Science.gov

Sample records for action praca system

  1. Intercenter Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System (PRACAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brock, G. H.; Paley, J. J.

    1984-01-01

    The Kennedy Space Center is transforming the PRACA bath automatic data processing (ADP) system of today into a fully integrated data base with on-line update and retrieval capabilities. The present manual system of reporting (Datafax, mail, and telephone) to the off-site design and engineering organizations is to be replaced by direct access to the most current information as it accrues at KSC or VAFB. Two major goals of the Intercenter PRACA are to provide a single data depository for both launch sites and to fully integrate the problem data with engineering data as well as other relevant information. The resulting ADP system can provide a closed loop system for problem reporting, corrective action and recurrence control that should serve the engineering community as well as reliability and quality assurance at the launch sites, KSC and VAFB, and at the design centers, JSC and MSFC.

  2. Lessons Learned for Cx PRACA. Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.

  3. PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study Report: Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety), DFS-IC-0006

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeyer, David; Schreiner, John

    2002-01-01

    This technology evaluation report documents the findings and recommendations of the Engineering for Complex Systems Program (formerly Design for Safety) PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study of the Space Shuttle Program's (SSP's) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. A team at NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) performed this Study. This Study was initiated as a follow-on to the NASA chartered Shuttle Independent Assessment Team (SIAT) review (performed in the Fall of 1999) which identified deficiencies in the current PRACA implementation. The Pilot Study was launched with an initial qualitative assessment and technical review performed during January 2000 with the quantitative formal Study (the subject of this report) started in March 2000. The goal of the PRACA Enhancement Pilot Study is to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP PRACA systems and recommend enhancements to address deficiencies and in preparation for future system upgrades.

  4. Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) Analysis of the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) Database of the International Space Station On-Orbit Electrical Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oeftering, Richard C.; Bradish, Martin A.; Juergens, Jeffrey R.; Lewis, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    The NASA Constellation Program is investigating and developing technologies to support human exploration of the Moon and Mars. The Component-Level Electronic-Assembly Repair (CLEAR) task is part of the Supportability Project managed by the Exploration Technology Development Program. CLEAR is aimed at enabling a flight crew to diagnose and repair electronic circuits in space yet minimize logistics spares, equipment, and crew time and training. For insight into actual space repair needs, in early 2008 the project examined the operational experience of the International Space Station (ISS) program. CLEAR examined the ISS on-orbit Problem Reporting and Corrective Action database for electrical and electronic system problems. The ISS has higher than predicted reliability yet, as expected, it has persistent problems. A goal was to identify which on-orbit electrical problems could be resolved by a component-level replacement. A further goal was to identify problems that could benefit from the additional diagnostic and test capability that a component-level repair capability could provide. The study indicated that many problems stem from a small set of root causes that also represent distinct component problems. The study also determined that there are certain recurring problems where the current telemetry instrumentation and built-in tests are unable to completely resolve the problem. As a result, the root cause is listed as unknown. Overall, roughly 42 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could be addressed with a component-level repair. Furthermore, 63 percent of on-orbit electrical problems on ISS could benefit from additional external diagnostic and test capability. These results indicate that in situ component-level repair in combination with diagnostic and test capability can be expected to increase system availability and reduce logistics. The CLEAR approach can increase the flight crew s ability to act decisively to resolve problems while reducing

  5. Assessment of the NASA Space Shuttle Program's Problem Reporting and Corrective Action System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korsmeryer, D. J.; Schreiner, J. A.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This paper documents the general findings and recommendations of the Design for Safety Programs Study of the Space Shuttle Programs (SSP) Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) System. The goals of this Study were: to evaluate and quantify the technical aspects of the SSP's PRACA systems, and to recommend enhancements addressing specific deficiencies in preparation for future system upgrades. The Study determined that the extant SSP PRACA systems accomplished a project level support capability through the use of a large pool of domain experts and a variety of distributed formal and informal database systems. This operational model is vulnerable to staff turnover and loss of the vast corporate knowledge that is not currently being captured by the PRACA system. A need for a Program-level PRACA system providing improved insight, unification, knowledge capture, and collaborative tools was defined in this study.

  6. Determining Component Probability using Problem Report Data for Ground Systems used in Manned Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Monaghan, Mark W.; Gillespie, Amanda M.

    2013-01-01

    During the shuttle era NASA utilized a failure reporting system called the Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) it purpose was to identify and track system non-conformance. The PRACA system over the years evolved from a relatively nominal way to identify system problems to a very complex tracking and report generating data base. The PRACA system became the primary method to categorize any and all anomalies from corrosion to catastrophic failure. The systems documented in the PRACA system range from flight hardware to ground or facility support equipment. While the PRACA system is complex, it does possess all the failure modes, times of occurrence, length of system delay, parts repaired or replaced, and corrective action performed. The difficulty is mining the data then to utilize that data in order to estimate component, Line Replaceable Unit (LRU), and system reliability analysis metrics. In this paper, we identify a methodology to categorize qualitative data from the ground system PRACA data base for common ground or facility support equipment. Then utilizing a heuristic developed for review of the PRACA data determine what reports identify a credible failure. These data are the used to determine inter-arrival times to perform an estimation of a metric for repairable component-or LRU reliability. This analysis is used to determine failure modes of the equipment, determine the probability of the component failure mode, and support various quantitative differing techniques for performing repairable system analysis. The result is that an effective and concise estimate of components used in manned space flight operations. The advantage is the components or LRU's are evaluated in the same environment and condition that occurs during the launch process.

  7. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  8. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  9. Systems Thinking, Lean Production and Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seddon, John; Caulkin, Simon

    2007-01-01

    Systems thinking underpins "lean" management and is best understood through action-learning as the ideas are counter-intuitive. The Toyota Production System is just that--a system; the failure to appreciate that starting-place and the advocacy of "tools" leads many to fail to grasp what is, without doubt, a significant…

  10. Estrogen actions in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Mendelsohn, M E

    2009-01-01

    This brief review summarizes the current state of the field for estrogen receptor actions in the cardiovascular system and the cardiovascular effects of hormone replacement therapy (HRT). It is organized into three parts: a short Introduction and overview of the current view of how estrogen works on blood vessels; a summary of the current status of clinical information regarding HRT and cardiovascular effects; and an update on state-of-the-art mouse models of estrogen action using estrogen receptor knockout mice.

  11. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance.

  12. Integrating systems biology sources illuminates drug action

    PubMed Central

    Gottlieb, Assaf; Altman, Russ B.

    2014-01-01

    There are significant gaps in our understanding of the pathways by which drugs act. This incomplete knowledge limits our ability to use mechanistic molecular information rationally to repurpose drugs, understand their side effects, and predict their interactions with other drugs. Here we present DrugRouter: a novel method for generating drug-specific pathways of action by linking target genes, disease genes and pharmacogenes using gene interaction networks. We construct pathways for over a hundred drugs, and show that the genes included in our pathways (1) co-occur with the query drug in the literature, (2) significantly overlap or are adjacent to known drug-response pathways, and (3) are adjacent to genes that are hits in genome wide association studies assessing drug response. Finally, these computed pathways suggest novel drug repositioning opportunities (e.g., statins for follicular thyroid cancer), gene-side effect associations, and gene-drug interactions. Thus, DrugRouter generates hypotheses about drug actions using systems biology data. PMID:24577151

  13. Addiction as a function of action system properties.

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J; Sztulman, H

    2000-01-01

    Generalising from some previous analyses of addiction and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focused on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management," we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety, and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state." A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strong significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  14. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Cardillo, Eileen R.; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people “kicking”) or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone “kicking”) within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with “person-specific” action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than

  15. The specificity of action knowledge in sensory and motor systems.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine E; Cardillo, Eileen R; Bromberger, Bianca; Chatterjee, Anjan

    2014-01-01

    Neuroimaging studies have found that sensorimotor systems are engaged when participants observe actions or comprehend action language. However, most of these studies have asked the binary question of whether action concepts are embodied or not, rather than whether sensory and motor areas of the brain contain graded amounts of information during putative action simulations. To address this question, we used repetition suppression (RS) functional magnetic resonance imaging to determine if functionally-localized motor movement and visual motion regions-of-interest (ROI) and two anatomical ROIs (inferior frontal gyrus, IFG; left posterior middle temporal gyrus, pMTG) were sensitive to changes in the exemplar (e.g., two different people "kicking") or representational format (e.g., photograph or schematic drawing of someone "kicking") within pairs of action images. We also investigated whether concrete versus more symbolic depictions of actions (i.e., photographs or schematic drawings) yielded different patterns of activation throughout the brain. We found that during a conceptual task, sensory and motor systems represent actions at different levels of specificity. While the visual motion ROI did not exhibit RS to different exemplars of the same action or to the same action depicted by different formats, the motor movement ROI did. These effects are consistent with "person-specific" action simulations: if the motor system is recruited for action understanding, it does so by activating one's own motor program for an action. We also observed significant repetition enhancement within the IFG ROI to different exemplars or formats of the same action, a result that may indicate additional cognitive processing on these trials. Finally, we found that the recruitment of posterior brain regions by action concepts depends on the format of the input: left lateral occipital cortex and right supramarginal gyrus responded more strongly to symbolic depictions of actions than concrete

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2011-04-30

    This Corrective Action Plan has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (1996; as amended March 2010). CAU 562 consists of 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site. Site characterization activities were performed in 2009 and 2010, and the results are presented in Appendix A of the Corrective Action Decision Document for CAU 562. The scope of work required to implement the recommended closure alternatives is summarized. (1) CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot, will be clean closed by removing shot. (2) CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain, will be clean closed by removing paint and contaminated soil. As a best management practice (BMP), asbestos tile will be removed. (3) CAS 02-59-01, Septic System, will be clean closed by removing septic tank contents. As a BMP, the septic tank will be removed. (4) CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain, contains no contaminants of concern (COCs) above action levels. No further action is required; however, as a BMP, the concrete drain will be removed. (5) CAS 02-60-02, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. As a BMP, the drain grates and drain pipe will be removed. (6) CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. As a BMP, the steam cleaning sump grate and outfall pipe will be removed. (7) CAS 02-60-04, French Drain, was clean closed. Corrective actions were completed during corrective action investigation activities. (8) CAS 02-60-05, French Drain, will be clean closed by removing contaminated soil. (9) CAS 02-60-06, French Drain, contains no COCs above action levels. No further action is required. (10) CAS 02-60-07, French Drain, requires no further action. The french drain identified in historical documentation was not located during corrective action investigation

  17. Mining Students' Inquiry Actions for Understanding of Complex Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Sharona T.; Wilensky, Uri

    2011-01-01

    This study lies at an intersection between advancing educational data mining methods for detecting students' knowledge-in-action and the broader question of how conceptual and mathematical forms of knowing interact in exploring complex chemical systems. More specifically, it investigates students' inquiry actions in three computer-based models of…

  18. A SYSTEMS ANALYSIS OF SCHOOL BOARD ACTION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SCRIBNER, JAY D.

    THE BASIC ASSUMPTION OF THE FUNCTIONAL-SYSTEMS THEORY IS THAT STRUCTURES FULFILL FUNCTIONS IN SYSTEMS AND THAT SUBSYSTEMS OPERATE SEPARATELY WITHIN ANY TYPE OF STRUCTURE. RELYING MAINLY ON GABRIEL ALMOND'S PARADIGM, THE AUTHOR ATTEMPTS TO DETERMINE THE USEFULNESS OF THE FUNCTIONAL-SYSTEMS THEORY IN CONDUCTING EMPIRICAL RESEARCH OF SCHOOL BOARDS.…

  19. Polaron action for multimode dispersive phonon systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornilovitch, P. E.

    2006-03-01

    The path-integral approach to the tight-binding polaron is extended to multiple optical phonon modes of arbitrary dispersion and polarization. The nonlinear lattice effects are neglected. Only one electron band is considered. The electron-phonon interaction is of the density-displacement type, but can be of arbitrary spatial range and shape. Feynman’s analytical integration of ion trajectories is performed by transforming the electron-ion forces to the basis in which the phonon dynamical matrix is diagonal. The resulting polaron action is derived for the periodic and shifted boundary conditions in imaginary time. The former can be used for calculating polaron thermodynamics while the latter for the polaron mass and spectrum. The developed formalism is the analytical basis for numerical analysis of such models by path-integral Monte Carlo methods.

  20. Privacy Impact Assessment for the Enforcement Action Response System

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Enforcement Action Response System collects waste transaction information, and liability determination information. Learn how this data is collected, how it will be used, access to the data, the purpose of data collection, and record retention policies

  1. Nongenomic Actions of Adrenal Steroids in the Central Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Evanson, Nathan K.; Herman, James P.; Sakai, Randall R.; Krause, Eric G.

    2015-01-01

    Mineralocorticoids and glucocorticoids are steroid hormones that are released by the adrenal cortex in response to stress and hydromineral imbalance. Historically, adrenocorticosteroid actions are attributed to effects on gene transcription. More recently, however, it has become clear that genome-independent pathways represent an important facet of adrenal steroid actions. These hormones exert nongenomic effects throughout the body, but a significant portion of their actions are specific to the central nervous system. These actions are mediated by a variety of signalling pathways, and lead to physiologically meaningful events in vitro and in vivo. Here we review nongenomic effects of adrenal steroids in the central nervous system at the levels of behaviour, neural system activity, individual neurone activity, and subcellular signalling activity. A clearer understanding of adrenal steroid activity in the central nervous system will lead to a better ability both to treat human disease, and to reduce side-effects of steroid treatments already in use. PMID:20367759

  2. Mapping implied body actions in the human motor system.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Moro, Valentina; Candidi, Matteo; Aglioti, Salvatore M

    2006-07-26

    The human visual system is highly tuned to perceive actual motion as well as to extrapolate dynamic information from static pictures of objects or creatures captured in the middle of motion. Processing of implied motion activates higher-order visual areas that are also involved in processing biological motion. Imagery and observation of actual movements performed by others engenders selective activation of motor and premotor areas that are part of a mirror-neuron system matching action observation and execution. By using single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation, we found that the mere observation of static snapshots of hands suggesting a pincer grip action induced an increase in corticospinal excitability as compared with observation of resting, relaxed hands, or hands suggesting a completed action. This facilitatory effect was specific for the muscle that would be activated during actual execution of the observed action. We found no changes in responsiveness of the tested muscles during observation of nonbiological entities with (e.g., waterfalls) or without (e.g., icefalls) implied motion. Thus, extrapolation of motion information concerning human actions induced a selective activation of the motor system. This indicates that overlapping motor regions are engaged in the visual analysis of physical and implied body actions. The absence of motor evoked potential modulation during observation of end posture stimuli may indicate that the observation-execution matching system is preferentially activated by implied, ongoing but not yet completed actions.

  3. Systemic Action and Learning in Public Services

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rigg, Clare

    2011-01-01

    Complex, systemic issues continue to challenge public services without respect for organisational and professional boundaries. In practice, collaborative working with others who have differing professional cultural norms and systems confront members with the need to learn about each other's values, priorities and practices. This paper explores the…

  4. "Ordinary men" or "evil monsters"? An action systems model of genocidal actions and characteristics of perpetrators.

    PubMed

    Hollows, Kerrilee; Fritzon, Katarina

    2012-10-01

    This study aimed to address the limitations of the existing genocide literature with the development of an empirically based classification system. Using Shye's (1985) action systems model, it was hypothesized that four types of perpetrators would exist and would be distinguishable by differences in the sources and target of individual criminal actions. Court transcripts from 80 perpetrators sentenced by the international courts were subject to content analysis and revealed 39 offense action variables, 17 perpetrator characteristic variables, and 6 perpetrator motive variables. A smallest space analysis using the Jaccard coefficient of association was conducted on the offense variables. The results supported the proposed framework, producing four distinct types of genocidal perpetrators. Correlational analyses were then conducted to examine the relationships between each of the perpetrator types and the remaining variables. The results of those correlations provided further support for the proposed framework. The implications of these findings are discussed.

  5. Affirmative Action Implications for Worldwide Family Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liss, Lora

    This paper views the interrelatedness of political, economic, and family systems as they are being affected by the growing awareness of sex discrimination. The reduction in sex inequalities throughout the world, regardless of political or economic orientation, will necessitate a new perception of the woman's role in the family unit. The hypothesis…

  6. Systems Thinking in Action: A District Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ford, Leslie Goldring

    2008-01-01

    Research on the enduring contribution of leadership to student achievement can be integrated as part of a system planning model. This article offers a formative sample in the convergence of two dissimilar forces: (1) the stability of school culture, whose rock-solid nature resembles a tectonic plate; and (2) the flowing energy of administrators…

  7. Leadership & Sustainability: System Thinkers in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fullan, Michael

    2004-01-01

    As agencies have pushed for greater performance and public accountability over the past two decades, some incremental improvements have been seen. All too often experience reveals that these improvements are temporary. This book provides a comprehensive examination of what leaders at all levels of the educational system can do to pave the way for…

  8. Additional Actions Can Improve Naval Air Systems Command’s Use of Undefinitized Contractual Actions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-08

    Naval Air Systems Command NTE Not-to-Exceed UCA Undefinitized Contractual Action U.S.C. United States Code INSPECTOR GENERAL DEPARTMENT...States Code . We reviewed 52 UCAs with a total not-to-exceed value of about $1.6 billion awarded by the Naval Air Systems Command (NAVAIR) from FY...2004 through FY 2009 to determine whether NAVAIR personnel complied with the restrictions of the United States Code and whether they appropriately

  9. Bio-inspired method and system for actionable intelligence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosla, Deepak; Chelian, Suhas E.

    2009-05-01

    This paper describes a bio-inspired VISion based actionable INTelligence system (VISINT) that provides automated capabilities to (1) understand objects, patterns, events and behaviors in vision data; (2) translate this understanding into timely recognition of novel and anomalous entities; and (3) discover underlying hierarchies and relationships between disparate labels entered by multiple users to provide a consistent data representation. VISINT is both a system and a novel collection of novel bio-inspired algorithms/modules. These modules can be used independently for various aspects of the actionable intelligence problem or sequenced together for an end-to-end actionable intelligence system. The algorithms can be useful in many other applications such as scene understanding, behavioral analysis, automatic surveillance systems, etc. The bio-inspired algorithms are a novel combination of hierarchical spatial and temporal networks based on the Adaptive Resonance Theory (ART). The novel aspects of this work are that it is an end-to-end system for actionable intelligence that combines existing and novel implementations of various modules in innovative ways to develop a system concept for actionable intelligence. Although there are other algorithms/implementations of several of the modules in VISINT, they suffer from various limitations and often system integration is not considered. The overall VISINT system can be viewed an incremental learning system where no offline training is required and data from multiple sources and times can be seamlessly integrated. The user is in the loop, but due to the semi-supervised nature of the underlying algorithms, only significant variations of entities, not all false alarms, are shown to the user. It does not forget the past even with new learning. While VISINT is designed as a vision-based system, it could also work with other kinds of sensor data that can recognize and locate individual objects in the scene. Beyond that stage

  10. Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES)

    SciTech Connect

    Fernandez, Steven J; Brecke, Peter K; Carmichael, Theodore D; Eichelberger, Christopher N; Ganguly, Auroop R; Hadzikadic, Mirsad; Jiao, Yu; Khouja, Moutaz J; McLean, Angus L; Middleton, Erin J; Omitaomu, Olufemi A; Saric, Amar; Sun, Min; Whitmeyer, Joseph M; Gilman, Paul; O'Maonaigh, Heather C

    2008-05-01

    The foundation of the Actionable Capability for Social and Economic Systems (ACSES) project is a useful regional-scale social-simulation system. This report is organized into five chapters that describe insights that were gained concerning the five key feasibility questions pertaining to such a system: (1) Should such a simulation system exist, would the current state of data sets or collectible data sets be adequate to support such a system? (2) By comparing different agent-based simulation systems, is it feasible to compare simulation systems and select one appropriate for a given application with agents behaving according to modern social theory rather than ad hoc rule sets? (3) Provided that a selected simulation system for a region of interest could be constructed, can the simulation system be updated with new and changing conditions so that the universe of potential outcomes are constrained by events on the ground as they evolve? (4) As these results are constrained by evolving events on the ground, is it feasible to still generate surprise and emerging behavior to suggest outcomes from novel courses of action? (5) As these systems may for the first time require large numbers (hundreds of millions) of agents operating with complexities demanded of modern social theories, can results still be generated within actionable decision cycles?

  11. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, with Errata Sheet, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2007-01-01

    Corrective Action Unit 563, Septic Systems, is located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 563 is comprised of the four corrective action sites (CASs) below: • 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank • 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool • 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks • 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  12. The Mirror Neuron System: Grasping Others' Actions from Birth?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lepage, Jean-Francois; Theoret, Hugo

    2007-01-01

    In the adult human brain, the presence of a system matching the observation and the execution of actions is well established. This mechanism is thought to rely primarily on the contribution of so-called "mirror neurons", cells that are active when a specific gesture is executed as well as when it is seen or heard. Despite the wealth of evidence…

  13. Debugging Distributed Computations in a Nested Atomic Action System.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-12-01

    queued if action commits seize q do buf fer$ addh (q value, item) % add new item to butler end end enq deq =proc (q: cvt) returns (int) cleanup(q... addh (q.value, item) % add new item to buffer end rep$changed(q) % notify system of modification % to buffer end enq deq =Proc (q: cvt) returns (int

  14. Systems Biology & Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology for risk assessment of environmental chemicals is a national extension of its use in pharmaceutical research. The basis for this is the concept of a key event network that builds on existing mode of action frameworks for risk assessment. The a...

  15. After Action Reviews With the Ground Soldier System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-09-01

    The After Action Review (AAR) is critical to the Army’s training process . Much work conducted by the U.S. Army Research Institute (ARI) has been...them to apply their expertise and wisdom to the AAR process . Consequently, the aids suggested here should be viewed as providing a large collection...25 OC use of the LW System in the AAR Process

  16. Needed improvements in the development of systemic corrective actions.

    SciTech Connect

    Campisi, John A.

    2009-07-01

    There are indications that corrective actions, as implemented at Sandia National Laboratories are not fully adequate. Review of independent audits spanning multiple years provides evidence of recurring issues within the same or similar operations and programs. Several external audits have directly called into question the ability Sandia's assessment and evaluation processes to prevent recurrence. Examples of repeated findings include lockout/tagout programs, local exhaust ventilation controls and radiological controls. Recurrence clearly shows that there are underlying systemic factors that are not being adequately addressed by corrective actions stemming from causal analyses. Information suggests that improvements in the conduct of causal analyses and, more importantly, in the development of subsequent corrective actions are warranted. Current methodolgies include Management Oversight Risk Tree, developed in the early 1970s and Systemic Factors Analysis. Recommendations for improvements include review of other causal analysis systems, training, improved formality of operations, improved documentation, and a corporate method that uses truly systemic solutions. This report was written some years ago and is being published now to form the foundation for current, follow-on reports being developed. Some outdated material is recognized but is retained for report completeness.

  17. Classical action functional for the system of fields and wormholes

    SciTech Connect

    Hajicek, P.

    1982-12-15

    We lay down foundations of the quantum theory of wormholes for the model Einstein-Maxwell system. The generalization of the quantum theory of solitons to wormholes is not straightforward, because the fields are singular at r = 0. We propose to cut away the nonphysical part of the spacetime along the horizons and to impose boundary conditions at the resulting boundary of Cauchy surfaces. The boundary conditions are chosen such that (a) there is an action functional for the fields, (b) Poisson brackets of the boundary-fixed quantities with each other vanish, and (c) the soliton solution is unique. We study the action functional, find the surface terms, and, using the method of Regge and Teitelboim, extract the motion of the soliton. We show how the gauge group of the system is extended and find some properties of the additional gauge conditions. Finally, the soliton solution is written in the form in which all boundary and gauge conditions are satisfied.

  18. Disconnected Actions: An Asynchronous Extension to a Nested Atomic Action System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-01-01

    action " Effects: Returns an aid for a local sub action as the Parent’s5 child " (Enumerated with Step) return(rep$ addh (Parent,adievel$ tg:SUBACTION...previously by the same action " Effects: Returns an aid for a concurrent-set action as a child of Parent return(rep$ addh (Parent,aid-level${ tg :CONC...given previously by the same action % Effects: Returns an aid for a nested top action as a child of Parent retur.n(rep$ addh (Parent,aidileve${tg:TOP

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada with ROTC1, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-05-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 560 is located in Areas 3 and 6 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 560 is comprised of the seven corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 03-51-01, Leach Pit • 06-04-02, Septic Tank • 06-05-03, Leach Pit • 06-05-04, Leach Bed • 06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System • 06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond • 06-59-05, Control Point Septic System These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on January 22, 2008, by representatives from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 560.

  20. Thinking New System(s)? Some Action Items.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrod, James I.; Craft, Larry N.

    The planning for, design, and implementation of information management systems in colleges and universities is approaching a state of adolescence as a science. Because rules cannot be devised with sufficient scope and depth to cover all institutional and systems contingencies, the necessary activities remain somewhere between magic and art. At…

  1. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-03-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 151 consists of eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada.

  2. Conservation of wave action. [in discrete oscillating system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, W. D.

    1974-01-01

    It is pointed out that two basic principles appear in the theory of wave propagation, including the existence of a phase variable and a law governing the intensity, in terms of a conservation law. The concepts underlying such a conservation law are explored. The waves treated are conservative in the sense that they obey equations derivable from a variational principle applied to a Lagrangian functional. A discrete oscillating system is considered. The approach employed also permits in a natural way the definition of a local action density and flux in problems in which the waves are modal or general.

  3. Angiotensin receptors and actions in guinea pig enteric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guo-Du; Wang, Xi-Yu; Hu, Hong-Zhen; Fang, Xiu-Cai; Liu, Sumei; Gao, Na; Xia, Yun; Wood, Jackie D

    2005-09-01

    Actions of ANG II on electrical and synaptic behavior of enteric neurons in the guinea pig small intestine were studied. Exposure to ANG II depolarized the membrane potential and elevated neuronal excitability. The number of responding neurons was small, with responses to ANG II in 32% of submucosal neurons and 25% of myenteric neurons. Hyperpolarizing responses were evoked by ANG II in 45% of the neurons. The hyperpolarizing responses were suppressed by alpha2-noradrenergic receptor antagonists, which suggested that the hyperpolarizing responses reflected stimulation of norepinephrine release from sympathetic neurons. Exposure to ANG II enhanced the amplitude and prolonged the duration of noradrenergic inhibitory postsynaptic potentials and suppressed the amplitude of both fast and slow excitatory postsynaptic potentials. The selective ANG II(1) receptor (AT1R) antagonists, ZD-7115 and losartan, but not a selective AT2R antagonist (PD-123319), suppressed the actions of ANG II. Western blot analysis and RT-PCR confirmed expression of AT1R protein and the mRNA transcript for the AT1R in the enteric nervous system. No expression of AT2R protein or mRNA was found. Immunoreactivity for AT1R was expressed by the majority of neurons in the gastric antrum and small and large intestine. AT1R immunoreactivity was coexpressed with calbindin, choline acetyltransferase, calretinin, neuropeptide Y, and nitric oxide synthase in subpopulations of neurons. The results suggest that formation of ANG II might have paracrine-like actions in the enteric nervous system, which include alterations in neuronal excitability and facilitated release of norepinephrine from sympathetic postganglionic axons. The enhanced presence of norepinephrine is expected to suppress fast and slow excitatory neurotransmission in the enteric microcircuits and to suppress neurogenic mucosal secretion.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office

    2004-04-28

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 on the NTS, CAU 516 includes six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) consisting of two septic systems, a sump and piping, a clean-out box and piping, dry wells, and a vehicle decontamination area. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from July 22 through August 14, 2003, with supplemental sampling conducted in late 2003 and early 2004. The potential exposure pathways for any contaminants of concern (COCs) identified during the development of the DQOs at CAU 516 gave rise to the following objectives: (1) prevent or mitigate exposure to media containing COCs at concentrations exceeding PALs as defined in the corrective action investigation plan; and (2) prevent the spread of COCs beyond each CAS. The following alternatives have been developed for consideration at CAU 516: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Clean Closure; and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 1, No Further Action, is the preferred corrective action for two CASs (06-51-02 and 22-19-04). Alternative 2, Clean Closure, is the preferred corrective action for four CASs (03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03). The selected alternatives were judged to meet all requirements for the technical components evaluated, as well as meeting all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will further eliminate the contaminated media at CAU 516.

  5. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 555: Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0 with Errata

    SciTech Connect

    Pastor, Laura

    2005-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 555: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 555 is located in Areas 1, 3 and 6 of the NTS, which is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada, and is comprised of the five corrective action sites (CASs) shown on Figure 1-1 and listed below: (1) CAS 01-59-01, Area 1 Camp Septic System; (2) CAS 03-59-03, Core Handling Building Septic System; (3) CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well; (4) CAS 06-59-01, Birdwell Septic System; and (5) CAS 06-59-02, National Cementers Septic System. An FFACO modification was approved on December 14, 2005, to include CAS 06-20-05, Birdwell Dry Well, as part of the scope of CAU 555. The work scope was expanded in this document to include the investigation of CAS 06-20-05. The Corrective Action Investigation (CAI) will include field inspections, radiological surveys, geophysical surveys, sampling of environmental media, analysis of samples, and assessment of investigation results, where appropriate. Data will be obtained to support corrective action alternative evaluations and waste management decisions. The CASs in CAU 555 are being investigated because hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present in concentrations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives for the CASs. Additional information will be generated by conducting a CAI

  6. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    IT Las Vegas

    1999-01-27

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s), and may include solid waste management units, individual disposal sites, or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP will be used in conjunction with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada (DOE/NV, 1998c), hereafter referred to as the Leachfield Work Plan. Under the FFACO, a work plan is an optional planning document that provides information for a CAU or group of CAUs where significant commonality exists. This CAIP contains CAU-specific information including a facility description, environmental sample collection objectives, and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 500. This CAIP addresses one of three leachfield systems associated with Test Cell A, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 500 is comprised of the Test Cell A Septic System (CAS 25-04-05) and the associated leachfield system presented in Figure 1-1 (FFACO, 1996).

  7. [The evolution of the Brazilian National Health System, strategic courses of action and strategies to understand these actions].

    PubMed

    dos Santos, Nelson Rodrigues

    2007-01-01

    The author has the intention to propose to the Brazilian health care management and sanitary reform managers an examination and positioning on the course of action in the implementation of SUS (Brazilian National Health System). The findings underscore two non-convergent set of policies that have affected the course of action in the implementation of the SUS in the 1990s: the first and 'main' course of action derives from policies created in 1988 in the so-called Citizen Constitution, of which the SUS is the most important achievement. The second and "additional" course of action derives from the prevailing macro-economic model and its related policies, implemented since the 1990s, besides advocating a social inclusion measure while leaving out all the related improvements of SUS such as Universality, Integrity and Equity. In addition, the second course of action is in opposition to the model based on social protection, besides raising the importance of market-based individualistic values and actions in general, it carries them into the health care system. The author suggests that a clarification on the desirable and on the deviant courses of action of SUS may be a vital contribution to guaranteeing social rights in health care, while preserving its integrity, equity and universal nature.

  8. Self-pumping solar heating system with geyser pumping action

    SciTech Connect

    Haines, E.L.; Bartera, R.E.

    1984-10-23

    A self-pumping solar heating system having a collector including a multitude of small diameter riser tubes from which heated liquid is pumped into a header by a geyser action. A vapor condenser assures a header pressure conducive to bubble nucleation in the riser tube upper end segments. The level of liquid within the header or its outlet is higher than the liquid level in the riser tubes to produce a gravity imbalance capable of circulating heated liquid past a storage heat exchanger, below the header, and then upwardly through the closed vapor condenser in the header prior to return to a collector inlet manifold. A modified header utilizes an open vapor condenser in vapor communication with the collector header.

  9. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2000-08-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) has been prepared for the Corrective Action Unit (CAU)261 Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System in accordance with the Federal Facility and Consent Order (Nevada Division of Environmental Protection [NDEP] et al., 1996). This CAP provides the methodology for implementing the approved corrective action alternative as listed in the Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office, 1999). Investigation of CAU 261 was conducted from February through May of 1999. There were no Constituents of Concern (COCs) identified at Corrective Action Site (CAS) 25-05-07 Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP). COCs identified at CAS 25-05-01 included diesel-range organics and radionuclides. The following closure actions will be implemented under this plan: Because COCs were not found at CAS 25-05-07 AWLP, no action is required; Removal of septage from the septic tank (CAS 25-05-01), the distribution box and the septic tank will be filled with grout; Removal of impacted soils identified near the initial outfall area; and Upon completion of this closure activity and approval of the Closure Report by NDEP, administrative controls, use restrictions, and site postings will be used to prevent intrusive activities at the site.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Mark Krause

    2010-08-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) presents information supporting the selection of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) leading to the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada. This complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management. Corrective Action Unit 562 comprises the following corrective action sites (CASs): • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of CAAs for the 13 CASs within CAU 562. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 27, 2009, through May 12, 2010, as set forth in the CAU 562 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: • Determine whether COCs are present. • If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. • Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. A data quality assessment (DQA) performed on the CAU 562 data demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the data for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the COCs for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at 10 of the 13 CASs in CAU 562, and thus corrective

  11. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2008-02-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563, Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996; as amended January 2007). The corrective action sites (CASs) for CAU 563 are located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and are comprised of the following four sites: •03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank •03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool •12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks •12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative (CAA) for the four CASs within CAU 563. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from July 17 through November 19, 2007, as set forth in the CAU 563 Corrective Action Investigation Plan (NNSA/NSO, 2007). Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern (COCs) for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified COCs at one of the four CASs in CAU 563 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 563 revealed the following: •CASs 03-04-02, 03-59-05, and 12-60-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. •CAS 12-59-01 contains arsenic and chromium contamination above FALs in surface and near-surface soils surrounding a stained location within the site. Based on the evaluation of analytical data from the CAI, review of future and current operations at CAS 12-59-01, and the detailed and comparative analysis of the potential CAAs, the following corrective actions are recommended for CAU 563.

  12. Stereoscopic camera system for live-action and sports productions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adkins, Craig

    1997-05-01

    By all accounts I am a cowboy cameraman. I began my career as a ski bum in the Swiss Alps at the age of 18. Once I had picked up a Super 8 camera and filmed my first skiing sequence, the mold was pretty much set. I have concentrated my direction on shooting live action in extreme environments ever since. I shun the use of tripods and my experience in artificial lighting is minimal. My technical knowledge of the equipment and medium I use is limited to practical use dictated by weather and terrain conditions. When confronted with a frozen film gate in a raging blizzard, perched atop a 200 foot drop, there are only so many options. This brief personal history prefaces the underlying theme of the camera system I designed and have been using in the field for the past year. I do not claim to be a deep well of information on stereoscopic theory and technology nor a maverick inventor. Rather, I am someone who saw stereo video and realized it was a significant improvement in existing visual technology. The resulting experience I have gained from building a stereo video camera system is purely empirical, helped by other's shared insights and my own trial and error.

  13. Modulation of the Action Control System by Social Intention: Unexpected Social Requests Override Preplanned Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-01-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded…

  14. EquiFACS: The Equine Facial Action Coding System

    PubMed Central

    Wathan, Jen; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.; McComb, Karen

    2015-01-01

    Although previous studies of horses have investigated their facial expressions in specific contexts, e.g. pain, until now there has been no methodology available that documents all the possible facial movements of the horse and provides a way to record all potential facial configurations. This is essential for an objective description of horse facial expressions across a range of contexts that reflect different emotional states. Facial Action Coding Systems (FACS) provide a systematic methodology of identifying and coding facial expressions on the basis of underlying facial musculature and muscle movement. FACS are anatomically based and document all possible facial movements rather than a configuration of movements associated with a particular situation. Consequently, FACS can be applied as a tool for a wide range of research questions. We developed FACS for the domestic horse (Equus caballus) through anatomical investigation of the underlying musculature and subsequent analysis of naturally occurring behaviour captured on high quality video. Discrete facial movements were identified and described in terms of the underlying muscle contractions, in correspondence with previous FACS systems. The reliability of others to be able to learn this system (EquiFACS) and consistently code behavioural sequences was high—and this included people with no previous experience of horses. A wide range of facial movements were identified, including many that are also seen in primates and other domestic animals (dogs and cats). EquiFACS provides a method that can now be used to document the facial movements associated with different social contexts and thus to address questions relevant to understanding social cognition and comparative psychology, as well as informing current veterinary and animal welfare practices. PMID:26244573

  15. Modulation of the action control system by social intention: unexpected social requests override preplanned action.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Becchio, Cristina; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2009-10-01

    Four experiments investigated the influence of a sudden social request on the kinematics of a preplanned action. In Experiment 1, participants were requested to grasp an object and then locate it within a container (unperturbed trials). On 20% of trials, a human agent seated nearby the participant unexpectedly stretched out her arm and unfolded her hand as if to ask for the object (perturbed trials). In the remaining 3 experiments, similar procedures were adopted except that (a) the human was replaced by a robotic agent, (b) the gesture performed by the human agent did not imply a social request, and (c) the gaze of the human agent was not available. Only when the perturbation was characterized by a social request involving a human agent were there kinematic changes to the action directed toward the target. Conversely, no effects on kinematics were evident when the perturbation was caused by the robotic agent or by a human agent performing a nonsocial gesture. These findings are discussed in the light of current theories proposed to explain the effects of social context on the control of action.

  16. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    K. B. Campbell

    2002-06-01

    This Corrective Action Plan (CAP) provides selected corrective action alternatives and proposes the closure methodology for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262, Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point. CAU 262 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Remediation of CAU 262 is required under the FFACO. CAU 262 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), approximately 100 kilometers (km) (62 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) within CAU 262 are located in the Nuclear Rocket Development Station complex. Individual CASs are located in the vicinity of the Reactor Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Engine Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD); and Test Cell C compounds. CAU 262 includes the following CASs as provided in the FFACO (1996); CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage Tank; CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B; CAS 25-04-07, Septic System; CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield; CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield; CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield; and CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well. Figures 2, 3, and 4 show the locations of the R-MAD, the E-MAD, and the Test Cell C CASs, respectively. The facilities within CAU 262 supported nuclear rocket reactor engine testing. Activities associated with the program were performed between 1958 and 1973. However, several other projects used the facilities after 1973. A significant quantity of radioactive and sanitary waste was produced during routine operations. Most of the radioactive waste was managed by disposal in the posted leachfields. Sanitary wastes were disposed in sanitary leachfields. Septic tanks, present at sanitary leachfields (i.e., CAS 25-02-06,2504-06 [Septic Systems A and B], 25-04-07, 25-05-05,25-05-12) allowed solids to settle out of suspension prior to entering the leachfield. Posted leachfields do not contain septic tanks. All CASs located in CAU 262 are

  17. CORRECTIVE ACTION PLAN FOR CORRECTIVE ACTION UNIT 516: SEPTIC SYSTEMS AND DISCHARGE POINTS, NEVADA TEST SITE, NEVADA

    SciTech Connect

    BECHTEL NEVADA; U.S. DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY, NATIONAL NUCLEAR SECURITY ADMINISTRATION NEVADA SITE OFFICE

    2005-08-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, is listed in the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) of 1996 (FFACO, 1996). CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS), which is located approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 516 is comprised of the following six CASs: (1) 03-59-01 Building 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 Building 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 Clean-Out Box and Piping; and (6) 22-19-04 Vehicle Decontamination Area. Details on site history and site characterization results for CAU 516 are provided in the approved Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP), (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2003), and the approved Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (NNSA/NSO, 2004).

  18. 42 CFR 431.836 - Corrective action under the MQC claims processing assessment system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION Quality Control Medicaid Quality Control (mqc) Claims Processing Assessment System § 431.836 Corrective action under the MQC claims processing assessment system. The agency must— (a) Take action to... assessment system. 431.836 Section 431.836 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES,...

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred Wickline

    2009-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 562 is located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada Test Site, which is approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 562 is comprised of the 13 corrective action sites (CASs) listed below: • 02-26-11, Lead Shot • 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain • 02-59-01, Septic System • 02-60-01, Concrete Drain • 02-60-02, French Drain • 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain • 02-60-04, French Drain • 02-60-05, French Drain • 02-60-06, French Drain • 02-60-07, French Drain • 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall • 23-99-06, Grease Trap • 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation before evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document. The sites will be investigated based on the data quality objectives (DQOs) developed on December 11, 2008, by representatives of the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office; Stoller-Navarro Joint Venture; and National Security Technologies, LLC. The DQO process was used to identify and define the type, amount, and quality of data needed to develop and evaluate appropriate corrective actions for CAU 562. Appendix A provides a detailed discussion of the DQO methodology and the DQOs specific to each CAS. The scope of the corrective action investigation for CAU 562 includes the following activities: • Move surface debris and/or materials, as needed, to facilitate sampling.

  20. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2000-08-01

    Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5 are located in Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) (Figure 1). The site is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO, 1996) as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428 and includes Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW01 (Septic Waste System 1 [SWS 1]), and 03-05-002-SW05 (Septic Waste System 5 [SWS 5]). The site history for the CAU is provided in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999). SWS 1 consists of two leachfields and associated septic tanks. SWS 1 received effluent from both sanitary and industrial sources from various buildings in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). SWS 5 is comprised of one leachfield and outfall with an associated septic tank. SWS 5 received effluent from sources in Building 03-50 in Area 3 of the TTR (Figure 2). Both systems were active until 1990 when a consolidated sewer system was installed. The purpose of this Corrective Action Plan (CAP) is to provide the strategy and methodology to close the Area 3 SWS 1 and 5. The CAU will be closed following state and federal regulations and the FFACO (1996). Site characterization was done during May and June 1999. Samples of the tank contents, leachfield soil, and soil under the tanks and pipes were collected. The results of the characterization were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (DOE/NV, 2000). Additional sampling was done in May 2000, the results of which are presented in this plan. Soil sample results indicated that two constituents of concern were detected above Preliminary Action Levels (PALs). Total arsenic was detected at a concentration of 68.7 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg). The arsenic was found under the center distribution line at the proximal end of the SWS 5 Leachfield (Figure 3). Total benzo(a)pyrene was detected at a concentration of 480 micrograms per kilogram ({micro}g/kg). The benzo(a)pyrene was found in the soil under the

  1. Insulin action in brain regulates systemic metabolism and brain function.

    PubMed

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A; Cai, Weikang; Kahn, C Ronald

    2014-07-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

  2. Human Systems. Life Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echaore, Susan D.; Bartavian, John

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic principles of life science. Seven separate units…

  3. Brain systems for visual perspective taking and action perception.

    PubMed

    Mazzarella, Elisabetta; Ramsey, Richard; Conson, Massimiliano; Hamilton, Antonia

    2013-01-01

    Taking another person's viewpoint and making sense of their actions are key processes that guide social behavior. Previous neuroimaging investigations have largely studied these processes separately. The current study used functional magnetic resonance imaging to examine how the brain incorporates another person's viewpoint and actions into visual perspective judgments. Participants made a left-right judgment about the location of a target object from their own (egocentric) or an actor's visual perspective (altercentric). Actor location varied around a table and the actor was either reaching or not reaching for the target object. Analyses examined brain regions engaged in the egocentric and altercentric tasks, brain regions where response magnitude tracked the orientation of the actor in the scene and brain regions sensitive to the action performed by the actor. The blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) response in dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) was sensitive to actor orientation in the altercentric task, whereas the response in right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) was sensitive to actor orientation in the egocentric task. Thus, dmPFC and right IFG may play distinct but complementary roles in visual perspective taking (VPT). Observation of a reaching actor compared to a non-reaching actor yielded activation in lateral occipitotemporal cortex, regardless of task, showing that these regions are sensitive to body posture independent of social context. By considering how an observed actor's location and action influence the neural bases of visual perspective judgments, the current study supports the view that multiple neurocognitive "routes" operate during VPT.

  4. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2010-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit 560 comprises seven corrective action sites (CASs): •03-51-01, Leach Pit •06-04-02, Septic Tank •06-05-03, Leach Pit •06-05-04, Leach Bed •06-59-03, Building CP-400 Septic System •06-59-04, Office Trailer Complex Sewage Pond •06-59-05, Control Point Septic System The purpose of this CADD/CR is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 560 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 7, 2008, through February 24, 2010, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 560: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, and Record of Technical Change No. 1. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: •Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. •If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. •Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 560 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. The following contaminants were determined to be present at concentrations exceeding their corresponding FALs: •No contamination exceeding the FALs was identified at CASs 03-51-01, 06-04-02, and 06-59-04. •The soil at the base of the leach pit chamber at CAS 06-05-03 contains arsenic above the FAL of 23 milligrams per kilogram (mg/kg) and polychlorinated biphenyl (PCBs) above the FAL of 0.74 mg/kg, confined vertically from a depth of approximately 5 to 20 feet (ft) below ground surface. The contamination is confined laterally to the walls of the

  5. Insulin Action in Brain Regulates Systemic Metabolism and Brain Function

    PubMed Central

    Kleinridders, André; Ferris, Heather A.; Cai, Weikang

    2014-01-01

    Insulin receptors, as well as IGF-1 receptors and their postreceptor signaling partners, are distributed throughout the brain. Insulin acts on these receptors to modulate peripheral metabolism, including regulation of appetite, reproductive function, body temperature, white fat mass, hepatic glucose output, and response to hypoglycemia. Insulin signaling also modulates neurotransmitter channel activity, brain cholesterol synthesis, and mitochondrial function. Disruption of insulin action in the brain leads to impairment of neuronal function and synaptogenesis. In addition, insulin signaling modulates phosphorylation of tau protein, an early component in the development of Alzheimer disease. Thus, alterations in insulin action in the brain can contribute to metabolic syndrome, and the development of mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases. PMID:24931034

  6. After Action Review Tools for Dismounted Soldier Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-06-01

    trainer to elicit feedback from unit personnel concerning what transpired during an event with a focus on determining how future events could benefit...team building. It is the involvement of participants , the discussions and exchanges during the course of the AAR that permit Soldiers and leaders to ...up replay of events and allow the participants to view the action from varied views and perspectives. * Still images that can be viewed from the varied

  7. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2005-01-01

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy, and the U.S. Department of Defense. The purpose of the investigation is to ensure that adequate data are collected to provide sufficient and reliable information to identify, evaluate, and select technically viable corrective actions. Corrective Action Unit 219 is located in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the six Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. These sites are being investigated because existing information on the nature and extent of potential contamination is insufficient to evaluate and recommend corrective action alternatives. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation prior to evaluating corrective action alternatives and selecting the appropriate corrective action for each CAS. The results of the field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of viable corrective action alternatives that will be presented in the Corrective Action Decision Document.

  8. A selective representation of the meaning of actions in the auditory mirror system.

    PubMed

    Galati, Gaspare; Committeri, Giorgia; Spitoni, Grazia; Aprile, Teresa; Di Russo, Francesco; Pitzalis, Sabrina; Pizzamiglio, Luigi

    2008-04-15

    Mirror neurons in the monkey's premotor cortex respond during both execution and observation of actions and are thought to be critical for understanding others' actions. Human studies have shown premotor cortex activation while viewing actions, hearing their sounds, listening to or reading action-related sentences, and have compared execution and observation of similar actions. However, we still lack direct evidence in humans of the most striking and theoretically relevant feature of mirror neurons, i.e., that they map seen/heard actions onto motor representations of the same actions at an abstract level. Here we combine fast event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging with an unconscious semantic priming paradigm and show that the human auditory mirror system also holds an abstract representation of the meaning of heard actions. We analyzed the effect on brain activity of trial-by-trial semantic congruency between a target sound denoting a hand or mouth action (or an environmental event) and a briefly flashed written word acting as an unconscious cross-modal prime. Left inferior frontal and posterior temporal regions selectively responded to action sounds in a non-somatotopic fashion and were modulated by semantic congruency only in action sound trials. We also observed regions selective for either hand or mouth actions, which however did not show a corresponding effector-specific effect of semantic congruency. These results provide evidence that the human mirror system represents the meaning of actions (but not of other events) (a) at an abstract, semantic level, (b) independently of the effector, and (c) independently of conscious awareness.

  9. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  10. Obesity Impairs the Action of the Neuroendocrine Ghrelin System.

    PubMed

    Zigman, Jeffrey M; Bouret, Sebastien G; Andrews, Zane B

    2016-01-01

    Ghrelin is a metabolic hormone that promotes energy conservation by regulating appetite and energy expenditure. Although some studies suggest that antagonizing ghrelin function attenuates body weight gain and glucose intolerance on a high calorie diet, there is little information about the metabolic actions of ghrelin in the obese state. In this review, we discuss the novel concept of obesity-induced central ghrelin resistance in neural circuits regulating behavior, and impaired ghrelin secretion from the stomach. Interestingly, weight loss restores ghrelin secretion and function, and we hypothesize that ghrelin resistance is a mechanism designed to protect a higher body weight set-point established during times of food availability, to maximize energy reserves during a time of food scarcity.

  11. Affirmative Action and the New York City Public School System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Richard H.

    This dissertation has two major purposes: first, to identify, examine, and analyze those factors within the New York City public school system's employment practices which are believed to contribute to the charges that the system discriminates against minorities in job selection and promotion, by effect if not intent. Secondly, to propose a model…

  12. Analyzing the Roles of Descriptions and Actions in Open Systems.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    of all programming languages and hardware architectures. A system consisting of multiple processors -- called the APIARY -- is being developed to use...Artificial Intelligence, pages 559-565. Cambridge, Ma, 1977. [Hewitt 801 Hewitt C. E. The Apiary Network Architecture for Knowledgeable Systems. In

  13. Working with School Systems: Educational Outreach and Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wingfield, Marvin; Salam, Shereen

    This guide explains how individuals and American-Arab Anti-Discrimination Committee (ADC) chapters can work with school systems to reduce discrimination against students of Arab background and to educate teachers and other students about the cultures of the Middle East. Arab Americans can make a difference in the school systems by personal…

  14. Systems Biology and Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology approaches has greatly increased in the past decade largely as a consequence of the human genome project and technological advances in genomics and proteomics. Systems approaches have been used in the medical & pharmaceutical realm for diagnost...

  15. Systems Biology and Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology has increased in the past decade largely as a consequence of the human genome project and technological advances in genomics and proteomics. Systems approaches have been used in the medical & pharmaceutical realm for diagnostic purposes and targ...

  16. Corrective action investigation plan for Corrective Action Unit Number 427: Area 3 septic waste system numbers 2 and 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-19

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at the Area 3 Compound, specifically Corrective Action Unit (CAU) Number 427, which is located at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR). The TTR, included in the Nellis Air Force Range, is approximately 255 kilometers (140 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The Corrective Action Unit Work Plan, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada divides investigative activities at TTR into Source Groups. The Septic Tanks and Lagoons Group consists of seven CAUs. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is one of three septic waste system CAUs in TTR Area 3. Corrective Action Unit Numbers 405 and 428 will be investigated at a future data. Corrective Action Unit Number 427 is comprised of Septic Waste Systems Number 2 and 6 with respective CAS Numbers 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06.

  17. Umanned Aerial Systems: Actions Needed to Improve DOD Pilot Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    of Defense’s (DOD) UAS portfolio has grown over the years to rival traditional manned systems, and, as of July 2013, DOD had acquired over 10,000...rival its traditional manned systems and DOD reported that as of July 2013, it had acquired over 10,000 UASs.2 In its Unmanned Systems Integrated...UAS in a classroom setting. Air Force UAS pilots who the Air Force re-assigns from its manned-aircraft pilot ranks do not attend this first phase

  18. Interfacial action of natural surfactants in oil/water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ogino, K.; Onishi, M.

    1981-09-01

    This paper concerns the tendency of a few natural surfactants at the oil/water interface to induce spontaneous emulsification. N-paraffin (n-dodecane), liquid triglycerides (oleic safflower oil and corn oil), and liquid fatty acids (oleic acid and linoleic acid) were used as the oil phase and distilled water was used as the water phase. Natural surfactants such as cholesterol, lecithin, and oleic acid were applied to the systems as the oil-soluble additives. Lecithin was the most strongly effective in reducing the interfacial tension of the oil/water systems, and cholesterol was effective at the second strength. The oil/water interface of the systems containing the oil-soluble additives changed in various ways as observed by microscopy and the unaided eye. The most remarkable change was found in the system of glycerides containing cholesterol in contact with water, in which crystals of cholesterol were formed at the interface. 13 references.

  19. Utilizing an Intelligent Tutoring System in Tactical Action Officer Sandbox

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-01

    Priorities for FY13-17 all share a focus on systems to promote warfighter performance. The goal of these systems is to improve effectiveness across a range...to improve effectiveness across a range of multiple missions, while providing training techniques that enhance fundamental cognitive abilities...goals for the near future in its latest version of the Science and Technology (S&T) Plan that it released in 2011. One of those goals is to improve

  20. Supporting health systems in Europe: added value of EU actions?

    PubMed

    Clemens, Timo; Michelsen, Kai; Brand, Helmut

    2014-01-01

    Since the start of the economic crisis, the European Union's (EU's) predominant discourse has been austerity and fiscal consolidation. The detrimental effects on Europe's health systems and the health status of its citizens are well described. However, little is known about the emerging EU-level initiatives to support national health systems handle the challenges of efficient care provision and system reorganisation aimed to meet their future needs. This review analyses the manner, conditions and prospects of such EU support. First, health system objectives are increasingly entering the EU health policy agenda. Second, professional and patient mobility provisions may support member states (MS) in copying with crisis related health challenges but can potentially acerbate them at the same time. Third, in recent initiatives health system goals are more closely tied to the EU's economic growth narrative. And fourth, health system issues are taken up in existing EU-level structures for debate and exchange between MS. In addition, the design of some policies may have the potential to intensify socioeconomic and health inequalities rather than ameliorate them.

  1. A Computational Approach to Steady State Correspondence of Regular and Generalized Mass Action Systems.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Matthew D

    2015-06-01

    It has been recently observed that the dynamical properties of mass action systems arising from many models of biochemical reaction networks can be characterized by considering the corresponding properties of a related generalized mass action system. The correspondence process known as network translation in particular has been shown to be useful in characterizing a system's steady states. In this paper, we further develop the theory of network translation with particular focus on a subclass of translations known as improper translations. For these translations, we derive conditions on the network topology of the translated network which are sufficient to guarantee the original and translated systems share the same steady states. We then present a mixed-integer linear programming algorithm capable of determining whether a mass action system can be corresponded to a generalized system through the process of network translation.

  2. Trauma care systems in Saudi Arabia: an agenda for action

    PubMed Central

    Al-Naami, Mohammed Y.; Arafah, Maria A.; Al-Ibrahim, Fatimah S.

