Science.gov

Sample records for action previous studies

  1. Similarity of actions depends on the functionality of previously observed actions.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Eijgermans, Wessel; Herman, Anne-Sophie; Bergman, Annemiek; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    People have a tendency to imitate the behavior of others, sometimes even automatically. And yet, evidence suggests that many of our actions are controlled, mediated by current goals and careful considerations. Here, we investigated whether the observation and evaluation of previous actions of another person modulates the similarity of actions between people in present trials. We manipulated the functionality of a confederate's actions and the interactive context in 2 behavioral tasks, which consisted of games that participants played against a confederate or a virtual computer opponent. To measure effects of working memory load on imitation rates, participants additionally performed an easy or difficult auditory n-back task in parallel to the tasks. We show that participants occasionally produced rather bizarre and dysfunctional behavior when the confederate had done so as well. Even more importantly, results from both tasks show that participants most likely copied dysfunctional behavior in the present trial when the confederate performed functional actions in the previous trial. Thus, the positive evaluation of action consequences in previous trials increases the probability of similarity between the participant's and confederate's actions in present trials despite a chance to copy improper actions. Furthermore, we found a trend of increased action similarities when participants were under high working memory load in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. These results suggest that copying an observed action is an efficient and effortless behavioral and social strategy to achieve similar goals as others, though with an increased risk of maladaptive behavior.

  2. Among a German Sample of Forensic Patients, Previous Animal Abuse Mediates Between Psychopathy and Sadistic Actions.

    PubMed

    Stupperich, Alexandra; Strack, Micha

    2016-05-01

    In an attempt to explain the relationship between psychopathy and severe violent behavior, this study associates previous animal abuse, psychopathy, and sadistic acting in forensic patients. Two topics are addressed: (i) whether previous animal abuse can be identified by a patient's Psychopathy Checklist profile and (ii) whether animal abuse statistically mediates between psychopathy and sadistic acting. In a German forensic hospital, 60 patients were investigated. Animal abuse was assessed using face-to-face interviews and the Psychopathy Checklist: Screening Version (PCL:SV), and sadistic acting was identified by file records.Discriminant analysis separated previous animal abuse (10/60) by high adolescent antisocial behavior, superficiality, lack of remorse, lack of empathy, and grandiosity. The mediation from psychopathy to sadistic acting (6/60) through animal abuse was found to be complete.The results, although sample size is limited and base rate of animal abuse and sadistic acting are low, fit with a model suggestive of animal abuse as a causal step toward sadistic crimes. Animal abuse correlates with callous, unemotional traits, and a development of sadistic crimes.

  3. Previous studies underestimate BMAA concentrations in cycad flour.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Ran; Banack, Sandra Anne

    2009-01-01

    The traditional diet of the Chamorro people of Guam has high concentrations of the neurotoxin BMAA, beta-methyl-amino-L-alanine, in cycad tortillas and from animals that feed on cycad seeds. We measured BMAA concentration in washed cycad flour and compared different extraction methods used by previous researchers in order to determine how much BMAA may have been unaccounted for in prior research. Samples were analyzed with AQC precolumn derivatization using HPLC-FD detection and verified with UPLC-UV, UPLC-MS, and triple quadrupole LC/MS/MS. Although previous workers had studied only the free amino acid component of BMAA in washed cycad flour, we detected significant levels of protein-associated BMAA in washed cycad flour. These data support a link between ALS/PDC and exposure to BMAA.

  4. Study Abroad, Previous Language Experience, and Spanish L2 Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marques-Pascual, Laura

    2011-01-01

    This study investigates second language (L2) development of Spanish verbal morphology, subject omissions, and subject-verb (SV) inversions by learners in two different proficiency levels and learning contexts. Oral narratives from 40 L2 learners at the intermediate and advanced levels, both at home and in a study abroad (SA) program, were examined…

  5. Understanding communicative actions: a repetitive TMS study.

    PubMed

    Stolk, Arjen; Noordzij, Matthijs L; Volman, Inge; Verhagen, Lennart; Overeem, Sebastiaan; van Elswijk, Gijs; Bloem, Bas; Hagoort, Peter; Toni, Ivan

