Dane, D. H.; Blaise, H. T.

    1973-01-01

    Manipulator offers improved performance over other models in its category. It features larger force and reach capabilities and is readily convertible for underwater use. Unique kinematic arrangement provides extremely large working envelope. System has six degrees of motion: azimuth joint, shoulder joint, upper arm rotating joint, elbow joint, wrist pitch, and wrist twist.

  13. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance. PMID:21479943

  14. The Mirror Neuron System and Action Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buccino, Giovanni; Binkofski, Ferdinand; Riggio, Lucia

    2004-01-01

    Mirror neurons, first described in the rostral part of monkey ventral premotor cortex (area F5), discharge both when the animal performs a goal-directed hand action and when it observes another individual performing the same or a similar action. More recently, in the same area mirror neurons responding to the observation of mouth actions have been…

  15. Apollo experience report: Problem reporting and corrective action system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, T. J.

    1974-01-01

    The Apollo spacecraft Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System is presented. The evolution from the early system to the present day system is described. The deficiencies and the actions taken to correct them are noted, as are management controls for both the contractor and NASA. Significant experience gained from the Apollo Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System that may be applicable to future manned spacecraft is presented.

  16. Resilient Actions in the Diagnostic Process and System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Giardina, Traber Davis; Murphy, Daniel R.; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by ‘resilient’ actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analyzed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs’ actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Results Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Discussion Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs’ actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of ‘downstream’ measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety. PMID:23813210

  17. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people “kicking”) or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone “kicking”) within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with “person-specific” action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than

  18. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine E; Cardillo, Eileen R; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people "kicking") or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone "kicking") within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with "person-specific" action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than concrete

  19. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996; as amended March 2010). CAU 562 consists of 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. Site characterization activities were performed in 2009 and 2010, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 562. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized. (1) CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot, will be clean closed by removing shot. (2) CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain, will be clean closed by removing paint and contaminated soil. As a best management practice (BMP), asbestos tile will be removed. (3) CAS 02-59-01, Septic System, will be clean closed by removing septic tank contents. As a BMP, the septic tank will be removed. (4) CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required; however, as a BMP, the concrete drain will be removed. (5) CAS 02-60-02, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. As a BMP, the drain grates and drain pipe will be removed. (6) CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. As a BMP, the steam cleaning sump grate and outfall pipe will be removed. (7) CAS 02-60-04, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. (8) CAS 02-60-05, French Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. (9) CAS 02-60-06, French Drain, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required. (10) CAS 02-60-07, French Drain, requires no further action. The french drain identified in historical documentation was not located during corrective action investigation

  20. Mining Students' Inquiry Actions for Understanding of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2011-01-01

    This study lies at an intersection between advancing educational data mining methods for detecting students' knowledge-in-action and the broader question of how conceptual and mathematical forms of knowing interact in exploring complex chemical systems. More specifically, it investigates students' inquiry actions in three computer-based models of…

  1. A SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL BOARD ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCRIBNER, JAY D.

    THE BASIC ASSUMPTION OF THE FUNCTIONAL-SYSTEMS THEORY IS THAT STRUCTURES FULFILL FUNCTIONS IN SYSTEMS AND THAT SUBSYSTEMS OPERATE SEPARATELY WITHIN ANY TYPE OF STRUCTURE. RELYING MAINLY ON GABRIEL ALMOND'S PARADIGM, THE AUTHOR ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE THE USEFULNESS OF THE FUNCTIONAL-SYSTEMS THEORY IN CONDUCTING EMPIRICAL RESEARCH OF SCHOOL BOARDS.…

  2. PAT1.1; Pinellas Action Tracking System; Tracks Audit Findings and Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Mellican, P.L.

    1993-04-09

    PAT was derived from a system that began at the Rocky Flats Plant and was further enhanced at the Mound Plant. Pinellas Plant obtained this system in 1990 to track Tiger Team Findings; it has been expanded to include new modules which encompass a wide range of related functions. Functionality includes tracking of findings and associated corrective actions from various sources such as line operations, self-assessments, oversight assessments, and external organizations. Other functionality includes Management Walk-About tracking, NEPA prioritization, Occurrence/incident Report corrective action tracking, and Management Action Item Tracking. The system utilizes state of the art relational database technology with pop-up windows for table lookups and entry of descriptive text. Standards such as assessment identification numbers, area designations, and finding category codes have been developed to provide enhanced query capabilities and the ability to group findings for trending purposes on a plant-wide basis.

  3. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions. PMID:16870739

  4. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  5. "Ordinary men" or "evil monsters"? An action systems model of genocidal actions and characteristics of perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hollows, Kerrilee; Fritzon, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to address the limitations of the existing genocide literature with the development of an empirically based classification system. Using Shye's (1985) action systems model, it was hypothesized that four types of perpetrators would exist and would be distinguishable by differences in the sources and target of individual criminal actions. Court transcripts from 80 perpetrators sentenced by the international courts were subject to content analysis and revealed 39 offense action variables, 17 perpetrator characteristic variables, and 6 perpetrator motive variables. A smallest space analysis using the Jaccard coefficient of association was conducted on the offense variables. The results supported the proposed framework, producing four distinct types of genocidal perpetrators. Correlational analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between each of the perpetrator types and the remaining variables. The results of those correlations provided further support for the proposed framework. The implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:22353044

  6. Systems Thinking in Action: A District Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Leslie Goldring

    2008-01-01

    Research on the enduring contribution of leadership to student achievement can be integrated as part of a system planning model. This article offers a formative sample in the convergence of two dissimilar forces: (1) the stability of school culture, whose rock-solid nature resembles a tectonic plate; and (2) the flowing energy of administrators…

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2009-03-31

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 563 consists of four Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 563 consists of the following CASs: CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Site characterization activities were performed in 2007, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the CAU 563 Corrective Action Decision Document. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized below. CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a best management practice (BMP), all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the septic tank will be removed, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required for this site; however, as a BMP, all aboveground features (e.g., riser pipes and bumper posts) will be removed, the cesspool will be abandoned by filling it with sand or native soil, and all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout. CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks, will be clean closed by excavating approximately 4 cubic yards (yd3) of arsenic- and chromium-impacted soil. In addition, as a BMP, the liquid in the South Tank will be removed, the North Tank will be removed or filled with grout and left in place, the South Tank will be filled with grout and left in place, all open pipe ends will be sealed with grout or similar material, approximately 10 yd3 of chlordane-impacted soil will be excavated, and debris within the CAS boundary will be removed. CAS 12

  8. Latent and delayed action polymerization systems.

    PubMed

    Naumann, Stefan; Buchmeiser, Michael R

    2014-04-01

    Various approaches to latent polymerization processes are described. In order to highlight recent advances in this field, the discussion is subdivided into chapters dedicated to diverse classes of polymers, namely polyurethanes, polyamides, polyesters, polyacrylates, epoxy resins, and metathesis-derived polymers. The described latent initiating systems encompass metal-containing as well as purely organic compounds that are activated by external triggers such as light, heat, or mechanical force. Special emphasis is put on the different chemical venues that can be taken to achieve true latency, which include masked N-heterocyclic carbenes, latent metathesis catalysts, and photolatent radical initiators, among others. Scientific challenges and the advantageous application of latent polymerization processes are discussed. PMID:24519912

  9. Bio-inspired method and system for actionable intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chelian, Suhas E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a bio-inspired VISion based actionable INTelligence system (VISINT) that provides automated capabilities to (1) understand objects, patterns, events and behaviors in vision data; (2) translate this understanding into timely recognition of novel and anomalous entities; and (3) discover underlying hierarchies and relationships between disparate labels entered by multiple users to provide a consistent data representation. VISINT is both a system and a novel collection of novel bio-inspired algorithms/modules. These modules can be used independently for various aspects of the actionable intelligence problem or sequenced together for an end-to-end actionable intelligence system. The algorithms can be useful in many other applications such as scene understanding, behavioral analysis, automatic surveillance systems, etc. The bio-inspired algorithms are a novel combination of hierarchical spatial and temporal networks based on the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). The novel aspects of this work are that it is an end-to-end system for actionable intelligence that combines existing and novel implementations of various modules in innovative ways to develop a system concept for actionable intelligence. Although there are other algorithms/implementations of several of the modules in VISINT, they suffer from various limitations and often system integration is not considered. The overall VISINT system can be viewed an incremental learning system where no offline training is required and data from multiple sources and times can be seamlessly integrated. The user is in the loop, but due to the semi-supervised nature of the underlying algorithms, only significant variations of entities, not all false alarms, are shown to the user. It does not forget the past even with new learning. While VISINT is designed as a vision-based system, it could also work with other kinds of sensor data that can recognize and locate individual objects in the scene. Beyond that stage

  10. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Brecke, Peter K; Carmichael, Theodore D; Eichelberger, Christopher N; Ganguly, Auroop R; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Jiao, Yu; Khouja, Moutaz J; McLean, Angus L; Middleton, Erin J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Saric, Amar; Sun, Min; Whitmeyer, Joseph M; Gilman, Paul; O'Maonaigh, Heather C

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 563, Septic Systems, is located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 563 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) below: • 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank • 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool • 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks • 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  12. The Mirror Neuron System: Grasping Others' Actions from Birth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Theoret, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    In the adult human brain, the presence of a system matching the observation and the execution of actions is well established. This mechanism is thought to rely primarily on the contribution of so-called "mirror neurons", cells that are active when a specific gesture is executed as well as when it is seen or heard. Despite the wealth of evidence…

  13. Action-angle variables and novel superintegrable systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, T.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Nersessian, A.; Saghatelian, A.; Yeghikyan, V.

    2012-09-01

    In this paper we demonstrate the effectiveness of the action-angle variables in the study of superintegrable systems. As an example, we construct the spherical and pseu-dospherical generalizations of the two-dimensional superintegrable models introduced by Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz and by Post and Winternitz.

  14. Systems Biology & Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology for risk assessment of environmental chemicals is a national extension of its use in pharmaceutical research. The basis for this is the concept of a key event network that builds on existing mode of action frameworks for risk assessment. The a...

  15. The Factorization Method for Simulating Systems with a Complex Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ambjørn, J.; Anagnostopoulos, K. N.; Nishimura, J.; Verbaarschot, J. J. M.

    2004-04-01

    We propose a method for Monte Carlo simulations of systems with a complex action. The method has the advantages of being in principle applicable to any such system and provides a solution to the overlap problem. We apply it in random matrix theory of finite density QCD where we compare with analytic results. In this model we find non-commutativity of the limits μ → 0 and N → ∞ which could be of relevance in QCD at finite density.

  16. Cost-estimating systems for remedial-action projects

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, G.M.; Peterson, J.

    1991-01-01

    The paper details the ongoing collaboration between the U.S. EPA and the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the development of complementary microcomputer based cost estimating systems for hazardous waste remediations. The U.S. EPA system, Remedial Action Cost Estimating System (RACES), is a technology based application. Estimates generated by RACES are based upon cost engineering relationships. The estimates are designed for use in the early stages of remediation design. The U.S. Army Corps of Engineers system, Micro-Computer Aided Cost Engineering System (M-CACES), is a bottoms-up system for use in situations where detailed design information is available. While both systems will stand alone, they have been designed to allow the transfer of estimates generated by RACES directly into the M-CACES system.

  17. Needed improvements in the development of systemic corrective actions.

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, John A.

    2009-07-01

    There are indications that corrective actions, as implemented at Sandia National Laboratories are not fully adequate. Review of independent audits spanning multiple years provides evidence of recurring issues within the same or similar operations and programs. Several external audits have directly called into question the ability Sandia's assessment and evaluation processes to prevent recurrence. Examples of repeated findings include lockout/tagout programs, local exhaust ventilation controls and radiological controls. Recurrence clearly shows that there are underlying systemic factors that are not being adequately addressed by corrective actions stemming from causal analyses. Information suggests that improvements in the conduct of causal analyses and, more importantly, in the development of subsequent corrective actions are warranted. Current methodolgies include Management Oversight Risk Tree, developed in the early 1970s and Systemic Factors Analysis. Recommendations for improvements include review of other causal analysis systems, training, improved formality of operations, improved documentation, and a corporate method that uses truly systemic solutions. This report was written some years ago and is being published now to form the foundation for current, follow-on reports being developed. Some outdated material is recognized but is retained for report completeness.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 560 is located in Areas 3 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 560 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 03-51-01, Leach Pit • 06-04-02, Septic Tank • 06-05-03, Leach Pit • 06-05-04, Leach Bed • 06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System • 06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond • 06-59-05, Control Point Septic System These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 22, 2008, by representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 560.

  19. Remedial action assessment system: Decision support for environmental cleanup

    SciTech Connect

    Pennock, K.A.; Bohn, S.; Franklin, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    A large number of hazardous waste sites across the United States await treatment. Waste sites can be physically complex entities composed of multiple, possibly interacting contaminants distributed throughout one or more media. The sites may be active as well with contaminants escaping through one or more potential escape paths. Treatment of these sites requires a long and costly commitment involving the coordination of activities among several waste treatment professionals. In order to reduce the cost and time required for the specification of treatment at these waste sites. The Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS) was proposed. RAAS is an automated information management system which utilizes a combination of expert reasoning and numerical models to produce the combinations of treatment technologies, known as treatment trains, which satisfy the treatment objectives of a particular site. In addition, RAAS supports the analysis of these trains with regard to effectiveness and cost so that the viable treatment trains can be measured against each other. The Remedial Action Assessment System is a hybrid system designed and constructed using object-oriented tools and techniques. RAAS is advertised as a hybrid system because it combines, in integral fashion, numerical computing (primarily quantitative models) with expert system reasoning. An object-oriented approach was selected due to many of its inherent advantages, among these the naturalness of modeling physical objects and processes.

  20. Thinking New System(s)? Some Action Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, James I.; Craft, Larry N.

    The planning for, design, and implementation of information management systems in colleges and universities is approaching a state of adolescence as a science. Because rules cannot be devised with sufficient scope and depth to cover all institutional and systems contingencies, the necessary activities remain somewhere between magic and art. At…

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 151 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  2. Modeling the Gabaergic Action of Etomidate on the Thalamocortical System

    PubMed Central

    Talavera, Jason A.; Esser, Steven K.; Amzica, Florin; Hill, Sean; Antognini, Joseph F.

    2008-01-01

    Background We have used a computational model of the thalamocortical system to investigate the effects of a GABAergic anesthetic (etomidate) on cerebral cortical and thalamic neuronal function. We examined the effects of phasic and tonic inhibition, as well as the relative importance of anesthetic action in the thalamus and cortex. Methods The amount of phasic GABAergic inhibition was adjusted in the model to simulate etomidate concentrations of between 0.25 and 2 μM, with the concentration range producing unconsciousness assumed to be between 0.25-0.5 μM. In addition, we modeled tonic inhibition separately, and then phasic and tonic inhibition together. We also introduced phasic and tonic inhibition into the cerebral cortex and thalamus separately to determine the relative importance of each of these structures to anesthetic-induced depression of the thalamocortical system. Results Phasic inhibition decreased cortical neuronal firing by 11-18% in the 0.25-0.5 μM range and by 38% at 2 μM. Tonic inhibition produced similar depression (11-21%) in the 0.25-0.5 μM range but 65% depression at 2 μM; phasic and tonic inhibition combined produced the most inhibition (76% depression at 2 μM). When the thalamus and cortex were separately subjected to phasic and tonic inhibition, cortical firing rates decreased less compared to when both structures were targeted. In the 0.25-0.5 μM range, cortical firing rate was minimally affected when etomidate action was simulated in the thalamus only. Conclusions This computational model of the thalamocortical system indicated that tonic GABAergic inhibition appears to be more important than phasic GABAergic inhibition (especially at larger etomidate concentrations), although both combined had the most effect on cerebral cortical firing rates. Furthermore, etomidate action in the thalamus, by itself, does not likely explain etomidate-induced unconsciousness. PMID:19095844

  3. One action system or two? Evidence for common central preparatory mechanisms in voluntary and stimulus-driven actions.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin; Schütz-Bosbach, Simone; Waszak, Florian

    2011-11-16

    Human behavior is comprised of an interaction between intentionally driven actions and reactions to changes in the environment. Existing data are equivocal concerning the question of whether these two action systems are independent, involve different brain regions, or overlap. To address this question we investigated whether the degree to which the voluntary action system is activated at the time of stimulus onset predicts reaction times to external stimuli. We recorded event-related potentials while participants prepared and executed left- or right-hand voluntary actions, which were occasionally interrupted by a stimulus requiring either a left- or right-hand response. In trials where participants successfully performed the stimulus-driven response, increased voluntary motor preparation was associated with faster responses on congruent trials (where participants were preparing a voluntary action with the same hand that was then required by the target stimulus), and slower responses on incongruent trials. This suggests that early hand-specific activity in medial frontal cortex for voluntary action trials can be used by the stimulus-driven system to speed responding. This finding questions the clear distinction between voluntary and stimulus-driven action systems. PMID:22090496

  4. [Repeated action of hyperbaria on rat blood system].

    PubMed

    Maslova, M N; Klimova, V K

    2014-01-01

    There are considered reactions of male Wistar rat blood system to repeated action of nitrogen-oxygen hyperbaria (pressure 0.5 MPa, density of gas medium 6 g/l, pO2 = 0.02-0.03 MPa). Rats were placed into a barochamber for 5 h 24, 72, and 120 h after the first exposition (control in air without the increased pressure). Parameters of red blood were studied and the general state of the animals was estimated. It has been established that after the first hyperbaria séance the stress-reaction develops in rats with all objective stress parameters (level of corticosteroids and content of ascorbic acid in adrenals). At repeated exposure after 24 h the almost complete normalization of all stress parameters was observed, except for the increased hemoglobin content in plasma as a result of impair of permeability of erythrocytic membranes. After repeated actions 72 and 120 h later, the stress parameters manifested again. After exposure 120 h later, the general state of animals was sharply deteriorated they did not move in the "open" field, could not be hold on a horizontal bar, and mainly were lying. The performed control with the immobilization stress showed that after the initial stress-reaction the rats were recovered completely and at repeated exposures no changes were observed in the blood system and in the general state of the animals. We belive that the hyperbaria-produced stress is connected with difficult breathing under pressure. Thereby, the repeated action of hyperbaria is a harmful factor and habituation to it does not occur. PMID:25782286

  5. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    R. B. Jackson

    2003-05-01

    The Areas 25, 26 and 27 Septic Systems are in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271. This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for CAU 271. CAU 271 is located on the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and consists of the following 15 Corrective Action Sites (CAS): CAS 25-04-1, Septic System; CAS 25-04-03, Septic System; CAS25-04-04, Septic System; CAS 25-04-08, Septic System; CAS 25-04-09, Septic System; CAS 25-04-10, Septic System; CAS 25-04-11, Septic System; CAS 26-03-01, Contaminated Water Reservoir; CAS 26-04-1, Septic System; CAS 26-04-02, Septic System; CAS 26-05-01, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS-26-05-03, Septic System; CAS 26-05-04, Septic System; CAS 26-05-05, Septic System; and CAS 27-05-02, Leachfield.

  6. A solvable Hamiltonian system: Integrability and action-angle variables

    SciTech Connect

    Karimipour, V.

    1997-03-01

    We prove that the dynamical system characterized by the Hamiltonian H={lambda}N{summation}{sub j}{sup N}p{sub j}+{mu}{summation} {sub j,k}{sup N}(p{sub j}p{sub k}){sup 1/2}{l_brace}cos[{nu}(q{sub j}{minus}q{sub k})]{r_brace} proposed and studied by Calogero [J. Math. Phys. {bold 36}, 9 (1994)] and Calogero and van Diejen [Phys. Lett. A {bold 205}, 143 (1995)] is equivalent to a system of {ital noninteracting} harmonic oscillators both classically and quantum mechanically. We find the explicit form of the conserved currents that are in involution. We also find the action-angle variables and solve the initial value problem in a very simple form.{copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  7. Pharmacogenomically actionable medications in a safety net health care system

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Janet S; Rosenman, Marc B; Knisely, Mitchell R; Decker, Brian S; Levy, Kenneth D; Flockhart, David A

    2016-01-01

    Objective: Prior to implementing a trial to evaluate the economic costs and clinical outcomes of pharmacogenetic testing in a large safety net health care system, we determined the number of patients taking targeted medications and their clinical care encounter sites. Methods: Using 1-year electronic medical record data, we evaluated the number of patients who had started one or more of 30 known pharmacogenomically actionable medications and the number of care encounter sites the patients had visited. Results: Results showed 7039 unique patients who started one or more of the target medications within a 12-month period with visits to 73 care sites within the system. Conclusion: Findings suggest that the type of large-scale, multi-drug, multi-gene approach to pharmacogenetic testing we are planning is widely relevant, and successful implementation will require wide-scale education of prescribers and other personnel involved in medication dispensing and handling. PMID:26835014

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  9. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 555: Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 555: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 555 is located in Areas 1, 3 and 6 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the five corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-59-01, Area 1 Camp Septic System; (2) CAS 03-59-03, Core Handling Building Septic System; (3) CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well; (4) CAS 06-59-01, Birdwell Septic System; and (5) CAS 06-59-02, National Cementers Septic System. An FFACO modification was approved on December 14, 2005, to include CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well, as part of the scope of CAU 555. The work scope was expanded in this document to include the investigation of CAS 06-20-05. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 555 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI

  10. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    IT Las Vegas

    1999-01-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s), and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal sites, or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP will be used in conjunction with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998c), hereafter referred to as the Leachfield Work Plan. Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. This CAIP contains CAU-specific information including a facility description, environmental sample collection objectives, and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 500. This CAIP addresses one of three leachfield systems associated with Test Cell A, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 500 is comprised of the Test Cell A Septic System (CAS 25-04-05) and the associated leachfield system presented in Figure 1-1 (FFACO, 1996).

  11. Self-pumping solar heating system with geyser pumping action

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.L.; Bartera, R.E.

    1984-10-23

    A self-pumping solar heating system having a collector including a multitude of small diameter riser tubes from which heated liquid is pumped into a header by a geyser action. A vapor condenser assures a header pressure conducive to bubble nucleation in the riser tube upper end segments. The level of liquid within the header or its outlet is higher than the liquid level in the riser tubes to produce a gravity imbalance capable of circulating heated liquid past a storage heat exchanger, below the header, and then upwardly through the closed vapor condenser in the header prior to return to a collector inlet manifold. A modified header utilizes an open vapor condenser in vapor communication with the collector header.

  12. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  13. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krause

    2010-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) presents information supporting the selection of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) leading to the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 562 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of CAAs for the 13 CASs within CAU 562. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 27, 2009, through May 12, 2010, as set forth in the CAU 562 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. A data quality assessment (DQA) performed on the CAU 562 data demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at 10 of the 13 CASs in CAU 562, and thus corrective

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). The corrective action sites (CASs) for CAU 563 are located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and are comprised of the following four sites: •03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank •03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool •12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks •12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the four CASs within CAU 563. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 17 through November 19, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 563 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2007). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 563 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 563 revealed the following: •CASs 03-04-02, 03-59-05, and 12-60-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. •CAS 12-59-01 contains arsenic and chromium contamination above FALs in surface and near-surface soils surrounding a stained location within the site. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at CAS 12-59-01, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 563.

  15. Phytoestrogen Biological Actions on Mammalian Reproductive System and Cancer Growth

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, E; Mu, Qing

    2011-01-01

    Phytoestrogens are a family of diverse polyphenolic compounds derived from nature plant that structurally or functionally mimic circulating estrogen in the mammalian reproductive system. They induce estrogenic and anti-estrogenic effects in the brain-pituitary-gonad axis (a principal endocrine system involving in reproductive regulation) and peripheral reproductive organs. The dichotomy of phytoestrogen-mediated actions elucidates that they play the biological activities via complex mechanisms and belong to various chemical classes. In comparison with their unobvious physiological functions in normal reproductive tissues, there are increasing investigations showing that phytoestrogen induces significant inhibitory effects on the growth of breast and ovarian cancers through different signaling pathways. This review summarized the results of the previous studies regarding principal signaling transductions for mediating the growth of the ovarian and breast cancers. Phytoestrogen potentially modulates the signaling molecules via: (1) blocking the nuclear and membrane estrogen receptors (ER), (2) interfering with the growth factor receptor, (3) inhibiting the G protein-coupled receptor in ER-deficient cells, (4) activating apoptosis and nullifying anti-apoptotic signals. PMID:21617769

  16. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  17. The anthropomorphic brain: the mirror neuron system responds to human and robotic actions.

    PubMed

    Gazzola, V; Rizzolatti, G; Wicker, B; Keysers, C

    2007-05-01

    In humans and monkeys the mirror neuron system transforms seen actions into our inner representation of these actions. Here we asked if this system responds also if we see an industrial robot perform similar actions. We localised the motor areas involved in the execution of hand actions, presented the same subjects blocks of movies of humans or robots perform a variety of actions. The mirror system was activated strongly by the sight of both human and robotic actions, with no significant differences between these two agents. Finally we observed that seeing a robot perform a single action repeatedly within a block failed to activate the mirror system. This latter finding suggests that previous studies may have failed to find mirror activations to robotic actions because of the repetitiveness of the presented actions. Our findings suggest that the mirror neuron system could contribute to the understanding of a wider range of actions than previously assumed, and that the goal of an action might be more important for mirror activations than the way in which the action is performed. PMID:17395490

  18. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  19. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System.

    PubMed

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M; Waller, Bridget M; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high--and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-06-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  1. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 516: SEPTIC SYSTEMS AND DISCHARGE POINTS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, is listed in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 516 is comprised of the following six CASs: (1) 03-59-01 Building 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 Building 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 Clean-Out Box and Piping; and (6) 22-19-04 Vehicle Decontamination Area. Details on site history and site characterization results for CAU 516 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003), and the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2004).

  2. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 562 is located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 562 is comprised of the 13 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 11, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 562. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 562 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling.

  3. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  4. Review of restrictive actions under the Australian drug regulatory system.

    PubMed

    Dukes, M N; Lunde, I

    1982-05-15

    An analysis of restrictive measures taken by the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee (ADEC) over the period of 27 months (from March, 1976, to June, 1978) was made by two non-Australian observers. During this period, the ADEC took 32 useful restrictive measures (a little more than one a month). The analysis was limited only to cases in which ADEC took substantial action; if less comprehensive measures were included, the number of valid actions to counter the occurrence of iatrogenic complications would be much greater. It is concluded that, although it is an undisputed fact that many pharmaceutical companies maintain the highest ethical standards, there is a need for the type of objective and dispassionate control exercised by the Australian Drug Evaluation Committee. PMID:7099069

  5. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2005-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective actions. Corrective Action Unit 219 is located in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  7. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  8. Conscious and unconscious representations of observed actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Mattiassi, Alan D A; Mele, Sonia; Ticini, Luca F; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2014-09-01

    Action observation activates the observer's motor system. These motor resonance responses are automatic and triggered even when the action is only implied in static snapshots. However, it is largely unknown whether an action needs to be consciously perceived to trigger motor resonance. In this study, we used single-pulse TMS to study the facilitation of corticospinal excitability (a measure of motor resonance) during supraliminal and subliminal presentations of implied action images. We used a forward and backward dynamic masking procedure that successfully prevented the conscious perception of prime stimuli depicting a still hand or an implied abduction movement of the index or little finger. The prime was followed by the supraliminal presentation of a still or implied action probe hand. Our results revealed a muscle-specific increase of motor facilitation following observation of the probe hand actions that were consciously perceived as compared with observation of a still hand. Crucially, unconscious perception of prime hand actions presented before probe still hands did not increase motor facilitation as compared with observation of a still hand, suggesting that motor resonance requires perceptual awareness. However, the presentation of a masked prime depicting an action that was incongruent with the probe hand action suppressed motor resonance to the probe action such that comparable motor facilitation was recorded during observation of implied action and still hand probes. This suppression of motor resonance may reflect the processing of action conflicts in areas upstream of the motor cortex and may subserve a basic mechanism for dealing with the multiple and possibly incongruent actions of other individuals. PMID:24666166

  9. CORRRECTIVE ACTION DECISION DOCUMENT FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 427: AREA 3 SEPTIC WASTE SYSTEMS 2 AND 6, TONOPAH TEST RANGE, NEVADA, REVISION 0, JUNE 1998

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-06-23

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 (Corrective Action Unit 427) in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). Corrective Action Unit 427 is located at the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, and is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites, each an individual septic waste system (DOE/NV, 1996a): (1) Septic Waste System 2 is Corrective Action Site Number 03-05-002-SW02. (2) Septic Waste System 6 is Corrective Action Site Number 03-05-002-SW06. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended corrective action alternative for each Corrective Action Site. The scope of this Correction Action Decision Document consists of the following tasks: (1) Develop corrective action objectives. (2) Identify corrective action alternative screening criteria. (3) Develop corrective action alternatives. (4) Perform detailed and comparative evaluations of the corrective action alternatives in relation to the corrective action objectives and screening criteria. (5) Recommend and justify a preferred corrective action alternative for each CAS. From November 1997 through January 1998, a corrective action investigation was performed as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 427: Area 3 Septic Waste System Numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1997b). Details can be found in Appendix A of this document. The results indicated that contamination is present in some portions of the CAU and not in others as described in Table ES-1 and shown in Figure A.2-2 of Appendix A. Based on the potential exposure pathways, the following corrective action objectives have been identified for Corrective Action Unit 427: (1) Prevent or mitigate human exposure to subsurface soils containing TPH at concentrations greater than 100 milligrams per kilogram (NAC

  10. Modeling and analysis of systems using the Least Action Principle in information theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guldal, Serkan

    The Least Action Principle (LAP) is widely applied to search for solutions to problems of classical mechanics. It claims that if an infinitesimal change does not affect the action of a system, that action would be the least action. In classical mechanics, if a particle moves from point A to point B, it will search for the path that requires the least energy consumption. Modeling physical phenomena utilizing LAP helps to predict an equation of motion and this principle is applicable for all known systems. In this dissertation, we use the maximum independent set from graph theory as a guiding principle to model for least action. It is shown that the maximum independence number will correspond to the least action. We demonstrate the use of the LAP in information theory and its use in the modeling and the analysis of systems. Thus, we will have a general model which is applicable to any known system. We have applied the LAP model to the Conant network decomposition technique. We demonstrated the applicability of our model in our case study that the Conant network decomposition technique computes the least action of the given network of the given data set.

  11. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-19

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06.

  12. Systems Biology and Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology has increased in the past decade largely as a consequence of the human genome project and technological advances in genomics and proteomics. Systems approaches have been used in the medical & pharmaceutical realm for diagnostic purposes and targ...

  13. Systems Biology and Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology approaches has greatly increased in the past decade largely as a consequence of the human genome project and technological advances in genomics and proteomics. Systems approaches have been used in the medical & pharmaceutical realm for diagnost...

  14. The control action of the periodic perturbation on a hyperchaotic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao-hui, Zhang; Ke, Shen

    1999-09-01

    This paper presents a four-dimensional nonlinear dynamical system. By the numerical simulation the hyperchaotic attractor, Lyapunov exponents and Lyapunov dimension are obtained, also it is confirmed that hyperchaos can be driven in the system described by the equation. The control action of the periodic perturbation on the autonomous hyperchaotic system is studied, and a control rule is obtained which indicates the relationship of the control action and the frequency characteristics after degeneration of the system. Finaly the circuit implementation of the dynamical system is given.

  15. Implementing the learning health system: from concept to action.

    PubMed

    Greene, Sarah M; Reid, Robert J; Larson, Eric B

    2012-08-01

    Clinicians and health systems are facing widespread challenges, including changes in care delivery, escalating health care costs, and the need to keep up with rapid scientific discovery. Reorganizing U.S. health care and changing its practices to render better, more affordable care requires transformation in how health systems generate and apply knowledge. The "rapid-learning health system"-posited as a conceptual strategy to spur such transformation-leverages recent developments in health information technology and a growing health data infrastructure to access and apply evidence in real time, while simultaneously drawing knowledge from real-world care-delivery processes to promote innovation and health system change on the basis of rigorous research. This article describes an evolving learning health system at Group Health Cooperative, the 6 phases characterizing its approach, and examples of organization-wide applications. This practical model promotes bidirectional discovery and an open mind at the system level, resulting in willingness to make changes on the basis of evidence that is both scientifically sound and practice-based. Rapid learning must be valued as a health system property to realize its full potential for knowledge generation and application. PMID:22868839

  16. Facilitating Action for Suicide Prevention by Learning Health Care Systems.

    PubMed

    Rossom, Rebecca C; Simon, Gregory E; Beck, Arne; Ahmedani, Brian K; Steinfeld, Bradley; Trangle, Michael; Solberg, Leif

    2016-08-01

    The Mental Health Research Network (MHRN), funded by the National Institute of Mental Health to serve as a national laboratory to improve mental health care, includes researchers embedded in 13 health systems in 15 states. This column describes practice changes and effectiveness and exploratory research undertaken by MHRN partners when they found a sustained elevated risk of suicide attempts among patients who reported suicidal ideation on the nine-item Patient Health Questionnaire. Challenges described include finding common ground between what health care systems and funding agencies find compelling, choosing study designs that balance research and clinical tensions, and implementing studies in ways that minimize disruption to health systems. The authors conclude that the greatest benefit to working collaboratively with care system partners is the opportunity to improve care and to simultaneously measure the impact of change. PMID:27032667

  17. Interfacial action of natural surfactants in oil/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.; Onishi, M.

    1981-09-01

    This paper concerns the tendency of a few natural surfactants at the oil/water interface to induce spontaneous emulsification. N-paraffin (n-dodecane), liquid triglycerides (oleic safflower oil and corn oil), and liquid fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) were used as the oil phase and distilled water was used as the water phase. Natural surfactants such as cholesterol, lecithin, and oleic acid were applied to the systems as the oil-soluble additives. Lecithin was the most strongly effective in reducing the interfacial tension of the oil/water systems, and cholesterol was effective at the second strength. The oil/water interface of the systems containing the oil-soluble additives changed in various ways as observed by microscopy and the unaided eye. The most remarkable change was found in the system of glycerides containing cholesterol in contact with water, in which crystals of cholesterol were formed at the interface. 13 references.

  18. Supporting health systems in Europe: added value of EU actions?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Since the start of the economic crisis, the European Union's (EU's) predominant discourse has been austerity and fiscal consolidation. The detrimental effects on Europe's health systems and the health status of its citizens are well described. However, little is known about the emerging EU-level initiatives to support national health systems handle the challenges of efficient care provision and system reorganisation aimed to meet their future needs. This review analyses the manner, conditions and prospects of such EU support. First, health system objectives are increasingly entering the EU health policy agenda. Second, professional and patient mobility provisions may support member states (MS) in copying with crisis related health challenges but can potentially acerbate them at the same time. Third, in recent initiatives health system goals are more closely tied to the EU's economic growth narrative. And fourth, health system issues are taken up in existing EU-level structures for debate and exchange between MS. In addition, the design of some policies may have the potential to intensify socioeconomic and health inequalities rather than ameliorate them. PMID:23968231

  19. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution. PMID:20103958

  20. A digital programmable telemetric system for recording extracellular action potentials.

    PubMed

    Heredia-López, Francisco J; Bata-García, José L; Góngora-Alfaro, José L; Alvarez-Cervera, Fernando J; Azpiroz-Leehan, Joaquín

    2009-05-01

    This article describes the design and preliminary evaluation of a small-sized and low energy consumption wearable wireless telemetry system for the recording of extracellular neuronal activity, with the possibility of selecting one of four channels. The system comprises four radio frequency (RF) transceivers, three microcontrollers, and a digital amplifier and filter. This constitutes an innovative distributed processing approach. Gain, cutoff frequencies, and channel selection are remotely adjusted. Digital data transmission is used for both the bioelectrical signals and the control commands. This feature offers superior immunity to external RF interference. Real-time viewing of the acquired data allows the researcher to select only relevant data for storage. Simultaneous recordings of neuronal activity from the striatum of a freely moving rat, both with the wireless device and with a wired data acquisition system, are shown. PMID:19363175

  1. Space Science in Action: Planets and the Solar System [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording teaches students about the key characteristics of each planet, the differences between inner and outer planets, and which planets have their own moons. Students look at how remote-control rovers are designed to explore other surfaces in the solar system. A hands-on activity demonstrates how gravity keeps all the members of…

  2. Evaluation Action Plan for the Texas Workforce Development System. Revised.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Christopher T.; McPherson, Robert E.