    2010-01-01

    Saudi Arabia is undergoing a rapid population growth that along with improved socioeconomics has led many individuals to own a car or even a number of cars per family, resulting in a greater number of vehicles on the roads. The reduced focus on good public transportation systems and the dependence on cars for transportation have created a diversity of drivers who are unfamiliar with the local driving rules and lack the basic skills for safe driving. This is in addition to some young drivers who frequently violate traffic laws and tend to speed most of the time. This unplanned expansion in road traffic has resulted in more car accidents, injuries, disabilities, and deaths. Accompanying that is an increased socioeconomic burden, depletion of human resources, emotional and psychological stress on families, and a strain on healthcare facilities. If this continues without prompt intervention, it will lead to increased insurance premiums and may become unmanageable. To minimize this impact, a national or regional multidisciplinary trauma system has to be developed and implemented. A trauma system is a preplanned, comprehensive, and coordinated regional injury response network that includes all facilities with the capability to care for the injured. Essential components of the system include trauma prevention, prehospital care, hospital care, rehabilitation, system administration, trauma care education and training, trauma care evaluation and quality improvement, along with the participation of society. Research has documented a significant decrease in morbidity and mortality from trauma after the implementation of such systems, depending on their efficiency. The purpose of this review is to discuss the problem of road traffic accidents in this country and address the trauma care system as an effective solution. PMID:20103958

  3. Global stability for a class of mass action systems allowing for latency in tuberculosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCluskey, C. Connell

    2008-02-01

    A very general compartmental model of the spread of an infectious disease with mass action incidence is given. The global stability of this system is completely determined using Lyapunov functions. The general system exhibits the traditional threshold behaviour. The dimension of the system is arbitrary, allowing, in particular, for detailed modelling of the distribution of latency times for tuberculosis.

  4. Pharmacologic action of oseltamivir on the nervous system.

    PubMed

    Ishii, K; Hamamoto, H; Sasaki, T; Ikegaya, Y; Yamatsugu, K; Kanai, M; Shibasaki, M; Sekimizu, K

    2008-02-01

    Oseltamivir, an antiviral drug used for the treatment of influenza, contains the L-glutamic acid motif in its chemical structure. We focused on this structural characteristic of oseltamivir and examined the pharmacologic effects of the drug on the nervous system in invertebrate and vertebrate animal models. Injection of oseltamivir or L-glutamic acid into silkworm (Bombyx mori) larvae induced muscle relaxation. Oseltamivir and L-glutamic acid inhibited kainate-induced rapid muscle contraction, but neither drug affected insect cytokine paralytic peptide-induced slow muscle contraction. In the mammalian system, mice (Mus musculus) treated intracerebrally with oseltamivir developed convulsive seizures. Hydrolyzed oseltamivir, the active form containing a carboxylic acid, evoked epileptiform firing of hippocampal neurons in rat (Rattus norvegicus) organotypic hippocampal slice cultures. These results are the first to demonstrate that oseltamivir exerts pharmacologic effects on the nervous system in insects and mammals.

  5. Assimilation and Affirmative Action in French Education Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langan, Elise S.

    2008-01-01

    The French education system was created as a means to uphold the republican principles emanating from the Revolution. The first Article of the 1958 French Constitution says the Republic assures equality before the law of all citizens without distinction of origin or race. Theoretically at least, it is not only forbidden to discriminate, but to…

  6. The SUN Service System. Complementary Learning in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goss, Claire Brown; Bouffard, Suzanne

    2007-01-01

    This report highlights Multnomah County's (Oregon) SUN Service System, an antipoverty and prevention effort that connects educational, social, health, and other services under one umbrella. The SUN model of combining educational, social, and health supports is rooted in a strong history of community involvement and partnerships in Multnomah…

  7. M.A.P.S.: Mesa Action Planning System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Larson, Elizabeth J. Hunt

    This report describes implementation of a districtwide planning model in the Mesa, Arizona, Public Schools. Figures illustrate planning processes throughout the report. Intended as an implementive framework, the planning system's purposes are to assist decision making about resource allocation, program direction, progress measurement, and district…

  8. Space Science in Action: Planets and the Solar System [Videotape].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1999

    This videotape recording teaches students about the key characteristics of each planet, the differences between inner and outer planets, and which planets have their own moons. Students look at how remote-control rovers are designed to explore other surfaces in the solar system. A hands-on activity demonstrates how gravity keeps all the members of…

  9. Putting Dreyfus into Action: The European Credit Transfer System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markowitsch, Jorg; Luomi-Messerer, Karin; Becker, Matthias; Spottl, Georg

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this article is to look closely at the development of a European Credit Transfer System for Vocational Education and Training (ECVET). The European Commission, together with the member States, are working on it and several pilot projects have been initiated within the Leonardo da Vinci Programme of the European Commission.…

  10. Information System Engineering Supporting Observation, Orientation, Decision, and Compliant Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgakopoulos, Dimitrios

    The majority of today's software systems and organizational/business structures have been built on the foundation of solving problems via long-term data collection, analysis, and solution design. This traditional approach of solving problems and building corresponding software systems and business processes, falls short in providing the necessary solutions needed to deal with many problems that require agility as the main ingredient of their solution. For example, such agility is needed in responding to an emergency, in military command control, physical security, price-based competition in business, investing in the stock market, video gaming, network monitoring and self-healing, diagnosis in emergency health care, and many other areas that are too numerous to list here. The concept of Observe, Orient, Decide, and Act (OODA) loops is a guiding principal that captures the fundamental issues and approach for engineering information systems that deal with many of these problem areas. However, there are currently few software systems that are capable of supporting OODA. In this talk, we provide a tour of the research issues and state of the art solutions for supporting OODA. In addition, we provide specific examples of OODA solutions we have developed for the video surveillance and emergency response domains.

  11. The method of calculating forced oscillations in nonlinear discrete-time systems under periodic external actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bryuhanov, Yu. A.

    2010-08-01

    We consider a method for calculating forced oscillations in nonlinear discrete-time systems under periodic external actions. The method is based on representing the stationary oscillations in the form of an invariant set of nonlinear discrete point mappings and allows one to calculate the nonlinear-system response in the steady-state regime. The examples of using this method for calculating forced oscillations in the first- and second-order nonlinear recursive systems under the harmonic-signal action on such systems are presented.

  12. Action Information Management System (AIMS): a User's View

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wiskerchen, M.

    1984-01-01

    The initial approach used in establishing a user-defined information system to fulfill the needs of users at NASA Headquarters was unsuccessful in bringing this pilot endeaveor to full project status. The persistence of several users and the full involvement of the Ames Research Center were the ingredients needed to make the AIMS project a success. The lesson learned from this effort is that NASA should always work from its organizational strengths as a Headquarters-Center partnership.

  13. A manual for addressing ineffectiveness within a Corrective Action System and driving on-time dispositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallari, Lawrence Anthony Castro

    This project proposes a manual specifically for remedying an ineffective Corrective Action Request System for Company ABC by providing dispositions within the company's quality procedure. A Corrective Action Request System is a corrective action tool that provides a means for employees to engage in the process improvement, problem elimination cycle. At Company ABC, Corrective Action Recommendations (CARs) are not provided with timely dispositions; CARs are being ignored due to a lack of training and awareness of Company ABC's personnel and quality procedures. In this project, Company ABC's quality management software database is scrutinized to identify the number of delinquent, non-dispositioned CARs in 2014. These CARs are correlated with the number of nonconformances generated for the same issue while the CAR is still open. Using secondary data, the primary investigator finds that nonconformances are being remediated at the operational level. However, at the administrative level, CARS are being ignored and forgotten.

  14. Induced systemic resistance (ISR) in plants: mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Choudhary, Devendra K; Prakash, Anil; Johri, B N

    2007-12-01

    Plants possess a range of active defense apparatuses that can be actively expressed in response to biotic stresses (pathogens and parasites) of various scales (ranging from microscopic viruses to phytophagous insect). The timing of this defense response is critical and reflects on the difference between coping and succumbing to such biotic challenge of necrotizing pathogens/parasites. If defense mechanisms are triggered by a stimulus prior to infection by a plant pathogen, disease can be reduced. Induced resistance is a state of enhanced defensive capacity developed by a plant when appropriately stimulated. Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) and induced systemic resistance (ISR) are two forms of induced resistance wherein plant defenses are preconditioned by prior infection or treatment that results in resistance against subsequent challenge by a pathogen or parasite. Selected strains of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR) suppress diseases by antagonism between the bacteria and soil-borne pathogens as well as by inducing a systemic resistance in plant against both root and foliar pathogens. Rhizobacteria mediated ISR resembles that of pathogen induced SAR in that both types of induced resistance render uninfected plant parts more resistant towards a broad spectrum of plant pathogens. Several rhizobacteria trigger the salicylic acid (SA)-dependent SAR pathway by producing SA at the root surface whereas other rhizobacteria trigger different signaling pathway independent of SA. The existence of SA-independent ISR pathway has been studied in Arabidopsis thaliana, which is dependent on jasmonic acid (JA) and ethylene signaling. Specific Pseudomonas strains induce systemic resistance in viz., carnation, cucumber, radish, tobacco, and Arabidopsis, as evidenced by an enhanced defensive capacity upon challenge inoculation. Combination of ISR and SAR can increase protection against pathogens that are resisted through both pathways besides extended protection to a

  15. Capillary Action may Cool Systems and Precisely balance Chemical Reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kriske, Richard

    2011-10-01

    It is well known that it takes no work for Water to rise in a Capillary tube against the force of Gravity. There is a precise balance in this system that resembles Robert Millikan's ``Oil Drop'' experiment, where mass was balanced against the electrostatic force. If at the top of the capillary tube there is evaporation, one can see that the system is cooled as another water molecule has room to move up the column. Furthermore, if the evaporation process can be controlled one photon at a time, a precise balance is created between a photon, and the height/mass of the column. If other molecules are place in the column, they can be moved up and down the column, in a chromatograph way, in a fairly precise manner, by controlling evaporation and molecular weight. If in addition to all of this, the interface of the solution against the walls of the column have Fermi levels, it can be seen as a very precise Electrochemical Device. In the situation of nanotubes, as opposed to trees and plants, these properties can be used to create measure environmental properties and to Balance Chemical Reactions. Forests, and Plants may cool themselves and their environment using this process, and using this process coupled with more energetic photons through photosynthesis.

  16. Functional Diversity of Neurotrophin Actions on the Oculomotor System

    PubMed Central

    Benítez-Temiño, Beatriz; Davis-López de Carrizosa, María A.; Morcuende, Sara; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; de la Cruz, Rosa R.; Pastor, Angel M.

    2016-01-01

    Neurotrophins play a principal role in neuronal survival and differentiation during development, but also in the maintenance of appropriate adult neuronal circuits and phenotypes. In the oculomotor system, we have demonstrated that neurotrophins are key regulators of developing and adult neuronal properties, but with peculiarities depending on each neurotrophin. For instance, the administration of NGF (nerve growth factor), BDNF (brain-derived neurotrophic factor) or NT-3 (neurotrophin-3) protects neonatal extraocular motoneurons from cell death after axotomy, but only NGF and BDNF prevent the downregulation in ChAT (choline acetyltransferase). In the adult, in vivo recordings of axotomized extraocular motoneurons have demonstrated that the delivery of NGF, BDNF or NT-3 recovers different components of the firing discharge activity of these cells, with some particularities in the case of NGF. All neurotrophins have also synaptotrophic activity, although to different degrees. Accordingly, neurotrophins can restore the axotomy-induced alterations acting selectively on different properties of the motoneuron. In this review, we summarize these evidences and discuss them in the context of other motor systems. PMID:27916956

  17. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0, Including Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    2003-04-28

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Sites Office's (NNSA/NSO's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. CAU 516 consists of six Corrective Action Sites: 03-59-01, Building 3C-36 Septic System; 03-59-02, Building 3C-45 Septic System; 06-51-01, Sump Piping, 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris; 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping; and 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area. Located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the NTS, CAU 516 is being investigated because disposed waste may be present without appropriate controls, and hazardous and/or radioactive constituents may be present or migrating at concentrations and locations that could potentially pose a threat to human health and the environment. Existing information and process knowledge on the expected nature and extent of contamination of CAU 516 are insufficient to select preferred corrective action alternatives; therefore, additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation. The results of this field investigation will support a defensible evaluation of corrective action alternatives in the corrective action decision document. Record of Technical Change No. 1 is dated 3/2004.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-08

    This Corrective Action Decision Document identifies and rationalizes the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 428, Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 3 at the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) in Nevada, CAU 428 is comprised of two Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-05-002-SW01, Septic Waste System 1 and (2) CAS 03-05-002- SW05, Septic Waste System 5. A corrective action investigation performed in 1999 detected analyte concentrations that exceeded preliminary action levels; specifically, contaminants of concern (COCs) included benzo(a) pyrene in a septic tank integrity sample associated with Septic Tank 33-1A of Septic Waste System 1, and arsenic in a soil sample associated with Septic Waste System 5. During this investigation, three Corrective Action Objectives (CAOs) were identified to prevent or mitigate exposure to contents of the septic tanks and distribution box, to subsurface soil containing COCs, and the spread of COCs beyond the CAU. Based on these CAOs, a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Area 3 of the TTR, three CAAs were developed for consideration: Alternative 1 - No Further Action; Alternative 2 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls; and Alternative 3 - Clean Closure by Excavation and Disposal. These alternatives were evaluated based on four general corrective action standards and five remedy selection decision factors. Based on the results of the evaluation, the preferred CAA was Alternative 3. This alternative meets all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site and will eliminate potential future exposure pathways to the contaminated soils at the Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5.

  19. Blueprint for action: steps toward a high-quality, high-value maternity care system.

    PubMed

    Angood, Peter B; Armstrong, Elizabeth Mitchell; Ashton, Diane; Burstin, Helen; Corry, Maureen P; Delbanco, Suzanne F; Fildes, Barbara; Fox, Daniel M; Gluck, Paul A; Gullo, Sue Leavitt; Howes, Joanne; Jolivet, R Rima; Laube, Douglas W; Lynne, Donna; Main, Elliott; Markus, Anne Rossier; Mayberry, Linda; Mitchell, Lynn V; Ness, Debra L; Nuzum, Rachel; Quinlan, Jeffrey D; Sakala, Carol; Salganicoff, Alina

    2010-01-01

    Childbirth Connection hosted a 90th Anniversary national policy symposium, Transforming Maternity Care: A High Value Proposition, on April 3, 2009, in Washington, DC. Over 100 leaders from across the range of stakeholder perspectives were actively engaged in the symposium work to improve the quality and value of U.S. maternity care through broad system improvement. A multi-disciplinary symposium steering committee guided the strategy from its inception and contributed to every phase of the project. The "Blueprint for Action: Steps Toward a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", issued by the Transforming Maternity Care Symposium Steering Committee, answers the fundamental question, "Who needs to do what, to, for, and with whom to improve the quality of maternity care over the next five years?" Five stakeholder workgroups collaborated to propose actionable strategies in 11 critical focus areas for moving expeditiously toward the realization of the long term "2020 Vision for a High Quality, High Value Maternity Care System", also published in this issue. Following the symposium these workgroup reports and recommendations were synthesized into the current blueprint. For each critical focus area, the "Blueprint for Action" presents a brief problem statement, a set of system goals for improvement in that area, and major recommendations with proposed action steps to achieve them. This process created a clear sightline to action that if enacted could improve the structure, process, experiences of care, and outcomes of the maternity care system in ways that when anchored in the culture can indeed transform maternity care.

  20. Principle of stationary action in the theory of superfluid systems with spontaneously broken translational symmetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peletminskii, A. S.; Peletminskii, S. V.

    2009-08-01

    We construct a Lagrangian describing the low-frequency dynamics of a system with spontaneously broken phase and translational symmetry (a supersolid). Using the principle of stationary action, we obtain the hydrodynamic equations for the considered system. We give a relativistic generalization of the obtained equations of motion in terms of the the Gibbs thermodynamic potential density.

  1. A novel video recommendation system based on efficient retrieval of human actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramezani, Mohsen; Yaghmaee, Farzin

    2016-09-01

    In recent years, fast growth of online video sharing eventuated new issues such as helping users to find their requirements in an efficient way. Hence, Recommender Systems (RSs) are used to find the users' most favorite items. Finding these items relies on items or users similarities. Though, many factors like sparsity and cold start user impress the recommendation quality. In some systems, attached tags are used for searching items (e.g. videos) as personalized recommendation. Different views, incomplete and inaccurate tags etc. can weaken the performance of these systems. Considering the advancement of computer vision techniques can help improving RSs. To this end, content based search can be used for finding items (here, videos are considered). In such systems, a video is taken from the user to find and recommend a list of most similar videos to the query one. Due to relating most videos to humans, we present a novel low complex scalable method to recommend videos based on the model of included action. This method has recourse to human action retrieval approaches. For modeling human actions, some interest points are extracted from each action and their motion information are used to compute the action representation. Moreover, a fuzzy dissimilarity measure is presented to compare videos for ranking them. The experimental results on HMDB, UCFYT, UCF sport and KTH datasets illustrated that, in most cases, the proposed method can reach better results than most used methods.

  2. Violation of the mass-action law in dilute chemical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brogioli, Doriano

    2013-11-01

    The mass-action law, which predicts the rates of chemical reactions, is widely used for modeling the kinetics of the chemical reactions and their stationary states, also for complex chemical reaction networks. However, violations of the mass-action equations have been reported in various cases: in confined systems with a small number of molecules, in non-ideally-stirred systems, when the reactions are limited by the diffusion, at high concentrations of reactants, or in chemical reaction networks with marginally stable mass-action equations. In this paper, I describe a new mechanism, leading to the violation of the mass-action equations, that takes place at a low concentration of at least one of the reactants; in this limit, the reaction rates can be easily inferred from the chemical reaction network. I propose that this mechanism underlies the replication stability of the hypercycles, a class of chemical reaction networks hypothetically connected with abiogenesis. I provide two simple examples of chemical reaction networks in which the mechanism leading to the violation of the mass-action law is present. I study the two chemical reaction networks by means of a simulation performed with a cellular automaton model. The results have a general validity and represent a limitation of the validity of the mass-action law, which has been overlooked up to now in the studies about the chemical reaction networks.

  3. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 1 with ROTC 1

    SciTech Connect

    Alfred N. Wickline

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516, Septic Systems and Discharge Points, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 516 is comprised of the following Corrective Action Sites (CASs): (1) 03-59-01 - Bldg 3C-36 Septic System; (2) 03-59-02 - Bldg 3C-45 Septic System; (3) 06-51-01 - Sump and Piping; (4) 06-51-02 - Clay Pipe and Debris; (5) 06-51-03 - Clean Out Box and Piping; and (7) 22-19-04 - Vehicle Decontamination Area. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of an acceptable corrective action alternative for each CAS within CAU 516. Corrective action investigation activities were performed between July 22 and August 14, 2003, as set forth in the Corrective Action Investigation Plan. Supplemental sampling was conducted in late 2003 and early 2004.

  4. How specifically are action verbs represented in the neural motor system: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Wessel O; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-12-01

    Embodied accounts of language processing suggest that sensorimotor areas, generally dedicated to perception and action, are also involved in the processing and representation of word meaning. Support for such accounts comes from studies showing that language about actions selectively modulates the execution of congruent and incongruent motor responses (e.g., Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002), and from functional neuroimaging studies showing that understanding action-related language recruits sensorimotor brain areas (e.g. Hauk, Johnsrude, & Pulvermueller, 2004). In the current experiment we explored the basis of the neural motor system's involvement in representing words denoting actions. Specifically, we investigated whether the motor system's involvement is modulated by the specificity of the kinematics associated with a word. Previous research in the visual domain indicates that words denoting basic level category members lacking a specific form (e.g., bird) are less richly encoded within visual areas than words denoting subordinate level members (e.g., pelican), for which the visual form is better specified (Gauthier, Anderson, Tarr, Skudlarski, & Gore, 1997). In the present study we extend these findings to the motor domain. Modulation of the BOLD response elicited by verbs denoting a general motor program (e.g., to clean) was compared to modulation elicited by verbs denoting a more specific motor program (e.g., to wipe). Conform with our hypothesis, a region within the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, typically serving the representation of action plans and goals, was sensitive to the specificity of motor programs associated with the action verbs. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on embodied language representations by showing that the concreteness of an action-semantic feature is reflected in the neural response to action verbs.

  5. THE mPER2 CLOCK GENE MODULATES COCAINE ACTIONS IN THE MOUSE CIRCADIAN SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Brager, Allison J.; Stowie, Adam C.; Prosser, Rebecca A.; Glass, J. David

    2014-01-01

    Cocaine is a potent disruptor of photic and non-photic pathways for circadian entrainment of the master circadian clock of the suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN). These actions of cocaine likely involve its modulation of molecular (clock gene) components for SCN clock timekeeping. At present, however, the physiological basis of such an interaction is unclear. To address this question, we compared photic and non-photic phase-resetting responses between wild-type (WT) and Per2 mutant mice expressing nonfunctional PER2 protein to systemic and intra-SCN cocaine administrations. In the systemic trials, cocaine was administered i.p. (20 mg/kg) either at midday or prior to a light pulse in the early night to assess its non-photic and photic behavioral phase-resetting actions, respectively. In the intra-SCN trial, cocaine was administered by reverse microdialysis at midday to determine if the SCN is a direct target for its non-photic phase-resetting action. Non-photic phase-advancing responses to i.p. cocaine at midday were significantly (~3.5-fold) greater in Per2 mutants than WTs. However, the phase-advancing action of intra-SCN cocaine perfusion at midday did not differ between genotypes. In the light pulse trial, Per2 mutants exhibited larger photic phase-delays than did WTs, and the attenuating action of cocaine on this response was proportionately larger than in WTs. These data indicate that the Per2 clock gene is a potent modulator of cocaine’s actions in the circadian system. With regard to non-photic phase-resetting, the SCN is confirmed as a direct target of cocaine action; however, Per2 modulation of this effect likely occurs outside of the SCN. PMID:23333842

  6. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 516: Septic Systems and Discharge Points

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-02-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 516 is located in Areas 3, 6, and 22 of the Nevada Test Site. CAU 516 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order of 1996 as Septic Systems and Discharge Points, and is comprised of six Corrective Action Sites (CASs): {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-01, Bldg 3C-36 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 03-59-02, Bldg 3C-45 Septic System {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-01, Sump and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-02, Clay Pipe and Debris {sm_bullet} CAS 06-51-03, Clean Out Box and Piping {sm_bullet} CAS 22-19-04, Vehicle Decontamination Area The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 06-51-02 and 22-19-04 is no further action. The NDEP-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 03-59-01, 03-59-02, 06-51-01, and 06-51-03 is clean closure. Closure activities included removing and disposing of total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH)-impacted septic tank contents, septic tanks, distribution/clean out boxes, and piping. CAU 516 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 516 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 516 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2004). This Closure Report documents CAU 516 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 186 tons of hydrocarbon waste in the form of TPH-impacted soil and debris, as well as 89 tons of construction debris, were generated and managed and disposed of appropriately. Waste minimization techniques, such as field screening of soil samples and the utilization of laboratory analysis to characterize and classify waste streams, were employed during the performance of closure work.

  7. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2005-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, in Areas 2, 3, 5, 6, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); (2) 03-05-01, Leachfield; (3) 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; (4) 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); (5) 06-05-01, Leachfield; (6) 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; (7) 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; (8) 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (9) 23-05-02, Leachfield. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of a corrective action alternative for the nine CASs within CAU 224. Corrective action investigation activities were performed from August 10, 2004, through January 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Investigation Plan.

  8. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 274: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-09-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit 274, Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 274 is comprised of five corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 03-02-01, WX-6 ETS Building Septic System; (2) CAS 06-02-01, Cesspool; (3) CAS 09-01-01, Spill Site; (4) CAS 09-05-01, Leaching Pit; and (5) CAS 20-05-01, Septic System. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the closure of CAU 274 with no further corrective action. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from November 14 through December 17, 2005 as set forth in the CAU 274 Corrective Action Investigation Plan. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If contaminants of concern are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 274 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against final action levels (FALs) established in this document. No analytes were detected at concentrations exceeding the FALs. No COCs have been released to the soil at CAU 274, and corrective action is not required. Therefore, the DQO data needs were met, and it was determined that no corrective action based on risk to human receptors is necessary for the site. All FALs were calculated using the industrial site worker scenario except for benzo(a)pyrene, which was calculated based on

  9. Agricultural Extension, Collective Action and Innovation Systems: Lessons on Network Brokering from Peru and Mexico

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hellin, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: New approaches to extension service delivery are needed that stimulate increased agricultural production, contribute to collective action and which also foster the emergence of agricultural innovation systems. Research in Peru and Mexico explores some of these new approaches. Design/methodology/approach: In both countries, a qualitative…

  10. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Further Actions Needed to Address Challenges and Improve Accountability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-05-01

    Compliance and Requirements Traceability AF-IPPS Air Force Integrated Personnel and Pay System BPR business process reengineering BEA business...updated its BPR guidance in late September 2012 to include actions to be taken to review supporting documentation on selected investments

  11. Researching the Impact of Teacher Professional Development Programmes Based on Action Research, Constructivism, and Systems Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz

    2015-01-01

    This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…

  12. Systems Biology and Mode of Action Based Risk Assessment (BioIT)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The application of systems biology for risk assessment of environmental chemicals is a natural extension of its use in pharmaceutical research. The basis for this is the concept of a key event network that builds on existing mode of action frameworks for risk assessment. The ap...

  13. Identification of Action Units Related to Affective States in a Tutoring System for Mathematics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padrón-Rivera, Gustavo; Rebolledo-Mendez, Genaro; Parra, Pilar Pozos; Huerta-Pacheco, N. Sofia

    2016-01-01

    Affect is an important element of the learning process both in the classroom and with educational technology. This paper presents analyses in relation to the identification of Action Units (AUs) related to affective states and their impact on learning with a tutoring system. To assess affect, a tool was devised to identify AUs on pictures of human…

  14. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada Rev. No.: 0, April 2002

    SciTech Connect

    IT Coroporation, Las Vegas, NV

    2002-04-17

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR) approximately 235 miles north of Las Vegas, Nevada, CAU 405 consists of three Corrective Action Sites (CASs): 03-05-002-SW03, Septic Waste System (aka: Septic Waste System [SWS] 3); 03-05-002-SW04, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 4); 03-05-002-SW07, Septic Waste System (aka: SWS 7). The CADD and CR have been combined into one report because no further action is recommended for this CAU, and this report provides specific information necessary to support this recommendation. The CAU consists of three leachfields and associated collection systems that were installed in or near Area 3 for wastewater disposal. These systems were used until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990. Historically, operations within various buildin gs in and near Area 3 of the TTR generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters. There is a potential that contaminants of concern (COCs) were present in the wastewaters and were disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. The justification for closure of this CAU without further action is based on process knowledge and the results of the investigative activities. Closure activities were performed at these CASs between January 14 and February 2, 2002, and included the removal and proper disposal of media containing regulated constituents and proper closure of septic tanks. No further action is appropriate because all necessary activities have been completed. No use restrictions are required to be imposed for these sites since the investigation showed no evidence of COCs identified in the soil for CAU 405.

  15. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Report

    SciTech Connect

    Lee Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  16. Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System Remedial Action Request

    SciTech Connect

    L. Davison

    2009-06-30

    This Remedial Action Report summarizes activities undertaken to remediate the Operable Unit 3-13, Group 7, SFE-20 Hot Waste Tank System at the Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center at the Idaho National Laboratory Site. The site addressed in this report was defined in the Operable Unit 3-13 Record of Decision and subsequent implementing documents. This report concludes that remediation requirements and cleanup goals established for the site have been accomplished and is hereafter considered a No Further Action site.

  17. Decreasing occupational injury and disability: the convergence of systems theory, knowledge transfer and action research.

    PubMed

    Guzman, Jaime; Yassi, Annalee; Baril, Raymond; Loisel, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    Many work injuries and their associated disabilities are preventable, but effective prevention requires coordinated action by multiple stakeholders. In trying to achieve coordinated action occupational health practitioners can learn valuable lessons from systems theory, knowledge transfer and action research. Systems theory provides a broad view of the factors leading to injury and disability and a means to refocus stakeholder energies from mutual blaming to effective strategies for system change. Experiences from knowledge transfer will help adopt a stakeholder-centered approach that will facilitate the concrete application of the best and most current occupational health knowledge. Action research is a methodology endorsed by the World Health Organization and the US Centers for Disease Control, which provide methods for successfully engaging stakeholders needed to attain sustainable change. By combining concepts from the three fields we propose MAPAC (Mobilize, Assess, Plan, Act, Check), a five-step framework for developing projects aimed at decreasing occupational injury and disability. Although most practitioners would be familiar with some of the concepts, we believe an explicit framework linked to transferable knowledge from these diverse fields can help design and implement effective programs. We provide examples of model application in workers compensation and in the healthcare workplace.

  18. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-02-03

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report (CADD/CR) has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 500: Test Cell A Septic System, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site in Nevada, CAU 500 is comprised of one Corrective Action Site, CAS 25-04-05. This CADD/CR identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) recommendation that no corrective action is deemed necessary for CAU 500. The Corrective Action Decision Document and Closure Report have been combined into one report based on sample data collected during the field investigation performed between February and May 1999, which showed no evidence of soil contamination at this site. The clean closure justification for CAU 500 is based on these results. Analytes detected were evaluated against preliminary action levels (PALs) to determine contaminants of concern (COCs) for CAU 500, and it was determined that the PALs were not exceeded for total volatile organic compounds, total semivolatile organic compounds, total petroleum hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, total Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, and strontium-90 for any of the soil samples collected. COCs were identified only within the septic tank and distribution box at the CAU. No COCs were identified outside these two areas; therefore, no corrective action was necessary for the soil. Closure activities were performed to address the COCs identified within the septic tank and distribution box. The DOE/NV recommended that neither corrective action nor a corrective action plan was required at CAU 500. Further, no use restrictions were required to be placed on CAU 500, and the septic tank and distribution box have been closed in accordance with all applicable state and federal regulations for closure of the site.

  19. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, REVISION 0, march 1999

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1999-03-26

    The Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 428, Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 1 and 5, has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order that was agreed to by the U. S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office; the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection; and the U. S. Department of Defense. Corrective Action Unit 428 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03- 05- 002- SW01 and 03- 05- 002- SW05, respectively known as Area 3 Septic Waste System 1 and Septic Waste System 5. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan is used in combination with the Work Plan for Leachfield Corrective Action Units: Nevada Test Site and Tonopah Test Range, Nevada , Rev. 1 (DOE/ NV, 1998c). The Leachfield Work Plan was developed to streamline investigations at leachfield Corrective Action Units by incorporating management, technical, quality assurance, health and safety, public involvement, field sampling, and waste management information common to a set of Corrective Action Units with similar site histories and characteristics into a single document that can be referenced. This Corrective Action Investigation Plan provides investigative details specific to Corrective Action Unit 428. A system of leachfields and associated collection systems was used for wastewater disposal at Area 3 of the Tonopah Test Range until a consolidated sewer system was installed in 1990 to replace the discrete septic waste systems. Operations within various buildings at Area 3 generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with contaminants of potential concern and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Corrective Action Unit 428 is composed of two leachfield systems in the northern portion of Area 3. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern for the site include oil/ diesel range total petroleum hydrocarbons, and Resource Conservation

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-06-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada. Information presented in this CAIP includes facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for the selection and evaluation of environmental corrective action alternatives. Corrective Action Unit 151 is located in Areas 2, 12, 18, and 20 of the Nevada Test Site, which is 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CAS) listed below: (1) 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; (8) 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed); and (9) 20-19-02, Photochemical Drain. The CASs within CAU 151 are discharge and collection systems. Corrective Action Site 02-05-01 is located in Area 2 and is a well-water collection pond used as a part of the Nash test. Corrective Action Sites 12-03-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, and 12-47-01 are located in Area 12 and are comprised of sewage lagoons, septic tanks, associated piping, and two sumps. The features are a part of the Area 12 Camp housing and administrative septic systems. Corrective Action Sites 18-03-01 and 18-99-09 are located in the Area 17 Camp in Area 18. These sites are sewage lagoons and associated piping. The origin and terminus of CAS 18-99-09 are unknown; however, the type and configuration of the pipe indicates that it may be a part of the septic systems in Area 18. Corrective Action Site 20-19-02 is located in the Area 20 Camp. This site is comprised of a surface discharge of photoprocessing chemicals.

  1. Reliable Identification of Vehicle-Boarding Actions Based on Fuzzy Inference System

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, DaeHan; Park, Homin; Hwang, Seokhyun; Park, Taejoon

    2017-01-01

    Existing smartphone-based solutions to prevent distracted driving suffer from inadequate system designs that only recognize simple and clean vehicle-boarding actions, thereby failing to meet the required level of accuracy in real-life environments. In this paper, exploiting unique sensory features consistently monitored from a broad range of complicated vehicle-boarding actions, we propose a reliable and accurate system based on fuzzy inference to classify the sides of vehicle entrance by leveraging built-in smartphone sensors only. The results of our comprehensive evaluation on three vehicle types with four participants demonstrate that the proposed system achieves 91.1%∼94.0% accuracy, outperforming other methods by 26.9%∼38.4% and maintains at least 87.8% accuracy regardless of smartphone positions and vehicle types. PMID:28208795

  2. Neural mirroring and social interaction: Motor system involvement during action observation relates to early peer cooperation.

    PubMed

    Endedijk, H M; Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Cillessen, A H N; Hunnius, S

    2017-01-07

    Whether we hand over objects to someone, play a team sport, or make music together, social interaction often involves interpersonal action coordination, both during instances of cooperation and entrainment. Neural mirroring is thought to play a crucial role in processing other's actions and is therefore considered important for social interaction. Still, to date, it is unknown whether interindividual differences in neural mirroring play a role in interpersonal coordination during different instances of social interaction. A relation between neural mirroring and interpersonal coordination has particularly relevant implications for early childhood, since successful early interaction with peers is predictive of a more favorable social development. We examined the relation between neural mirroring and children's interpersonal coordination during peer interaction using EEG and longitudinal behavioral data. Results showed that 4-year-old children with higher levels of motor system involvement during action observation (as indicated by lower beta-power) were more successful in early peer cooperation. This is the first evidence for a relation between motor system involvement during action observation and interpersonal coordination during other instances of social interaction. The findings suggest that interindividual differences in neural mirroring are related to interpersonal coordination and thus successful social interaction.

  3. Automated, Unobtrusive, Action-by-Action Assessment of Self-Regulation during Learning with an Intelligent Tutoring System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aleven, Vincent; Roll, Ido; McLaren, Bruce M.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    Assessment of students' self-regulated learning (SRL) requires a method for evaluating whether observed actions are appropriate acts of self-regulation in theEv specific learning context in which they occur. We review research that has resulted in an automated method for context-sensitive assessment of a specific SRL strategy, help seeking while…

  4. Urges for food and money spill over into motor system excitability before action is taken.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Nitin; Aron, Adam R

    2011-01-01

    Much human behavior is driven by urges. Yet research into urges is hampered by a paucity of tools to objectively index their strength, timing and control. Here we used transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and concurrent electromyography to examine whether urges for food and money are detectable via motor system excitability. In Experiment 1, we used a naturalistic food paradigm to show that food items that were most strongly wanted elicited the largest motor excitability, even before participants knew which response to make to get them. In Experiment 2a, we replicated the results using money - motor excitability was greater for larger monetary amounts. In Experiment 2b we show that monetary amount does not modulate motor excitability when participants simply observe, without having to take action. As the chief effect occurred prior to the subject knowing which motor response to make, it is not merely related to response preparation, and as the effect was present only when action was required, it is not merely related to increased arousal. Instead, the increased motor excitability likely indexes the degree of motivation a subject has to perform an action. Thus, we have used TMS to demonstrate that urges for food and money 'spill over' into the motor system. This is likely mediated by interactions between the limbic system (including the orbital frontal cortex) and the motor system, probably at the level of the basal ganglia. Implications are discussed for theories of embodied cognition and for methodological progress in studying urge control.

  5. Modeling the Organization as a System of Communication Activity: A Dialogue about the Language/Action Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Every, Elizabeth J.; Taylor, James R.

    1998-01-01

    Introduces, through a conversation with computer-system designers from the Netherlands, the Language/Action Perspective on modeling business workflow and communication processes. Describes their attempts to develop system models that go beyond data flow to incorporate the communicative actions or transactions that result in the creation of a…

  6. The antiallodynic action of pregabalin in neuropathic pain is independent from the opioid system

    PubMed Central

    Yalcin, Ipek; Nexon, Laurent; Wurtz, Xavier; Ceredig, Rhian Alice; Daniel, Dorothée; Hawkes, Rachael Aredhel; Salvat, Eric; Barrot, Michel

    2016-01-01

    Background Clinical management of neuropathic pain, which is pain arising as a consequence of a lesion or a disease affecting the somatosensory system, partly relies on the use of anticonvulsant drugs such as gabapentinoids. Therapeutic action of gabapentinoids such as gabapentin and pregabalin, which act by the inhibition of calcium currents through interaction with the α2δ-1 subunit of voltage-dependent calcium channels, is well documented. However, some aspects of the downstream mechanisms are still to be uncovered. Using behavioral, genetic, and pharmacological approaches, we tested whether opioid receptors are necessary for the antiallodynic action of acute and/or long-term pregabalin treatment in the specific context of neuropathic pain. Results Using the cuff model of neuropathic pain in mice, we show that acute pregabalin administration at high dose has a transitory antiallodynic action, while prolonged oral pregabalin treatment leads to sustained antiallodynic action, consistent with clinical observations. We show that pregabalin remains fully effective in μ-opioid receptor, in δ-opioid receptor and in κ-opioid receptor deficient mice, either female or male, and its antiallodynic action is not affected by acute naloxone. Our work also shows that long-term pregabalin treatment suppresses tumor necrosis factor-α overproduction induced by sciatic nerve constriction in the lumbar dorsal root ganglia. Conclusions We demonstrate that neither acute nor long-term antiallodynic effect of pregabalin in a context of neuropathic pain is mediated by the endogenous opioid system, which differs from opioid treatment of pain and antidepressant treatment of neuropathic pain. Our data are also supportive of an impact of gabapentinoid treatment on the neuroimmune aspect of neuropathic pain. PMID:27030724

  7. Corrective Action Plan for Corrective Action Unit No. 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2 and 6 Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Jerel G. Nelson

    1998-11-01

    This Corrective Action Plan provides the closure methods for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems (SWS) 2 and 6, located at the Tonopah Test Range. SWS 2 consists of Septic Tanks 33-4, 33-5, 33-6, and two associated leachfields. SWS 6 consists of one associated leachfield. The Area 3 SWS 2 and 6 are also known as Corrective Action Sites (CASs) 03-05-002-SW02 and 03-05-002-SW06 respectively. Site investigation activities were completed in February 1998 and are documented in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD). The site characterization found septage in Septic Tank 33-5. Septic Tank 33-4 is closed. Septic Tank 33-6 is still active and in line with the Sandia National Laboratories consolidated system. This site was investigated for volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, RCRA metals, and total petroleum hydrocarbons. Characterizations of the three leachfields associated with these septic tanks were characterized and not detected above the Preliminary Action Levels. During the characterization, it was determined that Septic Tank 33-5 had not been closed. Therefore, closure activities will consist of removal of the residual septage and closure-in-place. Septic Tank 33-5 will be closed by filling of the emptied tank with clean inert material (sand) and sealing the top with a concrete cap.

  8. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 562: Waste Systems, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-08-15

    This Closure Report (CR) presents information supporting closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 562, Waste Systems, and provides documentation supporting the completed corrective actions and confirmation that closure objectives for CAU 562 were met. This CR complies with the requirements of the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada; the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Environmental Management; the U.S. Department of Defense; and DOE, Legacy Management (FFACO, 1996 as amended). CAU 562 consists of the following 13 Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 23, and 25 of the Nevada National Security Site: · CAS 02-26-11, Lead Shot · CAS 02-44-02, Paint Spills and French Drain · CAS 02-59-01, Septic System · CAS 02-60-01, Concrete Drain · CAS 02-60-02, French Drain · CAS 02-60-03, Steam Cleaning Drain · CAS 02-60-04, French Drain · CAS 02-60-05, French Drain · CAS 02-60-06, French Drain · CAS 02-60-07, French Drain · CAS 23-60-01, Mud Trap Drain and Outfall · CAS 23-99-06, Grease Trap · CAS 25-60-04, Building 3123 Outfalls Closure activities began in October 2011 and were completed in April 2012. Activities were conducted according to the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 562 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office [NNSA/NSO], 2011). The corrective actions included No Further Action and Clean Closure. Closure activities generated sanitary waste and hazardous waste. Some wastes exceeded land disposal limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other wastes met land disposal restrictions and were disposed in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. NNSA/NSO requests the following: · A Notice of Completion from the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection to NNSA/NSO for closure of CAU 562 · The transfer of CAU 562 from Appendix III to Appendix IV, Closed Corrective Action Units, of the FFACO

  9. A Comprehensive Action Plan Information System: A Tool for Tracking and Mapping Quality of Life Action Implementation and Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krebs, Peter; Holden, Bill; Williams, Allison; Basualdo, Maria; Spence, Cara

    2008-01-01

    Since its inception, the Community-University Institute for Social Research (CUISR) has been involved in a participatory process aimed at understanding the quality of life in Saskatoon. Informed by the results of Quality of Life (QoL) survey in 2001 and by a list of QoL action priorities from a community forum, the CUISR QoL module set out to…

  10. Mixed convolved action for classical and fractional-derivative dissipative dynamical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dargush, G. F.

    2012-12-01

    The principle of mixed convolved action provides a new rigorous weak variational formalism for a broad range of initial value problems in mathematical physics and mechanics. Here, the focus is initially on classical single-degree-of-freedom oscillators incorporating either Kelvin-Voigt or Maxwell dissipative elements and then, subsequently, on systems that utilize fractional-derivative constitutive models. In each case, an appropriate mixed convolved action is formulated, and a corresponding weak form is discretized in time using temporal shape functions to produce an algorithm suitable for numerical solution. Several examples are considered to validate the mixed convolved action principles and to investigate the performance of the numerical algorithms. For undamped systems, the algorithm is found to be symplectic and unconditionally stable with respect to the time step. In the case of dissipative systems, the approach is shown to be robust and to be accurate with good convergence characteristics for both classical and fractional-derivative based models. As part of the derivations, some interesting results in the calculus of Caputo fractional derivatives also are presented.

  11. Understanding others' actions and goals by mirror and mentalizing systems: a meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Van Overwalle, Frank; Baetens, Kris

    2009-11-15

    This meta-analysis explores the role of the mirror and mentalizing systems in the understanding of other people's action goals. Based on over 200 fMRI studies, this analysis demonstrates that the mirror system - consisting of the anterior intraparietal sulcus and the premotor cortex - is engaged when one perceives articulated motions of body parts irrespective of their sensory (visual or auditory) or verbal format as well as when the perceiver executes them. This confirms the matching role of the mirror system in understanding biological action. Observation of whole-body motions and gaze engage the posterior superior temporal sulcus and most likely reflects an orientation response in line with the action or attention of the observed actor. In contrast, the mentalizing system - consisting of the temporo-parietal junction, the medial prefrontal cortex and the precuneus - is activated when behavior that enables inferences to be made about goals, beliefs or moral issues is presented in abstract terms (e.g., verbal stories or geometric shapes) and there is no perceivable biological motion of body parts. A striking overlap of brain activity at the temporo-parietal junction between social inferences and other, non-social observations (e.g., Posner's cuing task) suggests that this area computes the orientation or direction of the behavior in order to predict its likely end-state (or goal). No conclusions are drawn about the specific functionality of the precuneus and the medial prefrontal cortex. Because the mirror and mentalizing systems are rarely concurrently active, it appears that neither system subserves the other. Rather, they are complementary. There seems, however, to be a transition from the mirror to the mentalizing system even when body-part motions are observed by perceivers who are consciously deliberating about the goals of others and their behavioral executions, such as when perceived body motions are contextually inconsistent, implausible or pretended.

  12. Intrinsically motivated action-outcome learning and goal-based action recall: a system-level bio-constrained computational model.

    PubMed

    Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mannella, Francesco; Fiore, Vincenzo G; Redgrave, Peter; Gurney, Kevin; Mirolli, Marco

    2013-05-01

    Reinforcement (trial-and-error) learning in animals is driven by a multitude of processes. Most animals have evolved several sophisticated systems of 'extrinsic motivations' (EMs) that guide them to acquire behaviours allowing them to maintain their bodies, defend against threat, and reproduce. Animals have also evolved various systems of 'intrinsic motivations' (IMs) that allow them to acquire actions in the absence of extrinsic rewards. These actions are used later to pursue such rewards when they become available. Intrinsic motivations have been studied in Psychology for many decades and their biological substrates are now being elucidated by neuroscientists. In the last two decades, investigators in computational modelling, robotics and machine learning have proposed various mechanisms that capture certain aspects of IMs. However, we still lack models of IMs that attempt to integrate all key aspects of intrinsically motivated learning and behaviour while taking into account the relevant neurobiological constraints. This paper proposes a bio-constrained system-level model that contributes a major step towards this integration. The model focusses on three processes related to IMs and on the neural mechanisms underlying them: (a) the acquisition of action-outcome associations (internal models of the agent-environment interaction) driven by phasic dopamine signals caused by sudden, unexpected changes in the environment; (b) the transient focussing of visual gaze and actions on salient portions of the environment; (c) the subsequent recall of actions to pursue extrinsic rewards based on goal-directed reactivation of the representations of their outcomes. The tests of the model, including a series of selective lesions, show how the focussing processes lead to a faster learning of action-outcome associations, and how these associations can be recruited for accomplishing goal-directed behaviours. The model, together with the background knowledge reviewed in the paper

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0, with ROTC 1 and 2

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Strand

    2004-04-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) contains project-specific information including facility descriptions, environmental sample collection objectives, and criteria for conducting site investigation activities at Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada. This CAIP has been developed in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996) that was agreed to by the State of Nevada, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), and the U.S. Department of Defense (DoD). The NTS is approximately 65 miles (mi) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 224 is comprised of the nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) listed below: 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); 03-05-01, Leachfield; 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); 06-05-01, Leachfield; 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and 23-05-02, Leachfield. Corrective Action Sites 06-05-01, 06-23-01, and 23-05-02 were identified in the 1991 Reynolds Electrical & Engineering Co., Inc. (REECo) inventory (1991). The remaining sites were identified during review of various historical documents. Additional information will be obtained by conducting a corrective action investigation (CAI) prior to evaluating and selecting a corrective action alternative for each CAS. The CAI will include field inspections, radiological and geological surveys, and sample collection. Data will also be obtained to support investigation-derived waste (IDW) disposal and potential future waste management decisions.

  14. UV action spectra for mammalian systems: their implications for the predicted effects of ozone depletion on skin cancer incidence

    SciTech Connect

    Setlow, R.B.

    1982-01-01

    The predicted environmental effect of UV-B depend on the action spectrum for the response studied. Since such spectra change rapidly - usually decreasing with increasing wavelength - and since the biological effects depend on the product of the action spectrum and the sun's spectrum at the surface of the earth which decreases with decreasing wavelength, a slight change in action spectrum will markedly influence the predicted effects of ozone depletion on biological systems. Thus, the key, but by no means only step in the prediction, is a knowledge of the action spectrum. Unfortunately, it is rare that we know or even hope to know the spectrum for biological systems of interest such as skin cancer induction, nor is it possible to do experiments with solar simulators on many systems. Hence, we must base our predictions on the photobiological properties of simple systems and the knowledge of their action spectra and general biological theories connecting simple cells with higher organisms.

  15. Identifying the Cellular Targets of Drug Action in the Central Nervous System Following Corticosteroid Therapy

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Corticosteroid (CS) therapy is used widely in the treatment of a range of pathologies, but can delay production of myelin, the insulating sheath around central nervous system nerve fibers. The cellular targets of CS action are not fully understood, that is, “direct” action on cells involved in myelin genesis [oligodendrocytes and their progenitors the oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs)] versus “indirect” action on other neural cells. We evaluated the effects of the widely used CS dexamethasone (DEX) on purified OPCs and oligodendrocytes, employing complementary histological and transcriptional analyses. Histological assessments showed no DEX effects on OPC proliferation or oligodendrocyte genesis/maturation (key processes underpinning myelin genesis). Immunostaining and RT-PCR analyses show that both cell types express glucocorticoid receptor (GR; the target for DEX action), ruling out receptor expression as a causal factor in the lack of DEX-responsiveness. GRs function as ligand-activated transcription factors, so we simultaneously analyzed DEX-induced transcriptional responses using microarray analyses; these substantiated the histological findings, with limited gene expression changes in DEX-treated OPCs and oligodendrocytes. With identical treatment, microglial cells showed profound and global changes post-DEX addition; an unexpected finding was the identification of the transcription factor Olig1, a master regulator of myelination, as a DEX responsive gene in microglia. Our data indicate that CS-induced myelination delays are unlikely to be due to direct drug action on OPCs or oligodendrocytes, and may occur secondary to alterations in other neural cells, such as the immune component. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first comparative molecular and cellular analysis of CS effects in glial cells, to investigate the targets of this major class of anti-inflammatory drugs as a basis for myelination deficits. PMID:24147833

  16. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-04-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as Septic Systems and Discharge Area. CAU 151 consists of the following eight Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 2, 12, and 18 of the Nevada Test Site, approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada: (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). CAU 151 closure activities were conducted according to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996; as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 151 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2007) from October 2007 to January 2008. The corrective action alternatives included no further action, clean closure, and closure in place with administrative controls. CAU 151 closure activities are summarized in Table 1. Closure activities generated liquid remediation waste, sanitary waste, hydrocarbon waste, and mixed waste. Waste generated was appropriately managed and disposed. Waste that is currently staged onsite is being appropriately managed and will be disposed under approved waste profiles in permitted landfills. Waste minimization activities included waste characterization sampling and segregation of waste streams. Some waste exceeded land disposal restriction limits and required offsite treatment prior to disposal. Other waste meeting land disposal restrictions was disposed of in appropriate onsite or offsite landfills. Waste disposition documentation is included as Appendix C.

  17. Optimization of biochemical systems by linear programming and general mass action model representations.

    PubMed

    Marín-Sanguino, Alberto; Torres, Néstor V

    2003-08-01

    A new method is proposed for the optimization of biochemical systems. The method, based on the separation of the stoichiometric and kinetic aspects of the system, follows the general approach used in the previously presented indirect optimization method (IOM) developed within biochemical systems theory. It is called GMA-IOM because it makes use of the generalized mass action (GMA) as the model system representation form. The GMA representation avoids flux aggregation and thus prevents possible stoichiometric errors. The optimization of a system is used to illustrate and compare the features, advantages and shortcomings of both versions of the IOM method as a general strategy for designing improved microbial strains of biotechnological interest. Special attention has been paid to practical problems for the actual implementation of the new proposed strategy, such as the total protein content of the engineered strain or the deviation from the original steady state and its influence on cell viability.

  18. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2007-10-01

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224 is located in Areas 02, 03, 05, 06, 11, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, which is situated approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 224 is listed in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Decon Pad and Septic Systems and is comprised of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): CAS 02-04-01, Septic Tank (Buried); CAS 03-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 05-04-01, Septic Tanks (4)/Discharge Area; CAS 06-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (3); CAS 06-05-01, Leachfield; CAS 06-17-04, Decon Pad and Wastewater Catch; CAS 06-23-01, Decon Pad Discharge Piping; CAS 11-04-01, Sewage Lagoon; and CAS 23-05-02, Leachfield. The Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved corrective action alternative for CASs 02-04-01, 03-05-01, 06-03-01, 11-04-01, and 23-05-02 is no further action. As a best management practice, the septic tanks and distribution box were removed from CASs 02-04-01 and 11-04-01 and disposed of as hydrocarbon waste. The NDEP-approved correction action alternative for CASs 05-04-01, 06-05-01, 06-17-04, and 06-23-01 is clean closure. Closure activities for these CASs included removing and disposing of radiologically and pesticide-impacted soil and debris. CAU 224 was closed in accordance with the NDEP-approved CAU 224 Corrective Action Plan (CAP). The closure activities specified in the CAP were based on the recommendations presented in the CAU 224 Corrective Action Decision Document (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office, 2005). This Closure Report documents CAU 224 closure activities. During closure activities, approximately 60 cubic yards (yd3) of mixed waste in the form of soil and debris; approximately 70 yd{sup 3} of sanitary waste in the form of soil, liquid from septic tanks, and concrete debris; approximately 10 yd{sup 3} of hazardous waste in the form of pesticide-impacted soil; approximately 0.5 yd{sup 3} of universal waste in

  19. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 151: Septic Systems and Discharge Area, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    Grant Evenson

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 151, Septic Systems and Discharge Area, at the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, according to the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (FFACO) (1996). Corrective Action Unit 151 is comprised of eight corrective action sites (CASs): (1) CAS 02-05-01, UE-2ce Pond; (2) CAS 12-03-01, Sewage Lagoons (6); (3) CAS 12-04-01, Septic Tanks; (4) CAS 12-04-02, Septic Tanks; (5) CAS 12-04-03, Septic Tank; (6) CAS 12-47-01, Wastewater Pond; (7) CAS 18-03-01, Sewage Lagoon; and (8) CAS 18-99-09, Sewer Line (Exposed). The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document is to identify and provide the rationale for the recommendation of corrective action alternatives (CAAs) for each of the eight CASs within CAU 151. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from September 12 through November 18, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 151 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. Additional confirmation sampling was performed on December 9, 2005; January 10, 2006; and February 13, 2006. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against appropriate final action levels (FALs) to identify the contaminants of concern for each CAS. The results of the CAI identified contaminants of concern at two of the eight CASs in CAU 151 and required the evaluation of CAAs. Assessment of the data generated from investigation activities conducted at CAU 151 revealed the following: (1) Soils at CASs 02-05-01, 12-04-01, 12-04-02, 12-04-03, 12-47-01, 18-03-01, 18-99-09, and Lagoons B through G of CAS 12-03-01 do not contain contamination at concentrations exceeding the FALs. (2) Lagoon A of CAS 12-03-01 has arsenic above FALs in shallow subsurface soils. (3) One of the two tanks of CAS 12-04-01, System No.1, has polychlorinated biphenyls (aroclor-1254), trichloroethane, and cesium-137 above FALs in the sludge. Both CAS 12-04-01, System No.1 tanks contain

  20. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}2 for ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-06-08

    This Record of Technical Change updates the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV--515.

  1. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 to ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' Revision 0, DOE/NV-519

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    2000-02-25

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information included in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' DOE/NV--519.

  2. Record of Technical Change {number_sign}1 for Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    US DOE Nevada Operations Office

    1999-04-12

    This Record of Technical Change provides updates to the technical information in ''Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada,'' DOE/NV--528.