    2014-02-01

    Despite the ambiguity inherent in human communication, people are remarkably efficient in establishing mutual understanding. Studying how people communicate in novel settings provides a window into the mechanisms supporting the human competence to rapidly generate and understand novel shared symbols, a fundamental property of human communication. Previous work indicates that the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) is involved when people understand the intended meaning of novel communicative actions. Here, we set out to test whether normal functioning of this cerebral structure is required for understanding novel communicative actions using inhibitory low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). A factorial experimental design contrasted two tightly matched stimulation sites (right pSTS vs left MT+, i.e., a contiguous homotopic task-relevant region) and tasks (a communicative task vs a visual tracking task that used the same sequences of stimuli). Overall task performance was not affected by rTMS, whereas changes in task performance over time were disrupted according to TMS site and task combinations. Namely, rTMS over pSTS led to a diminished ability to improve action understanding on the basis of recent communicative history, while rTMS over MT+ perturbed improvement in visual tracking over trials. These findings qualify the contributions of the right pSTS to human communicative abilities, showing that this region might be necessary for incorporating previous knowledge, accumulated during interactions with a communicative partner, to constrain the inferential process that leads to action understanding.

  6. 40 CFR 152.93 - Citation of a previously submitted valid study.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... valid study. 152.93 Section 152.93 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Data Submitters' Rights § 152.93 Citation of a previously submitted valid study. An applicant may demonstrate compliance for a data requirement by citing a valid study previously submitted to the Agency....

  7. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  8. The impact of previous traumatic brain injury on health and functioning: a TRACK-TBI study.

    PubMed

    Dams-O'Connor, Kristen; Spielman, Lisa; Singh, Ayushi; Gordon, Wayne A; Lingsma, Hester F; Maas, Andrew I R; Manley, Geoffrey T; Mukherjee, Pratik; Okonkwo, David O; Puccio, Ava M; Schnyer, David M; Valadka, Alex B; Yue, John K; Yuh, Esther L

    2013-12-15

    The idea that multiple traumatic brain injury (TBI) can have a cumulative detrimental effect on functioning is widely accepted. Most research supporting this idea comes from athlete samples, and it is not known whether remote history of previous TBI affects functioning after subsequent TBI in community-based samples. This study investigates whether a previous history of TBI with loss of consciousness (LOC) is associated with worse health and functioning in a sample of individuals who require emergency department care for current TBI. Twenty-three percent of the 586 individuals with current TBI in the Transforming Research and Clinical Knowledge in Traumatic Brain Injury study reported having sustained a previous TBI with LOC. Individuals with previous TBI were more likely to be unemployed (χ(2)=17.86; p=0.000), report a variety of chronic medical and psychiatric conditions (4.75≤χ(2)≥24.16; p<0.05), and report substance use (16.35≤χ(2)≥27.57; p<0.01) before the acute injury, compared to those with no previous TBI history. Those with a previous TBI had less-severe acute injuries, but experienced worse outcomes at 6-month follow-up. Results of a series of regression analyses controlling for demographics and acute injury severity indicated that individuals with previous TBI reported more mood symptoms, more postconcussive symptoms, lower life satisfaction, and had slower processing speed and poorer verbal learning, compared to those with no previous TBI history. These findings suggest that history of TBI with LOC may have important implications for health and psychological functioning after TBI in community-based samples.

  9. Adverse maternal and perinatal outcomes in women with previous preeclampsia: a prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Bramham, Kate; Briley, Annette L.; Seed, Paul; Poston, Lucilla; Shennan, Andrew H.; Chappell, Lucy C.

    2011-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study was to assess recurrence rates of preeclampsia and neonatal outcomes in women with a history of preeclampsia that required preterm delivery. Study Design Five hundred women with previous preeclampsia that required delivery at <37 weeks' gestation were followed prospectively. Results Preeclampsia reoccurred in 117 women (23%). Predictive factors included black (odds ratio [OR], 2.29; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.16–4.53) or Asian (OR, 2.98; 95% CI, 1.33–6.59) ethnicity, enrollment systolic blood pressure of >130 mm Hg (OR, 2.89; 95% CI, 1.52–5.50), current antihypertensive use (OR, 6.39; 95% CI, 2.38–17.16), and proteinuria of ≥2+ on enrollment urinalysis (OR, 12.35; 95% CI, 3.45–44.21). Women who previously delivered at <34 weeks' gestation were more likely to deliver preterm again (29% vs 17%; relative risk, 1.69; 95% CI, 1.19–2.40) than were those women with previous delivery between 34 and 37 weeks' gestation. Conclusion Although this study confirms that women with previous preeclampsia that required early delivery are at high risk of the development of preeclampsia, the study identifies risk factors for recurrence and illustrates that women with previous preeclampsia are at greater risk of adverse neonatal outcome. PMID:21457915