    Texas is shifting to an integrated, systems-oriented approach to providing work force services for its residents and employers in which all services are guided by a single mission and vision. Implementation strategies are clearly focused on achieving common results. Accountability means being able to ensure taxpayers, residents, employers, and…

  3. NATIS. National Information Systems: Objectives for National and International Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France).

    A product of the Intergovernmental Conference on the Planning of National Documentation, Library and Archives Infrastructures in September 1974, this document outlines fourteen objectives adopted by the delegates for the development of National Information Systems (NATIS). These objectives are presented in two groups: those for national…

  4. M.A.P.S.: Mesa Action Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Elizabeth J. Hunt

    This report describes implementation of a districtwide planning model in the Mesa, Arizona, Public Schools. Figures illustrate planning processes throughout the report. Intended as an implementive framework, the planning system's purposes are to assist decision making about resource allocation, program direction, progress measurement, and district…

  5. The SUN Service System. Complementary Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Claire Brown; Bouffard, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights Multnomah County's (Oregon) SUN Service System, an antipoverty and prevention effort that connects educational, social, health, and other services under one umbrella. The SUN model of combining educational, social, and health supports is rooted in a strong history of community involvement and partnerships in Multnomah…

  6. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  7. Principles and Actions: A Framework for Systemic Change.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barkley, Robert, Jr.; Castle, Shari

    This paper outlines a framework designed to help school districts evaluate themselves during the implementation of systemic change. Based on the experiences of districts that participated in the NEA Learning Laboratories Initiative, a process called "rapporteuring" was developed. The process provokes the particular site into serious reflection…

  8. Assimilation and Affirmative Action in French Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…

  9. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  10. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  11. A manual for addressing ineffectiveness within a Corrective Action System and driving on-time dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Lawrence Anthony Castro

    This project proposes a manual specifically for remedying an ineffective Corrective Action Request System for Company ABC by providing dispositions within the company's quality procedure. A Corrective Action Request System is a corrective action tool that provides a means for employees to engage in the process improvement, problem elimination cycle. At Company ABC, Corrective Action Recommendations (CARs) are not provided with timely dispositions; CARs are being ignored due to a lack of training and awareness of Company ABC's personnel and quality procedures. In this project, Company ABC's quality management software database is scrutinized to identify the number of delinquent, non-dispositioned CARs in 2014. These CARs are correlated with the number of nonconformances generated for the same issue while the CAR is still open. Using secondary data, the primary investigator finds that nonconformances are being remediated at the operational level. However, at the administrative level, CARS are being ignored and forgotten.

  12. Small-action Resonance in Hamiltonian Systems and Redistribution of Energetic Ions in Tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    R.B. White; V.V. Lutsenko; Ya. I. Kolesnichenko; Yu. V. Yakovenko

    1999-07-01

    It has been found that an arbitrary small perturbation in an integrable Hamiltonian system typically leads to driven resonance in the regions of the phase space where at least one of the action variables is sufficiently small. In particular, such a small-action resonance is shown to play a dominant role in the sawtooth-crash-induced disappearance of a strongly localized gamma-ray and neutron emitting region in a tokamak plasma, which was observed experimentally.

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office's (NNSA/NSO's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites: 03-59-01, Building 3C-36 Septic System; 03-59-02, Building 3C-45 Septic System; 06-51-01, Sump Piping, 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris; 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping; and 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the NTS, CAU 516 is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls, and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information and process knowledge on the expected nature and extent of contamination of CAU 516 are insufficient to select preferred corrective action alternatives; therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  14. Capillary Action may Cool Systems and Precisely balance Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that it takes no work for Water to rise in a Capillary tube against the force of Gravity. There is a precise balance in this system that resembles Robert Millikan's ``Oil Drop'' experiment, where mass was balanced against the electrostatic force. If at the top of the capillary tube there is evaporation, one can see that the system is cooled as another water molecule has room to move up the column. Furthermore, if the evaporation process can be controlled one photon at a time, a precise balance is created between a photon, and the height/mass of the column. If other molecules are place in the column, they can be moved up and down the column, in a chromatograph way, in a fairly precise manner, by controlling evaporation and molecular weight. If in addition to all of this, the interface of the solution against the walls of the column have Fermi levels, it can be seen as a very precise Electrochemical Device. In the situation of nanotubes, as opposed to trees and plants, these properties can be used to create measure environmental properties and to Balance Chemical Reactions. Forests, and Plants may cool themselves and their environment using this process, and using this process coupled with more energetic photons through photosynthesis.

  15. Human action recognition using meta-cognitive neuro-fuzzy inference system.

    PubMed

    Subramanian, K; Suresh, S

    2012-12-01

    We propose a sequential Meta-Cognitive learning algorithm for Neuro-Fuzzy Inference System (McFIS) to efficiently recognize human actions from video sequence. Optical flow information between two consecutive image planes can represent actions hierarchically from local pixel level to global object level, and hence are used to describe the human action in McFIS classifier. McFIS classifier and its sequential learning algorithm is developed based on the principles of self-regulation observed in human meta-cognition. McFIS decides on what-to-learn, when-to-learn and how-to-learn based on the knowledge stored in the classifier and the information contained in the new training samples. The sequential learning algorithm of McFIS is controlled and monitored by the meta-cognitive components which uses class-specific, knowledge based criteria along with self-regulatory thresholds to decide on one of the following strategies: (i) Sample deletion (ii) Sample learning and (iii) Sample reserve. Performance of proposed McFIS based human action recognition system is evaluated using benchmark Weizmann and KTH video sequences. The simulation results are compared with well known SVM classifier and also with state-of-the-art action recognition results reported in the literature. The results clearly indicates McFIS action recognition system achieves better performances with minimal computational effort. PMID:23186277

  16. Neurotoxic actions of methylmercury on the primate visual system

    SciTech Connect

    Merigan, W.H.; Maurissen, J.P.J.; Weiss, B.; Eskin, T.; Lapham, L.W.

    1983-01-01

    Visual system consequences of exposure to methylmercury were studied in six adult, macaque monkeys. Visual field measures, visual thresholds, and morphological examination were used to determine the nature and possible reversibility of alterations in vision. Visual field constriction (especially in the inferior-nasal field) was an early and apparently reversible indicator of methylmercury intoxication. Such a field loss was found in the absence of either visual threeshold changes or morphologic alterations in visual cortex. More severe poisoning resulted in persistent field constriction, disruption of visual thresholds, and death. A single monkey showed a permanent, bilateral concentric constriction of visual fields. The locus of visual cortex pathology in this monkey corresponded to the projection of the peripheral visual field.

  17. Integrable generalizations of oscillator and Coulomb systems via action-angle variables

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hakobyan, T.; Lechtenfeld, O.; Nersessian, A.; Saghatelian, A.; Yeghikyan, V.

    2012-01-01

    Oscillator and Coulomb systems on N-dimensional spaces of constant curvature can be generalized by replacing their angular degrees of freedom with a compact integrable (N-1)-dimensional system. We present the action-angle formulation of such models in terms of the radial degree of freedom and the action-angle variables of the angular subsystem. As an example, we construct the spherical and pseudospherical generalization of the two-dimensional superintegrable models introduced by Tremblay, Turbiner and Winternitz and by Post and Winternitz. We demonstrate the superintegrability of these systems and give their hidden constant of motion.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  19. Violation of the mass-action law in dilute chemical systems.

    PubMed

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-11-14

    The mass-action law, which predicts the rates of chemical reactions, is widely used for modeling the kinetics of the chemical reactions and their stationary states, also for complex chemical reaction networks. However, violations of the mass-action equations have been reported in various cases: in confined systems with a small number of molecules, in non-ideally-stirred systems, when the reactions are limited by the diffusion, at high concentrations of reactants, or in chemical reaction networks with marginally stable mass-action equations. In this paper, I describe a new mechanism, leading to the violation of the mass-action equations, that takes place at a low concentration of at least one of the reactants; in this limit, the reaction rates can be easily inferred from the chemical reaction network. I propose that this mechanism underlies the replication stability of the hypercycles, a class of chemical reaction networks hypothetically connected with abiogenesis. I provide two simple examples of chemical reaction networks in which the mechanism leading to the violation of the mass-action law is present. I study the two chemical reaction networks by means of a simulation performed with a cellular automaton model. The results have a general validity and represent a limitation of the validity of the mass-action law, which has been overlooked up to now in the studies about the chemical reaction networks. PMID:24320249

  20. Violation of the mass-action law in dilute chemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-11-01

    The mass-action law, which predicts the rates of chemical reactions, is widely used for modeling the kinetics of the chemical reactions and their stationary states, also for complex chemical reaction networks. However, violations of the mass-action equations have been reported in various cases: in confined systems with a small number of molecules, in non-ideally-stirred systems, when the reactions are limited by the diffusion, at high concentrations of reactants, or in chemical reaction networks with marginally stable mass-action equations. In this paper, I describe a new mechanism, leading to the violation of the mass-action equations, that takes place at a low concentration of at least one of the reactants; in this limit, the reaction rates can be easily inferred from the chemical reaction network. I propose that this mechanism underlies the replication stability of the hypercycles, a class of chemical reaction networks hypothetically connected with abiogenesis. I provide two simple examples of chemical reaction networks in which the mechanism leading to the violation of the mass-action law is present. I study the two chemical reaction networks by means of a simulation performed with a cellular automaton model. The results have a general validity and represent a limitation of the validity of the mass-action law, which has been overlooked up to now in the studies about the chemical reaction networks.

  1. A novel video recommendation system based on efficient retrieval of human actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Mohsen; Yaghmaee, Farzin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, fast growth of online video sharing eventuated new issues such as helping users to find their requirements in an efficient way. Hence, Recommender Systems (RSs) are used to find the users' most favorite items. Finding these items relies on items or users similarities. Though, many factors like sparsity and cold start user impress the recommendation quality. In some systems, attached tags are used for searching items (e.g. videos) as personalized recommendation. Different views, incomplete and inaccurate tags etc. can weaken the performance of these systems. Considering the advancement of computer vision techniques can help improving RSs. To this end, content based search can be used for finding items (here, videos are considered). In such systems, a video is taken from the user to find and recommend a list of most similar videos to the query one. Due to relating most videos to humans, we present a novel low complex scalable method to recommend videos based on the model of included action. This method has recourse to human action retrieval approaches. For modeling human actions, some interest points are extracted from each action and their motion information are used to compute the action representation. Moreover, a fuzzy dissimilarity measure is presented to compare videos for ranking them. The experimental results on HMDB, UCFYT, UCF sport and KTH datasets illustrated that, in most cases, the proposed method can reach better results than most used methods.

  2. The Central Nervous System Sites Mediating the Orexigenic Actions of Ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Mason, B.L.; Wang, Q.; Zigman, J.M.

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  3. The central nervous system sites mediating the orexigenic actions of ghrelin.

    PubMed

    Mason, B L; Wang, Q; Zigman, J M

    2014-01-01

    The peptide hormone ghrelin is important for both homeostatic and hedonic eating behaviors, and its orexigenic actions occur mainly via binding to the only known ghrelin receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor (GHSR). GHSRs are located in several distinct regions of the central nervous system. This review discusses those central nervous system sites that have been found to play critical roles in the orexigenic actions of ghrelin, including hypothalamic nuclei, the hippocampus, the amygdala, the caudal brain stem, and midbrain dopaminergic neurons. Hopefully, this review can be used as a stepping stone for the reader wanting to gain a clearer understanding of the central nervous system sites of direct ghrelin action on feeding behavior, and as inspiration for future studies to provide an even-more-detailed map of the neurocircuitry controlling eating and body weight. PMID:24111557

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  5. Cycles of Action through Systems of Activity: Examining an Action Research Model through the Lens of Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orland-Barak, Lily; Becher, Ayelet

    2011-01-01

    In this article we offer an extended reading of an action research model in the context of mentored learning in preservice education in Israel. Our reading attends both to how a particular form of action research plays out in participants' constructions of the practice of mentoring and mentored learning and how such constructions can be understood…

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  7. [Alterations of prooxidant-antioxidant system of rat liver at ethanol and tetracycline action].

    PubMed

    Nedoshytko, Kh Iu

    2013-01-01

    The state of antioxidant system and fatty acid composition of lipids in the liver tissues of rats of different sex at the ethanol and tetracycline action and at the influence of biologically active additives (BAA) "Alpha + Omega" at a dose of 0.5 mg/kg b.w. per os was investigated. It was found that the contet of lipid peroxidation products in the liver was increased at the action of 40% ethanol at a dose of 7 ml/kg b.w. per os and tetracycline--500 mg/kg and more profound at their joint using. However, the content of diene conjugates was stronger increased in the liver of females at the action of ethanol, while in the liver of males at the action of tetracycline (P < 0.05). It was shown that the application of the investigated compounds led to the reduction of an antioxidant defense system activity of males and females liver, as evidenced by the decrease of superoxide dismutase activity by 46 and 43% and reduction of glutathione content by 39 and 38% (P < 0.05). The activity of alanineaminotransferase, aspartateaminotransferase and alkalinephosphatase was increased in the liver of males and females under the influence of ethanol and tetracycline and more profound at their joint usage (P < 0.05). It was established that ethanol and tetracycline unidirectionally changed fatty acid composition of total lipids of rat liver, but at the ethanol action the changes were more expressed in females while at the tetracycline action in males. The application during 14 days of BAA "Alpha + Omega" to male and female rats with an acute tetracycline damage at subacute ethanol action led to partial normalization of prooxidant-antioxidant system and the relative content of total lipids fatty acids of the liver of both sexes animals. PMID:24479333

  8. THE mPER2 CLOCK GENE MODULATES COCAINE ACTIONS IN THE MOUSE CIRCADIAN SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison J.; Stowie, Adam C.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a potent disruptor of photic and non-photic pathways for circadian entrainment of the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These actions of cocaine likely involve its modulation of molecular (clock gene) components for SCN clock timekeeping. At present, however, the physiological basis of such an interaction is unclear. To address this question, we compared photic and non-photic phase-resetting responses between wild-type (WT) and Per2 mutant mice expressing nonfunctional PER2 protein to systemic and intra-SCN cocaine administrations. In the systemic trials, cocaine was administered i.p. (20 mg/kg) either at midday or prior to a light pulse in the early night to assess its non-photic and photic behavioral phase-resetting actions, respectively. In the intra-SCN trial, cocaine was administered by reverse microdialysis at midday to determine if the SCN is a direct target for its non-photic phase-resetting action. Non-photic phase-advancing responses to i.p. cocaine at midday were significantly (~3.5-fold) greater in Per2 mutants than WTs. However, the phase-advancing action of intra-SCN cocaine perfusion at midday did not differ between genotypes. In the light pulse trial, Per2 mutants exhibited larger photic phase-delays than did WTs, and the attenuating action of cocaine on this response was proportionately larger than in WTs. These data indicate that the Per2 clock gene is a potent modulator of cocaine’s actions in the circadian system. With regard to non-photic phase-resetting, the SCN is confirmed as a direct target of cocaine action; however, Per2 modulation of this effect likely occurs outside of the SCN. PMID:23333842

  9. Caffeine and the central nervous system: mechanisms of action, biochemical, metabolic and psychostimulant effects.

    PubMed

    Nehlig, A; Daval, J L; Debry, G

    1992-01-01

    Caffeine is the most widely consumed central-nervous-system stimulant. Three main mechanisms of action of caffeine on the central nervous system have been described. Mobilization of intracellular calcium and inhibition of specific phosphodiesterases only occur at high non-physiological concentrations of caffeine. The only likely mechanism of action of the methylxanthine is the antagonism at the level of adenosine receptors. Caffeine increases energy metabolism throughout the brain but decreases at the same time cerebral blood flow, inducing a relative brain hypoperfusion. Caffeine activates noradrenaline neurons and seems to affect the local release of dopamine. Many of the alerting effects of caffeine may be related to the action of the methylxanthine on serotonin neurons. The methylxanthine induces dose-response increases in locomotor activity in animals. Its psychostimulant action on man is, however, often subtle and not very easy to detect. The effects of caffeine on learning, memory, performance and coordination are rather related to the methylxanthine action on arousal, vigilance and fatigue. Caffeine exerts obvious effects on anxiety and sleep which vary according to individual sensitivity to the methylxanthine. However, children in general do not appear more sensitive to methylxanthine effects than adults. The central nervous system does not seem to develop a great tolerance to the effects of caffeine although dependence and withdrawal symptoms are reported. PMID:1356551

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2005-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, in Areas 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); (2) 03-05-01, Leachfield; (3) 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; (4) 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); (5) 06-05-01, Leachfield; (6) 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; (7) 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; (8) 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (9) 23-05-02, Leachfield. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the nine CASs within CAU 224. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 10, 2004, through January 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was calculated based on

  12. Action learning for health system governance: the reward and challenge of co-production.

    PubMed

    Lehmann, Uta; Gilson, Lucy

    2015-10-01

    Health policy and systems research (HPSR) is centrally concerned with people, their relationships and the actions and practices they can implement towards better health systems. These concerns suggest that HPS researchers must work in direct engagement with the practitioners and practice central to the inquiry, acknowledging their tacit knowledge and drawing it into generating new insights into health system functioning. Social science perspectives are of particular importance in this field because health policies and health systems are themselves social and political constructs. However, how can social science methodologies such as action research and narrative and appreciative enquiry enable such research, and how can methodologies from different disciplines be woven together to construct and make meaning of evidence for 'this' field? This article seeks to present 'methodological musings' on these points, to prompt wider discussion on the practice of HPSR. It draws on one long-term collaborative action learning research project being undertaken in Cape Town, South Africa. The District Innovation and Action Learning for Health System Development project is an action research partnership between two South African academic institutions and two health authorities focused, ultimately, on strengthening governance in primary health care.Drawing on this experience, the article considers three interrelated issues: The diversity and complexities of practitioner and research actors involved in co-producing HPSR; The nature of co-production and the importance of providing space to grapple across different systems of meaning;The character of evidence and data in co-production. There is much to be learnt from research traditions outside the health sector, but HPSR must work out its own practices--through collaboration and innovation among researchers and practitioners. In this article, we provide one set of experiences to prompt wider reflection and stimulate engagement on the

  13. A high throughput screening system for determining the three actions of insecticides against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae) populations in Thailand

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Chemicals can protect humans from the bites 30 of hemophagous arthropods through three different primary actions; irritancy (excitation), repellency, or toxicity; actions that can be evaluated using a laboratory-based assay system. In this study, the deterrent and toxic actions of three synthetic py...

  14. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  15. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  16. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  17. Guam Public School System District Action Plan: Goals and Objectives, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guam Public School System, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Guam Education Policy Board initially adopted the Guam Public School System District Action Plan in May 2003. The DAP established the direction and details for improving academic performance in reading, math, and language arts by using the provisions of the No Child Left Behind Act as a framework. The adopted DAP was also used as a basis for…

  18. Action as an invariant of Bäcklund transformations for Lagrangian systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marikhin, V. G.

    2015-07-01

    We construct a general theory of Bäcklund transformations for Lagrangian systems under the condition that the action is preserved by these transformations. We discuss the known Bäcklund transformations for classical soliton equations from the standpoint of this approach and obtain a new Bäcklund transformation for the Tzitzéica equation.

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  20. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  1. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  2. Juggling with the brain - thought and action in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Wolfensteller, Uta

    2009-01-01

    Empirical findings from various research fields indicate that cognitive and motor processes are far less dissimilar than previously thought. The present chapter takes a neuroscientific perspective and offers evidence for similarities between cognition and action focusing on three key players of the classical motor system: the primary motor cortex, the cerebellum, and the premotor cortex. Briefly, although movement execution is apparently supported in part by the same cerebral resources engaged in cognitive processes, the three brain regions reviewed here are differentially engaged in more or less action-bound cognitive processes. PMID:19477347

  3. Modulation in the mirror neuron system when action prediction is not satisfied.

    PubMed

    Plata Bello, Julio; Modroño, Cristián; Marcano, Francisco; González-Mora, José Luis

    2015-04-01

    The ability to understand competitive games is closely connected to the mirror neuron system (MNS). This network is activated not only when an action is performed, but also when it is observed. Apart from allowing the understanding of actions performed by others, the MNS has been implicated in predicting subsequent actions. However, the results concerning the modulation of this network by the final outcome of these predictions are contradictory. These contradictions may be related to the use of complex experimental conditions. The aim of this research is to identify changes in the activity of the MNS when the predictions are or are not satisfied in a simple intransitive action-based game. An event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging study was conducted. It consisted of the observation of videos with two actors playing the well-known rock-paper-scissors game. The participants were asked to predict the response of the second actor when the first actor performed one of the three possible actions. In some videos (congruents) the prediction was satisfied, but in the rest of the videos (incongruents) the prediction was not satisfied. When the result was shown, higher activity in the MNS was observed in the congruent videos than in the incongruent ones. Therefore, the observation of a simple manual game leads to a significant activation of the MNS, and this activity seems to be modulated by the final outcome of a prediction, and when predictions are satisfied the activity is higher. PMID:25722245

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental corrective action alternatives. Corrective Action Unit 151 is located in Areas 2, 12, 18, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CAS) listed below: (1) 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; (8) 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed); and (9) 20-19-02, Photochemical Drain. The CASs within CAU 151 are discharge and collection systems. Corrective Action Site 02-05-01 is located in Area 2 and is a well-water collection pond used as a part of the Nash test. Corrective Action Sites 12-03-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, and 12-47-01 are located in Area 12 and are comprised of sewage lagoons, septic tanks, associated piping, and two sumps. The features are a part of the Area 12 Camp housing and administrative septic systems. Corrective Action Sites 18-03-01 and 18-99-09 are located in the Area 17 Camp in Area 18. These sites are sewage lagoons and associated piping. The origin and terminus of CAS 18-99-09 are unknown; however, the type and configuration of the pipe indicates that it may be a part of the septic systems in Area 18. Corrective Action Site 20-19-02 is located in the Area 20 Camp. This site is comprised of a surface discharge of photoprocessing chemicals.

  6. Detecting alerts, notifying the physician, and offering action items: a comprehensive alerting system.

    PubMed Central

    Kuperman, G. J.; Teich, J. M.; Bates, D. W.; Hiltz, F. L.; Hurley, J. M.; Lee, R. Y.; Paterno, M. D.

    1996-01-01

    We developed and evaluated a system to automatically identify serious clinical conditions in inpatients. The system notifies the patient's covering physician via his pager that an alert is present and offers potential therapies for the patient's condition (action items) at the time he views the alert information. Over a 6 month period, physicians responded to 1214 (70.2%) of 1730 alerts for which they were paged; they responded to 1002 (82.5% of the 1214) in less than 15 minutes. They said they would take action in 71.5% of the alerts, and they placed an order directly from the alert display screen in 39.4%. Further study is needed to determine if this alerting system improves processes or outcomes of care. PMID:8947756

  7. Heart rate variability effect on the myocyte action potential duration restitution: insights from switched systems theory.

    PubMed

    Dvir, Hila; Zlochiver, Sharon

    2011-01-01

    The physiological heart rate presents a stochastic behavior known as heart rate variability (HRV). In this framework the influence of HRV on the action potential duration (APD) of the atrial myocyte is analyzed in a computer model. We have found that introducing HRV into the myocyte action potential model decreases the APD of the extra beat S2 in an S1-S2 protocol compared to constant heart rate. A possible theoretical explanation for this is also presented and is derived from switched systems theory. It is suggested to consider the myocyte action potential phase 4 and phase 2 as two operation modes of a switching system and analyze the stability of switching between them. Since random switching is known to have a stabilization effect on a switching system, this might explain why HRV has a stabilization effect on the myocyte APD restitution. Implications of this finding include reduced system stability for conditions with low HRV. A possible application for this phenomenon regards artificial pacemakers, where a preset added HRV is predicted to reduce susceptibility to arrhythmias. PMID:22254402

  8. Experimental recovery of quantum correlations in absence of system-environment back-action

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jin-Shi; Sun, Kai; Li, Chuan-Feng; Xu, Xiao-Ye; Guo, Guang-Can; Andersson, Erika; Lo Franco, Rosario; Compagno, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Revivals of quantum correlations in composite open quantum systems are a useful dynamical feature against detrimental effects of the environment. Their occurrence is attributed to flows of quantum information back and forth from systems to quantum environments. However, revivals also show up in models where the environment is classical, thus unable to store quantum correlations, and forbids system-environment back-action. This phenomenon opens basic issues about its interpretation involving the role of classical environments, memory effects, collective effects and system-environment correlations. Moreover, an experimental realization of back-action-free quantum revivals has applicative relevance as it leads to recover quantum resources without resorting to more demanding structured environments and correction procedures. Here we introduce a simple two-qubit model suitable to address these issues. We then report an all-optical experiment which simulates the model and permits us to recover and control, against decoherence, quantum correlations without back-action. We finally give an interpretation of the phenomenon by establishing the roles of the involved parties. PMID:24287554

  9. Modeling the Organization as a System of Communication Activity: A Dialogue about the Language/Action Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Every, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces, through a conversation with computer-system designers from the Netherlands, the Language/Action Perspective on modeling business workflow and communication processes. Describes their attempts to develop system models that go beyond data flow to incorporate the communicative actions or transactions that result in the creation of a…

  10. The Criticality of Norms to the Functional Imperatives of the Social Action System of College and University Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, John M.

    2010-01-01

    In this article, I assert that the work of colleges and universities forms a social action system. I array the critical positions represented in this issue according to the four functional imperatives of social action systems: adaptation, goal attainment, integration, and pattern maintenance. I discuss the role of normative structures for these…

  11. The antiallodynic action of pregabalin in neuropathic pain is independent from the opioid system

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Ipek; Nexon, Laurent; Wurtz, Xavier; Ceredig, Rhian Alice; Daniel, Dorothée; Hawkes, Rachael Aredhel; Salvat, Eric; Barrot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical management of neuropathic pain, which is pain arising as a consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system, partly relies on the use of anticonvulsant drugs such as gabapentinoids. Therapeutic action of gabapentinoids such as gabapentin and pregabalin, which act by the inhibition of calcium currents through interaction with the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels, is well documented. However, some aspects of the downstream mechanisms are still to be uncovered. Using behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we tested whether opioid receptors are necessary for the antiallodynic action of acute and/or long-term pregabalin treatment in the specific context of neuropathic pain. Results Using the cuff model of neuropathic pain in mice, we show that acute pregabalin administration at high dose has a transitory antiallodynic action, while prolonged oral pregabalin treatment leads to sustained antiallodynic action, consistent with clinical observations. We show that pregabalin remains fully effective in μ-opioid receptor, in δ-opioid receptor and in κ-opioid receptor deficient mice, either female or male, and its antiallodynic action is not affected by acute naloxone. Our work also shows that long-term pregabalin treatment suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α overproduction induced by sciatic nerve constriction in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Conclusions We demonstrate that neither acute nor long-term antiallodynic effect of pregabalin in a context of neuropathic pain is mediated by the endogenous opioid system, which differs from opioid treatment of pain and antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain. Our data are also supportive of an impact of gabapentinoid treatment on the neuroimmune aspect of neuropathic pain. PMID:27030724

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  13. A Comprehensive Action Plan Information System: A Tool for Tracking and Mapping Quality of Life Action Implementation and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Peter; Holden, Bill; Williams, Allison; Basualdo, Maria; Spence, Cara

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception, the Community-University Institute for Social Research (CUISR) has been involved in a participatory process aimed at understanding the quality of life in Saskatoon. Informed by the results of Quality of Life (QoL) survey in 2001 and by a list of QoL action priorities from a community forum, the CUISR QoL module set out to…

  14. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); 03-05-01, Leachfield; 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); 06-05-01, Leachfield; 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and 23-05-02, Leachfield. Corrective Action Sites 06-05-01, 06-23-01, and 23-05-02 were identified in the 1991 Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo) inventory (1991). The remaining sites were identified during review of various historical documents. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating and selecting a corrective action alternative for each CAS. The CAI will include field inspections, radiological and geological surveys, and sample collection. Data will also be obtained to support investigation-derived waste (IDW) disposal and potential future waste management decisions.

  15. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  16. Minimum-action paths for wave-number selection in nonequilibrium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Liyan; Zheng, Zhigang; Cross, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of wave-number selections in nonequilibrium pattern-forming systems in the presence of noise is investigated. The minimum-action method is proposed to study the noise-induced transitions between the different spatiotemporal states by generalizing the traditional theory previously applied in low-dimensional dynamical systems. The scheme is shown as an example in the stabilized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The present method allows us to conveniently find the unique noise selected state, in contrast to previous work using direct simulations of the stochastic partial differential equation, where the constraints of the simulation only allow a narrow band to be determined.

  17. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in

  18. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 to ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV-519

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-25

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' DOE/NV--519.

  19. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-08

    This Record of Technical Change updates the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--515.

  20. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for each of the eight CASs within CAU 151. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from September 12 through November 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 151 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Additional confirmation sampling was performed on December 9, 2005; January 10, 2006; and February 13, 2006. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at two of the eight CASs in CAU 151 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 151 revealed the following: (1) Soils at CASs 02-05-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, 12-47-01, 18-03-01, 18-99-09, and Lagoons B through G of CAS 12-03-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. (2) Lagoon A of CAS 12-03-01 has arsenic above FALs in shallow subsurface soils. (3) One of the two tanks of CAS 12-04-01, System No.1, has polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclor-1254), trichloroethane, and cesium-137 above FALs in the sludge. Both CAS 12-04-01, System No.1 tanks contain

  1. Comparison of minimum-action and steepest-descent paths in gradient systems.

    PubMed

    Díaz Leines, Grisell; Rogal, Jutta

    2016-02-01

    On high-dimensional and complex potential energy surfaces, the identification of the most likely mechanism for the transition between local minima is a challenging task. Usually the steepest-descent path is used interchangeably with the minimum-energy path and is associated with the most likely path. Here we compare the meaning of the steepest-descent path in complex energy landscapes to the path integral formulation of a trajectory that minimizes the action functional for Brownian dynamics. In particular, for energy landscapes with bifurcation points and multiple minima and saddle points, there can be several steepest-descent paths associated with specific saddles that connect two predetermined states but largely differ from the path of maximum likelihood. The minimum-action path, however, additionally takes into account the scalar work along the trajectory. Minimizing the scalar work can be less ambiguous in the identification of the most likely path in different gradient systems. It can also be used to distinguish between multiple steepest-descent paths that connect reactant and product states. We illustrate that in systems with complex energy landscapes a careful assessment of the steepest-descent path is thus advisable. Here the evaluation of the action can provide valuable information on the analysis and description of the most likely path. PMID:26986352

  2. Neuronal interactions between mentalising and action systems during indirect request processing.

    PubMed

    van Ackeren, Markus J; Smaragdi, Areti; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2016-09-01

    Human communication relies on the ability to process linguistic structure and to map words and utterances onto our environment. Furthermore, as what we communicate is often not directly encoded in our language (e.g. in the case of irony, jokes or indirect requests), we need to extract additional cues to infer the beliefs and desires of our conversational partners. Although the functional interplay between language and the ability to mentalise has been discussed in theoretical accounts in the past, the neurobiological underpinnings of these dynamics are currently not well understood. Here, we address this issue using functional imaging (fMRI). Participants listened to question-reply dialogues. In these dialogues, a reply is interpreted as a direct reply, an indirect reply or a request for action, depending on the question. We show that inferring meaning from indirect replies engages parts of the mentalising network (mPFC) while requests for action also activate the cortical motor system (IPL). Subsequent connectivity analysis using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) revealed that this pattern of activation is best explained by an increase in effective connectivity from the mentalising network (mPFC) to the action system (IPL). These results are an important step towards a more integrative understanding of the neurobiological basis of indirect speech processing. PMID:27131039

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-07-20

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  4. Toward a system to measure action potential on mice brain slices with local magnetoresistive probes

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Sebastiao, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    This work combines an electrophysiological system with a magnetoresistive chip to measure the magnetic field created by the synaptic/action potential currents. The chip, with 15 spin valve sensors, was designed to be integrated in a recording chamber for submerged mice brain slices used for synaptic potential measurements. Under stimulation (rectangular pulses of 0.1 ms every 10 s) through a concentric electrode placed near the CA3/CA1 border of the hippocampus, the spin valve sensor readout signals with 20 {mu}V amplitude and a pulse length of 20 to 30 ms were recorded only in the pyramidal cell bodies region and can be interpreted as being derived from action potentials/currents.

  5. Eating tools in hand activate the brain systems for eating action: a transcranial magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Kaori; Nakamura, Kimihiro; Oga, Tatsuhide; Nakajima, Yasoichi

    2014-07-01

    There is increasing neuroimaging evidence suggesting that visually presented tools automatically activate the human sensorimotor system coding learned motor actions relevant to the visual stimuli. Such crossmodal activation may reflect a general functional property of the human motor memory and thus can be operating in other, non-limb effector organs, such as the orofacial system involved in eating. In the present study, we predicted that somatosensory signals produced by eating tools in hand covertly activate the neuromuscular systems involved in eating action. In Experiments 1 and 2, we measured motor evoked response (MEP) of the masseter muscle in normal humans to examine the possible impact of tools in hand (chopsticks and scissors) on the neuromuscular systems during the observation of food stimuli. We found that eating tools (chopsticks) enhanced the masseter MEPs more greatly than other tools (scissors) during the visual recognition of food, although this covert change in motor excitability was not detectable at the behavioral level. In Experiment 3, we further observed that chopsticks overall increased MEPs more greatly than scissors and this tool-driven increase of MEPs was greater when participants viewed food stimuli than when they viewed non-food stimuli. A joint analysis of the three experiments confirmed a significant impact of eating tools on the masseter MEPs during food recognition. Taken together, these results suggest that eating tools in hand exert a category-specific impact on the neuromuscular system for eating. PMID:24835403

  6. In-vitro characterization of a cochlear implant system for recording of evoked compound action potentials

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Modern cochlear implants have integrated recording systems for measuring electrically evoked compound action potentials of the auditory nerve. The characterization of such recording systems is important for establishing a reliable basis for the interpretation of signals acquired in vivo. In this study we investigated the characteristics of the recording system integrated into the MED-EL PULSARCI100 cochlear implant, especially its linearity and resolution, in order to develop a mathematical model describing the recording system. Methods In-vitro setup: The cochlear implant, including all attached electrodes, was fixed in a tank of physiologic saline solution. Sinusoidal signals of the same frequency but with different amplitudes were delivered via a signal generator for measuring and recording on a single electrode. Computer simulations: A basic mathematical model including the main elements of the recording system, i.e. amplification and digitalization stage, was developed. For this, digital output for sinusoidal input signals of different amplitudes were calculated using in-vitro recordings as reference. Results Using an averaging of 100 measurements the recording system behaved linearly down to approximately -60 dB of the input signal range. Using the same method, a system resolution of 10 μV was determined for sinusoidal signals. The simulation results were in very good agreement with the results obtained from in-vitro experiments. Conclusions The recording system implemented in the MED-EL PULSARCI100 cochlear implant for measuring the evoked compound action potential of the auditory nerve operates reliably. The developed mathematical model provides a good approximation of the recording system. PMID:22531599

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  8. Enhancing the Safety, Security and Resilience of ICT and Scada Systems Using Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnsen, Stig; Skramstad, Torbjorn; Hagen, Janne

    This paper discusses the results of a questionnaire-based survey used to assess the safety, security and resilience of information and communications technology (ICT) and supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) systems used in the Norwegian oil and gas industry. The survey identifies several challenges, including the involvement of professionals with different backgrounds and expertise, lack of common risk perceptions, inadequate testing and integration of ICT and SCADA systems, poor information sharing related to undesirable incidents and lack of resilience in the design of technical systems. Action research is proposed as a process for addressing these challenges in a systematic manner and helping enhance the safety, security and resilience of ICT and SCADA systems used in oil and gas operations.

  9. A stroboscopic technique for using CCD cameras in flow visualization systems for continuous viewing and stop action photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franke, John M.; Rhodes, David B.; Jones, Stephen B.; Dismond, Harriet R.

    1992-01-01

    A technique for synchronizing a pulse light source to charge coupled device cameras is presented. The technique permits the use of pulse light sources for continuous as well as stop action flow visualization. The technique has eliminated the need to provide separate lighting systems at facilities requiring continuous and stop action viewing or photography.