  3. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision No. 1 (9/2001)

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2000-07-20

    This corrective action investigation plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 262 consists of nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs): Underground Storage Tank (25-02-06), Septic Systems A and B (25-04-06), Septic System (25-04-07), Leachfield (25-05-03), Leachfield (25-05-05), Leachfield (25-05-06), Radioactive Leachfield (25-05-08), Leachfield (25-05-12), and Dry Well (25-51-01). Situated in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS), sites addressed by CAU 262 are located at the Reactor-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (R-MAD); Test Cell C; and Engine-Maintenance, Assembly, and Disassembly (E-MAD) facilities. The R-MAD, Test Cell C, and E-MAD facilities supported nuclear rocket reactor and engine testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The activities associated with the testing program were conducted between 1958 and 1973. Based on site history collected to support the Data Quality Objectives process, contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) for the site include oil/diesel-range total petroleum hydrocarbons, volatile organic compounds, semivolatile organic compounds, polychlorinated biphenyls, Resource Conservation and Recovery Act metals, and gamma-emitting radionuclides, isotopic uranium, isotopic plutonium, strontium-90, and tritium. The scope of the corrective action field investigation at the CAU will include the inspection of portions of the collection systems, sampling the contents of collection system features in situ of leachfield logging materials, surface soil sampling, collection of samples of soil underlying the base of inlet and outfall ends of septic tanks and outfall ends of diversion structures and distribution boxes, collection of soil samples from biased or a combination of

  4. Exploitation of pleiotropic actions of statins by using tumour-targeted delivery systems.

    PubMed

    Licarete, Emilia; Sesarman, Alina; Banciu, Manuela

    2015-01-01

    Statins are drugs traditionally used to lower cholesterol levels in blood. At concentrations 100- to 500-fold higher than those needed for reaching cholesterol lowering activity, they have anti-tumour activity. This anti-tumour activity is based on statins pleiotropic effects derived from their ability to inhibit the mevalonate synthesis and include anti-proliferative, pro-apoptotic, anti-angiogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-metastatic actions and modulatory effects on intra-tumour oxidative stress. Thus, in this review, we summarise the possible pleiotropic actions of statins involved in tumour growth inhibition. Since the administration of these high doses of statins is accompanied by severe side effects, targeted delivery of statins seems to be the appropriate strategy for efficient application of statins in oncology. Therefore, we also present an overview of the current status of targeted delivery systems for statins with possible utilisation in oncology.

  5. Cytostatic action of cells of the immune system on tumor cells

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdashin, I.V.

    1986-11-01

    The authors study the ability of cells of the immune system to exert a cytostatic action on tumor cells. The target cells used were from mice, and all of the cells were insensitive to the cytotoxic action of the effector cells in the test with /sup 51/Cr. To prevent incorporation of /sup 3/H-uridine by the effector cells they were treated beforehand with actinomycin D. Nonadherent fractions of spleen, bone marrow and thymus cells were used in the experiments. Incorporation of /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 3/H-uridine into the cells was determined with a beta-counter. Analysis of the results of this investigation show that the ability of cells of different lymphoid organs to exhibit cytostatic activity is distinct from their ability to exert natural cytotoxic activity.

  6. Toward a system to measure action potential on mice brain slices with local magnetoresistive probes

    SciTech Connect

    Amaral, J.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Sebastiao, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    This work combines an electrophysiological system with a magnetoresistive chip to measure the magnetic field created by the synaptic/action potential currents. The chip, with 15 spin valve sensors, was designed to be integrated in a recording chamber for submerged mice brain slices used for synaptic potential measurements. Under stimulation (rectangular pulses of 0.1 ms every 10 s) through a concentric electrode placed near the CA3/CA1 border of the hippocampus, the spin valve sensor readout signals with 20 {mu}V amplitude and a pulse length of 20 to 30 ms were recorded only in the pyramidal cell bodies region and can be interpreted as being derived from action potentials/currents.

  7. Annexin 1: a paracrine/juxtacrine mediator of glucorticoid action in the neuroendocrine system.

    PubMed

    Buckingham, Julia C; Solito, Egle; John, Christopher; Tierney, Tanya; Taylor, Amanda; Flower, Rod; Christian, Helen; Morris, John

    2003-09-01

    Glucocorticoids (GCs) play an essential role in the maintenance of homeostasis. In normal circumstances their secretion is tightly regulated by a complex servo mechanism through which the steroids suppress the synthesis and release of ACTH and its hypothalamic releasing factors (CRH and AVP) and thereby reduce the positive drive to the adrenal cortex. The feedback actions of GCs on hormone release develop rapidly (within minutes), well before any changes in hormone synthesis are apparent. By using immunoneutralization, gene targeting and pharmacological strategies in in vivo and in vitro models, we have identified annexin 1, a Ca(2+)- and phospholipid-binding protein, as a key mediator of the early inhibitory actions of GCs on peptide release. This brief review outlines this work and describes molecular and cellular studies which have provided insight into the mechanism of annexin 1-dependent GC signalling in the neuroendocrine system.

  8. Toward a system to measure action potential on mice brain slices with local magnetoresistive probes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amaral, J.; Cardoso, S.; Freitas, P. P.; Sebastião, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    This work combines an electrophysiological system with a magnetoresistive chip to measure the magnetic field created by the synaptic/action potential currents. The chip, with 15 spin valve sensors, was designed to be integrated in a recording chamber for submerged mice brain slices used for synaptic potential measurements. Under stimulation (rectangular pulses of 0.1 ms every 10 s) through a concentric electrode placed near the CA3/CA1 border of the hippocampus, the spin valve sensor readout signals with 20 μV amplitude and a pulse length of 20 to 30 ms were recorded only in the pyramidal cell bodies region and can be interpreted as being derived from action potentials/currents.

  9. A Mean Field Approach to Self-Organization in Spatially Extended Perception-Action and Psychological Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, Till; Beek, Peter

    It is argued that perception-action systems should be considered as spatially extended systems on account of (i) the presence of spatially distributed synchronized brain activity during the performance of perceptual-motor tasks, and (ii) the failure of conventional zero-dimensional theoretical approaches to deal with multistable perception-action systems and hysteresis in the presence of noise. It is shown that in spatially extended systems self-organization can arise due to the emergence of mean field attractors. This mean field approach is exemplified for a particular class of perception-action systems, namely, rhythmic movements. In addition, clinical implications of the mean field approach and the notion of spatially extended perception-action systems are briefly discussed in the context of psychotherapy and Parkinson's disease.

  10. Corrective Action Decision Document for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. 0

    SciTech Connect

    NNSA /NV

    2002-09-16

    This corrective action decision document (CADD) identifies and rationalizes the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's selection of a recommended corrective action alternative (CAA) appropriate to facilitate the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site (NTS), Nevada, under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO). Located on the NTS approximately 65 miles northwest of Las Vegas, CAU 271 consists of fifteen Corrective Action Sites (CASs). The CASs consist of 13 septic systems, a radioactive leachfield, and a contaminated reservoir. The purpose of this CADD is to identify and provide a rationale for the selection of a recommended CAA for each CAS within CAU 271. Corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from October 29, 2001, through February 22, 2002, and April 29, 2002, through June 25, 2002. Analytes detected during the CAI were evaluated against preliminary action levels and regulatory disposal limits to determine contaminants of concern (COC) for each CAS. It was determined that contaminants of concern included hydrocarbon-contaminated media, polychlorinated biphenyls, and radiologically-contaminated media. Three corrective action objectives were identified for these CASs, and subsequently three CAAs developed for consideration based on a review of existing data, future use, and current operations in Areas 25, 26, and 27 of the NTS. These CAAs were: Alternative 1 - No Further Action, Alternative 2 - Clean Closure, and Alternative 3 - Closure in Place with Administrative Controls. Alternative 2, Clean Closure, was chosen as the preferred CAA for all but two of the CASs (25-04-04 and 27-05-02) because Nevada Administrative Control 444.818 requires clean closure of the septic tanks involved with these CASs. Alternative 3, Closure in Place, was chosen for the final two CASs because the short-term risks of

  11. Systems pharmacology and enhanced pharmacodynamic models for understanding antibody-based drug action and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Ait-Oudhia, Sihem; Ovacik, Meric Ayse; Mager, Donald E

    2017-01-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) and pharmacodynamic (PD) models seek to describe the temporal pattern of drug exposures and their associated pharmacological effects produced at micro- and macro-scales of organization. Antibody-based drugs have been developed for a large variety of diseases, with effects exhibited through a comprehensive range of mechanisms of action. Mechanism-based PK/PD and systems pharmacology models can play a major role in elucidating and integrating complex antibody pharmacological properties, such as nonlinear disposition and dynamical intracellular signaling pathways triggered by ligation to their cognate targets. Such complexities can be addressed through the use of robust computational modeling techniques that have proven powerful tools for pragmatic characterization of experimental data and for theoretical exploration of antibody efficacy and adverse effects. The primary objectives of such multi-scale mathematical models are to generate and test competing hypotheses and to predict clinical outcomes. In this review, relevant systems pharmacology and enhanced PD (ePD) models that are used as predictive tools for antibody-based drug action are reported. Their common conceptual features are highlighted, along with approaches used for modeling preclinical and clinically available data. Key examples illustrate how systems pharmacology and ePD models codify the interplay among complex biology, drug concentrations, and pharmacological effects. New hybrid modeling concepts that bridge cutting-edge systems pharmacology models with established PK/ePD models will be needed to anticipate antibody effects on disease in subpopulations and individual patients.

  12. Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 219: Septic Systems and Injection Wells, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Rev. No.: 0

    SciTech Connect

    David Strand

    2006-05-01

    This Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report has been prepared for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 219, Septic Systems and Injection Wells, in Areas 3, 16, and 23 of the Nevada Test Site, Nevada, in accordance with the ''Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order'' (1996). Corrective Action Unit 219 is comprised of the following corrective action sites (CASs): (1) 03-11-01, Steam Pipes and Asbestos Tiles; (2) 16-04-01, Septic Tanks (3); (3) 16-04-02, Distribution Box; (4) 16-04-03, Sewer Pipes; (5) 23-20-01, DNA Motor Pool Sewage and Waste System; and (6) 23-20-02, Injection Well. The purpose of this Corrective Action Decision Document/Closure Report is to provide justification and documentation supporting the recommendation for closure of CAU 219 with no further corrective action beyond the application of a use restriction at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03. To achieve this, corrective action investigation (CAI) activities were performed from June 20 through October 12, 2005, as set forth in the CAU 219 Corrective Action Investigation Plan and Record of Technical Change No. 1. A best management practice was implemented at CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03, and corrective action was performed at CAS 23-20-01 between January and April 2006. In addition, a use restriction will be applied to CASs 16-04-01, 16-04-02, and 16-04-03 to provide additional protection to Nevada Test Site personnel. The purpose of the CAI was to fulfill the following data needs as defined during the data quality objective (DQO) process: (1) Determine whether contaminants of concern (COCs) are present. (2) If COCs are present, determine their nature and extent. (3) Provide sufficient information and data to complete appropriate corrective actions. The CAU 219 dataset from the investigation results was evaluated based on the data quality indicator parameters. This evaluation demonstrated the quality and acceptability of the dataset for use in fulfilling the DQO data needs

  13. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada (Rev. 0, April 2001)

    SciTech Connect

    U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office

    2001-04-09

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office's approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 271 under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 271 consists of 15 Corrective Action Sites (CASs) including: thirteen Septic Systems (25-04-01, 25-04-03, 25-04-04, 25-04-08, 25-04-09, 25-04-10, 25-04-11, 26-04-01, 26-04-02, 26-05-03, 26-05-04, 26-05-05, and 27-05-02), one Contaminated Water Reservoir (26-03-01), and one Radioactive Leachfield (26-05-01). The CASs addressed by CAU 271 are located at Guard Station 500, the Reactor Control Point (RCP), Bare Reactor Experiment - Nevada Tower, and Engine Test State-1 (ETS-1) facilities in Area 25; the Port Gaston and Project Pluto facilities in Area 26; and the Baker Site in Area 27 of the Nevada Test Site. Between 1 958 and 1973, the RCP and ETS-1 facilities supported the development and testing of nuclear reactors for space propulsion as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. The Project Pluto facilities supported nuclear reactor testing for use as a ramjet propulsion system between 1961 and 1964, followed by similar use for other projects through the early 1980s. The Baker Site facilities were constructed in the 1960s to serve as the staging point where the manufactured components of nuclear devices were assembled, disassembled, and modified. The scope of the investigation strategy at these sites will involve biased and random soil sampling in leachfields using excavation (with drilling as a contingency), collection of soil samples underlying the base of proximal and distal ends of septic tanks and distal ends of distribution structures, defining the lateral and vertical extent of contamination through discrete field and possible stepout location sampling, collection system line

  14. A preliminary operational classification system for nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Hattis, D; Chu, M; Rahmioglu, N; Goble, R; Verma, P; Hartman, K; Kozlak, M

    2009-01-01

    This article proposes a system of categories for nonmutagenic modes of action for carcinogenesis. The classification is of modes of action rather than individual carcinogens, because the same compound can affect carcinogenesis in more than one way. Basically, we categorize modes of action as: (1) co-initiation (facilitating the original mutagenic changes in stem and progenitor cells that start the cancer process) (e.g. induction of activating enzymes for other carcinogens); (2) promotion (enhancing the relative growth vs differentiation/death of initiated clones (e.g. inhibition of growth-suppressing cell-cell communication); (3) progression (enhancing the growth, malignancy, or spread of already developed tumors) (e.g. suppression of immune surveillance, hormonally mediated growth stimulation for tumors with appropriate receptors by estrogens); and (4) multiphase (e.g., "epigenetic" silencing of tumor suppressor genes). A priori, agents that act at relatively early stages in the process are expected to manifest greater relative susceptibility in early life, whereas agents that act via later stage modes will tend to show greater susceptibility for exposures later in life.

  15. The Anatomy of Action Systems: Task Differentiation When Learning an EMG Controlled Game.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K; Bongers, Raoul M

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity.

  16. The Anatomy of Action Systems: Task Differentiation When Learning an EMG Controlled Game

    PubMed Central

    van Dijk, Ludger; Heerschop, Anniek; van der Sluis, Corry K.; Bongers, Raoul M.

    2016-01-01

    This study aims to determine to what extent the task for an action system in its initial development relies on functional and anatomical components. Fifty-two able-bodied participants were randomly assigned to one of three experimental groups or to a control group. As a pre- and post-test all groups performed a computer game with the same goal and using the same musculature. One experimental group also trained to perform this test, while the other two experimental groups learned to perform a game that differed either in its goal or in the musculature used. The observed change in accuracy indicated that retaining the goal of the task or the musculature used equally increased transfer performance relative to controls. Conversely, changing either the goal or the musculature equally decreased transfer relative to training the test. These results suggest that in the initial development of an action system, the task to which the system pertains is not specified solely by either the goal of the task or the anatomical structures involved. It is suggested that functional specificity and anatomical dependence might equally be outcomes of continuously differentiating activity. PMID:28018278

  17. Computer prediction of possible toxic action from chemical structure; the DEREK system.

    PubMed

    Sanderson, D M; Earnshaw, C G

    1991-07-01

    1. The development of DEREK, a computer-based expert system (derived from the LHASA chemical synthesis design program) for the qualitative prediction of possible toxic action of compounds on the basis of their chemical structure is described. 2. The system is able to perceive chemical sub-structures within molecules and relate these to a rulebase linking the sub-structures with likely types of toxicity. 3. Structures can be drawn in directly at a computer graphics terminal or retrieved automatically from a suitable in-house database. 4. The system is intended to aid the selection of compounds based on toxicological considerations, or separately to indicate specific toxicological properties to be tested for early in the evaluation of a compound, so saving time, money and some laboratory animals and resources.

  18. Load speed regulation in compliant mechanical transmission systems using feedback and feedforward control actions.

    PubMed

    Raul, P R; Dwivedula, R V; Pagilla, P R

    2016-07-01

    The problem of controlling the load speed of a mechanical transmission system consisting of a belt-pulley and gear-pair is considered. The system is modeled as two inertia (motor and load) connected by a compliant transmission. If the transmission is assumed to be rigid, then using either the motor or load speed feedback provides the same result. However, with transmission compliance, due to belts or long shafts, the stability characteristics and performance of the closed-loop system are quite different when either motor or load speed feedback is employed. We investigate motor and load speed feedback schemes by utilizing the singular perturbation method. We propose and discuss a control scheme that utilizes both motor and load speed feedback, and design an adaptive feedforward action to reject load torque disturbances. The control algorithms are implemented on an experimental platform that is typically used in roll-to-roll manufacturing and results are shown and discussed.

  19. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings.

  20. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 261: Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada UPDATED WITH TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    1998-09-18

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) has been developed in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) that was agreed to by the US Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office (DOE/NV); the State of Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP); and the US Department of Defense (FFACO, 1996). The CAIP is a document that provides or references all of the specific information for investigation activities associated with Corrective Action Units (CAUs) or Corrective Action Sites (CASs). According to the FFACO (FFACO, 1996), CASs are sites potentially requiring corrective action(s) and may include solid waste management units or individual disposal or release sites. Corrective Action Units consist of one or more CASs grouped together based on geography, technical similarity, or agency responsibility for the purpose of determining corrective actions. This CAIP contains the environmental sample collection objectives and the criteria for conducting site investigation activities at CAU 261, the Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 88 kilometers (km) (55 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. As presented, CAU 261 is comprised of CASs 25-05-01 and 25-05-07, respectively known as the Leachfield and the Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (FFACO, 1996). The leachfield is an area with dimensions of approximately 23 by 17 meters (m) (75 by 55 feet [ft]) and is located south of Building 3124, which is southwest and adjacent to Test Cell A. Test Cell A was operational during the 1960s to test nuclear rocket reactors in support of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) (SNPO, 1970). Various operations within Building 3124, from 1962 through 1972, have resulted in liquid waste releases to the leachfield and the AWLP (DOE, 1988a). The surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system and leachfield have potentially been

  1. Hemodynamic actions and mechanisms of systemically administered α-MSH analogs in mice.

    PubMed

    Rinne, Petteri; Tikka, Sanna; Mäkelä, Satu; Streng, Tomi; Savontaus, Eriika

    2012-11-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) regulates important physiological functions including energy homeostasis and inflammation. Potent analogs of α-MSH, [Nle(4), D-Phe(7)]-α-MSH (NDP-α-MSH) and melanotan-II (MT-II), are widely used in pharmacological studies, but the hemodynamic effects associated with their systemic administration have not been thoroughly examined. Therefore, we investigated the hemodynamic actions of these compounds in anesthetized and conscious C57Bl/6N mice using peripheral routes of administration. NDP-α-MSH and MT-II induced mild changes in blood pressure and heart rate in anesthetized mice compared to the effects observed in conscious mice, suggesting that anesthesia distorts the hemodynamic actions of α-MSH analogs. In conscious mice, NDP-α-MSH and MT-II increased blood pressure and heart rate in a dose-dependent manner, but the tachycardic effect was more prominent than the pressor effect. Pretreatment with the melanocortin (MC) 3/4 receptor antagonist SHU9119 abolished these hemodynamic effects. Furthermore, the blockade of β(1)-adrenoceptors with metoprolol prevented the pressor effect and partly the tachycardic action of α-MSH analogs, while the ganglionic blocker hexamethonium abrogated completely the difference in heart rate between vehicle and α-MSH treatments. These findings suggest that the pressor effect is primarily caused by augmentation of cardiac sympathetic activity, but the tachycardic effect seems to involve withdrawal of vagal tone in addition to sympathetic activation. In conclusion, the present results indicate that systemic administration of α-MSH analogs elevates blood pressure and heart rate via activation of MC(3/4) receptor pathways. These effects and the consequent increase in cardiac workload should be taken into account when using α-MSH analogs via peripheral routes of administration.

  2. Two-particle irreducible effective action approach to nonlinear current-conserving approximations in driven systems.

    PubMed

    Peralta-Ramos, J; Calzetta, E

    2009-05-27

    Using closed-time-path two-particle irreducible coarse-grained effective action (CTP 2PI CGEA) techniques, we study the response of an open interacting electronic system to time-dependent external electromagnetic fields. We show that the CTP 2PI CGEA is invariant under a simultaneous gauge transformation of the external field and the full Schwinger-Keldysh propagator, and that this property holds even when the loop expansion of the CTP 2PI CGEA is truncated at arbitrary order. The effective action approach provides a systematic way of calculating the propagator and response functions of the system, via the Schwinger-Dyson equation and the Bethe-Salpeter equations, respectively. We show that, due to the invariance of the CTP 2PI CGEA under external gauge transformations, the response functions calculated from it satisfy the Ward-Takahashi hierarchy, thus warranting the conservation of the electronic current beyond the expectation value level. We also clarify the connection between nonlinear response theory and the WT hierarchy, and discuss an example of an ad hoc approximation that violates it. These findings may be useful in the study of current fluctuations in correlated electronic pumping devices.

  3. Oestrogenic action of neonatal tamoxifen on the hypothalamus and reproductive system in female mice.

    PubMed

    Parandin, Rahmatollah; Behnam-Rassouli, Morteza; Mahdavi-Shahri, Nasser

    2016-04-11

    Tamoxifen, a selective oestrogen receptor modulator, is widely used for both the treatment and prevention of breast cancer in women; however, it is known to have adverse effects in the female reproductive system. Growing evidence suggests that oestrogen-sensitive neuron populations of the anteroventral periventricular (AVPV) nucleus and arcuate (ARC) nucleus, especially kisspeptin neurons, play a pivotal role in the timing of puberty onset and reproductive function. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether neonatal exposure to tamoxifen affects oestrogenic actions in the brain and reproductive function in mice. On 1 to 5 postnatal days, female pups were injected subcutaneously with sesame oil (sham), oestradiol benzoate (EB; 20 µg kg-1), tamoxifen (0.4 mg kg-1) or EB+tamoxifen. Control mice received no treatment. Mice in the EB, tamoxifen and tamoxifen+EB groups exhibited advanced vaginal opening, disrupted oestrous cycles and a decreased follicular pool. Conversely, in these groups, there was a reduction in kisspeptin (Kiss1) mRNA expression, the neuronal density of AVPV and ARC nuclei and LH and oestradiol concentrations in the serum. The results of the present study confirm oestrogenic actions of tamoxifen in the brain and reproductive system. In addition, we show, for the first time, that tamoxifen has oestrogenic effects on the oestrogen-sensitive hypothalamic AVPV and ARC nuclei controlling the reproductive axis in female mice.

  4. [Pain assessment using the Facial Action Coding System. A systematic review].

    PubMed

    Rojo, Rosa; Prados-Frutos, Juan Carlos; López-Valverde, Antonio

    2015-10-21

    Self-reporting is the most widely used pain measurement tool, although it may not be useful in patients with loss or deficit in communication skills. The aim of this paper was to undertake a systematic review of the literature of pain assessment through the Facial Action Coding System (FACS). The initial search found 4,335 references and, within the restriction «FACS», these were reduced to 40 (after exclusion of duplicates). Finally, only 26 articles meeting the inclusion criteria were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the GRADE system. Most patients were adults and elderly health conditions, or cognitive deficits and/or chronic pain. Our conclusion is that FACS is a reliable and objective tool in the detection and quantification of pain in all patients.

  5. [The activity of glutathione antioxidant system at melaksen and valdoxan action under experimental hyperthyroidism in rats].

    PubMed

    Gorbenko, M V; Popova, T N; Shul'gin, K K; Popov, S S

    2013-01-01

    Investigation of glutathione antioxidant system activity and diene conjugates content in rats liver and blood serum at the influence of melaksen and valdoxan under experimental hyperthyroidism (EG) has been revealed. It has been established that the activities of glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GP) and glutathione transferase (GT), growing at pathological conditions, change to the side of control value at these substunces introduction. Reduced glutathione content (GSH) at melaxen and valdoxan action increased compared with values under the pathology, that, obviously, could be associated with a reduction of its spending on the detoxication of free radical oxidation (FRO) toxic products. Diene conjugates level in rats liver and blood serum, increasing at experimental hyperthyroidism conditions, under introduction of melatonin level correcting drugs, also approached to the control meaning. Results of the study indicate on positive effect of melaxen and valdoxan on free radical homeostasis, that appears to be accompanied by decrease of load on the glutathione antioxidant system in comparison with the pathology.

  6. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment. PMID:26180596

  7. An Organ System Approach to Explore the Antioxidative, Anti-Inflammatory, and Cytoprotective Actions of Resveratrol.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Ashim; Bath, Sundeep; Elbarbry, Fawzy

    2015-01-01

    Resveratrol is a phenolic phytochemical, with a stilbene backbone, derived from edible plants such as grape and peanut. It is a bioactive molecule with physiological effects on multiple organ systems. Its effects range from the neuroprotective to the nephroprotective, including cardiovascular, neuronal, and antineoplastic responses as a part of its broad spectrum of action. In this review, we examine the effects of resveratrol on the following organ systems: the central nervous system, including neurological pathology such as Parkinson's and Alzheimer's disease; the cardiovascular system, including disorders such as atherosclerosis, ischemia-reperfusion injury, and cardiomyocyte hypertrophy; the kidneys, including primary and secondary nephropathies and nephrolithiasis; multiple forms of cancer; and metabolic syndromes including diabetes. We emphasize commonalities in extracellular matrix protein alterations and intracellular signal transduction system induction following resveratrol treatment. We summarize the known anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and cytoprotective effects of resveratrol across disparate organ systems. Additionally, we analyze the available literature regarding the pharmacokinetics of resveratrol formulations used in these studies. Finally, we critically examine select clinical trials documenting a lack of effect following resveratrol treatment.

  8. Serotonergic System Does Not Contribute to the Hypothermic Action of Acetaminophen.

    PubMed

    Fukushima, Akihiro; Sekiguchi, Wakana; Mamada, Kizuku; Tohma, Yumi; Ono, Hideki

    2017-02-01

    Acetaminophen (AcAP), a widely-used antipyretic and analgesic drug, has been considered to exert its effects via central mechanisms, and many studies have demonstrated that the analgesic action of AcAP involves activation of the serotonergic system. Although the serotonergic system also plays an important role in thermoregulation, the contribution of serotonergic activity to the hypothermic effect of AcAP has remained unclear. In the present study, we examined whether the serotonergic system is involved in AcAP-induced hypothermia. In normal mice, AcAP (300 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) induced marked hypothermia (ca. -4°C). The same dose of AcAP reduced pain response behavior in the formalin test. Pretreatment with the serotonin synthesis inhibitor DL-p-chlorophenylalanine (PCPA, 300 mg/kg/d, i.p., 5 consecutive days) substantially decreased serotonin in the brain by 70% and significantly inhibited the analgesic, but not the hypothermic action of AcAP. The same PCPA treatment significantly inhibited the hypothermia induced by the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine hydrochloride (20 mg/kg, i.p.) and the serotonin 5-HT2 receptor antagonist cyproheptadine hydrochloride (3 mg/kg, i.p.). The lower doses of fluoxetine hydrochloride (3 mg/kg, i.p.) and cyproheptadine hydrochloride (0.3 mg/kg, i.p.) did not affect the AcAP-induced hypothermia. These results suggest that, in comparison with its analgesic effect, the hypothermic effect of AcAP is not mediated by the serotonergic system.

  9. Telemetry system for reliable recording of action potentials from freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Hawley, Emerson S; Hargreaves, Eric L; Kubie, John L; Rivard, Bruno; Muller, Robert U

    2002-01-01

    Recording single cells from alert rats currently requires a cable to connect brain electrodes to the acquisition system. If no cable were necessary, a variety of interesting experiments would become possible, and the design of other experiments would be simplified. To eliminate the need for a cable we have developed a one-channel radiotelemetry system that is easily carried by a rat. This system transmits a signal that is reliable, highly accurate and can be detected over distances of > or = 20 m. The mobile part of the system has three components: (1) a headstage with built-in amplifiers that plugs into the connector for the electrode array on the rat's head; the headstage also incorporates a light-emitting diode (LED) used to track the rat's position; (2) a backpack that contains the transmitter and batteries (2 N cells); the backpack also provides additional amplification of the single cell signals; and (3) a short cable that connects the headstage to the backpack; the cable supplies power to the headstage amplifiers and the LED, and carries the physiological signals from the headstage to the backpack. By using a differential amplifier and recording between two brain microelectrodes the system can transmit action potential activity from two nearly independent sources. In a future improvement, two transmitters with different frequencies would be used telemeter signals from four microelectrodes simultaneously.

  10. Vitamin D and molecular actions on the immune system: modulation of innate and autoimmunity

    PubMed Central

    Kamen, Diane L.

    2010-01-01

    Vitamin D has received increased attention recently for its pleiotropic actions on many chronic diseases. The importance of vitamin D on the regulation of cells of the immune system has gained increased appreciation over the past decade with the discovery of the vitamin D receptor (VDR) and key vitamin D metabolizing enzymes expressed by cells of the immune system. Animal studies, early epidemiologic and clinical studies have supported a potential role for vitamin D in maintaining immune system balance. The hormonal form of vitamin D up-regulates anti-microbial peptides, namely cathelicidin, to enhance clearance of bacteria at various barrier sites and in immune cells. Vitamin D modulates the adaptive immune system by direct effects on T cell activation and on the phenotype and function of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), particularly of DCs. The purpose of this manuscript is to review the molecular and clinical evidence for vitamin D as a modulator of the innate and adaptive immune system. PMID:20119827

  11. On objects and actions: situating self-objectification in a system justification context.

    PubMed

    Calogero, Rachel M

    2013-01-01

    Integrating objectification and system justification perspectives, this chapter offers a conception of self-objectification as a dominant cultural lens through which women come to view themselves that garners their compliance in the sexist status quo. This chapter begins with an overview of objectification theory (Fredrickson and Roberts 1997) and system justification theory (Jost and Banaji, 1994). Then, an integration of the two perspectives is presented that situates self-objectification in a system justification context, extending the scope of impact of self-objectification beyond the domains of body image and mental health. Empirical evidence is reviewed to demonstrate the direct and indirect ways that self-objectification works as a system-justifying device for many women. For example, as a self-perspective that increases in response to benevolently sexist ideology or as a potential obstacle to taking collective action on behalf of women, self-objectification functions as a motivational and ideological force that rationalizes and legitimizes a gender role hierarchy. This developing program of research attempts to deepen our understanding of self-objectification and the broader system-level implications of this self-perspective. The chapter concludes with a discussion of potential next steps and a call for continued scientific inquiry into the broader functions of self-objectification.

  12. Characterization of the action of epidermal growth factor in three different biological systems

    SciTech Connect

    Woost, P.G.

    1986-01-01

    In general, these studies characterized in each system one or more of the following aspects of EGF's biological action: EGF binding, EGF-induced phosphorylation, or EGF-stimulated DNA synthesis. In human corneal fibroblasts (HCF), EGF binds to specific, saturable, high affinity receptors and stimulated (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation, and in vitro measurement of DNA synthesis, approximately 2.5 fold above control cultures, with maximal stimulation occurring at approximately 1 nM EGF. In addition, fibroblasts growth factor (FGF) and insulin stimulated maximal (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation in HCF at approximately 100 ng ml/sup -1/ and 1 nM, respectively. In combination with dexamethasone (5 nM), the stimulation of (/sup 3/H)-thymidine incorporation by EGF was maintained. However, dexamethasone abolished the stimulatory action of FGF. Highly purified preparations of human placental outer cell membranes and intracellular organelles were assayed for functional EGF binding proteins (EGF-receptors). Functionality of a protein was determined by covalent labeling with (/sup 125/I)-EGF and EGF-stimulated autophosphorylation.

  13. Cellular and Molecular Actions of Methylene Blue in the Nervous System

    PubMed Central

    Oz, Murat; Lorke, Dietrich E.; Hasan, Mohammed; Petroianu, George A.

    2010-01-01

    Methylene Blue (MB), following its introduction to biology in the 19th century by Ehrlich, has found uses in various areas of medicine and biology. At present, MB is the first line of treatment in methemoglobinemias, is used frequently in the treatment of ifosfamide-induced encephalopathy, and is routinely employed as a diagnostic tool in surgical procedures. Furthermore, recent studies suggest that MB has beneficial effects in Alzheimer's disease and memory improvement. Although the modulation of the cGMP pathway is considered the most significant effect of MB, mediating its pharmacological actions, recent studies indicate that it has multiple cellular and molecular targets. In the majority of cases, biological effects and clinical applications of MB are dictated by its unique physicochemical properties including its planar structure, redox chemistry, ionic charges, and light spectrum characteristics. In this review article, these physicochemical features and the actions of MB on multiple cellular and molecular targets are discussed with regard to their relevance to the nervous system. PMID:19760660

  14. Action of boron at the molecular level: effects on transcription and translation in an acellular system.

    PubMed

    Dzondo-Gadet, M; Mayap-Nzietchueng, R; Hess, K; Nabet, P; Belleville, F; Dousset, B

    2002-01-01

    It has been shown that boric acid has well-defined biological effects such as stimulation of wound healing in vivo, release of growth factors and cytokines, and increase of the extracellular matrice turnover. We examined its action at the molecular level, using cell-free systems of transcription (isolated placenta nuclei) and translation (wheat germ extract). We found that 10 mM boric acid greatly increased RNA synthesis, measured by absorbance at 260 nm (x 6.4) or by [3H]-UTP uptake (x 11). Full-length functional mRNA was produced because proteins of 14-80 kDa were translated. Among these proteins, factors involved in angiogenesis and, subsequently, in wound healing (VEGF and TGFbeta) were identified by slot blot, whereas growth factors such as FGF1 and TNFalpha were not detected. These results demonstrate that boron may contribute to biological cell activities at both the transcription and translation levels. However, the mechanism of action is still not known.

  15. Effect of drugs modulating serotonergic system on the analgesic action of paracetamol in mice

    PubMed Central

    Karandikar, Yogita S.; Belsare, Peeyush; Panditrao, Aditi

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The underlying mechanisms for the analgesic action of paracetamol (PCT) are still under considerable debate. It has been recently proposed that PCT may act by modulating the Serotonin system. This study was conducted to verify the influence of Serotonin modulating drugs (buspirone, ondansetron, and fluoxetine) on the analgesic effect of PCT. Materials and Methods: Thirty adult albino mice were assigned to five groups: Normal saline, PCT, fluoxetine selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) + PCT, buspirone (5-HT1A Agonist) + PCT, and ondansetron (5HT3 antagonist) + PCT. Hot-plate and formalin test were used to determine pain threshold, tests being conducted 60 min after the last treatment. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance followed by Dunnet's test. Results: Coadministration of buspirone with PCT attenuated the antinociceptive activity of PCT (P < 0.001), whereas fluoxetine + PCT increased pain threshold in the hot-plate and formalin test (P = 0.0046). Analgesic effect of PCT was not affected by ondansetron in formalin models. It attenuated analgesic action of PCT in hot-plate test (P = 0.0137). Conclusion: The results suggest that 5-HT1 receptors could also be responsible for the analgesic effect of PCT. Also, higher analgesia is produced by co-administration of SSRI (fluoxetine) + PCT. PMID:27298498

  16. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic systems with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided in which an autonomic unit or element is quiesced. A quiesce component of an autonomic unit can cause the autonomic unit to self-destruct if a stay-alive reprieve signal is not received after a predetermined time.

  17. Nested reciprocities: the organism-environment system in perception-action and development.

    PubMed

    Wagman, Jeffrey B; Miller, David B

    2003-05-01

    The ecological approach to studying perception and action is one in which researchers view the structure in ambient energy arrays surrounding a given organism as being sufficient to specify meaningful environmental properties to that organism. Thus, from this perspective, perception is viewed not as a cognitive achievement but as a lawful state of affairs that exists in an organism-environment system. The approach to studying development known as transactionalism is one in which researchers view the developmental process as the expression of a complex web of endogenous and exogenous factors. Thus, from this perspective, development is not an unfolding of a genetic program, but rather an ongoing exchange among levels of the organism-environment system that continues throughout the life span of the organism. Despite their independent development, these two meta-theoretical approaches have much in common. In each approach, the organism-environment system is the fundamental unit of analysis, and the development of perception and behavior is spread across the multiple levels of this system.

  18. Coordinated Actions of Glyoxalase and Antioxidant Defense Systems in Conferring Abiotic Stress Tolerance in Plants

    PubMed Central

    Hasanuzzaman, Mirza; Nahar, Kamrun; Hossain, Md. Shahadat; Mahmud, Jubayer Al; Rahman, Anisur; Inafuku, Masashi; Oku, Hirosuke; Fujita, Masayuki

    2017-01-01

    Being sessile organisms, plants are frequently exposed to various environmental stresses that cause several physiological disorders and even death. Oxidative stress is one of the common consequences of abiotic stress in plants, which is caused by excess generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Sometimes ROS production exceeds the capacity of antioxidant defense systems, which leads to oxidative stress. In line with ROS, plants also produce a high amount of methylglyoxal (MG), which is an α-oxoaldehyde compound, highly reactive, cytotoxic, and produced via different enzymatic and non-enzymatic reactions. This MG can impair cells or cell components and can even destroy DNA or cause mutation. Under stress conditions, MG concentration in plants can be increased 2- to 6-fold compared with normal conditions depending on the plant species. However, plants have a system developed to detoxify this MG consisting of two major enzymes: glyoxalase I (Gly I) and glyoxalase II (Gly II), and hence known as the glyoxalase system. Recently, a novel glyoxalase enzyme, named glyoxalase III (Gly III), has been detected in plants, providing a shorter pathway for MG detoxification, which is also a signpost in the research of abiotic stress tolerance. Glutathione (GSH) acts as a co-factor for this system. Therefore, this system not only detoxifies MG but also plays a role in maintaining GSH homeostasis and subsequent ROS detoxification. Upregulation of both Gly I and Gly II as well as their overexpression in plant species showed enhanced tolerance to various abiotic stresses including salinity, drought, metal toxicity, and extreme temperature. In the past few decades, a considerable amount of reports have indicated that both antioxidant defense and glyoxalase systems have strong interactions in conferring abiotic stress tolerance in plants through the detoxification of ROS and MG. In this review, we will focus on the mechanisms of these interactions and the coordinated action of

  19. Cell culture approaches to understanding the actions of steroid hormones on the insect nervous system.

    PubMed

    Levine, R B; Weeks, J C

    1996-01-01

    During metamorphosis of the hawkmoth, Manduca sexta, ecdysteroids regulate the dendritic remodeling and programmed death of identified motoneurons. These changes contribute to the dramatic reorganization of behavior that accompanies metamorphosis. As a step toward elucidating cellular and molecular mechanisms by which ecdysteroids affect neuronal phenotype, we have investigated the responses of Manduca motoneurons to ecdysteroids in vitro. Following dendritic regression at the end of larval life, thoracic leg motoneurons placed in culture respond to ecdysteroids by an increase in branching complexity, similar to events in vivo. Growth cone structure is affected markedly by ecdysteroids. At pupation, a rise in ecdysteroids triggers the segment-specific death of proleg motoneurons: the same segmental pattern of death is observed when motoneurons from different segments are removed from the nervous system and exposed to ecdysteroids in vitro. These studies provide strong evidence that Manduca motoneurons are direct targets of steroid action and set the stage for further studies of the specific mechanisms involved.

  20. Developing a marketing function in public healthcare systems: a framework for action.

    PubMed

    Lega, Federico

    2006-10-01

    The scope of this paper is to analyse the contribution that a marketing function can bring to the wide variety of healthcare organizations operating in public health systems (PHSs). While extensive research on marketing applied to healthcare services has been elaborated in competitive and managed care contexts, marketing is a rather new issue in PHSs and little research has been conducted to assess its relevance and benefits in these environments. This study tackles that gap and is based on a review of the current literature in order to provide answers to the following points: - definition of the scopes of marketing and of the elements that affect its incorporation in the healthcare sector; - conceptualization of the possible approaches to marketing by health organizations operating in PHSs; - discussion of the resulting framework for action.

  1. [Structure and biological action on cardiovascular systems of saponins from Panax notoginseng].

    PubMed

    Li, Juan; Wang, Ru-feng; Yang, Li; Wang, Zheng-tao

    2015-09-01

    Notoginseng Radix et Rhizoma (Sanqi), the underground part of Panax notoginseng (Burk.) F. H. Chen (Araliaceae) is commonly used in Chinese medicine for treatment of haemorrhage, haemostasis, swelling, etc. The aerial part including leaves, flowers and fruits are also applied for similar functions. Triterpenoid saponins are considered to be responsible for the biological activities of Sanqi. Up to date, more than 100 saponins have been isolated from theroots, rhizomes, leaves, flowers and fruits of P. notoginseng. The reported saponins can be classified into protopanaxadiol (PPD), protopanaxatriol (PPT), C17 side-chain varied and other types, according to the skeletons of the aglycons. The present review summarizes the saponins isolated from P. notoginseng and their distribution in different medicinal organs, as well as the pharmacological actions on cardiovascular system.

  2. Mechanism of Action of Probiotic Bacteria on Intestinal and Systemic Immunities and Antigen-Presenting Cells.

    PubMed

    Fong, Fiona Long Yan; Shah, Nagendra P; Kirjavainen, Pirkka; El-Nezami, Hani

    2016-05-03

    Immunomodulation has been shown to be one of the major functions of probiotic bacteria. This review is presented to provide detailed information on the immunomodulatory properties of probiotics in various animal models and clinical practices. Probiotics can regulate helper T (Th) responses and release of cytokines in a strain-specific manner. For example, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG can induce beneficial Th1 immunomodulatory effect in infants with cow's milk allergy and relieve intestinal inflammation in atopic children by promoting IL-10 generation. Mechanism of action of probiotics on antigen-presenting cells at gastrointestinal tract is also postulated in this review. Probiotic bacterial cells and their soluble factors may activate dendritic cells, macrophages, and to certain extent monocytes via toll-like-receptor recognition and may further provoke specific Th responses. They are speculated to elicit immunomodulatory effects on intestinal and systemic immunities.

  3. Youth Advisors Driving Action: hearing the youth voice in mental health systems of care.

    PubMed

    Davis-Brown, Karen; Carter, Naeemah; Miller, Bethany D

    2012-03-01

    The Children's Mental Health Initiative (CMHI) is funded by the Center for Mental Health Services within the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration. CMHI assists communities in developing comprehensive, coordinated services for children with serious emotional disturbances and their families. Broadly speaking, these systems are designed to be child centered, youth guided, family driven, community based, and culturally competent. To assure implementation of the "youth-guided" core value in the national evaluation, an advisory group of youth coordinator/youth teams representing communities across the country was developed. This group chose the name YADA-Youth Advisors Driving Action. YADA has made a substantive contribution to national evaluation efforts by bringing the youth perspective and voice to its audience at the community and national levels. This article describes YADA's founding and development, as well as related implications for psychosocial nurses.

  4. Effect of adenosine system in the action of oseltamivir on behavior in mice.

    PubMed

    Uchiyama, Hidemori; Hiromura, Makoto; Shiratani, Tomonori; Kuroki, Hiroaki; Honda, Sinichiro; Kosako, Kazuhiro; Soeda, Shinji; Inoue, Kazuhide; Toda, Akihisa

    2015-07-10

    Abnormal behaviors and death associated with the use of oseltamivir (Tamiflu(®)) have emerged as a major issue in influenza patients. We have previously reported that the mechanisms underlying the effects of caffeine, a non-selective adenosine A1/A2 receptor antagonist, combined with oseltamivir. Oseltamivir is rapidly hydrolyzed to its active form (oseltamivir carboxylate, OCB). In this study, we investigated the effects of an adenosine system and OCB on the action of oseltamivir on mice behavior. Oseltamivir for 1 day (150 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.)) alone did not affect ambulation at 2 h post-injection. However, caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, caffeine (30 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days increased ambulation, but caffeine (10 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days did not increase. These enhancements were inhibited by an adenosine A2 receptor agonist, CGS21680 (0.2 mg/kg, subcutaneously (s.c.)). Furthermore, an adenosine A2 receptor antagonist, SCH58261 (1 and 3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, SCH58261 (3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days increased ambulation, but SCH58261 (1 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 3 days did not. Conversely, in phenobarbital (PB)-treated mice, caffeine (3 mg/kg, i.p.) in combination with oseltamivir for 1 day increased ambulation. Moreover, OCB for 1 day (0.3 μg/mouse intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.)) alone increased ambulation. These findings suggest that the actions of oseltamivir may involve the adenosine systems and its metabolism. Our findings suggest an interaction between the central blockade of adenosine A2 receptors by caffeine and OCB-induced behavioral changes.

  5. The Social Life of a Data Base

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linde, Charlotte; Wales, Roxana; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents the complex social life of a large data base. The topics include: 1) Social Construction of Mechanisms of Memory; 2) Data Bases: The Invisible Memory Mechanism; 3) The Human in the Machine; 4) Data of the Study: A Large-Scale Problem Reporting Data Base; 5) The PRACA Study; 6) Description of PRACA; 7) PRACA and Paper; 8) Multiple Uses of PRACA; 9) The Work of PRACA; 10) Multiple Forms of Invisibility; 11) Such Systems are Everywhere; and 12) Two Morals to the Story. This paper is in viewgraph form.

  6. Tele-autonomous systems: New methods for projecting and coordinating intelligent action at a distance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Conway, Lynn; Volz, Richard; Walker, Michael W.

    1989-01-01

    There is a growing need for humans to perform complex remote operations and to extend the intelligence and experience of experts to distant applications. It is asserted that a blending of human intelligence, modern information technology, remote control, and intelligent autonomous systems is required, and have coined the term tele-autonomous technology, or tele-automation, for methods producing intelligent action at a distance. Tele-automation goes beyond autonomous control by blending in human intelligence. It goes beyond tele-operation by incorporating as much autonomy as possible and/or reasonable. A new approach is discussed for solving one of the fundamental problems facing tele-autonomous systems: The need to overcome time delays due to telemetry and signal propagation. New concepts are introduced called time and position clutches, that allow the time and position frames between the local user control and the remote device being controlled, to be desynchronized respectively. The design and implementation of these mechanisms are described in detail. It is demonstrated that these mechanisms lead to substantial telemanipulation performance improvements, including the result of improvements even in the absence of time delays. The new controls also yield a simple protocol for control handoffs of manipulation tasks between local operators and remote systems.

  7. Adaptive fuzzy logic controller with direct action type structures for InnoSAT attitude control system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakri, F. A.; Mashor, M. Y.; Sharun, S. M.; Bibi Sarpinah, S. N.; Abu Bakar, Z.

    2016-10-01

    This study proposes an adaptive fuzzy controller for attitude control system (ACS) of Innovative Satellite (InnoSAT) based on direct action type structure. In order to study new methods used in satellite attitude control, this paper presents three structures of controllers: Fuzzy PI, Fuzzy PD and conventional Fuzzy PID. The objective of this work is to compare the time response and tracking performance among the three different structures of controllers. The parameters of controller were tuned on-line by adjustment mechanism, which was an approach similar to a PID error that could minimize errors between actual and model reference output. This paper also presents a Model References Adaptive Control (MRAC) as a control scheme to control time varying systems where the performance specifications were given in terms of the reference model. All the controllers were tested using InnoSAT system under some operating conditions such as disturbance, varying gain, measurement noise and time delay. In conclusion, among all considered DA-type structures, AFPID controller was observed as the best structure since it outperformed other controllers in most conditions.

  8. Nonequilibrium steady state in open quantum systems: Influence action, stochastic equation and power balance

    SciTech Connect

    Hsiang, J.-T.; Hu, B.L.

    2015-11-15

    The existence and uniqueness of a steady state for nonequilibrium systems (NESS) is a fundamental subject and a main theme of research in statistical mechanics for decades. For Gaussian systems, such as a chain of classical harmonic oscillators connected at each end to a heat bath, and for classical anharmonic oscillators under specified conditions, definitive answers exist in the form of proven theorems. Answering this question for quantum many-body systems poses a challenge for the present. In this work we address this issue by deriving the stochastic equations for the reduced system with self-consistent backaction from the two baths, calculating the energy flow from one bath to the chain to the other bath, and exhibiting a power balance relation in the total (chain + baths) system which testifies to the existence of a NESS in this system at late times. Its insensitivity to the initial conditions of the chain corroborates to its uniqueness. The functional method we adopt here entails the use of the influence functional, the coarse-grained and stochastic effective actions, from which one can derive the stochastic equations and calculate the average values of physical variables in open quantum systems. This involves both taking the expectation values of quantum operators of the system and the distributional averages of stochastic variables stemming from the coarse-grained environment. This method though formal in appearance is compact and complete. It can also easily accommodate perturbative techniques and diagrammatic methods from field theory. Taken all together it provides a solid platform for carrying out systematic investigations into the nonequilibrium dynamics of open quantum systems and quantum thermodynamics. -- Highlights: •Nonequilibrium steady state (NESS) for interacting quantum many-body systems. •Derivation of stochastic equations for quantum oscillator chain with two heat baths. •Explicit calculation of the energy flow from one bath to the

  9. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  10. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  11. Hemodynamic actions of systemically injected pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whalen, E. J.; Johnson, A. K.; Lewis, S. J.

    1999-01-01

    The aims of this study were (1) to characterize the hemodynamic mechanisms underlying the hypotensive effects of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide-27 (PACAP-27 0.1-2.0 nmol/kg, i.v.) in pentobarbital-anesthetized rats, and (2) to determine the roles of the autonomic nervous system, adrenal catecholamines and endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) in the expression of PACAP-27-mediated effects on hemodynamic function. PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent decreases in mean arterial blood pressure and hindquarter and mesenteric vascular resistances in saline-treated rats. PACAP-27 also produced pronounced falls in mean arterial blood pressure in rats treated with the ganglion blocker, chlorisondamine (5 mg/kg, i.v.). The hypotensive and vasodilator actions of PACAP-27 were not attenuated by the beta-adrenoceptor antagonist, propranolol (1 mg/kg, i.v.), or the NO synthase inhibitor, N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 50 micromol/kg, i.v.). PACAP-27 produced dose-dependent increases in heart rate whereas the hypotensive response produced by the nitrovasodilator, sodium nitroprusside (10 microg/kg, i.v.), was associated with a minimal tachycardia. The PACAP-27-induced tachycardia was unaffected by chlorisondamine, but was virtually abolished by propranolol. These results suggest that the vasodilator effects of PACAP-27 are due to actions in the microcirculation rather than to the release of adrenal catecholamines and that this vasodilation may not involve the release of endothelium-derived NO. These results also suggest that PACAP-27 produces tachycardia by directly releasing norepinephrine from cardiac sympathetic nerve terminals rather than by direct or baroreceptor reflex-mediated increases in sympathetic nerve activity.

  12. [Environmental investigation of ground water contamination at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio]. Volume 9, Removal action system design

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-04-01

    This Removal Action System Design has been prepared as a Phase I Volume for the implementation of the Phase II removal action at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base (WPAFB) near Dayton, Ohio. The objective of the removal action is to prevent, to the extent practicable, the migration of ground water contaminated with chlorinated volatile organic compounds (VOCS) across the southwest boundary of Area C. The Phase 1, Volume 9 Removal Action System Design compiles the design documents prepared for the Phase II Removal Action. These documents, which are presented in Appendices to Volume 9, include: Process Design, which presents the 30 percent design for the ground water treatment system (GWTS); Design Packages 1 and 2 for Earthwork and Road Construction, and the Discharge Pipeline, respectively; no drawings are included in the appendix; Design Package 3 for installation of the Ground Water Extraction Well(s); Design Package 4 for installation of the Monitoring Well Instrumentation; and Design Package 5 for installation of the Ground Water Treatment System; this Design Package is incorporated by reference because of its size.

  13. Sensitivity analysis of potential events affecting the double-shell tank system and fallback actions

    SciTech Connect

    Knutson, B.J.

    1996-09-27

    Sensitivity analyses were performed for fall-back positions (i.e., management actions) to accommodate potential off-normal and programmatic change events overlaid on the waste volume projections and their uncertainties. These sensitivity analyses allowed determining and ranking tank system high-risk parameters and fall- back positions that will accommodate the respective impacts. This quantification of tank system impacts shows periods where tank capacity is sensitive to certain variables that must be carefully managed and/or evaluated. Identifying these sensitive variables and quantifying their impact will allow decision makers to prepare fall-back positions and focus available resources on the highest impact parameters where technical data are needed to reduce waste projection uncertainties. For noncomplexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the years of single-shell tank (SST) retrieval (after approximately 2009) due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate and 200-East SST solids transfer volume. For complexed waste, the period of capacity vulnerability occurs during the period after approximately 2005 due to the sensitivity to several variables. Ranked by importance these variables include the pretreatment rate. 200-East SST solids transfer volume. complexed waste reduction factor using evaporation, and 200-west saltwell liquid porosity.

  14. Involvement of the endogenous opioid system in the psychopharmacological actions of ethanol: the role of acetaldehyde

    PubMed Central

    Font, Laura; Luján, Miguel Á.; Pastor, Raúl

    2013-01-01

    Significant evidence implicates the endogenous opioid system (EOS) (opioid peptides and receptors) in the mechanisms underlying the psychopharmacological effects of ethanol. Ethanol modulates opioidergic signaling and function at different levels, including biosynthesis, release, and degradation of opioid peptides, as well as binding of endogenous ligands to opioid receptors. The role of β-endorphin and µ-opioid receptors (OR) have been suggested to be of particular importance in mediating some of the behavioral effects of ethanol, including psychomotor stimulation and sensitization, consumption and conditioned place preference (CPP). Ethanol increases the release of β-endorphin from the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus (NArc), which can modulate activity of other neurotransmitter systems such as mesolimbic dopamine (DA). The precise mechanism by which ethanol induces a release of β-endorphin, thereby inducing behavioral responses, remains to be elucidated. The present review summarizes accumulative data suggesting that the first metabolite of ethanol, the psychoactive compound acetaldehyde, could participate in such mechanism. Two lines of research involving acetaldehyde are reviewed: (1) implications of the formation of acetaldehyde in brain areas such as the NArc, with high expression of ethanol metabolizing enzymes and presence of cell bodies of endorphinic neurons and (2) the formation of condensation products between DA and acetaldehyde such as salsolinol, which exerts its actions via OR. PMID:23914161

  15. Report on European COST action P8: materials and systems for optical data storage and processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichler, H. J.; Toal, V.

    2006-05-01

    The COST action P8 has been initiated by a group of European Scientist and receives funding by the European Science Foundation ESF starting in March 2002 for four years. The action promotes cooperation between researchers from many European countries by organizing worhshops, conferences and short term scientific missions. Information about the conference activities can be obtained from the Action Web site: http://moebius.physik.tu-berlin.de/lasergrp/COST_P8/index_ns.html

  16. Advanced cancer therapy by integrative antitumor actions via systemic administration of miR-499.

    PubMed

    Ando, Hidenori; Asai, Tomohiro; Koide, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Ayaka; Maeda, Noriyuki; Tomita, Koji; Dewa, Takehisa; Minamino, Tetsuo; Oku, Naoto

    2014-05-10

    Previously, we developed tetraethylenepentamine-based polycation liposomes (TEPA-PCL) as a vector for the delivery of small RNAs. In the present research, we attempted tumor-targeted delivery of miR-499 via systemic administration and evaluated the potency of this system as a therapeutic strategy to treat cancer. Lipoplexes were formed by mixing cholesterol-grafted miR-499 (miR-499-C) with TEPA-PCL. Firstly, human umbilical endothelial cells (HUVECs) and Colon 26 NL-17 mouse carcinoma cells were transfected with these lipoplexes in vitro. The results showed that miR-499 had antiangiogenic effects on the HUVECs and suppressed the secretion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) from the Colon 26 NL-17 cells. In addition, the growth of the latter cells was inhibited by transfection with miR-499-C/TEPA-PCL. For in vivo delivery of miR-499 to tumors via systemic injection, miR-499-C/TEPA-PCL were decorated with Ala-Pro-Arg-Pro-Gly (APRPG) peptide-conjugated polyethylene glycol (PEG) to prepare APRPG-PEG-modified lipoplexes carrying miR-499 (APRPG-miR-499). APRPG-miR-499 were injected into tumor-bearing mice via a tail vein, and these lipoplexes accumulated sufficiently in both angiogenic vessels and cancer cells. In addition, the expression of miR-499-target proteins and VEGF in the tumor cells was clearly suppressed by the treatment with APRPG-miR-499. Finally, the therapeutic effect of miR-499 on tumor growth was evaluated in mice. The tumor growth was significantly inhibited by the intravenous injection of APRPG-miR-499 at such a low dose as 0.5mg/kg. These results suggest that miR-499 delivered by the present system has excellent potency to treat cancer via integrative anticancer actions.