  10. A Longitudinal Study of the Impact of an Environmental Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rioux, Liliane; Pasquier, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    In a previous study, we investigated the impact of an awareness-raising campaign on the behaviour of secondary school children in the Centre Region of France, regarding the recycling of used batteries. But, was it a question of pro-environmental behaviour or simply an environmental action? To answer this question, a three-year longitudinal study…

  11. NREL Study Finds U.S. Wind Energy Potential Triples Previous Estimates (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2011-02-01

    The maximum potential to generate wind power in the contiguous United States is more than three times greater than previously estimated, according to a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) study. The new analysis is based on the latest computer models and examines the wind potential at wind turbine hub heights of 80 meters and 100 meters. These hub heights, which reflect current and future models of wind turbines, are higher than those used in previous national estimates and are mainly responsible for the increased wind potential in the study.

  12. Developing Reading Comprehension through Metacognitive Strategies: A Review of Previous Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Channa, Mansoor Ahmed; Nordin, Zaimuariffudin Shukri; Siming, Insaf Ali; Chandio, Ali Asgher; Koondher, Mansoor Ali

    2015-01-01

    This paper has reviewed the previous studies on metacognitive strategies based on planning, monitoring, and evaluating in order to develop reading comprehension. The main purpose of this review in metacognition, and reading domain is to help readers to enhance their capabilities and power reading through these strategies. The researchers reviewed…

  13. Replication of genetic linkage by follow-up of previously studied pedigrees

    SciTech Connect

    Gershon, E.S.; Goldin, L.R. )

    1994-04-01

    Independent replication of linkage in previously studied pedigrees is desirable when genetic heterogeneity is suspected or when the illness is very rare. When the likelihood of the new data in this type of replication study is computed as conditional on the previously reported linkage results, it can be considered independent. The authors describe a simulation method using the SLINK program in which the initial data are fixed and newly genotyped individuals are simulated under [theta] = .01 and [theta] = .50. These give appropriate lod score criteria for rejection and acceptance of linkage in the follow-up study, which take into account the original marker genotypes in the data. An estimate of the power to detect linkage in the follow-up data is also generated. 13 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  14. Action Learning in ActionAid Nepal: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lustig, Patricia; Rai, Deep Ranjani

    2009-01-01

    This article describes an example of how action learning was used as a framework for an organisational intervention to fundamentally change the organisational culture over a period of time. It also identifies our learning over that period of time and what worked well (and not so well) in an International Non-Governmental Organisation in Nepal.

  15. A Survival Association Study of 102 Polymorphisms Previously Associated with Survival Outcomes in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Jingxiong; Werdyani, Salem; Shestopaloff, Konstantin; Dicks, Elizabeth; Green, Jane; Parfrey, Patrick; Green, Roger

    2015-01-01

    Several published studies identified associations of a number of polymorphisms with a variety of survival outcomes in colorectal cancer. In this study, we aimed to explore 102 previously reported common genetic polymorphisms and their associations with overall survival (OS) and disease-free survival (DFS) in a colorectal cancer patient cohort from Newfoundland (n = 505). Genotypes were obtained using a genomewide SNP genotyping platform. For each polymorphism, the best possible genetic model was estimated for both overall survival and disease-free survival using a previously published approach. These SNPs were then analyzed under their genetic models by Cox regression method. Correction for multiple comparisons was performed by the False Discovery Rate (FDR) method. Univariate analysis results showed that RRM1-rs12806698, IFNGR1-rs1327474, DDX20-rs197412, and PTGS2-rs5275 polymorphisms were nominally associated with OS or DFS (p < 0.01). In stage-adjusted analysis, the nominal associations of DDX20-rs197412, PTGS2-rs5275, and HSPA5-rs391957 with DFS were detected. However, after FDR correction none of these polymorphisms remained significantly associated with the survival outcomes. We conclude that polymorphisms investigated in this study are not associated with OS or DFS in our colorectal cancer patient cohort. PMID:26064972