  10. Action Learning for Organizational and Systemic Development: Towards a "Both-and" Understanding of "I" and "We"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2008-01-01

    In public services delivery, action learning is increasingly employed in the hope of improving capacity to address complex, multi-casual and "wicked" social issues to improve the lives of citizens. Yet the understanding of how and why action learning might have potential for enhancing organizational or systemic capability rarely goes beyond the…

  11. 76 FR 67530 - Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... reauthorization of the GSP program, the GSP Subcommittee of the Trade Policy Staff Committee (TPSC) announces that... STATES TRADE REPRESENTATIVE Generalized System of Preferences (GSP): Notice of Actions Arising Out of the 2010 Annual GSP Review AGENCY: Office of the United States Trade Representative. ACTION: Notice of...

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 219 with no further corrective action beyond the application of a use restriction at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 20 through October 12, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 219 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. A best management practice was implemented at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03, and corrective action was performed at CAS 23-20-01 between January and April 2006. In addition, a use restriction will be applied to CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03 to provide additional protection to Nevada Test Site personnel. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 219 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, April 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-04-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 271 consists of 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) including: thirteen Septic Systems (25-04-01, 25-04-03, 25-04-04, 25-04-08, 25-04-09, 25-04-10, 25-04-11, 26-04-01, 26-04-02, 26-05-03, 26-05-04, 26-05-05, and 27-05-02), one Contaminated Water Reservoir (26-03-01), and one Radioactive Leachfield (26-05-01). The CASs addressed by CAU 271 are located at Guard Station 500, the Reactor Control Point (RCP), Bare Reactor Experiment - Nevada Tower, and Engine Test State-1 (ETS-1) facilities in Area 25; the Port Gaston and Project Pluto facilities in Area 26; and the Baker Site in Area 27 of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1 958 and 1973, the RCP and ETS-1 facilities supported the development and testing of nuclear reactors for space propulsion as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The Project Pluto facilities supported nuclear reactor testing for use as a ramjet propulsion system between 1961 and 1964, followed by similar use for other projects through the early 1980s. The Baker Site facilities were constructed in the 1960s to serve as the staging point where the manufactured components of nuclear devices were assembled, disassembled, and modified. The scope of the investigation strategy at these sites will involve biased and random soil sampling in leachfields using excavation (with drilling as a contingency), collection of soil samples underlying the base of proximal and distal ends of septic tanks and distal ends of distribution structures, defining the lateral and vertical extent of contamination through discrete field and possible stepout location sampling, collection system line

  14. Extending the mirror neuron system model, I. Audible actions and invisible grasps.

    PubMed

    Bonaiuto, James; Rosta, Edina; Arbib, Michael

    2007-01-01

    The paper introduces mirror neuron system II (MNS2), a new version of the MNS model (Oztop and Arbib in Biol Cybern 87 (2):116-140, 2002) of action recognition learning by mirror neurons of the macaque brain. The new model uses a recurrent architecture that is biologically more plausible than that of the original model. Moreover, MNS2 extends the capacity of the model to address data on audio-visual mirror neurons and on the response of mirror neurons when the target object was recently visible but is currently hidden. PMID:17028884

  15. Information and communication systems for the assistance of carers based on ACTION.

    PubMed

    Kraner, M; Emery, D; Cvetkovic, S R; Procter, P; Smythe, C

    1999-01-01

    Recent advances in telecommunication technologies allow the design of information and communication systems for people who are caring for others in the home as family members or as professionals in the health or community centres. The present paper analyses and classifies the information flow and maps it to an information life cycle, which governs the design of the deployed hardware, software and the data-structure. This is based on the initial findings of ACTION (assisting carers using telematics interventions to meet older persons' needs) a European Union funded project. The proposed information architecture discusses different designs such as centralized or decentralized Web and Client server solutions. A user interface is developed reflecting the special requirements of the targeted user group, which influences the functionality and design of the software, data architecture and the integrated communication system using video-conferencing. ACTION has engineered a system using plain Web technology based on HTML, extended with JavaScript and ActiveX and a software switch enabling the integration of different types of videoconferencing and other applications providing manufacturer independence. PMID:10674415

  16. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings. PMID:25681159

  17. Nonequilibrium thermodynamic formalism of nonlinear chemical reaction systems with Waage-Guldberg's law of mass action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Hao; Qian, Hong

    2016-06-01

    Macroscopic entropy production rate σ (tot) in the general nonlinear isothermal chemical reaction system with mass action kinetics is decomposed into a free energy dissipation rate and a house-keeping heat dissipation rate: σ (tot) =σ (fd) +σ (hk) ; σ (fd) = -d A /d t , where A is a generalized free energy function. This yields a novel nonequilibrium free energy balance equation d A /d t = -σ (tot) +σ (hk) , which is on a par with celebrated entropy balance equation d S /d t =σ (tot) +η (ex) where η (ex) is the rate of entropy exchange with the environment. For kinetic systems with complex balance, σ (fd) and σ (hk) are the macroscopic limits of stochastic free energy dissipation rate and house-keeping heat dissipation rate, which are both nonnegative, in the Delbrück-Gillespie description of the stochastic chemical kinetics. A full kinetic and thermodynamic theory of chemical reaction systems that transcends mesoscopic and macroscopic levels emerges.

  18. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed. PMID:27126600

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada UPDATED WITH TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-09-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 261, the Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 kilometers (km) (55 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. As presented, CAU 261 is comprised of CASs 25-05-01 and 25-05-07, respectively known as the Leachfield and the Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (FFACO, 1996). The leachfield is an area with dimensions of approximately 23 by 17 meters (m) (75 by 55 feet [ft]) and is located south of Building 3124, which is southwest and adjacent to Test Cell A. Test Cell A was operational during the 1960s to test nuclear rocket reactors in support of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) (SNPO, 1970). Various operations within Building 3124, from 1962 through 1972, have resulted in liquid waste releases to the leachfield and the AWLP (DOE, 1988a). The surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield have potentially been

  20. Automated Facial Action Coding System for Dynamic Analysis of Facial Expressions in Neuropsychiatric Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Hamm, Jihun; Kohler, Christian G.; Gur, Ruben C.; Verma, Ragini

    2011-01-01

    Facial expression is widely used to evaluate emotional impairment in neuropsychiatric disorders. Ekman and Friesen’s Facial Action Coding System (FACS) encodes movements of individual facial muscles from distinct momentary changes in facial appearance. Unlike facial expression ratings based on categorization of expressions into prototypical emotions (happiness, sadness, anger, fear, disgust, etc.), FACS can encode ambiguous and subtle expressions, and therefore is potentially more suitable for analyzing the small differences in facial affect. However, FACS rating requires extensive training, and is time consuming and subjective thus prone to bias. To overcome these limitations, we developed an automated FACS based on advanced computer science technology. The system automatically tracks faces in a video, extracts geometric and texture features, and produces temporal profiles of each facial muscle movement. These profiles are quantified to compute frequencies of single and combined Action Units (AUs) in videos, which can facilitate statistical study of large populations in disorders affecting facial expression. We derived quantitative measures of flat and inappropriate facial affect automatically from temporal AU profiles. Applicability of the automated FACS was illustrated in a pilot study, by applying it to data of videos from eight schizophrenia patients and controls. We created temporal AU profiles that provided rich information on the dynamics of facial muscle movements for each subject. The quantitative measures of flatness and inappropriateness showed clear differences between patients and the controls, highlighting their potential in automatic and objective quantification of symptom severity. PMID:21741407

  1. Action spectra for validation of pathogen disinfection in medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) systems.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sara E; Wright, Harold B; Hargy, Thomas M; Larason, Thomas C; Linden, Karl G

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reactors used for disinfecting water and wastewater must be validated and monitored over time. The validation process requires understanding the photochemical properties of the pathogens of concern and the challenge microorganisms used to represent them. Specifically for polychromatic UV systems, the organisms' dose responses to UV light and their sensitivity across the UV spectrum must be known. This research measured the UV spectral sensitivity, called action spectra, of Cryptosporidium parvum, and MS2, T1UV, Q Beta, T7, and T7m Coliphages, as well as Bacillus pumilus spores. A tunable laser from the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used to isolate single UV wavelengths at 10 nm intervals between 210 and 290 nm. Above 240 nm, all bacteria and viruses tested exhibited a relative peak sensitivity between 260 and 270 nm. Of the coliphage, MS2 exhibited the highest relative sensitivity below 240 nm, relative to its sensitivity at 254 nm, followed by Q Beta, T1UV, T7m and T7 coliphage. B. pumilus spores were more sensitive to UV light at 220 nm than any of the coliphage. These spectra are required for calculating action spectra correction factors for medium pressure UV system validation, for matching appropriate challenge microorganisms to pathogens, and for improving UV dose monitoring. Additionally, understanding the dose response of these organisms at multiple wavelengths can improve polychromatic UV dose calculations and enable prediction of pathogen inactivation from wavelength-specific disinfection technologies such as UV light emitting diodes (LEDs). PMID:25506761

  2. [Pharmacological study of mequitazine (LM-209) (III). Action on the central nervous system (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Fujimura, H; Tsurumi, K; Yanagihara, M; Hiramatsu, Y; Tamura, Y; Shimizu, Y; Hojo, M; Yoshida, Y; Serizawa, I

    1981-10-01

    The action of an anti-histaminic agent, Mequitazine (LM-209) on the central nervous system was investigated. We found that LM-209 did not affect the spontaneous and co-operative movement in mice, did not induce muscle relaxation, analgesic effects or anti-convulsant effect in micr or hypothermic effects in rats. The anti-oxotremorine effect of LM-209 in mice was about 10 times more potent than clemastine fumarate (CL) and the same as promethazine. The activity and duration of the action were also superior to diethazine and orphenadrine used as an anti-Parkinson drug. LM-209 prolonged by 50% the hypnotic time induced by hexobarbital at 50 mg/kg (p.o.) in mice, while CL prolonged 50 and 100% it at 25 and 50 mg/kg (p.o.) respectively. In the EEG of rabbits, LM-209 produced a resting pattern, inhibited the arousal responses and recruiting responses and the effect was the same as CL and less potent than promethazine. From these results, the activity of LM-209 on the central nervous system (except for the anti-oxotremorine effect) seems to be the same as or somewhat less potent than CL. Therefore LM-209 should be an effective and anti-histaminic agent for clinical application. PMID:6120125

  3. [Pain assessment using the Facial Action Coding System. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Rojo, Rosa; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; López-Valverde, Antonio

    2015-10-21

    Self-reporting is the most widely used pain measurement tool, although it may not be useful in patients with loss or deficit in communication skills. The aim of this paper was to undertake a systematic review of the literature of pain assessment through the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The initial search found 4,335 references and, within the restriction «FACS», these were reduced to 40 (after exclusion of duplicates). Finally, only 26 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the GRADE system. Most patients were adults and elderly health conditions, or cognitive deficits and/or chronic pain. Our conclusion is that FACS is a reliable and objective tool in the detection and quantification of pain in all patients. PMID:25433779

  4. Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA) microcomputer-operated bibliography management system

    SciTech Connect

    Stenner, R.D.; Washburn, D.K.; Denham, D.H.

    1985-06-01

    Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) provided technical assistance to the Office of Operational Safety (OOS) in developing their Assurance Program for Remedial Action (APRA). The APRA Bibliography Management System (BMS), a microcomputer-operated system designed to file, locate and retrieve project-specific bibliographic data, was developed to manage the documentation associated with APRA. The BMS uses APRABASE, a PNL-developed computer program written in dBASE II language, which is designed to operate using the commercially available dBASE II database software. This document describes the APRABASE computer program, its associated subprograms, and the dBASE II APRA file. A User's Manual is also provided in the document. Although the BMS was designed to manage APRA-associated documents, it could be easily adapted for use in handling bibliographic data associated with any project.

  5. Vitamin K and the Nervous System: An Overview of its Actions12

    PubMed Central

    Ferland, Guylaine

    2012-01-01

    The role of vitamin K in the nervous system has been somewhat neglected compared with other physiological systems despite the fact that this nutrient was identified some 40 y ago as essential for the synthesis of sphingolipids. Present in high concentrations in brain cell membranes, sphingolipids are now known to possess important cell signaling functions in addition to their structural role. In the past 20 y, additional support for vitamin K functions in the nervous system has come from the discovery and characterization of vitamin K–dependent proteins that are now known to play key roles in the central and peripheral nervous systems. Notably, protein Gas6 has been shown to be actively involved in cell survival, chemotaxis, mitogenesis, and cell growth of neurons and glial cells. Although limited in number, studies focusing on the relationship between vitamin K nutritional status and behavior and cognition have also become available, pointing to diet and certain drug treatments (i.e., warfarin derivatives) as potential modulators of the action of vitamin K in the nervous system. This review presents an overview of the research that first identified vitamin K as an important nutrient for the nervous system and summarizes recent findings that support this notion. PMID:22516728

  6. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  7. Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS): Initial Actions to Enhance Data Sharing to Meet Societal Needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adang, T.

    2006-05-01

    Over 60 nations and 50 participating organizations are working to make the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS) a reality. The U.S. contribution to GEOSS is the Integrated Earth Observation System (IEOS), with a vision of enabling a healthy public, economy and planet through an integrated, comprehensive, and sustained Earth observation system. The international Group on Earth Observations (GEO) and the U.S. Group on Earth Observations have developed strategic plans for both GEOSS and IEOS, respectively, and are now working the first phases of implementation. Many of these initial actions are data architecture related and are being addressed by architecture and data working groups from both organizations - the GEO Architecture and Data Committee and the USGEO Architecture and Data Management Working Group. NOAA has actively participated in both architecture groups and has taken internal action to better support GEOSS and IEOS implementation by establishing the Global Earth Observation Integrated Data Environment (GEO IDE). GEO IDE provides a "system of systems" framework for effective and efficient integration of NOAA's many quasi-independent systems, which individually address diverse mandates in such areas resource management, weather forecasting, safe navigation, disaster response, and coastal mapping among others. GEO IDE will have a services oriented architecture, allowing NOAA Line Offices to retain a high level of independence in many of their data management decisions, and encouraging innovation in pursuit of their missions. Through GEO IDE, NOAA partners (both internal and external) will participate in a well-ordered, standards-based data and information infrastructure that will allow users to easily locate, acquire, integrate and utilize NOAA data and information. This paper describes the initial progress being made by GEO and USGEO architecture and data working groups, a status report on GEO IDE development within NOAA, and an assessment of

  8. On objects and actions: situating self-objectification in a system justification context.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Integrating objectification and system justification perspectives, this chapter offers a conception of self-objectification as a dominant cultural lens through which women come to view themselves that garners their compliance in the sexist status quo. This chapter begins with an overview of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997) and system justification theory (Jost and Banaji, 1994). Then, an integration of the two perspectives is presented that situates self-objectification in a system justification context, extending the scope of impact of self-objectification beyond the domains of body image and mental health. Empirical evidence is reviewed to demonstrate the direct and indirect ways that self-objectification works as a system-justifying device for many women. For example, as a self-perspective that increases in response to benevolently sexist ideology or as a potential obstacle to taking collective action on behalf of women, self-objectification functions as a motivational and ideological force that rationalizes and legitimizes a gender role hierarchy. This developing program of research attempts to deepen our understanding of self-objectification and the broader system-level implications of this self-perspective. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential next steps and a call for continued scientific inquiry into the broader functions of self-objectification. PMID:23947280

  9. Dynamics of the Establishment of Systemic Potyvirus Infection: Independent yet Cumulative Action of Primary Infection Sites

    PubMed Central

    Lafforgue, Guillaume; Tromas, Nicolas; Elena, Santiago F.

    2012-01-01

    In the clinic, farm, or field, for many viruses there is a high prevalence of mixed-genotype infections, indicating that multiple virions have initiated infection and that there can be multiple sites of primary infection within the same host. The dynamic process by which multiple primary infection sites interact with each other and the host is poorly understood, undoubtedly due to its high complexity. In this study, we attempted to unravel the basic interactions underlying this process using a plant RNA virus, as removing the inoculated leaf can instantly and rigorously eliminate all primary infection sites. Effective population size in the inoculated leaf and time of removal of the inoculated leaf were varied in experiments, and it was found that both factors positively influenced if the plant became systemically infected and what proportion of cells in the systemic tissue were infected, as measured by flow cytometry. Fitting of probabilistic models of infection to our data demonstrated that a null model in which the action of each focus is independent of the presence of other foci was better supported than a dependent-action model. The cumulative effect of independently acting foci therefore determined when plants became infected and how many individual cells were infected. There was no evidence for interference between primary infection sites, which is surprising given the planar structure of leaves. By showing that a simple null model is supported, we experimentally confirmed—to our knowledge for the first time—the minimal components that dictate interactions of a conspecific virus population establishing systemic infection. PMID:22993154

  10. Dual ecdysteroid action on the epitracheal glands and central nervous system preceding ecdysis of Manduca sexta.

    PubMed

    Zitnanová, I; Adams, M E; Zitnan, D

    2001-10-01

    Initiation of the ecdysis behavioural sequence in insects requires activation of the central nervous system (CNS) by pre-ecdysis-triggering hormone (PETH) and ecdysis-triggering hormone (ETH), which are released from the Inka cells of the epitracheal glands. Here, we show that the developmental events preceding larval and pupal ecdysis of Manduca sexta involve a dual action of ecdysteroids on the epitracheal glands and CNS. The low steroid levels in freshly ecdysed and feeding larvae are associated with small-sized epitracheal glands, reduced peptide production in Inka cells and insensitivity of the CNS to ETH. The elevated ecdysteroid levels before each ecdysis lead to a dramatic enlargement of Inka cells and increased production of peptide hormones and their precursors. As blood ecdysteroids reach peak levels, the CNS becomes responsive to Inka cell peptides. These effects of natural ecdysteroid pulses can be experimentally induced by injection of 20-hydroxyecdysone or the ecdysteroid agonist tebufenozide (RH-5992) into ecdysed larvae, thus stimulating peptide production in Inka cells and inducing CNS sensitivity to ETH. A direct steroid action on the CNS is demonstrated by subsequent treatment of isolated nerve cords from ecdysed larvae with 20-hydroxyecdysone and ETH, which results in pre-ecdysis or ecdysis bursts. Our data show that ecdysteroid-induced transcriptional activity in both the epitracheal glands and the CNS are necessary events for the initiation of the ecdysis behavioural sequence. PMID:11707498

  11. Characterization of the action of epidermal growth factor in three different biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woost, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In general, these studies characterized in each system one or more of the following aspects of EGF's biological action: EGF binding, EGF-induced phosphorylation, or EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. In human corneal fibroblasts (HCF), EGF binds to specific, saturable, high affinity receptors and stimulated (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation, and in vitro measurement of DNA synthesis, approximately 2.5 fold above control cultures, with maximal stimulation occurring at approximately 1 nM EGF. In addition, fibroblasts growth factor (FGF) and insulin stimulated maximal (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation in HCF at approximately 100 ng ml/sup -1/ and 1 nM, respectively. In combination with dexamethasone (5 nM), the stimulation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation by EGF was maintained. However, dexamethasone abolished the stimulatory action of FGF. Highly purified preparations of human placental outer cell membranes and intracellular organelles were assayed for functional EGF binding proteins (EGF-receptors). Functionality of a protein was determined by covalent labeling with (/sup 125/I)-EGF and EGF-stimulated autophosphorylation.

  12. Cellular and Molecular Actions of Methylene Blue in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Murat; Lorke, Dietrich E.; Hasan, Mohammed; Petroianu, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Methylene Blue (MB), following its introduction to biology in the 19th century by Ehrlich, has found uses in various areas of medicine and biology. At present, MB is the first line of treatment in methemoglobinemias, is used frequently in the treatment of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy, and is routinely employed as a diagnostic tool in surgical procedures. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that MB has beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease and memory improvement. Although the modulation of the cGMP pathway is considered the most significant effect of MB, mediating its pharmacological actions, recent studies indicate that it has multiple cellular and molecular targets. In the majority of cases, biological effects and clinical applications of MB are dictated by its unique physicochemical properties including its planar structure, redox chemistry, ionic charges, and light spectrum characteristics. In this review article, these physicochemical features and the actions of MB on multiple cellular and molecular targets are discussed with regard to their relevance to the nervous system. PMID:19760660

  13. Effect of drugs modulating serotonergic system on the analgesic action of paracetamol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Yogita S.; Belsare, Peeyush; Panditrao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult albino mice were assigned to five groups: Normal saline, PCT, fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) + PCT, buspirone (5-HT1A Agonist) + PCT, and ondansetron (5HT3 antagonist) + PCT. Hot-plate and formalin test were used to determine pain threshold, tests being conducted 60 min after the last treatment. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Coadministration of buspirone with PCT attenuated the antinociceptive activity of PCT (P < 0.001), whereas fluoxetine + PCT increased pain threshold in the hot-plate and formalin test (P = 0.0046). Analgesic effect of PCT was not affected by ondansetron in formalin models. It attenuated analgesic action of PCT in hot-plate test (P = 0.0137). Conclusion: The results suggest that 5-HT1 receptors could also be responsible for the analgesic effect of PCT. Also, higher analgesia is produced by co-administration of SSRI (fluoxetine) + PCT. PMID:27298498

  14. Cellular and molecular actions of Methylene Blue in the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Oz, Murat; Lorke, Dietrich E; Hasan, Mohammed; Petroianu, George A

    2011-01-01

    Methylene Blue (MB), following its introduction to biology in the 19th century by Ehrlich, has found uses in various areas of medicine and biology. At present, MB is the first line of treatment in methemoglobinemias, is used frequently in the treatment of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy, and is routinely employed as a diagnostic tool in surgical procedures. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that MB has beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease and memory improvement. Although the modulation of the cGMP pathway is considered the most significant effect of MB, mediating its pharmacological actions, recent studies indicate that it has multiple cellular and molecular targets. In the majority of cases, biological effects and clinical applications of MB are dictated by its unique physicochemical properties including its planar structure, redox chemistry, ionic charges, and light spectrum characteristics. In this review article, these physicochemical features and the actions of MB on multiple cellular and molecular targets are discussed with regard to their relevance to the nervous system. PMID:19760660

  15. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic systems with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided in which an autonomic unit or element is quiesced. A quiesce component of an autonomic unit can cause the autonomic unit to self-destruct if a stay-alive reprieve signal is not received after a predetermined time.

  16. Examination of the auxin hypothesis of phytomelatonin action in classical auxin assay systems in maize.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjae; Seo, Hyesu; Park, Chanwoo; Park, Woong June

    2016-01-15

    Melatonin has been found in a wide range of plant groups. Its physiological roles have been suggested to be diverse in stress protection and plant growth regulation. An attractive hypothesis is that phytomelatonin acts as an auxin to regulate plant development. However, the auxin hypothesis is controversial, since both supporting and contradictory evidence has been reported. We systematically investigated whether melatonin fulfilled the definition for auxin in maize (Zea mays). Melatonin did not affect coleoptile elongation, root growth or ACC synthase gene expression, contrary to 10(-5)M IAA in our assay system. The auxin hypothesis of phytomelatonin action is not supported in maize, because melatonin appeared inactive in all of the auxin activity tests. On the other hand, melatonin was active in the protection of maize growth against salt stress, suggesting its importance in another context. PMID:26681269

  17. Combined actions for the improvement of properties of cement-ash binder systems

    SciTech Connect

    Grankovskii, I.G.; Uglyrenko, T.V.

    1983-01-20

    The use of fly ash from thermal electric power generating stations in concrete technology as a hydraulic additive to improve the quality of concretes and cement slurries has been shown to be effective in many studies. However, under natural hardening conditions, cement-ash compositions acquire strength very slowly, and their favorable qualities are manifested at an age of approximately three months. On the basis of new data on the structurizing and strengthening effects of small amounts of mineral additives in the mixing water, along with studies of the optimal mechanical activation by mixing the cement slurries in accordance with the kinetics of structurization, in this paper the results from studies of combined actions on binder systems with the aim of improving the engineering characteristics of slurries used in cementing, increasing the slurry mobility, accelerating the hardening, and increasing the strength of hardened compositions in which up to 30% of the cement is replaced by fly ash, are presented.

  18. Modulation of phosphofructokinase action by macromolecular interactions. Quantitative analysis of the phosphofructokinase-aldolase-calmodulin system.

    PubMed

    Orosz, F; Christova, T Y; Ovádi, J

    1988-11-23

    The simultaneous effect of calmodulin and aldolase (D-fructose-1,6-bisphosphate D-glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate-lyase, EC 4.1.2.13) on the concentration-dependent behaviour of muscle phosphofructokinase (ATP: D-fructose-6-phosphate 1-phosphotransferase, EC 2.7.1.11) has been analysed by means of a covalently attached fluorescent probe, gel penetration experiments, and using a kinetic approach. We found that calmodulin-induced inactivation of phosphofructokinase is suspended by addition of an equimolar amount of aldolase. This effect was attributed to an apparent competition of calmodulin and aldolase for the dimeric forms of kinase. Moreover, the direct binding of aldolase to calmodulin has also been demonstrated, which resulted in a significant decrease in the kcat value of the enzyme. The quantitative analysis of these interactions in the system phosphofructokinase-calmodulin-aldolase is presented. A possible molecular model for the modulation of phosphofructokinase action by macromolecular interactions is envisaged. PMID:2973356

  19. [Structure and biological action on cardiovascular systems of saponins from Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Ru-feng; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2015-09-01

    Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi), the underground part of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae) is commonly used in Chinese medicine for treatment of haemorrhage, haemostasis, swelling, etc. The aerial part including leaves, flowers and fruits are also applied for similar functions. Triterpenoid saponins are considered to be responsible for the biological activities of Sanqi. Up to date, more than 100 saponins have been isolated from theroots, rhizomes, leaves, flowers and fruits of P. notoginseng. The reported saponins can be classified into protopanaxadiol (PPD), protopanaxatriol (PPT), C17 side-chain varied and other types, according to the skeletons of the aglycons. The present review summarizes the saponins isolated from P. notoginseng and their distribution in different medicinal organs, as well as the pharmacological actions on cardiovascular system. PMID:26978992

  20. Mirror system activity for action and language is embedded in the integration of dorsal and ventral pathways.

    PubMed

    Arbib, Michael A

    2010-01-01

    We develop the view that the involvement of mirror neurons in embodied experience grounds brain structures that underlie language, but that many other brain regions are involved. We stress the cooperation between the dorsal and ventral streams in praxis and language. Both have perceptual and motor schemas but the perceptual schemas in the dorsal path are affordances linked to specific motor schemas for detailed motor control, whereas the ventral path supports planning and decision making. This frames the hypothesis that the mirror system for words evolved from the mirror system for actions to support words-as-phonological-actions, with semantics provided by the linkage to neural systems supporting perceptual and motor schemas. We stress the importance of computational models which can be linked to the parametric analysis of data and conceptual analysis of these models to support new patterns of understanding of the data. In the domain of praxis, we assess the FARS model of the canonical system for grasping, the MNS models for the mirror system for grasping, and the Augmented Competitive Queuing model that extends the control of action to the opportunistic scheduling of action sequences and also offers a new hypothesis on the role of mirror neurons in self action. Turning to language, we use Construction Grammar as our linguistic framework to get beyond single words to phrases and sentences, and initiate analysis of what brain functions must complement mirror systems to support this functionality. PMID:19942271

  1. Effect of adenosine system in the action of oseltamivir on behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hidemori; Hiromura, Makoto; Shiratani, Tomonori; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Honda, Sinichiro; Kosako, Kazuhiro; Soeda, Shinji; Inoue, Kazuhide; Toda, Akihisa

    2015-07-10

    Abnormal behaviors and death associated with the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) have emerged as a major issue in influenza patients. We have previously reported that the mechanisms underlying the effects of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist, combined with oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is rapidly hydrolyzed to its active form (oseltamivir carboxylate, OCB). In this study, we investigated the effects of an adenosine system and OCB on the action of oseltamivir on mice behavior. Oseltamivir for 1 day (150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) alone did not affect ambulation at 2 h post-injection. However, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days increased ambulation, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days did not increase. These enhancements were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, CGS21680 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)). Furthermore, an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, SCH58261 (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, SCH58261 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days increased ambulation, but SCH58261 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days did not. Conversely, in phenobarbital (PB)-treated mice, caffeine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, OCB for 1 day (0.3 μg/mouse intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)) alone increased ambulation. These findings suggest that the actions of oseltamivir may involve the adenosine systems and its metabolism. Our findings suggest an interaction between the central blockade of adenosine A2 receptors by caffeine and OCB-induced behavioral changes. PMID:25980995

  2. Antinociceptive action of isolated mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through activation of opioid receptor system.

    PubMed

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ(1)-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor. PMID:23109863

  3. Antinociceptive Action of Isolated Mitragynine from Mitragyna Speciosa through Activation of Opioid Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Shamima, Abdul Rahman; Fakurazi, Sharida; Hidayat, Mohamad Taufik; Hairuszah, Ithnin; Moklas, Mohamad Aris Mohd; Arulselvan, Palanisamy

    2012-01-01

    Cannabinoids and opioids systems share numerous pharmacological properties and antinociception is one of them. Previous findings have shown that mitragynine (MG), a major indole alkaloid found in Mitragyna speciosa (MS) can exert its antinociceptive effects through the opioids system. In the present study, the action of MG was investigated as the antinociceptive agent acting on Cannabinoid receptor type 1 (CB1) and effects on the opioids receptor. The latency time was recorded until the mice showed pain responses such as shaking, licking or jumping and the duration of latency was measured for 2 h at every 15 min interval by hot plate analysis. To investigate the beneficial effects of MG as antinociceptive agent, it was administered intraperitoneally 15 min prior to pain induction with a single dosage (3, 10, 15, 30, and 35 mg/kg b.wt). In this investigation, 35 mg/kg of MG showed significant increase in the latency time and this dosage was used in the antagonist receptor study. The treated groups were administered with AM251 (cannabinoid receptor-1 antagonist), naloxone (non-selective opioid antagonist), naltrindole (δ-opioid antagonist) naloxonazine (μ1-receptor antagonist) and norbinaltorpimine (κ-opioid antagonist) respectively, prior to administration of MG (35 mg/kg). The results showed that the antinociceptive effect of MG was not antagonized by AM251; naloxone and naltrindole were effectively blocked; and norbinaltorpimine partially blocked the antinociceptive effect of MG. Naloxonazine did inhibit the effect of MG, but it was not statistically significant. These results demonstrate that CB1 does not directly have a role in the antinociceptive action of MG where the effect was observed with the activation of opioid receptor. PMID:23109863

  4. Antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies in primary care: a whole system participatory action research project

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Paul; Oni, Lola; Alli, Mabel; St Hilaire, Judith; Smith, Alma; Leavey, Conan; Banarsee, Ricky

    2005-01-01

    Background The usual system for antenatal screening for haemoglobinopathies permits termination only late in the second trimester of pregnancy. Aim To evaluate a system where pregnant women are screened in general practice, and to develop a model of care pathway or whole system research able to bring into view unexpected effects of health service innovation. Design of study A whole system participatory action research approach was used. Six purposefully chosen general practices screened women who attended with a new pregnancy. Data of gestational age of screening were compared with two control groups. Qualitative data were gathered through workshops, interviews and feedback to the project steering group. At facilitated annual workshops participants from all parts of the care pathway produced a consensus about the meaning of the data as a whole. Setting Six general practices in north London. Method A whole system participatory action research approach allowed stakeholders from throughout the care pathway to pilot the innovation and reflect on the meaning and significance of quantitative and qualitative data. Results The gestational age of screening in general practice was 4.1 weeks earlier (95% confidence interval (CI) = 3.41 to 4.68) than in hospital clinics (P<0.001), and 2.9 weeks earlier (95% CI = 2.07 to 3.65) than in community midwife clinics (P<0.001). However, only 35% of pregnant women in the study were screened in the practices. Changes required throughout the whole care pathway make wider implementation more difficult than at first realised. The cost within general practice is greater than initially appreciated owing to a perceived need to provide counselling about other issues at the same time. Practitioners considered that other ways of early screening should be explored, including preconceptual screening. The research approach was able to bring into view unexpected effects of the innovation, but health workers were unfamiliar with the participatory

  5. 40 CFR 141.563 - What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 22 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What follow-up action is my system... Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.563 What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring? Follow-up action is required according to the following...

  6. 40 CFR 141.563 - What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What follow-up action is my system... Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.563 What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring? Follow-up action is required according to the following...

  7. 40 CFR 141.563 - What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 23 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false What follow-up action is my system... Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.563 What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring? Follow-up action is required according to the following...

  8. Lexical, conceptual and motor information in memory for action phrases: a multi-system account.

    PubMed

    Engelkamp, Johannes; Jahn, Petra

    2003-06-01

    According to the multi-system account [J. Engelkamp, H.D. Zimmer, The Human Memory: A Multi-Modal Approach, Hogrefe & Huber, Seattle, 1994], the enactment effect in free recall of action phrases (e.g. break the stick) is independent of inter- and intra-phrase associations because it emerges from the nonverbal encoding processes under enactment. Two experiments have been reported which tested these and further assumptions of the multi-system account of the enactment effect. In both experiments, inter- and intra-phrase (verb-object) associations were varied simultaneously in addition to enactment. In Experiment 1, the memory test was free recall, and in Experiment 2, it was cued recall. Independent effects of all three factors were observed in free recall. Enacted phrases were recalled better than phrases learned only verbally. Phrases with high-associated objects and verbs were better recalled than phrases with low-associated objects and verbs, and categorically related phrases were better recalled than unrelated phrases. In cued recall, there was no effect of categorical list structure. The effects of intra-phrase structure and enactment corresponded to those in free recall. All interactions were nonsignificant. The findings were interpreted as support for the multi-system account. PMID:12750046

  9. Tele-autonomous systems: New methods for projecting and coordinating intelligent action at a distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Lynn; Volz, Richard; Walker, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    There is a growing need for humans to perform complex remote operations and to extend the intelligence and experience of experts to distant applications. It is asserted that a blending of human intelligence, modern information technology, remote control, and intelligent autonomous systems is required, and have coined the term tele-autonomous technology, or tele-automation, for methods producing intelligent action at a distance. Tele-automation goes beyond autonomous control by blending in human intelligence. It goes beyond tele-operation by incorporating as much autonomy as possible and/or reasonable. A new approach is discussed for solving one of the fundamental problems facing tele-autonomous systems: The need to overcome time delays due to telemetry and signal propagation. New concepts are introduced called time and position clutches, that allow the time and position frames between the local user control and the remote device being controlled, to be desynchronized respectively. The design and implementation of these mechanisms are described in detail. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms lead to substantial telemanipulation performance improvements, including the result of improvements even in the absence of time delays. The new controls also yield a simple protocol for control handoffs of manipulation tasks between local operators and remote systems.

  10. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  11. Hemodynamic actions of systemically injected pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to characterize the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27 0.1-2.0 nmol/kg, i.v.) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (2) to determine the roles of the autonomic nervous system, adrenal catecholamines and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of PACAP-27-mediated effects on hemodynamic function. PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and hindquarter and mesenteric vascular resistances in saline-treated rats. PACAP-27 also produced pronounced falls in mean arterial blood pressure in rats treated with the ganglion blocker, chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive and vasodilator actions of PACAP-27 were not attenuated by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.), or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 50 micromol/kg, i.v.). PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate whereas the hypotensive response produced by the nitrovasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg, i.v.), was associated with a minimal tachycardia. The PACAP-27-induced tachycardia was unaffected by chlorisondamine, but was virtually abolished by propranolol. These results suggest that the vasodilator effects of PACAP-27 are due to actions in the microcirculation rather than to the release of adrenal catecholamines and that this vasodilation may not involve the release of endothelium-derived NO. These results also suggest that PACAP-27 produces tachycardia by directly releasing norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals rather than by direct or baroreceptor reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  12. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  13. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  14. Sensitivity analysis of potential events affecting the double-shell tank system and fallback actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-27

    Sensitivity analyses were performed for fall-back positions (i.e., management actions) to accommodate potential off-normal and programmatic change events overlaid on the waste volume projections and their uncertainties. These sensitivity analyses allowed determining and ranking tank system high-risk parameters and fall- back positions that will accommodate the respective impacts. This quantification of tank system impacts shows periods where tank capacity is sensitive to certain variables that must be carefully managed and/or evaluated. Identifying these sensitive variables and quantifying their impact will allow decision makers to prepare fall-back positions and focus available resources on the highest impact parameters where technical data are needed to reduce waste projection uncertainties. For noncomplexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the years of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval (after approximately 2009) due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate and 200-East SST solids transfer volume. For complexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the period after approximately 2005 due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate. 200-East SST solids transfer volume. complexed waste reduction factor using evaporation, and 200-west saltwell liquid porosity.