  17. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  18. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to Support Warfighter Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced

  19. Copper-T intrauterine device and levonorgestrel intrauterine system: biological bases of their mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Ortiz, María Elena; Croxatto, Horacio B

    2007-06-01

    All intrauterine devices (IUDs) that have been tested experimentally or clinically induce a local inflammatory reaction of the endometrium whose cellular and humoral components are expressed in the tissue and the fluid filling the uterine cavity. Depending on the reproductive strategy of the species considered and the anatomical features and physiologic mechanisms that characterize their reproductive system, the secondary consequences of this foreign body reaction can be very localized within the uterus, as in the rabbit, or widespread throughout the entire genital tract as in women or even systemic as in some farm animals. Levonorgestrel released from an IUD causes some systemic effects, but local effects such as glandular atrophy and stromal decidualization, in addition to the foreign body reaction, are dominant. Copper ions released from an IUD enhance the inflammatory response and reach concentrations in the luminal fluids of the genital tract that are toxic for spermatozoa. In the human, the entire genital tract appears affected due to luminal transmission of the noxa that accumulates in the uterine lumen. This affects the function and viability of gametes, decreasing the rate of fertilization and lowering the chances of survival of any embryo that may be formed, before it reaches the uterus. The bulk of the data indicate that if any embryos are formed in the chronic presence of an IUD, it happens at a much lower rate than in non-IUD users. The common belief that the usual mechanism of action of IUDs in women is destruction of embryos in the uterus is not supported by empirical evidence.

  20. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds.

  1. The COST 731 Action: A review on uncertainty propagation in advanced hydro-meteorological forecast systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rossa, Andrea; Liechti, Katharina; Zappa, Massimiliano; Bruen, Michael; Germann, Urs; Haase, Günther; Keil, Christian; Krahe, Peter

    2011-05-01

    Quantifying uncertainty in flood forecasting is a difficult task, given the multiple and strongly non-linear model components involved in such a system. Much effort has been and is being invested in the quest of dealing with uncertain precipitation observations and forecasts and the propagation of such uncertainties through hydrological and hydraulic models predicting river discharges and risk for inundation. The COST 731 Action is one of these and constitutes a European initiative which deals with the quantification of forecast uncertainty in hydro-meteorological forecast systems. COST 731 addresses three major lines of development: (1) combining meteorological and hydrological models to form a forecast chain, (2) propagating uncertainty information through this chain and make it available to end users in a suitable form, (3) advancing high-resolution numerical weather prediction precipitation forecasts by using non-conventional observations from, for instance, radar to determine details in the initial conditions on scales smaller than what can be resolved by conventional observing systems. Recognizing the interdisciplinarity of the challenge COST 731 has organized its work forming Working Groups at the interfaces between the different scientific disciplines involved, i.e. between observation and atmospheric (and hydrological) modelling (WG-1), between atmospheric and hydrologic modelling (WG-2) and between hydrologic modelling and end-users (WG-3). This paper summarizes the COST 731 activities and its context, provides a review of the recent progress made in dealing with uncertainties in flood forecasting, and sets the scene for the papers of this Thematic Issue. In particular, a bibliometric analysis highlights the strong recent increase in addressing the uncertainty analysis in flood forecasting from an integrated perspective. Such a perspective necessarily involves the area of meteorology, hydrology, and decision making in order to take operational advantage

  2. G-systems and deformation of G-actions on R{sup d}

    SciTech Connect

    Dherin, Benoit; Mencattini, Igor

    2014-01-15

    Given a (smooth) action φ of a Lie group G on R{sup d} we construct a differential graded algebra whose Maurer–Cartan elements are in one-to-one correspondence with some class of deformations of the (induced) G-action on C{sup ∞}(R{sup d})[[ℏ

  3. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 563: Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2010-02-28

    Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 563 is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) as “Septic Systems” and consists of the following four Corrective Action Sites (CASs), located in Areas 3 and 12 of the Nevada Test Site: · CAS 03-04-02, Area 3 Subdock Septic Tank · CAS 03-59-05, Area 3 Subdock Cesspool · CAS 12-59-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Septic Tanks · CAS 12-60-01, Drilling/Welding Shop Outfalls Closure activities were conducted from September to November 2009 in accordance with the FFACO (1996, as amended February 2008) and the Corrective Action Plan for CAU 563. The corrective action alternatives included No Further Action and Clean Closure.

  4. Where neuroscience and dynamic system theory meet autonomous robotics: a contracting basal ganglia model for action selection.

    PubMed

    Girard, B; Tabareau, N; Pham, Q C; Berthoz, A; Slotine, J-J

    2008-05-01

    Action selection, the problem of choosing what to do next, is central to any autonomous agent architecture. We use here a multi-disciplinary approach at the convergence of neuroscience, dynamical system theory and autonomous robotics, in order to propose an efficient action selection mechanism based on a new model of the basal ganglia. We first describe new developments of contraction theory regarding locally projected dynamical systems. We exploit these results to design a stable computational model of the cortico-baso-thalamo-cortical loops. Based on recent anatomical data, we include usually neglected neural projections, which participate in performing accurate selection. Finally, the efficiency of this model as an autonomous robot action selection mechanism is assessed in a standard survival task. The model exhibits valuable dithering avoidance and energy-saving properties, when compared with a simple if-then-else decision rule.

  5. Novel receptor targets for production and action of allopregnanolone in the central nervous system: a focus on pregnane xenobiotic receptor

    PubMed Central

    Frye, Cheryl A.; Koonce, Carolyn J.; Walf, Alicia A.

    2014-01-01

    Neurosteroids are cholesterol-based hormones that can be produced in the brain, independent of secretion from peripheral endocrine glands, such as the gonads and adrenals. A focus in our laboratory for over 25 years has been how production of the pregnane neurosteroid, allopregnanolone, is regulated and the novel (i.e., non steroid receptor) targets for steroid action for behavior. One endpoint of interest has been lordosis, the mating posture of female rodents. Allopregnanolone is necessary and sufficient for lordosis, and the brain circuitry underlying it, such as actions in the midbrain ventral tegmental area (VTA), has been well-characterized. Published and recent findings supporting a dynamic role of allopregnanolone are included in this review. First, contributions of ovarian and adrenal sources of precursors of allopregnanolone, and the requisite enzymatic actions for de novo production in the central nervous system will be discussed. Second, how allopregnanolone produced in the brain has actions on behavioral processes that are independent of binding to steroid receptors, but instead involve rapid modulatory actions via neurotransmitter targets (e.g., γ-amino butyric acid-GABA, N-methyl-D-aspartate- NMDA) will be reviewed. Third, a recent focus on characterizing the role of a promiscuous nuclear receptor, pregnane xenobiotic receptor (PXR), involved in cholesterol metabolism and expressed in the VTA, as a target for allopregnanolone and how this relates to both actions and production of allopregnanolone will be addressed. For example, allopregnanolone can bind PXR and knocking down expression of PXR in the midbrain VTA attenuates actions of allopregnanolone via NMDA and/or GABAA for lordosis. Our understanding of allopregnanolone’s actions in the VTA for lordosis has been extended to reveal the role of allopregnanolone for broader, clinically-relevant questions, such as neurodevelopmental processes, neuropsychiatric disorders, epilepsy, and aging. PMID

  6. 3-Hydroxykynurenine: an intriguing molecule exerting dual actions in the central nervous system.

    PubMed

    Colín-González, Ana Laura; Maldonado, Perla D; Santamaría, Abel

    2013-01-01

    Kynurenine pathway is gaining attention due to the many metabolic processes in which it has been involved. The tryptophan conversion into several other metabolites through this pathway provides neuronal and redox modulators useful for maintenance of major functions in the brain. However, when physiopathological conditions prevail - i.e. oxidative stress, excitotoxicity, and inflammation - preferential formation and accumulation of toxic metabolites could trigger factors for degeneration in neurological disorders. 3-Hydroxykynurenine has been largely described as one of these toxic metabolites capable of inducing oxidative damage and cell death; consequently, this metabolite has been hypothesized to play a pivotal role in different neurological and psychiatric disorders. Supporting evidence has shown altered 3-hydroxykynurenine levels in samples of patients from several disorders. In contrast, some experimental studies have provided evidence of antioxidant and scavenging properties inherent to this molecule. In this review, we explored most of literature favoring one or the other concept, in order to provide an accurate vision on the real participation of this tryptophan metabolite in both experimental paradigms and human brain pathologies. Through this collected evidence, we provide an integrative hypothesis on how 3-hydroxykynurenine is exerting its dual actions in the central nervous system and what will be the course of investigations in this field for the next years.

  7. Data and Information Management System for the ORNL Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Voorhees, L.D.; Hook, L.A.; Gentry, M.J.; Owen, P.T.; Newman, K.A.; McCord, R.A.; Faulkner, M.A.; Bledsoe, J.L.

    1988-01-01

    A Remedial Action Program (RAP) was established in FY 1985 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to provide corrective measures at areas contaminated with radioactive and/or hazardous chemical wastes. To achieve this goal, numerous and varied studies are being conducted to characterize the waste disposal sites. Environmental data collected in support of other programs at ORNL are also of use to RAP. Collectively, these studies are generating a voluminous amount of data on a scale unprecedented for ORNL. A computerized Data and Information Management System (DIMS) was developed to (1) provide a centralized repository for data pertinent to RAP and (2) provide support for the investigations and assessments leading to the long-term remediation of contaminated sites and facilities. The current DIMS and its role in supporting RAP are described. The DIMS consists of three components: (1) the Bibliographic Data Base, (2) the Records Control Data Base, and (3) the Numeric Data Base. This paper/poster emphasizes the Numeric Data Base, including its development and organization, and also summarizes the status of other activities associated with management and use of such data (i.e., bibliographic information, records control, geographic information, and quality assurance). The types of data currently available have been summarized, and a synopsis of the contents of the RAP numeric data base has been compiled in a menu-driven program available on PC diskettes. The synopsis will be demonstrated at the conference. 4 refs., 5 figs.

  8. The electromotor system of the stargazer: a model for integrative actions at electrotonic synapses.

    PubMed

    Bennett, M V; Pappas, G D

    1983-04-01

    The electric organs of Astroscopus are modified from extraocular muscles and innervated by the enlarged oculomotor nuclei. The electromotor neuron somata are contacted by fine processes with which they form gap junctions. Presynaptic vesicles and active zones are also present, although physiological data give no indication of chemically mediated transmission. Antidromic stimulation produces long lasting graded depolarizations in the electromotor neurons. The latency is sufficiently short to indicate that the cells are electrotonically coupled, which was confirmed by direct measurement. Antidromic invasion may normally fail and is easily blocked by hyperpolarization revealing initial segment and axon spikes. Spinal stimulation evokes postsynaptic potentials (PSPs) and orthodromic impulses; the PSPs are not smoothly graded in amplitude. A medullary nucleus innervates the electromotor nucleus; the medullary cells also show short latency graded antidromic depolarizations and presumably are electrotonically coupled. Their coupling accounts for the variability in PSPs evoked by spinal stimulation. Apparent time constants differ greatly for direct stimulation of a single cell, decay of afterhyperpolarization, electrotonic spread from one cell to a neighbor, and decay of PSPs and graded antidromic depolarizations. The differences can be accounted for in terms of a highly interconnected network of electrotonically coupled cells, which was simulated computationally. Because of the long membrane time constant graded antidromic depolarizations summate. Because antidromic invasion is facilitated by depolarization, the antidromic depolarizations can show pronounced facilitation. The observed "plasticity" within this electrotonically coupled system provides a model for integrative actions at other sites of coupling.

  9. Self-induced back-action optical trapping in nanophotonic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neumeier, Lukas; Quidant, Romain; Chang, Darrick E.

    2015-12-01

    Optical trapping is an indispensable tool in physics and the life sciences. However, there is a clear trade off between the size of a particle to be trapped, its spatial confinement, and the intensities required. This is due to the decrease in optical response of smaller particles and the diffraction limit that governs the spatial variation of optical fields. It is thus highly desirable to find techniques that surpass these bounds. Recently, a number of experiments using nanophotonic cavities have observed a qualitatively different trapping mechanism described as ‘self-induced back-action trapping’ (SIBA). In these systems, the particle motion couples to the resonance frequency of the cavity, which results in a strong interplay between the intra-cavity field intensity and the forces exerted. Here, we provide a theoretical description that for the first time captures the remarkable range of consequences. In particular, we show that SIBA can be exploited to yield dynamic reshaping of trap potentials, strongly sub-wavelength trap features, and significant reduction of intensities seen by the particle, which should have important implications for future trapping technologies.

  10. Systemic and coronary hemodynamic actions and left ventricular functional effects of levosimendan in conscious dogs.

    PubMed

    Harkin, C P; Pagel, P S; Tessmer, J P; Warltier, D C

    1995-08-01

    control to 29 +/- 1 ms at the high dose) and increased the magnitude of LV -dP/dtmin in dogs with intact but not blocked ANS reflexes, suggesting that relaxation was enhanced by favorable changes in systemic hemodynamics or ANS activation and direct effects of this drug on lusitropic state. Levosimendan also increased dL/dtmax to a greater degree in ANS-intact dogs, indicating that improvement of rapid ventricular filling was also partially dependent on ANS tone. No changes in Kp were observed in either experimental group. The results indicate that levosimendan decreases preload and afterload and has positive inotropic and lusitropic properties. The actions of levosimendan on diastolic function are largely mediated by the ANS.

  11. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 261: Area 25 Test Cell A Leachfield System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    T. M. Fitzmaurice

    2001-04-01

    The purpose of this Closure Report (CR) is to provide documentation of the completed corrective action at the Test Cell A Leachfield System and to provide data confirming the corrective action. The Test Cell A Leachfield System is identified in the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996 as Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 261. Remediation of CAU 261 is required under the FFACO (1996). CAU 261 is located in Area 25 of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) which is approximately 140 kilometers (87 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (Figure 1). CAU 261 consists of two Corrective Action Sites (CASS): CAS 25-05-01, Leachfield; and CAS 25-05-07, Acid Waste Leach Pit (AWLP) (Figures 2 and 3). Test Cell A was operated during the 1960s and 1970s to support the Nuclear Rocket Development Station. Various operations within Building 3124 at Test Cell A resulted in liquid waste releases to the Leachfield and the AWLP. The following existing site conditions were reported in the Corrective Action Decision Document (CADD) (U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office [DOE/NV], 1999): Soil in the leachfield was found to exceed the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP) Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) preliminary remediation goals for semi volatile organic compounds, and background concentrations for strontium-90; Soil below the sewer pipe and approximately 4.5 meters (m) (15 feet [ft]) downstream of the initial outfall was found to exceed background concentrations for cesium-137 and strontium-90; Sludge in the leachfield septic tank was found to exceed the NDEP Action Level for petroleum hydrocarbons and to contain americium-241, cesium-137, uranium-234, uranium-238, potassium-40, and strontium-90; No constituents of concern (COC) were identified at the AWLP. The NDEP-approved CADD (DOWNV, 1999) recommended Corrective Action Alternative 2, ''Closure of the Septic Tank and Distribution Box, Partial

  12. The action of antidepressants on the glutamate system: regulation of glutamate release and glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Musazzi, Laura; Treccani, Giulia; Mallei, Alessandra; Popoli, Maurizio

    2013-06-15

    Recent compelling evidence has suggested that the glutamate system is a primary mediator of psychiatric pathology and also a target for rapid-acting antidepressants. Clinical research in mood and anxiety disorders has shown alterations in levels, clearance, and metabolism of glutamate and consistent volumetric changes in brain areas where glutamate neurons predominate. In parallel, preclinical studies with rodent stress and depression models have found dendritic remodeling and synaptic spines reduction in corresponding areas, suggesting these as major factors in psychopathology. Enhancement of glutamate release/transmission, in turn induced by stress/glucocorticoids, seems crucial for structural/functional changes. Understanding mechanisms of maladaptive plasticity may allow identification of new targets for drugs and therapies. Interestingly, traditional monoaminergic-based antidepressants have been repeatedly shown to interfere with glutamate system function, starting with modulation of N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors. Subsequently, it has been shown that antidepressants reduce glutamate release and synaptic transmission; in particular, it was found antidepressants prevent the acute stress-induced enhancement of glutamate release. Additional studies have shown that antidepressants may partly reverse the maladaptive changes in synapses/circuitry in stress and depression models. Finally, a number of studies over the years have shown that these drugs regulate glutamate receptors, reducing the function of NMDA receptors, potentiating the function of α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptors, and, more recently, exerting variable effects on different subtypes of metabotropic glutamate receptors. The development of NMDA receptor antagonists has opened new avenues for glutamatergic, rapid acting, antidepressants, while additional targets in the glutamate synapse await development of new compounds for better, faster antidepressant action.

  13. {A Review of Working Group 2 (Advanced Terrestrial Systems) of the COST 296 Action}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrington, E. M.; Tulunay, E.

    2009-04-01

    E.M. Warrington, E. Tulunay, N.M. Abbasi, J. Azevedo, L. Bertel, A. Bourdillon, E. Benito, C. Bianchi, A. Casimiro, L. Economou, Y. Erhel, S.M. Feeney, S.D. Gunashekar, H. Haralambous, D. Lemur, F. Marie, J.P. Monilie, M. Muriuki, M. Oger M. Pietrella, V. Rannou, H. Rothkaehl, S. Saillant, S. Salous, O. Sari, A.J. Stocker, H.J. Strangeways, Y. Tulunay and N.Y. Zaalov This paper deals with the research undertaken during the COST 296 Action in Working Group 2 on Advanced Terrestrial Systems. The Working Group comprised three work packages covering various topics: Radar and Radiolocation, HF/MF Communications, and Spectrum Management. Results from this Working Group are presented in this paper, and may be summarised as follows. Aspects of HF propagation The propagation characteristics of radio signals are important parameters to consider when designing and operating radio systems. From the point of view Working Group 2 of the COST-296 Action, interest lies with effects associated with propagation via the ionosphere of signals within the HF band. Several aspects were covered: The directions of arrival and times of flight of signals received over a path oriented along the trough have been examined and several types of propagation effects identified. Of particular note, combining the HF observations with satellite measurements has identified the presence of irregularities within the floor of the trough that result in propagation displaced from the great circle direction. An understanding of the propagation effects that result in deviations of the signal path from the great circle direction are of particular relevance to the operation of HF radiolocation systems. Inclusion of the results from the above mentioned measurements into a propagation model of the northerly ionosphere (i.e. those regions of the ionosphere located poleward of, and including, the mid-latitude trough) and the use of this model to predict the coverage expected from transmitters where the signals

  14. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  15. Systemic insecticides (neonicotinoids and fipronil): trends, uses, mode of action and metabolites.

    PubMed

    Simon-Delso, N; Amaral-Rogers, V; Belzunces, L P; Bonmatin, J M; Chagnon, M; Downs, C; Furlan, L; Gibbons, D W; Giorio, C; Girolami, V; Goulson, D; Kreutzweiser, D P; Krupke, C H; Liess, M; Long, E; McField, M; Mineau, P; Mitchell, E A D; Morrissey, C A; Noome, D A; Pisa, L; Settele, J; Stark, J D; Tapparo, A; Van Dyck, H; Van Praagh, J; Van der Sluijs, J P; Whitehorn, P R; Wiemers, M

    2015-01-01

    Since their discovery in the late 1980s, neonicotinoid pesticides have become the most widely used class of insecticides worldwide, with large-scale applications ranging from plant protection (crops, vegetables, fruits), veterinary products, and biocides to invertebrate pest control in fish farming. In this review, we address the phenyl-pyrazole fipronil together with neonicotinoids because of similarities in their toxicity, physicochemical profiles, and presence in the environment. Neonicotinoids and fipronil currently account for approximately one third of the world insecticide market; the annual world production of the archetype neonicotinoid, imidacloprid, was estimated to be ca. 20,000 tonnes active substance in 2010. There were several reasons for the initial success of neonicotinoids and fipronil: (1) there was no known pesticide resistance in target pests, mainly because of their recent development, (2) their physicochemical properties included many advantages over previous generations of insecticides (i.e., organophosphates, carbamates, pyrethroids, etc.), and (3) they shared an assumed reduced operator and consumer risk. Due to their systemic nature, they are taken up by the roots or leaves and translocated to all parts of the plant, which, in turn, makes them effectively toxic to herbivorous insects. The toxicity persists for a variable period of time-depending on the plant, its growth stage, and the amount of pesticide applied. A wide variety of applications are available, including the most common prophylactic non-Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) application by seed coating. As a result of their extensive use and physicochemical properties, these substances can be found in all environmental compartments including soil, water, and air. Neonicotinoids and fipronil operate by disrupting neural transmission in the central nervous system of invertebrates. Neonicotinoids mimic the action of neurotransmitters, while fipronil inhibits neuronal receptors. In

  16. Hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action stem from a left hemispheric system of conceptualization.

    PubMed

    Helmich, I; Lausberg, H

    2014-10-01

    The present study addresses the previously discussed controversy on the contribution of the right and left cerebral hemispheres to the production and conceptualization of spontaneous hand movements and gestures. Although it has been shown that each hemisphere contains the ability to produce hand movements, results of left hemispherically lateralized motor functions challenge the view of a contralateral hand movement production system. To examine hemispheric specialization in hand movement and gesture production, ten right-handed participants were tachistoscopically presented pictures of everyday life actions. The participants were asked to demonstrate with their hands, but without speaking what they had seen on the drawing. Two independent blind raters evaluated the videotaped hand movements and gestures employing the Neuropsychological Gesture Coding System. The results showed that the overall frequency of right- and left-hand movements is equal independent of stimulus lateralization. When hand movements were analyzed considering their Structure, the presentation of the action stimuli to the left hemisphere resulted in more hand movements with a phase structure than the presentation to the right hemisphere. Furthermore, the presentation to the left hemisphere resulted in more right and left-hand movements with a phase structure, whereas the presentation to the right hemisphere only increased contralateral left-hand movements with a phase structure as compared to hand movements without a phase structure. Gestures that depict action were primarily displayed in response to stimuli presented in the right visual field than in the left one. The present study shows that both hemispheres possess the faculty to produce hand movements in response to action stimuli. However, the left hemisphere dominates the production of hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that depict action. We therefore conclude that hand movements with a phase structure and gestures that

  17. Orbit structure of Hamiltonian systems arising from Lie transformation group actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    1983-01-01

    This paper associates the Riccati group and its group action on linear-quadratic optimal control problems to the action of a Lie transformation group on a set of Hamiltonian matrices. In this Lie theoretic setting results are presented concerning the associated orbit structure and the structure of the group itself. These results are of importance in understanding the solution structure of matrix Riccati differential equations, and thus also of importance in linear-quadratic optimal control.

  18. Orbit structure of Hamiltonian systems arising from Lie transformation group actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garzia, M. R.; Loparo, K. A.; Martin, C. F.

    This paper associates the Riccati group and its group action on linear-quadratic optimal control problems to the action of a Lie transformation group on a set of Hamiltonian matrices. In this Lie theoretic setting results are presented concerning the associated orbit structure and the structure of the group itself. These results are of importance in understanding the solution structure of matrix Riccati differential equations, and thus also of importance in linear-quadratic optimal control.

  19. Signed language and human action processing: evidence for functional constraints on the human mirror-neuron system.

    PubMed

    Corina, David P; Knapp, Heather Patterson

    2008-12-01

    In the quest to further understand the neural underpinning of human communication, researchers have turned to studies of naturally occurring signed languages used in Deaf communities. The comparison of the commonalities and differences between spoken and signed languages provides an opportunity to determine core neural systems responsible for linguistic communication independent of the modality in which a language is expressed. The present article examines such studies, and in addition asks what we can learn about human languages by contrasting formal visual-gestural linguistic systems (signed languages) with more general human action perception. To understand visual language perception, it is important to distinguish the demands of general human motion processing from the highly task-dependent demands associated with extracting linguistic meaning from arbitrary, conventionalized gestures. This endeavor is particularly important because theorists have suggested close homologies between perception and production of actions and functions of human language and social communication. We review recent behavioral, functional imaging, and neuropsychological studies that explore dissociations between the processing of human actions and signed languages. These data suggest incomplete overlap between the mirror-neuron systems proposed to mediate human action and language.

  20. Object visibility alters the relative contribution of ventral visual stream and mirror neuron system to goal anticipation during action observation.

    PubMed

    Thioux, Marc; Keysers, Christian

    2015-01-15

    We used fMRI to study the effect of hiding the target of a grasping action on the cerebral activity of an observer whose task was to anticipate the size of the object being grasped. Activity in the putative mirror neuron system (pMNS) was higher when the target was concealed from the view of the observer and anticipating the size of the object being grasped requested paying attention to the hand kinematics. In contrast, activity in ventral visual areas outside the pMNS increased when the target was fully visible, and the performance improved in this condition. A repetition suppression analysis demonstrated that in full view, the size of the object being grasped by the actor was encoded in the ventral visual stream. Dynamic causal modeling showed that monitoring a grasping action increased the coupling between the parietal and ventral premotor nodes of the pMNS. The modulation of the functional connectivity between these nodes was correlated with the subject's capability to detect the size of hidden objects. In full view, synaptic activity increased within the ventral visual stream, and the connectivity with the pMNS was diminished. The re-enactment of observed actions in the pMNS is crucial when interpreting others' actions requires paying attention to the body kinematics. However, when the context permits, visual-spatial information processing may complement pMNS computations for improved action anticipation accuracy.

  1. Frequency and topography in monkey electroencephalogram during action observation: possible neural correlates of the mirror neuron system

    PubMed Central

    Coudé, G.; Vanderwert, R. E.; Thorpe, S.; Festante, F.; Bimbi, M.; Fox, N. A.; Ferrari, P. F.

    2014-01-01

    The observation of actions executed by others results in desynchronization of electroencephalogram (EEG) in the alpha and beta frequency bands recorded from the central regions in humans. On the other hand, mirror neurons, which are thought to be responsible for this effect, have been studied only in macaque monkeys, using single-cell recordings. Here, as a first step in a research programme aimed at understanding the parallels between human and monkey mirror neuron systems (MNS), we recorded EEG from the scalp of two monkeys during action observation. The monkeys were trained to fixate on the face of a human agent and subsequently to fixate on a target upon which the agent performed a grasping action. We found that action observation produced desynchronization in the 19–25 Hz band that was strongest over anterior and central electrodes. These results are in line with human data showing that specific frequency bands within the power spectrum of the ongoing EEG may be modulated by observation of actions and therefore might be a specific marker of MNS activity. PMID:24778383

  2. Potential effect of CAD systems on the detection of actionable nodules in chest CT scans during routine reporting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wormanns, Dag; Beyer, Florian; Butzbach, Arnauld; Zierott, Livia; Heindel, Walter

    2006-03-01

    The purpose of the presented study was to determine the impact of two different CAD systems used as concur-rent reader for detection of actionable nodules (>4 mm) on the interpretation of chest CT scans during routine reporting. Fifty consecutive MDCT scans (1 mm or 1.25 mm slice thickness, 0.8 mm reconstruction increment) were se-lected from clinical routine. All cases were read by a resident and a staff radiologist, and a written report was available in the radiology information system (RIS). The RIS report mentioned at least one actionable pulmonary nodule in 18 cases (50%) and did not report any pulmonary nodule in the remaining 32 cases. Two different recent CAD systems were independently applied to the 50 CT scans as concurrent reader with two radiologists: Siemens LungCare NEV and MEDIAN CAD-Lung. Two radiologists independently reviewed the CAD results and determined if a CAD result was a true positive or a false positive finding. Patients were classified into two groups: in group A if at least one actionable nodule was detected and in group B if no actionable nodules were found. The effect of CAD on routine reporting was simulated as set union of the findings of routine reporting and CAD thus applying CAD as concurrent reader. According to the RIS report group A (patients with at least one actionable nodule) contained 18 cases (36% of all 50 cases), and group B contained 32 cases. Application of a CAD system as concurrent reader resulted in detec-tion of additional CT scans with actionable nodules and reclassification into group A in 16 resp. 18 cases (radi-ologist 1 resp. radiologist 2) with Siemens NEV and in 19 resp. 18 cases with MEDIAN CAD-Lung. In seven cases MEDIAN CAD-Lung and in four cases Siemens NEV reclassified a case into group A while the other CAD system missed the relevant finding. Sensitivity on a nodule (>4 mm) base was .45 for Siemens NEV and .55 for MEDIAN CAD-Lung; the difference was not yet significant (p=.077). In our study use of CAD

  3. Individual Differences in Impulsive Action Reflect Variation in the Cortical Serotonin 5-HT2A Receptor System

    PubMed Central

    Fink, Latham HL; Anastasio, Noelle C; Fox, Robert G; Rice, Kenner C; Moeller, F Gerard; Cunningham, Kathryn A

    2015-01-01

    Impulsivity is an important feature of multiple neuropsychiatric disorders, and individual variation in the degree of inherent impulsivity could play a role in the generation or exacerbation of problematic behaviors. Serotonin (5-HT) actions at the 5-HT2AR receptor (5-HT2AR) promote and 5-HT2AR antagonists suppress impulsive action (the inability to withhold premature responses; motor impulsivity) upon systemic administration or microinfusion directly into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), a node in the corticostriatal circuit that is thought to play a role in the regulation of impulsive action. We hypothesized that the functional capacity of the 5-HT2AR, which is governed by its expression, localization, and protein/protein interactions (eg, postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95)), may drive the predisposition to inherent impulsive action. Stable high-impulsive (HI) and low-impulsive (LI) phenotypes were identified from an outbred rodent population with the 1-choice serial reaction time (1-CSRT) task. HI rats exhibited a greater head-twitch response following administration of the preferential 5-HT2AR agonist 2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodoamphetamine (DOI) and were more sensitive to the effects of the selective 5-HT2AR antagonist M100907 to suppress impulsive action relative to LI rats. A positive correlation was observed between levels of premature responses and 5-HT2AR binding density in frontal cortex ([3H]-ketanserin radioligand binding). Elevated mPFC 5-HT2AR protein expression concomitant with augmented association of the 5-HT2AR with PSD95 differentiated HI from LI rats. The observed differential sensitivity of HI and LI rats to 5-HT2AR ligands and associated distinct 5-HT2AR protein profiles provide evidence that spontaneously occurring individual differences in impulsive action reflect variation in the cortical 5-HT2AR system. PMID:25666313

  4. Response monitoring and action limits: use of ADC numbers in understanding the operational characteristics of the Beckman ASTRA chemistry system.

    PubMed

    Kessner, A; Burnett, R W; Bowers, G N

    1981-07-01

    The Beckman ASTRA is a microprocessor-controlled multichannel chemistry analyzer. The output of each module is available to the operator as analog-to-digital conversion (ADC) numbers, which we record during each calibration (Response Monitoring). After so studying three instruments for a total of 33 months, we have established limits for Calibrator ADC numbers that indicate possible operator action (Action Limits). These Action Limits are tighter than the microprocessor's programmed limits, and alert the operator to short- and long-term drift. These tighter limits warn of (a) impending failure of the instrument to calibrate or (b) possible inaccuracies in results for patients. We have instituted changes in preventive maintenance based on our studies of each module's operational characteristics, and have replaced electrodes that failed to meet our Response Monitoring specifications. Response Monitoring and Action Limits based upon ADC numbers have significantly enhanced our understanding of the ASTRA system and thus improved its operational efficiency and analytical reliability. Estimates of precision and accuracy (true value) were satisfactory in comparison to our prior single-channel continuous-flow and flame photometry analytical measurement systems.

  5. Motor system contribution to action prediction: Temporal accuracy depends on motor experience.

    PubMed

    Stapel, Janny C; Hunnius, Sabine; Meyer, Marlene; Bekkering, Harold

    2016-03-01

    Predicting others' actions is essential for well-coordinated social interactions. In two experiments including an infant population, this study addresses to what extent motor experience of an observer determines prediction accuracy for others' actions. Results show that infants who were proficient crawlers but inexperienced walkers predicted crawling more accurately than walking, whereas age groups mastering both skills (i.e. toddlers and adults) were equally accurate in predicting walking and crawling. Regardless of experience, human movements were predicted more accurately by all age groups than non-human movement control stimuli. This suggests that for predictions to be accurate, the observed act needs to be established in the motor repertoire of the observer. Through the acquisition of new motor skills, we also become better at predicting others' actions. The findings thus stress the relevance of motor experience for social-cognitive development.

  6. Development and Testing of a M-Learning System for the Professional Development of Academics through Design-Based Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keskin, Nilgun Ozdamar; Kuzu, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a mobile learning system for the professional development of academics was developed by design based action research, and the perceptions and experiences of the academics using this system were examined. In the first phase of this design-based action research, the research question was defined. In the second phase, a…

  7. The Solar System. Earth Science in Action. Teacher's Manual and Workbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Echaore, Susan D.

    The Science in Action series is designed to teach practical science concepts to special-needs students. It is intended to develop students' problem-solving skills by teaching them to observe, record, analyze, conclude, and predict. This document contains a student workbook which deals with basic concepts about how the earth moves and its…

  8. Teacher Researchers in Action Research in a Heavily Centralized Education System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kayaoglu, M. Naci

    2015-01-01

    Action research is characterized by a new paradigm of empowering teachers to monitor their own practices in a more autonomous manner with a vision of challenging and improving their own techniques of teaching through their own participatory research. Yet in spite of this apparently radical shift in the function of the teacher from the constant…

  9. ASSESSING UST CORRECTIVE ACTION TECHNOLOGIES: DIAGNOSTIC EVALUATION OF IN SITU SVE-BASED SYSTEM PERFORMANCE

    EPA Science Inventory

    In situ corrective action technologies are being proposed and installed at an increasing number of underground storage tank (LIST) sites contaminated with petroleum products in saturated and unsaturated zones. It is often difficult to accurately assess the performance of these sy...

  10. The organization of the conceptual system: the case of the "object versus action" dimension.

    PubMed

    Pillon, Agnesa; d'Honincthun, Peggy

    2011-10-01

    There are very numerous reports in the neuropsychological literature of patients showing, in naming and/or comprehension tasks, a disproportionate deficit for nouns in comparison with verbs or a disproportionate deficit for verbs in comparison with nouns. A number of authors advanced that, in at least some or even in every of these reported cases, the noun/verb dissociation in fact reflected an underlying conceptual deficit disproportionately affecting either object or action concepts. These patterns thus would put an additional constraint on theories of conceptual knowledge organization, which should be able to explain how brain damage could selectively disrupt the concepts of objects or the concepts of actions. We have reviewed 69 papers (published from 1984 to 2009) that reported a pattern of a noun or a verb disproportionate deficit in a single-case, multiple-case, or group study of brain-damaged patients with various aetiologies. From this review, we concluded that none of these studies provided compelling evidence in favour of the interpretation that the observed noun or verb disproportionate deficit arose at the conceptual processing level and, accordingly, that this level may be organized according to the "object/action" dimension. Furthermore, we argue that investigating conceptual impairments in brain-damaged patients according to the "object/action" dichotomy is not empirically fruitful if the purpose is to inform theories of conceptual knowledge organization. In order to provide evidence relevant to these theories, one needs to consider finer grained distinctions within both the object and the action category when investigating the scope of the patients' conceptual impairment.

  11. Status of Enterprise Resource Planning Systems’ Cost, Schedule, and Management Actions Taken to Address Prior Recommendations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-08-01

    identified corrective actions taken to ensure the integrity of business process re-engineering ( BPR ) assessments submitted for DoD ERP programs. DoD...certification authority determine that an appropriate BPR effort is completed before funds in excess of $1 million are obligated for defense...determine whether an adequate BPR effort occurred for ongoing defense business systems modernizations that have a total cost in excess of $100

  12. Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, Nevada Test Site, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    D. S. Tobiason

    2003-07-01

    This Closure Report (CR) documents the activities undertaken to close Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 262: Area 25 Septic Systems and Underground Discharge Point, in accordance with the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) of 1996. Site closure was performed in accordance with the Nevada Division of Environmental Protection (NDEP)-approved Corrective Action Plan (CAP) for CAU 262 (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Operations Office [NNSA/NV, 2002a]). CAU 262 is located at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) approximately 105 kilometers (65 miles) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. CAU 262 consists of the following nine Corrective Action Sites (CASs) located in Area 25 of the NTS: CAS 25-02-06, Underground Storage tank CAS 25-04-06, Septic Systems A and B CAS 25-04-07, Septic System CAS 25-05-03, Leachfield CAS 25-05-05, Leachfield CAS 25-05-06, Leachfield CAS 25-05-08, Radioactive Leachfield CAS 25-05-12, Leachfield CAS 25-51-01, Dry Well.

  13. A Mechatronic System for Quantitative Application and Assessment of Massage-Like Actions in Small Animals

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Zeng, Hansong; Best, Thomas M.; Haas, Caroline; Heffner, Ned T.; Agarwal, Sudha; Zhao, Yi

    2013-01-01

    Massage therapy has a long history and has been widely believed effective in restoring tissue function, relieving pain and stress, and promoting overall well-being. However, the application of massage-like actions and the efficacy of massage are largely based on anecdotal experiences that are difficult to define and measure. This leads to a somewhat limited evidence-based interface of massage therapy with modern medicine. In this study, we introduce a mechatronic device that delivers highly reproducible massage-like mechanical loads to the hind limbs of small animals (rats and rabbits), where various massage-like actions are quantified by the loading parameters (magnitude, frequency and duration) of the compressive and transverse forces on the subject tissues. The effect of massage is measured by the difference in passive viscoelastic properties of the subject tissues before and after mechanical loading, both obtained by the same device. Results show that this device is useful in identifying the loading parameters that are most conducive to a change in tissue mechanical properties, and can determine the range of loading parameters that result in sustained changes in tissue mechanical properties and function. This device presents the first step in our effort for quantifying the application of massage-like actions used clinically and measurement of their efficacy that can readily be combined with various quantitative measures (e.g., active mechanical properties and physiological assays) for determining the therapeutic and mechanistic effects of massage therapies. PMID:23943071

  14. ENDOCRINE DISRUPTERS: A REVIEW OF SOME SOURCES, EFFECTS, AND MECHANISMS OF ACTIONS ON BEHAVIOR AND NEUROENDOCRINE SYSTEMS

    PubMed Central

    Frye, C.; Bo, E.; Calamandrei, G.; Calzà, L.; Dessì-Fulgheri, F.; Fernández, M.; Fusani, L.; Kah, O.; Kajta, M.; Le Page, Y.; Patisaul, H.B.; Venerosi, A.; Wojtowicz, A.K.; Panzica, G.C.

    2011-01-01

    Some environmental contaminants interact with hormones and may exert adverse consequences due to their actions as endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs). Exposure in people is typically due to contamination of the food chain, inhalation of contaminated house dust, or occupational exposure. EDCs include pesticides and herbicides (such as diphenyl-dichloro-trichloroethane, DDT, or its metabolites), methoxychlor, biocides, heat stabilizers and chemical catalysts (such as tributyltin, TBT), plastic contaminants (e.g. bisphenol A, BPA), pharmaceuticals (i.e. diethylstilbestrol, DES; 17alpha-ethynilestradiol, EE2), or dietary components (such as phytoestrogens). The goal of this review is to address sources, effects and actions of EDCs, with an emphasis on topics discussed at the International Congress on Steroids and the Nervous System. EDCs may alter reproductively-relevant or non-reproductive, sexually-dimorphic behaviors. In addition, EDCs may have significant effects on neurodevelopmental processes, influencing morphology of sexually-dimorphic cerebral circuits. Exposure to EDCs is more dangerous if it occurs during specific “critical periods” of life, such as intrauterine, perinatal, juvenile or puberty periods, when organisms are more sensitive to hormonal disruption, than in other periods. However, exposure to EDCs in adulthood also can alter physiology. Several EDCs are xenoestrogens, may alter serum lipid concentrations, or metabolism enzymes that are necessary for converting cholesterol to steroid hormones, ultimately altering production of E2 and/or other steroids. Finally, many EDCs may have actions via, or independent of, classic actions at cognate steroid receptors. EDCs may have effects through numerous other substrates, such as the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) and retinoid X receptor (RXR), signal transduction pathways, calcium influx, and/or neurotransmitter receptors. Thus, EDCs, from varied

  15. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  16. Systems Pharmacology Dissection of Multi-Scale Mechanisms of Action for Herbal Medicines in Stroke Treatment and Prevention

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes. PMID:25093322

  17. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of an Alternative Anticancer Compound in Comparison to Cisplatin

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Elise P.; Padula, Matthew P.; Higgins, Vincent J.; Aldrich-Wright, Janice R.; Coorssen, Jens R.

    2014-01-01

    Many clinically available anticancer compounds are designed to target DNA. This commonality of action often yields overlapping cellular response mechanisms and can thus detract from drug efficacy. New compounds are required to overcome resistance mechanisms that effectively neutralise compounds like cisplatin and those with similar chemical structures. Studies have shown that 56MESS is a novel compound which, unlike cisplatin, does not covalently bind to DNA, but is more toxic to many cell lines and active against cisplatin-resistant cells. Furthermore, a transcriptional study of 56MESS in yeast has implicated iron and copper metabolism as well as the general yeast stress response following challenge with 56MESS. Beyond this, the cytotoxicity of 56MESS remains largely uncharacterised. Here, yeast was used as a model system to facilitate a systems-level comparison between 56MESS and cisplatin. Preliminary experiments indicated that higher concentrations than seen in similar studies be used. Although a DNA interaction with 56MESS had been theorized, this work indicated that an effect on protein synthesis/ degradation was also implicated in the mechanism(s) of action of this novel anticancer compound. In contrast to cisplatin, the different mechanisms of action that are indicated for 56MESS suggest that this compound could overcome cisplatin resistance either as a stand-alone treatment or a synergistic component of therapeutics. PMID:28250393

  18. Systems pharmacology dissection of multi-scale mechanisms of action for herbal medicines in stroke treatment and prevention.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jingxiao; Li, Yan; Chen, Xuetong; Pan, Yanqiu; Zhang, Shuwei; Wang, Yonghua

    2014-01-01

    Annually, tens of millions of first-ever strokes occur in the world; however, currently there is lack of effective and widely applicable pharmacological treatments for stroke patients. Herbal medicines, characterized as multi-constituent, multi-target and multi-effect, have been acknowledged with conspicuous effects in treating stroke, and attract extensive interest of researchers although the mechanism of action is yet unclear. In this work, we introduce an innovative systems-pharmacology method that combines pharmacokinetic prescreening, target fishing and network analysis to decipher the mechanisms of action of 10 herbal medicines like Salvia miltiorrhizae, Ginkgo biloba and Ephedrae herba which are efficient in stroke treatment and prevention. Our systematic analysis results display that, in these anti-stroke herbal medicines, 168 out of 1285 constituents with the favorable pharmacokinetic profiles might be implicated in stroke therapy, and the systematic use of these compounds probably acts through multiple mechanisms to synergistically benefit patients with stroke, which can roughly be classified as preventing ischemic inflammatory response, scavenging free radicals and inhibiting neuronal apoptosis against ischemic cerebral damage, as well as exhibiting lipid-lowering, anti-diabetic, anti-thrombotic and antiplatelet effects to decrease recurrent strokes. Relying on systems biology-based analysis, we speculate that herbal medicines, being characterized as the classical combination therapies, might be not only engaged in multiple mechanisms of action to synergistically improve the stroke outcomes, but also might be participated in reducing the risk factors for recurrent strokes.

  19. Pupillometric evidence for the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline system facilitating attentional processing of action-triggered visual stimuli.

    PubMed

    Kihara, Ken; Takeuchi, Tatsuto; Yoshimoto, Sanae; Kondo, Hirohito M; Kawahara, Jun I

    2015-01-01

    It has been argued that attentional processing of visual stimuli is facilitated by a voluntary action that triggers the stimulus onset. However, the relationship between action-induced facilitation of attention and the neural substrates has not been well established. The present study investigated whether the locus coeruleus-noradrenaline (LC-NA) system is involved in this facilitation effect. A rapid serial visual presentation paradigm was used to assess the dynamics of transient attention in humans. Participants were instructed to change a digit stream to a letter stream by pressing a button and specifying successive targets of four letters. Pupil dilation was measured as an index of LC-NA function. Accuracy of target identification was better when the temporal delay between participants' key press and target onset was 800 ms than when targets appeared just after the key press or when targets appeared without key press. Accuracy of target identification was positively correlated with both the peak amplitude of pupil dilation and the pupil size at the time of the key press. These results indicate that target identification in the visual task is closely linked to pupil dilation. We conclude that the LC-NA system plays an important role in the facilitation of transient attention driven by voluntary action.

  20. Embedding the AnaFocus' Eye-RIS vision system in roving robots to enhance the action-oriented perception

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alba Soto, Luis; Morillas, Sergio; Listán, Juan; Jiménez, Amanda; Arena, Paolo; Patané, Luca; De Fiore, Sebastiano

    2009-05-01

    This paper aims to describe how the AnaFocus' Eye-RIS family of vision systems has been successfully embedded within the roving robots developed under the framework of SPARK and SPARK II European projects to solve the action-oriented perception problem in real time. Indeed, the Eye-RIS family is a set of vision systems which are conceived for single-chip integration using CMOS technologies. The Eye-RIS systems employ a bio-inspired architecture where image acquisition and processing are truly intermingled and the processing itself is carried out in two steps. At the first step, processing is fully parallel owing to the concourse of dedicated circuit structures which are integrated close to the sensors. These structures handle basically analog information. At the second step, processing is realized on digitally-coded information data by means of digital processors. On the other hand, SPARK I and SPARK II are European research projects which goal is to develop completely new sensing-perceiving-moving artefacts inspired by the basic principles of living systems and based on the concept of "selforganization". As a result, its low-power consumption together with its huge image-processing capabilities makes the Eye-RIS vision system a suitable choice to be embedded within the roving robots developed under the framework of SPARK projects and to implement in real time the resulting mathematical models for action-oriented perception.

  1. [Tonic conjugated action of receptor-receptor fibers and of the efferent vestibular system on the spontaneous afferene activity of a semicircular canal in the frog].

    PubMed

    Gribenski, A; Caston, J

    1976-01-01

    In the frog, the joint action of non-afferent vestibular systems [i.e. the efferent vestibular system and the receptor-receptor fibre system] on the afferent vestibular activity is null or very small. The receptor-receptor fibre system being inhibitory, it seems that the efferent vestibular system as a whole is facilitatory, which agrees with previous results.

  2. [Action of La3+ on the systems providing contractility of vertebrate myocardium].

    PubMed

    Shemarova, I V; Korotkov, S M; Nesterov, V P

    2013-01-01

    The inotropic action of La3+ on frog myocardium was studied with taking into account of its effect on mitochondria of cardiomyocytes (CM). It has been established that in the range of studied concentrations (0.2-6 mM), La3+ decreases dose-dependently the strength of cardiac contractions (by 3.3-92.2 %). In parallel experiments on isolated rat heart mitochondria (RHM), La3+ at a concentration of 25 microM has been shown to cause swelling of non-energized and energized mitochondria in isotonic medium with 125 mM NH4NO3 and in hypotonic medium with 25 mM CH3COOK. The study of oxidative processes in mitochondria with aid of polarographic method of measurement of oxygen concentration has shown that La3+ at concentrations of 50 and 100 microM increases the oxygen consumption rate by mitochondria in the state 2. However, La3+ does not decrease the respiration rate of isolated mitochondria in the state 3, as this takes place in the case of use of Cd2+ or at the Ca(2+)-overloading of mitochondria. The rate of endogenous respiration of isolated mitochondria in the medium with La3+ was higher than in control, which implies its effect on ion permeability of the inner membrane. The data obtained in this work indicate that the La(3+)-produced decrease of the contractility of cardiac muscle is not only due to the direct blocking effect on the potential-controlled Ca2+ channels, but is also mediated by its unspecific action on the CM mitochondria. This action is manifested in acceleration of the energy-dependent K+ transport in matrix and in an increase of ion permeability of the inner mitochondrial membrane (IMM).

  3. Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on Several Business System Audit Reports

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-06-20

    2 0 , 2 0 1 4 Report No. DODIG-2014-084 Hotline Allegations Regarding Defense Contract Management Agency Contracting Officer Actions on...control number. 1. REPORT DATE 20 JUN 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Hotline Allegations...i l / h o t l i n e HOTLINE Department of Defense F r a u d , W a s t e , & A b u s e Mission Our mission is to provide independent, relevant, and

  4. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary...

  5. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary...

  6. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary...

  7. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary...

  8. 36 CFR 1236.26 - What actions must agencies take to maintain electronic information systems?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... take to maintain electronic information systems? 1236.26 Section 1236.26 Parks, Forests, and Public... electronic information systems? (a) Agencies must maintain inventories of electronic information systems and... electronic information systems that is adequate to: (1) Specify all technical characteristics necessary...

  9. A Study on Active Disaster Management System for Standardized Emergency Action Plan using BIM and Flood Damage Estimation Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeong, C.; Om, J.; Hwang, J.; Joo, K.; Heo, J.

    2013-12-01

    In recent, the frequency of extreme flood has been increasing due to climate change and global warming. Highly flood damages are mainly caused by the collapse of flood control structures such as dam and dike. In order to reduce these disasters, the disaster management system (DMS) through flood forecasting, inundation mapping, EAP (Emergency Action Plan) has been studied. The estimation of inundation damage and practical EAP are especially crucial to the DMS. However, it is difficult to predict inundation and take a proper action through DMS in real emergency situation because several techniques for inundation damage estimation are not integrated and EAP is supplied in the form of a document in Korea. In this study, the integrated simulation system including rainfall frequency analysis, rainfall-runoff modeling, inundation prediction, surface runoff analysis, and inland flood analysis was developed. Using this system coupled with standard GIS data, inundation damage can be estimated comprehensively and automatically. The standard EAP based on BIM (Building Information Modeling) was also established in this system. It is, therefore, expected that the inundation damages through this study over the entire area including buildings can be predicted and managed.

  10. On the Caudrey-Beals-Coifman System and the Gauge Group Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahovski, Georgi G.; Condon, Marissa

    The generalized Zakharov-Shabat systems with complex-valued Cartan elements and the systems studied by Caudrey, Beals and Coifman (CBC systems) and their gauge equivalent are studies. This includes: the properties of fundamental analytical solutions (FAS) for the gauge-equivalent to CBC systems and the minimal set of scattering data; the description of the class of nonlinear evolutionary equations solvable by the inverse scattering method and the recursion operator, related to such systems; the hierarchies of Hamiltonian structures.

  11. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  12. Modeling the Creation of Actionable Knowledge within a Joint Task Force Command System (Project GNOSIS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-08-01

    or supplied the drawings, specifications, or other data does not license the holder or any other person or corporation ; or convey any rights or...SYSTEM SJ SYSTEM INTERACTIONS AND INFLUENCES SOCIAL ORGANIZATIONAL SYSTEM SYSTEM I Multiple actors egaglng In comunities of Commrunitles of Interest...incorporated as an operating division of Alion Science & Technology Corporation . 30 GNOSIS Tree View Mr 13 Sceao Evrab 8 0 Wathe w Inut NOSIS indices

  13. Strategy in Action: How School Systems Can Support Powerful Learning and Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Rachel E.; City, Elizabeth A.

    2009-01-01

    How can we systemically improve the quality of classroom instruction and the learning and achievement of students? In an era when isolated examples of excellence are not good enough, we need systems that support improvement and excellence for all. This book describes how systems can effectively engage in this complex, challenging, and crucial…

  14. Integrated health systems and integrated knowledge: creating space for putting knowledge into action.

    PubMed

    Scott, Cathie; Seidel, Judy; Bowen, Sarah; Gall, Nadine

    2009-01-01

    The capacity to innovate and share knowledge is not well developed within health systems. In this paper we highlight essential structures, principles and processes for successful implementation of knowledge utilization strategies in complex health systems. We demonstrate essential links between systems that support knowledge utilization and governance, change management, information management and process improvement.

  15. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  16. A review on proniosomal drug delivery system for targeted drug action

    PubMed Central

    Radha, G. V.; Rani, T. Sudha; Sarvani, B.

    2013-01-01

    Proniosomes are dry formulation of water soluble carrier particles that are coated with surfactant. They are rehydrated to form niosomal dispersion immediately before use on agitation in hot aqueous media within minutes. Proniosomes are physically stable during the storage and transport. Drug encapsulated in the vesicular structure of proniosomes prolong the existence of drug in the systematic circulation and enhances the penetration into target tissue and reduce toxicity. From a technical point of view, niosomes are promising drug carriers as they possess greater chemical stability and lack of many disadvantages associated with liposomes, such as high- cost and variable purity problems of phospholipids. The present review emphasizes on overall methods of preparation characterization and applicability of proniosomes in targeted drug action. PMID:24808669

  17. Human central nervous system response to peripheral action of low-intensity millimeter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Lebedeva, N.N.

    1994-07-01

    We employ a modification of a psychophysical method developed by Kholodov to study electromagnetic field induced skin sensations. The main part of the setup is a program controller, which provides for the timed delivery of EMF signals and also false presentations. The EMF signals are fed in random order with a uniform distribution. The response-strength index and the false-alarm level were used to evaluate MF sensitivity. In addition, the subjects determined the presence or absence of a field according to four criteria. Forty healthy subjects ages 17 to 35 were tested on their right and left hands. Sensory data was analyzed via computer. EEG responses to peripheral action were studied in depth.

  18. Defining principles for good practice: using case studies to inform health systems action on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Sarah; Kelly, Michael P; Morgan, Antony

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents work using case studies as a source of data to see if we could extrapolate from the specific to the general particularly with regard to understanding what constitutes effective practice in taking action on SDHI and as a way of enabling policy makers to make better use of knowledge within the case studies and as a way of better understanding what works, in what context and why. Case studies are important to evaluators in that they are relatively straightforward to undertake and because those involved in implementing an intervention are usually keen to profile the intervention. A checklist described in this paper will enable policy advisers and evaluators to quickly review a case study and right away see if it contains enough information to assist in the development of policy options for reducing socially determined health inequalities.

  19. All-optical diode actions through a coupled system of Tamm plasmon-polariton and nonlinear cavity mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Yun-Tuan; Zheng, Jing; Yang, Li-Xia; Zhou, Xiang

    2013-08-01

    Light propagation in a coupled system of Tamm plasmon-polariton and nonlinear cavity mode is theoretically investigated through the nonlinear transfer matrix method. It is found that the asymmetric layered structure exhibits both pronounced unidirectionality and high transmission. This leads to all-optical diode actions. Compared with other similar studies, the designed structure is much simple only with seven periods. The unique feature is that the direction of on-off can be reversed depending on the working frequencies. The effect of metal loss is also considered in this study.