  16. Case-control study for colorectal cancer genetic susceptibility in EPICOLON: previously identified variants and mucins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the second leading cause of cancer death in developed countries. Familial aggregation in CRC is also important outside syndromic forms and, in this case, a polygenic model with several common low-penetrance alleles contributing to CRC genetic predisposition could be hypothesized. Mucins and GALNTs (N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase) are interesting candidates for CRC genetic susceptibility and have not been previously evaluated. We present results for ten genetic variants linked to CRC risk in previous studies (previously identified category) and 18 selected variants from the mucin gene family in a case-control association study from the Spanish EPICOLON consortium. Methods CRC cases and matched controls were from EPICOLON, a prospective, multicenter, nationwide Spanish initiative, comprised of two independent stages. Stage 1 corresponded to 515 CRC cases and 515 controls, whereas stage 2 consisted of 901 CRC cases and 909 controls. Also, an independent cohort of 549 CRC cases and 599 controls outside EPICOLON was available for additional replication. Genotyping was performed for ten previously identified SNPs in ADH1C, APC, CCDN1, IL6, IL8, IRS1, MTHFR, PPARG, VDR and ARL11, and 18 selected variants in the mucin gene family. Results None of the 28 SNPs analyzed in our study was found to be associated with CRC risk. Although four SNPs were significant with a P-value < 0.05 in EPICOLON stage 1 [rs698 in ADH1C (OR = 1.63, 95% CI = 1.06-2.50, P-value = 0.02, recessive), rs1800795 in IL6 (OR = 1.62, 95% CI = 1.10-2.37, P-value = 0.01, recessive), rs3803185 in ARL11 (OR = 1.58, 95% CI = 1.17-2.15, P-value = 0.007, codominant), and rs2102302 in GALNTL2 (OR = 1.20, 95% CI = 1.00-1.44, P-value = 0.04, log-additive 0, 1, 2 alleles], only rs3803185 achieved statistical significance in EPICOLON stage 2 (OR = 1.34, 95% CI = 1.06-1.69, P-value = 0.01, recessive). In the joint analysis for both stages, results were only significant for rs

  17. Effect of previous miscarriage on the maternal birth experience in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2013-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of miscarriage is related to birth experience and/or maternal fear of an adverse birth outcome for self or infant during a subsequent delivery. Design Secondary analysis of a prospective cohort study, the First Baby Study. Sample Women aged 18-35 who were expecting to deliver their first live-born infants in Pennsylvania between January 2009 and April 2011. Participants Four hundred fifty-three pregnant women who reported perinatal loss prior to 20 weeks gestation (miscarriage) in a previous pregnancy and 2401 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage were interviewed during pregnancy and again one month after their first live birth. Methods Maternal birth experience and fear of an adverse birth outcome measured via telephone interview were compared across groups. Results Maternal birth experience scores did not significantly differ between women with and without previous miscarriage. Women with a history of miscarriage reported that they feared an adverse birth outcome for themselves or their infants more frequently than women without a history of miscarriage (52.1% vs. 46.6%; p=0.033), however, this relationship was not significant after adjustment for confounders. Conclusion Our findings indicate that there is no association between miscarriage history and birth experience. Additional research on this topic would be beneficial including an in-depth examination of fear of adverse outcome during birth. However, nurses and midwives may consider using therapeutic communication techniques to ensure that women with a history of miscarriage receive strong emotional support and reassurance during birth. PMID:23772602

  18. Social Action As An Objective of Social Studies Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curtis, Charles K.

    This paper presents a rationale for making social action a major goal of elementary and secondary school social studies education. In addition, it describes social action models, suggests social action approaches appropriate for students at various grade levels, and reviews literature on social action by public school students. Social action is…

  19. A study about the interest and previous contact of high school students with Astronomy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carvalho, C. L.; Zanitti, M. H. R.; Felicidade, B. L.; Gomes, A. D. T.; Dias, E. W.; Coelho, F. O.