  15. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Luján, Miguel Á.; Pastor, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (EOS) (opioid peptides and receptors) in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR) have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP). Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc), which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine (DA). The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: (1) implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and (2) the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR. PMID:23914161

  16. The Body Action Coding System II: muscle activations during the perception and expression of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Huis In ‘t Veld, Elisabeth M. J.; van Boxtel, Geert J. M.; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-01-01

    Research into the expression and perception of emotions has mostly focused on facial expressions. Recently, body postures have become increasingly important in research, but knowledge on muscle activity during the perception or expression of emotion is lacking. The current study continues the development of a Body Action Coding System (BACS), which was initiated in a previous study, and described the involvement of muscles in the neck, shoulders and arms during expression of fear and anger. The current study expands the BACS by assessing the activity patterns of three additional muscles. Surface electromyography of muscles in the neck (upper trapezius descendens), forearms (extensor carpi ulnaris), lower back (erector spinae longissimus) and calves (peroneus longus) were measured during active expression and passive viewing of fearful and angry body expressions. The muscles in the forearm were strongly active for anger expression and to a lesser extent for fear expression. In contrast, muscles in the calves were recruited slightly more for fearful expressions. It was also found that muscles automatically responded to the perception of emotion, without any overt movement. The observer's forearms responded to the perception of fear, while the muscles used for leaning backwards were activated when faced with an angry adversary. Lastly, the calf responded immediately when a fearful person was seen, but responded slower to anger. There is increasing interest in developing systems that are able to create or recognize emotional body language for the development of avatars, robots, and online environments. To that end, multiple coding systems have been developed that can either interpret or create bodily expressions based on static postures, motion capture data or videos. However, the BACS is the first coding system based on muscle activity. PMID:25294993

  17. The Social Life of a Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Wales, Roxana; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the complex social life of a large data base. The topics include: 1) Social Construction of Mechanisms of Memory; 2) Data Bases: The Invisible Memory Mechanism; 3) The Human in the Machine; 4) Data of the Study: A Large-Scale Problem Reporting Data Base; 5) The PRACA Study; 6) Description of PRACA; 7) PRACA and Paper; 8) Multiple Uses of PRACA; 9) The Work of PRACA; 10) Multiple Forms of Invisibility; 11) Such Systems are Everywhere; and 12) Two Morals to the Story. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  18. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  19. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., "love") which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories - related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts - was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or 'epiphenomenal' to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into modality

  20. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds. PMID:26084184

  1. The COST 731 Action: A review on uncertainty propagation in advanced hydro-meteorological forecast systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossa, Andrea; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano; Bruen, Michael; Germann, Urs; Haase, Günther; Keil, Christian; Krahe, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in flood forecasting is a difficult task, given the multiple and strongly non-linear model components involved in such a system. Much effort has been and is being invested in the quest of dealing with uncertain precipitation observations and forecasts and the propagation of such uncertainties through hydrological and hydraulic models predicting river discharges and risk for inundation. The COST 731 Action is one of these and constitutes a European initiative which deals with the quantification of forecast uncertainty in hydro-meteorological forecast systems. COST 731 addresses three major lines of development: (1) combining meteorological and hydrological models to form a forecast chain, (2) propagating uncertainty information through this chain and make it available to end users in a suitable form, (3) advancing high-resolution numerical weather prediction precipitation forecasts by using non-conventional observations from, for instance, radar to determine details in the initial conditions on scales smaller than what can be resolved by conventional observing systems. Recognizing the interdisciplinarity of the challenge COST 731 has organized its work forming Working Groups at the interfaces between the different scientific disciplines involved, i.e. between observation and atmospheric (and hydrological) modelling (WG-1), between atmospheric and hydrologic modelling (WG-2) and between hydrologic modelling and end-users (WG-3). This paper summarizes the COST 731 activities and its context, provides a review of the recent progress made in dealing with uncertainties in flood forecasting, and sets the scene for the papers of this Thematic Issue. In particular, a bibliometric analysis highlights the strong recent increase in addressing the uncertainty analysis in flood forecasting from an integrated perspective. Such a perspective necessarily involves the area of meteorology, hydrology, and decision making in order to take operational advantage

  2. Exploring the Utility of Action Research to Investigate Second-Language Classrooms as Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmadian, Mohammad Javad; Tavakoli, Mansoor

    2011-01-01

    Action research is geared to changes for the better and has the potential to assist teachers to extend their teaching skills and develop a deeper understanding of themselves, their classroom and their learners. However, in the area of applied linguistics, the viability of action research has been seriously questioned. In this article, we argue…

  3. G-systems and deformation of G-actions on R{sup d}

    SciTech Connect

    Dherin, Benoit; Mencattini, Igor

    2014-01-15

    Given a (smooth) action φ of a Lie group G on R{sup d} we construct a differential graded algebra whose Maurer–Cartan elements are in one-to-one correspondence with some class of deformations of the (induced) G-action on C{sup ∞}(R{sup d})[[ℏ

  4. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Septic Systems” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank · CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool · CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks · CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  5. Data and Information Management System for the ORNL Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; Owen, P.T.; Newman, K.A.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated sites and facilities. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Bibliographic Data Base, (2) the Records Control Data Base, and (3) the Numeric Data Base. This paper/poster emphasizes the Numeric Data Base, including its development and organization, and also summarizes the status of other activities associated with management and use of such data (i.e., bibliographic information, records control, geographic information, and quality assurance). The types of data currently available have been summarized, and a synopsis of the contents of the RAP numeric data base has been compiled in a menu-driven program available on PC diskettes. The synopsis will be demonstrated at the conference. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  6. 3-Hydroxykynurenine: an intriguing molecule exerting dual actions in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Maldonado, Perla D; Santamaría, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine pathway is gaining attention due to the many metabolic processes in which it has been involved. The tryptophan conversion into several other metabolites through this pathway provides neuronal and redox modulators useful for maintenance of major functions in the brain. However, when physiopathological conditions prevail - i.e. oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation - preferential formation and accumulation of toxic metabolites could trigger factors for degeneration in neurological disorders. 3-Hydroxykynurenine has been largely described as one of these toxic metabolites capable of inducing oxidative damage and cell death; consequently, this metabolite has been hypothesized to play a pivotal role in different neurological and psychiatric disorders. Supporting evidence has shown altered 3-hydroxykynurenine levels in samples of patients from several disorders. In contrast, some experimental studies have provided evidence of antioxidant and scavenging properties inherent to this molecule. In this review, we explored most of literature favoring one or the other concept, in order to provide an accurate vision on the real participation of this tryptophan metabolite in both experimental paradigms and human brain pathologies. Through this collected evidence, we provide an integrative hypothesis on how 3-hydroxykynurenine is exerting its dual actions in the central nervous system and what will be the course of investigations in this field for the next years. PMID:23219925

  7. Self-induced back-action optical trapping in nanophotonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeier, Lukas; Quidant, Romain; Chang, Darrick E.

    2015-12-01

    Optical trapping is an indispensable tool in physics and the life sciences. However, there is a clear trade off between the size of a particle to be trapped, its spatial confinement, and the intensities required. This is due to the decrease in optical response of smaller particles and the diffraction limit that governs the spatial variation of optical fields. It is thus highly desirable to find techniques that surpass these bounds. Recently, a number of experiments using nanophotonic cavities have observed a qualitatively different trapping mechanism described as ‘self-induced back-action trapping’ (SIBA). In these systems, the particle motion couples to the resonance frequency of the cavity, which results in a strong interplay between the intra-cavity field intensity and the forces exerted. Here, we provide a theoretical description that for the first time captures the remarkable range of consequences. In particular, we show that SIBA can be exploited to yield dynamic reshaping of trap potentials, strongly sub-wavelength trap features, and significant reduction of intensities seen by the particle, which should have important implications for future trapping technologies.

  8. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  9. Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

    1995-08-01

    control to 29 +/- 1 ms at the high dose) and increased the magnitude of LV -dP/dtmin in dogs with intact but not blocked ANS reflexes, suggesting that relaxation was enhanced by favorable changes in systemic hemodynamics or ANS activation and direct effects of this drug on lusitropic state. Levosimendan also increased dL/dtmax to a greater degree in ANS-intact dogs, indicating that improvement of rapid ventricular filling was also partially dependent on ANS tone. No changes in Kp were observed in either experimental group. The results indicate that levosimendan decreases preload and afterload and has positive inotropic and lusitropic properties. The actions of levosimendan on diastolic function are largely mediated by the ANS. PMID:7475041

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box, Partial

  11. Genetic control of ethanol action on the central nervous system. An EEG study in twins.

    PubMed

    Propping, P

    1977-03-14

    The purpose of the investigation is to claify the genetic contribution to the interindividual variability of ethanol action on the central nervous system. The 52 adult male healthy twin pairs (26 MZ, 26 DZ) got 1.2 ml/kg ethanol p.o. under standardized conditions; furthermore, 13 non-twin subjects were repeatedly subjected to the same procedure in order to test the intraindividual variability. The EEG was recorded before and 60, 120, 180, and 240 min after alcohol intake. The EEGs were off-line analyzed by means of a computer program for time domain analysis. As was already known, on the average alcohol led to a better synchronisation of the EEG, i.e., the number of beta-waves decreased whereas the number of alpha- and theta-waves increased. The extent of the alcohol effect on the EEG varied enormously between individuals; however, the EEGs of MZ twins proved to react indentically to alcohol loading, whereas the EEGs of DZ twins became mor dissimilar during the course of the experiment. The low-voltage EEG presumably is resistant to alchohol; furthermore, it is supposed that there exists a special beta-prone EEG-type which is also genetic in origin. The identical EEG reaction of MZ twins to alcohol loading could not be attributed to more similar blood alcohol concentrations. It is hypothesized that the differences in the extent of the alcohol effect on the EEG between individuals might reflect differences in the sensitivity of the ascending reticular activating system. In the literature it has frequently been reported that alcoholics have preferentially brain wave patterns which are poorly synchronized. These findings are discussed in the light of the present results. PMID:557449

  12. The Professional Development of Correctional Personnel. An Action Research Report on Planned Change in the Military Justice System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Philip R.

    This action research by a management psychologist utilized insights and methodology from the behavioral science to promote planned, positive change in the Navy's criminal justice system. Specifically, the present phase of this ongoing investigation focused upon Marines assigned to five correctional facilities in North Carolina and Southern…

  13. Motor-Iconicity of Sign Language Does Not Alter the Neural Systems Underlying Tool and Action Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmorey, Karen; Grabowski, Thomas; McCullough, Stephen; Damasio, Hannah; Ponto, Laurie; Hichwa, Richard; Bellugi, Ursula

    2004-01-01

    Positron emission tomography was used to investigate whether the motor-iconic basis of certain forms in American Sign Language (ASL) partially alters the neural systems engaged during lexical retrieval. Most ASL nouns denoting tools and ASL verbs referring to tool-based actions are produced with a handshape representing the human hand holding a…

  14. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  15. Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Simon-Delso, N; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Chagnon, M; Downs, C; Furlan, L; Gibbons, D W; Giorio, C; Girolami, V; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C H; Liess, M; Long, E; McField, M; Mineau, P; Mitchell, E A D; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Pisa, L; Settele, J; Stark, J D; Tapparo, A; Van Dyck, H; Van Praagh, J; Van der Sluijs, J P; Whitehorn, P R; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment. Neonicotinoids and fipronil currently account for approximately one third of the world insecticide market; the annual world production of the archetype neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, was estimated to be ca. 20,000 tonnes active substance in 2010. There were several reasons for the initial success of neonicotinoids and fipronil: (1) there was no known pesticide resistance in target pests, mainly because of their recent development, (2) their physicochemical properties included many advantages over previous generations of insecticides (i.e., organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, etc.), and (3) they shared an assumed reduced operator and consumer risk. Due to their systemic nature, they are taken up by the roots or leaves and translocated to all parts of the plant, which, in turn, makes them effectively toxic to herbivorous insects. The toxicity persists for a variable period of time-depending on the plant, its growth stage, and the amount of pesticide applied. A wide variety of applications are available, including the most common prophylactic non-Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) application by seed coating. As a result of their extensive use and physicochemical properties, these substances can be found in all environmental compartments including soil, water, and air. Neonicotinoids and fipronil operate by disrupting neural transmission in the central nervous system of invertebrates. Neonicotinoids mimic the action of neurotransmitters, while fipronil inhibits neuronal receptors. In

  16. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  17. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation

    PubMed Central

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modelling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject’s capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others’ actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy. PMID:25462688

  18. Individual Differences in Impulsive Action Reflect Variation in the Cortical Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Latham HL; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, and individual variation in the degree of inherent impulsivity could play a role in the generation or exacerbation of problematic behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) actions at the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) promote and 5-HT2AR antagonists suppress impulsive action (the inability to withhold premature responses; motor impulsivity) upon systemic administration or microinfusion directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a node in the corticostriatal circuit that is thought to play a role in the regulation of impulsive action. We hypothesized that the functional capacity of the 5-HT2AR, which is governed by its expression, localization, and protein/protein interactions (eg, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95)), may drive the predisposition to inherent impulsive action. Stable high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI) phenotypes were identified from an outbred rodent population with the 1-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task. HI rats exhibited a greater head-twitch response following administration of the preferential 5-HT2AR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and were more sensitive to the effects of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 to suppress impulsive action relative to LI rats. A positive correlation was observed between levels of premature responses and 5-HT2AR binding density in frontal cortex ([3H]-ketanserin radioligand binding). Elevated mPFC 5-HT2AR protein expression concomitant with augmented association of the 5-HT2AR with PSD95 differentiated HI from LI rats. The observed differential sensitivity of HI and LI rats to 5-HT2AR ligands and associated distinct 5-HT2AR protein profiles provide evidence that spontaneously occurring individual differences in impulsive action reflect variation in the cortical 5-HT2AR system. PMID:25666313

  19. Individual Differences in Impulsive Action Reflect Variation in the Cortical Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor System.

    PubMed

    Fink, Latham H L; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-07-01

    Impulsivity is an important feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, and individual variation in the degree of inherent impulsivity could play a role in the generation or exacerbation of problematic behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) actions at the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) promote and 5-HT2AR antagonists suppress impulsive action (the inability to withhold premature responses; motor impulsivity) upon systemic administration or microinfusion directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a node in the corticostriatal circuit that is thought to play a role in the regulation of impulsive action. We hypothesized that the functional capacity of the 5-HT2AR, which is governed by its expression, localization, and protein/protein interactions (eg, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95)), may drive the predisposition to inherent impulsive action. Stable high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI) phenotypes were identified from an outbred rodent population with the 1-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task. HI rats exhibited a greater head-twitch response following administration of the preferential 5-HT2AR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and were more sensitive to the effects of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 to suppress impulsive action relative to LI rats. A positive correlation was observed between levels of premature responses and 5-HT2AR binding density in frontal cortex ([(3)H]-ketanserin radioligand binding). Elevated mPFC 5-HT2AR protein expression concomitant with augmented association of the 5-HT2AR with PSD95 differentiated HI from LI rats. The observed differential sensitivity of HI and LI rats to 5-HT2AR ligands and associated distinct 5-HT2AR protein profiles provide evidence that spontaneously occurring individual differences in impulsive action reflect variation in the cortical 5-HT2AR system. PMID:25666313

  20. Motor system contribution to action prediction: Temporal accuracy depends on motor experience.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Janny C; Hunnius, Sabine; Meyer, Marlene; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-03-01

    Predicting others' actions is essential for well-coordinated social interactions. In two experiments including an infant population, this study addresses to what extent motor experience of an observer determines prediction accuracy for others' actions. Results show that infants who were proficient crawlers but inexperienced walkers predicted crawling more accurately than walking, whereas age groups mastering both skills (i.e. toddlers and adults) were equally accurate in predicting walking and crawling. Regardless of experience, human movements were predicted more accurately by all age groups than non-human movement control stimuli. This suggests that for predictions to be accurate, the observed act needs to be established in the motor repertoire of the observer. Through the acquisition of new motor skills, we also become better at predicting others' actions. The findings thus stress the relevance of motor experience for social-cognitive development. PMID:26744806

  1. Technical Specification action statements requiring shutdown. A risk perspective with application to the RHR/SSW systems of a BWR

    SciTech Connect

    Mankamo, T.; Kim, I.S.; Samanta, P.K.

    1993-11-01

    When safety systems fail during power operation, the limiting conditions for operation (LCOs) and associated action statements of technical specifications typically require that the plant be shut down within the limits of allowed outage time (AOT). However, when a system needed to remove decay heat, such as the residual heat removal (RHR) system, is inoperable or degraded, shutting down the plant may not necessarily be preferable, from a risk perspective, to continuing power operation over a usual repair time, giving priority to the repairs. The risk impact of the basic operational alternatives, i.e., continued operation or shutdown, was evaluated for failures in the RHR and standby service water (SSW) systems of a boiling-water reactor (BWR) nuclear power plant. A complete or partial failure of the SSW system fails or degrades not only the RHR system but other front-line safety systems supported by the SSW system. This report presents the methodology to evaluate the risk impact of LCOs and associated AOT; the results of risk evaluation from its application to the RHR and SSW systems of a BWR; the findings from the risk-sensitivity analyses to identify alternative operational policies; and the major insights and recommendations to improve the technical specifications action statements.

  2. Development and Testing of a M-Learning System for the Professional Development of Academics through Design-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Kuzu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a mobile learning system for the professional development of academics was developed by design based action research, and the perceptions and experiences of the academics using this system were examined. In the first phase of this design-based action research, the research question was defined. In the second phase, a…

  3. [Experimental and clinical study of preparation Iridol action on the central nevros system].

    PubMed

    Makarov, V G; Aleksandrova, A E; Shikov, A N; Shiler, L V; Ryzhenkov, V E

    2006-01-01

    In experiment on adult rats male the anxiolitic action of new plant origin drug Iridol, enriched with compounds iridoids, is shown. This effect of Iridol was approximately the same as by diazepam. In patients with arterial hypertension I - II degree, accompanied by psychoemotional disturbances, the use of Iridol in complex treatment increases efficacy of therapy. PMID:16878493

  4. MODE OF ACTION OF CYCLODIENE INSECTICIDES: THE NERVOUS SYSTEM INFLUENCED BY TOXAPHENE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A study was made concerning the mode of action, excretion, metabolism, and behavioral effects of toxaphene and combinations of toxaphene, methyl parathion, and/or chlordimeform in various insects, the mouse and rat. Toxaphene (1) altered ionic movements within the central nervous...

  5. The Solar System. Earth Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echaore, Susan D.

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic concepts about how the earth moves and its…

  6. Teacher Researchers in Action Research in a Heavily Centralized Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci

    2015-01-01

    Action research is characterized by a new paradigm of empowering teachers to monitor their own practices in a more autonomous manner with a vision of challenging and improving their own techniques of teaching through their own participatory research. Yet in spite of this apparently radical shift in the function of the teacher from the constant…

  7. Generalized synchronization in the action of a chaotic signal on a periodic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koronovskii, A. A.; Moskalenko, O. I.; Pavlov, A. S.; Frolov, N. S.; Hramov, A. E.

    2014-05-01

    Generalized synchronization is observed during the action of a chaotic signal on generators of periodic oscillations. The features in the behavior of the synchronous regime threshold upon a change in the chaotic signal parameters are investigated. The possibility of using such devices for concealed information transfer is demonstrated.

  8. ASSESSING UST CORRECTIVE ACTION TECHNOLOGIES: DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF IN SITU SVE-BASED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ corrective action technologies are being proposed and installed at an increasing number of underground storage tank (LIST) sites contaminated with petroleum products in saturated and unsaturated zones. It is often difficult to accurately assess the performance of these sy...

  9. From COST 271 to 296 EU actions on ionospheric monitoring and modelling for terrestrial and Earth space radio systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolesi, B.; Cander, Lj. R.; Altadill, D.

    The ionospheric community has long been aware that co-operative research on an international basis is essential to deal with temporal and spatial changes in the ionosphere that influence the performance of terrestrial and Earth-space radio systems. The EU COST (Co-operation in the field of Scientific and Technical Research) 271 Action on "Effects of the Upper Atmosphere on Terrestrial and Earth-space Communications" has had during the period of October 2000-August 2004 the following main objectives: (1) to evaluate the influence of upper atmospheric conditions on terrestrial and Earth-space communications, (2) to develop methods and techniques to improve ionospheric models over Europe for telecommunication and navigation applications and (3) to transfer the results to the appropriate radiocommunication study groups of the International Telecommunication Union (ITU-R) and other national and international organizations dealing with the modern communication systems. At the beginning of 2005 the new 296 Action in the COST Telecommunications, Information Science and Technology domain on "Mitigation of Ionospheric Effects on Radio Systems (MIERS)" was approved for the period 2005-2009. The main objectives of the MIERS are: (a) to support and enhanced the existing European facilities for historical and real-time digital ionospheric data collection and exchange; (b) to develop an integrated approach to ionospheric modelling, create the mechanism needed to ingest processed data into models, extend and develop suitable mitigation models and define the protocols needed to link models together; and (c) to strengthen the areas of expertise that already exist by stimulating closer cooperation between scientists and users, focusing the scope of all the previous COST ionospheric related studies to the mitigation of ionospheric effects on radio systems. This paper summarises briefly how the major objectives of the COST271 Action have been achieved and what are the most important

  10. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

  11. Double Dissociation Between Action-driven and Perception-driven Conflict Resolution Invoking Anterior versus Posterior Brain Systems

    PubMed Central

    Schulte, Tilman; Müller-Oehring, Eva M.; Vinco, Shara; Hoeft, Fumiko; Pfefferbaum, Adolf; Sullivan, Edith V.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to select and integrate relevant information in the presence of competing irrelevant information can be enhanced by advance information to direct attention and guide response selection. Attentional preparation can reduce perceptual and response conflict, yet little is known about the neural source of conflict resolution, whether it is resolved by modulating neural responses for perceptual selection to emphasize task-relevant information or for action selection to inhibit pre-potent responses to interfering information. We manipulated perceptual information that either matched or did not match the relevant color feature of an upcoming Stroop stimulus and recorded hemodynamic brain responses to these events. Longer reaction times to incongruent than congruent color-word Stroop stimuli indicated conflict; however, conflict was even greater when a color cue correctly predicted the Stroop target’s color (match) than when it did not (nonmatch). A predominantly anterior network was activated for Stroop-match and a predominantly posterior network was activated for Stroop-nonmatch. Thus, when a stimulus feature did not match the expected feature, a perceptually-driven posterior attention system was engaged, whereas when interfering, automatically-processed semantic information required inhibition of pre-potent responses, an action-driven anterior control system was engaged. These findings show a double dissociation of anterior and posterior cortical systems engaging in different types of control for perceptually-driven and action-driven conflict resolution. PMID:19573610

  12. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported.

  13. Perception-action map learning in controlled multiscroll systems applied to robot navigation.

    PubMed

    Arena, Paolo; De Fiore, Sebastiano; Fortuna, Luigi; Patané, Luca

    2008-12-01

    In this paper a new technique for action-oriented perception in robots is presented. The paper starts from exploiting the successful implementation of the basic idea that perceptual states can be embedded into chaotic attractors whose dynamical evolution can be associated with sensorial stimuli. In this way, it can be possible to encode, into the chaotic dynamics, environment-dependent patterns. These have to be suitably linked to an action, executed by the robot, to fulfill an assigned mission. This task is addressed here: the action-oriented perception loop is closed by introducing a simple unsupervised learning stage, implemented via a bio-inspired structure based on the motor map paradigm. In this way, perceptual meanings, useful for solving a given task, can be autonomously learned, based on the environment-dependent patterns embedded into the controlled chaotic dynamics. The presented framework has been tested on a simulated robot and the performance have been successfully compared with other traditional navigation control paradigms. Moreover an implementation of the proposed architecture on a Field Programmable Gate Array is briefly outlined and preliminary experimental results on a roving robot are also reported. PMID:19123629

  14. A Mechatronic System for Quantitative Application and Assessment of Massage-Like Actions in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zeng, Hansong; Best, Thomas M.; Haas, Caroline; Heffner, Ned T.; Agarwal, Sudha; Zhao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Massage therapy has a long history and has been widely believed effective in restoring tissue function, relieving pain and stress, and promoting overall well-being. However, the application of massage-like actions and the efficacy of massage are largely based on anecdotal experiences that are difficult to define and measure. This leads to a somewhat limited evidence-based interface of massage therapy with modern medicine. In this study, we introduce a mechatronic device that delivers highly reproducible massage-like mechanical loads to the hind limbs of small animals (rats and rabbits), where various massage-like actions are quantified by the loading parameters (magnitude, frequency and duration) of the compressive and transverse forces on the subject tissues. The effect of massage is measured by the difference in passive viscoelastic properties of the subject tissues before and after mechanical loading, both obtained by the same device. Results show that this device is useful in identifying the loading parameters that are most conducive to a change in tissue mechanical properties, and can determine the range of loading parameters that result in sustained changes in tissue mechanical properties and function. This device presents the first step in our effort for quantifying the application of massage-like actions used clinically and measurement of their efficacy that can readily be combined with various quantitative measures (e.g., active mechanical properties and physiological assays) for determining the therapeutic and mechanistic effects of massage therapies. PMID:23943071

  15. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS: A REVIEW OF SOME SOURCES, EFFECTS, AND MECHANISMS OF ACTIONS ON BEHAVIOR AND NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Frye, C.; Bo, E.; Calamandrei, G.; Calzà, L.; Dessì-Fulgheri, F.; Fernández, M.; Fusani, L.; Kah, O.; Kajta, M.; Le Page, Y.; Patisaul, H.B.; Venerosi, A.; Wojtowicz, A.K.; Panzica, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences due to their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically due to contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust, or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as diphenyl-dichloro-trichloroethane, DDT, or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilizers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin, TBT), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A, BPA), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol, DES; 17alpha-ethynilestradiol, EE2), or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or non-reproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviors. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing morphology of sexually-dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific “critical periods” of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, than in other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood also can alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, may alter serum lipid concentrations, or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, ultimately altering production of E2 and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via, or independent of, classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), signal transduction pathways, calcium influx, and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied

  16. The ultrasonic ranging and data system for radiological surveys in the UMTRA (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Little, C.A.; Berven, B.A.; Blair, M.S.; Dickerson, K.S.; Pickering, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Ultrasonic Ranging and Data System (USRADS) was developed to allow radiation exposure data and positional information to be collected, stored and analyzed in a more efficient manner than currently employed on the (Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) project. USRADS is a portable unit which employs ultrasonics, radio frequency transmissions, and a personal computer. Operational experience indicates that the system results in increased information about the property with decreased data analysis and transcription effort and only slightly more field effort. 5 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  17. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  18. Systems pharmacology dissection of multi-scale mechanisms of action for herbal medicines in stroke treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes. PMID:25093322

  19. Levels and actions of neuroactive steroids in the nervous system under physiological and pathological conditions: Sex-specific features.

    PubMed

    Melcangi, Roberto C; Giatti, Silvia; Garcia-Segura, Luis M

    2016-08-01

    Neuroactive steroids regulate the physiology of the central and peripheral nervous system, exert neuroprotective actions and represent interesting tools for therapeutic strategies against neurodegenerative and psychiatric disorders. Sex differences in their levels are detected not only under physiological conditions but are also modified in a sex-dependent way in different pathological alterations such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, spinal cord injury, stroke, diabetic encephalopathy, psychiatric disorders and peripheral neuropathy. Interestingly, many of these disorders show sex differences in their incidence, symptomatology and/or neurodegenerative outcome. The neuroprotective actions of neuroactive steroids, together with the sex specific regulation of its levels might provide the basis to design sex-specific neuroprotective therapies. Indeed, some experiments here discussed suggest the viability of this approach. PMID:26657814

  20. [Social control in the Brazilian Unified Health System (SUS): discourse, action and reaction].

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Ana Maria Caldeira; Ianni, Aurea Maria Zöllner; Dallari, Sueli Gandolfi

    2013-08-01

    This article seeks to describe and analyze the dynamics of social participation, from the standpoint of the social representations of the City Health Councillors of Belo Horizonte on the significance of social control. A methodological approach was used, backed by qualitative research techniques: semi-structured interviews and participant observation. Three years after the survey, documentary research was conducted to check for signs of institutional reaction seeking to minimize or even to overcome the difficulties reported. It was ascertained that the City Health Council political institution activated several mechanisms to improve their techniques of action and organization and also the commitment of stakeholders to this forum. PMID:23896915

  1. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary...

  2. A Study on Active Disaster Management System for Standardized Emergency Action Plan using BIM and Flood Damage Estimation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C.; Om, J.; Hwang, J.; Joo, K.; Heo, J.

    2013-12-01

    In recent, the frequency of extreme flood has been increasing due to climate change and global warming. Highly flood damages are mainly caused by the collapse of flood control structures such as dam and dike. In order to reduce these disasters, the disaster management system (DMS) through flood forecasting, inundation mapping, EAP (Emergency Action Plan) has been studied. The estimation of inundation damage and practical EAP are especially crucial to the DMS. However, it is difficult to predict inundation and take a proper action through DMS in real emergency situation because several techniques for inundation damage estimation are not integrated and EAP is supplied in the form of a document in Korea. In this study, the integrated simulation system including rainfall frequency analysis, rainfall-runoff modeling, inundation prediction, surface runoff analysis, and inland flood analysis was developed. Using this system coupled with standard GIS data, inundation damage can be estimated comprehensively and automatically. The standard EAP based on BIM (Building Information Modeling) was also established in this system. It is, therefore, expected that the inundation damages through this study over the entire area including buildings can be predicted and managed.

  3. Unraveling the actions of AMP-activated protein kinase in metabolic diseases: Systemic to molecular insights.

    PubMed

    Weikel, Karen A; Ruderman, Neil B; Cacicedo, José M

    2016-05-01

    AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) plays a critical role both in sensing and regulating cellular energy state. In experimental animals, its activation has been shown to reduce the risk of obesity and diabetes-related co-morbidities such as insulin resistance, the metabolic syndrome and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease. However, in humans, AMPK activation alone often does not completely resolve these conditions. Thus, an improved understanding of AMPK action and regulation in metabolic and other diseases is needed. Herein, we provide a brief description of the enzymatic regulation of AMPK and review its role in maintaining energy homeostasis. We then discuss tissue-specific actions of AMPK that become distorted during such conditions as obesity, type 2 diabetes and certain cancers. Finally, we explore recent findings regarding the interactions of AMPK with mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 and the lysosome and discuss how changes in these relationships during overnutrition may lead to AMPK dysfunction. A more thorough understanding of AMPK's molecular interactions during diseases of overnutrition may provide key insights for the development of AMPK-based combinatorial treatments for metabolic disease. PMID:27085772

  4. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... reading and processing the records contained in the system; (2) Identify all inputs and outputs; (3...) Understand the purpose(s) and function(s) of the system; (6) Describe update cycles or conditions and...

  5. A review on proniosomal drug delivery system for targeted drug action

    PubMed Central

    Radha, G. V.; Rani, T. Sudha; Sarvani, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proniosomes are dry formulation of water soluble carrier particles that are coated with surfactant. They are rehydrated to form niosomal dispersion immediately before use on agitation in hot aqueous media within minutes. Proniosomes are physically stable during the storage and transport. Drug encapsulated in the vesicular structure of proniosomes prolong the existence of drug in the systematic circulation and enhances the penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. From a technical point of view, niosomes are promising drug carriers as they possess greater chemical stability and lack of many disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as high- cost and variable purity problems of phospholipids. The present review emphasizes on overall methods of preparation characterization and applicability of proniosomes in targeted drug action. PMID:24808669

  6. Human central nervous system response to peripheral action of low-intensity millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedeva, N.N.

    1994-07-01

    We employ a modification of a psychophysical method developed by Kholodov to study electromagnetic field induced skin sensations. The main part of the setup is a program controller, which provides for the timed delivery of EMF signals and also false presentations. The EMF signals are fed in random order with a uniform distribution. The response-strength index and the false-alarm level were used to evaluate MF sensitivity. In addition, the subjects determined the presence or absence of a field according to four criteria. Forty healthy subjects ages 17 to 35 were tested on their right and left hands. Sensory data was analyzed via computer. EEG responses to peripheral action were studied in depth.

  7. [Indications and mechanisms of action of the intravenous immunoglobulines in the systemic autoimmune and inflammatory pathologies].

    PubMed

    Mouthon, L; Bussone, G; Kaveri, S

    2009-12-01

    Intravenous immunoglobulins (IVIg) are therapeutic preparations of normal human IgG obtained from pools of more than 1000 healthy blood donors. Initially used for the treatment of immunodeficiencies, IVIg have increasingly been used as immunomodulatory agent in autoimmune and inflammatory disorders. Several mechanisms of action have been described during the last 25 years, including : (i) modulation of Fcgamma receptors expression on leukocytes and endothelial cells ; (ii) interaction with complement proteins ; (iii) modulation of cytokines and chemiokines synthesis and release ; (iv) modulation of cell proliferation and apoptosis ; (v) remyelinisation ; (vi) neutralisation of circulating antibodies ; (vii) selection of immune repertoires and (viii) interaction with other cell-surface molecules on lymphocytes and monocytes. We here discuss the recent advances in the understanding of immunoregulatory effects of IVIg, and we point out the need of new strategies to overcome the predicted increasing worldwide shortage of IVIg. PMID:19995651

  8. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  9. Different types of nonlinear convective oscillations in a multilayer system under the joint action of buoyancy and thermocapillary effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simanovskii, I. B.; Viviani, A.; Dubois, F.; -C., Legros J.

    2011-02-01

    The nonlinear development of oscillatory instability under the joint action of buoyant and thermocapillary effects in a multilayer system, is investigated. The nonlinear convective regimes are studied by the finite difference method. Two different types of boundary conditions - periodic boundary conditions and rigid heat-insulated lateral walls, are considered. It is found that in the case of periodic boundary conditions, the competition of both mechanisms of instability may lead to the development of specific types of flow: buoyant-thermocapillary traveling wave and pulsating traveling wave. In the case of rigid heat-insulated boundaries, various types of nonlinear flows - symmetric and asymmetric oscillations, have been found.

  10. 42 CFR 431.836 - Corrective action under the MQC claims processing assessment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.836... correct those errors identified through the claims processing assessment system review and, if cost... assessment system. 431.836 Section 431.836 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES,...

  11. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  12. Moving from ideas to action - developing health financing systems towards universal coverage in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accelerating progress towards universal coverage in African countries calls for concrete actions that reinforce social health protection through establishment of sustainable health financing mechanisms. In order to explore possible pathways for moving past the existing obstacles, panel discussions were organized on health financing bringing together Ministers of health and Ministers of finance with the objective of creating a discussion space where the different perspectives on key issues and needed actions could meet. This article presents a synthesis of panel discussions focusing on the identified challenges and the possible solutions. The overview of this paper is based on the objectives and proceedings of the panel discussions and relies on the observation and study of the interaction between the panelists and on the discourse used. Summary The discussion highlighted that a large proportion of the African population has no access to needed health services with significant reliance on direct out of pocket payments. There are multiple obstacles in making prepayment and pooling mechanisms operational. The relatively strong political commitment to health has not always translated into more public spending for health. Donor investment in health in low income countries still falls below commitments. There is need to explore innovative domestic revenue collection mechanisms. Although inadequate funding for health is a fundamental problem, inefficient use of resources is of great concern. There is need to generate robust evidence focusing on issues of importance to ministry of finance. The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was mainly attributed to lack of clear vision; evidence based plans and costed strategies. Discussion Based on the analysis of discussion made, there are points of convergence and divergence in the discourse and positions of the two ministries. The current blockage points holding back budget allocations for health can be

  13. Urea's action on the hydrophobic interaction in physical and biophysical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, B. J.