  20. Postural and action myoclonus in patients with parkinsonian type multiple system atrophy.

    PubMed

    Salazar, G; Valls-Solé, J; Martí, M J; Chang, H; Tolosa, E S

    2000-01-01

    Patients with a parkinsonian syndrome and features of multisystem atrophy (pMSA) may exhibit abnormal movements of the hands and fingers, which are reported in the literature either as "jerky" tremor or myoclonus. We studied clinically and electrophysiologically these movements in 11 consecutive patients with pMSA. No abnormal movements were observed when the patients were at complete rest, except for a characteristic parkinsonian "pill-rolling" tremor in one patient. Abnormal small-amplitude, nonrhythmic movements involving just one or a few fingers, or more rarely the whole hand, were observed in nine patients when holding a posture or at the beginning of an action. Accelerometric recordings showed small-amplitude irregular oscillations which, contrary to those of patients with tremor, had no predominant peak in the Fast Fourier frequency spectrum analysis. Electromyographic recordings in the forearm and hand muscles showed brief jerks of less than 100 ms duration which were synchronous in antagonist muscles of the forearm and alternated with brief periods of silence. Electrical stimulation of the digital nerves evoked consistent reflex responses in the wrist flexor and extensor muscles at a latency of 55.3+/-4.1 ms (range, 50-63 ms). Routine electroencephalographic (EEG) and somatosensory evoked potentials to median nerve stimulation were normal. Back-averaging of the EEG activity time-locked to the jerks was performed in two patients with no evidence of abnormal cortical activity. Two patients had episodes of transient respiratory failure related to pneumonia. This caused a long-lasting enhancement of the abnormal hand and finger movements, which became larger and more widespread, with features of posthypoxic myoclonus. We conclude that the abnormal hand and finger movements of patients with pMSA are a form of postural and action myoclonus, and can be described as mini-polymyoclonus.

  1. Tetanus toxin mechanism of action in Torpedo electromotor system: a study on different steps in the intoxication process.

    PubMed

    Herreros, J; Blasi, J; Arribas, M; Marsal, J

    1995-03-01

    The mechanism of action of tetanus toxin was characterized in the electromotor system of Torpedo marmorata either at peripheral and central nervous system. The consecutive steps of the intoxication pathway were observed: (i) [125I]tetanus toxin specifically bound to neuronal plasma membranes isolated both from electric organ and electric lobe of Torpedo, exhibiting one and two binding sites respectively; (ii) [125I]tetanus toxin was internalized into nerve terminals and retrogradely transported to the electric lobe after its injection in the electric organ; (iii) finally, intracellular effect of tetanus toxin was studied either at electric organ and electric lobe membrane fractions. In both preparations tetanus toxin cleaved synaptobrevin, as detected by immunoblotting methods. In conclusion, our findings exhibit the presence of two different populations of acceptors for tetanus toxin in central and peripheral nervous system and show that synaptobrevin cleavage may account for intracellular toxicity in Torpedo.

  2. A Systems Biology Approach to Understanding the Mechanisms of Action of Chinese Herbs for Treatment of Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Li, Bohui; Xu, Xue; Wang, Xia; Yu, Hua; Li, Xiuxiu; Tao, Weiyang; Wang, Yonghua; Yang, Ling

    2012-01-01

    Traditional Chinese Medicine (TCM) involves a broad range of empirical testing and refinement and plays an important role in the health maintenance for people all over the world. However, due to the complexity of Chinese herbs, a full understanding of TCM’s action mechanisms is still unavailable despite plenty of successful applications of TCM in the treatment of various diseases, including especially cardiovascular diseases (CVD), one of the leading causes of death. Thus in the present work, by incorporating the chemical predictors, target predictors and network construction approaches, an integrated system of TCM has been constructed to systematically uncover the underlying action mechanisms of TCM. From three representative Chinese herbs, i.e., Ligusticum chuanxiong Hort., Dalbergia odorifera T. Chen and Corydalis yanhusuo WT Wang which have been widely used in CVD treatment, by combinational use of drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME) screening and network pharmacology techniques, we have generated 64 bioactive ingredients and identified 54 protein targets closely associated with CVD, of which 29 are common targets (52.7%) of the three herbs. The result provides new information on the efficiency of the Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD and also explains one of the basic theories of TCM, i.e., “multiple herbal drugs can treat one disease”. The predicted potential targets were then mapped to target-disease and target-signal pathway connections, which revealed the relationships of the active ingredients with their potential targets, diseases and signal systems. This means that for the first time, the action mechanism of these three important Chinese herbs for the treatment of CVD is uncovered, by generating and identifying both their active ingredients and novel targets specifically related to CVD, which clarifies some of the common conceptions in TCM, and thus provides clues to modernize such specific herbal medicines. PMID

  3. Urea's action on the hydrophobic interaction in physical and biophysical systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berne, B. J.

    2009-03-01

    For more than a century, urea has been commonly used as an agent for denaturing proteins. However, the mechanism behind its denaturing power is still not well understood. The mechanism of denaturation of proteins by urea is explored using all-atom microseconds molecular dynamics simulations of hen lysozyme generated on BlueGene/L. Accumulation of urea around lysozyme shows that water molecules are expelled from the first hydration shell of the protein. We observe a two stage penetration of the protein, with urea penetrating the hydrophobic core before water, forming a ``dry globule." The direct dispersion interaction between urea and the protein backbone and sidechains is stronger than for water, which gives rise to the intrusion of urea into the protein interior and also to urea's preferential binding to all regions of the protein. This is augmented by preferential hydrogen bond formation between the urea carbonyl and the backbone amides which contributes to the breaking of intra-backbone hydrogen bonds. Our study supports the ``direct interaction mechanism" whereby urea has a stronger dispersion interaction with protein than water. We also show by molecular dynamics simulations that a 7 M aqueous urea solution unfolds a chain of purely hydrophobic groups which otherwise adopts a compact structure in pure water. The unfolding process arises due to a weakening of hydrophobic interactions between the polymer groups. Again the action of urea is found to be direct, through its preferential binding to the polymer or plates. It is, therefore, acting like a surfactant capable of forming hydrogen bonds with the solvent. The preferential binding and the consequent weakened hydrophobic interactions are driven by enthalpy and are related to the difference in the strength of the attractive dispersion interactions of urea and water with the polymer chain or plate. We also show that the indirect mechanism, in which urea acts as a chaotrope, is not a likely cause of urea

  4. Moving from ideas to action - developing health financing systems towards universal coverage in Africa

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Accelerating progress towards universal coverage in African countries calls for concrete actions that reinforce social health protection through establishment of sustainable health financing mechanisms. In order to explore possible pathways for moving past the existing obstacles, panel discussions were organized on health financing bringing together Ministers of health and Ministers of finance with the objective of creating a discussion space where the different perspectives on key issues and needed actions could meet. This article presents a synthesis of panel discussions focusing on the identified challenges and the possible solutions. The overview of this paper is based on the objectives and proceedings of the panel discussions and relies on the observation and study of the interaction between the panelists and on the discourse used. Summary The discussion highlighted that a large proportion of the African population has no access to needed health services with significant reliance on direct out of pocket payments. There are multiple obstacles in making prepayment and pooling mechanisms operational. The relatively strong political commitment to health has not always translated into more public spending for health. Donor investment in health in low income countries still falls below commitments. There is need to explore innovative domestic revenue collection mechanisms. Although inadequate funding for health is a fundamental problem, inefficient use of resources is of great concern. There is need to generate robust evidence focusing on issues of importance to ministry of finance. The current unsatisfactory state of health financing was mainly attributed to lack of clear vision; evidence based plans and costed strategies. Discussion Based on the analysis of discussion made, there are points of convergence and divergence in the discourse and positions of the two ministries. The current blockage points holding back budget allocations for health can be

  5. Assembly, Tuning, and Transfer of Action Systems in Infants and Robots

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berthouze, Luc; Goldfield, Eugene C.

    2008-01-01

    This paper seeks to foster a discussion on whether experiments with robots can inform theory in infant motor development and specifically (1) how the interactions among the parts of a system, including the nervous and musculoskeletal systems and the forces acting on the body, induce organizational changes in the whole, and (2) how exploratory…

  6. Call to Action: Clarify Application of FERPA to State Longitudinal Data Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2011

    2011-01-01

    Over the last five years, states have made significant progress implementing statewide longitudinal data systems (SLDS) to collect, store, link and share student-level data. States and the many national organizations supporting their efforts recognized that while building and using these indispensable data systems are important for policy,…

  7. Only Self-Generated Actions Create Sensori-Motor Systems in the Developing Brain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Karin Harman; Swain, Shelley N.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research shows that sensory and motor systems interact during perception, but how these connections among systems are created during development is unknown. The current work exposes young children to novel "verbs" and objects through either (a) actively exploring the objects or (b) by seeing an experimenter interact with the objects.…

  8. Corrective Action in Low Performing Schools: Lessons for NCLB Implementation from First-Generation Accountability Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mintrop, Heinrich; Trujillo, Tina

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores what lessons we can learn from the experiences of states that instituted NCLB-like accountability systems prior to 2001 (here called first-generation accountability systems). We looked at the experiences of three smaller states (Kentucky, Maryland, North Carolina), four larger ones (California, Florida, New York, Texas), and…

  9. The Economic, Legal, and Political Systems in Action, #4006. Ninth Grade, Required Semester, Social Studies Curriculum.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Townsend, Kenneth; Webb, Patrick

    This course is designed to provide ninth grade students with a basic understanding of the U.S. political, legal, and economic systems and includes the purpose of government, the need for law within society, the framework of the U.S. legal system, the processes used by the U.S. government and citizens to accomplish goals, and the roles of…

  10. The generalised Zakharov-Shabat system and the gauge group action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grahovski, Georgi G.

    2012-07-01

    The generalized Zakharov-Shabat systems with complex-valued non-regular Cartan elements and the systems studied by Caudrey, Beals, and Coifman (CBC) systems and their gauge equivalent are studied. This study includes: the properties of fundamental analytical solutions for the gauge equivalent to CBC systems and the minimal set of scattering data; the description of the class of nonlinear evolutionary equations, solvable by the inverse scattering method, and the recursion operator, related to such systems; the hierarchies of Hamiltonian structures. The results are illustrated in the example of the multi-component nonlinear Schrödinger equations and the corresponding gauge-equivalent multi-component Heisenberg ferromagnetic type models, related to so(5,{C}) algebra.

  11. Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems in low and middle-income countries: background and introduction.

    PubMed

    Ross, David A; South, Annabelle; Weller, Ian; Hakim, James

    2012-12-01

    Despite the unprecedented scale-up of treatment for HIV in low and middle-income countries over the past decade, 49% of adults and 77% of children in need of HIV treatment still do not have access to it. ART programmes that were initially set up as an emergency response now need to be adapted to ensure that they include all the essential components and are well integrated with other health services; meet the needs of special groups, including children, adolescents, pregnant women and older people; address the mental health needs of HIV-positive people; and monitor as well as report their impact in valid and comparable ways.This supplement is an output from the Evidence for Action on HIV Treatment and Care Systems research programme consortium. Evidence for Action was a 5-year, multidisciplinary research programme, which ran from 2006 to 2011, with partners in India, Malawi, Uganda, Zambia and the United Kingdom.The primary aim of this supplement is to stimulate reflection and provide guidance on what should be in the package of HIV treatment and care systems, as national programmes look to maintain the major advances of the past decade and scale-up treatment to the other 50% of people in need of it.

  12. Bioactive effects of quercetin in the central nervous system: Focusing on the mechanisms of actions.

    PubMed

    Suganthy, Natarajan; Devi, Kasi Pandima; Nabavi, Seyed Fazel; Braidy, Nady; Nabavi, Seyed Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    Quercetin, a ubiquitous flavonoid that is widely distributed in plants is classified as a cognitive enhancer in traditional and oriental medicine. The protective effects of quercetin for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cerebrovascular diseases have been demonstrated in both in vitro and in vivo studies. The free radical scavenging activity of quercetin has been well-documented, wherein quercetin has been observed to exhibit protective effects against oxidative stress mediated neuronal damage by modulating the expression of NRF-2 dependent antioxidant responsive elements, and attenuation of neuroinflammation by suppressing NF-κB signal transducer and activator of transcription-1 (STAT-1). Several in vitro and in vivo studies have also shown that quercetin destabilizes and enhances the clearance of abnormal protein such as beta- amyloid peptide and hyperphosphorlyated tau, the key pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease. Quercetin enhances neurogenesis and neuronal longevity by modulating a broad number of kinase signaling cascades such as phophoinositide 3- kinase (P13-kinase), AKT/PKB tyrosine kinase and Protein kinase C (PKC). Quercetin has also been well reported for its ability to reverse cognitive impairment and memory enhancement during aging. The current review focuses on summarizing the recent findings on the neuroprotective effect of quercetin, its mechanism of action and its possible roles in the prevention of neurological disorders.

  13. GPER: a novel target for non-genomic estrogen action in the cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Han, Guichun; Li, Fen; Yu, Xuan; White, Richard E

    2013-05-01

    A key to harnessing the enormous therapeutic potential of estrogens is understanding the diversity of estrogen receptors and their signaling mechanisms. In addition to the classic nuclear estrogen receptors (i.e., ERα and ERβ), over the past decade a novel G-protein-coupled estrogen receptor (GPER) has been discovered in cancer and other cell types. More recently, this non-genomic signaling mechanism has been found in blood vessels, and mediates vasodilatory responses to estrogen and estrogen-like agents; however, downstream signaling events involved acute estrogen action remain unclear. The purpose of this review is to discuss the latest knowledge concerning GPER modulation of cardiovascular function, with a particular emphasis upon how activation of this receptor could mediate acute estrogen effects in the heart and blood vessels (i.e., vascular tone, cell growth and differentiation, apoptosis, endothelial function, myocardial protection). Understanding the role of GPER in estrogen signaling may help resolve some of the controversies associated with estrogen and cardiovascular function. Moreover, a more thorough understanding of GPER function could also open significant opportunities for the development of new pharmacological strategies that would provide the cardiovascular benefits of estrogen while limiting the potentially dangerous side effects.

  14. Action of Systemic Nematicides in Control of Xiphinema iindex on Grape.

    PubMed

    Hafez, S L; Raski, D J; Lear, B

    1981-01-01

    In greenhouse tests using potted grape plants three nematicides, aldicarb 10 G at 4.5 ai/ha, phenamiphos 15 G at 22 kg ai/ha, and oxamyl liquid at 4.5 kg ai/ha, were tested against Xiphinema index on 'Thompson Seedless' grape. Different timings for chemical treatments and X. index inoculations were used to determine some of the aspects of the mode of action. When nematodes and nematicides were applied simultaneously, nematodes were reduced from the initial 500 to the averages 5, 1, and 4, respectively, for aldicarb, phenamiphos, and oxamyl. Similar counts (respectively, 3, 1, and 2) were obtained when the nematicides were added first and the nematodes 14 d later. Nematode counts were 83, 112, and 1,346 when nematicides were applied first, and 14 days later plants were washed free of soil, repotted in untreated soil, and then inoculated. In untreated controls the population increased to an average of 2,703. Plant growth was inversely related to the level of nematode population resulting from the treatment.

  15. Myostatin from the heart: local and systemic actions in cardiac failure and muscle wasting

    PubMed Central

    Breitbart, Astrid; Auger-Messier, Mannix; Molkentin, Jeffery D.

    2011-01-01

    A significant proportion of heart failure patients develop skeletal muscle wasting and cardiac cachexia, which is associated with a very poor prognosis. Recently, myostatin, a cytokine from the transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) family and a known strong inhibitor of skeletal muscle growth, has been identified as a direct mediator of skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with heart failure. Myostatin is mainly expressed in skeletal muscle, although basal expression is also detectable in heart and adipose tissue. During pathological loading of the heart, the myocardium produces and secretes myostatin into the circulation where it inhibits skeletal muscle growth. Thus, genetic elimination of myostatin from the heart reduces skeletal muscle atrophy in mice with heart failure, whereas transgenic overexpression of myostatin in the heart is capable of inducing muscle wasting. In addition to its endocrine action on skeletal muscle, cardiac myostatin production also modestly inhibits cardiomyocyte growth under certain circumstances, as well as induces cardiac fibrosis and alterations in ventricular function. Interestingly, heart failure patients show elevated myostatin levels in their serum. To therapeutically influence skeletal muscle wasting, direct inhibition of myostatin was shown to positively impact skeletal muscle mass in heart failure, suggesting a promising strategy for the treatment of cardiac cachexia in the future. PMID:21421824

  16. Action of Systemic Nematicides in Control of Xiphinema iindex on Grape

    PubMed Central

    Hafez, S. L.; Raski, D. J.; Lear, B.

    1981-01-01

    In greenhouse tests using potted grape plants three nematicides, aldicarb 10 G at 4.5 ai/ha, phenamiphos 15 G at 22 kg ai/ha, and oxamyl liquid at 4.5 kg ai/ha, were tested against Xiphinema index on 'Thompson Seedless' grape. Different timings for chemical treatments and X. index inoculations were used to determine some of the aspects of the mode of action. When nematodes and nematicides were applied simultaneously, nematodes were reduced from the initial 500 to the averages 5, 1, and 4, respectively, for aldicarb, phenamiphos, and oxamyl. Similar counts (respectively, 3, 1, and 2) were obtained when the nematicides were added first and the nematodes 14 d later. Nematode counts were 83, 112, and 1,346 when nematicides were applied first, and 14 days later plants were washed free of soil, repotted in untreated soil, and then inoculated. In untreated controls the population increased to an average of 2,703. Plant growth was inversely related to the level of nematode population resulting from the treatment. PMID:19300717

  17. [Role of the GABAergic system in the mechanism of the stress-regulating action of phenibut].

    PubMed

    Kovalev, G V; Spasov, A A; Bogachev, N A; Petrianik, V D; Ostrovskiĭ, O V

    1987-11-01

    Disturbances in GABA-ergic inhibitory system were noted upon the exposure of thalamus and hypothalamus of experimental animals to stress of 18 hours and longer duration but not of 3 hours duration. Phenibut (I mg/kg) eliminates the symptoms of GABA-system disturbances revealed upon exposure to stress, decreases the tension of stress reaction and hyperglucocorticoidemia which causes hyperglycemia. In the bodies of intact rats phenibut causes "switching on" of adaptive GABA-system function, which is more physiological than the one appearing on short-term stress.

  18. Chaos in the Beeler-Reuter system for the action potential of ventricular myocardial fibres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jensen, J. H.; Christiansen, P. L.; Scott, A. C.; Skovgaard, O.

    1984-08-01

    The response of the membrane of mammalian ventricular myocardial fibres, described by the Beeler-Reuter differential equation system, is investigated in the case where the system is subjected to sinusoidal stimulation. For some stimulation frequencies the system exhibits periodic behaviour, frequency locked to the driving cycle. For other values of the stimulation frequency we find chaotic responses clearly distinguished by broad band power spectra. The Lyapunov exponents are computed for this case from which the fractal dimension of the corresponding strange attractor can be estimated.

  19. Optomechanical effects of two-level systems in a back-action evading measurement of micro-mechanical motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suh, J.; Weinstein, A. J.; Schwab, K. C.

    2013-07-01

    We show that the two-level systems (TLS) in lithographic superconducting circuits act as a power-dependent dielectric leading to non-linear responses in a parametrically coupled electromechanical system. Driven TLS shift the microwave resonance frequency and modulate the mechanical resonance through the optical spring effect. By pumping with two tones in a back-action evading measurement, these effects produce a mechanical parametric instability which limits single quadrature imprecision to 1.4 xzp. The microwave resonator noise is also consistent to a TLS-noise model. These observations suggest design strategies for minimizing TLS effects to improve ground-state cooling and quantum non-demolition measurements of motion.

  20. A demonstration of the applicability of implementing the enhanced Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) for environmental releases

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G.; Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Strenge, D.L.; Walter, M.B.; Buck, J.W.

    1989-12-01

    The Remedial Action Priority System (RAPS) and the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS) were developed to prioritize problems associated with potential releases of hazardous chemical and radioactive materials in a scientific and objective manner based on limited site information. This report documents the model testing efforts of the RAPS/MEPAS methodology for the atmospheric, surface water, groundwater, and exposure components. Comparisons are given of model outputs with measured data at three sites: the US Department of Energy's Mound facility in Ohio and Hanford facility in Washington, and a chromium-cadmium plating site in New York. The results show that the simulated magnitudes, spacial and temporal trends, and distributions of contaminants corresponded well with the measured data. 25 refs., 86 figs., 26 tabs.

  1. TECHNICAL GUIDANCE DOCUMENT: CONSTRUCTION QUALITY MANAGEMENT FOR REMEDIAL ACTION AND REMEDIAL DESIGN WASTE CONTAINMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This Technical Guidance Document is intended to augment the numerous construction quality control and construction quality assurance (CQC and CQA) documents that are available far materials associated with waste containment systems developed for Superfund site remediation. In ge...

  2. Repeated action of a constant magnetic field on the blood coagulation system in artificially produced anemia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zabrodina, L. V.

    1974-01-01

    Changes are discussed in the coagulatory system of the blood in rabbits under the influence of a constant magnetic field of an intensity of 2500 oersteds against the background of artificially induced anemia. Reversibility of the changes produced and the presence of the adaptational effect are noted. Taking all this into consideration, the changes involving the coagulatory system of the blood which arise under the influence of a constant magnetic field may be considered to have a nerve-reflex nature.

  3. Putting the Power of Configuration in the Hands of the Users

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Al-Shihabi, Mary-Jo; Brown, Mark; Rigolini, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    Goal was to reduce the overall cost of human space flight while maintaining the most demanding standards for safety and mission success. In support of this goal, a project team was chartered to replace 18 legacy Space Shuttle nonconformance processes and systems with one fully integrated system Problem Reporting and Corrective Action (PRACA) processes provide a closed-loop system for the identification, disposition, resolution, closure, and reporting of all Space Shuttle hardware/software problems PRACA processes are integrated throughout the Space Shuttle organizational processes and are critical to assuring a safe and successful program Primary Project Objectives Develop a fully integrated system that provides an automated workflow with electronic signatures Support multiple NASA programs and contracts with a single "system" architecture Define standard processes, implement best practices, and minimize process variations

  4. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 405: Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada(April 2001, Rev. 0) with Record of Technical Change No. 1

    SciTech Connect

    DOE /NV

    2001-04-26

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan contains the U.S. Department of Energy, Nevada Operations Office's (DOE/NV's) approach to collect the data necessary to evaluate corrective action alternatives appropriate for the closure of Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 405, Area 3 Septic Systems, Tonopah Test Range (TTR), under the Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Corrective Action Unit 405 consists of Corrective Action Sites 03-05-002-SW03, 03-05-002-SW04, and 03-05-002-SW07 (also collectively known as: Septic Waste Systems [SWSs] 3, 4, and 7). Located in Area 3 in the northwest section of the TTR, approximately 140 miles northwest of Las Vegas, this location was historically (between 1960 and 1990) used as a research facility with the mission to perform defense-related projects, and whose operations generated sanitary and industrial wastewaters potentially contaminated with COPCs and disposed of in septic tanks and leachfields. Though Septic Waste Systems 3, 4, and 7 were origin ally constructed to receive sanitary sewage, they may have inadvertently received effluent containing potentially hazardous and radiological constituents containing acetone, benzene, ethylbenzene, 4-methyl-2-pentanone, toluene, xylenes, volatile organic compound constituents, phenols, arsenic, barium, lead, mercury, hydrocarbons of oil and grease, and uranium-234, -235, and -238. The Area 3 septic systems were documented in a DOE/NV 1996 report as being included in the septic tank abandonment program conducted by Sandia National Laboratories in 1993; however, this program was not completed and the possibility exists that some of the Area 3 septic tanks may not have been abandoned. Even though all of the SWSs addressed in this CAIP are inactive, geophysical surveys conducted in 1993 were generally inconclusive and did not provide useful data for the purposes of this investigation. The scope of this current investigation, therefore, will be to determine the existence of the identified

  5. Health policy and systems research training: global status and recommendations for action

    PubMed Central

    Tancred, Tara M; Schleiff, Meike; Peters, David H

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objective To investigate the characteristics of health policy and systems research training globally and to identify recommendations for improvement and expansion. Methods We identified institutions offering health policy and systems research training worldwide. In 2014, we recruited participants from identified institutions for an online survey on the characteristics of the institutions and the courses given. Survey findings were explored during in-depth interviews with selected key informants. Findings The study identified several important gaps in health policy and systems research training. There were few courses in central and eastern Europe, the Middle East, North Africa or Latin America. Most (116/152) courses were instructed in English. Institutional support for courses was often lacking and many institutions lacked the critical mass of trained individuals needed to support doctoral and postdoctoral students. There was little consistency between institutions in definitions of the competencies required for health policy and systems research. Collaboration across disciplines to provide the range of methodological perspectives the subject requires was insufficient. Moreover, the lack of alternatives to on-site teaching may preclude certain student audiences such as policy-makers. Conclusion Training in health policy and systems research is important to improve local capacity to conduct quality research in this field. We provide six recommendations to improve the content, accessibility and reach of training. First, create a repository of information on courses. Second, establish networks to support training. Third, define competencies in health policy and systems research. Fourth, encourage multidisciplinary collaboration. Fifth, expand the geographical and language coverage of courses. Finally, consider alternative teaching formats. PMID:27429488

  6. Food Classification Systems Based on Food Processing: Significance and Implications for Policies and Actions: A Systematic Literature Review and Assessment.

    PubMed

    Moubarac, Jean-Claude; Parra, Diana C; Cannon, Geoffrey; Monteiro, Carlos A

    2014-06-01

    This paper is the first to make a systematic review and assessment of the literature that attempts methodically to incorporate food processing into classification of diets. The review identified 1276 papers, of which 110 were screened and 21 studied, derived from five classification systems. This paper analyses and assesses the five systems, one of which has been devised and developed by a research team that includes co-authors of this paper. The quality of the five systems is assessed and scored according to how specific, coherent, clear, comprehensive and workable they are. Their relevance to food, nutrition and health, and their use in various settings, is described. The paper shows that the significance of industrial food processing in shaping global food systems and supplies and thus dietary patterns worldwide, and its role in the pandemic of overweight and obesity, remains overlooked and underestimated. Once food processing is systematically incorporated into food classifications, they will be more useful in assessing and monitoring dietary patterns. Food classification systems that emphasize industrial food processing, and that define and distinguish relevant different types of processing, will improve understanding of how to prevent and control overweight, obesity and related chronic non-communicable diseases, and also malnutrition. They will also be a firmer basis for rational policies and effective actions designed to protect and improve public health at all levels from global to local.

  7. A multidischarge actuator system for power electrohydrodynamic action on the boundary layer of aerohydrodynamic surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleshin, B. S.; Kuryachii, A. P.; Rebrov, I. E.; Khomich, V. Yu.; Chernyshev, S. L.; Yamshchikov, V. A.

    2017-01-01

    We present the results of a study of a new multidischarge actuator system designed for active gas flow control on the basis of a three-electrode circuit with a shielding electrode, in which the role of an accelerating electrode is played by the solid equipotential sheath surface of the wing. The main parameters of the multidischarge actuator system and classical scheme of electrodes are compared—namely, the induced air flow velocity, average integral volume force, average consumed power, and energy efficiency coefficient calculated per unit length of the external electrode.

  8. The economic injury level and the action threshold in stored-product systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Grain stores are ideal systems for forecasting and controlling growth in insect populations, yet they represent food a step closer to human consumption than field crops and therefore particular care should be taken with chemical control. Integrated pest management (IPM) is a highly-regarded approach...

  9. How Research Helped Us to Move from Awareness to Action and Then to Systems Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Armstrong, Patricia; Grant, Jim

    2004-01-01

    How can an organisation move from awareness raising, in the form of natural history poster production, to the development of systems that change organisations? Through close integration of research and practice, the Gould League has achieved this transformation. It began with extensive research into best practice environmental education, going…

  10. Promoting Communication Skills for Information Systems Students in Australian and Portuguese Higher Education: Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Isaias, Pedro; Issa, Tomayess

    2014-01-01

    This paper aims to examine the value of communication skills learning process through various assessments in Information Systems (IS) postgraduate units in Australia and Portugal. Currently, communication skills are indispensable to students in expanding their social networks and their knowledge at university and in the future workplace, since…

  11. Actions of Bisphenol A and Bisphenol S on the Reproductive Neuroendocrine System During Early Development in Zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Wenhui; Zhao, Yali; Yang, Ming; Farajzadeh, Matthew; Pan, Chenyuan; Wayne, Nancy L

    2016-02-01

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a well-known environmental, endocrine-disrupting chemical, and bisphenol S (BPS) has been considered a safer alternative for BPA-free products. The present study aims to evaluate the impact of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system during zebrafish embryonic and larval development and to explore potential mechanisms of action associated with estrogen receptor (ER), thyroid hormone receptor (THR), and enzyme aromatase (AROM) pathways. Environmentally relevant, low levels of BPA exposure during development led to advanced hatching time, increased numbers of GnRH3 neurons in both terminal nerve and hypothalamus, increased expression of reproduction-related genes (kiss1, kiss1r, gnrh3, lhβ, fshβ, and erα), and a marker for synaptic transmission (sv2). Low levels of BPS exposure led to similar effects: increased numbers of hypothalamic GnRH3 neurons and increased expression of kiss1, gnrh3, and erα. Antagonists of ER, THRs, and AROM blocked many of the effects of BPA and BPS on reproduction-related gene expression, providing evidence that those three pathways mediate the actions of BPA and BPS on the reproductive neuroendocrine system. This study demonstrates that alternatives to BPA used in the manufacture of BPA-free products are not necessarily safer. Furthermore, this is the first study to describe the impact of low-level BPA and BPS exposure on the Kiss/Kiss receptor system during development. It is also the first report of multiple cellular pathways (ERα, THRs, and AROM) mediating the effects of BPA and BPS during embryonic development in any species.

  12. Self-action of Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides and formation of light bullets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balakin, A. A.; Mironov, V. A.; Skobelev, S. A.

    2017-01-01

    The self-action of two-dimensional and three-dimensional Bessel wave packets in a system of coupled light guides is considered using the discrete nonlinear Schrödinger equation. The features of the self-action of such wave fields are related to their initial strong spatial inhomogeneity. The numerical simulation shows that for the field amplitude exceeding a critical value, the development of an instability typical of a medium with the cubic nonlinearity is observed. Various regimes are studied: the self-channeling of a wave beam in one light guide at powers not strongly exceeding a critical value, the formation of the "kaleidoscopic" picture of a wave packet during the propagation of higher-power radiation along a stratified medium, the formation of light bullets during competition between self-focusing and modulation instabilities in the case of three-dimensional wave packets, etc. In the problem of laser pulse shortening, the situation is considered when the wave-field stratification in the transverse direction dominates. This process is accompanied by the self-compression of laser pulses in well enough separated light guides. The efficiency of conversion of the initial Bessel field distribution to two flying parallel light bullets is about 50%.

  13. Ventral tegmental area neurons are either excited or inhibited by cocaine’s actions in the peripheral nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Mejías-Aponte, Carlos A.; Kiyatkin, Eugene A.

    2012-01-01

    Cocaine’s multiple pharmacological substrates are ubiquitously present in the peripheral and central nervous system. Thus, upon its administration, cocaine acts in the periphery before directly acting in the brain. We determined whether cocaine alters ventral tegmental area (VTA) neuronal activity via peripheral actions, and whether this precedes its central actions. In urethane-anesthetized rats, we recorded VTA neurons responses to intravenous injections of two cocaine analogs: cocaine-hydrochloride (HCl, 0.25 mg/kg) that readily cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and cocaine-methiodide (MI, 0.33 mg/kg) that does not cross the BBB. Both cocaine analogs produced sustained changes in discharge rates that began 5s after the initiation of a 10s drug infusion. Within the first 90s post-injection the magnitudes of neuronal responsive of both cocaine analogs were comparable, but later in time the effects of cocaine-HCl were stronger and persisted longer than those of cocaine-MI. The proportion of neurons responsive to cocaine-HCl was twice to that of cocaine-MI (74% and 35% respectively). Both analogs also differed in the response onsets. Cocaine-MI rarely evoked responses after 1 min whereas cocaine-HCl continued to evoke responses within 3 min post-injection. VTA neurons were either excited or inhibited by both cocaine analogs. Most units responsive to cocaine-MI, regardless of excitation or inhibition, had electrophysiological characteristics of putative DA neurons. Units inhibited by cocaine-HCl also had characteristic of DA neurons whereas excited neurons had widely varying action potential durations and discharge rates. Cocaine-MI and cocaine-HCl each produced changes in VTA neuron activity under full DA receptor blockade. However, the duration of inhibition was shortened, the number of excitations increased, and they occurred with an earlier onset during DA receptor blockade. These findings indicate that cocaine acts peripherally with a short latency and

  14. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  15. Monitoring studies of slide system under the action of seismic impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, Anton

    2013-04-01

    The immediate detection of landslide activity that is provided by real-time systems can be crucial in saving human lives and protecting property. Traditional field observations, even if taken regularly, cannot detect changes at the moment they occur. Moreover, active landslides can be hazardous to work on, and large movements often occur during storms when visibility is poor. The continuous data provided by remote real-time monitoring permits a better understanding of dynamic landslide behavior that, in turn, enables engineers to create more effective designs to prevent or halt landslides. Monitoring of the coastal zone involves the following block diagram: input - processing -output - feed-back. We feed the input with data on a studied technogenous loading on the coastal zone, and the input presents the analysis of motion of a geological medium and the subsequent forecast of evolution of its lithodynamic characteristics. The submitted report describes a practical system of monitoring for the Central Livadiya Slide System (CLSSC) of the Crimea, which is intended for the diagnostics of a lithodynamic situation in the real-time mode, conducting the data base on heliogenous and lithogenous parameters, and predicting a future state of the slide-containing system. In the system of monitoring of a state of CLSSC, which is realized on a computer, the registered heliogenous parameters include the level of solar activity, changes in temperature and moisture regimes, changes in the character and intensity of precipitations, the wind velocity, etc. In this case, data are introduced into the computer in the manual mode. Lithogenous parameters are presented by a collection of conditions and factors characterizing the mechanism and dynamics of changes in the equilibrium state of slopes of CLSSC. The control over the evolution of lithogenous parameters is realized in the following way: 1. The control over movement of the control points on the surface of active slides is carried

  16. [Modification of bioelectric functions in the nervous system as a result of neurotoxin action].

    PubMed

    Stankiewicz, M; Panek, I; Grajpel, B; Tegowska, E; Kadziela, W; Pelhate, M

    2000-01-01

    Natural neurotoxins are promising molecules in the actual search for the development of alternative pest management since chemical insecticides pose unacceptable risks to the environment and to health. The aim of the article is to describe the application of two electrophysiological methods (double-oil-gap technique used on cockroach isolated giant axon and microelectrode technique used on cockroach neurosecretory DUM cells in situ) to study neurotoxin effects on insect nervous system function.

  17. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Action Needed to Achieve Intended Outcomes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    2015 certification and approval cycle, which was completed before this act was signed into law . bA covered defense business system is any defense...activities and the business rules, laws , regulations, and policies associated with them. According to DOD, its architecture is being developed using an...surveyed reported that the business enterprise architecture was effective in enabling compliance with all applicable laws . However, fewer than 40

  18. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  19. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  20. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Kurland, Sienna C; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Williams, Alex H; Ysasi, Alexandra B; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family.

  1. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: II. Multiple pyrokinins exert similar effects in the lobster stomatogastric nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Kurland, Sienna C.; Qu, Xuan; Parker, Brett O.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Williams, Alex H.; Ysasi, Alexandra B.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Many neuropeptides are members of peptide families, with multiple structurally similar isoforms frequently found even within a single species. This raises the question of whether the individual peptides serve common or distinct functions. In the accompanying paper, we found high isoform specificity in the responses of the lobster (Homarus americanus) cardiac neuromuscular system to members of the pyrokinin peptide family: only one of five crustacean isoforms showed any bioactivity in the cardiac system. Because previous studies in other species had found little isoform specificity in pyrokinin actions, we examined the effects of the same five crustacean pyrokinins on the lobster stomatogastric nervous system (STNS). In contrast to our findings in the cardiac system, the effects of the five pyrokinin isoforms on the STNS were indistinguishable: they all activated or enhanced the gastric mill motor pattern, but did not alter the pyloric pattern. These results, in combination with those from the cardiac ganglion, suggest that members of a peptide family in the same species can be both isoform specific and highly promiscuous in their modulatory capacity. The mechanisms that underlie these differences in specificity have not yet been elucidated; one possible explanation, which has yet to be tested, is the presence and differential distribution of multiple receptors for members of this peptide family. PMID:26206359

  2. An action research protocol to strengthen system-wide inter-professional learning and practice [LP0775514

    PubMed Central

    Braithwaite, Jeffrey; Westbrook, Johanna I; Foxwell, A Ruth; Boyce, Rosalie; Devinney, Timothy; Budge, Marc; Murphy, Karen; Ryall, Mary-Ann; Beutel, Jenny; Vanderheide, Rebecca; Renton, Elizabeth; Travaglia, Joanne; Stone, Judy; Barnard, Amanda; Greenfield, David; Corbett, Angus; Nugus, Peter; Clay-Williams, Robyn

    2007-01-01

    Background Inter-professional learning (IPL) and inter-professional practice (IPP) are thought to be critical determinants of effective care, improved quality and safety and enhanced provider morale, yet few empirical studies have demonstrated this. Whole-of-system research is even less prevalent. We aim to provide a four year, multi-method, multi-collaborator action research program of IPL and IPP in defined, bounded health and education systems located in the Australian Capital Territory (ACT). The project is funded by the Australian Research Council under its industry Linkage Program. Methods/Design The program of research will examine in four inter-related, prospective studies, progress with IPL and IPP across tertiary education providers, professional education, regulatory and registration bodies, the ACT health system's streams of care activities and teams, units and wards of the provider facilities of the ACT health system. One key focus will be on push-pull mechanisms, ie, how the education sector creates student-enabled IPP and the health sector demands IPL-oriented practitioners. The studies will examine four research aims and meet 20 research project objectives in a comprehensive evaluation of ongoing progress with IPL and IPP. Discussion IPP and IPL are said to be cornerstones of health system reforms. We will measure progress across an entire health system and the clinical and professional education systems that feed into it. The value of multi-methods, partnership research and a bi-directional push-pull model of IPL and IPP will be tested. Widespread dissemination of results to practitioners, policymakers, managers and researchers will be a key project goal. PMID:17854507

  3. 30 CFR 57.22237 - Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22237 Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines). If methane reaches...

  4. 30 CFR 57.22237 - Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in...-UNDERGROUND METAL AND NONMETAL MINES Safety Standards for Methane in Metal and Nonmetal Mines Ventilation § 57.22237 Actions at 2.0 to 2.5 percent methane in bleeder systems (I-A and III mines). If methane reaches...

  5. Baratin, a nonamidated neurostimulating neuropeptide, isolated from cockroach brain: distribution and actions in the cockroach and locust nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Nässel, D R; Persson, M G; Muren, J E

    2000-06-26

    During the purification of tachykinin-related peptides from the brain of the cockroach Leucophaea maderae, a few other peptides were collected in adjacent high-performance liquid chromatography fractions. Edman degradation, mass spectrometry, and chemical synthesis revealed that one of these peptides had the sequence DNSQWGGFA. This nonamidated nonapeptide was designated baratin and appears not to be related to any known insect peptide. Baratin was not found to be bioactive in the L. maderae hindgut or oviduct muscle contraction assay. (Both synthetic nonamidated and amidated baratin were tested.) To screen for possible sites of action, we raised a rabbit antiserum to baratin. We found baratin-immunoreactive (BAR-IR) interneurons throughout the cockroach central nervous system. Some prominent brain neuropils were supplied by BAR-IR neuron processes: the central body, the calyx, and lobes of the mushroom bodies, parts of the optic lobe, and the tritocerebral neuropil. Additionally we found BAR-IR neurosecretory cells in the median neurosecretory cell group with processes supplying the storage lobe of the corpora cardiaca. In each of the thoracic and abdominal ganglia processes of BAR-IR projection neurons and local neurons were seen. The baratin antiserum also labeled neurons in the brain of the locust Locusta migratoria, some of which are similar to those of the cockroach. A prominent system of interganglionic BAR-IR processes was found in the locust subesophageal, thoracic, and abdominal ganglia. This was formed by four large projection neurons with cell bodies in the abdominal ganglia A1-2. The processes of these BAR-IR neurons are distributed dorsally and laterally in each of the ventral nerve cord ganglia. When baratin (10(-6)-10(-4) M) was applied to desheathed abdominal ganglia of locusts and cockroaches, we could monitor bursts of action potentials in neurons with axons in the anterior abdominal nerve (nerve 1), but not in the posterior nerve (nerve 2). In

  6. A functional leptin system is essential for sodium tungstate antiobesity action.

    PubMed

    Canals, Ignasi; Carmona, María C; Amigó, Marta; Barbera, Albert; Bortolozzi, Analía; Artigas, Francesc; Gomis, Ramon

    2009-02-01

    Sodium tungstate is a novel agent in the treatment of obesity. In diet-induced obese rats, it is able to reduce body weight gain by increasing energy expenditure. This study evaluated the role of leptin, a key regulator of energy homeostasis, in the tungstate antiobesity effect. Leptin receptor-deficient Zucker fa/fa rats and leptin-deficient ob/ob mice were treated with tungstate. In lean animals, tungstate administration reduced body weight gain and food intake and increased energy expenditure. However, in animals with deficiencies in the leptin system, treatment did not modify these parameters. In ob/ob mice in which leptin deficiency was restored through adipose tissue transplantation, treatment restored the tungstate-induced body weight gain and food intake reduction as well as energy expenditure increase. Furthermore, in animals in which tungstate administration increased energy expenditure, changes in the expression of key genes involved in brown adipose tissue thermogenesis were detected. Finally, the gene expression of the hypothalamic neuropeptides, Npy, Agrp, and Cart, involved in the leptin regulation of energy homeostasis, was also modified by tungstate in a leptin-dependent manner. In summary, the results indicate that the effectiveness of tungstate in reducing body weight gain is completely dependent on a functional leptin system.

  7. Emergency medical systems in low- and middle-income countries: recommendations for action.

    PubMed Central

    Kobusingye, Olive C.; Hyder, Adnan A.; Bishai, David; Hicks, Eduardo Romero; Mock, Charles; Joshipura, Manjul

    2005-01-01

    Emergency medical care is not a luxury for rich countries or rich individuals in poor countries. This paper makes the point that emergency care can make an important contribution to reducing avoidable death and disability in low- and middle-income countries. But emergency care needs to be planned well and supported at all levels--at the national, provincial and community levels--and take into account the entire spectrum of care, from the occurrence of an acute medical event in the community to the provision of appropriate care at the hospital. The mix of personnel, materials, and health-system infrastructure can be tailored to optimize the provision of emergency care in settings with different levels of resource availability. The misconception that emergency care cannot be cost effective in low-income settings is demonstrably inaccurate. Emergencies occur everywhere, and each day they consume resources regardless of whether there are systems capable of achieving good outcomes. With better planning, the ongoing costs of emergency care can result in better outcomes and better cost-effectiveness. Every country and community can and should provide emergency care regardless of their place in the ratings of developmental indices. We make the case for universal access to emergency care and lay out a research agenda to fill the gaps in knowledge in emergency care. PMID:16184282

  8. Sex and Gender in the US Health Surveillance System: A Call to Action

    PubMed Central

    Landers, Stewart J.; Reisner, Sari L.; Sell, Randall L.

    2014-01-01

    Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system. In 2009, we conducted the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance surveys. A promising measure of transgender status emerged through this work. Further research is needed to produce accurate measures of assigned sex at birth and several dimensions of gender to further our understanding of determinants of gender disparities in health and enable strategic responses to address them. PMID:24825193

  9. Systems, methods and apparatus for quiesence of autonomic safety devices with self action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hinchey, Michael G. (Inventor); Sterritt, Roy (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Systems, methods and apparatus are provided through which in some embodiments an autonomic environmental safety device may be quiesced. In at least one embodiment, a method for managing an autonomic safety device, such as a smoke detector, based on functioning state and operating status of the autonomic safety device includes processing received signals from the autonomic safety device to obtain an analysis of the condition of the autonomic safety device, generating one or more stay-awake signals based on the functioning status and the operating state of the autonomic safety device, transmitting the stay-awake signal, transmitting self health/urgency data, and transmitting environment health/urgency data. A quiesce component of an autonomic safety device can render the autonomic safety device inactive for a specific amount of time or until a challenging situation has passed.

  10. Policy, systems, and environmental approaches for obesity prevention: a framework to inform local and state action.

    PubMed

    Lyn, Rodney; Aytur, Semra; Davis, Tobey A; Eyler, Amy A; Evenson, Kelly R; Chriqui, Jamie F; Cradock, Angie L; Goins, Karin Valentine; Litt, Jill; Brownson, Ross C

    2013-01-01

    The public health literature has not fully explored the complexities of the policy process as they relate to public health practice and obesity prevention. We conducted a review of the literature across the policy science and public health fields, distilled key theories of policy making, and developed a framework to inform policy, systems, and environmental change efforts on obesity prevention. Beginning with a conceptual description, we focus on understanding three domains of the policy process: the problem domain, the policy domain, and the political domain. We identify key activities in the policy process including the following: (a) assessing the social and political environment; (b) engaging, educating and collaborating with key individuals and groups; (c) identifying and framing the problem; (d) utilizing available evidence; (e) identifying policy solutions; and (f) building public support and political will. The article provides policy change resources and case studies to guide and support local and state efforts around obesity prevention.

  11. The effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) on the immune system: its molecular mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Palu, Afa K; Kim, Anne Hirazumi; West, Brett J; Deng, Shixin; Jensen, Jarakae; White, Leland

    2008-02-12

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanisms involved in the immunomodulatory effects of Morinda citrifolia L. (noni) in vitro and in vivo in mice. In vitro, Tahitian Noni Juice (TNJ) and Noni fruit juice concentrates (NFJC) (1, 5mg/mL) potently activate cannabinoid 2 (CB2), but inhibit cannabinoid 1 (CB1) receptors in a concentration-dependant manner. In vivo, oral administration of TNJ ad libitum for 16 days decreased the production of IL-4, but increased the production of IFN-gamma. These results suggest that noni modulates the immune system via activating of the CB2 receptors, and suppressing of the IL-4, but increasing the production of IFN-gamma cytokines. It may also exert beneficial immunomodulation effects in conditions involving inadequate immune responses.

  12. Fenitrothion action at the endocannabinoid system leading to spermatotoxicity in Wistar rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, Yuki; Tomizawa, Motohiro; Suzuki, Himiko; Okamura, Ai; Ohtani, Katsumi; Nunome, Mari; Noro, Yuki; Wang, Dong; Nakajima, Tamie; Kamijima, Michihiro

    2014-09-15

    Organophosphate (OP) compounds as anticholinesterase agents may secondarily act on diverse serine hydrolase targets, revealing unfavorable physiological effects including male reproductive toxicity. The present investigation proposes that fenitrothion (FNT, a major OP compound) acts on the endocannabinoid signaling system in male reproductive organs, thereby leading to spermatotoxicity (sperm deformity, underdevelopment, and reduced motility) in rats. FNT oxon (bioactive metabolite of FNT) preferentially inhibited the fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), an endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA) hydrolase, in the rat cellular membrane preparation from the testis in vitro. Subsequently, male Wistar rats were treated orally with 5 or 10 mg/kg FNT for 9 weeks and the subchronic exposure unambiguously deteriorated sperm motility and morphology. The activity-based protein profiling analysis with a phosphonofluoridate fluorescent probe revealed that FAAH was selectively inhibited among the FNT-treated cellular membrane proteome in testis. Intriguingly, testicular AEA (endogenous substrate of FAAH) levels were elevated along with the FAAH inhibition caused by the subchronic exposure. More importantly, linear regression analyses for the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity reveal a good correlation between the testicular FAAH activity and morphological indices or sperm motility. Accordingly, the present study proposes that the FNT-elicited spermatotoxicity appears to be related to inhibition of FAAH leading to overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signaling system, which plays crucial roles in spermatogenesis and sperm motility acquirement. - Highlights: • Subchronic exposure to fenitrothion induces spermatotoxicity in rats. • The fatty acid amide hydrolase is a potential target for the spermatotoxicity. • Overstimulation of the endocannabinoid signal possibly leads to the spermatotoxicity.

  13. Novel and emerging drugs for systemic lupus erythematosus: mechanism of action and therapeutic activity.

    PubMed

    Robak, E; Robak, T

    2012-01-01

    Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune disease characterized by B cell hyperactivity and defective T-cell function, and several cytokine aberrations, with high titer production of autoantibodies and clinical involvement in multiple organ systems. It can present with a wide variety of symptoms, most commonly involving the skin, joints, kidneys, and blood vessels. Patients with mild SLE can be treated with non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and antimalarials. Corticosteroids, azathioprine and cyclophosphamide, remain important for long term management of most patients with active disease. In recent years, significant progress in molecular and cellular biology of SLE has resulted in a better characterization and understanding of the biology and prognosis of this disease. These achievements have provided new opportunities for the development of innovative, more effective, therapies. Novel agents potentially useful in the treatment of patients with SLE include tolerogens, monoclonal antibodies and other agents. Tolerogens are synthetic molecules that can bind and cross-link autoantibodies on reactive B-cell surface, promoting B-cell depletion or inactivity. An anti-DNA antibody based peptide, pCons, might have also therapeutic efficacy in SLE patients who are positive for anti-DNA antibodies. In addition, prasterone, a proprietary synthetic dehydroepiandrosterone product is under investigation for the treatment of SLE. Blockade of TLR9 with specific G-rich DNAoligonucleotids also suppresses lupus activity. Several newer mAbs have been developed and are being evaluated in phase I/II clinical trials. These include newer anti-CD20 mAbs, anti-cytokine therapies, anti-BLys mAbs and anti-C5 mAbs. Most of the new agents which could be potentially useful in the treatment of patients with SLE need further laboratory investigations and clinical trials. In this review, promising new agents, potentially useful in SLE, are presented.

  14. Inhibitory Action of Ethanolic Extract of Seeds of Moringa oleifera Lam. On Systemic and Local Anaphylaxis.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Shailaja G; Mehta, Anita A

    2007-10-01

    The current study characterizes the mechanism by which the seed extract of Moringa oleifera Lam (Moringaceae) decreases the mast cell-mediated immediate type hypersensitivity reaction. The immediate type hypersensitivity reaction is involved in many allergic diseases such as asthma and allergic rhinitis. Moringa oleifera, a shrub widely used in the traditional medicine in India, has been reported to possess anti-cancer, hypotensive, anti-arthritic, and anti-inflammatory activities. In the present study, the effects of the ethanolic extract of seeds of Moringa oleifera (MOEE-herbal remedy) on systemic and local anaphylaxis were investigated. The potential anti-anaphylactic effect of MOEE was studied in a mouse model of Compound 48/80-induced systemic anaphylactic shock. Passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti IgE-antibody was also used to assess the effect of MOEE. In addition, rat peritoneal mast cells (RPMC) were used to investigate the effect of MOEE on histamine release induced by compound 48/80. When administered 1 hr before 48/80 injection, MOEE at doses of 0.001-1.000 g/kg completely inhibited the inducible induced anaphylactic shock. MOEE significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylaxis activated by anti-IgE antibody at a dose of 1 g/kg. When MOEE extract was given as pretreatment at concentrations ranging 0.1-100 mg/ml, the histamine release from the mast cells that was induced by the 48/80 was reduced in a dose-dependent manner. These results suggest a potential role for MOEE as a source of anti-anaphylactic agents for use in allergic disorders.

  15. MaqFACS (Macaque Facial Action Coding System) can be used to document facial movements in Barbary macaques (Macaca sylvanus)

    PubMed Central

    Julle-Danière, Églantine; Whitehouse, Jamie; Joly, Marine; Gass, Carolin; Burrows, Anne M.; Waller, Bridget M.

    2015-01-01

    Human and non-human primates exhibit facial movements or displays to communicate with one another. The evolution of form and function of those displays could be better understood through multispecies comparisons. Anatomically based coding systems (Facial Action Coding Systems: FACS) are developed to enable such comparisons because they are standardized and systematic and aid identification of homologous expressions underpinned by similar muscle contractions. To date, FACS has been developed for humans, and subsequently modified for chimpanzees, rhesus macaques, orangutans, hylobatids, dogs, and cats. Here, we wanted to test whether the MaqFACS system developed in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) could be used to code facial movements in Barbary macaques (M. sylvanus), a species phylogenetically close to the rhesus macaques. The findings show that the facial movement capacity of Barbary macaques can be reliably coded using the MaqFACS. We found differences in use and form of some movements, most likely due to specializations in the communicative repertoire of each species, rather than morphological differences. PMID:26401458

  16. A systems biology strategy to identify molecular mechanisms of action and protein indicators of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yu, Chenggang; Boutté, Angela; Yu, Xueping; Dutta, Bhaskar; Feala, Jacob D; Schmid, Kara; Dave, Jitendra; Tawa, Gregory J; Wallqvist, Anders; Reifman, Jaques

    2015-02-01

    The multifactorial nature of traumatic brain injury (TBI), especially the complex secondary tissue injury involving intertwined networks of molecular pathways that mediate cellular behavior, has confounded attempts to elucidate the pathology underlying the progression of TBI. Here, systems biology strategies are exploited to identify novel molecular mechanisms and protein indicators of brain injury. To this end, we performed a meta-analysis of four distinct high-throughput gene expression studies involving different animal models of TBI. By using canonical pathways and a large human protein-interaction network as a scaffold, we separately overlaid the gene expression data from each study to identify molecular signatures that were conserved across the different studies. At 24 hr after injury, the significantly activated molecular signatures were nonspecific to TBI, whereas the significantly suppressed molecular signatures were specific to the nervous system. In particular, we identified a suppressed subnetwork consisting of 58 highly interacting, coregulated proteins associated with synaptic function. We selected three proteins from this subnetwork, postsynaptic density protein 95, nitric oxide synthase 1, and disrupted in schizophrenia 1, and hypothesized that their abundance would be significantly reduced after TBI. In a penetrating ballistic-like brain injury rat model of severe TBI, Western blot analysis confirmed our hypothesis. In addition, our analysis recovered 12 previously identified protein biomarkers of TBI. The results suggest that systems biology may provide an efficient, high-yield approach to generate testable hypotheses that can be experimentally validated to identify novel mechanisms of action and molecular indicators of TBI.

  17. ACTION. 1977 Annual Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1977. The first section concentrates on reviews conducted, including a major review of ACTION's domestic volunteer programs and the management systems supporting them and an assessment of its programs using the Zero-Base Budget approach called for by…

  18. Action Learning and Leadership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2000-01-01

    Today's leaders perform the following roles: systems thinker, change agent, innovator, servant, polychronic coordinator, teacher-mentor, and visionary. The elements of action learning (real problems, teams, reflective inquiry, commitment to action, focus on learning) contribute to the development of these critical skills. (Author/SK)

  19. Use of after action reports (AARs) to promote organizational and systems learning in emergency preparedness.

    PubMed

    Savoia, Elena; Agboola, Foluso; Biddinger, Paul D

    2012-08-01

    Many public health and healthcare organizations use formal knowledge management practices to identify and disseminate the experiences gained over time. The "lessons-learned" approach is one such example of knowledge management practice applied to the wider concept of organizational learning. In the field of emergency preparedness, the lessons-learned approach stands on the assumption that learning from experience improves practice and minimizes avoidable deaths and negative economic and social consequences of disasters. In this project, we performed a structured review of AARs to analyze how lessons learned from the response to real-incidents may be used to maximize knowledge management and quality improvement practices such as the design of public health emergency preparedness (PHEP) exercises. We chose as a source of data the "Lessons Learned Information Sharing (LLIS.gov)" system, a joined program of the U.S. Department of Homeland Security DHS and FEMA that serves as the national, online repository of lessons learned, best practices, and innovative ideas. We identified recurring challenges reported by various states and local public health agencies in the response to different types of incidents. We also strove to identify the limitations of systematic learning that can be achieved due to existing weaknesses in the way AARs are developed.