    2016-04-01

    The currently problems in Astronomy teaching in Brazilian Basic Education contrast with the space, and the popularity that astronomical themes have in various media in the country. In this work, we present the results of a study about the interest, and previous contact of high school students from a public school in the city of "São João del-Rei"/MG with topics related to Astronomy. The study and the pedagogical intervention were carried out by students of the PIBID/CAPES/UFSJ. The intervention was performed through an oral exposition with the students' participation, followed by the use of the Stellarium program. The results suggest the majority of students surveyed are interested in Astronomy, and have had some contact with the area. However, some inconsistencies in their responses were identified and examined. The implications for research and for Astronomy Education are discussed. We also make some considerations about relationship between the lack of specific knowledge and the misinformation as one possible reason for the little interest of students in various areas of Science.

  20. Case-control study of current validity of previously described risk factors for SIDS in The Netherlands.

    PubMed

    l'Hoir, M P; Engelberts, A C; van Well, G T; Westers, P; Mellenbergh, G J; Wolters, W H; Huber, J

    1998-11-01

    This study aimed to assess whether previously established risk factors for sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) are still valid now that the incidence in the Netherlands has dropped to 0.26 per 1000 liveborn infants. A distinction was made between immutable and mutable risk factors. This case-control study (part of the European Concerted Action on SIDS) comprised 73 SIDS cases and 146 controls and lasted from March 1995 to September 1996. Adjustments were made for sleeping position and bedding factors by treating them as covariables. Apart from these factors, well known risk factors that remain of importance in the Netherlands are: male sex, young maternal age, twins, and low socioeconomic status. These factors are largely immutable. Other well known risk factors which might reflect attitudes to child care and could possibly be mutable are: smoking, alcohol consumption by the mother, bottle feeding, and change of babycare routine. Intervention strategies should focus on early signalling, thereby assisting parents in changing these unfavourable parenting attitudes. Information on optimal child care and extra support by public health nurses specifically aimed at families at risk could help to decrease further the incidence of SIDS in the Netherlands.

  1. The biomechanics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Daly, C; Persson, U McCarthy; Twycross-Lewis, R; Woledge, R C; Morrissey, D

    2016-04-01

    Hamstring injury is prevalent with persistently high reinjury rates. We aim to inform hamstring rehabilitation by exploring the electromyographic and kinematic characteristics of running in athletes with previous hamstring injury. Nine elite male Gaelic games athletes who had returned to sport after hamstring injury and eight closely matched controls sprinted while lower limb kinematics and muscle activity of the previously injured biceps femoris, bilateral gluteus maximus, lumbar erector spinae, rectus femoris, and external oblique were recorded. Intergroup comparisons of muscle activation ratios and kinematics were performed. Previously injured athletes demonstrated significantly reduced biceps femoris muscle activation ratios with respect to ipsilateral gluteus maximus (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.03), ipsilateral erector spinae (maximum difference -12.5%, P = 0.01), ipsilateral external oblique (maximum difference -23%, P = 0.01), and contralateral rectus femoris (maximum difference -22%, P = 0.02) in the late swing phase. We also detected sagittal asymmetry in hip flexion (maximum 8°, P = 0.01), pelvic tilt (maximum 4°, P = 0.02), and medial rotation of the knee (maximum 6°, P = 0.03) effectively putting the hamstrings in a lengthened position just before heel strike. Previous hamstring injury is associated with altered biceps femoris associated muscle activity and potentially injurious kinematics. These deficits should be considered and addressed during rehabilitation.

  2. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  3. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  4. Revisiting Previously Investigated Plants: A Molecular Networking-Based Study of Geissospermum laeve.

    PubMed

    Fox Ramos, Alexander E; Alcover, Charlotte; Evanno, Laurent; Maciuk, Alexandre; Litaudon, Marc; Duplais, Christophe; Bernadat, Guillaume; Gallard, Jean-François; Jullian, Jean-Christophe; Mouray, Elisabeth; Grellier, Philippe; Loiseau, Philippe M; Pomel, Sébastien; Poupon, Erwan; Champy, Pierre; Beniddir, Mehdi A

    2017-03-10

    Three new monoterpene indole alkaloids (1-3) have been isolated from the bark of Geissospermum laeve, together with the known alkaloids (-)-leuconolam (4), geissolosimine (5), and geissospermine (6). The structures of 1-3 were elucidated by analysis of their HRMS and NMR spectroscopic data. The absolute configuration of geissolaevine (1) was deduced from the comparison of experimental and theoretically calculated ECD spectra. The isolation workflow was guided by a molecular networking-based dereplication strategy using an in-house database of monoterpene indole alkaloids. In addition, five known compounds previously undescribed in the Geissospermum genus were dereplicated from the G. laeve alkaloid extract network and were assigned with various levels of identification confidence. The antiparasitic activities against Plasmodium falciparum and Leishmania donovani as well as the cytotoxic activity against the MRC-5 cell line were determined for compounds 1-5.