    2009-03-01

    For more than a century, urea has been commonly used as an agent for denaturing proteins. However, the mechanism behind its denaturing power is still not well understood. The mechanism of denaturation of proteins by urea is explored using all-atom microseconds molecular dynamics simulations of hen lysozyme generated on BlueGene/L. Accumulation of urea around lysozyme shows that water molecules are expelled from the first hydration shell of the protein. We observe a two stage penetration of the protein, with urea penetrating the hydrophobic core before water, forming a ``dry globule." The direct dispersion interaction between urea and the protein backbone and sidechains is stronger than for water, which gives rise to the intrusion of urea into the protein interior and also to urea's preferential binding to all regions of the protein. This is augmented by preferential hydrogen bond formation between the urea carbonyl and the backbone amides which contributes to the breaking of intra-backbone hydrogen bonds. Our study supports the ``direct interaction mechanism" whereby urea has a stronger dispersion interaction with protein than water. We also show by molecular dynamics simulations that a 7 M aqueous urea solution unfolds a chain of purely hydrophobic groups which otherwise adopts a compact structure in pure water. The unfolding process arises due to a weakening of hydrophobic interactions between the polymer groups. Again the action of urea is found to be direct, through its preferential binding to the polymer or plates. It is, therefore, acting like a surfactant capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the solvent. The preferential binding and the consequent weakened hydrophobic interactions are driven by enthalpy and are related to the difference in the strength of the attractive dispersion interactions of urea and water with the polymer chain or plate. We also show that the indirect mechanism, in which urea acts as a chaotrope, is not a likely cause of urea

  14. The ethics of health systems research in low and middle-income countries: A call to action

    PubMed Central

    Hyder, Adnan A.; Pratt, Bridget; Ali, Joseph; Kass, Nancy; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    The increasing conduct of health systems research in low and middle-income countries (LMICs) has not been matched by concurrent work to clarify the field’s ethical dimensions. To begin to address this gap, a two-day workshop on the ethics of health systems research in LMICs was convened at Johns Hopkins University in June 2013. Participants included health systems researchers, philosophers, lawyers, bioethicists, and institutional review board members from Botswana, Uganda, the United Kingdom, USA, and Zambia. Based on discussions from the workshop, the paper affirms that, while health systems research in LMICs raises ethical issues in relation to constructs (i.e. consent, risk, equipoise) common to international clinical research, the nature of the issues that arise often differ between the two fields. Three salient features of health systems research and the ethical considerations associated with each of them in LMICs are described to demonstrate this point. Recommendations for institutional review boards’ oversight of health systems research in LMICs are presented. Finally, a call is made for further action to develop thinking and guidance around the ethics of health systems research in resource-poor settings. PMID:25104051

  15. Call to Action: Clarify Application of FERPA to State Longitudinal Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Over the last five years, states have made significant progress implementing statewide longitudinal data systems (SLDS) to collect, store, link and share student-level data. States and the many national organizations supporting their efforts recognized that while building and using these indispensable data systems are important for policy,…

  16. Only Self-Generated Actions Create Sensori-Motor Systems in the Developing Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Swain, Shelley N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research shows that sensory and motor systems interact during perception, but how these connections among systems are created during development is unknown. The current work exposes young children to novel "verbs" and objects through either (a) actively exploring the objects or (b) by seeing an experimenter interact with the objects.…

  17. Assembly, Tuning, and Transfer of Action Systems in Infants and Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthouze, Luc; Goldfield, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to foster a discussion on whether experiments with robots can inform theory in infant motor development and specifically (1) how the interactions among the parts of a system, including the nervous and musculoskeletal systems and the forces acting on the body, induce organizational changes in the whole, and (2) how exploratory…

  18. A Systems Biology Approach for Identifying Hepatotoxicant Groups Based on Similarity in Mechanisms of Action and Chemical Structure.

    PubMed

    Hebels, Dennie G A J; Rasche, Axel; Herwig, Ralf; van Westen, Gerard J P; Jennen, Danyel G J; Kleinjans, Jos C S

    2016-01-01

    When evaluating compound similarity, addressing multiple sources of information to reach conclusions about common pharmaceutical and/or toxicological mechanisms of action is a crucial strategy. In this chapter, we describe a systems biology approach that incorporates analyses of hepatotoxicant data for 33 compounds from three different sources: a chemical structure similarity analysis based on the 3D Tanimoto coefficient, a chemical structure-based protein target prediction analysis, and a cross-study/cross-platform meta-analysis of in vitro and in vivo human and rat transcriptomics data derived from public resources (i.e., the diXa data warehouse). Hierarchical clustering of the outcome scores of the separate analyses did not result in a satisfactory grouping of compounds considering their known toxic mechanism as described in literature. However, a combined analysis of multiple data types may hypothetically compensate for missing or unreliable information in any of the single data types. We therefore performed an integrated clustering analysis of all three data sets using the R-based tool iClusterPlus. This indeed improved the grouping results. The compound clusters that were formed by means of iClusterPlus represent groups that show similar gene expression while simultaneously integrating a similarity in structure and protein targets, which corresponds much better with the known mechanism of action of these toxicants. Using an integrative systems biology approach may thus overcome the limitations of the separate analyses when grouping liver toxicants sharing a similar mechanism of toxicity. PMID:27311473

  19. Double dark resonance in inverted Y system and its application in attenuating the optical switching action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, Sabir; Ray, Ayan; Chakrabarti, Alok

    2016-02-01

    Electromagnetically Induced Transparency as a novel type optical memory has gained enough attention in the field of research related to optical communication. This kind of transparency is an artificially created spectral window used to slow and spatially compress light pulses. Hence controlling and manipulation of such transparency window in a multilevel atom-photon system will, in turn, help in opening newer avenues of applications. In the present work an inverted Y linkage (established in the 5S1/2 → 5P3/2 → 5D5/2 hyperfine levels of 87Rb atom) is used for this purpose. The formation of matched double dark resonance in the system has been studied in details. On the application front we have demonstrated using the system as an attenuator of optical switch. This type of necessity may arise for futuristic optical communication system. Overall the system response resembles the performance of a combination logic gate.

  20. Health policy making through operative actions: a case study of provider capacity reduction in a public safety-net system.

    PubMed

    Tataw, David B

    2014-01-01

    This article describes and assesses the implications of policy decisions affecting health provider capacity in the Los Angeles County municipal safety-net health system from 1980 to 2000. Although never articulated in law or a county ordinance, the county pursued a sustained and discernable policy of cost reductions that affected capacity at King/Drew Medical Center from 1980 to 2000 without the input of beneficiaries or their advocates. Year after year, the county reduced personnel, supplies, and available beds either by reducing formal budgets or through operative actions of facility administrators that prevented the implementation of formally approved expenditures. This policy appears to have undermined the hospital system's mission of providing health services to at-risk populations with nowhere else to go. Decision making during the two decades under study revealed a decision-making pattern that challenged traditional models of policy decision making. PMID:24188297

  1. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-29

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 x{sub zp}. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  2. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  3. A demonstration of the applicability of implementing the enhanced Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) for environmental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Walter, M.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) and the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were developed to prioritize problems associated with potential releases of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This report documents the model testing efforts of the RAPS/MEPAS methodology for the atmospheric, surface water, groundwater, and exposure components. Comparisons are given of model outputs with measured data at three sites: the US Department of Energy's Mound facility in Ohio and Hanford facility in Washington, and a chromium-cadmium plating site in New York. The results show that the simulated magnitudes, spacial and temporal trends, and distributions of contaminants corresponded well with the measured data. 25 refs., 86 figs., 26 tabs.

  4. Incorporating a Language/Action Design Perspective into a Computer-Based Psychiatric Alerting System

    PubMed Central

    Morelli, R.A.; Bronzino, J.D.; Goethe, J.W.; Hartmann-Voss, K.

    1989-01-01

    User acceptance of a computer system depends on a number of factors, including broad social and professional concerns regarding the system's impact on the work environment. This observation is especially true of medical decision-support systems, which are aimed at end users who have traditionally resisted innovations which they perceive as intrusive or as a challenge to traditional clinical judgment. The design of useful and acceptable medical decision-support systems requires that special attention be paid human/computer interaction issues. This paper describes how a design perspective based on an analysis of the conversational patterns operative within the clinic can be used to address a broad range of issues that have traditionally impeded the acceptability of clinical decision aides.

  5. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  6. CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. n gene...

  7. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  8. Central neural mechanisms of progesterone action: application to the respiratory system.

    PubMed

    Bayliss, D A; Millhorn, D E

    1992-08-01

    Around the turn of the century, it was recognized that women hyperventilate during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle and during pregnancy. Although a causative role for the steroid hormone progesterone in this hyperventilation was suggested as early as the 1940s, there has been no clear indication as to the mechanism by which it produces its respiratory effects. In contrast, much mechanistic information has been obtained over the same period about a different effect of progesterone, i.e., the facilitation of reproductive behaviors. In this case, the bulk of the evidence supports the hypothesis that progesterone acts via a genomic mechanism with characteristics not unlike those predicted by classic models for steroid hormone action. We recently, therefore, undertook a series of experiments to test predictions of those same models with reference to the respiratory effects of progesterone. Here we highlight the results of those studies; as background to and precedent for our experiments, we briefly review previous work in which effects of progesterone on respiration and reproductive behaviors have been studied. Our results indicate that the respiratory response to progesterone is mediated at hypothalamic sites through an estrogen- (E2) dependent progesterone receptor- (PR) mediated mechanism requiring RNA and protein synthesis, i.e., gene expression. The E2 dependence of the respiratory response to progesterone is likely a consequence of the demonstrated induction of PR mRNA and PR in hypothalamic neurons by E2. In short, we found that neural mechanisms underlying the stimulation of respiration by progesterone were similar to those mediating its reproductive effects. PMID:1399957

  9. 40 CFR 141.563 - What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.563 What follow-up action is my system required to take based...: If * * * Your system must * * * (a) The turbidity of an individual filter (or the turbidity of combined filter effluent (CFE) for systems with 2 filters that monitor CFE in lieu of individual...

  10. 40 CFR 141.563 - What follow-up action is my system required to take based on continuous turbidity monitoring?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Individual Filter Turbidity Requirements § 141.563 What follow-up action is my system required to take based...: If * * * Your system must * * * (a) The turbidity of an individual filter (or the turbidity of combined filter effluent (CFE) for systems with 2 filters that monitor CFE in lieu of individual...

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada(April 2001, Rev. 0) with Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 405 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW03, 03-05-002-SW04, and 03-05-002-SW07 (also collectively known as: Septic Waste Systems [SWSs] 3, 4, and 7). Located in Area 3 in the northwest section of the TTR, approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, this location was historically (between 1960 and 1990) used as a research facility with the mission to perform defense-related projects, and whose operations generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with COPCs and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Though Septic Waste Systems 3, 4, and 7 were origin ally constructed to receive sanitary sewage, they may have inadvertently received effluent containing potentially hazardous and radiological constituents containing acetone, benzene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, xylenes, volatile organic compound constituents, phenols, arsenic, barium, lead, mercury, hydrocarbons of oil and grease, and uranium-234, -235, and -238. The Area 3 septic systems were documented in a DOE/NV 1996 report as being included in the septic tank abandonment program conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1993; however, this program was not completed and the possibility exists that some of the Area 3 septic tanks may not have been abandoned. Even though all of the SWSs addressed in this CAIP are inactive, geophysical surveys conducted in 1993 were generally inconclusive and did not provide useful data for the purposes of this investigation. The scope of this current investigation, therefore, will be to determine the existence of the identified

  12. Quality control measurements for fluoroscopy systems in eight countries participating in the SENTINEL EU coordination action.

    PubMed

    Zoetelief, J; Schultz, F W; Kottou, S; Gray, L; O'Connor, U; Salat, D; Kepler, K; Kaplanis, P; Jankowski, J; Schreiner, A; Vassileva, J

    2008-01-01

    Quality control (QC) is becoming increasingly important in relation to the introduction of digital medical imaging systems using X rays. It was, therefore, decided to organise and perform a trial on image quality and physical measurements. The SENTINEL toolkit for QC measurements of fluoroscopy systems containing equipment and instructions for their use in the assessment of dose and image quality circulated among participants in the trial. The participants reported on their results. In the present contribution, the impact of the trial on the selected protocols is presented. The Medical Physics and Bioengineering protocol appeared to be useful for QC, and also for digital systems. The protocol needs an additional section, or an addition to each section, to state compliance with the requirements. The circular cross-sections of the Leeds test objects need adaptation for rectangular flat panel detector (FPD) systems. Only one participant was able to perform the monitor test using MoniQA. This is due to the fact that assistance is required from the suppliers of the X-ray systems. This problem needs to be solved to apply MoniQA in practice. PMID:18310607

  13. Suspicious Behavior Detection System for an Open Space Parking Based on Recognition of Human Elemental Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inomata, Teppei; Kimura, Kouji; Hagiwara, Masafumi

    Studies for video surveillance applications for preventing various crimes such as stealing and violence have become a hot topic. This paper proposes a new video surveillance system that can detect suspicious behaviors such as a car break-in and vandalization in an open space parking, and that is based on image processing. The proposed system has the following features: it 1)deals time series data flow, 2)recognizes “human elemental actions” using statistic features, and 3)detects suspicious behavior using Subspace method and AdaBoost. We conducted the experiments to test the performance of the proposed system using open space parking scenes. As a result, we obtained about 10.0% for false positive rate, and about 4.6% for false negative rate.

  14. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  15. A feedback model for leukemia including cell competition and the action of the immune system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balea, S.; Halanay, A.; Neamtu, M.

    2014-12-01

    A mathematical model, coupling the dynamics of short-term stem-like cells and mature leukocytes in leukemia with that of the immune system, is investigated. The model is described by a system of nine delay differential equations with nine delays. Three equilibrium points E0, E1, E2 are highlighted. The stability and the existence of the Hopf bifurcation for the equilibrium points are investigated. In the analysis of the model, the rate of asymmetric division and the rate of symmetric division are very important.

  16. [Comparative analysis of the action of an interferon inducer in in vitro and in vivo systems].

    PubMed

    Ershov, F I; Novokhatskiĭ, A S; Tazulakhova, E B

    1978-06-01

    Investigation of interferon inductor (poly IC) in vitro (chick embryon fibroblasts) and in vivo (mice) showed that the main parameters of the preparation effect, i. e. induction of interferon and development of resistance to viruses are as a whole quite comparable. The phenomenon of hyporeactivity in the both systems was reproduced on repeated use of the inductor. At the same time significant differences in the stimulating effect of DEAE-dextran were registered. The merits and demerits of the in vitro system for using in studies on antiviral drugs of the above type are discussed. PMID:209734

  17. Novel Transabdominal Motor Action Potential (TaMAP) Neuromonitoring System for Spinal Surgery

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Erica; Gabel, Brandon C; Taylor, Natalie; Gharib, James; Lee, Yu-Po; Taylor, William

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Minimally invasive lateral lumbar interbody fusion (LLIF) approaches to the lumbar spine reduce patient morbidity compared to anterior or posterior alternatives. This approach, however, decreases direct anatomical visualization, creating the need for highly sensitive and specific neurophysiological monitoring. We seek to determine feasibility in 'transabdominal motor action potential (TaMAP)' monitoring as an assessment for the integrity of the neural elements during lateral-approach surgeries to the lumbar spine.  Methods Cathode and anode leads were placed on the posterior and anterior surfaces of two porcine subjects. Currents of varying degrees were transmitted across, from front to back. Motor responses were monitored and recorded by needle electrodes in specific distal muscle groups of the lower extremity. Lastly, the cathode and anode were placed anterior and posterior to the chest wall and stimulated to the maximum of 1500 mA to determine any effect on cardiac rhythm. Results Responses were seen by measuring vertical height differences between peaks of corresponding evoked potentials. Recruitment began at 200 mA in the lower extremities. Stimulation at 450 mA recruited a reliable and distinguishable electrographic response from most muscle groups. Responses were recorded and reliably measured and increased in proportion to the graduation of transabdominal stimulation current; no responses were seen in the arms or face. 1500 mA across the chest wall failed to stimulate or induce cardiac arrhythmia on repeated stimulation, indicating safety of stimulation. Conclusion TaMAPs seen in the animal model provide a potential alternative to standard transcranial motor evoked potentials done in the lateral approach of LLIFs. TaMAP recordings in most muscle groups were recordable and reliable, though some muscle groups failed to stimulate. Safety of transabdominal motor evoked potentials was confirmed in this porcine study. Future studies

  18. Protective actions of ovarian hormones in the serotonin system of macaques.

    PubMed

    Bethea, Cynthia L; Reddy, Arubala P; Tokuyama, Yukari; Henderson, Jessica A; Lima, Fernanda B

    2009-07-01

    The serotonin neurons of the dorsal and medial raphe nuclei project to all areas of the forebrain and play a key role in mood disorders. Hence, any loss or degeneration of serotonin neurons could have profound ramifications. In a monkey model of surgical menopause with hormone replacement and no neural injury, E and P decreased gene expression in the dorsal raphe nucleus of c-jun n-terminal kinase (JNK1) and kynurenine mono-oxygenase (KMO) that promote cell death. In concert, E and P increased gene expression of superoxide dismutase (SOD1), VEGF, and caspase inhibitory proteins that promote cellular resilience in the dorsal raphe nucleus. Subsequently, we showed that ovarian steroids inhibit pivotal genes in the caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways in laser-captured serotonin neurons including apoptosis activating factor (Apaf1), apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) and second mitochondria-derived activator of caspases (Smac/Diablo). SOD1 was also increased specifically in laser-captured serotonin neurons. Examination of protein expression in the dorsal raphe block revealed that JNK1, phosphoJNK1, AIF and the translocation of AIF from the mitochondria to the nucleus decreased with hormone therapy, whereas pivotal execution proteins in the caspase pathway were unchanged. In addition, cyclins A, B, D1 and E were inhibited, which would prevent re-entry into the cell cycle and catastrophic death. These data indicated that in the absence of gross injury to the midbrain, ovarian steroids inhibit the caspase-independent pathway and cell cycle initiation in serotonin neurons. To determine if these molecular actions prevented cellular vulnerability or death, we examined DNA fragmentation in the dorsal raphe nucleus with the TUNEL assay (terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase nick end labeling). Ovarian steroids significantly decreased the number of TUNEL-positive cells in the dorsal raphe. Moreover, TUNEL staining prominently colocalized with TPH immunostaining, a

  19. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  20. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species. PMID:26653335

  1. Promoting Communication Skills for Information Systems Students in Australian and Portuguese Higher Education: Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaias, Pedro; Issa, Tomayess

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the value of communication skills learning process through various assessments in Information Systems (IS) postgraduate units in Australia and Portugal. Currently, communication skills are indispensable to students in expanding their social networks and their knowledge at university and in the future workplace, since…

  2. Early Action on the Global Environmental Monitoring System. A Report of the International Environmental Programs Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences - National Research Council, Washington, DC. Environmental Studies Board.

    The Global Environmental Monitoring System (GEMS) is one of four components of Earthwatch, a part of the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP). The purpose of GEMS is to provide early warning of impending natural or man-induced environmental changes or trends that threaten direct or indirect harm to human health or well-being. In 1975, the…

  3. Translational Research in Action: Implementation of the Communities that Care Prevention System in 12 Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagan, Abigail A.; Hanson, Koren; Hawkins, J. David; Arthur, Michael W.

    2009-01-01

    Translational research (Pentz, Jasuja, Rohrbach, Sussman, & Bardo, 2006; Woolf, 2008) is concerned with moving advances in prevention science into everyday practice in communities, yet there are few models for ensuring this transfer of knowledge. Communities That Care (CTC) provides a planned, structured, and data-driven system that trains…

  4. Building a System of Excellent High Schools: A Framework and Tool for Discussion and Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feist, Michelle; Joselowsky, Francine; Nichols-Solomon, Rochelle; Raynor, Alethea Frazier

    2007-01-01

    This tool was designed to deepen the understanding of what it takes to develop a system of excellent high schools. It provides a framework and guidelines for district leaders, community stakeholders, educators, administrators, parents and students to discuss, assess and map out the process of transforming their high schools to meet the needs of…

  5. Bursting regimes in a reaction-diffusion system with action potential-dependent equilibrium.

    PubMed

    Meier, Stephen R; Lancaster, Jarrett L; Starobin, Joseph M

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium Nernst potential plays a critical role in neural cell dynamics. A common approximation used in studying electrical dynamics of excitable cells is that the ionic concentrations inside and outside the cell membranes act as charge reservoirs and remain effectively constant during excitation events. Research into brain electrical activity suggests that relaxing this assumption may provide a better understanding of normal and pathophysiological functioning of the brain. In this paper we explore time-dependent ionic concentrations by allowing the ion-specific Nernst potentials to vary with developing transmembrane potential. As a specific implementation, we incorporate the potential-dependent Nernst shift into a one-dimensional Morris-Lecar reaction-diffusion model. Our main findings result from a region in parameter space where self-sustaining oscillations occur without external forcing. Studying the system close to the bifurcation boundary, we explore the vulnerability of the system with respect to external stimulations which disrupt these oscillations and send the system to a stable equilibrium. We also present results for an extended, one-dimensional cable of excitable tissue tuned to this parameter regime and stimulated, giving rise to complex spatiotemporal pattern formation. Potential applications to the emergence of neuronal bursting in similar two-variable systems and to pathophysiological seizure-like activity are discussed. PMID:25823018

  6. Bursting Regimes in a Reaction-Diffusion System with Action Potential-Dependent Equilibrium

    PubMed Central

    Meier, Stephen R.; Lancaster, Jarrett L.; Starobin, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    The equilibrium Nernst potential plays a critical role in neural cell dynamics. A common approximation used in studying electrical dynamics of excitable cells is that the ionic concentrations inside and outside the cell membranes act as charge reservoirs and remain effectively constant during excitation events. Research into brain electrical activity suggests that relaxing this assumption may provide a better understanding of normal and pathophysiological functioning of the brain. In this paper we explore time-dependent ionic concentrations by allowing the ion-specific Nernst potentials to vary with developing transmembrane potential. As a specific implementation, we incorporate the potential-dependent Nernst shift into a one-dimensional Morris-Lecar reaction-diffusion model. Our main findings result from a region in parameter space where self-sustaining oscillations occur without external forcing. Studying the system close to the bifurcation boundary, we explore the vulnerability of the system with respect to external stimulations which disrupt these oscillations and send the system to a stable equilibrium. We also present results for an extended, one-dimensional cable of excitable tissue tuned to this parameter regime and stimulated, giving rise to complex spatiotemporal pattern formation. Potential applications to the emergence of neuronal bursting in similar two-variable systems and to pathophysiological seizure-like activity are discussed. PMID:25823018

  7. Suicide Attempts as Social Goal-Directed Systems of Joint Careers, Projects, and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Valach, Ladislav; Michel, Konrad; Young, R. A.; Dey, P.

    2006-01-01

    In the present study we examined to what extent persons who attempt suicide describe their attempt in terms of social, joint processes. Psychotherapists interviewed 40 patients hospitalized in a general hospital for a few days after an attempted suicide. The content of the interviews was analyzed for the level of systemic processes the patients…

  8. How Research Helped Us to Move from Awareness to Action and Then to Systems Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patricia; Grant, Jim

    2004-01-01

    How can an organisation move from awareness raising, in the form of natural history poster production, to the development of systems that change organisations? Through close integration of research and practice, the Gould League has achieved this transformation. It began with extensive research into best practice environmental education, going…

  9. Using Participatory Action Research to Design an Intervention Integrity System in the Urban Schools

    PubMed Central

    Gullan, Rebecca Lakin; Feinberg, Betsy E.; Freedman, Melanie A.; Jawad, Abbas; Leff, Stephen S.

    2010-01-01

    While integrity is often thought of as the degree to which a program is applied as intended, researchers have recently widened the lens to include not only monitoring of program content, but also evaluating the process by which interventions are implemented and the extent to which the intervention is received as intended. Further, a partnership-based approach has been identified to be as critical to facilitating appropriate and accurate monitoring and interpretation of intervention integrity in the cultural context. Building on these expanded definitions of intervention integrity, this study describes how an intervention monitoring system was developed through participatory research in the context of a classroom-based aggression prevention program for students in an inner-city elementary school. The system highlighted evaluation of the quality of intervention delivery and participant responsiveness. Factor analysis, descriptive statistics, and comparison to a less nuanced integrity monitoring system provided information on the informativeness of this new system. Preliminary investigation, however, suggested that future research is necessary to examine the extent to which differences in quality of implementation across classrooms predict clinically significant differences in program outcomes. PMID:20428475

  10. The economic injury level and the action threshold in stored-product systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain stores are ideal systems for forecasting and controlling growth in insect populations, yet they represent food a step closer to human consumption than field crops and therefore particular care should be taken with chemical control. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a highly-regarded approach...

  11. [Peculiarities of antioxidant defense system in erythroid cells and tissues of pigs under action of chromium chloride].

    PubMed

    Iskra, R Ia; Vlizlo, V V

    2013-01-01

    The influence of CrCI3 in the amount of 400 mg Cr/kg of feed on antioxidant defense in populations of erythrocytes, erythroid bone marrow cells and tissues of pigs was studied. The increasing of the antioxidant defense of swine organism, as evidenced by the increase in superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activity in the fractions of "young" erythrocytes, was shown. Superoxide dismutase activity decreases, while glutathione and catalase activity increases in the erythroid cells of the bone marrow after of CrCl3 action. Oxidative processes are intensified in the liver of pigs of the experimental group, in contrast to other tissues, leading to the increase of content of TBARS-products, growth of superoxide dismutase activity and reduction of glutathione peroxidase activity. At the same time, the action of CrCl3 in other tissues activates antioxidant system, including the kidneys, lungs and myocardium, increases superoxide dismutase activity, and catalase activity in the spleen and kidneys. A decrease of content of TBARS-products and reduction of superoxide dismutase activity, as well as the increase of katalase activity and reduction of glutathione content were discovered in the skeletal muscles of pigs of the experimental group. As a result of research it is suggested to add CrCl3 to the diet of pigs to enhance antioxidant defense during their intensive growth. PMID:23940874

  12. The Botulinum Toxin as a Therapeutic Agent: Molecular Structure and Mechanism of Action in Motor and Sensory Systems.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Raj; Dhaliwal, Harkiran Preet; Kukreja, Roshan Vijay; Singh, Bal Ram

    2016-02-01

    Botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT) produced by Clostridium botulinum is the most potent molecule known to mankind. Higher potency of BoNT is attributed to several factors, including structural and functional uniqueness, target specificity, and longevity. Although BoNT is an extremely toxic molecule, it is now increasingly used for the treatment of disorders related to muscle hyperactivity and glandular hyperactivity. Weakening of muscles due to peripheral action of BoNT produces a therapeutic effect. Depending on the target tissue, BoNT can block the cholinergic neuromuscular or cholinergic autonomic innervation of exocrine glands and smooth muscles. In recent observations of the analgesic properties of BoNT, the toxin modifies the sensory feedback loop to the central nervous system. Differential effects of BoNT in excitatory and inhibitory neurons provide a unique therapeutic tool. In this review the authors briefly summarize the structure and mechanism of actions of BoNT on motor and sensory neurons to explain its therapeutic effects and future potential. PMID:26866491

  13. [Digestive system disease as manifestation of the pleiotropic action of genes in mitochondrial dysfunction].

    PubMed

    Hrechanina, O Ia; Hrechanina, Iu B; Husar, V A; Molodan, L V

    2014-11-01

    Defined involvement lesions of the digestive system of clinical manifestations of mitochondrial dysfunction associated with both point mutations and polymorphism of mitochondrial DNA. The nature of the clinical signs of mtDNA polymorphisms carriers--multi organical, a progressive, clinical polymorphism, genetic heterogeneity with predominant involvement of energotropic bodies (cerebrum, cordis, hepatic). Set individual nosological forms of mitochondrial dysfunctions--syndromes Leia, Leber, Cairns, Sarah, MERRF, MELAS, NARP, MNGIE confirmed by clinical and genetic, morphological, biochemical, enzymatic, molecular genetics methods. It was found that 84-88% of these syndromes involving the violation of the digestive system with varying degrees of injury. This damage will be the first in the complex chain signs recovery which determines the direction of early rehabilitation. PMID:25528830

  14. Monitoring studies of slide system under the action of seismic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Anton

    2013-04-01

    The immediate detection of landslide activity that is provided by real-time systems can be crucial in saving human lives and protecting property. Traditional field observations, even if taken regularly, cannot detect changes at the moment they occur. Moreover, active landslides can be hazardous to work on, and large movements often occur during storms when visibility is poor. The continuous data provided by remote real-time monitoring permits a better understanding of dynamic landslide behavior that, in turn, enables engineers to create more effective designs to prevent or halt landslides. Monitoring of the coastal zone involves the following block diagram: input - processing -output - feed-back. We feed the input with data on a studied technogenous loading on the coastal zone, and the input presents the analysis of motion of a geological medium and the subsequent forecast of evolution of its lithodynamic characteristics. The submitted report describes a practical system of monitoring for the Central Livadiya Slide System (CLSSC) of the Crimea, which is intended for the diagnostics of a lithodynamic situation in the real-time mode, conducting the data base on heliogenous and lithogenous parameters, and predicting a future state of the slide-containing system. In the system of monitoring of a state of CLSSC, which is realized on a computer, the registered heliogenous parameters include the level of solar activity, changes in temperature and moisture regimes, changes in the character and intensity of precipitations, the wind velocity, etc. In this case, data are introduced into the computer in the manual mode. Lithogenous parameters are presented by a collection of conditions and factors characterizing the mechanism and dynamics of changes in the equilibrium state of slopes of CLSSC. The control over the evolution of lithogenous parameters is realized in the following way: 1. The control over movement of the control points on the surface of active slides is carried

  15. Modulation of steroid action in the central and peripheral nervous systems by nuclear receptor coactivators

    PubMed Central

    Tetel, Marc J.

    2009-01-01

    Steroid hormones act in the central and peripheral nervous systems to regulate a variety of functions, including development, cell proliferation, cognition and behavior. Many of these effects of steroid hormones are mediated by their respective receptors, which are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcriptional activators. A variety of cell culture studies reveal that nuclear receptor coactivators are recruited to the steroid receptor complex and are critical in modulating steroid-dependent transcription. Thus, in addition to the availability of the hormone and its receptor, the expression of nuclear receptor coactivators is essential for modulating steroid receptor mediated transcription. This review will discuss the significance of nuclear receptor coactivators in modulating steroid-dependent gene expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems and the regulation of behavior. PMID:19541426

  16. Towards an Effective Importance Sampling in Monte Carlo Simulations of a System with a Complex Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anagnostopoulos, K.; Azuma, T.; Nishimura, J.

    The sign problem is a notorious problem, which occurs in Monte Carlo simulations of a system with a partition function whose integrand is not positive. One way to simulate such a system is to use the factorization method where one enforces sampling in the part of the configuration space which gives important contribution to the partition function. This is accomplished by using constraints on some observables chosen appropriately and minimizing the free energy associated with their joint distribution functions. These observables are maximally correlated with the complex phase. Observables not in this set essentially decouple from the phase and can be calculated without the sign problem in the corresponding "microcanonical" ensemble. These ideas are applied on a simple matrix model with very strong sign problem and the results are found to be consistent with analytic calculations using the Gaussian Expansion Method.

  17. Design of decision support system when undertaking medical-diagnostic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povoroznyuk, Anatoliy I.; Filatova, Anna E.; Surtel, Wojciech; Burlibay, Aron; Zhassandykyzy, Maral

    2015-12-01

    In the work the formalization of the problem of diagnostic and treatment activities (DTA) steps complex estimation for increasing of their efficiency and minimization of the risk of doctor's mistakes was completed. The decision support system during conducting of DTA based on formalizations of steps of DTA performing with theirs complex estimation was developed that allows to minimize the risks of doctor's mistakes, raise validity of decisions.

  18. Mutation-Selection Balance in Multi-Locus Systems. I. Duplicate Gene Action

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Ewing, Evelyn

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that extends the case of selection against homozygous recessives counterbalanced by mutation to a system of n loci. This extension allows analysis of the role of gene duplication in the evolution of new function. The aspect of retention of function for sufficiently long periods of time to allow for divergence vs. silencing of nonfunctional loci is discussed in relation to examples in salmonid and catastomid fishes and in the globin-like clusters. PMID:17249091

  19. Control system and method for an automatic transmission providing smooth engagement action

    SciTech Connect

    Iwatsuki, K.

    1987-08-11

    This patent describes an automatic transmission system for a vehicle, the automatic transmission system comprising a gear transmission mechanism which comprises a rotational element, and first and second friction engaging means which are oppositely changed over between engaged and disengaged states so as to alternately provide one of a first speed stage and a second speed stage of the gear transmission mechanism, a control system comprising: first means for detecting a rotational speed of the rotational element; second means for controlling an engagement and disengagement of the first friction engaging means so as to increase a degree of engagement of the first friction engaging means when activated in one of first and second actuating directions thereof and to decrease the degree of engagement of the first friction engaging means when activated in the other of the first and second actuating directions: third means for repetitively comparing each current value of the rotational speed of the rotational element detected by the first means with a preceding value of the rotational speed of the rotational element detected by the first means in the repetitive comparison; fourth means for activating the second means to incrementally activate the second means in one of the first and second actuating directions each time the third means detects in the repetitive comparison.

  20. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Kurland, Sienna C; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Williams, Alex H; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  1. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Kurland, Sienna C.; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Williams, Alex H.; Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  2. Adaptive and phase transition behavior in performance of discrete multi-articular actions by degenerate neurobiological systems.

    PubMed

    Rein, Robert; Davids, Keith; Button, Chris

    2010-03-01

    The identification of attractors is one of the key tasks in studies of neurobiological coordination from a dynamical systems perspective, with a considerable body of literature resulting from this task. However, with regards to typical movement models investigated, the overwhelming majority of actions studied previously belong to the class of continuous, rhythmical movements. In contrast, very few studies have investigated coordination of discrete movements, particularly multi-articular discrete movements. In the present study, we investigated phase transition behavior in a basketball throwing task where participants were instructed to shoot at the basket from different distances. Adopting the ubiquitous scaling paradigm, throwing distance was manipulated as a candidate control parameter. Using a cluster analysis approach, clear phase transitions between different movement patterns were observed in performance of only two of eight participants. The remaining participants used a single movement pattern and varied it according to throwing distance, thereby exhibiting hysteresis effects. Results suggested that, in movement models involving many biomechanical degrees of freedom in degenerate systems, greater movement variation across individuals is available for exploitation. This observation stands in contrast to movement variation typically observed in studies using more constrained bi-manual movement models. This degenerate system behavior provides new insights and poses fresh challenges to the dynamical systems theoretical approach, requiring further research beyond conventional movement models. PMID:19851763

  3. Mass transfer in “metal layer-silicon substrate” systems under the action of compression plasma flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uglov, V. V.; Kudaktsin, R. S.; Petukhou, Yu. A.; Kvasov, N. T.; Punko, A. V.; Astashynski, V. M.; Kuzmitski, A. M.

    2012-07-01

    Redistribution of components in surface layers of “metal-on-silicon” system under the action of compression plasma flows (CPF) with energy density 3-16 J/cm2 are studied experimentally by SEM, AES. Mechanisms of heat and mass transfer are simulated by numerical solving of heat and mass transfer equations. The suggested model of mass transfer takes into account convective motion in the melt surface layer and temperature dependence of substance parameters. It provides dependence of metal penetration depth and its concentration on CPF energy density and convection velocity. Results of simulations are in accordance with experimental data; therefore, the proposed model enables to choose appropriate treatment modes for the formation of metal-doped silicon layers with controlled thickness and elemental composition.

  4. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the...

  5. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the...

  6. 40 CFR 265.224 - Response actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... action plan. The response action plan must set forth the actions to be taken if the action leakage rate has been exceeded. At a minimum, the response action plan must describe the actions specified in paragraph (b) of this section. (b) If the flow rate into the leak detection system exceeds the...