  20. Protective actions of melatonin and growth hormone on the aged cardiovascular system.

    PubMed

    Paredes, Sergio D; Forman, Katherine A; García, Cruz; Vara, Elena; Escames, Germaine; Tresguerres, Jesús A F

    2014-05-01

    Epidemiological studies indicate that certain aspects of lifestyle and genetics act as risk factors for a variety of cardiovascular disorders, including coronary disease, hypertension, heart failure and stroke. Aging, however, appears to be the major contributor for morbidity and mortality of the impaired cardiovascular system. Growth hormone (GH) and melatonin seem to prevent cardiac aging, as they contribute to the recovery of several physiological parameters affected by age. These hormones exhibit antioxidant properties and decrease oxidative stress and apoptosis. This paper summarizes a set of studies related to the potential role that therapy with GH and melatonin may play in the protection of the altered cardiac function due to aging, with a focus on experiments performed in our laboratory using the senescence-accelerated mouse as an aging model. In general, we observed significantly increased inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis markers in hearts from senescence-accelerated prone 10-month-old animals compared to 2-month-old controls, while anti-inflammatory and antiapoptotic markers as well as endothelial nitric oxide synthase were decreased. Senescence-accelerated resistant animals showed no significant changes with age. GH or melatonin treatment prevented the age-dependent cardiac alterations observed in the senescence-accelerated prone group. Combined administration of GH plus melatonin reduced the age-related changes in senescence-accelerated prone hearts in an additive fashion that was different to that displayed when administered alone. GH and melatonin may be potential agents for counteracting oxidative stress, apoptosis and inflammation in the aging heart.

  1. Modulatory Action by the Serotonergic System: Behavior and Neurophysiology in Drosophila melanogaster

    PubMed Central

    Majeed, Zana R.; Abdeljaber, Esraa; Soveland, Robin; Cornwell, Kristin; Bankemper, Aubrey; Koch, Felicitas; Cooper, Robin L.

    2016-01-01

    Serotonin modulates various physiological processes and behaviors. This study investigates the role of 5-HT in locomotion and feeding behaviors as well as in modulation of sensory-motor circuits. The 5-HT biosynthesis was dysregulated by feeding Drosophila larvae 5-HT, a 5-HT precursor, or an inhibitor of tryptophan hydroxylase during early stages of development. The effects of feeding fluoxetine, a selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor, during early second instars were also examined. 5-HT receptor subtypes were manipulated using RNA interference mediated knockdown and 5-HT receptor insertional mutations. Moreover, synaptic transmission at 5-HT neurons was blocked or enhanced in both larvae and adult flies. The results demonstrate that disruption of components within the 5-HT system significantly impairs locomotion and feeding behaviors in larvae. Acute activation of 5-HT neurons disrupts normal locomotion activity in adult flies. To determine which 5-HT receptor subtype modulates the evoked sensory-motor activity, pharmacological agents were used. In addition, the activity of 5-HT neurons was enhanced by expressing and activating TrpA1 channels or channelrhodopsin-2 while recording the evoked excitatory postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) in muscle fibers. 5-HT2 receptor activation mediates a modulatory role in a sensory-motor circuit, and the activation of 5-HT neurons can suppress the neural circuit activity, while fluoxetine can significantly decrease the sensory-motor activity. PMID:26989517

  2. Action of the Hsp70 chaperone system observed with single proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nunes, João M.; Mayer-Hartl, Manajit; Hartl, F. Ulrich; Müller, Daniel J.

    2015-02-01

    In Escherichia coli, the binding of non-native protein substrates to the Hsp70 chaperone DnaK is mediated by the co-chaperone DnaJ. DnaJ accelerates ATP hydrolysis on DnaK, by closing the peptide-binding cleft of DnaK. GrpE catalysed nucleotide exchange and ATP re-binding then lead to substrate release from DnaK, allowing folding. Here we refold immunoglobulin 27 (I27) to better understand how DnaJ-DnaK-GrpE chaperones cooperate. When DnaJ is present, I27 is less likely to misfold and more likely to fold, whereas the unfolded state remains unaffected. Thus, the ‘holdase’ DnaJ shows foldase behaviour. Misfolding of I27 is fully abrogated when DnaJ cooperates with DnaK, which stabilizes the unfolded state and increases the probability of folding. Addition of GrpE shifts the unfolded fraction of I27 to pre-chaperone levels. These insights reveal synergistic mechanisms within the evolutionary highly conserved Hsp70 system that prevent substrates from misfolding and promote their productive transition to the native state.

  3. Social coordination in toddler's word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pereira, Alfredo; Smith, Linda; Yu, Chen

    2008-06-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants' body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M=18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner's hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child's learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed.

  4. Social coordination in toddler’s word learning: interacting systems of perception and action

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Alfredo F.; Smith, Linda B.; Yu, Chen

    2010-01-01

    We measured turn-taking in terms of hand and head movements and asked if the global rhythm of the participants’ body activity relates to word learning. Six dyads composed of parents and toddlers (M = 18 months) interacted in a tabletop task wearing motion-tracking sensors on their hands and head. Parents were instructed to teach the labels of 10 novel objects and the child was later tested on a name-comprehension task. Using dynamic time warping, we compared the motion data of all body-part pairs, within and between partners. For every dyad, we also computed an overall measure of the quality of the interaction, that takes into consideration the state of interaction when the parent uttered an object label and the overall smoothness of the turn-taking. The overall interaction quality measure was correlated with the total number of words learned. In particular, head movements were inversely related to other partner’s hand movements, and the degree of bodily coupling of parent and toddler predicted the words that children learned during the interaction. The implications of joint body dynamics to understanding joint coordination of activity in a social interaction, its scaffolding effect on the child’s learning and its use in the development of artificial systems are discussed. PMID:20953274

  5. Tooth bleaching using three laser systems, halogen-light unit, and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Housova, Devana; Sulc, Jan; Nemec, Michal; Koranda, Petr; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Shi, Yi-Wei; Matsuura, Yuji

    2004-09-01

    μThe study describes the preclinical experience with laser-activated bleaching agent for discolored teeth. Extracted human upper central incisors were selected, and in the bleaching experiment 35% hydrogen peroxide was used. Three various laser systems and halogen-light unit for activation of the bleaching agent were applied. They were Alexandrite laser (wavelength 750 nm and 375 nm - SHG), Nd:YAG laser (wavelength 1.064 m), and Er:YAG laser (wavelength 2.94 μm). The halogen-light unit was used in a standard regime. The enamel surface was analyzed in the scanning electron microscope. The method of chemical oxidation results in a 2-3 shade change in one treatment. The halogen-light units produced the same effect with shorter time of bleaching process (from 630 s to 300 s). The Alexandrite laser (750 nm) and bleaching agent helped to reach the desired color shade after a shorter time (400 s). Alexandrite laser (375 nm) and Nd:YAG laser had no effect on the longevity of the process of bleaching. Overheating of the chemical bleaching agent was visible after Er:YAG laser activation (195 s). Slight surface modification after bleaching process was detected in SEM.

  6. Mechanism of action of moderate-intensity static magnetic fields on biological systems.

    PubMed

    Rosen, Arthur D

    2003-01-01

    There is substantial evidence indicating that moderate-intensity static magnetic fields (SMF) are capable of influencing a number of biological systems, particularly those whose function is closely linked to the properties of membrane channels. Most of the reported moderate SMF effects may be explained on the basis of alterations in membrane calcium ion flux. The mechanism suggested to explain these effects is based on the diamagnetic anisitropic properties of membrane phospholipids. It is proposed that reorientation of these molecules during moderate SMF exposure will result in the deformation of imbedded ion channels, thereby altering their activation kinetics. Channel inactivation would not be expected to be influenced by these fields because this mechanism is not located within the intramembraneous portion of the channel. Patch-clamp studies of calcium channels have provided support for this hypothesis, as well as demonstrating a temperature dependency that is understandable on the basis of the membrane thermotropic phase transition. Additional studies have demonstrated that sodium channels are similarly affected by SMFs, although to a lesser degree. These findings support the view that moderate SMF effects on biological membranes represent a general phenomenon, with some channels being more susceptible than others to membrane deformation.

  7. Application of the luciferin-luciferase enzyme system for determination of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) to studies on the mechanisms of herbicide action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.john, J. B.

    1975-01-01

    The luciferin-luciferase enzyme system for determination of ATP is valuable for studies on the mechanisms of herbicide action. Investigations using this system have shown that certain herbicides may act by interfering with ATP production or by blocking ATP use, or by both mechanisms.

  8. Mechanism of action of diabetogenic zinc-chelating agents. Model system studies.

    PubMed

    Epand, R M; Stafford, A R; Tyers, M; Nieboer, E

    1985-03-01

    Using model systems, we have studied the properties of a number of zinc-chelating agents which are known to cause diabetes in laboratory animals. The abilities to permeate membranes and to complex zinc inside liposomes with the release of protons are suggested as chemical properties that can enhance diabetogenicity. When such complexing agents are added to lipid vesicles at pH 6 containing entrapped zinc ions, they acidify the contents of these vesicles. We have demonstrated this effect by measuring intravesicular pH both with a fluorine-containing F NMR probe as well as with the fluorescent probe, quinine. For example, using quinine, we observed that 0.1 mM 8-hydroxyquinoline reduced the intravesicular pH of sonicated phospholipid vesicles containing entrapped Zn2+ (as sulfate) from pH 6.0 to 2.8. These diabetogenic chelating agents also solubilized zinc-insulin precipitates from unbuffered suspensions at pH 6.0. The solubilization results from the acidification of these suspensions. Dithizone and 8-hydroxyquinoline at 4 mM solubilized 97 and 42%, respectively, of the suspended insulin. We suggest that if such proton release occurs within the zinc-containing insulin storage granules of pancreatic beta-cells, solubilization of insulin would be induced. Such an event would lead to osmotic stress and eventually to rupture of the granule. The effects of diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC), an agent that has been found to protect rabbits against the induction of diabetes by some other zinc-chelating agents, were also studied. DDC caused a decrease of 3.5 units in the intravesicular pH of zinc-containing vesicles by a mechanism not involving the release of protons upon chelation of zinc. We have demonstrated several properties of DDC which may contribute to its ability to protect against the induction of diabetes. These include its ability to store zinc as a hydrophobic complex in membranes, its consumption of protons upon spontaneous decomposition, and the ability of one of

  9. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Federal Actions Needed to Ensure Safety and Expand Their Potential Uses Within the National Airspace System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    Unmanned Aircraft Systems Figure 6: Forecast of Civil UASs Produced, 2008 through 2017 23 Figure 7: Applications for Certificates...useful in this study because it could operate above the extreme heat and toxic gases and solids emitted by the volcano . Figure 3: CBP’s Predator B UAS...agencies had contacted the agency to discuss potential use of UASs. An industry forecast of UAS growth from 2008 to 2017 predicts that interest among

  10. Attack of the nervous system by Clostridium perfringens Epsilon toxin: from disease to mode of action on neural cells.

    PubMed

    Wioland, Laetitia; Dupont, Jean-Luc; Bossu, Jean-Louis; Popoff, Michel R; Poulain, Bernard

    2013-12-01

    Epsilon toxin (ET), produced by Clostridium perfringens types B and D, ranks among the four most potent poisonous substances known so far. ET-intoxication is responsible for enterotoxaemia in animals, mainly sheep and goats. This disease comprises several manifestations indicating the attack of the nervous system. This review aims to summarize the effects of ET on central nervous system. ET binds to endothelial cells of brain capillary vessels before passing through the blood-brain barrier. Therefore, it induces perivascular oedema and accumulates into brain. ET binding to different brain structures and to different component in the brain indicates regional susceptibility to the toxin. Histological examination has revealed nerve tissue and cellular lesions, which may be directly or indirectly caused by ET. The naturally occurring disease caused by ET-intoxication can be reproduced experimentally in rodents. In mice and rats, ET recognizes receptor at the surface of different neural cell types, including certain neurons (e.g. the granule cells in cerebellum) as well as oligodendrocytes, which are the glial cells responsible for the axons myelination. Moreover, ET induces release of glutamate and other transmitters, leading to firing of neural network. The precise mode of action of ET on neural cells remains to be determined.

  11. Role of neurons and glia in the CNS actions of the renin-angiotensin system in cardiovascular control.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, Annette D; Liu, Meng; Rodríguez, Vermalí; Krause, Eric G; Sumners, Colin

    2015-09-01

    Despite tremendous research efforts, hypertension remains an epidemic health concern, leading often to the development of cardiovascular disease. It is well established that in many instances, the brain plays an important role in the onset and progression of hypertension via activation of the sympathetic nervous system. Further, the activity of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and of glial cell-mediated proinflammatory processes have independently been linked to this neural control and are, as a consequence, both attractive targets for the development of antihypertensive therapeutics. Although it is clear that the predominant effector peptide of the RAS, ANG II, activates its type-1 receptor on neurons to mediate some of its hypertensive actions, additional nuances of this brain RAS control of blood pressure are constantly being uncovered. One of these complexities is that the RAS is now thought to impact cardiovascular control, in part, via facilitating a glial cell-dependent proinflammatory milieu within cardiovascular control centers. Another complexity is that the newly characterized antihypertensive limbs of the RAS are now recognized to, in many cases, antagonize the prohypertensive ANG II type 1 receptor (AT1R)-mediated effects. That being said, the mechanism by which the RAS, glia, and neurons interact to regulate blood pressure is an active area of ongoing research. Here, we review the current understanding of these interactions and present a hypothetical model of how these exchanges may ultimately regulate cardiovascular function.

  12. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values.

  13. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  14. Integrating Actionable User-defined Faceted Rules into the Hybrid Science Data System for Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manipon, G. J. M.; Hua, H.; Owen, S. E.; Sacco, G. F.; Agram, P. S.; Moore, A. W.; Yun, S. H.; Fielding, E. J.; Lundgren, P.; Rosen, P. A.; Webb, F.; Liu, Z.; Smith, A. T.; Wilson, B. D.; Simons, M.; Poland, M. P.; Cervelli, P. F.

    2014-12-01

    The Hybrid Science Data System (HySDS) scalably powers the ingestion, metadata extraction, cataloging, high-volume data processing, and publication of the geodetic data products for the Advanced Rapid Imaging & Analysis for Monitoring Hazard (ARIA-MH) project at JPL. HySDS uses a heterogeneous set of worker nodes from private & public clouds as well as virtual & bare-metal machines to perform every aspect of the traditional science data system. For our science data users, the forefront of HySDS is the facet search interface, FacetView, which allows them to browse, filter, and access the published products. Users are able to explore the collection of product metadata information and apply multiple filters to constrain the result set down to their particular interests. It allows them to download these faceted products for further analysis and generation of derived products. However, we have also employed a novel approach to faceting where it is also used to apply constraints for custom monitoring of products, system resources, and triggers for automated data processing. The power of the facet search interface is well documented across various domains and its usefulness is rooted in the current state of existence of metadata. However, user needs usually extend beyond what is currently present in the data system. A user interested in synthetic aperture radar (SAR) data over Kilauea will download them from FacetView but would also want email notification of future incoming scenes. The user may even want that data pushed to a remote workstation for automated processing. Better still, these future products could trigger HySDS to run the user's analysis on its array of worker nodes, on behalf of the user, and ingest the resulting derived products. We will present our findings in integrating an ancillary, user-defined, system-driven processing system for HySDS that allows users to define faceted rules based on facet constraints and triggers actions when new SAR data

  15. Synergistic action of gravity and temperature on the motor system within the lifespan: a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Meigal, Alexander Yu

    2013-03-01

    Here we describe GATO (gravity, age, thermoregulation, and oxygenation) hypothesis (or a "Baby Astronaut" hypothesis) which we suggest to explain synergistic effect of these factors on the motor system. Taken separately, microgravity (in spaceflight, G~0), the early age, heat and hypoxia exert identical effect on the motor system. We posit that synergy of these factors originate from their synchronicity during intrauterine immersion (analog microgravity) of the fetus in warm hypoxic condition. We further postulate three successive motor adaptive strategies, driven lifelong by gravity as the key factor. The first by age, fetal/microgravity (FM)-strategy, induced by the intrauterine immersion of the fetus, is based on domination of fast type muscle fibers. After birth, thought to be analog for landing from orbit, newborn is subjected to combined influence of cooler ambient temperature, normoxia, and 1G Earth gravity, which cooperatively form a slower GE-strategy. Eventually, healthy ageing results in further domination of slow type muscle fibers that forms the slowest (SL)-strategy. Our hypothesis implies that specific sensory conditions may substitute for each other owing to their synergistic action on the motor system. According to GATO hypothesis heating and hypoxia may be considered as "pro-microgravity" factors, while cold and hyperoxia - as "pro-gravity" ones. As such, cold may act as a partial "surrogate" for gravity, estimated as ~0.2G. That may have potential to elaborate countermeasures for muscle atrophy in astronauts either on-board in long-term spaceflight or for post-flight rehabilitation. Based on GATO hypothesis, predictions on muscle remodeling caused by illumination, sound/noise, and gravidity are discussed.

  16. Rethinking Actions: Implementation and Association

    PubMed Central

    Chatterjee, Anjan

    2015-01-01

    Action processing allows us to move through and interact with the world, as well as understand the movements performed by other people. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in the semantics of actions as differentiated from the semantics of objects. However, as the understanding of action semantics has evolved, it is evident that the existing literature conflates two senses of the word “action”—one that stems from studies of tool use and the other from event representation. In this paper, we suggest that this issue can be clarified by closely examining differences in how the human parietal and temporal cortices of the brain process action-related stimuli. By contrasting the posterior parietal cortex to the posterolateral temporal cortex, we characterize two complementary action systems in the human brain, each with its own specialization of function. We suggest that these two systems be referred to as the parietal Action Implementation System, and the posterolateral temporal Action Association System. While the fronto-parietal system is concerned primarily with how we perform actions, and simulate others’ actions, the temporal action system is more involved with processing actions from a third-person, conceptual standpoint. Recent work in cognitive neuroscience of perception and language, as well as the neuroanatomical organization of these brain regions support this distinction. We will discuss the implications of this work for cognition-, language-, and neuroscience-based action research. PMID:26352170

  17. Auto Action Learning: a tool for policy change. Building capacity across the developing regional system to improve health in the North East of England.

    PubMed

    Learmonth, Alyson; Pedler, Mike

    2004-05-01

    Health policy traditionally has tended to focus on health care policy. The World Health Organisation Investment for Health approach aims to influence policy development by locating health as both the outcome of, and an asset for, sustainable economic and social development. The policy context in England offers a range of drivers and opportunities to operationalise the Investment for Health approach through action to improve health and reduce inequalities, nationally and as importantly at a regional and local level. This paper traces developments in the North East of England April 2002-November 2002, from the perspective of an advocate for developing a systemic and systematic approach using an Investment for Health approach. The tool used to track change is based in action learning [M. Pedler, Action Learning for Managers, Lemos and Crane, London, 1996]. The Action Learning Problem Brief identifies why the goal is important, who to, how progress might be identified, difficulties and benefits. Generally, this acts as a starting point for problem solving within an Action Learning Set. This piece of work uses the framework for reflection and tracking, with input from a mentor, at four to eight weekly intervals, 'Auto Action Learning'. The authors pull out key learning points from the process, using a framework 'Towards a model for systematic learning from doing in the North East of England'.

  18. Corrective Action Investigation Plan for Corrective Action Unit 500: Test Cell A Septic System, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, DOE/NV--528 UPDATED WITH TECHNICAL CHANGE No.1

    SciTech Connect

    ITLV

    1998-12-01

    This Corrective Action Investigation Plan (CAIP) addresses one of three leachfield systems associated with Test Cell A, which is located in Area 25 at the Nevada Test Site (NTS). The NTS is approximately 105 kilometers (km) (65 miles [mi]) northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 1-1). Corrective Action Unit 500 is comprised of the Test Cell A Septic System (CAS 25-04-05) and the associated leachfield system presented in Figure 1-1 (FFACO, 1996). The leachfield is located 60 meters (m) (200 feet [ft]) southeast of the Building 3124 gate, and approximately 45 m (150 ft) southwest of Building 3116 at Test Cell A. Test Cell A operated during the 1960s to support nuclear rocket reactor testing as part of the Nuclear Rocket Development Station (NRDS) (SNPO, 1970). Various operations within Buildings 3113B (Mechanical Equipment Room), 3115 (Helium Compressor Station), 3116 (Pump House), a water tank drain and overflow, a ''yard and equipment drain system'' outside of Building 3116, and a trailer have resulted in potentially hazardous effluent releases to the leachfield system (DOE, 1988a). The leachfield system components include discharge lines, manways, a septic tank, an outfall line, a diversion chamber, and a 15 by 30 m (50 by 100 ft) leachfield (see Leachfield Work Plan Figure 3-1 for explanation of terminology). In addition, engineering drawings show an outfall system that may or may not be connected to the CAU 500 leachfield. In general, effluent contributed to the leachfield was sanitary wastewater associated with floor drains, toilet and lavatory facilities in Building 3113B and floor drains in the remaining source buildings. The surface and subsurface soils in the vicinity of the collection system, outfall, and leachfield may have been impacted by effluent containing contaminants of potential concern (COPCs) generated by support activities associated with Test Cell A reactor testing operations.

  19. The motor system resonates to the distal goal of observed actions: testing the inverse pliers paradigm in an ecological setting.

    PubMed

    Cattaneo, Luigi; Maule, Francesca; Barchiesi, Guido; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2013-11-01

    Does motor mirroring in humans reflect the observed movements or the goal of the observed motor acts? Tools that dissociate the agent/object dynamics from the movements of the body parts used to operate them provide a model for testing resonance to both movements and goals. Here, we describe the temporal relationship of the observer's motor excitability, assessed with transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), with the observed goal-directed tool actions, in an ecological setting. Motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to TMS were recorded from the opponens pollicis (OP, thumb flexor) and the extensor indicis proprius (EIP, index extensor) muscles of participants while they observed a person moving several small objects with a pair of normal pliers (closed by finger flexion) or reverse pliers (opened by finger flexion). The MEPs were a significant predictor of the pliers' kinematics that occurred in a variable time interval between -400 and +300 ms from TMS. Whatever pliers' type was being observed, OP MEPs correlated positively and EIP MEPs correlated negatively with the velocity of pliers' tips closure. This datum was confirmed both at individual and at a group level. Motor simulation can be demonstrated in single observers in a "real-life" ecological setting. The relation of motor resonance to the tool type shows that the observer's motor system codes the distal goal of the observed acts (i.e., grasping and releasing objects) in terms of its own motor vocabulary, irrespective of the actual finger movements that were performed by the observed actor.

  20. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    PubMed

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production.

  1. Action Identity in Style Simulation Systems: Do Players Consider Machine-Generated Music As of Their Own Style?

    PubMed Central

    Khatchatourov, Armen; Pachet, François; Rowe, Victoria

    2016-01-01

    The generation of musical material in a given style has been the subject of many studies with the increased sophistication of artificial intelligence models of musical style. In this paper we address a question of primary importance for artificial intelligence and music psychology: can such systems generate music that users indeed consider as corresponding to their own style? We address this question through an experiment involving both performance and recognition tasks with musically naïve school-age children. We asked 56 children to perform a free-form improvisation from which two kinds of music excerpt were created. One was a mere recording of original performances. The other was created by a software program designed to simulate the participants' style, based on their original performances. Two hours after the performance task, the children completed the recognition task in two conditions, one with the original excerpts and one with machine-generated music. Results indicate that the success rate is practically equivalent in two conditions: children tended to make correct attribution of the excerpts to themselves or to others, whether the music was human-produced or machine-generated (mean accuracy = 0.75 and = 0.71, respectively). We discuss this equivalence in accuracy for machine-generated and human produced music in the light of the literature on memory effects and action identity which addresses the recognition of one's own production. PMID:27199788

  2. Mechanisms of crosstalk between endocrine systems: regulation of sex steroid hormone synthesis and action by thyroid hormones.

    PubMed

    Duarte-Guterman, Paula; Navarro-Martín, Laia; Trudeau, Vance L

    2014-07-01

    Thyroid hormones (THs) are well-known regulators of development and metabolism in vertebrates. There is increasing evidence that THs are also involved in gonadal differentiation and reproductive function. Changes in TH status affect sex ratios in developing fish and frogs and reproduction (e.g., fertility), hormone levels, and gonad morphology in adults of species of different vertebrates. In this review, we have summarized and compared the evidence for cross-talk between the steroid hormone and thyroid axes and present a comparative model. We gave special attention to TH regulation of sex steroid synthesis and action in both the brain and gonad, since these are important for gonad development and brain sexual differentiation and have been studied in many species. We also reviewed research showing that there is a TH system, including receptors and enzymes, in the brains and gonads in developing and adult vertebrates. Our analysis shows that THs influences sex steroid hormone synthesis in vertebrates, ranging from fish to pigs. This concept of crosstalk and conserved hormone interaction has implications for our understanding of the role of THs in reproduction, and how these processes may be dysregulated by environmental endocrine disruptors.

  3. Microparticles generated by decompression stress cause central nervous system injury manifested as neurohypophysial terminal action potential broadening.

    PubMed

    Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M; Milovanova, Tatyana N; Bhopale, Veena M; Thom, Stephen R

    2013-11-01

    The study goal was to use membrane voltage changes during neurohypophysial action potential (AP) propagation as an index of nerve function to evaluate the role that circulating microparticles (MPs) play in causing central nervous system injury in response to decompression stress in a murine model. Mice studied 1 h following decompression from 790 kPa air pressure for 2 h exhibit a 45% broadening of the neurohypophysial AP. Broadening did not occur if mice were injected with the MP lytic agent polyethylene glycol telomere B immediately after decompression, were rendered thrombocytopenic, or were treated with an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase-2 (iNOS) prior to decompression, or in knockout (KO) mice lacking myeloperoxidase or iNOS. If MPs were harvested from control (no decompression) mice and injected into naive mice, no AP broadening occurred, but AP broadening was observed with injections of equal numbers of MPs from either wild-type or iNOS KO mice subjected to decompression stress. Although not required for AP broadening, MPs from decompressed mice, but not control mice, exhibit NADPH oxidase activation. We conclude that inherent differences in MPs from decompressed mice, rather than elevated MPs numbers, mediate neurological injury and that a component of the perivascular response to MPs involves iNOS. Additional study is needed to determine the mechanism of AP broadening and also mechanisms for MP generation associated with exposure to elevated gas pressure.

  4. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, Patsy S; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A; Christie, Andrew E

    2015-09-01

    Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific.

  5. Pharmacological studies of o-chloro-alpha-[(tert.-butylamino)methyl]benzylalcohol hydrochloride (C-78), a new bronchodilator. III. Actions on the nervous systems and miscellaneous organs.

    PubMed

    Uesaka, I; Kubo, S; Matsubara, I; Kasé, Y

    1977-07-01

    Pharmacological effects of o-chloro-alpha-[(tert.-butylamino)methyl]benzylalcohol hydrochloride (C-78) on the nervous systems and miscellaneous organs were studied. 1. Through a low dosage of C-78 had little influence on the central nervous system, a high dosage of C-78 had a little slow-waving effect on the spontaneous EEG in rabbits, inhibitory action of the convulsion caused by pentetrazol or electroshock in mice and anti-pyrogenic action in rabbits. C-78 also dose-dependently inhibited the increase of motility caused by amphetamine in mice. 2. Only high concentrations of C78 had a local anesthetic action on the cornea and the skin of the back in guinea pigs. 3. C-78 significantly increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose contents of blood in rabbits, but these actions were inhibited by propranolol. Another, high dosage of C-78 had anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory action. From the results of the previous experiments and this study, it was concluded that C-78 is a new beta 2-receptor stimulating drug where beta 2-receptor selectivity is greater than that of isoproterenol, salbutamol and clorprenaline.

  6. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention.

  7. Distinct or shared actions of peptide family isoforms: I. Peptide-specific actions of pyrokinins in the lobster cardiac neuromuscular system

    PubMed Central

    Dickinson, Patsy S.; Sreekrishnan, Anirudh; Kwiatkowski, Molly A.; Christie, Andrew E.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although the crustacean heart is modulated by a large number of peptides and amines, few of these molecules have been localized to the cardiac ganglion itself; most appear to reach the cardiac ganglion only by hormonal routes. Immunohistochemistry in the American lobster Homarus americanus indicates that pyrokinins are present not only in neuroendocrine organs (pericardial organ and sinus gland), but also in the cardiac ganglion itself, where pyrokinin-positive terminals were found in the pacemaker cell region, as well as surrounding the motor neurons. Surprisingly, the single pyrokinin peptide identified from H. americanus, FSPRLamide, which consists solely of the conserved FXPRLamide residues that characterize pyrokinins, did not alter the activity of the cardiac neuromuscular system. However, a pyrokinin from the shrimp Litopenaeus vannamei [ADFAFNPRLamide, also known as Penaeus vannamei pyrokinin 2 (PevPK2)] increased both the frequency and amplitude of heart contractions when perfused through the isolated whole heart. None of the other crustacean pyrokinins tested (another from L. vannamei and two from the crab Cancer borealis) had any effect on the lobster heart. Similarly, altering the PevPK2 sequence either by truncation or by the substitution of single amino acids resulted in much lower or no activity in all cases; only the conservative substitution of serine for alanine at position 1 resulted in any activity on the heart. Thus, in contrast to other systems (cockroach and crab) in which all tested pyrokinins elicit similar bioactivities, activation of the pyrokinin receptor in the lobster heart appears to be highly isoform specific. PMID:26206360

  8. Time to shift from systems thinking-talking to systems thinking-action: Comment on "Constraints to applying systems thinking concepts in health systems: A regional perspective from surveying stakeholders in Eastern Mediterranean countries".

    PubMed

    Holmes, Bev J; Noel, Kevin

    2015-04-01

    A recent International Journal of Health Policy and Management (IJHPM) article by Fadi El-Jardali and colleagues makes an important contribution to the literature on health system strengthening by reporting on a survey of healthcare stakeholders in Low- and Middle-Income Countries (LMICs) about Systems Thinking (ST). The study's main contributions are its confirmation that healthcare stakeholders understand the importance of ST but do not know how to act on that understanding, and the call for collective action by the global community of systems thinkers committed to healthcare improvement. We offer three basic considerations for next steps by this community, derived from our recent work in ST and the related field of Knowledge Translation (KT): resist the temptation to adopt a reductionist approach; recognize not everyone needs to understand ST; and do not wait for everything to be in place before getting started.

  9. The Picard–Fuchs equations for complete hyperelliptic integrals of even order curves, and the actions of the generalized Neumann system

    SciTech Connect

    Fedorov, Yuri E-mail: Chara.Pantazi@upc.edu; Pantazi, Chara E-mail: Chara.Pantazi@upc.edu

    2014-03-15

    We consider a family of genus 2 hyperelliptic curves of even order and obtain explicitly the systems of 5 linear ordinary differential equations for periods of the corresponding Abelian integrals of first, second, and third kind, as functions of some parameters of the curves. The systems can be regarded as extensions of the well-studied Picard–Fuchs equations for periods of complete integrals of first and second kind on odd hyperelliptic curves. The periods we consider are linear combinations of the action variables of several integrable systems, in particular the generalized Neumann system with polynomial separable potentials. Thus the solutions of the extended Picard–Fuchs equations can be used to study various properties of the actions.

  10. The system-stabilizing role of identity management strategies: social creativity can undermine collective action for social change.

    PubMed

    Becker, Julia C

    2012-10-01

    Three studies were conducted to examine whether, in an event of negative distinctiveness, engaging in 1 of the 3 identity management strategies of social creativity can undermine group member's intentions to engage in collective action. Study 1a (N = 55) and Study 1b (N = 58) illustrated that selecting a new (complementary) comparison dimension undermined middle-class people's and women's intention to participate in collective action. Study 1c (N = 74) and Study 1d (N = 126) revealed that a downward comparison undermined collective action intentions among unemployed people and women. Study 1e (N = 69) and Study 1f (N = 110) showed that a positive redefinition of an externally imposed negative group attribute did not diminish collective action intentions among immigrants and women. Study 2 (N = 99) illustrated that an alternative operationalization of revaluation of the attribute, namely, downplaying the status-defining attribute, undermined collective action among students. Study 2 and Study 3 (N = 95) consistently illustrated that reduced levels of group-relative deprivation mediated the negative relation between the social creativity strategies and collective action intentions. Implications for social change are discussed.

  11. Spacelike brane actions.

    PubMed

    Hashimoto, Koji; Ho, Pei-Ming; Wang, John E

    2003-04-11

    We derive effective actions for "spacelike branes" (S-branes) and find a solution describing the formation of fundamental strings in the rolling tachyon background. The S-brane action is a Dirac-Born-Infeld action for Euclidean world volumes defined in the context of time-dependent tachyon condensation of non-BPS (Bogomol'nyi-Prasad-Sommerfield) branes. It includes gauge fields and, in particular, a scalar field associated with translation along the time direction. We show that the BIon spike solutions constructed in this system correspond to the production of a confined electric flux tube (a fundamental string) at late time of the rolling tachyon.

  12. Motor area activity for action-related and nonaction-related sounds in a three-dimensional sound field reproduction system.

    PubMed

    Tsuchida, Koichiro; Ueno, Kanako; Shimada, Sotaro

    2015-03-25

    The motor cortical area is often activated to auditory stimuli in the human brain. In this study, we examined whether the motor area shows differential activation for action-related and nonaction-related sounds and whether it is susceptible to the quality of the sounds. A three-dimensional sound field recording and reproduction system based on the boundary surface control principle (BoSC system) was used for this purpose. We measured brain activity during hearing action-related or nonaction-related sounds with electroencephalography using mu rhythm suppression (mu-suppression) as an index of motor cortical activation. The results showed that mu-suppression was observed when the participant heard action-related sounds, but it was not evident when hearing nonaction-related sounds. Moreover, this suppression was significantly larger in the 3D sound field (62-ch loudspeaker condition), which generates a more realistic sound field, than in the 1-ch loudspeaker condition. Our results indicate that the motor area was indeed activated for action-related sounds and that its activation was enhanced with a 3D realistic sound field. We discuss our findings in relation to the mirror neuron system and the possibility of using its activity as an objective measure that reflects the subjective sense of reality in various virtual reality settings when interacting with others.

  13. Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Bird, Geoffrey; Walsh, Eamonn; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a potential discontinuity between monkey and human ventral premotor-parietal mirror systems, namely that monkey mirror systems process only transitive (object-directed) actions, whereas human mirror systems may also process intransitive (non-object-directed) actions. The present study investigated this discontinuity…

  14. COST Action ES1206 : Advanced Global Navigation Satellite Systems Tropospheric Products for Monitoring Severe Weather Events and Climate (GNSS4SWEC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jonathan; Guerova, Guergana; Dousa, Jan; de Haan, Siebren; Bock, Olivier; Dick, Galina; Pottiaux, Eric; Pacione, Rosa

    2014-05-01

    Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS) have revolutionised positioning, navigation, and timing, becoming a common part of our everyday life. Aside from these well-known civilian and commercial applications, GNSS is now an established atmospheric observing system which can accurately sense water vapour, the most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for 60-70% of atmospheric warming. Severe weather forecasting is challenging, in part due to the high temporal and spatial variation of atmospheric water vapour. Water vapour is under-sampled in the current meteorological and climate observing systems, obtaining and exploiting more high-quality humidity observations is essential to weather forecasting and climate monitoring. The new COST Action, ES1206, will address new and improved capabilities from con-current developments in both the GNSS and meteorological communities. For the first time, the synergy of the three GNSS systems (GPS, GLONASS and Galileo) will be used to develop new, advanced tropospheric products, exploiting the full potential of multi-GNSS water vapour estimates on a wide range of temporal and spatial scales, from real-time monitoring and forecasting of severe weather, to climate research. In addition the Action will promote the use of meteorological data in GNSS positioning, navigation, and timing services. The Action will stimulate knowledge transfer and data sharing throughout Europe.

  15. Action languages: Dimensions, effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hayes, Daniel G.; Streeter, Gordon

    1989-01-01

    Dimensions of action languages are discussed for communication between humans and machines, and the message handling capabilities of object oriented programming systems are examined. Design of action languages is seen to be very contextual. Economical and effective design will depend on features of situations, the tasks intended to be accomplished, and the nature of the devices themselves. Current object oriented systems turn out to have fairly simple and straightforward message handling facilities, which in themselves do little to buffer action or even in some cases to handle competing messages. Even so, it is possible to program a certain amount of discretion about how they react to messages. Such thoughtfulness and perhaps relative autonomy of program modules seems prerequisite to future systems to handle complex interactions in changing situations.

  16. Assessing UST corrective action technologies: In situ SVE-based systems for free product recovery and residual hydrocarbon removal. Report for February 1994-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Beljin, M.; Chaudet, R.; Graves, D.; Schubert, J.; Tyburski, J.

    1996-02-01

    This document presents the data, methods, and tools requireed for evaluating free product or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recovery and soil-vapor-extraction (SVE)-based systems. The SVE-based systems examined include soil vapor extraction, bioventing, and air sparging. In addition, an overview of natural attenuation/biodegradation is also provided. The report is intended to provide assistance in developing a conceptual understanding of the factors influencing hydrocarbon migration and retention in the subsurface and to identify key process parameters that are used to select, design, and monitor corrective action systems.

  17. Assessing UST corrective action technologies: In situ SVE-based systems for free product recovery and residual hydrocarbon removal. Report for February 1994-February 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Belijin, M.; Chaudet, R.; Graves, D.; Schubert, J.; Tyburski, J.

    1996-06-01

    This document presents the data, methods, and tools required for evaluating free product or nonaqueous phase liquid (NAPL) recovery and soil-vapor-extraction (SVE)-based systems. The SVE-based systems examined include soil vapor extraction, bioventing, and air sparging. In addition, an overview of natural attenuation/biodegradation is also provided. The report is intended to provide assistance in developing a conceptual understanding of the factors influencing hydrocarbon migration and retention in the subsurface and to identify key process parameters that are used to select, design, and monitor corrective action systems.

  18. Separate neural systems support representations for actions and objects during narrative speech in post-stroke aphasia☆

    PubMed Central

    Gleichgerrcht, Ezequiel; Fridriksson, Julius; Rorden, Chris; Nesland, Travis; Desai, Rutvik; Bonilha, Leonardo

    2015-01-01

    Background Representations of objects and actions in everyday speech are usually materialized as nouns and verbs, two grammatical classes that constitute the core elements of language. Given their very distinct roles in singling out objects (nouns) or referring to transformative actions (verbs), they likely rely on distinct brain circuits. Method We tested this hypothesis by conducting network-based lesion-symptom mapping in 38 patients with chronic stroke to the left hemisphere. We reconstructed the individual brain connectomes from probabilistic tractography applied to magnetic resonance imaging and obtained measures of production of words referring to objects and actions from narrative discourse elicited by picture naming tasks. Results Words for actions were associated with a frontal network strongly engaging structures involved in motor control and programming. Words for objects, instead, were related to a posterior network spreading across the occipital, posterior inferior temporal, and parietal regions, likely related with visual processing and imagery, object recognition, and spatial attention/scanning. Thus, each of these networks engaged brain areas typically involved in cognitive and sensorimotor experiences equivalent to the function served by each grammatical class (e.g. motor areas for verbs, perception areas for nouns). Conclusions The finding that the two major grammatical classes in human speech rely on two dissociable networks has both important theoretical implications for the neurobiology of language and clinical implications for the assessment and potential rehabilitation and treatment of patients with chronic aphasia due to stroke. PMID:26759789

  19. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  20. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  1. A systems pharmacology perspective to decipher the mechanism of action of Parangichakkai chooranam, a Siddha formulation for the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing immune mediated disorder of the skin. The disease presents itself with well featured clinical and histological characteristics however the aetiology of the disease still remains obscure. The current systemic therapies aim to eliminate the symptoms of disease rather than offering a complete cure. Parangichakkai chooranam (PC), a Siddha oral herbal formulation has been widely prescribed for the treatment of psoriasis. Though the medication is highly prescribed by the Siddha healers the mechanism of PC for the treatment of psoriasis remains to be elucidated. The current study utilizes an integrated systems pharmacology approach to decipher the mechanism of action of PC. The comprehensive network pharmacological approach resulted in the construction of a Compound-Target network which encloses 155 compounds and 583 protein targets. A Disease-Target network was constructed by assembling disease proteins and their partners. When the compound targets were mapped to the network their involvement as controllers of the disease and triggers of disease associated comorbidities were identified. A Target-Pathway network raised from the pathway enrichment analysis not only identified disease specific pathways but also the pathways mediating secondary complications such as skin hemostasis, wound healing, desquamation and itch. The present work sheds light on the mechanism of action of PC in treating psoriasis. This work not only highlights the pharmacological action of the formulation but also emphasis on safe herbal remedies offered by the Siddha medicinal system.

  2. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the April 1999, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 427: Area 3 Septic Waste Systems 2, 6, Tonopah Test Range, Nevada as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the cancellation of the URs for: • CAS 03-05-002-SW02, Septic Waste System • CAS 03-05-002-SW06, Septic Waste System These URs were established as part of Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective actions and were based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since these URs were established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, these URs were re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the URs) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re

  3. The stability of a predator-prey system with linear mass-action functional response perturbed by white noise.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiumei; Wen, Xiangdan; Jiang, Daqing; Liu, Zhenwen

    The present paper deals with the problem of an ecoepidemiological model with linear mass-action functional response perturbed by white noise. The essential mathematical features are analyzed with the help of the stochastic stability, its long time behavior around the equilibrium of deterministic ecoepidemiological model, and the stochastic asymptotic stability by Lyapunov analysis methods. Numerical simulations for a hypothetical set of parameter values are presented to illustrate the analytical findings.

  4. Time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Z. Y.; Yang, J. D.; Guo, W. C.

    2016-11-01

    For grid connected hydropower plants with surge tanks, the time response of frequency of the hydro-turbine governing system under the coupled action of surge tank and power grid with load disturbance have been examined. On the basis of a mathematical model of a hydro-turbine governing system operating in an isolated grid with a surge tank, a power grid model of the hydro-turbine governing system connected to a grid has been developed. Using Laplace transformation, a comprehensive transfer function, taking the disturbance of the hydro-turbine as the input signal and the speed of the hydro-turbine as the output signal, has been developed for the mathematical model. Finally, by using MATLAB-Simulink to numerically simulate the time response of frequency of the system under the coupled action of the grid at different scales and the surge tank with different sectional areas, the mechanism of the coupled action of the surge tank and the power grid and the effect of grid scale on time response of frequency of system has been analysed. It is concluded that surge tank only affects the tail wave of the time response of frequency, and for surge tanks with large sectional area, the fluctuations in the tail wave are gentler. Hence, the system is easier to become steady. The power grid has an inhibiting effect, which becomes greater for larger grid scale, on both the head wave and the tail wave of the time response of frequency in which the head wave is separated into several wavelets and the tail wave become gentler.

  5. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  6. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  7. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient.

    PubMed

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Guangwen; Chen, Dahui; Xiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use.

  8. A Comprehensive and System Review for the Pharmacological Mechanism of Action of Rhein, an Active Anthraquinone Ingredient

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Hao; Luo, Guangwen; Chen, Dahui; Xiang, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Rhein is a major medicinal ingredient isolated from several traditional Chinese medicines, including Rheum palmatum L., Aloe barbadensis Miller, Cassia angustifolia Vahl., and Polygonum multiflorum Thunb. Rhein has various pharmacological activities, such as anti-inflammatory, antitumor, antioxidant, antifibrosis, hepatoprotective, and nephroprotective activities. Although more than 100 articles in PubMed are involved in the pharmacological mechanism of action of rhein, only a few focus on the relationship of crosstalk among multiple pharmacological mechanisms. The mechanism of rhein involves multiple pathways which contain close interactions. From the overall perspective, the pathways which are related to the targets of rhein, are initiated by the membrane receptor. Then, MAPK and PI3K-AKT parallel signaling pathways are activated, and several downstream pathways are affected, thereby eventually regulating cell cycle and apoptosis. The therapeutic effect of rhein, as a multitarget molecule, is the synergistic and comprehensive result of the involvement of multiple pathways rather than the blocking or activation of a single signaling pathway. We review the pharmacological mechanisms of action of rhein by consulting literature published in the last 100 years in PubMed. We then summarize these pharmacological mechanisms from a comprehensive, interactive, and crosstalk perspective. In general, the molecular mechanism of action of drug must be understood from a systematic and holistic perspective, which can provide a theoretical basis for precise treatment and rational drug use. PMID:27582705

  9. Optimizing electrode-attached redox-peptide systems for kinetic characterization of protease action on immobilized substrates. Observation of dissimilar behavior of trypsin and thrombin enzymes.

    PubMed

    Anne, Agnès; Chovin, Arnaud; Demaille, Christophe

    2012-06-12

    In this work, we experimentally address the issue of optimizing gold electrode attached ferrocene (Fc)-peptide systems for kinetic measurements of protease action. Considering human α-thrombin and bovine trypsin as proteases of interest, we show that the recurring problem of incomplete cleavage of the peptide layer by these enzymes can be solved by using ultraflat template-stripped gold, instead of polished polycrystalline gold, as the Fc-peptide bearing electrode material. We describe how these fragile surfaces can be mounted in a rotating disk configuration so that enzyme mass transfer no longer limits the overall measured cleavage kinetics. Finally, we demonstrate that, once the system has been optimized, in situ real-time cyclic voltammetry monitoring of the protease action can yield high-quality kinetic data, showing no sign of interfering effects. The cleavage progress curves then closely match the Langmuirian variation expected for a kinetically controlled surface process. Global fit of the progress curves yield accurate values of the peptide cleavage rate for both trypsin and thrombin. It is shown that, whereas trypsin action on the surface-attached peptide closely follows Michaelis-Menten kinetics, thrombin displays a specific and unexpected behavior characterized by a nearly enzyme-concentration-independent cleavage rate in the subnanomolar enzyme concentration range. The reason for this behavior has still to be clarified, but its occurrence may limit the sensitivity of thrombin sensors based on Fc-peptide layers.

  10. Action Figures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Straits, William; Stone, Kristin

    2010-01-01

    With upper-elementary students, using the skeletal system can be a productive first step in learning about the various systems in the human body. Of all the systems, the skeletal system seems to be the most familiar to students. This lesson, which helps students understand joints and their role in how our bodies bend, twist, and spin--is always a…

  11. Sustainability as Moral Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dunn, Merrily S.; Hart-Steffes, Jeanne S.

    2012-01-01

    When one considers sustainability as a moral action, there are equally complex realities at hand--climate change, resource depletion, water and land rights. One author describes this broad sense of sustainability as "the connection of specific social and environmental problems to the functioning of human and ecological systems" (Jenkins, 2011).…

  12. Economics Action Pack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald's Corp., Oak Brook, IL.

    One of five McDonald's Action Packs, this learning package introduces intermediate grade students to basic economic concepts. The fourteen activities include the topics of consumption (4 activities), production (5), the market system (3), a pretest, and a posttest. Specific titles under consumption include The Wonderful Treasure Tree (introduction…

  13. Action Learning Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1998

    This document contains four papers from a symposium on adult learning issues and human resource development (HRD). "Creating a Systemic Framework for the Transfer of Learning from an Action Learning Experience" (Suzanne D. Butterfield, Kitty Gold, Verna J. Willis) discusses a study of the organizational elements that affect learning and…

  14. Comparison of early reactions of the blood system in rats to immobilization, the action of hypoxia and the administration of erythopoietin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorizontov, P. D.; Fedotova, M. I.; Gudim, V. I.; Belousova, O. I.

    1980-01-01

    Three series of experiments were simultaneously carried on rats with the purpose of studying the action of different stimulants on the blood system; rats were subjected to immobilization, hypoxic hypoxia and erythropoietin administration. Changes in various cellular forms in the bone marrow, the thymus and the spleen were studied. A unitypical reaction, as in stress, was noted during the first hours; a reduction of the cell count in the lymphoid organs, a reduction of granulocytes and an increase of lymphoid cells in the bone marrow. The differences were chiefly quantitative. This was followed by stimulation of myelo and erythropoiesis determined by the specific features of the action applied. Nonspecific blood reaction was apparently due to activation of the adaptation mechanisms.

  15. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  16. Manipulation Action Understanding for Observation and Execution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Yezhou

    2015-01-01

    Modern intelligent agents will need to learn the actions that humans perform. They will need to recognize these actions when they see them and they will need to perform these actions themselves. We want to propose a cognitive system that interprets human manipulation actions from perceptual information (image and depth data) and consists of…

  17. Action-based flood forecasting for triggering humanitarian action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coughlan de Perez, Erin; van den Hurk, Bart; van Aalst, Maarten K.; Amuron, Irene; Bamanya, Deus; Hauser, Tristan; Jongma, Brenden; Lopez, Ana; Mason, Simon; Mendler de Suarez, Janot; Pappenberger, Florian; Rueth, Alexandra; Stephens, Elisabeth; Suarez, Pablo; Wagemaker, Jurjen; Zsoter, Ervin

    2016-09-01

    Too often, credible scientific early warning information of increased disaster risk does not result in humanitarian action. With financial resources tilted heavily towards response after a disaster, disaster managers have limited incentive and ability to process complex scientific data, including uncertainties. These incentives are beginning to change, with the advent of several new forecast-based financing systems that provide funding based on a forecast of an extreme event. Given the changing landscape, here we demonstrate a method to select and use appropriate forecasts for specific humanitarian disaster prevention actions, even in a data-scarce location. This action-based forecasting methodology takes into account the parameters of each action, such as action lifetime, when verifying a forecast. Forecasts are linked with action based on an understanding of (1) the magnitude of previous flooding events and (2) the willingness to act "in vain" for specific actions. This is applied in the context of the Uganda Red Cross Society forecast-based financing pilot project, with forecasts from the Global Flood Awareness System (GloFAS). Using this method, we define the "danger level" of flooding, and we select the probabilistic forecast triggers that are appropriate for specific actions. Results from this methodology can be applied globally across hazards and fed into a financing system that ensures that automatic, pre-funded early action will be triggered by forecasts.

  18. [Consequences of disturbed sex-hormone action in the central nervous system: behavioral, anatomical and functional changes].

    PubMed

    Kula, Krzysztof; Słowikowska-Hilczer, Jolanta

    2003-01-01

    Experimental studies revealed that transient action of sex steroids during perinatal period is crucial for the development of male sexual behavior and sexually dimorphic brain anatomy. Meanwhile, the lack of gonadal steroids in female foetus and estrogen effects at puberty determine female behavior together with female type of anatomical brain structures and of endocrine functions. In men psychic sex consists of gender identity (self-estimation), gender role (objective estimation of sex behavior). In addition, a sexual psycho-orientation (hetero-, bi- or homosexual) has been distinguished. Although it is believed that gender depends on the socio-environmental influences such as rearing, learning and individual choice, the biological factors are considered to be most important. This concept arises from recent study on patients with gender dysphoria syndrome (transsexualism). In intersexualism, in genetic men with disturbances of sexual differentiation of external genitalia because of the lack of testoterone production or action in peripheral tissues (male pseudohermaphroditism) or in genetic women with ambiguous genitalia because of the presence and action of androgens (female pseudohermaphroditism), a discordance between the formal sex (assigned after the birth) and the psychic gender may appear. In these individuals the legal sex established according to somatic and/or genetic sex at birth may be incompatible with their actual gender identity and role. The knowledge about gender identity is necessary at the decision of eventual (!) surgical correction of sex organs in patients with ambiguous genitalia. This decision should depend not on the expected, but on the actual gender identity of the individual patient. Meantime, early bilateral gonadectomy in patients with gonadal dysgenesis and male pseudohermaphroditism is an indication for life because of the highest risk of germ cell carcinoma.

  19. Toward Relational Practices for Enabling Knowledge-to-Action in Health Systems: The Example of Deliberative Dialogue.

    PubMed

    Plamondon, Katrina; Caxaj, Susana

    2017-02-06

    Despite widespread emphasis on evidence-informed decision making in health care, there remain persistent challenges in actualizing this ideal. An integrated strategy to knowledge translation can help bridge perspectives across sectors, communities, and organizations, and bridge the "knowledge-to-action" gap. One such strategy is a deliberative dialogue method. Deliberative dialogue has unique potential to mobilize partnered changes and improvements across health care, and we believe, is most salient when enacted relationally through practices of relational engagement and relational accountability. Drawing from our own scholarship, we reflect on how these practices can help establish both processes and outcomes that can affect meaningful change.

  20. The action of the cholecystokinin-A receptor antagonist, devazepide, on the digestive system of the chicken.

    PubMed

    Furuse, M; Choi, Y H; Satoh, S; Okumura, J

    1996-04-15

    The influence of the cholecystokinin (CCK)-A receptor antagonist, devazepide (DVZ), on the chicken digestive tract was investigated. The passage of food from the crops of birds treated with DVZ was not significantly different from that of the control. DVZ treatment did not inhibit the biliary flow stimulated by the CCK analogue, caerulein. Dispersed chicken pancreatic acini stimulated with CCK were treated with various concentrations of DVZ. At 10-5 M, DVZ completely inhibited amylase release; this concentration was much higher than those reported to have similar effects in mammals. The results suggest that the action DVZ as a CCK antagonist in the chicken is very weak.

  1. Lorentz-violating dilatations in momentum space and some extensions on nonlinear actions of Lorentz-algebra-preserving systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bernardini, A. E.; Rocha, R. da

    2007-03-15

    We work on some general extensions of the formalism for theories which preserve the relativity of inertial frames with a nonlinear action of the Lorentz transformations on momentum space. Relativistic particle models invariant under the corresponding deformed symmetries are presented with particular emphasis on deformed dilatation transformations. The algebraic transformations relating the deformed symmetries with the usual (undeformed) ones are provided in order to preserve the Lorentz algebra. Two distinct cases are considered: a deformed dilatation transformation with a spacelike preferred direction and a very special relativity embedding with a lightlike preferred direction. In both analysis we consider the possibility of introducing quantum deformations of the corresponding symmetries such that the spacetime coordinates can be reconstructed and the particular form of the real space-momentum commutator remains covariant. Eventually feasible experiments, for which the nonlinear Lorentz dilatation effects here pointed out may be detectable, are suggested.