  5. Dance Education Action Research: A Twin Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giguere, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…

  6. Effectiveness of Previous Initiatives Similar to Programs of Study: Tech Prep, Career Pathways, and Youth Apprenticeships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.

    2008-01-01

    The federal career and technical legislation reauthorized in 2006 required the recipients of its funding to offer at least one Program of Study (POS). All states have developed some components of POS through earlier initiatives, primarily Tech Prep, career pathways, and youth apprenticeship, that attempted to ease the transition of students from…

  7. Management of Electronic Test Equipment. Volume 2. Previous Studies and Initiatives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-07-01

    standard on definition of with respect to testability because of the testability terms. absence of universally accepted terminology . The proliferation of...effectiveness of the ,JLC 4Q82AT Program. ACQUISITION SUPPORT Terminology Compilation and revision of Joint Service termi- 4Q83 nology standard , MIL-STD... Terminology 1- .1 Organization 1- 1 42. OSD EFFORTS . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .2- 1 *Defense Science Board Study

  8. Convergence in the Bilingual Lexicon: A Pre-registered Replication of Previous Studies

    PubMed Central

    White, Anne; Malt, Barbara C.; Storms, Gert

    2017-01-01

    Naming patterns of bilinguals have been found to converge and form a new intermediate language system from elements of both the bilinguals’ languages. This converged naming pattern differs from the monolingual naming patterns of both a bilingual’s languages. We conducted a pre-registered replication study of experiments addressing the question whether there is a convergence between a bilingual’s both lexicons. The replication used an enlarged set of stimuli of common household containers, providing generalizability, and more reliable representations of the semantic domain. Both an analysis at the group-level and at the individual level of the correlations between naming patterns reject the two-pattern hypothesis that poses that bilinguals use two monolingual-like naming patterns, one for each of their two languages. However, the results of the original study and the replication comply with the one-pattern hypothesis, which poses that bilinguals converge the naming patterns of their two languages and form a compromise. Since this convergence is only partial the naming pattern in bilinguals corresponds to a moderate version of the one-pattern hypothesis. These findings are further confirmed by a representation of the semantic domain in a multidimensional space and the finding of shorter distances between bilingual category centers than monolingual category centers in this multidimensional space both in the original and in the replication study. PMID:28167921

  9. Scaling study of the step scaling function in SU(3) gauge theory with improved gauge actions

    SciTech Connect

    Takeda, S.; Aoki, S.; Iwasaki, Y.; Kanaya, K.; Fukugita, M.; Ishikawa, K-I.; Okawa, M.; Ishizuka, N.; Kuramashi, Y.; Taniguchi, Y.; Ukawa, A.; Yoshie, T.; Kaneko, T.

    2004-10-01

    We study the scaling behavior of the step scaling function for SU(3) gauge theory, employing the renormalization-group improved Iwasaki gauge action and the perturbatively improved Luescher-Weisz gauge action. We confirm that the step scaling functions from the improved gauge actions agree with that previously obtained from the plaquette action within errors in the continuum limit at both weak and strong coupling regions. We also investigate how different choices of boundary counterterms for the improved gauge actions affect the scaling behavior. In the extrapolation to the continuum limit, we observe that the cutoff dependence becomes moderate for the Iwasaki action, if a perturbative reduction of scaling violations is applied to the simulation results. We also measure the low energy scale ratio with the Iwasaki action and confirm its universality.

  10. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Flynn, Joseph M.; Kipps, Thomas J.; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S.; Carlile, David J.; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P.