  7. Putting the Power of Configuration in the Hands of the Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Shihabi, Mary-Jo; Brown, Mark; Rigolini, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Goal was to reduce the overall cost of human space flight while maintaining the most demanding standards for safety and mission success. In support of this goal, a project team was chartered to replace 18 legacy Space Shuttle nonconformance processes and systems with one fully integrated system Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) processes provide a closed-loop system for the identification, disposition, resolution, closure, and reporting of all Space Shuttle hardware/software problems PRACA processes are integrated throughout the Space Shuttle organizational processes and are critical to assuring a safe and successful program Primary Project Objectives Develop a fully integrated system that provides an automated workflow with electronic signatures Support multiple NASA programs and contracts with a single "system" architecture Define standard processes, implement best practices, and minimize process variations

  8. Emergency medical systems in low- and middle-income countries: recommendations for action.

    PubMed Central

    Kobusingye, Olive C.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Bishai, David; Hicks, Eduardo Romero; Mock, Charles; Joshipura, Manjul

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical care is not a luxury for rich countries or rich individuals in poor countries. This paper makes the point that emergency care can make an important contribution to reducing avoidable death and disability in low- and middle-income countries. But emergency care needs to be planned well and supported at all levels--at the national, provincial and community levels--and take into account the entire spectrum of care, from the occurrence of an acute medical event in the community to the provision of appropriate care at the hospital. The mix of personnel, materials, and health-system infrastructure can be tailored to optimize the provision of emergency care in settings with different levels of resource availability. The misconception that emergency care cannot be cost effective in low-income settings is demonstrably inaccurate. Emergencies occur everywhere, and each day they consume resources regardless of whether there are systems capable of achieving good outcomes. With better planning, the ongoing costs of emergency care can result in better outcomes and better cost-effectiveness. Every country and community can and should provide emergency care regardless of their place in the ratings of developmental indices. We make the case for universal access to emergency care and lay out a research agenda to fill the gaps in knowledge in emergency care. PMID:16184282

  9. A functional leptin system is essential for sodium tungstate antiobesity action.

    PubMed

    Canals, Ignasi; Carmona, María C; Amigó, Marta; Barbera, Albert; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc; Gomis, Ramon

    2009-02-01

    Sodium tungstate is a novel agent in the treatment of obesity. In diet-induced obese rats, it is able to reduce body weight gain by increasing energy expenditure. This study evaluated the role of leptin, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, in the tungstate antiobesity effect. Leptin receptor-deficient Zucker fa/fa rats and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were treated with tungstate. In lean animals, tungstate administration reduced body weight gain and food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, in animals with deficiencies in the leptin system, treatment did not modify these parameters. In ob/ob mice in which leptin deficiency was restored through adipose tissue transplantation, treatment restored the tungstate-induced body weight gain and food intake reduction as well as energy expenditure increase. Furthermore, in animals in which tungstate administration increased energy expenditure, changes in the expression of key genes involved in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis were detected. Finally, the gene expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Npy, Agrp, and Cart, involved in the leptin regulation of energy homeostasis, was also modified by tungstate in a leptin-dependent manner. In summary, the results indicate that the effectiveness of tungstate in reducing body weight gain is completely dependent on a functional leptin system. PMID:18845634

  10. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. PMID:24998969

  11. Managing clinical integration in integrated delivery systems: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Young, D W; Barrett, D

    1997-01-01

    An integrated delivery system (IDS) in healthcare must coordinate patient care across multiple functions, activities, and operating units. To achieve this clinical integration, senior management confronts many challenges. This paper uses a cross-functional-process (CFP) framework to discuss these challenges. There are ten CFPs that fall into three categories: planning processes (strategy formulation, program adaptation, budget formulation), organizational processes (authority and influence, client management, conflict resolution, motivation, and cultural maintenance), and measurement and reporting processes (financial and programmatic). Each process typically spans several functional units. Senior management must consider how to improve both the functioning of each CFP, as well as its "fit" with the other nine. The result can be greater clinical integration, improved cost management, and more coordinated care for enrollees. PMID:10167458

  12. Natural Compounds and Neuroprotection: Mechanisms of Action and Novel Delivery Systems.

    PubMed

    Bagli, Eleni; Goussia, Anna; Moschos, Marilita M; Agnantis, Niki; Kitsos, Georgios

    Neurodegeneration characterizes pathologic conditions, ranging from Alzheimer's disease to glaucoma, with devastating social and economic effects. It is a complex process implicating a series of molecular and cellular events, such as oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, protein misfolding, excitotoxicity and inflammation. Natural compounds, because of their broad spectrum of pharmacological and biological activities, could be possible candidates for the management of such multifactorial morbidities. However, their therapeutic potential against neurodegenerative diseases has been hampered by their poor bioavailability and subsequent insufficient delivery to the brain. This article provides an overview of the molecular mechanisms through which natural compounds exert their neuroprotective effects, as well as the development of novel natural compound-loaded delivery systems that could improve their neuroavailability. PMID:27566070

  13. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

  14. Sex and Gender in the US Health Surveillance System: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Stewart J.; Reisner, Sari L.; Sell, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  15. Sex and gender in the US health surveillance system: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Conron, Kerith J; Landers, Stewart J; Reisner, Sari L; Sell, Randall L

    2014-06-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  16. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  17. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences. PMID:26401458

  18. A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-02-01

    The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. PMID:25399920

  19. On-Chip Multichannel Action Potential Recording System for Electrical Measurement of Single Neurites of Neuronal Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Ikurou; Hattori, Akihiro; Yasuda, Kenji

    2007-11-01

    We have developed a multielectrode array recording system for single-neurite-firing measurement using an artificially constructed neuronal network on a chip, which has a 10 μm diameter array with electrodes spaced at 50 μm, for noninvasive 64-channel 100 kHz multirecording and the stimulation of a plurality of neurites extending from a single neuron. To improve the signal/noise ratio, the ground plane was set on the multi-electrode-array plane and platinum black was set on each of the 10 μm electrodes. Using this system, we performed a multisite recording of neurites of a single neuron of a rat hippocampal network in cases of both spontaneous firing and evoked responses to electrical stimulations, and estimated the velocity of action potential propagation among neurites of a single neuron from six recording sites. This demonstrated the potential use of our low-noise chip and our high-speed measurement system for the analysis of neuronal network activities at the single-neuron level.

  20. A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-01-01

    The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI. PMID:25399920

  1. Affirmative Action Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    All campuses and units of the University and Community College System of Nevada annually submit data to the Chancellor's Office on affirmative action. This report provides tables of affirmative action data for students enrolled during fall 1992 and professional and classified staff employed during 1992. First, student data is provided on gender…

  2. Application of the luciferin-luciferase enzyme system for determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to studies on the mechanisms of herbicide action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.john, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The luciferin-luciferase enzyme system for determination of ATP is valuable for studies on the mechanisms of herbicide action. Investigations using this system have shown that certain herbicides may act by interfering with ATP production or by blocking ATP use, or by both mechanisms.

  3. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  4. Use of After Action Reports (AARs) to Promote Organizational and Systems Learning in Emergency Preparedness

    PubMed Central

    Savoia, Elena; Agboola, Foluso; Biddinger, Paul D.

    2012-01-01

    Many public health and healthcare organizations use formal knowledge management practices to identify and disseminate the experiences gained over time. The “lessons-learned” approach is one such example of knowledge management practice applied to the wider concept of organizational learning. In the field of emergency preparedness, the lessons-learned approach stands on the assumption that learning from experience improves practice and minimizes avoidable deaths and negative economic and social consequences of disasters. In this project, we performed a structured review of AARs to analyze how lessons learned from the response to real-incidents may be used to maximize knowledge management and quality improvement practices such as the design of public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) exercises. We chose as a source of data the “Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)” system, a joined program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS and FEMA that serves as the national, online repository of lessons learned, best practices, and innovative ideas. We identified recurring challenges reported by various states and local public health agencies in the response to different types of incidents. We also strived to identify the limitations of systematic learning that can be achieved due to existing weaknesses in the way AARs are developed. PMID:23066408

  5. Use of after action reports (AARs) to promote organizational and systems learning in emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Elena; Agboola, Foluso; Biddinger, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Many public health and healthcare organizations use formal knowledge management practices to identify and disseminate the experiences gained over time. The "lessons-learned" approach is one such example of knowledge management practice applied to the wider concept of organizational learning. In the field of emergency preparedness, the lessons-learned approach stands on the assumption that learning from experience improves practice and minimizes avoidable deaths and negative economic and social consequences of disasters. In this project, we performed a structured review of AARs to analyze how lessons learned from the response to real-incidents may be used to maximize knowledge management and quality improvement practices such as the design of public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) exercises. We chose as a source of data the "Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)" system, a joined program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS and FEMA that serves as the national, online repository of lessons learned, best practices, and innovative ideas. We identified recurring challenges reported by various states and local public health agencies in the response to different types of incidents. We also strove to identify the limitations of systematic learning that can be achieved due to existing weaknesses in the way AARs are developed. PMID:23066408

  6. Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2010-01-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

  7. Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.

  8. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Zana R.; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity. PMID:26989517

  9. Promoting action of cashew nut shell oil in DMBA-initiated mouse skin tumour model system.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S; Rao, A R

    1992-02-29

    The commercially available oil derived from the shell of cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale) was tested for its potency in promoting the DMBA-initiated cells into papillomas in a murine two-stage skin tumorigenesis model system. Male Swiss albino mice (9-10-weeks-old) were assorted into different groups and treated topically with single sub-carcinogenic doses of DMBA (50 micrograms in 0.1 ml acetone) followed by application of 1% and 2% shell oil in acetone three times a week. Animals were sacrificed after 20 weeks from the commencement of the experiment. The results imply a weak tumour promoting effect of cashew nut shell oil as the mean tumour incidences were found to be 1.1 and 2.5 in 1% and 2% oil treatment groups, respectively, while the corresponding figure vas 6.6 in the positive control group (DMBA and 1% croton oil in acetone). Few speculative mechanisms for the observed effect of cashew nut shell oil on initiated skin are discussed. PMID:1540942

  10. The mesolimbic dopamine system as a target for rapid antidepressant action.

    PubMed

    Willner, P

    1997-07-01

    Chronic treatment with antidepressant drugs produces a variety of changes in dopaminergic neurotransmission, most notably a sensitization of behavioural responses to agonists acting at dopamine D2/D3 receptors within the nucleus accumbens. Evidence from animal models of depression (the forced swim test and the chronic mild stress procedure) indicates that these effects are crucial for the therapeutic effect of antidepressants in these models. Antidepressant-like effects in animal models are also seen with drugs that act directly on the dopaminergic system. Because of its prolonged time-course, the chronic mild stress procedure can be used to examine onset latencies. Some dopamine-active drugs (e.g. the catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor tolcapone; D2/D3 agonists administered intermittently) are active in this procedure but have a time-course comparable to that of conventional antidepressants. Other dopamine-active drugs may have a more rapid onset; the evidence to date suggests this possibility for the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole and the preferential presynaptic antagonist amisulpride. In clinical studies, rapid-onset latencies have been claimed for the D2/D3 agonist roxindole, the preferential presynaptic antagonist sulpiride and the relatively selective dopamine-uptake inhibitor amineptine. The mechanisms that might give rise to a rapid onset of dopamine-mediated antidepressant effects are discussed. PMID:9347387

  11. Improving governance action by an advanced water modelling system applied to the Po river basin in Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alessandrini, Cinzia; Del Longo, Mauro; Pecora, Silvano; Puma, Francesco; Vezzani, Claudia

    2013-04-01

    decisions regarding water management in order to prevent major impacts. The Board is made of experts from public administrations with a strong involvement of stakeholders representative of different uses. The Dews- Po was intensively used by the Technical Board as decision support system during the 2012 summer event, providing tools to understand the on-going situation of water availability and use across the basin, helping to evaluate water management choices in an objective way, through what-if scenarios considering withdrawals reduction and increased releases from regulated Alpine lakes. A description of the use of Dews- Po system within the Technical Board is given, especially focusing on those elements, prone to be considered "good management indicators", which proved to be most useful in ensuring the success of governance action. Strength and improvement needs of the system are then described

  12. The central nervous system as target for antihypertensive actions of a proline-rich peptide from Bothrops jararaca venom.

    PubMed

    Lameu, Claudiana; Hayashi, Mirian A F; Guerreiro, Juliano R; Oliveira, Eduardo F; Lebrun, Ivo; Pontieri, Vera; Morais, Kátia L P; Camargo, Antonio C M; Ulrich, Henning

    2010-03-01

    Pyroglutamyl proline-rich oligopeptides, present in the venom of the pit viper Bothrops jararaca (Bj-PROs), are the first described naturally occurring inhibitors of the angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE). The inhibition of ACE by the decapeptide Bj-PRO-10c (actions exerted by these peptides. In this study, we show that intracerebroventricular injection of Bj-PRO-10c induced a significant reduction of mean arterial pressure (MAP) together with a decrease of heart rate (HR) in spontaneously hypertensive rats, indicating that Bj-PRO-10c may act on the central nervous system. In agreement with its supposed neuronal action, this peptide dose-dependently evoked elevations of intracellular calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) in primary culture from postnatal rat brain. The N-terminal sequence of the peptide was not essential for induction of calcium fluxes, while any changes of C-terminal Pro or Ile residues affected Bj-PRO-10c's activity. Using calcium imaging by confocal microscopy and fluorescence imaging plate reader analysis, we have characterized Bj-PRO-10c-induced [Ca(2+)](i) transients in rat brain cells as being independent from bradykinin-mediated effects and ACE inhibition. Bj-PRO-10c induced pertussis toxin-sensitive G(i/o)-protein activity mediated through a yet unknown receptor, influx and liberation ofcalcium from intracellular stores, as well as reduction of intracellular cAMP levels. Bj-PRO-10c promoted glutamate and GABA release that may be responsible for its antihypertensive activity and its effect on HR. PMID:20099250

  13. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  14. The ethics of health systems research in low- and middle-income countries: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Hyder, Adnan A; Pratt, Bridget; Ali, Joseph; Kass, Nancy; Sewankambo, Nelson

    2014-01-01

    The increasing conduct of health systems research (HSR) in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) has not been matched by concurrent work to clarify the field's ethical dimensions. To begin to address this gap, a two-day workshop on the ethics of HSR in LMICs was convened at Johns Hopkins University in June 2013. Participants included health systems researchers, philosophers, lawyers, bioethicists and institutional review board members from Botswana, Uganda, the UK, USA and Zambia. Based on discussions from the workshop, the paper affirms that, while HSR in LMICs raises ethical issues in relation to constructs (i.e. consent, risk, equipoise) common to international clinical research, the nature of the issues that arise often differ between the two fields. Three salient features of HSR and the ethical considerations associated with each of them in LMICs are described to demonstrate this point. Recommendations for institutional review boards' oversight of HSR in LMICs are presented. Finally, a call is made for further action to develop thinking and guidance around the ethics of HSR in resource-poor settings. PMID:25104051

  15. DSP4, a selective neurotoxin for the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system. A review of its mode of action.

    PubMed

    Ross, Svante B; Stenfors, Carina

    2015-01-01

    DSP4 (N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine hydrochloride) is a selective neurotoxin for the locus coeruleus noradrenergic system in the rodent and bird brain. It readily passes the blood-brain barrier and cyclizes to a reactive aziridinium derivative that is accumulated into the noradrenergic nerve terminals via the noradrenaline transporter. DSP4 is also an irreversible inhibitor of this transporter. Within the nerve terminals the aziridinium derivative reacts with unknown vital cellular components, destroying the terminals. At the dose 50 mg/kg i.p. this is characterized by a rapid and long-lasting loss of noradrenaline and a slower decrease in the dopamine-β-hydroxylase enzyme activity and immunoreactivity in the regions innervated from locus coeruleus. The tissue level of noradrenaline is reduced to 10-30% of the normal value. The extraneuronal concentration is, on the other hand, increased due to inflow from non-lesioned regions. Like the peripheral sympathetic nerves the non-locus coeruleus noradrenergic systems in the rodent brain is resistant to the neurotoxic action of DSP4. Serotoninergic and dopaminergic nerves are only slightly or not at all affected by DSP4. The neurotoxic effect is counteracted by pretreatment with noradrenaline uptake inhibitors (e.g., desipramine). MAO-B inhibitors of the N-propargylamine type (e.g., selegiline) also counteract the DSP4-induced neurotoxicity with another, yet unknown mechanism. Because of its selectivity for the locus coeruleus system DSP4 is a useful tool in studies of the functional role of this noradrenergic system in the brain. PMID:24964753

  16. Involvement of opioid receptors in the systemic and peripheral antinociceptive actions of montelukast in the animal models of pain.

    PubMed

    Ghorbanzadeh, Behnam; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Sahraei, Hedayat; Alboghobeish, Soheila

    2016-05-15

    This study aimed to investigate the involvement of opioid receptors in the systemic and peripheral antinociceptive activities of montelukast in different animal models of pain. Rats and mice were injected with montelukast to produce analgesia. The formalin and acetic acid-induced writhing tests were used to assess the nociceptive activity. The results showed that i.p. administration of montelukast (0.3-10mg/kg) dose-dependently reduced flinching behavior in both the first and second phases of formalin test with mean ED50 of 0.55 and 5.31mg/kg, respectively. Also, intraplantar administration of montelukast (3-30μg/paw) produced antinociception against the two phases of formalin assay in a dose-dependent way with mean ED30 of 2.92 and 8.11μg/paw, respectively. Furthermore, pre-treatment with naloxone (a non-selective opioid receptor antagonist) significantly inhibited both the systemic and also peripheral antinociceptive actions of montelukast in formalin test. In writhing test, the results showed that intraperitoneal administration of montelukast (3-10mg/kg) significantly reduced the writhe number induced by acetic acid in mice. Moreover, co-administration of non-effective doses of montelukast (0.3 and 1mg/kg; i.p.) and morphine (0.25mg/kg; i.p.) significantly decreased the writhes number induced by acetic acid. Also, this effect was naloxone-reversible. These findings suggest that the systemic and peripheral antinociception produced by montelukast were mediated through the opioid receptors in central and peripheral nervous systems. Moreover, combination of montelukast and morphine could be noted as a new strategy for pain relief. PMID:26948314

  17. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  18. Integrating Actionable User-defined Faceted Rules into the Hybrid Science Data System for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipon, G. J. M.; Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Sacco, G. F.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Yun, S. H.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Liu, Z.; Smith, A. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Simons, M.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hybrid Science Data System (HySDS) scalably powers the ingestion, metadata extraction, cataloging, high-volume data processing, and publication of the geodetic data products for the Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazard (ARIA-MH) project at JPL. HySDS uses a heterogeneous set of worker nodes from private & public clouds as well as virtual & bare-metal machines to perform every aspect of the traditional science data system. For our science data users, the forefront of HySDS is the facet search interface, FacetView, which allows them to browse, filter, and access the published products. Users are able to explore the collection of product metadata information and apply multiple filters to constrain the result set down to their particular interests. It allows them to download these faceted products for further analysis and generation of derived products. However, we have also employed a novel approach to faceting where it is also used to apply constraints for custom monitoring of products, system resources, and triggers for automated data processing. The power of the facet search interface is well documented across various domains and its usefulness is rooted in the current state of existence of metadata. However, user needs usually extend beyond what is currently present in the data system. A user interested in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over Kilauea will download them from FacetView but would also want email notification of future incoming scenes. The user may even want that data pushed to a remote workstation for automated processing. Better still, these future products could trigger HySDS to run the user's analysis on its array of worker nodes, on behalf of the user, and ingest the resulting derived products. We will present our findings in integrating an ancillary, user-defined, system-driven processing system for HySDS that allows users to define faceted rules based on facet constraints and triggers actions when new SAR data

  19. Developing an Action Model for Integration of Health System Response to HIV/AIDS and Noncommunicable Diseases (NCDs) in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Haregu, Tilahun Nigatu; Setswe, Geoffrey; Elliott, Julian; Oldenburg, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Although there are several models of integrated architecture, we still lack models and theories about the integration process of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs. Objective: The overall purpose of this study is to design an action model, a systematic approach, for the integration of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in developing countries. Methods: An iterative and progressive approach of model development using inductive qualitative evidence synthesis techniques was applied. As evidence about integration is spread across different fields, synthesis of evidence from a broad range of disciplines was conducted. Results: An action model of integration having 5 underlying principles, 4 action fields, and a 9-step action cycle is developed. The INTEGRATE model is an acronym of the 9 steps of the integration process: 1) Interrelate the magnitude and distribution of the problems, 2) Navigate the linkage between the problems, 3) Testify individual level co-occurrence of the problems, 4) Examine the similarities and understand the differences between the response functions, 5) Glance over the health system’s environment for integration, 6) Repackage and share evidence in a useable form, 7) Ascertain the plan for integration, 8) Translate the plan in to action, 9) Evaluate and Monitor the integration. Conclusion: Our model provides a basis for integration of health system responses to HIV/AIDS and NCDs in the context of developing countries. We propose that future empirical work is needed to refine the validity and applicability of the model. PMID:24373260

  20. Synergistic action of gravity and temperature on the motor system within the lifespan: a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Meigal, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-01

    Here we describe GATO (gravity, age, thermoregulation, and oxygenation) hypothesis (or a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis) which we suggest to explain synergistic effect of these factors on the motor system. Taken separately, microgravity (in spaceflight, G~0), the early age, heat and hypoxia exert identical effect on the motor system. We posit that synergy of these factors originate from their synchronicity during intrauterine immersion (analog microgravity) of the fetus in warm hypoxic condition. We further postulate three successive motor adaptive strategies, driven lifelong by gravity as the key factor. The first by age, fetal/microgravity (FM)-strategy, induced by the intrauterine immersion of the fetus, is based on domination of fast type muscle fibers. After birth, thought to be analog for landing from orbit, newborn is subjected to combined influence of cooler ambient temperature, normoxia, and 1G Earth gravity, which cooperatively form a slower GE-strategy. Eventually, healthy ageing results in further domination of slow type muscle fibers that forms the slowest (SL)-strategy. Our hypothesis implies that specific sensory conditions may substitute for each other owing to their synergistic action on the motor system. According to GATO hypothesis heating and hypoxia may be considered as "pro-microgravity" factors, while cold and hyperoxia - as "pro-gravity" ones. As such, cold may act as a partial "surrogate" for gravity, estimated as ~0.2G. That may have potential to elaborate countermeasures for muscle atrophy in astronauts either on-board in long-term spaceflight or for post-flight rehabilitation. Based on GATO hypothesis, predictions on muscle remodeling caused by illumination, sound/noise, and gravidity are discussed. PMID:23287049

  1. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2016-02-01

    Levodopa possesses antinociceptive actions against several somatic pain conditions. However, we do not know at this moment whether levodopa is also effective to visceral pain. The present study was therefore performed to clarify whether levodopa is effective to visceral pain and its mechanisms. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat) or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat) administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain. PMID:26883457

  2. [The effect of thiamine deficiency on the actions of drugs affecting the central nervous system in rats (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Onodera, K; Sakurada, S; Ando, R; Takahashi, N; Tadano, T; Kisara, K; Ogura, Y

    1980-03-01

    Male Wistar rats, 35-days-old, maintained on a thiamine deficient diet for 30 days showed marked growth inhibition and a heart rate less than 70% of that of control rats. We examined the effect of thiamine deficiency on the action of drugs effecting the central nervous system at this period. In thiamine deficient rats treated with chloral hydrate 200 mg/kg, ketamine 100 mg/kg sodium pentobarbital 50 mg/kg, and hexobarbital 100 mg/kg, the sleeping time increased. Pretreatment with 15 mg/kg of the metabolic enzymes inhibitor, SKF-525A, 30 min prior to the hexobarbital administration resulted in prolongation of sleeping time in all groups. The thiamine deficient rats slept almost 3.5 times longer than did the control group. Pretreatment with 100 mg/kg of the metabolic enzyme inducer, sodium phenobarbital, 48 hours prior to hexobarbital treatment resulted in decreased sleeping time in all groups, as compared with only hexobarbital treatment. In the thiamine deficient rats the catalepsy and ptosis induced by the i.p. administration of tetrabenazine 50 mg/kg was reduced even when the control and pair-fed groups responded to this drug at the drug peak time. The spontaneous neuronal activity of lateral hypothalamus was most sensitive to the administration of 5-hydroxytryptophan in thiamine deficient rats. PMID:6967442

  3. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors. PMID:24685768

  4. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    PubMed Central

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production. PMID:27199788

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, DOE/NV--528 UPDATED WITH TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) addresses one of three leachfield systems associated with Test Cell A, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 500 is comprised of the Test Cell A Septic System (CAS 25-04-05) and the associated leachfield system presented in Figure 1-1 (FFACO, 1996). The leachfield is located 60 meters (m) (200 feet [ft]) southeast of the Building 3124 gate, and approximately 45 m (150 ft) southwest of Building 3116 at Test Cell A. Test Cell A operated during the 1960s to support nuclear rocket reactor testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) (SNPO, 1970). Various operations within Buildings 3113B (Mechanical Equipment Room), 3115 (Helium Compressor Station), 3116 (Pump House), a water tank drain and overflow, a ''yard and equipment drain system'' outside of Building 3116, and a trailer have resulted in potentially hazardous effluent releases to the leachfield system (DOE, 1988a). The leachfield system components include discharge lines, manways, a septic tank, an outfall line, a diversion chamber, and a 15 by 30 m (50 by 100 ft) leachfield (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 3-1 for explanation of terminology). In addition, engineering drawings show an outfall system that may or may not be connected to the CAU 500 leachfield. In general, effluent contributed to the leachfield was sanitary wastewater associated with floor drains, toilet and lavatory facilities in Building 3113B and floor drains in the remaining source buildings. The surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system, outfall, and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations.

  6. Effects of toxicants with different modes of action on Myriophyllum spicatum in test systems with varying complexity.

    PubMed

    Mohr, S; Schott, J; Maletzki, D; Hünken, A

    2013-11-01

    At the international workshop Aquatic Macrophyte Risk Assessment for Pesticides (AMRAP), it was noted that the EU risk assessment under the directive 91/414/EEC for herbicides, based only on algae and the monocotyledonous duckweed species Lemna sp., offers no certain protection against some growth regulating auxins. Therefore, AMRAP members proposed the introduction of the dicotyledonous water milfoil Myriophyllum as additional test species. This study was aimed to compare toxicity results from three test systems (TS) with varying complexity, namely Water TS, Sediment TS and Microcosm TS using Myriophyllum spicatum as test organism. As test substances, the photosynthesis inhibiting herbicide isoproturon, the growth regulating auxins fluroxypyr and 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and the non-specific acting toxicant 3,5-dichlorophenol (3,5-DCP) were chosen. It was assessed if and why the sensitivity of M. spicatum towards the four toxicants varied in the different test systems and if the addition of sucrose to the medium used in the Water TS had an effect on the sensitivity of Myriophyllum. All TS were suitable for detecting negative effects of toxicants with different modes of action on M. spicatum. The lowest variability of endpoints was found in the Water TS with lowest experimental complexity. For auxins, the endpoint weight did not result in robust EC50 values in all TS, whereas root related endpoints, which are also ecologically relevant, turned out to be very sensitive with low variance. Sucrose in the medium of the Water TS did not seem to influence the sensitivity of M. spicatum towards isoproturon and 3,5-DCP but may have increased the sensitivity of M. spicatum roots when exposed to 2,4-D. However, the findings of all TS resulted in similar risk estimations if root endpoints were not considered. PMID:23928028

  7. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  8. 30 CFR 57.22237 - Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....22237 Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines). If methane reaches 2... reduced to less than 2.0 percent within 30 minutes, or if methane levels reach 2.5 percent, all...

  9. 30 CFR 57.22237 - Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ....22237 Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines). If methane reaches 2... reduced to less than 2.0 percent within 30 minutes, or if methane levels reach 2.5 percent, all...

  10. Time to shift from systems thinking-talking to systems thinking-action: Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    PubMed

    Holmes, Bev J; Noel, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) about Systems Thinking (ST). The study's main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT): resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started. PMID:25844387

  11. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific. PMID:26206360

  12. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific. PMID:26206360

  13. 12 CFR 272.4 - Committee actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Committee actions. 272.4 Section 272.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE RULES OF PROCEDURE § 272.4 Committee actions. (a) Actions at meetings. Actions are taken at meetings of the Committee except as described below. (b) Actions between...

  14. The Picard–Fuchs equations for complete hyperelliptic integrals of even order curves, and the actions of the generalized Neumann system

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Yuri E-mail: Chara.Pantazi@upc.edu; Pantazi, Chara E-mail: Chara.Pantazi@upc.edu

    2014-03-15

    We consider a family of genus 2 hyperelliptic curves of even order and obtain explicitly the systems of 5 linear ordinary differential equations for periods of the corresponding Abelian integrals of first, second, and third kind, as functions of some parameters of the curves. The systems can be regarded as extensions of the well-studied Picard–Fuchs equations for periods of complete integrals of first and second kind on odd hyperelliptic curves. The periods we consider are linear combinations of the action variables of several integrable systems, in particular the generalized Neumann system with polynomial separable potentials. Thus the solutions of the extended Picard–Fuchs equations can be used to study various properties of the actions.

  15. On the appearance of a system of ring vortices in the mixing layer of axially symmetric turbulent jets under acoustic action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pimshtein, V. G.

    2016-07-01

    The shadow visualization method is applied to study the process of loss of stability of the mixing layer of a subsonic axially symmetric turbulent jet under longitudinal internal action of saw-tooth sound waves of finite amplitude. Such action leads to the formation of a system of ring vortices in the mixing layer at the frequency of its intrinsic instability. The interaction of the vortices can be accompanied by sound emission. A similar phenomenon is also observed in turbulent jets for small supercritical pressure fluctuations on a nozzle.

  16. Motor area activity for action-related and nonaction-related sounds in a three-dimensional sound field reproduction system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Koichiro; Ueno, Kanako; Shimada, Sotaro

    2015-03-25

    The motor cortical area is often activated to auditory stimuli in the human brain. In this study, we examined whether the motor area shows differential activation for action-related and nonaction-related sounds and whether it is susceptible to the quality of the sounds. A three-dimensional sound field recording and reproduction system based on the boundary surface control principle (BoSC system) was used for this purpose. We measured brain activity during hearing action-related or nonaction-related sounds with electroencephalography using mu rhythm suppression (mu-suppression) as an index of motor cortical activation. The results showed that mu-suppression was observed when the participant heard action-related sounds, but it was not evident when hearing nonaction-related sounds. Moreover, this suppression was significantly larger in the 3D sound field (62-ch loudspeaker condition), which generates a more realistic sound field, than in the 1-ch loudspeaker condition. Our results indicate that the motor area was indeed activated for action-related sounds and that its activation was enhanced with a 3D realistic sound field. We discuss our findings in relation to the mirror neuron system and the possibility of using its activity as an objective measure that reflects the subjective sense of reality in various virtual reality settings when interacting with others. PMID:25714418

  17. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  18. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  19. Decision Support System integrated with Geographic Information System to target restoration actions in watersheds of arid environment: A case study of Hathmati watershed, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Dhruvesh P.; Srivastava, Prashant K.; Gupta, Manika; Nandhakumar, Naresh

    2015-02-01

    Watershed morphometric analysis is important for controlling floods and planning restoration actions. The present study is focused on the identification of suitable sites for locating water harvesting structures using morphometric analysis and multi-criteria based decision support system. The Hathmati watershed of river Hathmati at Idar taluka, Sabarkantha district, Gujarat is experiencing excessive runoff and soil erosion due to high intensity rainfall. Earth observation dataset such as Digital Elevation Model and Geographic Information System are used in this study to determine the quantitative description of the basin geometry. Several morphometric parameters such as stream length, elongation ratio, bifurcation ratio, drainage density, stream frequency, texture ratio, form factor, circularity ratio, and compactness coefficient are taken into account for prioritization of Hathmati watershed. The overall analysis reveals that Hathmati comprises of 13 mini-watersheds out of which, the watershed number 2 is of utmost priority because it has the highest degradation possibilities. The final results are used to locate the sites suitable for water harvesting structures using geo-visualization technique. After all the analyses, the best possibilities of check dams in the mini-watersheds that can be used for soil and water conservation in the watershed are presented.

  20. Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Bird, Geoffrey; Walsh, Eamonn; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a potential discontinuity between monkey and human ventral premotor-parietal mirror systems, namely that monkey mirror systems process only transitive (object-directed) actions, whereas human mirror systems may also process intransitive (non-object-directed) actions. The present study investigated this discontinuity…

  1. COST Action ES1206 : Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC) (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, J.

    2013-12-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is under-sampled in the current meteorological and climate observing systems, obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The new COST Action, ES1206, will address new and improved capabilities from con-current developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research. In addition the Action will promote the use of meteorological data in GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services. The Action will stimulate knowledge transfer and data sharing throughout Europe.

  2. COST Action ES1206 : Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Guerova, Guergana; Dousa, Jan; de Haan, Siebren; Bock, Olivier; Dick, Galina; Pottiaux, Eric; Pacione, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is under-sampled in the current meteorological and climate observing systems, obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The new COST Action, ES1206, will address new and improved capabilities from con-current developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research. In addition the Action will promote the use of meteorological data in GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services. The Action will stimulate knowledge transfer and data sharing throughout Europe.

  3. Separate neural systems support representations for actions and objects during narrative speech in post-stroke aphasia☆

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Nesland, Travis; Desai, Rutvik; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Representations of objects and actions in everyday speech are usually materialized as nouns and verbs, two grammatical classes that constitute the core elements of language. Given their very distinct roles in singling out objects (nouns) or referring to transformative actions (verbs), they likely rely on distinct brain circuits. Method We tested this hypothesis by conducting network-based lesion-symptom mapping in 38 patients with chronic stroke to the left hemisphere. We reconstructed the individual brain connectomes from probabilistic tractography applied to magnetic resonance imaging and obtained measures of production of words referring to objects and actions from narrative discourse elicited by picture naming tasks. Results Words for actions were associated with a frontal network strongly engaging structures involved in motor control and programming. Words for objects, instead, were related to a posterior network spreading across the occipital, posterior inferior temporal, and parietal regions, likely related with visual processing and imagery, object recognition, and spatial attention/scanning. Thus, each of these networks engaged brain areas typically involved in cognitive and sensorimotor experiences equivalent to the function served by each grammatical class (e.g. motor areas for verbs, perception areas for nouns). Conclusions The finding that the two major grammatical classes in human speech rely on two dissociable networks has both important theoretical implications for the neurobiology of language and clinical implications for the assessment and potential rehabilitation and treatment of patients with chronic aphasia due to stroke. PMID:26759789

  4. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  5. Determination of action thresholds for electromagnetic tracking system-guided hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy using volumetric modulated arc therapy

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Pengpeng; Mah, Dennis; Happersett, Laura; Cox, Brett; Hunt, Margie; Mageras, Gig

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Hypofractionated prostate radiotherapy may benefit from both volumetric modulated arc therapy (VMAT) due to shortened treatment time and intrafraction real-time monitoring provided by implanted radiofrequency(RF) transponders. The authors investigate dosimetrically driven action thresholds (whether treatment needs to be interrupted and patient repositioned) in VMAT treatment with electromagnetic (EM) tracking. Methods: VMAT plans for five patients are generated for prescription doses of 32.5 and 42.5 Gy in five fractions. Planning target volume (PTV) encloses the clinical target volume (CTV) with a 3 mm margin at the prostate-rectal interface and 5 mm elsewhere. The VMAT delivery is modeled using 180 equi-spaced static beams. Intrafraction prostate motion is simulated in the plan by displacing the beam isocenter at each beam assuming rigid organ motion according to a previously recorded trajectory of the transponder centroid. The cumulative dose delivered in each fraction is summed over all beams. Two sets of 57 prostate motion trajectories were randomly selected to form a learning and a testing dataset. Dosimetric end points including CTV D95%, rectum wall D1cc, bladder wall D1cc, and urethra Dmax, are analyzed against motion characteristics including the maximum amplitude of the anterior-posterior (AP), superior-inferior (SI), and left-right components. Action thresholds are triggered when intrafraction motion causes any violations of dose constraints to target and organs at risk (OAR), so that treatment is interrupted and patient is repositioned. Results: Intrafraction motion has a little effect on CTV D95%, indicating PTV margins are adequate. Tight posterior and inferior action thresholds around 1 mm need to be set in a patient specific manner to spare organs at risk, especially when the prescription dose is 42.5 Gy. Advantages of setting patient specific action thresholds are to reduce false positive alarms by 25% when prescription dose is low, and

  6. Action of andiroba oil and permethrin on the central nervous and reproductive systems of Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) ticks females. A confocal study.