  2. GRAPES—Grounding representations in action, perception, and emotion systems: How object properties and categories are represented in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Alex

    2016-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the latest functional neuroimaging findings on the organization of object concepts in the human brain. I argue that these data provide strong support for viewing concepts as the products of highly interactive neural circuits grounded in the action, perception, and emotion systems. The nodes of these circuits are defined by regions representing specific object properties (e.g., form, color, and motion) and thus are property-specific, rather than strictly modality-specific. How these circuits are modified by external and internal environmental demands, the distinction between representational content and format, and the grounding of abstract social concepts are also discussed. PMID:25968087

  3. Exploring the bases for a mixed reality stroke rehabilitation system, Part I: A unified approach for representing action, quantitative evaluation, and interactive feedback

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Although principles based in motor learning, rehabilitation, and human-computer interfaces can guide the design of effective interactive systems for rehabilitation, a unified approach that connects these key principles into an integrated design, and can form a methodology that can be generalized to interactive stroke rehabilitation, is presently unavailable. Results This paper integrates phenomenological approaches to interaction and embodied knowledge with rehabilitation practices and theories to achieve the basis for a methodology that can support effective adaptive, interactive rehabilitation. Our resulting methodology provides guidelines for the development of an action representation, quantification of action, and the design of interactive feedback. As Part I of a two-part series, this paper presents key principles of the unified approach. Part II then describes the application of this approach within the implementation of the Adaptive Mixed Reality Rehabilitation (AMRR) system for stroke rehabilitation. Conclusions The accompanying principles for composing novel mixed reality environments for stroke rehabilitation can advance the design and implementation of effective mixed reality systems for the clinical setting, and ultimately be adapted for home-based application. They furthermore can be applied to other rehabilitation needs beyond stroke. PMID:21875441

  4. Understanding Action beyond Imitation: Reversed Compatibility Effects of Action Observation in Imitation and Joint Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Schie, Hein T.; van Waterschoot, Boris M.; Bekkering, Harold

    2008-01-01

    A robust finding in imitation literature is that people perform their actions more readily if they are congruent with the behavior of another person. These action congruency effects are typically explained by the idea that the observation of someone else acting automatically activates our motor system in a directly matching way. In the present…

  5. Bridging the gap from values to actions: a family systems framework for family-centered AAC services.

    PubMed

    Mandak, Kelsey; O'Neill, Tara; Light, Janice; Fosco, Gregory M

    2017-03-01

    Despite the growing recognition of the importance of family involvement in augmentative and alternative communication (AAC) intervention, little guidance exists on how professionals can establish successful collaborative relationships with families. In this paper, we discuss family systems theory and ecological systems theory as a framework to guide family-centered AAC practice, review family-focused research in AAC, consider how AAC may impact the family system, and provide examples of the clinical implications of using the proposed family systems framework to improve family-centered AAC practice.

  6. Is there a domain-general cognitive structuring system? Evidence from structural priming across music, math, action descriptions, and language.

    PubMed

    Van de Cavey, Joris; Hartsuiker, Robert J

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive processing in many domains (e.g., sentence comprehension, music listening, and math solving) requires sequential information to be organized into an integrational structure. There appears to be some overlap in integrational processing across domains, as shown by cross-domain interference effects when for example linguistic and musical stimuli are jointly presented (Koelsch, Gunter, Wittfoth, & Sammler, 2005; Slevc, Rosenberg, & Patel, 2009). These findings support theories of overlapping resources for integrational processing across domains (cfr. SSIRH Patel, 2003; SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). However, there are some limitations to the studies mentioned above, such as the frequent use of unnaturalistic integrational difficulties. In recent years, the idea has risen that evidence for domain-generality in structural processing might also be yielded though priming paradigms (cfr. Scheepers, 2003). The rationale behind this is that integrational processing across domains regularly requires the processing of dependencies across short or long distances in the sequence, involving respectively less or more syntactic working memory resources (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010), and such processing decisions might persist over time. However, whereas recent studies have shown suggestive priming of integrational structure between language and arithmetics (though often dependent on arithmetic performance, cfr. Scheepers et al., 2011; Scheepers & Sturt, 2014), it remains to be investigated to what extent we can also find evidence for priming in other domains, such as music and action (cfr. SWM, Kljajevic, 2010). Experiment 1a showed structural priming from the processing of musical sequences onto the position in the sentence structure (early or late) to which a relative clause was attached in subsequent sentence completion. Importantly, Experiment 1b showed that a similar structural manipulation based on non-hierarchically ordered color sequences did not yield any priming effect

  7. Arterial endothelial barrier dysfunction: actions of homocysteine and the hypoxanthine-xanthine oxidase free radical generating system.

    PubMed

    Berman, R S; Martin, W

    1993-04-01

    1. Endothelial barrier function was assessed by use of an in vitro model in which transfer of trypan blue-labelled albumin was measured across monolayers of bovine aortic endothelial cells grown on polycarbonate membranes. 2. Addition of either hypoxanthine (0.2 mM) or xanthine oxidase (20 mu ml-1) alone during a 90 min incubation did not affect albumin transfer across endothelial cell monolayers, but a combination of both increased transfer. 3. The increase in albumin transfer induced by hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase was abolished by catalase (3 u ml-1), reduced by allopurinol (4 mM), but unaffected by superoxide dismutase (6000 u ml-1), the hydroxyl radical scavengers, mannitol (15 mM), dimethylthiourea (10 mM) and N-(2-mercaptopropionyl)-glycine (1 mM), the iron chelator, deferoxamine (0.5 mM), ferric chloride (50 microM), an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, NG-nitro-L-arginine (30 microM), or the antioxidant, dithiothreitol (3 mM). 4. Hydrogen peroxide (0.1-30 mM) itself increased albumin transfer across endothelial cell monolayers, exhibiting a biphasic concentration-response curve. The increase induced by 0.1 mM hydrogen peroxide was abolished in the presence of 0.3 u ml-1 catalase whilst that induced by 10 mM hydrogen peroxide was abolished by 3000 u ml-1 catalase. 5. Homocysteine (0.5-1.5 mM) did not affect albumin transfer across endothelial monolayers when added alone, but when added in combination with copper sulphate (50 microM), which catalyses its oxidation, a significant increase in albumin transfer was observed. 6. The increase in albumin transfer induced by the combination of homocysteine (1.5 mM) and copper sulphate was abolished by catalase (1 u ml-1), but was unaffected by superoxide dismutase (6000 u ml-1), mannitol (15 mM), dimethylthiourea (1 mM) or deferoxamine (0.5 mM).7. The data suggest that the endothelial barrier dysfunction induced by the combination of hypoxanthine and xanthine oxidase is mediated solely by the action of

  8. The Use of Complex Adaptive Systems as a Generative Metaphor in an Action Research Study of an Organisation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Callum

    2008-01-01

    Understanding the dynamic behaviour of organisations is challenging and this study uses a model of complex adaptive systems as a generative metaphor to address this challenge. The research question addressed is: How might a conceptual model of complex adaptive systems be used to assist in understanding the dynamic nature of organisations? Using an…

  9. 9 CFR 417.3 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS § 417.3 Corrective actions. (a) The written HACCP plan shall identify the corrective action to be followed in response to a deviation from a critical...

  10. Action perception as hypothesis testing.

    PubMed

    Donnarumma, Francesco; Costantini, Marcello; Ambrosini, Ettore; Friston, Karl; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2017-04-01

    We present a novel computational model that describes action perception as an active inferential process that combines motor prediction (the reuse of our own motor system to predict perceived movements) and hypothesis testing (the use of eye movements to disambiguate amongst hypotheses). The system uses a generative model of how (arm and hand) actions are performed to generate hypothesis-specific visual predictions, and directs saccades to the most informative places of the visual scene to test these predictions - and underlying hypotheses. We test the model using eye movement data from a human action observation study. In both the human study and our model, saccades are proactive whenever context affords accurate action prediction; but uncertainty induces a more reactive gaze strategy, via tracking the observed movements. Our model offers a novel perspective on action observation that highlights its active nature based on prediction dynamics and hypothesis testing.

  11. The importance of actions and the worth of an object: dissociable neural systems representing core value and economic value.

    PubMed

    Brosch, Tobias; Coppin, Géraldine; Schwartz, Sophie; Sander, David

    2012-06-01

    Neuroeconomic research has delineated neural regions involved in the computation of value, referring to a currency for concrete choices and decisions ('economic value'). Research in psychology and sociology, on the other hand, uses the term 'value' to describe motivational constructs that guide choices and behaviors across situations ('core value'). As a first step towards an integration of these literatures, we compared the neural regions computing economic value and core value. Replicating previous work, economic value computations activated a network centered on medial orbitofrontal cortex. Core value computations activated medial prefrontal cortex, a region involved in the processing of self-relevant information and dorsal striatum, involved in action selection. Core value ratings correlated with activity in precuneus and anterior prefrontal cortex, potentially reflecting the degree to which a core value is perceived as internalized part of one's self-concept. Distributed activation pattern in insula and ACC allowed differentiating individual core value types. These patterns may represent evaluation profiles reflecting prototypical fundamental concerns expressed in the core value types. Our findings suggest mechanisms by which core values, as motivationally important long-term goals anchored in the self-schema, may have the behavioral power to drive decisions and behaviors in the absence of immediately rewarding behavioral options.

  12. Cadmium and naphthalene-induced hyperglycemia in the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator: Differential modes of action on the neutroendocrine system

    SciTech Connect

    Reddy, P.S.; Katyayani, R.V.; Fingerman, M.

    1996-03-01

    Hyperglycemia is a typical response of aquatic organisms to heavy metals. In crustaceans, the medulla terminalis X-organ-sinus gland neuroendocrine complex in the eyestalk is the source of the crustacean hyperglycemic hormone (CHH). The role of CHH in pollutant-induced b1ood glucose changes has only recently begun to be studied. Reddy provided evidence that CHH mediates cadmium-induced hyperglycemia in the red swamp crayfish, Procambarus clarkii. In a study of another hormonally-regulated function, color changes, cadmium exposure resulted in pigment in the melanophores of the fiddler crab, Uca pugilator, becoming less dispersed than in unexposed crabs. Earlier studies showed that, like cadmium, both a PCB, Aroclor 1242, and naphthalene induced black pigment aggregation in Uca poor. In general, when crabs are exposed to a pollutant, hydrocarbon or cadmium, they aggregate the pigment in their melanophores, but apparently by different mechanisms. Hydrocarbons appear to inhibit release of black pigment-dispersing hormone (BDPH), whereas cadmium appears to inhibit its synthesis. These apparent different modes of action of cadmium and naphthalene on the color change mechanism led us to compare the impact of these pollutants on the hormonal regulation of blood glucose in Uca pugilator. The present study was performed to determine (1) whether cadmium and naphthalene induce hyperglycemia in Uca pugilator, (2) whether CH has a role, if naphthalene and cadmium do induce hyperglycemia, and (3) the effects, if any, of cadmium and naphthalene on CHH activity in the eyestalk neuroendocrine complex.

  13. Action simulation plays a critical role in deceptive action recognition.

    PubMed

    Tidoni, Emmanuele; Borgomaneri, Sara; di Pellegrino, Giuseppe; Avenanti, Alessio

    2013-01-09

    The ability to infer deceptive intents from nonverbal behavior is critical for social interactions. By combining single-pulse and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in healthy humans, we provide both correlational and causative evidence that action simulation is actively involved in the ability to recognize deceptive body movements. We recorded motor-evoked potentials during a faked-action discrimination (FAD) task: participants watched videos of actors lifting a cube and judged whether the actors were trying to deceive them concerning the real weight of the cube. Seeing faked actions facilitated the observers' motor system more than truthful actions in a body-part-specific manner, suggesting that motor resonance was sensitive to deceptive movements. Furthermore, we found that TMS virtual lesion to the anterior node of the action observation network, namely the left inferior frontal cortex (IFC), reduced perceptual sensitivity in the FAD task. In contrast, no change in FAD task performance was found after virtual lesions to the left temporoparietal junction (control site). Moreover, virtual lesion to the IFC failed to affect performance in a difficulty-matched spatial-control task that did not require processing of spatiotemporal (acceleration) and configurational (limb displacement) features of seen actions, which are critical to detecting deceptive intent in the actions of others. These findings indicate that the human IFC is critical for recognizing deceptive body movements and suggest that FAD relies on the simulation of subtle changes in action kinematics within the motor system.

  14. InterAction Database (IADB)

    Cancer.gov

    The InterAction Database includes demographic and prescription information for more than 500,000 patients in the northern and middle Netherlands and has been integrated with other systems to enhance data collection and analysis.

  15. Noise suppression in an atomic system under the action of a field in a squeezed coherent state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, A. I.; Mironov, V. A.

    2010-04-01

    The interaction of a quantized electromagnetic field in a squeezed coherent state with a three-level Λ-atom is studied numerically by the quantum Monte Carlo method and analytically by the Heisenberg-Langevin method in the regime of electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT). The possibility of noise suppression in the atomic system through the quantum properties of squeezed light is considered in detail; the characteristics of the atomic system responsible for the relaxation processes and noise in the EIT band have been found. Further applications of the Monte Carlo method and the developed numerical code to the study of more complex systems are discussed.

  16. Integrating research, policy, and practice in school-based physical activity prevention programming: the School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) Physical Activity Module.

    PubMed

    Leatherdale, Scott T; Manske, Steve; Wong, Suzy L; Cameron, Roy

    2009-04-01

    The School Health Action, Planning, and Evaluation System (SHAPES) is a data collection and feedback system designed to support population-based intervention planning, evaluation, and field research related to youth. The Physical Activity Module of SHAPES consists of: (a) a machine readable questionnaire to collect physical activity data from all students (grades 6 to 12) in a school, (b) a school administrator questionnaire to assess school policies, programs, and resources related to physical activity, and (c) a school-specific feedback report documenting student behavior and school programs and policies. This SHAPES module provides schools with feedback that enables them to take stock of patterns of activity and obesity within their school, recognize what is (and what is not) in place to support physical activity, and how to plan and evaluate their own prevention efforts. SHAPES enables researchers and stakeholders to identify what interventions work, in what contexts, with what students.

  17. HWMA/RCRA Closure Plan for the Basin Facility Basin Water Treatment System - Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. K.

    2007-11-07

    This Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act closure plan for the Basin Water Treatment System located in the Basin Facility (CPP-603), Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC), Idaho National Laboratory Site, was developed to meet future milestones established under the Voluntary Consent Order. The system to be closed includes units and associated ancillary equipment included in the Voluntary Consent Order NEW-CPP-016 Action Plan and Voluntary Consent Order SITE-TANK-005 Tank Systems INTEC-077 and INTEC-078 that were determined to have managed hazardous waste. The Basin Water Treatment System will be closed in accordance with the requirements of the Hazardous Waste Management Act/Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, as implemented by the Idaho Administrative Procedures Act 58.01.05.009 and 40 Code of Federal Regulations 265, to achieve "clean closure" of the tank system. This closure plan presents the closure performance standards and methods of achieving those standards for the Basin Water Treatment Systems.

  18. Reliability of Search and Rescue Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burciu, Zbigniew

    2012-06-01

    Determination of the reliability of Search and Rescue action system allows the SAR Mission Coordinator to increase the effectiveness of the action through the proper selection of operational characteristics of the system elements, in particular the selection of the rescue units and auxiliary units. The paper presents the example of the influence of water temperature and time of the action on the reliability of search and rescue action in the case of rescuing a survivor in the water.

  19. Battle Space Action Centers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-14

    VREEDE, G. J. D., & KOLFSCHOTEN, G. L . (2008). Extending the contextual and organizational elements of adaptive structurization theory in GSS...Reiter-Palmon, R., & Harland, L . (2009). Computer Assisted Collaboration Engineering and Process Support Systems: The BattleSpace ActionCenters...Collaboration Science, 27 February, University of Nebraska at Omaha, Omaha, NE. 18. BRIGGS, R.O., VREEDE, G.J. DE, REITER-PALMON, R., HARLAND, L

  20. Pilot Project to Optimize Ground Water Remediation Systems at RCRA Corrective Action Facilities: Summary Report and Lessons Learned

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Based on previous success with conducting independent optimization evaluations at Fund-lead pump and treat sites (i.e., those sites with pump and treat systems funded and managed by Superfund and the States), the EPA Office of Superfund .....

  1. Addendum to the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271: Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Lynn Kidman

    2008-10-01

    This document constitutes an addendum to the August 2004, Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 271, Areas 25, 26, and 27 Septic Systems as described in the document Recommendations and Justifications for Modifications for Use Restrictions Established under the U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (UR Modification document) dated February 2008. The UR Modification document was approved by NDEP on February 26, 2008. The approval of the UR Modification document constituted approval of each of the recommended UR modifications. In conformance with the UR Modification document, this addendum consists of: • This cover page that refers the reader to the UR Modification document for additional information • The cover and signature pages of the UR Modification document • The NDEP approval letter • The corresponding section of the UR Modification document This addendum provides the documentation justifying the modification of the UR for CAS 27-05-02, Leachfield. This UR was established as part of a Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order (FFACO) corrective action and is based on the presence of contaminants at concentrations greater than the action levels established at the time of the initial investigation (FFACO, 1996; as amended August 2006). Since this UR was established, practices and procedures relating to the implementation of risk-based corrective actions (RBCA) have changed. Therefore, this UR was re-evaluated against the current RBCA criteria as defined in the Industrial Sites Project Establishment of Final Action Levels (NNSA/NSO, 2006c). This re-evaluation consisted of comparing the original data (used to define the need for the UR) to risk-based final action levels (FALs) developed using the current Industrial Sites RBCA process. The re-evaluation resulted in a recommendation to modify the UR to an administrative UR. Administrative URs differ from

  2. Action Items

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Mark; Keane, Brian

    2009-01-01

    Maximizing school resources and managing a shrinking budget--these are two important items affected when a building's roofing system does not perform properly. Rather than acting in haste, school and university administrators should do what every teacher tells a student prior to answering any question: think through the research and studies to…

  3. The simulated effects of wastewater-management actions on the hydrologic system and nitrogen-loading rates to wells and ecological receptors, Popponesset Bay Watershed, Cape Cod, Massachusetts

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Walter, Donald A.

    2013-01-01

    The discharge of excess nitrogen into Popponesset Bay, an estuarine system on western Cape Cod, has resulted in eutrophication and the loss of eel grass habitat within the estuaries. Septic-system return flow in residential areas within the watershed is the primary source of nitrogen. Total Maximum Daily Loads (TMDLs) for nitrogen have been assigned to the six estuaries that compose the system, and local communities are in the process of implementing the TMDLs by the partial sewering, treatment, and disposal of treated wastewater at wastewater-treatment facilities (WTFs). Loads of waste-derived nitrogen from both current (1997–2001) and future sources can be estimated implicitly from parcel-scale water-use data and recharge areas delineated by a groundwater-flow model. These loads are referred to as “instantaneous” loads because it is assumed that the nitrogen from surface sources is delivered to receptors instantaneously and that there is no traveltime through the aquifer. The use of a solute-transport model to explicitly simulate the transport of mass through the aquifer from sources to receptors can improve implementation of TMDLs by (1) accounting for traveltime through the aquifer, (2) avoiding limitations associated with the estimation of loads from static recharge areas, (3) accounting more accurately for the effect of surface waters on nitrogen loads, and (4) determining the response of waste-derived nitrogen loads to potential wastewater-management actions. The load of nitrogen to Popponesset Bay on western Cape Cod, which was estimated by using current sources as input to a solute-transport model based on a steady-state flow model, is about 50 percent of the instantaneous load after about 7 years of transport (loads to estuary are equal to loads discharged from sources); this estimate is consistent with simulated advective traveltimes in the aquifer, which have a median of 5 years. Model-calculated loads originating from recharge areas reach 80

  4. The motor way: Clinical implications of understanding and shaping actions with the motor system in autism and drug addiction.

    PubMed

    Casartelli, Luca; Chiamulera, Cristiano

    2016-04-01

    To understand others' minds is crucial for survival; however, it is quite puzzling how access to others' minds can be--to some extent--direct and not necessarily mediated by conceptual reasoning. Recent advances in neuroscience have led to hypothesize a role for motor circuits not only in controlling the elementary physical features of movement (e.g., force, direction, and amplitude), but also in understanding and shaping human behavior. The concept of "motor cognition" refers to these aspects, and neurophysiological, neuroimaging, and behavioral studies in human and nonhuman primates support this view. From a clinical perspective, motor cognition represents a challenge in several domains. A thorough investigation of the neural mechanisms mediating motor action/intention understanding and automatized/compulsive behaviors seems to be a promising way to tackle a range of neurodevelopmental and drug-related disorders. On the one hand, anomalies in motor cognition may have cascade effects on social functioning in individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD); on the other, motor cognition may help explain the pathophysiology of drug-seeking and drug-taking behaviors in the most severe phase of drug addiction (i.e., see drug dependence, motor low-order cue reactivity). This may represent a promising approach that could improve the efficacy of rehabilitative interventions. The only way to shed light on multifactorial disorders such as ASD and drug addiction is through the investigation of their multiple factors. This motor way can promote new theoretical and experimental perspectives that would help bridge the gap between the basic neuroscience approach and clinical practice.

  5. Mechanisms of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs

    PubMed Central

    SOARES, Geisla Mary Silva; FIGUEIREDO, Luciene Cristina; FAVERI, Marcelo; CORTELLI, Sheila Cavalca; DUARTE, Poliana Mendes; FERES, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are important adjuncts in the treatment of infectious diseases, including periodontitis. The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. The knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved with the antibiotic usage would help the medical and dental communities to overcome these two problems. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin, tetracycline, macrolide and metronidazole) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Antimicrobial resistance can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, mutational and acquired. Penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs, effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial resistance to penicillin may occur due to diminished permeability of the bacterial cell to the antibiotic; alteration of the penicillin-binding proteins, or production of β-lactamases. However, a very small proportion of the subgingival microbiota is resistant to penicillins. Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell, by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline/macrolide-inactivating enzymes. Periodontal pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Finally, metronidazole can be considered a prodrug in the sense that it requires metabolic activation by strict anaerobe microorganisms. Acquired resistance to this drug has rarely been reported. Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections. PMID:22858695

  6. Mechanisms of action of systemic antibiotics used in periodontal treatment and mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs.

    PubMed

    Soares, Geisla Mary Silva; Figueiredo, Luciene Cristina; Faveri, Marcelo; Cortelli, Sheila Cavalca; Duarte, Poliana Mendes; Feres, Magda

    2012-01-01

    Antibiotics are important adjuncts in the treatment of infectious diseases, including periodontitis. The most severe criticisms to the indiscriminate use of these drugs are their side effects and, especially, the development of bacterial resistance. The knowledge of the biological mechanisms involved with the antibiotic usage would help the medical and dental communities to overcome these two problems. Therefore, the aim of this manuscript was to review the mechanisms of action of the antibiotics most commonly used in the periodontal treatment (i.e. penicillin, tetracycline, macrolide and metronidazole) and the main mechanisms of bacterial resistance to these drugs. Antimicrobial resistance can be classified into three groups: intrinsic, mutational and acquired. Penicillin, tetracycline and erythromycin are broad-spectrum drugs, effective against gram-positive and gram-negative microorganisms. Bacterial resistance to penicillin may occur due to diminished permeability of the bacterial cell to the antibiotic; alteration of the penicillin-binding proteins, or production of β-lactamases. However, a very small proportion of the subgingival microbiota is resistant to penicillins. Bacteria become resistant to tetracyclines or macrolides by limiting their access to the cell, by altering the ribosome in order to prevent effective binding of the drug, or by producing tetracycline/macrolide-inactivating enzymes. Periodontal pathogens may become resistant to these drugs. Finally, metronidazole can be considered a prodrug in the sense that it requires metabolic activation by strict anaerobe microorganisms. Acquired resistance to this drug has rarely been reported. Due to these low rates of resistance and to its high activity against the gram-negative anaerobic bacterial species, metronidazole is a promising drug for treating periodontal infections.

  7. THE TWO-LEVEL THEORY OF VERB MEANING: AN APPROACH TO INTEGRATING THE SEMANTICS OF ACTION WITH THE MIRROR NEURON SYSTEM

    PubMed Central

    Kemmerer, David; Castillo, Javier Gonzalez

    2010-01-01

    Verbs have two separate levels of meaning. One level reflects the uniqueness of every verb and is called the “root.” The other level consists of a more austere representation that is shared by all the verbs in a given class and is called the “event structure template.” We explore the following hypotheses about how, with specific reference to the motor features of action verbs, these two distinct levels of semantic representation might correspond to two distinct levels of the mirror neuron system. Hypothesis 1: Root-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by somatotopically mapped mirror neurons in the left primary motor and/or premotor cortices. Hypothesis 2: Template-level motor features of verb meaning are partially subserved by representationally more schematic mirror neurons in Brodmann area 44 of the left inferior frontal gyrus. Evidence has been accumulating in support of the general neuroanatomical claims made by these two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with the designated cortical areas. However, as yet no studies have satisfied all the criteria necessary to support the more specific neurobiological claims made by the two hypotheses—namely, that each level of verb meaning is associated with mirror neurons in the pertinent brain regions. This would require demonstrating that within those regions the same neuronal populations are engaged during (a) the linguistic processing of particular motor features of verb meaning, (b) the execution of actions with the corresponding motor features, and (c) the observation of actions with the corresponding motor features. PMID:18996582

  8. A brain site for the antigonadal action of melatonin in the white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus): involvement of the immunoreactive GnRH neuronal system.

    PubMed

    Glass, J D; Knotts, L K

    1987-06-01

    Quantitative assessment of immunocytochemical staining for gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) was undertaken to determine the effects of an intracranial implant of melatonin on the GnRH neuronal system in the male white-footed mouse (Peromyscus leucopus). Melatonin-containing pellets stereotaxically placed in the anterior hypothalamic area (AH) caused a 60% reduction in testes weight relative to control mice with melatonin-free pellets in the AH (p less than 0.01). Subcutaneous melatonin-containing implants had little effect on reproductive state (p less than 0.8). Melatonin pellets in the AH increased significantly both the optical density (OD) for immunostaining of cell bodies in the medial preoptic area and AH (p less than 0.04), and the percentage of area covered by GnRH fibers and beads in the median eminence (p less than 0.01). The melatonin-induced increase in OD of the GnRH cell bodies was independent of the distance of the cells from the melatonin implant, and there was little apparent effect of melatonin on the size and morphology of the GnRH cell bodies, or the trajectories of their fiber pathways. These results support the hypothesis that the antigonadal action of melatonin in the brain involves suppression of the release, rather than the synthesis of GnRH. Also, this effect may not be mediated via a direct action of melatonin on GnRH neurons. The finding that the brain site and time course for melatonin's antigonadal action in male. P. leucopus is similar to that found previously in the female is evidence that melatonin may induce gonadal regression, in part, by helping to suppress the tonic secretion of gonadotropins.

  9. Does listening to action-related sentences modulate the activity of the motor system? Replication of a combined TMS and behavioral study

    PubMed Central

    Gianelli, Claudia; Dalla Volta, Riccardo

    2015-01-01

    The neurophysiological and behavioral correlates of action-related language processing have been debated for long time. A precursor in this field was the study by Buccino et al. (2005) combining transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and behavioral measures (reaction times, RTs) to study the effect of listening to hand- and foot-related sentences. In the TMS experiment, the authors showed a decrease of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) recorded from hand muscles when processing hand-related verbs as compared to foot-related verbs. Similarly, MEPs recorded from leg muscles decreased when participants processed foot-related as compared to hand-related verbs. In the behavioral experiment, using the same stimuli and a semantic decision task the authors found slower RTs when the participants used the body effector (hand or foot) involved in the actual execution of the action expressed by the presented verb to give their motor responses. These findings were interpreted as an interference effect due to a simultaneous involvement of the motor system in both a language and a motor task. Our replication aimed to enlarge the sample size and replicate the findings with higher statistical power. The TMS experiment showed a significant modulation of hand MEPs, but in the sense of a motor facilitation when processing hand-related verbs. On the contrary, the behavioral experiment did not show significant results. The results are discussed within the general debate on the time-course of the modulation of motor cortex during implicit and explicit language processing and in relation to the studies on action observation/understanding. PMID:25601845

  10. The Immune System Is a Natural Target for Estrogen Action: Opposing Effects of Estrogen in Two Prototypical Autoimmune Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Deena; Ansar Ahmed, S.

    2016-01-01

    Analogous to other physiological systems, the immune system also demonstrates remarkable sex differences. Although the reasons for sex differences in immune responses are not precisely understood, it potentially involves differences in sex hormones (estrogens, androgens, and differential sex hormone receptor-mediated events), X-chromosomes, microbiome, epigenetics among others. Overall, females tend to have more responsive and robust immune system compared to their male counterparts. It is therefore not surprising that females respond more aggressively to self-antigens and are more susceptible to autoimmune diseases. Female hormone (estrogen or 17β-estradiol) can potentially act on all cellular subsets of the immune system through estrogen receptor-dependent and -independent mechanisms. This minireview highlights differential expression of estrogen receptors on immune cells, major estrogen-mediated signaling pathways, and their effect on immune cells. Since estrogen has varied effects in female-predominant autoimmune diseases such as multiple sclerosis and systemic lupus erythematosus, we will mechanistically postulate the potential differential role of estrogen in these chronic debilitating diseases. PMID:26779182

  11. Coordinate actions of innate immune responses oppose those of the adaptive immune system during Salmonella infection of mice.

    PubMed

    Hotson, Andrew N; Gopinath, Smita; Nicolau, Monica; Khasanova, Anna; Finck, Rachel; Monack, Denise; Nolan, Garry P

    2016-01-12

    The immune system enacts a coordinated response when faced with complex environmental and pathogenic perturbations. We used the heterogeneous responses of mice to persistent Salmonella infection to model system-wide coordination of the immune response to bacterial burden. We hypothesized that the variability in outcomes of bacterial growth and immune response across genetically identical mice could be used to identify immune elements that serve as integrators enabling co-regulation and interconnectedness of the innate and adaptive immune systems. Correlation analysis of immune response variation to Salmonella infection linked bacterial load with at least four discrete, interacting functional immune response "cassettes." One of these, the innate cassette, in the chronically infected mice included features of the innate immune system, systemic neutrophilia, and high serum concentrations of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-6. Compared with mice with a moderate bacterial load, mice with the highest bacterial burden exhibited high activity of this innate cassette, which was associated with a dampened activity of the adaptive T cell cassette-with fewer plasma cells and CD4(+) T helper 1 cells and increased numbers of regulatory T cells-and with a dampened activity of the cytokine signaling cassette. System-wide manipulation of neutrophil numbers revealed that neutrophils regulated signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signaling in B cells during infection. Thus, a network-level approach demonstrated unappreciated interconnections that balanced innate and adaptive immune responses during the dynamic course of disease and identified signals associated with pathogen transmission status, as well as a regulatory role for neutrophils in cytokine signaling.

  12. Network-based discovery through mechanistic systems biology. Implications for applications--SMEs and drug discovery: where the action is.

    PubMed

    Benson, Neil

    2015-08-01

    Phase II attrition remains the most important challenge for drug discovery. Tackling the problem requires improved understanding of the complexity of disease biology. Systems biology approaches to this problem can, in principle, deliver this. This article reviews the reports of the application of mechanistic systems models to drug discovery questions and discusses the added value. Although we are on the journey to the virtual human, the length, path and rate of learning from this remain an open question. Success will be dependent on the will to invest and make the most of the insight generated along the way.

  13. Polymorphic toxin systems: Comprehensive characterization of trafficking modes, processing, mechanisms of action, immunity and ecology using comparative genomics

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Proteinaceous toxins are observed across all levels of inter-organismal and intra-genomic conflicts. These include recently discovered prokaryotic polymorphic toxin systems implicated in intra-specific conflicts. They are characterized by a remarkable diversity of C-terminal toxin domains generated by recombination with standalone toxin-coding cassettes. Prior analysis revealed a striking diversity of nuclease and deaminase domains among the toxin modules. We systematically investigated polymorphic toxin systems using comparative genomics, sequence and structure analysis. Results Polymorphic toxin systems are distributed across all major bacterial lineages and are delivered by at least eight distinct secretory systems. In addition to type-II, these include type-V, VI, VII (ESX), and the poorly characterized “Photorhabdus virulence cassettes (PVC)”, PrsW-dependent and MuF phage-capsid-like systems. We present evidence that trafficking of these toxins is often accompanied by autoproteolytic processing catalyzed by HINT, ZU5, PrsW, caspase-like, papain-like, and a novel metallopeptidase associated with the PVC system. We identified over 150 distinct toxin domains in these systems. These span an extraordinary catalytic spectrum to include 23 distinct clades of peptidases, numerous previously unrecognized versions of nucleases and deaminases, ADP-ribosyltransferases, ADP ribosyl cyclases, RelA/SpoT-like nucleotidyltransferases, glycosyltranferases and other enzymes predicted to modify lipids and carbohydrates, and a pore-forming toxin domain. Several of these toxin domains are shared with host-directed effectors of pathogenic bacteria. Over 90 families of immunity proteins might neutralize anywhere between a single to at least 27 distinct types of toxin domains. In some organisms multiple tandem immunity genes or immunity protein domains are organized into polyimmunity loci or polyimmunity proteins. Gene-neighborhood-analysis of polymorphic toxin systems

  14. Iodine and disinfection: theoretical study on mode of action, efficiency, stability, and analytical aspects in the aqueous system.

    PubMed

    Gottardi, W

    1999-05-01

    Although they have been in use for nearly 170 years, the mode of action of iodine-based disinfectants is not yet clearly understood, as is manifested, for example, in diverging judgements about the relevance of the individual iodine species. Although studies based on calculated equilibrium concentrations in pure iodine solutions have already been done, there is a lack of knowledge about iodine solutions in the presence of additional iodide which would be of intrinsic importance for disinfection practice. Therefore, a re-calculation was undertaken considering variations of this parameter in the pH range 0-14. The presented calculations concern fresh iodine solutions not affected by disproportionation (iodate formation) and provide information about the equilibrium concentrations of the species I, I2, I3, I5-, I6(2-), HOI, O1-, HI2O-, IO2- and H2OI+. Additional iodide and the pH value have a very pronounced influence on the individual equilibrium concentrations (several powers of ten); hence, conditions can be indicated where the number of species of virtual importance is drastically reduced. In the most common case with iodine in the presence of additional iodide at pH < 6, only I-, I2 and I3- play a role. In the absence of additional iodide, at pH 8-9 and at high dilution (c(I2) < 10(-5) M), on the other hand, HOI accounts for over 90% of the oxidation capacity. At high iodide concentration (e.g., Lugol's solution) the species I5- and I6(2-) make up 8.2% of the oxidation capacity. The iodine cation H2OI+, frequently quoted as an active agent in disinfection, is without any relevance under the conditions occurring in practice, as are IO- and HI2O- which become important only at pH > 10. The stability problem (i.e. rate of iodate formation) arising at pH > 6 can be reduced to hypoiodous acid, as manifested in the simple rate law d[IO3]/dt = 0.25 [HOI]3/[H+] which allows an estimation of stability under weakly alkaline conditions. The results of this study allow us to

  15. Systems Thinkers in Action: A Field Guide for Effective Change Leadership in Education. Leading School Improvement #10

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Despres, Blane, Ed.

    2007-01-01

    This field guide provides a look into education in relation to a concept that has already been established in science, business and therapy. This book will encourage and educate readers about systemic thinking through examples and ideas pertinent to education and its reform. Following a Foreword (Michael Fullan) and Introduction (Blane Despres),…

  16. The complex nature of mixed farming systems requires multidimensional actions supported by integrative research and development efforts.

    PubMed

    González-García, E; Gourdine, J L; Alexandre, G; Archimède, H; Vaarst, M

    2012-05-01

    Mixed farming systems (MFS) have demonstrated some success by focusing on the use of integrative and holistic mechanisms, and rationally building on and using the natural and local resource base without exhausting it, while enhancing biodiversity, optimizing complementarities between crops and animal systems and finally increasing opportunities in rural livelihoods. Focusing our analysis and discussion on field experiences and empirical knowledge in the Caribbean islands, this paper discusses the opportunities for a change needed in current MFS research-development philosophy. The importance of shifting from fragile/specialized production systems to MFS under current global conditions is argued with an emphasis on the case of Small Islands Developing States (SIDS) and the Caribbean. Particular vulnerable characteristics as well as the potential and constraints of SIDS and their agricultural sectors are described, while revealing the opportunities for the 'richness' of the natural and local resources to support authentic and less dependent production system strategies. Examples are provided of the use of natural grasses, legumes, crop residues and agro-industrial by-products. We analyse the requirement for a change in research strategies and initiatives through the development of a complex but necessary multi-/inter-/trans-disciplinary teamwork spirit. We stress as essential the collaboration and active participation of local and regional actors, stakeholders and end-users in the identification of research priorities, as well as the generation, exchange and dissemination of knowledge and technology innovations, while strengthening the leadership roles in the conduct of integrative and participative research and development projects.

  17. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation

    SciTech Connect

    Rigamonti, L. Falbo, A.; Grosso, M.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • LCA was used for evaluating the performance of four provincial waste management systems. • Milano, Bergamo, Pavia and Mantova (Italy) are the provinces selected for the analysis. • Most of the data used to model the systems are primary. • Significant differences were found among the provinces located in the same Region. • LCA was used as a decision-supporting tool by Regione Lombardia. - Abstract: This paper reports some of the findings of the ‘GERLA’ project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia – Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia – Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  18. Supporting Early Warning Systems: Using Data to Keep Students on Track to Success. Data for Action 2012

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Data Quality Campaign, 2012

    2012-01-01

    Supporting early warning systems is important because keeping students on track is vital to graduating all students college and career ready. Failing to keep students on track toward completing high school has perilous consequences for students, communities, and the economy. Predictive analyses are important to ensuring students are on track.…

  19. ASSESSING UST CORRECTIVE ACTION TECHNOLOGIES: IN SITU SVE-BASED SYSTEMS FOR FREE PRODUCT RECOVERY AND RESIDUAL HYDROCARBON REMOVAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The number of confirmed releases of petroleum products from underground storage tank (UST) systems has increased significantly since promulgation of the final UST regulations by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency in December 1988. This increase has outpaced the resources of...

  20. Investigation of the process of ferrite formation in the Li2CO3-ZnO-Fe2O3 system under high-energy actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surzhikov, A. P.; Lysenko, E. N.; Vlasov, V. A.; Malyshev, A. V.; Nikolaev, E. V.

    2013-11-01

    Results of synthesis of lithium-zinc ferrites under high-energy actions including mechanical activation of the mixture of initial reagents in a planetary mill and heating of reaction mixtures upon exposure to accelerated high-energy electron beams are presented. The initial structure of the reaction mixtures corresponds to the stoichiometric spinel formula: Li0.5(1- x)Zn x Fe2.5-0.5 x О4, where х = 0.2. To elucidate the effect of radiation on kinetic transformations of the phase composition, analogous investigations are performed with thermal annealing in a furnace. It is established that mechanical activation and radiation-thermal heating of the Li2CO3-ZnO-Fe2O3 mixture of initial reagents increases significantly the reactivity of solid phase systems thereby decreasing strongly the temperature of synthesis and improving the homogeneity of the end product. To synthesize Li0.4Fe2.4Zn0.2O4 lithium-zinc ferrospinels with homogeneous composition, it is suffice to provide a synthesis temperature of 600°С with holding time of 60 min under complex high-energy action including mechanical activation of the initial mixture of reagents and heating upon exposure to a high-energy beam of electrons.

  1. Modulatory effect of Areca nut on the action of mace (Myristica fragrans, Houtt) on the hepatic detoxification system in mice.

    PubMed

    Singh, A; Rao, A R

    1993-07-01

    The present paper reports the modifying potential of areca nut (Areca catechu), an ingredient of the habitual masticatory betel quid, on the induction of the hepatic detoxification system in mice by mace (the aril of nutmeg, Myristica fragrans) a known chemopreventor of chemically induced carcinogenesis. The modulatory effect of areca nut was assessed by determining the levels of enzymes of the hepatic detoxification system, such as glutathione S-transferase (GST), cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450, and the content of acid-soluble sulphhydryl (-SH). Mice were fed either control diet or diet containing 0.25, 0.5 or 1% areca nut for 45 days. During the last 10 days the diet was supplemented with 0.5 or 1% mace. At 0.5 and 1% in the diet, areca nut decreased mace-induced increases in hepatic GST and -SH levels and elevated further increases in the levels of cytochrome b5 and cytochrome P-450.

  2. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J.; Alfonso-Almazán, José M.; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Chorro, Francisco J.; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-02-01

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model.

  3. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J.; Alfonso-Almazán, José M.; Quintanilla, Jorge G.; Chorro, Francisco J.; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M.; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-01-01

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model. PMID:28240274

  4. A national program for energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A blueprint for action. Review draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This Review Draft reports findings and recommendations of the National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems and Mortgage Incentives for Energy Efficiency. The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, formed this National Collaborative as a National Energy Strategy initiative. Participating in the Collaborative were representatives of the primary and secondary mortgage markets, builder and remodeler organizations, real estate and appraiser associations, the home energy rating system industry, utility associations, consumer and public interest groups, state and local government interest groups, and environmental organizations. The Collaborative`s purpose was to develop a voluntary national program encouraging energy efficiency in homes through mortgage incentives linked to home energy ratings.

  5. A national program for energy-efficient mortgages and home energy rating systems: A blueprint for action

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-03-01

    This Review Draft reports findings and recommendations of the National Collaborative on Home Energy Rating Systems and Mortgage Incentives for Energy Efficiency. The US Department of Energy, in cooperation with the US Department of Housing and Urban Development, formed this National Collaborative as a National Energy Strategy initiative. Participating in the Collaborative were representatives of the primary and secondary mortgage markets, builder and remodeler organizations, real estate and appraiser associations, the home energy rating system industry, utility associations, consumer and public interest groups, state and local government interest groups, and environmental organizations. The Collaborative's purpose was to develop a voluntary national program encouraging energy efficiency in homes through mortgage incentives linked to home energy ratings.

  6. Low-Cost Optical Mapping Systems for Panoramic Imaging of Complex Arrhythmias and Drug-Action in Translational Heart Models.

    PubMed

    Lee, Peter; Calvo, Conrado J; Alfonso-Almazán, José M; Quintanilla, Jorge G; Chorro, Francisco J; Yan, Ping; Loew, Leslie M; Filgueiras-Rama, David; Millet, José

    2017-02-27

    Panoramic optical mapping is the primary method for imaging electrophysiological activity from the entire outer surface of Langendorff-perfused hearts. To date, it is the only method of simultaneously measuring multiple key electrophysiological parameters, such as transmembrane voltage and intracellular free calcium, at high spatial and temporal resolution. Despite the impact it has already had on the fields of cardiac arrhythmias and whole-heart computational modeling, present-day system designs precludes its adoption by the broader cardiovascular research community because of their high costs. Taking advantage of recent technological advances, we developed and validated low-cost optical mapping systems for panoramic imaging using Langendorff-perfused pig hearts, a clinically-relevant model in basic research and bioengineering. By significantly lowering financial thresholds, this powerful cardiac electrophysiology imaging modality may gain wider use in research and, even, teaching laboratories, which we substantiated using the lower-cost Langendorff-perfused rabbit heart model.

  7. Public Health Response Systems In-Action: Learning from Local Health Departments’ Experiences with Acute and Emergency Incidents

    PubMed Central

    Hunter, Jennifer C.; Yang, Jane E.; Crawley, Adam W.; Biesiadecki, Laura; Aragón, Tomás J.

    2013-01-01

    As part of their core mission, public health agencies attend to a wide range of disease and health threats, including those that require routine, acute, and emergency responses. While each incident is unique, the number and type of response activities are finite; therefore, through comparative analysis, we can learn about commonalities in the response patterns that could improve predictions and expectations regarding the resources and capabilities required to respond to future acute events. In this study, we interviewed representatives from more than 120 local health departments regarding their recent experiences with real-world acute public health incidents, such as infectious disease outbreaks, severe weather events, chemical spills, and bioterrorism threats. We collected highly structured data on key aspects of the incident and the public health response, particularly focusing on the public health activities initiated and community partners engaged in the response efforts. As a result, we are able to make comparisons across event types, create response profiles, and identify functional and structural response patterns that have import for future public health preparedness and response. Our study contributes to clarifying the complexity of public health response systems and our analysis reveals the ways in which these systems are adaptive to the character of the threat, resulting in differential activation of functions and partners based on the type of incident. Continued and rigorous examination of the experiences of health departments throughout the nation will refine our very understanding of what the public health response system is, will enable the identification of organizational and event inputs to performance, and will allow for the construction of rich, relevant, and practical models of response operations that can be employed to strengthen public health systems. PMID:24236137

  8. Preliminary Engineering Design Package for the Basin A Neck Groundwater Intercept and Treatment System Interim Response Action

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-02-01

    this conclusion are: The air stripping process is most effective in treating volatile organic compounds which were detected in relatively low...Treatment Hydraulic Capacity ............... 10 3.6.4 Process Selection and Design Analysis ... 10 3.6.4.1 Pre and Post-Filtration .......... 12...3.6.4.2 Activated Carbon Adsorption .... 16 3.6.5 Groundwater Treatment System Process Description ........................... 19 3.6.5.1 Flow Equalization

  9. Allatotropin-like neuropeptide in the cockroach abdominal nervous system: myotropic actions, sexually dimorphic distribution and colocalization with serotonin.

    PubMed

    Rudwall, A J; Sliwowska, J; Nässel, D R

    2000-12-04

    Allatotropin (AT) was isolated from the moth Manduca sexta as a peptide stimulating biosynthesis of juvenile hormone in the corpora allata, but has also been shown to be cardioactive in the same species. Here, we have investigated the presence and biological activity of AT-like peptide in the cockroaches Leucophaea maderae and Periplaneta americana with focus on abdominal ganglia and their target tissues. An antiserum to M. sexta AT was used for immunocytochemical mapping of neurons in the abdominal ganglia. A small number of interneurons and efferent neurons were found AT-like immunoreactive (AT-LI) in each of the abdominal ganglia. A prominent sexual dimorphism was detected in the terminal abdominal ganglion: in L. maderae the male ganglion there are approximately 18 AT-LI neurons with cell bodies posteriorly and efferent axons in the genital nerves; in the female ganglion 4-5 AT-LI cell bodies (with efferent axons) were found in the same region. Correlated with the extra efferents in males, the male accessory glands are richly supplied by AT-LI fibers and in females a less prominent innervation was seen in oviduct muscle. A similar dimorphism was seen in abdominal ganglia of P. americana. A sexual dimorphism was also detected in the abdominal ganglia A4-A6 of L. maderae. In each of these ganglia, approximately 8-10 large AT-LI neuronal cell bodies were found along the midline; in females these neurons have significantly larger cell bodies than in males. In both sexes, and both cockroach species, two large dorsal midline neurons were detected in A-5 and 6, which seem to send axons to the hindgut: the rectal pads of the hindgut are supplied by arborizing AT-LI axons. In males and females of both species, efferent AT-LI axons from midline neurons in A3-A6 supply the lateral heart nerves and other neurohemal release sites with arborizations. The efferent midline neurons of females contain colocalized serotonin-immunoreactivity. We tested the in vitro actions of M

  10. Linking local knowledge with global action: examining the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria through a knowledge system lens.

    PubMed

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole

    2006-08-01

    New global public health institutions are increasingly emphasizing transparency in decision-making, developing-country ownership of projects and programmes, and merit- and performance-based funding. Such principles imply an institutional response to the challenge of bridging the "know-do gap", by basing decisions explicitly on results, evidence and best practice. Using a knowledge systems framework, we examine how the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has affected the ways in which knowledge is used in efforts to combat these three diseases. We outline the formal knowledge system embedded in current rules and practices associated with the Global Fund's application process, and give three examples that illustrate the complexity of the knowledge system in action: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policy in China; successful applications from Haiti; and responses to changing research on malaria. These examples show that the Global Fund has created strong incentives for knowledge to flow to local implementers, but with little encouragement and few structures for the potentially valuable lessons from implementation to flow back to global best practice or research-based knowledge. The Global Fund could play an influential role in fostering much-needed learning from implementation. We suggest that three initial steps are required to start this process: acknowledging shared responsibility for learning across the knowledge system; analysing the Global Fund's existing data (and refining data collection over time); and supporting recipients and technical partners to invest resources in linking implementation with best practice and research.

  11. Linking local knowledge with global action: examining the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria through a knowledge system lens.

    PubMed Central

    van Kerkhoff, Lorrae; Szlezák, Nicole

    2006-01-01

    New global public health institutions are increasingly emphasizing transparency in decision-making, developing-country ownership of projects and programmes, and merit- and performance-based funding. Such principles imply an institutional response to the challenge of bridging the "know-do gap", by basing decisions explicitly on results, evidence and best practice. Using a knowledge systems framework, we examine how the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria has affected the ways in which knowledge is used in efforts to combat these three diseases. We outline the formal knowledge system embedded in current rules and practices associated with the Global Fund's application process, and give three examples that illustrate the complexity of the knowledge system in action: human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) policy in China; successful applications from Haiti; and responses to changing research on malaria. These examples show that the Global Fund has created strong incentives for knowledge to flow to local implementers, but with little encouragement and few structures for the potentially valuable lessons from implementation to flow back to global best practice or research-based knowledge. The Global Fund could play an influential role in fostering much-needed learning from implementation. We suggest that three initial steps are required to start this process: acknowledging shared responsibility for learning across the knowledge system; analysing the Global Fund's existing data (and refining data collection over time); and supporting recipients and technical partners to invest resources in linking implementation with best practice and research. PMID:16917650

  12. Improving the Effectiveness and Acquisition Management of Selected Weapon Systems: A Summary of Major Issues and Recommended Actions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-05-14

    delayed until after the production decision. A prime operational issue is the missile’s motor which pro- duces significant amounts of smoke under many...humidity and tempera- ture conditions. The smoke makes the launch helicopter more visible to the enemy. In addition, it can obscure the crew’s field of...Payload Remain Unresolved MASAD-81-24 04/06/81 An Assesment of the Navy’s Mine Warfare Mission (SECRET) C-MASAD-81-13 04/30/81 Aquiring Weapon Systems in

  13. Final Decision Document for the North Boundary System Improvements, Interim Response Action at the Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-04-01

    ADAMS CO. DAURASAO CO. 3CM *R.dRg Source:RESSER1988 -3-3 ’ova N30 IM Taak 36 Pwog~c k"n Wie "/ /2’" MMO Sl I ARS’ENAL s• , L ___L_ ___., _..._ J, Figure...not be located where there is a significant risk from earthquakes, floods, fires or - 27 - I. other disasters which could cause a breakdown of these...NBS is a fixed, engineered treatment system. As such, it must passively wait for contaminants in the soil and groundwater to approach it from the

  14. Agrp neurons mediate Sirt1's action on the melanocortin system and energy balance: roles for Sirt1 in neuronal firing and synaptic plasticity.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Marcelo O; Antunes, Catiele; Geliang, Gan; Liu, Zhong-Wu; Borok, Erzsebet; Nie, Yongzhan; Xu, Allison W; Souza, Diogo O; Gao, Qian; Diano, Sabrina; Gao, Xiao-Bing; Horvath, Tamas L

    2010-09-01

    Sirt1 has been associated with various effects of calorie restriction, including an increase in lifespan. Here we show in mice that a central regulatory component in energy metabolism, the hypothalamic melanocortin system, is affected by Sirt1, which promotes the activity and connectivity of this system resulting in negative energy balance. In adult mice, the pharmacological inhibition of brain Sirt1 activity decreased Agrp neuronal activity and the inhibitory tone on the anorexigenic POMC neurons, as measured by the number of synaptic inputs to these neurons. When a Sirt1 inhibitor (EX-527) was injected either peripherally (i.p., 10 mg/kg) or directly into the brain (i.c.v., 1.5 nmol/mouse), it decreased both food intake during the dark cycle and ghrelin-induced food intake. This effect on feeding is mediated by upstream melanocortin receptors, because the MC4R antagonist, SHU9119, reversed Sirt1's effect on food intake. This action of Sirt1 required an appropriate shift in the mitochondrial redox state: in the absence of such an adaptation enabled by the mitochondrial protein, UCP2, Sirt1-induced cellular and behavioral responses were impaired. In accordance with the pharmacological results, the selective knock-out of Sirt1 in hypothalamic Agrp neurons through the use of Cre-Lox technology decreased electric responses of Agrp neurons to ghrelin and decreased food intake, leading to decreased lean mass, fat mass, and body weight. The present data indicate that Sirt1 has a central mode of action by acting on the NPY/Agrp neurons to affect body metabolism.

  15. The Mechanism of the Osteoprotective Action of a Polyphenol-Rich Aronia melanocarpa Extract during Chronic Exposure to Cadmium is Mediated by the Oxidative Defense System.

    PubMed

    Brzóska, Malgorzata M; Rogalska, Joanna; Roszczenko, Alicja; Galazyn-Sidorczuk, Malgorzata; Tomczyk, Michal

    2016-05-01

    Recently, we demonstrated in a rat model that consumption of a polyphenol-rich extract obtained from the berries of Aronia melanocarpa could protect from cadmium-induced disorders in bone turnover and changes in bone mineral status. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the osteoprotective effect of this extract is mediated by the oxidative defense system. Enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidants, total antioxidative and oxidative status, hydrogen peroxide, and markers of oxidative protein, lipid, and DNA damage were determined in bone tissue at the distal femoral epiphysis of female Wistar rats receiving 0.1 % aqueous A. melanocarpa extract (prepared from the lyophilized commercial extract containing 65.74 % of polyphenols) as the only drinking fluid and/or cadmium in the diet (1 and 5 mg/kg) for 3, 10, 17, and 24 months. The total oxidative and antioxidative status of the serum was also evaluated. The administration of A. melanocarpa extract provided significant protection from cadmium-induced oxidative stress in the bone and serum, and from lipid peroxidation and oxidative damage to the protein and DNA in the bone tissue. Numerous correlations were noted between indices of the oxidative/antioxidative bone status and markers of bone metabolism previously assayed in the animals receiving A. melanocarpa extract. The results allow the conclusion that the ability of A. melanocarpa extract to mediate the oxidative defense system and prevent oxidative modifications of protein, lipid, and DNA in the bone tissue plays an important role in its osteoprotective action under exposure to cadmium. The findings provide further evidence supporting our suggestion that chokeberry may be a promising natural agent for protection against the toxic action of cadmium in women chronically exposed to this metal.

  16. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Booth, N. L.; Everman, E.; Kuo, I.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-12-01

    A new web-based decision support system has been developed as part of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) National Water Quality Assessment Program's (NAWQA) effort to provide ready access to Spatially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) results of stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via an intuitive graphical user interface with a map-based display. The SPARROW Decision Support System (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions, distribution of nutrient sources, nutrient delivery to downstream waterbodies, and simulations of altered nutrient inputs including atmospheric and agricultural sources. The DSS offers other features for analysis including various background map layers, model output exports, and the ability to save and share prediction scenarios. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. The underlying modeling framework and server infrastructure illustrate innovations in the information technology and geosciences fields for delivering SPARROW model predictions over the web by performing intensive model computations and map visualizations of the predicted conditions within the stream network.