    2016-01-01

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205. PMID:26472752

  11. Randomized phase 2 study of obinutuzumab monotherapy in symptomatic, previously untreated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Byrd, John C; Flynn, Joseph M; Kipps, Thomas J; Boxer, Michael; Kolibaba, Kathryn S; Carlile, David J; Fingerle-Rowson, Guenter; Tyson, Nicola; Hirata, Jamie; Sharman, Jeff P

    2016-01-07

    Obinutuzumab is a glycoengineered, type 2 anti-CD20 humanized antibody with single-agent activity in relapsed chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL). With other CD20 antibodies, a dose-response relationship has been shown. We therefore performed a randomized phase 2 study in symptomatic, untreated CLL patients to evaluate if an obinutuzumab dose response exists. Obinutuzumab was given at a dose of 1000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 1000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8) or 2000 mg (100 mg IV day 1, 900 mg day 2, 1000 mg day 3, 2000 mg day 8 and day 15 of cycle 1; 2000 mg day 1 of cycles 2-8). The primary end point was overall response rate (ORR). Eighty patients were enrolled with similar demographics: median age 67 years, 41% high-risk Rai disease, and 10% del(17p)(13.1). ORR (67% vs 49%, P = .08) and complete response (CR) or CR with incomplete cytopenia response (20% vs 5%) favored 2000 mg obinutuzumab. Overall, therapy was well tolerated, and infusion events were manageable. This study demonstrates significant efficacy of obinutuzumab monotherapy, for 1000 mg as well as for 2000 mg, in untreated CLL patients with acceptable toxicity. Although exploratory, a dose-response relationship may exist, but its relevance to improving progression-free survival is uncertain and will require further follow-up. This trial was registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as #NCT01414205.

  12. Life cycle impact assessment of ammonia production in Algeria: A comparison with previous studies

    SciTech Connect

    Makhlouf, Ali Serradj, Tayeb; Cheniti, Hamza

    2015-01-15

    In this paper, a Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) from “cradle to gate” of one anhydrous ton of ammonia with a purity of 99% was achieved. Particularly, the energy and environmental performance of the product (ammonia) were evaluated. The eco-profile of the product and the share of each stage of the Life Cycle on the whole environmental impacts have been evaluated. The flows of material and energy for each phase of the life cycle were counted and the associated environmental problems were identified. Evaluation of the impact was achieved using GEMIS 4.7 software. The primary data collection was executed at the production installations located in Algeria (Annaba locality). The analysis was conducted according to the LCA standards ISO 14040 series. The results show that Cumulative Energy Requirement (CER) is of 51.945 × 10{sup 3} MJ/t of ammonia, which is higher than the global average. Global Warming Potential (GWP) is of 1.44 t CO{sub 2} eq/t of ammonia; this value is lower than the world average. Tropospheric ozone precursor and Acidification are also studied in this article, their values are: 549.3 × 10{sup −6} t NMVOC eq and 259.3 × 10{sup −6} t SO{sub 2} eq respectively.

  13. [Incidence of previous engagement in sports among patients with symptomatic arthrosis. Controlled study].

    PubMed

    Boyer, T; Delaire, M; Beranek, L; Lasserre, P P; Tekaya, M; Kahn, M F

    1981-12-01

    The authors investigated sports-related precedents in two groups of male subjects, aged 40 years and over, of French nationality. One group had consulted for a degenerative, chronic rheumatic disorder, and the control group showed no signs of this type of disorder. Care was taken to verify that the two groups did not differ in terms of profession, means of commuting from home to work, and non-sporting leisure physical activities. The authors observed that the subjects of the first group (chronic degenerative rheumatic disease) more frequently engaged in a sports activity, and in a significant manner, than did the control subjects. A separate study of the certain kinds of sports and the various arthritic localisations also revealed significant correlations. Although this involved a retrospective enquiry, the authors feel that the results provide arguments in favor of the pathogenic role of sports activity, with regard to peripheral joints and the spine. However, this role of sports is probably only partial and irregular. The risks of sports activity must be put in perspective and balanced with the various advantages afforded by the practice of sports.