    PubMed

    Roma, Gislaine Cristina; Vendramini, Maria Cláudia Ramalho; Camargo-Mathias, Maria Izabel; Nunes, Pablo Henrique; de Faria, Adriano Uemura; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique

    2013-10-01

    Research for acaricides with lower toxicity and impact on the environment has been intensified. An alternative would be the use of natural compounds or of synthetic products in lower concentrations than the ones sold commercially. Thus, this study describes the action of andiroba seed oil on the nuclei of the ovary and synganglion cells of Rhipicephalus sanguineus, and presents an analysis of the nuclear morphology of the nervous system cells of this tick species when exposed to permethrin. The results obtained showed that, although no changes have been observed in the genetic material of the ovary cells exposed to the andiroba oil, this compound, as well as permethrin, has neurotoxic action on the females of this species. The damages caused to the physiology of the synganglion, due to the loss of integrity of the genetic material, would result in the impairment of the metabolism of other systems of R. sanguineus ticks. PMID:23823663

  7. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  8. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  9. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  10. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  11. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  12. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 03-05-002-SW02, Septic Waste System • CAS 03-05-002-SW06, Septic Waste System These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re

  13. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Guangwen; Chen, Dahui; Xiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use. PMID:27582705

  14. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Guangwen; Chen, Dahui; Xiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use. PMID:27582705

  15. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  16. Effect of a clinical decision support system on early action on immunological treatment failure in patients with HIV in Kenya: a cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Oluoch, Tom; Katana, Abraham; Kwaro, Daniel; Santas, Xenophon; Langat, Patrick; Mwalili, Samuel; Muthusi, Kimeu; Okeyo, Nicky; Ojwang, James K; Cornet, Ronald; Abu-Hanna, Ameen; de Keizer, Nicolette

    2016-01-01

    Summary Background A clinical decision support system (CDSS) is a computer program that applies a set of rules to data stored in electronic health records to offer actionable recommendations. We aimed to establish whether a CDSS that supports detection of immunological treatment failure among patients with HIV taking antiretroviral therapy (ART) would improve appropriate and timely action. Methods We did this prospective, cluster randomised controlled trial in adults and children (aged ≥18 months) who were eligible for, and receiving, ART at HIV clinics in Siaya County, western Kenya. Health facilities were randomly assigned (1:1), via block randomisation (block size of two) with a computer-generated random number sequence, to use electronic health records either alone (control) or with CDSS (intervention). Facilities were matched by type and by number of patients enrolled in HIV care. The primary outcome measure was the difference between groups in the proportion of patients who experienced immunological treatment failure and had a documented clinical action. We used generalised linear mixed models with random effects to analyse clustered data. This trial is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01634802. Findings Between Sept 1, 2012, and Jan 31, 2014, 13 clinics, comprising 41 062 patients, were randomly assigned to the control group (n=6) or the intervention group (n=7). Data collection at each site took 12 months. Among patients eligible for ART, 10 358 (99%) of 10 478 patients were receiving ART at control sites and 10 991 (99%) of 11 028 patients were receiving ART at intervention sites. Of these patients, 1125 (11%) in the control group and 1342 (12%) in the intervention group had immunological treatment failure, of whom 332 (30%) and 727 (54%), respectively, received appropriate action. The likelihood of clinicians taking appropriate action on treatment failure was higher with CDSS alerts than with no decision support system (adjusted odds ratio

  17. Comparison of early reactions of the blood system in rats to immobilization, the action of hypoxia and the administration of erythopoietin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorizontov, P. D.; Fedotova, M. I.; Gudim, V. I.; Belousova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    Three series of experiments were simultaneously carried on rats with the purpose of studying the action of different stimulants on the blood system; rats were subjected to immobilization, hypoxic hypoxia and erythropoietin administration. Changes in various cellular forms in the bone marrow, the thymus and the spleen were studied. A unitypical reaction, as in stress, was noted during the first hours; a reduction of the cell count in the lymphoid organs, a reduction of granulocytes and an increase of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow. The differences were chiefly quantitative. This was followed by stimulation of myelo and erythropoiesis determined by the specific features of the action applied. Nonspecific blood reaction was apparently due to activation of the adaptation mechanisms.

  18. 48 CFR 9901.314 - Informal actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Informal actions. 9901.314... actions. The Chairman may take actions on behalf of the Board on administrative issues, as determined by the Chairman, without holding an official meeting of the members. However, details of the actions...

  19. Manipulation Action Understanding for Observation and Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yezhou

    2015-01-01

    Modern intelligent agents will need to learn the actions that humans perform. They will need to recognize these actions when they see them and they will need to perform these actions themselves. We want to propose a cognitive system that interprets human manipulation actions from perceptual information (image and depth data) and consists of…

  20. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  1. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and transfer…

  2. Instructional Rounds in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John E.

    2012-01-01

    "Instructional Rounds in Action" is an invaluable guide for those involved in implementing instructional rounds as the foundation and framework for systemic improvement in schools. Over the past few years, districts across the United States, Canada, and Australia have begun implementing "instructional rounds," a set of ideas and practices for…

  3. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  4. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  5. Action Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straits, William; Stone, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    With upper-elementary students, using the skeletal system can be a productive first step in learning about the various systems in the human body. Of all the systems, the skeletal system seems to be the most familiar to students. This lesson, which helps students understand joints and their role in how our bodies bend, twist, and spin--is always a…

  6. A Synthesis Model for Forcing Action Arrangement in the System of Reducing Dynamic Loads of a Mobile Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaźmierczak, H.; Pawłowski, T.; Zembrowski, K.

    2015-05-01

    An idea is presented for a method to lower excessive dynamic loads in the system of supporting structure, mechanical-hydraulic forcing system, vibration isolation system, protective unit. The dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by the method of dynamic susceptibility. An analytical model of the system was built (mobile machine to carry out protective treatments; project WDN-POIG.01.03.01-00-164/09).

  7. GRAPES-Grounding representations in action, perception, and emotion systems: How object properties and categories are represented in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Martin, Alex

    2016-08-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the latest functional neuroimaging findings on the organization of object concepts in the human brain. I argue that these data provide strong support for viewing concepts as the products of highly interactive neural circuits grounded in the action, perception, and emotion systems. The nodes of these circuits are defined by regions representing specific object properties (e.g., form, color, and motion) and thus are property-specific, rather than strictly modality-specific. How these circuits are modified by external and internal environmental demands, the distinction between representational content and format, and the grounding of abstract social concepts are also discussed. PMID:25968087

  8. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the July 2003, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications.

  9. Process versus product in social learning: comparative diffusion tensor imaging of neural systems for action execution-observation matching in macaques, chimpanzees, and humans.

    PubMed

    Hecht, Erin E; Gutman, David A; Preuss, Todd M; Sanchez, Mar M; Parr, Lisa A; Rilling, James K

    2013-05-01

    Social learning varies among primate species. Macaques only copy the product of observed actions, or emulate, while humans and chimpanzees also copy the process, or imitate. In humans, imitation is linked to the mirror system. Here we compare mirror system connectivity across these species using diffusion tensor imaging. In macaques and chimpanzees, the preponderance of this circuitry consists of frontal-temporal connections via the extreme/external capsules. In contrast, humans have more substantial temporal-parietal and frontal-parietal connections via the middle/inferior longitudinal fasciculi and the third branch of the superior longitudinal fasciculus. In chimpanzees and humans, but not in macaques, this circuitry includes connections with inferior temporal cortex. In humans alone, connections with superior parietal cortex were also detected. We suggest a model linking species differences in mirror system connectivity and responsivity with species differences in behavior, including adaptations for imitation and social learning of tool use. PMID:22539611

  10. Solar process heat technology in action: The process hot water system at the California Correctional Institution at Tehachapi

    SciTech Connect

    Hewett, R. ); Gee, R.; May, K. )

    1991-12-01

    Solar process heat technology relates to solar thermal energy systems for industry, commerce, and government. Applications include water preheating and heating, steam generation, process hot air, ventilation air heating, and refrigeration. Solar process heat systems are available for commercial use. At the present time, however, they are economically viable only in niche markets. This paper describes a functioning system in one such market. The California Department of Corrections (CDOC), which operates correctional facilities for the state of California, uses a solar system for providing hot water and space heating at the California Correctional Institute at Tehachapi (CCI/Tehachapi). CCI/Tehachapi is a 5100-inmate facility. The CDOC does not own the solar system. Rather, it buys energy from private investors who own the solar system located on CCI/Tehachapi property; this arrangement is part of a long-term energy purchase agreement. United Solar Technologies (UST) of Olympia Washington is the system operator. The solar system, which began operating in the fall of 1990, utilizes 2677 m{sup 2} (28,800 ft{sup 2}) of parabolic through solar concentrators. Thermal energy collected by the system is used to generate hot water for showers, kitchen operations, and laundry functions. Thermal energy collected by the system is also used for space heating. At peak operating conditions, the system is designed to meet approximately 80 percent of the summer thermal load. 4 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Action, Verbal Response and Spatial Reasoning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ranxiao Frances

    2004-01-01

    Studies have shown that perception of distance, orientation and size can be dissociated from action tasks. The action system seems to possess more veridical, unbiased information than the perceptual/verbal system. The current study examines the nature of the distinction between action and verbal responses in a spatial reasoning task. Participants…

  12. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    PubMed

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  13. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  14. A Cross-species Comparison of Facial Morphology and Movement in Humans and Chimpanzees Using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS)

    PubMed Central

    Waller, Bridget M.; Parr, Lisa A.; Smith Pasqualini, Marcia C.; Bard, Kim A.

    2010-01-01

    A comparative perspective has remained central to the study of human facial expressions since Darwin’s [(1872/1998). The expression of the emotions in man and animals (3rd ed.). New York: Oxford University Press] insightful observations on the presence and significance of cross-species continuities and species-unique phenomena. However, cross-species comparisons are often difficult to draw due to methodological limitations. We report the application of a common methodology, the Facial Action Coding System (FACS) to examine facial movement across two species of hominoids, namely humans and chimpanzees. FACS [Ekman & Friesen (1978). Facial action coding system. CA: Consulting Psychology Press] has been employed to identify the repertoire of human facial movements. We demonstrate that FACS can be applied to other species, but highlight that any modifications must be based on both underlying anatomy and detailed observational analysis of movements. Here we describe the ChimpFACS and use it to compare the repertoire of facial movement in chimpanzees and humans. While the underlying mimetic musculature shows minimal differences, important differences in facial morphology impact upon the identification and detection of related surface appearance changes across these two species. PMID:21188285

  15. CCSDS Mission Operations Action Service Core Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reynolds, Walter F.; Lucord, Steven A.; Stevens, John E.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the operations concepts of the command (action) services. Since the consequences of sending the wrong command are unacceptable, the command system provides a collaborative and distributed work environment for flight controllers and operators. The system prescribes a review and approval process where each command is viewed by other individuals before being sent to the vehicle. The action service needs additional capabilities to support he operations concepts of manned space flight. These are : (1) Action Service methods (2) Action attributes (3) Action parameter/argument attributes (4 ) Support for dynamically maintained action data. (5) Publish subscri be capabilities.

  16. The importance of actions and the worth of an object: dissociable neural systems representing core value and economic value.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Coppin, Géraldine; Schwartz, Sophie; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    Neuroeconomic research has delineated neural regions involved in the computation of value, referring to a currency for concrete choices and decisions ('economic value'). Research in psychology and sociology, on the other hand, uses the term 'value' to describe motivational constructs that guide choices and behaviors across situations ('core value'). As a first step towards an integration of these literatures, we compared the neural regions computing economic value and core value. Replicating previous work, economic value computations activated a network centered on medial orbitofrontal cortex. Core value computations activated medial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in the processing of self-relevant information and dorsal striatum, involved in action selection. Core value ratings correlated with activity in precuneus and anterior prefrontal cortex, potentially reflecting the degree to which a core value is perceived as internalized part of one's self-concept. Distributed activation pattern in insula and ACC allowed differentiating individual core value types. These patterns may represent evaluation profiles reflecting prototypical fundamental concerns expressed in the core value types. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which core values, as motivationally important long-term goals anchored in the self-schema, may have the behavioral power to drive decisions and behaviors in the absence of immediately rewarding behavioral options. PMID:21642352

  17. Cadmium and naphthalene-induced hyperglycemia in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator: Differential modes of action on the neutroendocrine system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S.; Katyayani, R.V.; Fingerman, M.

    1996-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is a typical response of aquatic organisms to heavy metals. In crustaceans, the medulla terminalis X-organ-sinus gland neuroendocrine complex in the eyestalk is the source of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). The role of CHH in pollutant-induced b1ood glucose changes has only recently begun to be studied. Reddy provided evidence that CHH mediates cadmium-induced hyperglycemia in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In a study of another hormonally-regulated function, color changes, cadmium exposure resulted in pigment in the melanophores of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, becoming less dispersed than in unexposed crabs. Earlier studies showed that, like cadmium, both a PCB, Aroclor 1242, and naphthalene induced black pigment aggregation in Uca poor. In general, when crabs are exposed to a pollutant, hydrocarbon or cadmium, they aggregate the pigment in their melanophores, but apparently by different mechanisms. Hydrocarbons appear to inhibit release of black pigment-dispersing hormone (BDPH), whereas cadmium appears to inhibit its synthesis. These apparent different modes of action of cadmium and naphthalene on the color change mechanism led us to compare the impact of these pollutants on the hormonal regulation of blood glucose in Uca pugilator. The present study was performed to determine (1) whether cadmium and naphthalene induce hyperglycemia in Uca pugilator, (2) whether CH has a role, if naphthalene and cadmium do induce hyperglycemia, and (3) the effects, if any, of cadmium and naphthalene on CHH activity in the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex.

  18. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2004, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS 27-05-02, Leachfield. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR to an administrative UR. Administrative URs differ from

  19. The human erythrocyte Cl-dependent Na-K cotransport system as a possible model for studying the action of loop diuretics.

    PubMed Central

    Ellory, J. C.; Stewart, G. W.

    1982-01-01

    1 The recent demonstration of the chloride-dependence of the red cell Na-K cotransport system suggests an analogy between this process and the active Cl- absorption in the ascending loop of Henle, which is the target transport system for loop diuretics. 2 Using red cell K influx, four known loop diuretics, six experimental frusemide analogues, two thiazides, two K-retaining diuretics and one organomercurial were compared for inhibitory potency on the red cell Na-K cotransport system. 3 Except for mersalyl, whose exact mode of action in the kidney is still in doubt, the inhibition of the red cell system by various loop diuretics was consistent with both published whole body diuretic data and isolated perfused tubule studies, while the system did not respond to the thiazides or the K-retaining diuretics. 4 It is concluded that the human red cell Na-K cotransport system is a possible valid model process on which to study the activity of loop diuretics. PMID:7074281

  20. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Basin Facility Basin Water Treatment System - Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. K.

    2007-11-07

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Basin Water Treatment System located in the Basin Facility (CPP-603), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet future milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The system to be closed includes units and associated ancillary equipment included in the Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan and Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank Systems INTEC-077 and INTEC-078 that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The Basin Water Treatment System will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265, to achieve "clean closure" of the tank system. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards for the Basin Water Treatment Systems.

  1. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  2. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Cancer.gov

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  3. The simulated effects of wastewater-management actions on the hydrologic system and nitrogen-loading rates to wells and ecological receptors, Popponesset Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of excess nitrogen into Popponesset Bay, an estuarine system on western Cape Cod, has resulted in eutrophication and the loss of eel grass habitat within the estuaries. Septic-system return flow in residential areas within the watershed is the primary source of nitrogen. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for nitrogen have been assigned to the six estuaries that compose the system, and local communities are in the process of implementing the TMDLs by the partial sewering, treatment, and disposal of treated wastewater at wastewater-treatment facilities (WTFs). Loads of waste-derived nitrogen from both current (1997–2001) and future sources can be estimated implicitly from parcel-scale water-use data and recharge areas delineated by a groundwater-flow model. These loads are referred to as “instantaneous” loads because it is assumed that the nitrogen from surface sources is delivered to receptors instantaneously and that there is no traveltime through the aquifer. The use of a solute-transport model to explicitly simulate the transport of mass through the aquifer from sources to receptors can improve implementation of TMDLs by (1) accounting for traveltime through the aquifer, (2) avoiding limitations associated with the estimation of loads from static recharge areas, (3) accounting more accurately for the effect of surface waters on nitrogen loads, and (4) determining the response of waste-derived nitrogen loads to potential wastewater-management actions. The load of nitrogen to Popponesset Bay on western Cape Cod, which was estimated by using current sources as input to a solute-transport model based on a steady-state flow model, is about 50 percent of the instantaneous load after about 7 years of transport (loads to estuary are equal to loads discharged from sources); this estimate is consistent with simulated advective traveltimes in the aquifer, which have a median of 5 years. Model-calculated loads originating from recharge areas reach 80

  4. Mechanisms of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Geisla Mary Silva; FIGUEIREDO, Luciene Cristina; FAVERI, Marcelo; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; DUARTE, Poliana Mendes; FERES, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are important adjuncts in the treatment of infectious diseases, including periodontitis. The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. The knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved with the antibiotic usage would help the medical and dental communities to overcome these two problems. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin, tetracycline, macrolide and metronidazole) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Antimicrobial resistance can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, mutational and acquired. Penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs, effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial resistance to penicillin may occur due to diminished permeability of the bacterial cell to the antibiotic; alteration of the penicillin-binding proteins, or production of β-lactamases. However, a very small proportion of the subgingival microbiota is resistant to penicillins. Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell, by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline/macrolide-inactivating enzymes. Periodontal pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Finally, metronidazole can be considered a prodrug in the sense that it requires metabolic activation by strict anaerobe microorganisms. Acquired resistance to this drug has rarely been reported. Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections. PMID:22858695

  5. The motor way: Clinical implications of understanding and shaping actions with the motor system in autism and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Casartelli, Luca; Chiamulera, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    To understand others' minds is crucial for survival; however, it is quite puzzling how access to others' minds can be--to some extent--direct and not necessarily mediated by conceptual reasoning. Recent advances in neuroscience have led to hypothesize a role for motor circuits not only in controlling the elementary physical features of movement (e.g., force, direction, and amplitude), but also in understanding and shaping human behavior. The concept of "motor cognition" refers to these aspects, and neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies in human and nonhuman primates support this view. From a clinical perspective, motor cognition represents a challenge in several domains. A thorough investigation of the neural mechanisms mediating motor action/intention understanding and automatized/compulsive behaviors seems to be a promising way to tackle a range of neurodevelopmental and drug-related disorders. On the one hand, anomalies in motor cognition may have cascade effects on social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); on the other, motor cognition may help explain the pathophysiology of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in the most severe phase of drug addiction (i.e., see drug dependence, motor low-order cue reactivity). This may represent a promising approach that could improve the efficacy of rehabilitative interventions. The only way to shed light on multifactorial disorders such as ASD and drug addiction is through the investigation of their multiple factors. This motor way can promote new theoretical and experimental perspectives that would help bridge the gap between the basic neuroscience approach and clinical practice. PMID:26679723

  6. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  7. Does listening to action-related sentences modulate the activity of the motor system? Replication of a combined TMS and behavioral study

    PubMed Central

    Gianelli, Claudia; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of action-related language processing have been debated for long time. A precursor in this field was the study by Buccino et al. (2005) combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and behavioral measures (reaction times, RTs) to study the effect of listening to hand- and foot-related sentences. In the TMS experiment, the authors showed a decrease of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from hand muscles when processing hand-related verbs as compared to foot-related verbs. Similarly, MEPs recorded from leg muscles decreased when participants processed foot-related as compared to hand-related verbs. In the behavioral experiment, using the same stimuli and a semantic decision task the authors found slower RTs when the participants used the body effector (hand or foot) involved in the actual execution of the action expressed by the presented verb to give their motor responses. These findings were interpreted as an interference effect due to a simultaneous involvement of the motor system in both a language and a motor task. Our replication aimed to enlarge the sample size and replicate the findings with higher statistical power. The TMS experiment showed a significant modulation of hand MEPs, but in the sense of a motor facilitation when processing hand-related verbs. On the contrary, the behavioral experiment did not show significant results. The results are discussed within the general debate on the time-course of the modulation of motor cortex during implicit and explicit language processing and in relation to the studies on action observation/understanding. PMID:25601845

  8. The Immune System Is a Natural Target for Estrogen Action: Opposing Effects of Estrogen in Two Prototypical Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Deena; Ansar Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Analogous to other physiological systems, the immune system also demonstrates remarkable sex differences. Although the reasons for sex differences in immune responses are not precisely understood, it potentially involves differences in sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and differential sex hormone receptor-mediated events), X-chromosomes, microbiome, epigenetics among others. Overall, females tend to have more responsive and robust immune system compared to their male counterparts. It is therefore not surprising that females respond more aggressively to self-antigens and are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases. Female hormone (estrogen or 17β-estradiol) can potentially act on all cellular subsets of the immune system through estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. This minireview highlights differential expression of estrogen receptors on immune cells, major estrogen-mediated signaling pathways, and their effect on immune cells. Since estrogen has varied effects in female-predominant autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus, we will mechanistically postulate the potential differential role of estrogen in these chronic debilitating diseases. PMID:26779182

  9. A 64-channel ultra-low power system-on-chip for local field and action potentials recording

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodríguez-Pérez, Alberto; Delgado-Restituto, Manuel; Darie, Angela; Soto-Sánchez, Cristina; Fernández-Jover, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Vázquez, Ángel

    2015-06-01

    This paper reports an integrated 64-channel neural recording sensor. Neural signals are acquired, filtered, digitized and compressed in the channels. Additionally, each channel implements an auto-calibration mechanism which configures the transfer characteristics of the recording site. The system has two transmission modes; in one case the information captured by the channels is sent as uncompressed raw data; in the other, feature vectors extracted from the detected neural spikes are released. Data streams coming from the channels are serialized by an embedded digital processor. Experimental results, including in vivo measurements, show that the power consumption of the complete system is lower than 330μW.

  10. Modulation of the central melanocortin system by leptin, insulin, and serotonin: co-ordinated actions in a dispersed neuronal network

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Kevin W.; Scott, Michael M.; Elmquist, Joel K.

    2011-01-01

    Over the past century, prevalent models of energy and glucose homeostasis have been developed from a better understanding of the neural circuits underlying obesity and diabetes. From the early hypothalamic lesion reports to the more recent pharmacological and molecular/genetic studies, the hypothalamic melanocortin system has been shown to play a critical role in the regulation of metabolism. This review attempts to highlight contributions to our current understanding of how numerous neuromodulators (leptin, insulin, and serotonin) integrate with the central melanocortin system to coordinate alterations in energy and glucose balance. PMID:21211525

  11. Network-based discovery through mechanistic systems biology. Implications for applications--SMEs and drug discovery: where the action is.

    PubMed

    Benson, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Phase II attrition remains the most important challenge for drug discovery. Tackling the problem requires improved understanding of the complexity of disease biology. Systems biology approaches to this problem can, in principle, deliver this. This article reviews the reports of the application of mechanistic systems models to drug discovery questions and discusses the added value. Although we are on the journey to the virtual human, the length, path and rate of learning from this remain an open question. Success will be dependent on the will to invest and make the most of the insight generated along the way. PMID:26464089

  12. Iodine and disinfection: theoretical study on mode of action, efficiency, stability, and analytical aspects in the aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, W

    1999-05-01

    Although they have been in use for nearly 170 years, the mode of action of iodine-based disinfectants is not yet clearly understood, as is manifested, for example, in diverging judgements about the relevance of the individual iodine species. Although studies based on calculated equilibrium concentrations in pure iodine solutions have already been done, there is a lack of knowledge about iodine solutions in the presence of additional iodide which would be of intrinsic importance for disinfection practice. Therefore, a re-calculation was undertaken considering variations of this parameter in the pH range 0-14. The presented calculations concern fresh iodine solutions not affected by disproportionation (iodate formation) and provide information about the equilibrium concentrations of the species I, I2, I3, I5-, I6(2-), HOI, O1-, HI2O-, IO2- and H2OI+. Additional iodide and the pH value have a very pronounced influence on the individual equilibrium concentrations (several powers of ten); hence, conditions can be indicated where the number of species of virtual importance is drastically reduced. In the most common case with iodine in the presence of additional iodide at pH < 6, only I-, I2 and I3- play a role. In the absence of additional iodide, at pH 8-9 and at high dilution (c(I2) < 10(-5) M), on the other hand, HOI accounts for over 90% of the oxidation capacity. At high iodide concentration (e.g., Lugol's solution) the species I5- and I6(2-) make up 8.2% of the oxidation capacity. The iodine cation H2OI+, frequently quoted as an active agent in disinfection, is without any relevance under the conditions occurring in practice, as are IO- and HI2O- which become important only at pH > 10. The stability problem (i.e. rate of iodate formation) arising at pH > 6 can be reduced to hypoiodous acid, as manifested in the simple rate law d[IO3]/dt = 0.25 [HOI]3/[H+] which allows an estimation of stability under weakly alkaline conditions. The results of this study allow us to

  13. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteinaceous toxins are observed across all levels of inter-organismal and intra-genomic conflicts. These include recently discovered prokaryotic polymorphic toxin systems implicated in intra-specific conflicts. They are characterized by a remarkable diversity of C-terminal toxin domains generated by recombination with standalone toxin-coding cassettes. Prior analysis revealed a striking diversity of nuclease and deaminase domains among the toxin modules. We systematically investigated polymorphic toxin systems using comparative genomics, sequence and structure analysis. Results Polymorphic toxin systems are distributed across all major bacterial lineages and are delivered by at least eight distinct secretory systems. In addition to type-II, these include type-V, VI, VII (ESX), and the poorly characterized “Photorhabdus virulence cassettes (PVC)”, PrsW-dependent and MuF phage-capsid-like systems. We present evidence that trafficking of these toxins is often accompanied by autoproteolytic processing catalyzed by HINT, ZU5, PrsW, caspase-like, papain-like, and a novel metallopeptidase associated with the PVC system. We identified over 150 distinct toxin domains in these systems. These span an extraordinary catalytic spectrum to include 23 distinct clades of peptidases, numerous previously unrecognized versions of nucleases and deaminases, ADP-ribosyltransferases, ADP ribosyl cyclases, RelA/SpoT-like nucleotidyltransferases, glycosyltranferases and other enzymes predicted to modify lipids and carbohydrates, and a pore-forming toxin domain. Several of these toxin domains are shared with host-directed effectors of pathogenic bacteria. Over 90 families of immunity proteins might neutralize anywhere between a single to at least 27 distinct types of toxin domains. In some organisms multiple tandem immunity genes or immunity protein domains are organized into polyimmunity loci or polyimmunity proteins. Gene-neighborhood-analysis of polymorphic toxin systems

  14. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigamonti, L. Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  15. Using Co-Lab to Build System Dynamics Models: Students' Actions and On-Line Tutorial Advice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bravo, Crescencio; van Joolingen, Wouter R.; de Jong, Ton

    2009-01-01

    Modeling offers a promising form of constructivist learning for students. By making and executing models of dynamic systems in a computer environment, students are stimulated to learn about the specific domain that is modeled as well as about the process of modeling in general. However, learning by modeling also leads to characteristic student…

  16. Systems Thinkers in Action: A Field Guide for Effective Change Leadership in Education. Leading School Improvement #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despres, Blane, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This field guide provides a look into education in relation to a concept that has already been established in science, business and therapy. This book will encourage and educate readers about systemic thinking through examples and ideas pertinent to education and its reform. Following a Foreword (Michael Fullan) and Introduction (Blane Despres),…

  17. ASSESSING UST CORRECTIVE ACTION TECHNOLOGIES: IN SITU SVE-BASED SYSTEMS FOR FREE PRODUCT RECOVERY AND RESIDUAL HYDROCARBON REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of confirmed releases of petroleum products from underground storage tank (UST) systems has increased significantly since promulgation of the final UST regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 1988. This increase has outpaced the resources of...

  18. 78 FR 18334 - New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff Waiver and Expedited Action

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission New York Independent System Operator, Inc.; Notice of Motion for Tariff... motion for limited tariff waivers of section 5.16.4 and, to the extent necessary, section 5.16.3 of...

  19. Investigation of the process of ferrite formation in the Li2CO3-ZnO-Fe2O3 system under high-energy actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Nikolaev, E. V.

    2013-11-01

    Results of synthesis of lithium-zinc ferrites under high-energy actions including mechanical activation of the mixture of initial reagents in a planetary mill and heating of reaction mixtures upon exposure to accelerated high-energy electron beams are presented. The initial structure of the reaction mixtures corresponds to the stoichiometric spinel formula: Li0.5(1- x)Zn x Fe2.5-0.5 x О4, where х = 0.2. To elucidate the effect of radiation on kinetic transformations of the phase composition, analogous investigations are performed with thermal annealing in a furnace. It is established that mechanical activation and radiation-thermal heating of the Li2CO3-ZnO-Fe2O3 mixture of initial reagents increases significantly the reactivity of solid phase systems thereby decreasing strongly the temperature of synthesis and improving the homogeneity of the end product. To synthesize Li0.4Fe2.4Zn0.2O4 lithium-zinc ferrospinels with homogeneous composition, it is suffice to provide a synthesis temperature of 600°С with holding time of 60 min under complex high-energy action including mechanical activation of the initial mixture of reagents and heating upon exposure to a high-energy beam of electrons.

  20. [Comparative analysis of action of nitric oxide as a free radical and its storage form on the state of pro- and antioxidant blood systems].

    PubMed

    Martusevich, A K; Soloveva, A G; Peretyagin, S P; Vanin, A F

    2015-01-01

    The dynamics of oxidative metabolism in healthy people's blood (n = 30) under the influence of gaseous nitric oxide and dinitrosyl iron complexes is explored. In all blood samples we studied lipid peroxidation intensity and malonic dialdehyde in plasma and erythrocytes, plasma antioxidant potential and activity of superoxide dismutase. During our investigations it was possible for the first time to identify the peculiarities in the responses of pro- and antioxidant blood systems in vitro to the treatment with nitrogen monoxide as the free. radical and its storage form (as a component of dinitrosyl iron complexes). So, a pronounced prooxidant effect for the gas flow from the "Plazon" apparatus moderately decreases when a tenfold dilution of a NO-containing mixture is made. Gas flow from the experimental NO-generator causes minimal prooxidant action, and injection of water solution of dinitrosyl iron complexes in blood specimens leads to an antioxidant action, as limitation of lipoperoxidation processes in plasma and stimulation of superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes. PMID:26016032

  1. A national program for energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A blueprint for action. Review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This Review Draft reports findings and recommendations of the National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems and Mortgage Incentives for Energy Efficiency. The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, formed this National Collaborative as a National Energy Strategy initiative. Participating in the Collaborative were representatives of the primary and secondary mortgage markets, builder and remodeler organizations, real estate and appraiser associations, the home energy rating system industry, utility associations, consumer and public interest groups, state and local government interest groups, and environmental organizations. The Collaborative`s purpose was to develop a voluntary national program encouraging energy efficiency in homes through mortgage incentives linked to home energy ratings.

  2. A national program for energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A blueprint for action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This Review Draft reports findings and recommendations of the National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems and Mortgage Incentives for Energy Efficiency. The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, formed this National Collaborative as a National Energy Strategy initiative. Participating in the Collaborative were representatives of the primary and secondary mortgage markets, builder and remodeler organizations, real estate and appraiser associations, the home energy rating system industry, utility associations, consumer and public interest groups, state and local government interest groups, and environmental organizations. The Collaborative's purpose was to develop a voluntary national program encouraging energy efficiency in homes through mortgage incentives linked to home energy ratings.

  3. Effect of hypokinesia and the combined action of gravitational load and hypokinesia on the structure of the hepatic portal system.

    PubMed

    Drozdova, A V

    1975-10-01

    General hypokinesia during 1--6 weeks resulted in dilatation of the interlobular veins. sinusoids and central veins. The sequence of alterations corresponded to terms of hypokinesia. After exposure to "gravitation stress--hypokinesia for 1--6 weeks" stagnation in the portal system of the liver was less than after exposure to hypokinesia alone, but unevenness of lumens in the interlobular veins and sinusoids was more pronounced. The foci of the vessel spasm were determined. The signs of stagnation in the system of the portal vein and unevenness of the width of all the links of the portal bed were most pronounced after combination "hypokinesia for 1--6 weeks-- gravitation stress". PMID:1191061

  4. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  5. Linking local knowledge with global action: examining the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria through a knowledge system lens.

    PubMed

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole

    2006-08-01

    New global public health institutions are increasingly emphasizing transparency in decision-making, developing-country ownership of projects and programmes, and merit- and performance-based funding. Such principles imply an institutional response to the challenge of bridging the "know-do gap", by basing decisions explicitly on results, evidence and best practice. Using a knowledge systems framework, we examine how the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has affected the ways in which knowledge is used in efforts to combat these three diseases. We outline the formal knowledge system embedded in current rules and practices associated with the Global Fund's application process, and give three examples that illustrate the complexity of the knowledge system in action: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policy in China; successful applications from Haiti; and responses to changing research on malaria. These examples show that the Global Fund has created strong incentives for knowledge to flow to local implementers, but with little encouragement and few structures for the potentially valuable lessons from implementation to flow back to global best practice or research-based knowledge. The Global Fund could play an influential role in fostering much-needed learning from implementation. We suggest that three initial steps are required to start this process: acknowledging shared responsibility for learning across the knowledge system; analysing the Global Fund's existing data (and refining data collection over time); and supporting recipients and technical partners to invest resources in linking implementation with best practice and research. PMID:16917650

  6. Linking local knowledge with global action: examining the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria through a knowledge system lens.

    PubMed Central

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    New global public health institutions are increasingly emphasizing transparency in decision-making, developing-country ownership of projects and programmes, and merit- and performance-based funding. Such principles imply an institutional response to the challenge of bridging the "know-do gap", by basing decisions explicitly on results, evidence and best practice. Using a knowledge systems framework, we examine how the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has affected the ways in which knowledge is used in efforts to combat these three diseases. We outline the formal knowledge system embedded in current rules and practices associated with the Global Fund's application process, and give three examples that illustrate the complexity of the knowledge system in action: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policy in China; successful applications from Haiti; and responses to changing research on malaria. These examples show that the Global Fund has created strong incentives for knowledge to flow to local implementers, but with little encouragement and few structures for the potentially valuable lessons from implementation to flow back to global best practice or research-based knowledge. The Global Fund could play an influential role in fostering much-needed learning from implementation. We suggest that three initial steps are required to start this process: acknowledging shared responsibility for learning across the knowledge system; analysing the Global Fund's existing data (and refining data collection over time); and supporting recipients and technical partners to invest resources in linking implementation with best practice and research. PMID:16917650

  7. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  8. Public policy, health system, and community actions against illness as platforms for response to NCDs in Tanzania: a narrative review

    PubMed Central

    Metta, Emmy; Msambichaka, Beverly; Mwangome, Mary; Nyato, Daniel J.; Dieleman, Marjolein; Haisma, Hinke; Klatser, Paul; Geubbels, Eveline

    2014-01-01

    Background Most low- and middle- income countries are facing a rise of the burden of non-communicable diseases (NCDs) alongside the persistent burden of infectious diseases. This narrative review aims to provide an inventory of how the existing policy environment, health system, and communities are addressing the NCDs situation in Tanzania and identify gaps for advancing the NCD research and policy agenda. Methodology A literature search was performed on PubMed and Google scholar with full text retrieval from HINARI of English language articles published between 2000 and 2012. Documents were read to extract information on what Tanzanian actors were doing that contributed to NCDs prevention, treatment, and control, and a narration was written out of these. Reference lists of all retrieved articles were searched for additional relevant articles. Websites of organizations active in the field of NCDs including the Government of Tanzania and WHO were searched for reports and grey literature. Results Lack of a specific and overarching NCD policy has slowed and fragmented the implementation of existing strategies to prevent and control NCDs and their determinants. The health system is not prepared to deal with the rising NCD burden although there are random initiatives to improve this situation. How the community is responding to these emerging conditions is still unknown, and the current health-seeking behavior and perceptions on the risk factors may not favor control of NCDs and their risk factors. Conclusion and recommendation There is limited information on the burden and determinants of NCDs to inform the design of an integrative and multisectorial policy. Evidence on effective interventions for NCD services in primary care levels and on community perceptions on NCDs and their care seeking is virtually absent. Research and public health interventions must be anchored in the policy, health system, and community platforms for a holistic response. PMID:24848655

  9. Agrp neurons mediate Sirt1’s action on the melanocortin system and energy balance: roles for Sirt1 in neuronal firing and synaptic plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Dietrich, Marcelo O.; Antunes, Catiele; Geliang, Gan; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Borok, Erzsebet; Nie, Yongzhan; Xu, Allison W.; Souza, Diogo O.; Gao, Qian; Diano, Sabrina; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Horvath, Tamas L.