  17. Estrogen receptor β actions in the female cardiovascular system: A systematic review of animal and human studies.

    PubMed

    Muka, Taulant; Vargas, Kris G; Jaspers, Loes; Wen, Ke-xin; Dhana, Klodian; Vitezova, Anna; Nano, Jana; Brahimaj, Adela; Colpani, Veronica; Bano, Arjola; Kraja, Bledar; Zaciragic, Asija; Bramer, Wichor M; van Dijk, Gaby M; Kavousi, Maryam; Franco, Oscar H

    2016-04-01

    Five medical databases were searched for studies that assessed the role of ERβ in the female cardiovascular system and the influence of age and menopause on ERβ functioning. Of 9472 references, 88 studies met our inclusion criteria (71 animal model experimental studies, 15 human model experimental studies and 2 population based studies). ERβ signaling was shown to possess vasodilator and antiangiogenic properties by regulating the activity of nitric oxide, altering membrane ionic permeability in vascular smooth muscle cells, inhibiting vascular smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation and by regulating adrenergic control of the arteries. Also, a possible protective effect of ERβ signaling against left ventricular hypertrophy and ischemia/reperfusion injury via genomic and non-genomic pathways was suggested in 27 studies. Moreover, 5 studies reported that the vascular effects of ERβ may be vessel specific and may differ by age and menopause status. ERβ seems to possess multiple functions in the female cardiovascular system. Further studies are needed to evaluate whether isoform-selective ERβ-ligands might contribute to cardiovascular disease prevention.

  18. Action of the noradrenergic system on adult-born cells is required for olfactory learning in mice.

    PubMed

    Moreno, Melissa M; Bath, Kevin; Kuczewski, Nicola; Sacquet, Joëlle; Didier, Anne; Mandairon, Nathalie

    2012-03-14

    We have previously shown that an experience-driven improvement in olfactory discrimination (perceptual learning) requires the addition of newborn neurons in the olfactory bulb (OB). Despite this advance, the mechanisms which govern the selective survival of newborn OB neurons following learning remain largely unknown. We propose that activity of the noradrenergic system is a critical mediator providing a top-down signal to control the selective survival of newly born cells and support perceptual learning. In adult mice, we used pharmacological means to manipulate the noradrenergic system and neurogenesis and to assess their individual and additive effects on behavioral performance on a perceptual learning task. We then looked at the effects of these manipulations on regional survival of adult-born cells in the OB. Finally, using confocal imaging and electrophysiology, we investigated potential mechanisms by which noradrenaline could directly influence the survival of adult-born cells. Consistent with our hypotheses, direct manipulation of noradrenergic transmission significantly effect on adult-born cell survival and perceptual learning. Specifically, learning required both the presence of adult-born cell and noradrenaline. Finally, we provide a mechanistic link between these effects by showing that adult-born neurons receive noradrenergic projections and are responsive to noradrenaline. Based upon these data we argue that noradrenergic transmission is a key mechanism selecting adult-born neurons during learning and demonstrate that top-down neuromodulation acts on adult-born neuron survival to modulate learning performance.

  19. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems

    PubMed Central

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides. PMID:27125755

  20. A comprehensive analysis of the influence of drug binding kinetics on drug action at molecular and systems levels.

    PubMed

    Yin, Ning; Pei, Jianfeng; Lai, Luhua

    2013-06-01

    Binding kinetics is closely related to the efficacy of drugs. Several aspects of binding kinetics, such as long residence or frequent dissociation, have been proposed to affect drug properties such as efficacy, selectivity, and multi-target potency. However, a comprehensive and balanced study of binding kinetics in various scenarios is still needed. We performed a comprehensive computational analysis of the role of drug binding kinetics in various situations such as enzyme inhibition, receptor binding, multi-target drug targeting, signal transduction pathways, and metabolic networks. Molecular studies of enzyme inhibition, receptor binding, and multi-target drugs have shown that at constant binding affinity, fast associating drugs show better enzyme inhibitory effects, earlier and higher receptor occupancy peaks, and better multi-target performances, while slow dissociating drugs show prolonged receptor occupancy, as suggested by others. Different situations exemplify slightly different kinetic-efficacy relationships, and each must be considered separately. At the systems level, binding kinetics can not only change the overall effect of drugs, but can also affect signaling dynamics. For example, in the tumor necrosis factor α-induced nuclear factor-κB pathway, inhibitor addition can delay the onset of oscillations and decrease their frequencies, with these changes varying with the binding kinetics of the inhibitor. The effects of drug binding kinetics also depend on network topology and where the target is located in the network. For successful drug discovery, both molecular binding kinetics and systems level requirements need to be considered.

  1. Improvement actions in waste management systems at the provincial scale based on a life cycle assessment evaluation.

    PubMed

    Rigamonti, L; Falbo, A; Grosso, M

    2013-11-01

    This paper reports some of the findings of the 'GERLA' project: GEstione Rifiuti in Lombardia - Analisi del ciclo di vita (Waste management in Lombardia - Life cycle assessment). The project was devoted to support Lombardia Region in the drafting of the new waste management plan by applying a life cycle thinking perspective. The present paper mainly focuses on four Provinces in the Region, which were selected based on their peculiarities. Life cycle assessment (LCA) was adopted as the methodology to assess the current performance of the integrated waste management systems, to discuss strengths and weaknesses of each of them and to design their perspective evolution as of year 2020. Results show that despite a usual business approach that is beneficial to all the provinces, the introduction of technological and management improvements to the system provides in general additional energy and environmental benefits for all four provinces. The same improvements can be easily extended to the whole Region, leading to increased environmental benefits from the waste management sector, in line with the targets set by the European Union for 2020.

  2. Ebola, fragile health systems and tuberculosis care: a call for pre-emptive action and operational research.

    PubMed

    Zachariah, R; Ortuno, N; Hermans, V; Desalegn, W; Rust, S; Reid, A J; Boeree, M J; Harries, A D

    2015-11-01

    The Ebola outbreak that started in late 2013 is by far the largest and most sustained in history. It occurred in a part of the world where pre-existing health systems were already fragile, and these deteriorated further during the epidemic due to a large number of health worker deaths; temporary or permanent closure of health facilities; non-payment of health workers; intrinsic fear of contracting or being stigmatised by Ebola among the population, which negatively influenced health-seeking behaviour; enforced quarantine of Ebola-affected communities, restricting the access of vulnerable individuals to health facilities; and late response by the international community. There are also reports of drug and consumable stockouts due to deficiencies in the procurement and supply chain as a result of overriding Ebola-related priorities. Providing tuberculosis (TB) care and achieving favourable treatment outcomes require a fully functioning health system, accurate patient tracking and high patient adherence to treatment. Furthermore, as Ebola is easily transmitted through body fluids, the use of needles-essential for TB diagnosis and treatment-needs to be avoided during an outbreak. We highlight ways in which a sustained Ebola outbreak could jeopardise TB activities and suggest pre-emptive preventive measures while awaiting operational research evidence.

  3. Cellulose and hemicellulose decomposition by forest soil bacteria proceeds by the action of structurally variable enzymatic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    López-Mondéjar, Rubén; Zühlke, Daniela; Becher, Dörte; Riedel, Katharina; Baldrian, Petr

    2016-04-01

    Evidence shows that bacteria contribute actively to the decomposition of cellulose and hemicellulose in forest soil; however, their role in this process is still unclear. Here we performed the screening and identification of bacteria showing potential cellulolytic activity from litter and organic soil of a temperate oak forest. The genomes of three cellulolytic isolates previously described as abundant in this ecosystem were sequenced and their proteomes were characterized during the growth on plant biomass and on microcrystalline cellulose. Pedobacter and Mucilaginibacter showed complex enzymatic systems containing highly diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes for the degradation of cellulose and hemicellulose, which were functionally redundant for endoglucanases, β-glucosidases, endoxylanases, β-xylosidases, mannosidases and carbohydrate-binding modules. Luteibacter did not express any glycosyl hydrolases traditionally recognized as cellulases. Instead, cellulose decomposition was likely performed by an expressed GH23 family protein containing a cellulose-binding domain. Interestingly, the presence of plant lignocellulose as well as crystalline cellulose both trigger the production of a wide set of hydrolytic proteins including cellulases, hemicellulases and other glycosyl hydrolases. Our findings highlight the extensive and unexplored structural diversity of enzymatic systems in cellulolytic soil bacteria and indicate the roles of multiple abundant bacterial taxa in the decomposition of cellulose and other plant polysaccharides.

  4. 21 CFR 120.10 - Corrective actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION HAZARD ANALYSIS AND CRITICAL CONTROL POINT (HACCP) SYSTEMS General Provisions § 120.10 Corrective actions. Whenever a deviation from a critical limit occurs, a processor shall take corrective action by... a deviation from a critical limit. A corrective action plan that is appropriate for a...

  5. Granularity within the mirror system is not informative on action perception. Comment on "Grasping synergies: A motor-control approach to the mirror neuron mechanism" by D'Ausilio et al.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cattaneo, Luigi

    2015-03-01

    The present work [1] reviews a part of the now vast literature on visuomotor stimulus-response associations in the domain of action observation, commonly referred to as mirror mechanism or mirror system. The aim of the study is to propose a solution to a currently debated problem, namely in what frame of reference are mirror neurons coding movement. The solution proposed here is that, if the mirror system is part of the motor system, then the motor responses to action observation must be in the same frames of reference as that generally observed in the production of voluntary actions. This idea is part of the very first conceptualizations of the mirror system ("Each time an individual sees an action done by another individual, neurons that represent that action are activated in the observer's premotor cortex. This automatically induced, motor representation of the observed action corresponds to that which is spontaneously generated during active action and whose outcome is known to the acting individual" [2]) and has been explicitly proposed earlier [3] in the attempt of reconciling the very different findings in the literature on the mirror system's frames of reference. The novelty of the present approach is the explicit reference to the 'motor synergy' theory of voluntary hand movements. This theory states that the high number of degrees of freedom intrinsic to hand anatomy is reduced by the motor system to few principal components named motor synergies that are the building blocks of voluntary behavior [4]. I am enthusiastic about two points proposed by D'Ausilio in the present review and I am skeptical about some other points.

  6. From mechanisms of action to therapeutic application: A review on current therapeutic approaches and future directions in systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Del Papa, Nicoletta; Zaccara, Eleonora

    2015-12-01

    Systemic sclerosis (SSc) is one of the most complex connective tissue diseases. Although the pathogenesis of SSc still remains elusive, it is generally accepted that initial vascular injury due to autoimmunity might result in the constitutive activation of fibroblasts and fibrosis. All of these three processes interact and affect one another resulting in a polymorphous spectrum of clinical and pathologic manifestations of SSc. The disease pleomorphism poses numerous difficulties in defining the ideal outcomes to be used in clinical trials. Despite significant progress over the past decades, the clinical management of patients with SSc remains a challenge. Novel therapies are currently being tested in the treatment of SSc and have the potential for modifying the disease process and improving the clinical outcomes. However, the evaluation of the studies is still difficult, due to either the small size of included patients or the different types and phases of the scleroderma disease under scrutiny.

  7. Comparative Systems Biology Analysis To Study the Mode of Action of the Isothiocyanate Compound Iberin on Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Sean Yang-Yi; Liu, Yang; Chua, Song Lin; Vejborg, Rebecca Munk; Jakobsen, Tim Holm; Chew, Su Chuen; Li, Yingying; Nielsen, Thomas E.; Tolker-Nielsen, Tim; Givskov, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Food is now recognized as a natural resource of novel antimicrobial agents, including those that target the virulence mechanisms of bacterial pathogens. Iberin, an isothiocyanate compound from horseradish, was recently identified as a quorum-sensing inhibitor (QSI) of the bacterial pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In this study, we used a comparative systems biology approach to unravel the molecular mechanisms of the effects of iberin on QS and virulence factor expression of P. aeruginosa. Our study shows that the two systems biology methods used (i.e., RNA sequencing and proteomics) complement each other and provide a thorough overview of the impact of iberin on P. aeruginosa. RNA sequencing-based transcriptomics showed that iberin inhibits the expression of the GacA-dependent small regulatory RNAs RsmY and RsmZ; this was verified by using gfp-based transcriptional reporter fusions with the rsmY or rsmZ promoter regions. Isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation (iTRAQ) proteomics showed that iberin reduces the abundance of the LadS protein, an activator of GacS. Taken together, the findings suggest that the mode of QS inhibition in iberin is through downregulation of the Gac/Rsm QS network, which in turn leads to the repression of QS-regulated virulence factors, such as pyoverdine, chitinase, and protease IV. Lastly, as expected from the observed repression of small regulatory RNA synthesis, we also show that iberin effectively reduces biofilm formation. This suggests that small regulatory RNAs might serve as potential targets in the future development of therapies against pathogens that use QS for controlling virulence factor expression and assume the biofilm mode of growth in the process of causing disease. PMID:25155599

  8. The action of water films at Å-scales in the Earth: Implications for the Nankai subduction system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Kevin M.; Poeppe, Dean; Josh, Matthew; Sample, James; Even, Emilie; Saffer, Demian; Tobin, Harold; Hirose, Takehiro; Kulongoski, J. T.; Toczko, Sean; Maeda, Lena

    2017-04-01

    Water properties change with confinement within nanofilms trapped between natural charged clay particles. We investigated nanofilm characteristics through high-stress laboratory compression tests in combination with analyses of expelled pore fluids. We utilized sediments obtained from deep drilling of the Nankai subduction zone at Site C0002 of the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP). We show that below 1-2 km, there should be widespread ultrafiltration of migrating fluids. Experiments to > ∼ 100 MPa normal compression collapse pores below a few ion monofilm thicknesses. A reduction towards a single condensing/dehydrating ion monofilm occurs as stresses rise >100-200 MPa and clay separations are reduced to <10-20 Å. Thus, porosity in high mineral surface area systems only consists of double and single monofilms at depths below a few km leaving little room for either bulk water or the deep biosphere. The resulting semipermeable properties result in variable segregation of ions and charged isotopes and water during active flow. The ultrafiltration and ion dehydration processes are coupled in that both require the partial immobilization of ions between the charged clay surfaces. The general effect is to increase salinities in residual pore fluids at depth and freshen fluids expelled during consolidation. Cessation of nanofilm collapse to a near constant ∼17 Å below 2 km depth at Nankai supports the contention for the onset of substantial geopressuring on the deeper seismogenic fault. The properties of monofilm water, thus, have considerable implications for the deep water properties of subduction zones generating major tremor and Mw 8+ earthquakes. Indeed, the combined effects of advective flow, ultrafiltration, diffusion, and diagenesis could provide a unifying explanation for the origins of overpressuring and pore water geochemical signals observed in many natural systems.

  9. Technology assessment and citizen action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mottur, E. R.

    1972-01-01

    The importance of citizen participation in the assessment process is discussed, and a system for citizen assessment action is proposed. A national assessment system is outlined. Citizen participation is considered essential in the assessment process, and impediments to effective action taken by citizens are discussed. These impediments are finance, organization and motivation, and information. The establishment of citizens' assessment associations is proposed, whose functioning would be fostered and regulated by the Citizens' Assessment Administration. The organization, functions, and financing of these associations are described. The implications of citizen action are indicated as the extensive use of class action suits, the broad interpretation of associated costs of litigation, and the use of present scientific research as evidence to assert that it is reasonable to conclude that certain consequences are probable to occur in the future.

  10. Action Production Influences 12-Month-Old Infants' Attention to Others' Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannon, Erin N.; Woodward, Amanda L.; Gredeback, Gustaf; von Hofsten, Claes; Turek, Colleen

    2012-01-01

    Recent work implicates a link between action control systems and action understanding. In this study, we investigated the role of the motor system in the development of visual anticipation of others' actions. Twelve-month-olds engaged in behavioral and observation tasks. "Containment activity", infants' spontaneous engagement in producing…

  11. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  12. A Web-Based Decision Support System for Assessing Regional Water-Quality Conditions and Management Actions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Booth, N.L.; Everman, E.J.; Kuo, I.-L.; Sprague, L.; Murphy, L.

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey National Water Quality Assessment Program has completed a number of water-quality prediction models for nitrogen and phosphorus for the conterminous United States as well as for regional areas of the nation. In addition to estimating water-quality conditions at unmonitored streams, the calibrated SPAtially Referenced Regressions On Watershed attributes (SPARROW) models can be used to produce estimates of yield, flow-weighted concentration, or load of constituents in water under various land-use condition, change, or resource management scenarios. A web-based decision support infrastructure has been developed to provide access to SPARROW simulation results on stream water-quality conditions and to offer sophisticated scenario testing capabilities for research and water-quality planning via a graphical user interface with familiar controls. The SPARROW decision support system (DSS) is delivered through a web browser over an Internet connection, making it widely accessible to the public in a format that allows users to easily display water-quality conditions and to describe, test, and share modeled scenarios of future conditions. SPARROW models currently supported by the DSS are based on the modified digital versions of the 1:500,000-scale River Reach File (RF1) and 1:100,000-scale National Hydrography Dataset (medium-resolution, NHDPlus) stream networks. ?? 2011 American Water Resources Association. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Action of silver nanoparticles towards biological systems: cytotoxicity evaluation using hen's egg test and inhibition of Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

    PubMed

    Freire, Priscila L L; Stamford, Thayza C M; Albuquerque, Allan J R; Sampaio, Fabio C; Cavalcante, Horacinna M M; Macedo, Rui O; Galembeck, André; Flores, Miguel A P; Rosenblatt, Aronita

    2015-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytotoxicity and bactericidal properties of four silver nanoparticle (AgNP) colloids and their ability to inhibit Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel. The cytotoxicity of AgNPs was evaluated based on signs of vascular change on the chorioallantoic membrane using the hen's egg test (HET-CAM). Bactericidal properties and inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation were determined using a parallel-flow cell system and a dichromatic fluorescent stain. The percentage of viable cells was calculated from regression data generated from a viability standard. AgNP colloids proved to be non-irritating, as they were unable to promote vasoconstriction, haemorrhage or coagulation. AgNP colloids inhibited S. mutans biofilm formation on dental enamel, and cell viability measured by fluorescence was 0% for samples S1, S2, S3 and S4 and 36.5% for the positive control (diluted 30% silver diamine fluoride). AgNPs are new products with a low production cost because they have a lower concentration of silver, with low toxicity and an effective bactericidal effect against a cariogenic oral bacterium. Moreover, they do not promote colour change in dental enamel, which is an aesthetic advantage compared with traditional silver products.

  14. Optical properties and surface structure comparison of tooth whitening using four laser systems and chemical action agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dostalova, Tatjana; Jelinkova, Helena; Koranda, Pavel; Nemec, Michal; Sulc, Jan; Housova, Devana; Miyagi, Mitsunobu; Kokta, Milan R.

    2003-06-01

    The purpose of the study is to evaluate the effect of various laser techniques for bleaching teeth in office vital whitening. Hydrogen peroxide (30% concentration) and carbamide peroxide (10% solution) were used for chemical activation of bleaching process. Extracted non-carcious upper central incisors were exposed to laser radiation. Four different laser systems (Nd:YAG laser SHG, wavelength 0.53 μm, CTE:YAG laser, wavelength 2.7 μm, Nd:YAG laser, wavelength 1.06 μm, and alexandrite laser, wavelength 0.75 μm) were applied to accelerate the speed of the process. The end of chemical exposition was verified by the change of bleaching agent color. The color change was determined by stereomicroscope (Nikon SMZ 2T, Japan), the quality of surface structure was checked by scanning electron microscope Joel, Japan). The speed of bleaching rnaged from 630 s (chemical methods only) to 250-340 s (chemicals + alexandrite laser radiation). The Alexandrite laser application was considered an elective process to decrease the time of bleaching without modifying the surface.

  15. Platform for Action: update.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    The Center for Women's Global Leadership (CWGL) has collaborated in the preparation of amendments and strategies designed to withstand the challenges being posed to the Platform for Action of the Fourth World Conference on Women. Specific challenges include the inappropriate use of the word "universal" to modify "human rights." This implies that some human rights are less than universal. The strategy proposed is to accept the use of the word "universal" in this context only when it affirms principles of universality contained in the Vienna Programme of Action and not where its use would restrict the rights to which women are entitled. A second concern is over the use of the word "equity" rather than "equality" when referring to gender relations. The use of these terms will be carefully monitored to insure that "equity" not be used to undermine the principle of gender equality. The third concern is the efforts of some governments to hinder the integration of women's human rights throughout the UN system. Such efforts will be opposed. Fourth, the CWGL will seek the inclusion of language which recognizes the barriers that different groups of women face when trying to secure their rights. Finally, the CWGL will propose inclusion of language recognizing and protecting sexual orientation rights. The CWGL is also going to work to translate the abstract language of the Platform for Action into political organizing potential to insure that governments will follow through on their agreements.

  16. Archetypes as action patterns.

    PubMed

    Hogenson, George B

    2009-06-01

    The discovery of mirror neurons by researchers at the University of Parma promises to radically alter our understanding of fundamental cognitive and affective states. This paper explores the relationship of mirror neurons to Jung's theory of archetypes and proposes that archetypes may be viewed as elementary action patterns. The paper begins with a review of a proposed interpretation of the fainting spells of S. Freud in his relationship with Jung as an example of an action pattern that also defines an archetypal image. The challenge that mirror neurons present to traditional views in analytical psychology and psychoanalysis, however, is that they operate without recourse to a cognitive processing element. This is a position that is gaining increasing acceptance in other fields as well. The paper therefore reviews the most recent claims made by the Boston Process of Change Study Group as well as conclusions drawn from dynamic systems views of development and theoretical robotics to underline the conclusion that unconscious agency is not a requirement for coherent action. It concludes with the suggestion that this entire body of research may lead to the conclusion that the dynamic unconscious is an unnecessary hypothesis in psychoanalysis and analytical psychology.

  17. Contrasting actions of diesel exhaust particles on the pulmonary and cardiovascular systems and the effects of thymoquinone

    PubMed Central

    Nemmar, Abderrahim; Al-Salam, Suhail; Zia, Shaheen; Marzouqi, Fatima; Al-Dhaheri, Amna; Subramaniyan, Deepa; Dhanasekaran, Subramanian; Yasin, Javed; Ali, Badreldin H; Kazzam, Elsadig E

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Acute exposure to particulate air pollution has been linked to acute cardiopulmonary events, but the underlying mechanisms are uncertain. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH We investigated the acute (at 4 and 18 h) effects of diesel exhaust particles (DEP) on cardiopulmonary parameters in mice and the protective effect of thymoquinone, a constituent of Nigella sativa. Mice were given, intratracheally, either saline (control) or DEP (30 µg·per mouse). KEY RESULTS At 18 h (but not 4 h) after giving DEP, there was lung inflammation and loss of lung function. At both 4 and 18 h, DEP caused systemic inflammation characterized by leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentrations and reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP). Superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was decreased only at 18 h. DEP reduced platelet numbers and aggravated in vivo thrombosis in pial arterioles. In vitro, addition of DEP (0.1–1 µg·mL−1) to untreated blood-induced platelet aggregation. Pretreatment of mice with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced decrease of SBP and leucocytosis, increased IL-6 concentration and decreased plasma SOD activity. Thymoquinone also prevented the decrease in platelet numbers and the prothrombotic events but not platelet aggregation in vitro. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS At 4 h after DEP exposure, the cardiovascular changes did not appear to result from pulmonary inflammation but possibly from the entry of DEP and/or their associated components into blood. However, at 18 h, DEP induced significant changes in pulmonary and cardiovascular functions along with lung inflammation. Pretreatment with thymoquinone prevented DEP-induced cardiovascular changes. PMID:21501145

  18. Transients and cooperative action of β-carotene, vitamin E and C in biological systems in vitro under irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Getoff, Nikola; Platzer, Isabel; Winkelbauer, Cornelia

    1999-08-01

    Using N •3 species as specific electron acceptor a defined ascorbate radical: AH •↔A •-+H + (λ max=360 nm, ɛ=3400 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1) is observed. The attack of DMSO •+ on vit.E results in a vit.E • radical ( k=1×10 9 dm 3 mol -1 s -1; λ max=425 nm, ɛ=2400 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1; 2 k=4.7×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1). Vit.E-acetate leads to the formation of a radical cation (vit.E-ac •+). β-carotene reacts also with DMSO •+ forming a radical cation, β-car •+ ( k=1.75×10 8 dm 3 mol -1 s -1; λ max=942 nm, ɛ=14 600 dm 3 mol -1 cm -1), which probably leads to the formation of a dimer radical cation, (β-car) •+2 ( k=2.5×10 7 dm 3 mol -1 s -1). Using E.coli bacteria (AB1157) as a model system in vitro it was found that all three vitamins are rather efficient radiation protecting agents. They can also increase the activity of cytostatica, e.g., mitomycin C (MMC), by electron transfer process. The mixture of vit.E-ac and β-car acts contradictory, but adding vit.C to it a strong cooperative enhancement of the MMC activity is observed once again. A relationship between the pulse radiolysis and the radiation biological data is found and discussed. A possible explanation of the previously reported trials concerning the role of vit.E and β-car on the increased occurence of lung and other types of cancer in smokers and drinkers is presented.

  19. Letter Report to Address Comments on the Closure Report for Corrective Action Unit 224: Decon Pad and Septic Systems, Nevada Test Site, Nevada, Revision 0, March 2008

    SciTech Connect

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2008-03-17

    The Closure Report (CR) for Corrective Action Unit (CAU) 224, Decon Pad and Septic Systems, was approved by the Nevada Department of Environmental Protection (NDEP) on November 01, 2007. The approval letter contained the following two comments: Comment 1--For 06-05-01, 06-17-04, 06-23-01 provide evidence that the 6 inch VCP pipe originating from building CP-2 is no longer active and sealed to prevent possible future contamination. Comment 2--For the area that includes 06-03-01, provide evidence that active lines are no longer feeding the North and South lagoons and have been sealed to prevent possible future contamination. To address these comments, closure documentation was reviewed, and site visits were conducted to locate and document the areas of concern. Additional fieldwork was conducted in March 2008 to seal the lines and openings described in the two comments. Photographs were taken of the closed drains and lines to document that the NDEP comments were adequately addressed and potential inadvertent discharge to the environment has been eliminated. Investigation and closure documentation was reviewed to identify the locations of potential drains, lines, and other features that could receive and/or transmit liquid. Based on the investigation findings and subsequent closure activities, no openings, distribution boxes, or other features (excluding known floor drains at CP-2) that could receive liquid were found at the CP-2 location (Figure 1), and potential manholes for the north and south sewage lagoons were identified for Corrective Action Site (CAS) 06-03-01 (Figure 2). The distribution box identified in Figure 1 was not located during the investigation and was assumed to have been previously removed.

  20. Protective actions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system: potential role of membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) in mediating rapid effects.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Peter; Pang, Yefei

    2013-06-01

    The protective functions of progesterone in the cardiovascular system have received little attention even though evidence has accumulated that progesterone lowers blood pressure, inhibits coronary hyperactivity and has powerful vasodilatory and natriuretic effects. One possible reason why potential beneficial actions of progesterone on cardiovascular functions have not been extensively studied is that divergent effects to those of progesterone have been observed in many clinical trials with synthetic progestins such as medroxyprogesterone acetate which are associated with increased risk of coronary disease. Evidence that progesterone exerts protective effects on cardiovascular functions is briefly reviewed. The finding that progesterone administration decreases blood vessel vasoconstriction in several animal models within a few minutes suggests that rapid, nongenomic progesterone mechanisms are of physiological importance in regulating vascular tone. Rapid activation of second messenger pathways by progesterone has been observed in vascular endothelial and smooth muscle cells, resulting in alterations in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) activity and calcium influx, respectively. Both nuclear progesterone receptors (PRs) and novel membrane progesterone receptors (mPRs) are candidates for the intermediaries in these rapid, cell-surface initiated progesterone actions in endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. PRs have been detected in both cell types. New data are presented showing mPRα, mPRβ and mPRγ are also present in human endothelial and smooth muscle vascular cells. Preliminary evidence suggests mPRs mediate rapid progestin signaling in these endothelial cells, resulting in down-regulation of cAMP production and increased nitric oxide synthesis. The role of mPRs in progesterone regulation of cardiovascular functions warrants further investigation.

  1. Neurobiological actions of cysteamine

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.; Fisher, L.; Mason, R.T.; Rivier, J.; Vale, W.

    1985-06-01

    Somatostatin (SS)-related peptides act within discrete brain regions to inhibit adrenal epinephrine (E) secretion, to prevent hypothermia, and to produce hyperthermia. Depletion of brain concentrations of these SS-related peptides using cysteamine (CSH) or central administration of an SS receptor antagonist increases adrenal E secretion and impairs thermoregulation. These actions of CSH and the SS receptor antagonist are reversed by administration of SS into the central nervous system. These results support the hypothesis that endogenous brain SS-related peptides are involved in the regulation of adrenal E secretion and thermoregulation.

  2. 3RS action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-01-01

    The goal of the Solid Waste Interim Steering Committee (SWISC) process is to develop a long-term waste management system for the Greater Toronto Area (GTA), to be in place by 1996, which is environmentally, socially, economically and technically sound. This background report is being released to the public and member Regional Councils to facilitate input to the SWISC planning process. The report documents current reduction, reuse and recycling initiatives in the GTA, identifies opportunities for coordination and collaboration among the GTA communities, and develops an action plan for improving the effectiveness of the reduction, reuse and recycling efforts within the GTA.

  3. Crystal structure of isoflurane bound to integrin LFA-1 supports a unified mechanism of volatile anesthetic action in the immune and central nervous systems

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongmin; Astrof, Nathan S.; Liu, Jin-Huan; Wang, Jia-huai; Shimaoka, Motomu

    2009-09-15

    Volatile anesthetics (VAs), such as isoflurane, induce a general anesthetic state by binding to specific targets (i.e., ion channels) in the central nervous system (CNS). Simultaneously, VAs modulate immune functions, possibly via direct interaction with alternative targets on leukocytes. One such target, the integrin lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1), has been shown previously to be inhibited by isoflurane. A better understanding of the mechanism by which isoflurane alters protein function requires the detailed information about the drug-protein interaction at an atomic level. Here, we describe the crystal structure of the LFA-1 ligand-binding domain (I domain) in complex with isoflurane at 1.6 {angstrom}. We discovered that isoflurane binds to an allosteric cavity previously implicated as critical for the transition of LFA-1 from the low- to the high-affinity state. The isoflurane binding site in the I domain involves an array of amphiphilic interactions, thereby resembling a 'common anesthetic binding motif' previously predicted for authentic VA binding sites. These results suggest that the allosteric modulation of protein function by isoflurane, as demonstrated for the integrin LFA-1, might represent a unified mechanism shared by the interactions of volatile anesthetics with targets in the CNS. Crystal structure of isoflurane bound to integrin LFA-1 supports a unified mechanism of volatile anesthetic action in the immune and central nervous systems.

  4. [CROSS-TALK BETWEEN 5-HT1A AND 5-HT7 RECEPTORS: ROLE IN THE AUTOREGULATION OF THE BRAIN SEROTONIN SYSTEM AND IN MECHANISM OF ANTIDEPRESSANTS ACTION].

    PubMed

    Popova, N K; Ponimaskin, E G; Naumenko, V S

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies considerably extended our knowledge of the mechanisms and physiological role of the interaction between different receptors in the brain. Current review summarizes data on the formation of receptor complexes and the role of such complexes in the autoregulation of the brain serotonin system, behavioral abnormalities and mechanism of antidepressants action. Particular attention is paid to 5-HT1A and 5-HT7 receptor heterodimers. The results described in the present review indicate that: i) dimerization and formation of mobile receptor complexes is a common feature for the members of G-protein coupled receptor superfamily; ii) 5-HT7 receptor appears to be a modulator for 5-HT1A receptor - the key autoregulator of the brain serotonin system; iii) 5-HT1A/5-HT7 receptor complexes formation is one of the mechanisms for inactivation and desensitization of the 5-HTIA receptors in the brain; iv) differences in the 5-HT7 receptor and 5-HTIA/5-HT7 heterodimers density define different sensitivity of pre- and postsynaptic 5-HTlA receptors to chronic treatment with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors.

  5. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  6. Investigation of medico-biological action of intravasular irradiation of blood on the immune system of an organism at some pathological state of the peripheral nervous system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapina, Victoria A.; Tanina, Raisa M.

    1994-02-01

    We investigated the influence of intravenous laser irradiation of blood (ILIB) on the immune system of the organism at vertebrogenic disorders of the peripheral nervous system (PNS) with a prominent pain syndrome. It has been found that ILIB produces a positive effect on the immunity T-link increasing the proliferative activity of T-lymphocytes, has positive dynamics in clinics, doesn't cause any side or negative effects.

  7. Experimental evidence for the existence of the passive antitumor defense system formed by the synergistic action of certain small substances of the circulatory system.

    PubMed

    Kulcsár, Gyula

    2003-12-01

    In AIDS, only a few types of tumors (mainly Kaposi's sarcoma and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma) increase in incidence despite global abnormalities in the immune system. In addition, the reason for the higher incidence of these tumors is not immunosuppression but other agents. This shows that the immune system has no absolute role in the prevention of tumors. Consequently, the fact that tumors do not develop in the majority of the population during their lifetime, indicates the existence of other defense system(s). We demonstrated previously that a mixture of 16 substances (selected experimentally out of 89 compounds of the circulatory system using the synergistic tumor cell-killing effect as criteria) had a cytotoxic effect (inducing apoptosis) in vitro and in vivo on tumor cell lines, but not on normal cells in vitro or animals. In our hypothesis these substances (L-tryptophan, L-tyrosine, L-methionine, L(-)malate, L-ascorbate, L-arginine, L-phenylalanine, L-histidine, 2-deoxy-D-ribose, d-biotin, pyridoxine, adenine, riboflavin, D(+)-mannose, orotate, and hippurate) are the active agents of a passive antitumor defense system (PADS). On the basis of the results, a tablet and a cream were developed, and an infusion is in preclinical phase. In this study we demonstrate that the above-mentioned substances can kill tumor cells when the experimental protocols, concentrations, and cell numbers are chosen to be comparable to the physiological conditions that exist in the living system when these substances fight against arising cancer cells. The results of our experiments demonstrate that the PADS really works in the human body.

  8. The accountability for reasonableness approach to guide priority setting in health systems within limited resources – findings from action research at district level in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to

  9. Antidepressant-like effects of the cannabinoid receptor ligands in the forced swimming test in mice: mechanism of action and possible interactions with cholinergic system.

    PubMed

    Kruk-Slomka, Marta; Michalak, Agnieszka; Biala, Grazyna

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of the experiments was to explore the role of the endocannabinoid system, through cannabinoid (CB) receptor ligands, nicotine and scopolamine, in the depression-related responses using the forced swimming test (FST) in mice. Our results revealed that acute injection of oleamide (10 and 20 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor agonist, caused antidepressant-like effect in the FST, while AM 251 (0.25-3 mg/kg), a CB1 receptor antagonist, did not provoke any effect in this test. Moreover, acute administration of both CB2 receptor agonist, JWH 133 (0.5 and 1 mg/kg) and CB2 receptor antagonist, AM 630 (0.5 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant action. Antidepressant effects of oleamide and JWH 133 were attenuated by acute injection of both non-effective dose of AM 251, as well as AM 630. Among the all CB compounds used, only the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg) with non-effective dose of nicotine (0.5 mg/kg) caused an antidepressant effect. However, none of the CB receptor ligands, had influence on the antidepressant effects provoked by nicotine (0.2 mg/kg) injection. In turn, the combination of non-effective dose of oleamide (2.5 mg/kg); JWH (2 mg/kg) or AM 630 (2 mg/kg), but not of AM 251 (0.25 mg/kg), with non-effective dose of scopolamine (0.1 mg/kg), exhibited antidepressant properties. Indeed, all of the CB compounds used, intensified the antidepressant-like effects induced by an acute injection of scopolamine (0.3 mg/kg). Our results provide clear evidence that the endocannabinoid system participates in the depression-related behavior and through interactions with cholinergic system modulate these kind of responses.

  10. Covert Action: A Systems Approach

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    Naval Postgraduate School Monterey, CA 93943-5000 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING /MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND...Practical Common Sense (Anaheim, CA : KNI, Inc., 1998), 16. 3 of analysis. Analyzing the complex interplay of the covert action’s components and tradeoffs...Cullather, Secret History: The CIA’s Classified Account of Its Operations in Guatemala 1952– 1954 (Stanford, CA : Stanford University Press, 1999), 7. 30

  11. Structure learning in action

    PubMed Central

    Braun, Daniel A.; Mehring, Carsten; Wolpert, Daniel M.

    2010-01-01

    ‘Learning to learn’ phenomena have been widely investigated in cognition, perception and more recently also in action. During concept learning tasks, for example, it has been suggested that characteristic features are abstracted from a set of examples with the consequence that learning of similar tasks is facilitated—a process termed ‘learning to learn’. From a computational point of view such an extraction of invariants can be regarded as learning of an underlying structure. Here we review the evidence for structure learning as a ‘learning to learn’ mechanism, especially in sensorimotor control where the motor system has to adapt to variable environments. We review studies demonstrating that common features of variable environments are extracted during sensorimotor learning and exploited for efficient adaptation in novel tasks. We conclude that structure learning plays a fundamental role in skill learning and may underlie the unsurpassed flexibility and adaptability of the motor system. PMID:19720086

  12. Numerical Tests of the Improved Fermilab Action

    SciTech Connect

    Detar, C.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Oktay, M.B.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the Fermilab heavy-quark action was extended to include dimension-six and -seven operators in order to reduce the discretization errors. In this talk, we present results of the first numerical simulations with this action (the OK action), where we study the masses of the quarkonium and heavy-light systems. We calculate combinations of masses designed to test improvement and compare results obtained with the OK action to their counterparts obtained with the clover action. Our preliminary results show a clear improvement.

  13. Action of andiroba oil (Carapa guianensis) on Rhipicephalus sanguineus (Latreille, 1806) (Acari: Ixodidae) semi-engorged females: morphophysiological evaluation of reproductive system.

    PubMed

    Vendramini, Maria Cláudia Ramalho; Mathias, Maria Izabel Camargo; De Faria, Adriano Uemura; Furquim, Karim Christina Scopinho; De Souza, Leonardo Peres; Bechara, Gervásio Henrique; Roma, Gislaine Cristina

    2012-12-01

    Because of the increasing medical-veterinary importance of ticks, the development of alternative control methods, less aggressive to the host and the environment has become the target of several researches. In this sense, the present study analyzed the action of different concentrations (5, 10, and 20%) of andiroba seed oil (Carapa guianensis) on the reproductive system of Rhipicephalus sanguineus females, through histochemical techniques and the quantification of the reproductive efficiency index. The results showed that andiroba oil is a potent natural agent, able to cause several changes in the oocytes of this species, impairing the reproductive success, once this natural product induces great physiological changes in the oocytes in all development stages, such as drastic reduction in proteins, polysaccharides, and lipids in these cells, and these components are essential for the viability of the embryo. In addition, it was observed that this product stimulate the oviposition, mainly at the concentration of 20%. This higher production of eggs represents a defense mechanism developed by the organism in order to ensure the reproductive success of the species, even in the presence of the toxic agent. However, the results obtained suggested that the laid eggs would not be viable, due to the great changes undergone by the oocytes. Thus, the present study showed that the use of this vegetal product would be an alternative way to control the ticks, bringing benefits similar to the ones obtained through the use of synthetic acaricides; however, with less damage to nontarget organisms and the environment as well.

  14. Caffeine-induced effects on heart rate in zebrafish embryos and possible mechanisms of action: an effective system for experiments in chemical biology.

    PubMed

    Rana, Neha; Moond, Mamta; Marthi, Amarnath; Bapatla, Swetha; Sarvepalli, Tejasudha; Chatti, Kiranam; Challa, Anil Kumar

    2010-03-01

    Zebrafish embryos are well suited as a model system to perform chemical biology experiments effectively in educational settings. We studied the effect of caffeine on heart rate (HR) and other phenotypes of zebrafish embryos using visual microscopy and simple imaging. Acute treatment with millimolar concentrations of caffeine in embryo medium caused a dose-dependent decrease in HR in 2-3-day-old zebrafish embryos, ultimately resulting in complete HR cessation. A characteristic pattern of decrease in HR was observed, with an initial acute drop in HR and a period of stabilization followed by complete cessation. The effects of caffeine were not reversed by cotreatment with ruthenium red and adenosine, agents known to be antagonistic to caffeine, or by changes in calcium concentration in embryo medium. Apparent cardiac arrhythmia and a typical kinking effect in the trunk/tail region were also observed because of caffeine treatment. Our results, taken together with previous reports, raise the possibility that caffeine exerts its effects on embryonic HR of zebrafish by inhibition of ether-a-go-go potassium channels. However, further experimentation is required to dissect the molecular basis of caffeine action. We demonstrate that such experiments can be used to explore the effect of small molecules, such as caffeine, on cardiovascular phenotypes and to encourage experimental design in chemical biology.

  15. [Chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil: history, legislation and actions of sanitary surveillance and other regulatory systems].

    PubMed

    Spisso, Bernardete Ferraz; Nóbrega, Armi Wanderley de; Marques, Marlice Aparecida Sípoli

    2009-01-01

    Food safety became a relevant subject due to the increasing search for a better way of life and consciousness of the consumers to stand on one's rights to acquire healthy products. The use of substances in animals destined for human consumption requires from pharmacokinetics to residue depletion studies, with the establishment of limitative values so that do not constitute a risk to health. Beyond the substances used deliberately, others coming from environment contamination or contamination of feeding stuffs consumed by these animals may reach human through the diet. The aims of this paper are to collect and discuss the main federal acts covering chemical residues and contaminants in food of animal origin in Brazil, besides those on measures to control veterinary medicinal products and additives for use in animal nutrition. The chronological presentation of the legal basis intends to facilitate the interpretation of the acts inside respective political and economics scenarios. The actions proposed from the different agents involved into the regulatory systems are discussed from the public health point of view.

  16. The Ethics of Medical Practitioner Migration From Low-Resourced Countries to the Developed World: A Call for Action by Health Systems and Individual Doctors.

    PubMed

    Mpofu, Charles; Gupta, Tarun Sen; Hays, Richard

    2016-09-01

    Medical migration appears to be an increasing global phenomenon, with complex contributing factors. Although it is acknowledged that such movements are inevitable, given the current globalized economy, the movement of health professionals from their country of training raises questions about equity of access and quality of care. Concerns arise if migration occurs from low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) to high-income countries (HICs). The actions of HICs receiving medical practitioners from LMICs are examined through the global justice theories of John Rawls and Immanuel Kant. These theories were initially proposed by Pogge (1988) and Tan (1997) and, in this work, are extended to the issue of medical migration. Global justice theories propose that instead of looking at health needs and workforce issues within their national boundaries, HICs should be guided by principles of justice relevant to the needs of health systems on a global scale. Issues of individual justice are also considered within the framework of rights and social responsibilities of individual medical practitioners. Local and international policy changes are suggested based on both global justice theories and the ideals of individual justice.

  17. A Hydrostratigraphic System for Modeling Groundwater Flow and Radionuclide Migration at the Corrective Action Unit Scale, Nevada Test Site and Surrounding Areas, Clark, Lincoln, and Nye Counties, Nevada

    SciTech Connect

    Prothro, Lance; Drellack Jr., Sigmund; Mercadante, Jennifer

    2009-01-31

    Underground Test Area (UGTA) corrective action unit (CAU) groundwater flow and contaminant transport models of the Nevada Test Site (NTS) and vicinity are built upon hydrostratigraphic framework models (HFMs) that utilize the hydrostratigraphic unit (HSU) as the fundamental modeling component. The delineation and three-dimensional (3-D) modeling of HSUs within the highly complex geologic terrain that is the NTS requires a hydrostratigraphic system that is internally consistent, yet flexible enough to account for overlapping model areas, varied geologic terrain, and the development of multiple alternative HFMs. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system builds on more than 50 years of geologic and hydrologic work in the NTS region. It includes 76 HSUs developed from nearly 300 stratigraphic units that span more than 570 million years of geologic time, and includes rock units as diverse as marine carbonate and siliciclastic rocks, granitic intrusives, rhyolitic lavas and ash-flow tuffs, and alluvial valley-fill deposits. The UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system uses a geology-based approach and two-level classification scheme. The first, or lowest, level of the hydrostratigraphic system is the hydrogeologic unit (HGU). Rocks in a model area are first classified as one of ten HGUs based on the rock’s ability to transmit groundwater (i.e., nature of their porosity and permeability), which at the NTS is mainly a function of the rock’s primary lithology, type and degree of postdepositional alteration, and propensity to fracture. The second, or highest, level within the UGTA CAU-scale hydrostratigraphic system is the HSU, which is the fundamental mapping/modeling unit within UGTA CAU-scale HFMs. HSUs are 3-D bodies that are represented in the finite element mesh for the UGTA groundwater modeling process. HSUs are defined systematically by stratigraphically organizing HGUs of similar character into larger HSUs designations. The careful integration of

  18. Information basis for developing comprehensive waste management system-US-Japan joint nuclear energy action plan waste management working group phase I report.

    SciTech Connect

    Nutt, M.; Nuclear Engineering Division

    2010-05-25

    The activity of Phase I of the Waste Management Working Group under the United States - Japan Joint Nuclear Energy Action Plan started in 2007. The US-Japan JNEAP is a bilateral collaborative framework to support the global implementation of safe, secure, and sustainable, nuclear fuel cycles (referred to in this document as fuel cycles). The Waste Management Working Group was established by strong interest of both parties, which arise from the recognition that development and optimization of waste management and disposal system(s) are central issues of the present and future nuclear fuel cycles. This report summarizes the activity of the Waste Management Working Group that focused on consolidation of the existing technical basis between the U.S. and Japan and the joint development of a plan for future collaborative activities. Firstly, the political/regulatory frameworks related to nuclear fuel cycles in both countries were reviewed. The various advanced fuel cycle scenarios that have been considered in both countries were then surveyed and summarized. The working group established the working reference scenario for the future cooperative activity that corresponds to a fuel cycle scenario being considered both in Japan and the U.S. This working scenario involves transitioning from a once-through fuel cycle utilizing light water reactors to a one-pass uranium-plutonium fuel recycle in light water reactors to a combination of light water reactors and fast reactors with plutonium, uranium, and minor actinide recycle, ultimately concluding with multiple recycle passes primarily using fast reactors. Considering the scenario, current and future expected waste streams, treatment and inventory were discussed, and the relevant information was summarized. Second, the waste management/disposal system optimization was discussed. Repository system concepts were reviewed, repository design concepts for the various classifications of nuclear waste were summarized, and the factors

  19. Comparing Maintenance Costs of Geothermal Heat Pump Systems with other HVAC Systems in Lincoln Public Schools: Repair, Service, and Corrective Actions

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, M.A.; Durfee, D.J.; Hughes, P.J.

    1999-06-19

    The Lincoln Public School District, in Lincoln, Nebraska, recently installed vertical-bore geothermal heat pump systems in four, new, elementary schools. Because the district has consistent maintenance records and procedures, it was possible to study repair, service and corrective maintenance requests for 20 schools in the district. Each school studied provides cooling to over 70% of its total floor area and uses one of the following heating and cooling systems: vertical-bore geothermal heat pumps (GHPs), air-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (ACUGHWB), water-cooled chiller with gas-fired hot water boiler (WCCYGHWB), or water-cooled chiller with gas-fired steam boiler (WCUGSB). Preventative maintenance and capital renewal activities were not included in the available database. GHP schools reported average total costs at 2.13 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, followed by ACC/GHWB schools at 2.88 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, WCC/GSB schools at 3.73 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr, and WCC/GHWB schools at 6.07 cents/ft{sup 2}-yr. Because of tax-exemptions on material purchases, a reliance on in-house labor, and the absence of preventative maintenance records in the database, these costs are lower than those reported in previous studies. A strong relationship (R{sup 2}=O.52) was found between costs examined and cooling system age: the newer the cooling equipment, the less it costs to maintain.

  20. Efficient computation of optimal actions.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-07-14

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress--as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant.

  1. Efficient computation of optimal actions

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress—as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant. PMID:19574462

  2. Sympathetic actions on the skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Roatta, Silvestro; Farina, Dario

    2010-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) modulates several functions in skeletal muscle fibers, including metabolism, ionic transport across the membrane, and contractility. These actions, together with the sympathetic control of other organ systems, support intense motor activity. However, some SNS actions on skeletal muscles may not always be functionally advantageous. Implications for motor control and sport performance are discussed.

  3. 12 CFR 272.4 - Committee actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Committee actions. 272.4 Section 272.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL RESERVE SYSTEM (CONTINUED) FEDERAL OPEN MARKET COMMITTEE RULES OF PROCEDURE § 272... System Open Market Account. All communications of recommended actions and votes under this...

  4. Missional Imaginations for Theological Education: Mixed Model, Exploratory, Action-Oriented Research Mapping the Theological Identity and Organizational Readiness for Change of Five Theological School Systems in the United States Originating after 1945

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Small, Kyle J. A.

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation explores the formal theologies and organizational readiness for change with a view towards adopting missional prototypes for theological education across a school's (system's) tradition, curriculum, and structure. The research assessed five theological schools in the United States through an exploratory, action-oriented,…

  5. Child Care. The Philip Morris Companies Inc. Family Survey II. [Full Report and Booklet.] A Survey of Public Concerns about the State of Children, Existing Child-Care Systems, and the Need for Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris (Louis) and Associates, Inc., New York, NY.

    A survey of public concerns about the state of children, child care systems, and the need for political action was conducted with a sample of 2,009 parents with young children and 2,041 without young children. Findings indicated that most Americans believe children in the U.S. are neglected and that the situation has grown worse. Americans are…

  6. 48 CFR 246.470 - Government contract quality assurance actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... quality assurance actions. 246.470 Section 246.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract Quality Assurance 246.470 Government contract quality assurance actions....

  7. Antiviral Actions of Interferons

    PubMed Central

    Samuel, Charles E.

    2001-01-01

    Tremendous progress has been made in understanding the molecular basis of the antiviral actions of interferons (IFNs), as well as strategies evolved by viruses to antagonize the actions of IFNs. Furthermore, advances made while elucidating the IFN system have contributed significantly to our understanding in multiple areas of virology and molecular cell biology, ranging from pathways of signal transduction to the biochemical mechanisms of transcriptional and translational control to the molecular basis of viral pathogenesis. IFNs are approved therapeutics and have moved from the basic research laboratory to the clinic. Among the IFN-induced proteins important in the antiviral actions of IFNs are the RNA-dependent protein kinase (PKR), the 2′,5′-oligoadenylate synthetase (OAS) and RNase L, and the Mx protein GTPases. Double-stranded RNA plays a central role in modulating protein phosphorylation and RNA degradation catalyzed by the IFN-inducible PKR kinase and the 2′-5′-oligoadenylate-dependent RNase L, respectively, and also in RNA editing by the IFN-inducible RNA-specific adenosine deaminase (ADAR1). IFN also induces a form of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS2) and the major histocompatibility complex class I and II proteins, all of which play important roles in immune response to infections. Several additional genes whose expression profiles are altered in response to IFN treatment and virus infection have been identified by microarray analyses. The availability of cDNA and genomic clones for many of the components of the IFN system, including IFN-α, IFN-β, and IFN-γ, their receptors, Jak and Stat and IRF signal transduction components, and proteins such as PKR, 2′,5′-OAS, Mx, and ADAR, whose expression is regulated by IFNs, has permitted the generation of mutant proteins, cells that overexpress different forms of the proteins, and animals in which their expression has been disrupted by targeted gene disruption. The use of these IFN system

  8. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  9. American Lead Action Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACTION MEMORANDUM— Request for a Time-Critical Removal Action andExemption from the $2 Million and 12-Month Statutory Limits at the AmericanLead Site, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana (Site ID #B56J)

  10. Representation of action in Parkinson's disease: imagining, observing, and naming actions.

    PubMed

    Poliakoff, Ellen

    2013-09-01

    People with Parkinson's disease (PD) exhibit slowed movements and difficulty in initiating movements. This review addresses the issue of whether or not cognitive representations of actions in PD are affected, alongside these motor problems. In healthy people, the motor system can be involved in tasks such as observing a graspable object or another person's action, or imagining and naming actions, in the absence of overt movement. As described in this review, the fact that the slowed real movements exhibited by PD patients are coupled with slower motor imagery and verb processing provides additional evidence for the involvement of the motor system in these processes. On the other hand, PD patients can still engage in motor imagery and action observation to some extent, which is encouraging for the use of these processes in rehabilitation. Findings across the different domains of action-representation reveal several important factors. First, the nature of action is critical: patients' performance in observation and naming tasks is influenced by whether or not the action is in their repertoire and by the extent of motion required to execute the action. Second, people with PD may use alternative or compensatory mechanisms to represent actions, such as relying more on a third-person perspective or a visual strategy. Third, people with PD show a lack of specificity, responding as strongly to stimuli related and unrelated to actions. Investigating action-representation in PD has implications for our understanding of both the symptoms of PD and the cognitive representation of actions in the healthy system.

  11. Operating and Maintaining Energy Smart Schools Action Plan Template - All Action Plans

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2009-07-01

    EnergySmart Schools action plan templates for benchmarking, lighting, HVAC, water heating, building envelope, transformer, plug loads, kitchen equipment, swimming pool, building automation system, other.

  12. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  13. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…

  14. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  15. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  16. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  17. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei

    PubMed Central

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    ), these values decreased to 62.5 to 31.2 µg/mL, demonstrating that incorporation into the formulation potentiated the action of SNE. Additionally, the time kill assays showed that both forms of SNE were capable of controlling growth, thereby suggesting a possible fungistatic mechanism. Unloaded SNE was not active against C. krusei biofilms, but FE was active against a clinical strain (CKV2). In vivo analysis showed that FE was able to prevent the development of infection following 10 days of administration. We concluded that the formulation developed in this study was an important vehicle for the delivery of SNE based on the improved antifungal activity in all in vitro and in vivo analyses. Furthermore, the extract incorporated into the system may serve as an important prophylactic agent against vaginal infections caused by C. krusei. PMID:26719688

  18. Liquid crystal precursor mucoadhesive system as a strategy to improve the prophylactic action of Syngonanthus nitens (Bong.) Ruhland against infection by Candida krusei.

    PubMed

    dos Santos Ramos, Matheus Aparecido; Calixto, Giovana; de Toledo, Luciani Gaspar; Bonifácio, Bruna Vidal; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; de Almeida, Margarete Teresa Gottardo; Chorilli, Marlus; Bauab, Taís Maria

    2015-01-01

    (FE), these values decreased to 62.5 to 31.2 µg/mL, demonstrating that incorporation into the formulation potentiated the action of SNE. Additionally, the time kill assays showed that both forms of SNE were capable of controlling growth, thereby suggesting a possible fungistatic mechanism. Unloaded SNE was not active against C. krusei biofilms, but FE was active against a clinical strain (CKV2). In vivo analysis showed that FE was able to prevent the development of infection following 10 days of administration. We concluded that the formulation developed in this study was an important vehicle for the delivery of SNE based on the improved antifungal activity in all in vitro and in vivo analyses. Furthermore, the extract incorporated into the system may serve as an important prophylactic agent against vaginal infections caused by C. krusei.

  19. Legislative Actions Affecting Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington State Council for Postsecondary Education, Olympia.

    Legislative actions pertaining to Washington public higher education during the last two years are described. The reports list the major resolutions passed, laws enacted, and legislative appropriations. State legislation dealt with: establishment of the Washington library network; retirement systems; bookkeeping transactions; travel expenses; bond…

  20. Evidence for the Automatic Evaluation of Self-Generated Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of simple actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. However, it remains unclear whether this evaluation is accompanied by a rapid and compatible emotional appraisal of the action that allows to mark incorrect actions as negative/bad and conversely correct actions as positive/good. In this study, we used…