    2010-01-01

    Sirt1 has been associated with various effects of calorie restriction, including an increase in lifespan. Here we show in mice that a central regulatory component in energy metabolism, the hypothalamic melanocortin system, is affected by Sirt1, which promotes the activity and connectivity of this system resulting in negative energy balance. In adult mice, the pharmacological inhibition of brain Sirt1 activity decreased the inhibitory tone on the anorexigenic POMC neurons, as measured by the number of synaptic inputs to these neurons. When a Sirt1 inhibitor (EX-527) was injected either peripherally (i.p., 10mg/kg) or directly into the brain (i.c.v., 1.5 nmol/mouse), it decreased both food intake during the dark cycle and ghrelin-induced food intake. This effect on feeding is mediated by upstream melanocortin receptors, because the MC4R antagonist, SHU9119, reversed Sirt1’s effect on food intake. This action of Sirt1 required an appropriate shift in the mitochondrial redox state: in the absence of such an adaptation enabled by the mitochondrial protein, UCP2, Sirt1-induced cellular and behavioral responses were impaired. The selective knockout of Sirt1 in hypothalamic Agrp neurons through the use of Cre-Lox technology decreased electric responses of Agrp neurons to ghrelin and decreased food intake, leading to decreased lean mass, fat mass and body weight. The present data indicate that Sirt1 has a central mode of action by acting on the NPY/Agrp neurons to affect body metabolism. PMID:20810901

  10. The Mechanism of the Osteoprotective Action of a Polyphenol-Rich Aronia melanocarpa Extract during Chronic Exposure to Cadmium is Mediated by the Oxidative Defense System.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Rogalska, Joanna; Roszczenko, Alicja; Galazyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in a rat model that consumption of a polyphenol-rich extract obtained from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa could protect from cadmium-induced disorders in bone turnover and changes in bone mineral status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the osteoprotective effect of this extract is mediated by the oxidative defense system. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, total antioxidative and oxidative status, hydrogen peroxide, and markers of oxidative protein, lipid, and DNA damage were determined in bone tissue at the distal femoral epiphysis of female Wistar rats receiving 0.1 % aqueous A. melanocarpa extract (prepared from the lyophilized commercial extract containing 65.74 % of polyphenols) as the only drinking fluid and/or cadmium in the diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. The total oxidative and antioxidative status of the serum was also evaluated. The administration of A. melanocarpa extract provided significant protection from cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the bone and serum, and from lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to the protein and DNA in the bone tissue. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status and markers of bone metabolism previously assayed in the animals receiving A. melanocarpa extract. The results allow the conclusion that the ability of A. melanocarpa extract to mediate the oxidative defense system and prevent oxidative modifications of protein, lipid, and DNA in the bone tissue plays an important role in its osteoprotective action under exposure to cadmium. The findings provide further evidence supporting our suggestion that chokeberry may be a promising natural agent for protection against the toxic action of cadmium in women chronically exposed to this metal. PMID:27096624

  11. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems

    PubMed Central

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides. PMID:27125755

  12. Development and evaluation of avanafil self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system with rapid onset of action and enhanced bioavailability.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Usama A; Ahmed, Osama A A; Hosny, Khaled M

    2015-02-01

    Utilization of lipid-based drug delivery systems has recently gained focus for drugs characterized by poor aqueous solubility. The improved aqueous solubility overcomes one of the main barriers that limit their bioavailability. The objective of this work was to improve the solubility and oral bioavailability of Avanafil (AVA), a recently approved second generation type 5 phospodiesterase inhibitor used for erectile dysfunction.AVA was formulated as self-nanoemulsifying drug delivery system (SNEDDS) utilizing various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants. The solubility of AVA in various oils, surfactants, and cosurfactants was determined. Ternary phase diagram was constructed to identify stable nanoemulsion region. The prepared AVA loaded SNEDDS were assessed for optical clarity, droplet size, conductivity, and stability studies. In vitro drug release and in vivo pharmacokinetic parameters using animal model were also investigated. Results revealed that stable AVA (SNEDDS) were successfully developed with a droplet size range of 65 to 190 nm. SNEDDS composed of 25% dill oil, 55% Tween 80, and 20% propylene glycol successfully improved solubilization of AVA (over 80% within 30 min) vis-a-vis the powder AVA (35% within 30 min). In vivo pharmacokinetic showed a significant (P < 0.05) increase in Cmax, reduction in Tmax, and SNEDDS enhanced the bioavailability in the rats by 1.4-fold when compared with pure drug. PMID:25168449

  13. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N. L.; Everman, E.; Kuo, I.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-12-01

    A new web-based decision support system has been developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program's (NAWQA) effort to provide ready access to Spatially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) results of stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via an intuitive graphical user interface with a map-based display. The SPARROW Decision Support System (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions, distribution of nutrient sources, nutrient delivery to downstream waterbodies, and simulations of altered nutrient inputs including atmospheric and agricultural sources. The DSS offers other features for analysis including various background map layers, model output exports, and the ability to save and share prediction scenarios. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. The underlying modeling framework and server infrastructure illustrate innovations in the information technology and geosciences fields for delivering SPARROW model predictions over the web by performing intensive model computations and map visualizations of the predicted conditions within the stream network.

  14. Estrogen receptor β actions in the female cardiovascular system: A systematic review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Muka, Taulant; Vargas, Kris G; Jaspers, Loes; Wen, Ke-xin; Dhana, Klodian; Vitezova, Anna; Nano, Jana; Brahimaj, Adela; Colpani, Veronica; Bano, Arjola; Kraja, Bledar; Zaciragic, Asija; Bramer, Wichor M; van Dijk, Gaby M; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-04-01

    Five medical databases were searched for studies that assessed the role of ERβ in the female cardiovascular system and the influence of age and menopause on ERβ functioning. Of 9472 references, 88 studies met our inclusion criteria (71 animal model experimental studies, 15 human model experimental studies and 2 population based studies). ERβ signaling was shown to possess vasodilator and antiangiogenic properties by regulating the activity of nitric oxide, altering membrane ionic permeability in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and by regulating adrenergic control of the arteries. Also, a possible protective effect of ERβ signaling against left ventricular hypertrophy and ischemia/reperfusion injury via genomic and non-genomic pathways was suggested in 27 studies. Moreover, 5 studies reported that the vascular effects of ERβ may be vessel specific and may differ by age and menopause status. ERβ seems to possess multiple functions in the female cardiovascular system. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether isoform-selective ERβ-ligands might contribute to cardiovascular disease prevention. PMID:26921926

  15. Modulatory effect of Areca nut on the action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on the hepatic detoxification system in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Rao, A R

    1993-07-01

    The present paper reports the modifying potential of areca nut (Areca catechu), an ingredient of the habitual masticatory betel quid, on the induction of the hepatic detoxification system in mice by mace (the aril of nutmeg, Myristica fragrans) a known chemopreventor of chemically induced carcinogenesis. The modulatory effect of areca nut was assessed by determining the levels of enzymes of the hepatic detoxification system, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450, and the content of acid-soluble sulphhydryl (-SH). Mice were fed either control diet or diet containing 0.25, 0.5 or 1% areca nut for 45 days. During the last 10 days the diet was supplemented with 0.5 or 1% mace. At 0.5 and 1% in the diet, areca nut decreased mace-induced increases in hepatic GST and -SH levels and elevated further increases in the levels of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450. PMID:8340031

  16. Ebola, fragile health systems and tuberculosis care: a call for pre-emptive action and operational research.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, R; Ortuno, N; Hermans, V; Desalegn, W; Rust, S; Reid, A J; Boeree, M J; Harries, A D

    2015-11-01

    The Ebola outbreak that started in late 2013 is by far the largest and most sustained in history. It occurred in a part of the world where pre-existing health systems were already fragile, and these deteriorated further during the epidemic due to a large number of health worker deaths; temporary or permanent closure of health facilities; non-payment of health workers; intrinsic fear of contracting or being stigmatised by Ebola among the population, which negatively influenced health-seeking behaviour; enforced quarantine of Ebola-affected communities, restricting the access of vulnerable individuals to health facilities; and late response by the international community. There are also reports of drug and consumable stockouts due to deficiencies in the procurement and supply chain as a result of overriding Ebola-related priorities. Providing tuberculosis (TB) care and achieving favourable treatment outcomes require a fully functioning health system, accurate patient tracking and high patient adherence to treatment. Furthermore, as Ebola is easily transmitted through body fluids, the use of needles-essential for TB diagnosis and treatment-needs to be avoided during an outbreak. We highlight ways in which a sustained Ebola outbreak could jeopardise TB activities and suggest pre-emptive preventive measures while awaiting operational research evidence. PMID:26467577

  17. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides.

  18. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems.

    PubMed

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides. PMID:27125755

  19. 48 CFR 9901.310 - Board action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Board action. 9901.310... PROCUREMENT POLICY, OFFICE OF MANAGEMENT AND BUDGET ADMINISTRATION RULES AND PROCEDURES 9901.310 Board action. Board action shall be by majority vote of the members present and voting, except that any vote...

  20. 15 CFR 700.6 - Official actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Official actions. 700.6 Section 700.6... PRIORITIES AND ALLOCATIONS SYSTEM Overview § 700.6 Official actions. When necessary, Commerce takes specific official actions to implement or enforce the provisions of this regulation and to provide...

  1. Antioxidant activity of spice extracts in a liposome system and in cooked pork patties and the possible mode of action.

    PubMed

    Kong, Baohua; Zhang, Huiyun; Xiong, Youling L

    2010-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to assess the antioxidant efficacy of spice extracts in cooked meat. In experiment 1, antioxidant activity of 13 common spice extracts was screened in a liposome system. Six of the extracts (clove, rosemary, cassia bark, liquorice, nutmeg, and round cardamom), identified to have the greatest total phenolic contents, were strongly inhibitory of TBARS formation. In experiment 2, 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, ferric-reducing power, and metal chelation of these six spice extracts were evaluated. Clove exhibited the greatest reducing power, and all had strong DPPH scavenging activity. In experiment 3, clove, rosemary, and cassia bark extracts were further tested for in situ antioxidant efficacy. Cooked pork patties containing these spice extracts had markedly reduced TBARS formation and off-flavour scores but a more stable red colour, during storage. The results demonstrated strong potential of spice extracts as natural antioxidants in cooked pork products. PMID:20430533

  2. Comparative systems biology analysis to study the mode of action of the isothiocyanate compound Iberin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

    PubMed

    Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Liu, Yang; Chua, Song Lin; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Chew, Su Chuen; Li, Yingying; Nielsen, Thomas E; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Yang, Liang; Givskov, Michael

    2014-11-01

    Food is now recognized as a natural resource of novel antimicrobial agents, including those that target the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. Iberin, an isothiocyanate compound from horseradish, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing inhibitor (QSI) of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we used a comparative systems biology approach to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the effects of iberin on QS and virulence factor expression of P. aeruginosa. Our study shows that the two systems biology methods used (i.e., RNA sequencing and proteomics) complement each other and provide a thorough overview of the impact of iberin on P. aeruginosa. RNA sequencing-based transcriptomics showed that iberin inhibits the expression of the GacA-dependent small regulatory RNAs RsmY and RsmZ; this was verified by using gfp-based transcriptional reporter fusions with the rsmY or rsmZ promoter regions. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics showed that iberin reduces the abundance of the LadS protein, an activator of GacS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the mode of QS inhibition in iberin is through downregulation of the Gac/Rsm QS network, which in turn leads to the repression of QS-regulated virulence factors, such as pyoverdine, chitinase, and protease IV. Lastly, as expected from the observed repression of small regulatory RNA synthesis, we also show that iberin effectively reduces biofilm formation. This suggests that small regulatory RNAs might serve as potential targets in the future development of therapies against pathogens that use QS for controlling virulence factor expression and assume the biofilm mode of growth in the process of causing disease. PMID:25155599

  3. Involvement of neurotransmitters in the action of the nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide-receptor system on passive avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Palotai, Miklós; Adamik, Agnes; Telegdy, Gyula

    2014-08-01

    The nociceptin/orphanin FQ peptide (NOP) receptor and its endogenous ligand plays role in several physiologic functions of the central nervous system, including pain, locomotion, anxiety and depression, reward and drug addiction, learning and memory. Previous studies demonstrated that the NOP-receptor system induces impairment in memory and learning. However, we have little evidence about the underlying neuromodulation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of distinct neurotransmitters in the action of the selective NOP receptor agonist orphan G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) SP9155 P550 on memory consolidation in a passive avoidance learning test in rats. Accordingly, rats were pretreated with a nonselective muscarinic acetylcholine receptor antagonist, atropine, a γ-aminobutyric acid subunit A (GABA-A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline, a D2, D3, D4 dopamine receptor antagonist, haloperidol, a nonselective opioid receptor antagonist, naloxone, a non-specific nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, nitro-L-arginine, a nonselective α-adrenergic receptor antagonist, phenoxybenzamine and a β-adrenergic receptor antagonist, propranolol. Atropine, bicuculline, naloxone and phenoxybenzamine reversed the orphan GPCR SP9155 P550-induced memory impairment, whereas propranolol, haloperidol and nitro-L-arginine were ineffective. Our results suggest that the NOP system-induced impairment of memory consolidation is mediated through muscarinic cholinergic, GABA-A-ergic, opioid and α-adrenergic receptors, whereas β-adrenergic, D2, D3, D4-dopaminergic and nitrergic mechanisms are not be implicated. PMID:24893797

  4. Action Production Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Attention to Others' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes; Turek, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others' actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. "Containment activity", infants' spontaneous engagement in producing…

  5. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  6. Use of grape polyphenols against carcinogenesis: putative molecular mechanisms of action using in vitro and in vivo test systems.

    PubMed

    Gollucke, Andrea P B; Aguiar, Odair; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-03-01

    Polyphenols are present in foods and beverages and are related to sensorial qualities such as color, bitterness, and astringency, which are relevant in wine, tea, grape juice, and other products. These compounds occur naturally in forms varying from simple phenolic acids to complex polymerized tannins. Thus, it is reasonable to expect that grape-derived products elaborated in the presence of skins and seeds, such as wine and grape juice, are natural sources of flavonoids in the diet. Carcinogenesis is a multistep process that is characterized by genetic, epigenetic, and phenotypic changes. With increasing knowledge of these mechanisms, and the conclusion that most cases of cancer are preventable, efforts have focused on identifying the agents with potential anticancer properties. The use of grape polyphenols against the carcinogenesis process seems to be a suitable alternative for either prevention and/or therapeutic purposes. The aim of this article is to show the molecular data generated from the use of grape polyphenols against carcinogenesis using in vivo and in vitro test systems. PMID:23477622

  7. High Pressure Spectroscopic Study of the Action of N-Ethylamines and Water on the 2-Nitropropane/Nitric System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobin, C.; Lucas, H.; Marteau, P.; Hebert, P.; Petitet, J.-P.

    2004-07-01

    High pressure Raman spectroscopy measurements in a diamond anvil cell (0-50 GPa) on nitric acid (NA), 2-nitropropane (2NP), triethylamine (TEA), diethylamine (DEA) as well as the 2NP/NA, NA/H2O and 2NP/ethylamine mixtures are reported. 2NP/TEA and 2NP/DEA mixtures have also been studied by infrared spectroscopy at ambient pressure. The differences noticed at room pressure between the Raman and infrared spectra of the mixtures and those of the pure compounds are highlighted and discussed. The high pressure decomposition of the 2NP/NA mixture with oxygen balance (O.B.=0) has been observed. The role of the NO2 bonds in the intermolecular interactions in pure compounds and in the mixtures, and the reactivity of the 2NP/NA system is discussed. The influence of water and ethylamines on, respectively, the high pressure behaviour of NA and 2NP have also been studied. Several hypothesis are advanced concerning their sensitizing effect or no on the 2NP/NA mixture.

  8. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, N.L.; Everman, E.J.; Kuo, I.-L.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  9. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions.

    PubMed

    Booth, Nathaniel L; Everman, Eric J; Kuo, I-Lin; Sprague, Lori; Murphy, Lorraine

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. PMID:22457585

  10. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions1

    PubMed Central

    Booth, Nathaniel L; Everman, Eric J; Kuo, I-Lin; Sprague, Lori; Murphy, Lorraine

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. PMID:22457585

  11. Lipid Abundance in Zebrafish Embryos Is Regulated by Complementary Actions of the Endocannabinoid System and Retinoic Acid Pathway.

    PubMed

    Fraher, Daniel; Ellis, Megan K; Morrison, Shona; McGee, Sean L; Ward, Alister C; Walder, Ken; Gibert, Yann

    2015-10-01

    The endocannabinoid system (ECS) and retinoic acid (RA) signaling have been associated with influencing lipid metabolism. We hypothesized that modulation of these pathways could modify lipid abundance in developing vertebrates and that these pathways could have a combinatorial effect on lipid levels. Zebrafish embryos were exposed to chemical treatments altering the activity of the ECS and RA pathway. Embryos were stained with the neutral lipid dye Oil-Red-O (ORO) and underwent whole-mount in situ hybridization (WISH). Mouse 3T3-L1 fibroblasts were differentiated under exposure to RA-modulating chemicals and subsequently stained with ORO and analyzed for gene expression by qRT-PCR. ECS activation and RA exposure increased lipid abundance and the expression of lipoprotein lipase. In addition, RA treatment increased expression of CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha. Both ECS receptors and RA receptor subtypes were separately involved in modulating lipid abundance. Finally, increased ECS or RA activity ameliorated the reduced lipid abundance caused by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) inhibition. Therefore, the ECS and RA pathway influence lipid abundance in zebrafish embryos and have an additive effect when treated simultaneously. Furthermore, we demonstrated that these pathways act downstream or independently of PPARγ to influence lipid levels. Our study shows for the first time that the RA and ECS pathways have additive function in lipid abundance during vertebrate development. PMID:26181105

  12. Naloxone improves functional recovery of myocardial stunning in conscious dogs through its action on the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Weber, T P; Stypmann, J; Meissner, A; Hartlage, M G; Van Aken, H; Rolf, N

    2001-04-01

    This study tests the hypothesis that naloxone, but not its quarternary salt, naloxone methiodide (which does not enter the central nervous system), improves recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs. Twenty dogs were chronically instrumented for measurement of heart rate, left atrial, aortic and left ventricular pressure (LVP), LV dP x dtmax(-1) and myocardial wall thickening fraction (WTF). Regional myocardial blood flow was determined with coloured microspheres. Occluder around the left anterior descending artery (LAD) allowed induction of reversible LAD ischaemia. Each of the 20 dogs underwent two LAD ischaemic challenges. Experiments (performed on separate days, in crossover fashion) were: (i) 10 min of LAD occlusion after application of naloxone 63 microg kg(-1) or naloxone methiodide 63 microg kg(-1) and (ii) occlusion without naloxone or naloxone methiodide. WTF was measured at baseline and until complete recovery occurred. LAD ischaemia significantly reduced LAD WTF with (mean (SD) 54 (15)% lower than baseline) and without naloxone (55 (16)% lower than baseline), without significant haemodynamic differences. Between I to 30 min of reperfusion, WTF was significantly higher with naloxone (P < 0.05). There was no difference in WTF with or without naloxone methiodide. We conclude that naloxone improved recovery from myocardial stunning in conscious dogs, and that this was centrally mediated. PMID:11573630

  13. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  14. Action of silver nanoparticles towards biological systems: cytotoxicity evaluation using hen's egg test and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Freire, Priscila L L; Stamford, Thayza C M; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Cavalcante, Horacinna M M; Macedo, Rui O; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of four silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids and their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated based on signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane using the hen's egg test (HET-CAM). Bactericidal properties and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation were determined using a parallel-flow cell system and a dichromatic fluorescent stain. The percentage of viable cells was calculated from regression data generated from a viability standard. AgNP colloids proved to be non-irritating, as they were unable to promote vasoconstriction, haemorrhage or coagulation. AgNP colloids inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel, and cell viability measured by fluorescence was 0% for samples S1, S2, S3 and S4 and 36.5% for the positive control (diluted 30% silver diamine fluoride). AgNPs are new products with a low production cost because they have a lower concentration of silver, with low toxicity and an effective bactericidal effect against a cariogenic oral bacterium. Moreover, they do not promote colour change in dental enamel, which is an aesthetic advantage compared with traditional silver products. PMID:25455849

  15. Evaluation of protective action of α-tocopherol in chromium-induced oxidative stress in female reproductive system of rats

    PubMed Central

    Balakrishnan, R.; Kumar, C. S. V. Satish; Rani, M. Usha; Kavita, K.; Boobalan, G.; Reddy, A. Gopala

    2013-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate whether α-tocopherol could protect the chromium (Cr) VI-induced oxidative stress in female reproductive system of rats and to explore the underlying mechanisms of the same. A total of 24 Wistar adult female rats were equally divided into four groups. Group 1 served as control, while groups 2 and 3 were administered K2Cr2O7 (10 mg/kg b.wt. s.c. single dose). In addition to Cr, group 3 also received α-tocopherol @ 125 mg/kg daily by oral gavage for 14 days. Group 4 was maintained as α-tocopherol control (dose as above). Body weights were recorded at the beginning and at the end of experiment. Further, the rats were observed for occurrence of estrus cycle. At the end of 14 days, blood samples were drawn for sero-biochemical analysis. Subsequently, all the rats were sacrificed to collect uterus along with ovaries for assay of tissue peroxidation, anti-oxidant and functional markers, and histopathology. Administration of chromium (Cr) VI to rats revealed a significant (P < 0.05) accumulation of cholesterol and a prolonged diestrus phase leading to impaired fertility in rats. Administration of chromium (Cr) VI significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the antioxidant markers such as superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH), along with significant (P < 0.05) increase in peroxidation markers such as malondialdehyde and protein carbonyls in ovaries. The functional marker in serum such as total protein was decreased, whereas other functional markers viz alanine transaminase (ALT), blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and creatinine were increased. Prominent pathological changes were observed in the uterus and ovaries of Cr-treated group. Co-treatment with α-tocopherol significantly (P < 0.05) reversed the (Cr) VI induced changes. PMID:23633841

  16. Transients and cooperative action of β-carotene, vitamin E and C in biological systems in vitro under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Platzer, Isabel; Winkelbauer, Cornelia

    1999-08-01

    Using N •3 species as specific electron acceptor a defined ascorbate radical: AH •↔A •-+H + (λ max=360 nm, ɛ=3400 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1) is observed. The attack of DMSO •+ on vit.E results in a vit.E • radical ( k=1×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1; λ max=425 nm, ɛ=2400 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1; 2 k=4.7×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1). Vit.E-acetate leads to the formation of a radical cation (vit.E-ac •+). β-carotene reacts also with DMSO •+ forming a radical cation, β-car •+ ( k=1.75×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1; λ max=942 nm, ɛ=14 600 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1), which probably leads to the formation of a dimer radical cation, (β-car) •+2 ( k=2.5×10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1). Using E.coli bacteria (AB1157) as a model system in vitro it was found that all three vitamins are rather efficient radiation protecting agents. They can also increase the activity of cytostatica, e.g., mitomycin C (MMC), by electron transfer process. The mixture of vit.E-ac and β-car acts contradictory, but adding vit.C to it a strong cooperative enhancement of the MMC activity is observed once again. A relationship between the pulse radiolysis and the radiation biological data is found and discussed. A possible explanation of the previously reported trials concerning the role of vit.E and β-car on the increased occurence of lung and other types of cancer in smokers and drinkers is presented.

  17. Antidepressant action via the nitric oxide system: A pilot study in an acute depressive model induced by arginin.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, Yuta; Ochi, Shinichiro; Yamazaki, Kiyohiro; Nakata, Shunsuke; Abe, Masao; Mori, Yoko; Ueno, Shu-ichi

    2015-07-10

    Nitric oxide (NO) may be a neurotransmitter related to major depressive disorder (MDD) because the selective neuronal NO synthase (NOS) inhibitor, 7-nitroindazole, induces dose-dependent antidepressant-like effects. However, its role in MDD is not yet known. The purpose of our study was to determine if antidepressants improve depression via the NO pathway using an acute depressive rat model induced by L-arginine (AR). Three types of antidepressants were examined, fluoxetine (FLX, 10 mg/kg), milnacipran (MIL, 30 mg/kg), and mirtazapine (MIR, 10 mg/kg), in a depressive model that used AR (750 mg/kg) pretreatment. mRNA expression levels of three NOS subtypes were analyzed by real-time PCR, as well as serum NO levels. Significant increases in iNOS mRNA expression levels were found in brain regions after AR treatment, although the eNOS gene tended to decrease with AR injection. After antidepressant treatment, there were no mRNA expression changes in either nNOS or iNOS. However, eNOS mRNA expression significantly increased with FLX (cerebellum, P=0.011; hippocampus, P=0.011; midbrain, P=0.011; pons, P=0.013; striatum, P=0.011; and thalamus, P<0.001). There was a statistically significant increase in serum NO levels with MIL treatment (P=0.011). We conclude that changes in eNOS mRNA levels in the brain with FLX treatment, and amount of serum NO with MIL treatment may be related to antidepressant effects of both agents, but further experiments are needed to confirm involvement of the NO system in MDD. PMID:26007704

  18. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology. PMID:19531123

  19. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements. PMID:12346441

  20. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  1. 48 CFR 232.616 - Compromise actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise actions. 232.616 Section 232.616 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM... actions. Only the department/agency contract financing offices (see 232.070(c)) are authorized...

  2. Strong acoustic wave action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gokhberg, M. B.

    1983-07-01

    Experiments devoted to acoustic action on the atmosphere-magnetosphere-ionosphere system using ground based strong explosions are reviewed. The propagation of acoustic waves was observed by ground observations over 2000 km in horizontal direction and to an altitude of 200 km. Magnetic variations up to 100 nT were detected by ARIEL-3 satellite near the epicenter of the explosion connected with the formation of strong field aligned currents in the magnetosphere. The enhancement of VLF emission at 800 km altitude is observed.

  3. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  4. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  5. Crystal structure of isoflurane bound to integrin LFA-1 supports a unified mechanism of volatile anesthetic action in the immune and central nervous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongmin; Astrof, Nathan S.; Liu, Jin-Huan; Wang, Jia-huai; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2009-09-15

    Volatile anesthetics (VAs), such as isoflurane, induce a general anesthetic state by binding to specific targets (i.e., ion channels) in the central nervous system (CNS). Simultaneously, VAs modulate immune functions, possibly via direct interaction with alternative targets on leukocytes. One such target, the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), has been shown previously to be inhibited by isoflurane. A better understanding of the mechanism by which isoflurane alters protein function requires the detailed information about the drug-protein interaction at an atomic level. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the LFA-1 ligand-binding domain (I domain) in complex with isoflurane at 1.6 {angstrom}. We discovered that isoflurane binds to an allosteric cavity previously implicated as critical for the transition of LFA-1 from the low- to the high-affinity state. The isoflurane binding site in the I domain involves an array of amphiphilic interactions, thereby resembling a 'common anesthetic binding motif' previously predicted for authentic VA binding sites. These results suggest that the allosteric modulation of protein function by isoflurane, as demonstrated for the integrin LFA-1, might represent a unified mechanism shared by the interactions of volatile anesthetics with targets in the CNS. Crystal structure of isoflurane bound to integrin LFA-1 supports a unified mechanism of volatile anesthetic action in the immune and central nervous systems.

  6. Anti-inflammatory and Anti-nociceptive Actions of Systemically or Locally Treated Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Inflammatory Model.

    PubMed

    Mert, Tufan; Kurt, Akif H; Arslan, Mahmut; Çelik, Ahmet; Tugtag, Berin; Akkurt, Aysenur

    2015-01-01

    Cell-based therapies using mesenchymal stem cells provide hopeful results. Therefore, in this present study, possible anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive actions of locally or systemically treated adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs) investigated in experimental inflammation model. ADMSCs were isolated from a male Wistar rat under anesthesia, and then they were cultured and expanded for transplantation in all the experimental animals. Effects of intraperitoneal or intraplantar ADMSC treatments on the hallmarks of the inflammatory nociception, such as hyperalgesia, allodynia, edema, and several biochemical parameters were investigated using a well-established carrageenan (CG)-induced hindpaw inflammation model in male rats. Both local and systemic ADMSC treatment increased the latencies, thresholds, and the development of edema in a time-dependent manner. In addition, administration of ADMSC suppressed the increased level of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and nitric oxide (NO), but further enhanced that of IL-10. Locally treated ADMSC at inflammatory sites effectively suppressed the CG-induced inflammatory responses when compared to the intraperitoneal route of administration. Findings suggest that therapeutic potential of ADMSC can change depending on its route of administration. Local ADMSC treatments may suppress the development of inflammatory-nociception and edema by decreasing the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines and NO level and increasing the anti-inflammatory cytokine production at inflammatory sites. PMID:25563206

  7. Investigation of medico-biological action of intravasular irradiation of blood on the immune system of an organism at some pathological state of the peripheral nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Tanina, Raisa M.

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the influence of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) on the immune system of the organism at vertebrogenic disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with a prominent pain syndrome. It has been found that ILIB produces a positive effect on the immunity T-link increasing the proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes, has positive dynamics in clinics, doesn't cause any side or negative effects.

  8. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  9. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  10. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  11. Antidepressant-like effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands in the forced swimming test in mice: mechanism of action and possible interactions with cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to explore the role of the endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, nicotine and scopolamine, in the depression-related responses using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results revealed that acute injection of oleamide (10 and 20 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor agonist, caused antidepressant-like effect in the FST, while AM 251 (0.25-3 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not provoke any effect in this test. Moreover, acute administration of both CB2 receptor agonist, JWH 133 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and CB2 receptor antagonist, AM 630 (0.5 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant action. Antidepressant effects of oleamide and JWH 133 were attenuated by acute injection of both non-effective dose of AM 251, as well as AM 630. Among the all CB compounds used, only the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg) with non-effective dose of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) caused an antidepressant effect. However, none of the CB receptor ligands, had influence on the antidepressant effects provoked by nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) injection. In turn, the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg); JWH (2 mg/kg) or AM 630 (2 mg/kg), but not of AM 251 (0.25 mg/kg), with non-effective dose of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant properties. Indeed, all of the CB compounds used, intensified the antidepressant-like effects induced by an acute injection of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg). Our results provide clear evidence that the endocannabinoid system participates in the depression-related behavior and through interactions with cholinergic system modulate these kind of responses. PMID:25660201

  12. Numerical Tests of the Improved Fermilab Action

    SciTech Connect

    Detar, C.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Oktay, M.B.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the Fermilab heavy-quark action was extended to include dimension-six and -seven operators in order to reduce the discretization errors. In this talk, we present results of the first numerical simulations with this action (the OK action), where we study the masses of the quarkonium and heavy-light systems. We calculate combinations of masses designed to test improvement and compare results obtained with the OK action to their counterparts obtained with the clover action. Our preliminary results show a clear improvement.

  13. Action of andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) on Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morphophysiological evaluation of reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, Maria Cláudia Ramalho; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; De Faria, Adriano Uemura; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; De Souza, Leonardo Peres; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Roma, Gislaine Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Because of the increasing medical-veterinary importance of ticks, the development of alternative control methods, less aggressive to the host and the environment has become the target of several researches. In this sense, the present study analyzed the action of different concentrations (5, 10, and 20%) of andiroba seed oil (Carapa guianensis) on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, through histochemical techniques and the quantification of the reproductive efficiency index. The results showed that andiroba oil is a potent natural agent, able to cause several changes in the oocytes of this species, impairing the reproductive success, once this natural product induces great physiological changes in the oocytes in all development stages, such as drastic reduction in proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids in these cells, and these components are essential for the viability of the embryo. In addition, it was observed that this product stimulate the oviposition, mainly at the concentration of 20%. This higher production of eggs represents a defense mechanism developed by the organism in order to ensure the reproductive success of the species, even in the presence of the toxic agent. However, the results obtained suggested that the laid eggs would not be viable, due to the great changes undergone by the oocytes. Thus, the present study showed that the use of this vegetal product would be an alternative way to control the ticks, bringing benefits similar to the ones obtained through the use of synthetic acaricides; however, with less damage to nontarget organisms and the environment as well. PMID:22972770

  14. Comparison of facial expression in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia using the Facial Action Coding System: a preliminary study

    PubMed Central

    Bersani, Giuseppe; Bersani, Francesco Saverio; Valeriani, Giuseppe; Robiony, Maddalena; Anastasia, Annalisa; Colletti, Chiara; Liberati, Damien; Capra, Enrico; Quartini, Adele; Polli, Elisa

    2012-01-01

    Background Research shows that impairment in the expression and recognition of emotion exists in multiple psychiatric disorders. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the way that patients with schizophrenia and those with obsessive-compulsive disorder experience and display emotions in relation to specific emotional stimuli using the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). Methods Thirty individuals participated in the study, comprising 10 patients with schizophrenia, 10 with obsessive-compulsive disorder, and 10 healthy controls. All participants underwent clinical sessions to evaluate their symptoms and watched emotion-eliciting video clips while facial activity was videotaped. Congruent/incongruent feeling of emotions and facial expression in reaction to emotions were evaluated. Results Patients with schizophrenia and obsessive-compulsive disorder presented similarly incongruent emotive feelings and facial expressions (significantly worse than healthy participants). Correlations between the severity of psychopathological condition (in particular the severity of affective flattening) and impairment in recognition and expression of emotions were found. Discussion Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder and schizophrenia seem to present a similarly relevant impairment in both experiencing and displaying of emotions; this impairment may be seen as a chronic consequence of the same neurodevelopmental origin of the two diseases. Mimic expression could be seen as a behavioral indicator of affective flattening. The FACS could be used as an objective way to evaluate clinical evolution in patients. PMID:23269872

  15. Comparing Maintenance Costs of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems with other HVAC Systems in Lincoln Public Schools: Repair, Service, and Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.; Durfee, D.J.; Hughes, P.J.

    1999-06-19

    The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four, new, elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACUGHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCCYGHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCUGSB). Preventative maintenance and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.88 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr. Because of tax-exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R{sup 2}=O.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain.

  16. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  17. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  18. Efficient computation of optimal actions

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress—as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant. PMID:19574462

  19. 48 CFR 323.7002 - Actions required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Actions required. 323.7002 Section 323.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... WORKPLACE Safety and Health 323.7002 Actions required. (a) Contracting activities. The Contracting...

  20. 48 CFR 432.616 - Compromise actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Compromise actions. 432.616 Section 432.616 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL CONTRACTING REQUIREMENTS CONTRACT FINANCING Contract Debts 432.616 Compromise actions. Compromise of a...

  1. 48 CFR 323.7002 - Actions required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Actions required. 323.7002 Section 323.7002 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS... WORKPLACE Safety and Health 323.7002 Actions required. (a) Contracting activities. The Contracting...

  2. 47 CFR 11.13 - Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and Emergency Action Termination (EAT). 11.13 Section 11.13 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION GENERAL EMERGENCY ALERT SYSTEM (EAS) General § 11.13 Emergency Action Notification (EAN) and...

  3. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  4. 48 CFR 1422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1422.804 Section 1422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....804 Affirmative action programs....

  5. 48 CFR 922.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 922.804 Section 922.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC... Affirmative action programs....

  6. 48 CFR 522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 522.804 Section 522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Affirmative action programs....

  7. 48 CFR 22.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 22.804 Section 22.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Affirmative action programs....

  8. 48 CFR 1522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....

  9. 48 CFR 522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 522.804 Section 522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Affirmative action programs....

  10. 48 CFR 1422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1422.804 Section 1422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....804 Affirmative action programs....

  11. 48 CFR 422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 422.804 Section 422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Affirmative action programs....

  12. 48 CFR 922.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 922.804 Section 922.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY SOCIOECONOMIC... Affirmative action programs....

  13. 48 CFR 1522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....

  14. 48 CFR 1422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1422.804 Section 1422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR....804 Affirmative action programs....

  15. 48 CFR 522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 522.804 Section 522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System GENERAL SERVICES ADMINISTRATION... Affirmative action programs....

  16. 48 CFR 422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 422.804 Section 422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Affirmative action programs....

  17. 48 CFR 1522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....

  18. 48 CFR 1522.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 1522.804 Section 1522.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY....804 Affirmative action programs....

  19. 48 CFR 22.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 22.804 Section 22.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Affirmative action programs....

  20. 48 CFR 422.804 - Affirmative action programs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Affirmative action programs. 422.804 Section 422.804 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Affirmative action programs....