  14. Affirmative Action in Nine Large Companies: A Field Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vernon-Gerstenfeld, Susan; Burke, Edmund

    1985-01-01

    The authors describe the findings of a field study of affirmative action programs in companies in a variety of industries. The distinction between equal employment opportunity and affirmative action is addressed. Methods used to train managers in implementing affirmative action are examined. Also explores employee development, community…

  15. Effective Teaching and Learning Environments and Principal Self-Efficacy in Oklahoma: Replication of a Previous Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to replicate a previous study by Smith et al. (2006) that explored principal self-efficacy beliefs for facilitating effective instructional environments at their schools. There has been limited research conducted on principal's self-efficacy, and the studies that have been completed on the topic have not been…

  16. Harnessing a Hurricane: Social Studies in Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floyd, Kathleen L.

    1991-01-01

    Describes how a sixth grade class in Findlay, Ohio, became involved in events in McClellanville, South Carolina, where Hurricane Hugo severely damaged a school. After students viewed a videotape of the damage, they planned actions to provide relief that ultimately involved their entire school. Underscores the project's meaningfulness and…

  17. Ifosfamide in previously untreated disseminated neuroblastoma. Results of Study 3A of the European Neuroblastoma Study Group.

    PubMed

    Kellie, S J; De Kraker, J; Lilleyman, J S; Bowman, A; Pritchard, J

    1988-05-01

    A prospective study of the effectiveness of ifosfamide as a single agent in the management of previously untreated patients with Evans stage IV neuroblastoma was undertaken. Eighteen children aged more than 1 year were treated with ifosfamide (IFX) 3 g/m2 daily for 2 days immediately after diagnosis and 3 weeks later. Treatment was continued with combination chemotherapy using vincristine, cyclophosphamide, cisplatinum and etoposide (OPEC) or a variant. Mesna (2-mercaptoethane sulphonate) was given to all patients during IFX treatment to prevent urotoxicity. Eight of the 18 patients (44%) responded to IFX. Nine had greater than 66% reduction in baseline tumor volume. Of 15 evaluable patients with raised pre-treatment urinary catecholamine excretion, six (40%) achieved greater than 50% reduction in pretreatment levels. Two of 10 patients evaluable for bone marrow response had complete clearance. Toxicity was mild in all patients. Upon completing 'first line' therapy, only four patients (22%) achieved a good partial remission (GPR) or complete response (CR). Median survival was 11 months. There was a lower rate of attaining GPR and shortened median survival in patients receiving phase II IFX before OPEC or variant, compared to patients with similar pre-treatment characteristics treated with OPEC from diagnosis in an earlier study.

  18. Embodied Learning and Creative Writing: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tobin, Jennifer Ann

    2012-01-01

    This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…

  19. Middle School Responses to Cyberbullying: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zidack, Astri Marie

    2013-01-01

    This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…

  20. Studying Action Representation in Children via Motor Imagery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gabbard, Carl

    2009-01-01

    The use of motor imagery is a widely used experimental paradigm for the study of cognitive aspects of action planning and control in adults. Furthermore, there are indications that motor imagery provides a window into the process of action representation. These notions complement internal model theory suggesting that such representations allow…

  1. Leadership development through action learning sets: an evaluation study.

    PubMed

    Walia, Surinder; Marks-Maran, Di

    2014-11-01

    This article examines the use of action learning sets in a leadership module delivered by a university in south east England. An evaluation research study was undertaking using survey method to evaluate student engagement with action learning sets, and their value, impact and sustainability. Data were collected through a questionnaire with a mix of Likert-style and open-ended questions and qualitative and quantitative data analysis was undertaken. Findings show that engagement in the action learning sets was very high. Action learning sets also had a positive impact on the development of leadership knowledge and skills and are highly valued by participants. It is likely that they would be sustainable as the majority would recommend action learning to colleagues and would consider taking another module that used action learning sets. When compared to existing literature on action learning, this study offers new insights as there is little empirical literature on student engagement with action learning sets and even less on value and sustainability.

  2. Assessment of empathy in first-episode psychosis and meta-analytic comparison with previous studies in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Achim, Amelie M; Ouellet, Rosalie; Roy, Marc-André; Jackson, Philip L

    2011-11-30

    Empathy is a multidimensional construct that relies on affective and cognitive component processes. A few studies have reported impairments of both cognitive and affective empathy components in patients with schizophrenia. It is, however, not known whether these difficulties are already present at psychosis onset. The affective and cognitive components of empathy were thus assessed in 31 patients with first-episode psychosis (FEP) and 31 matched healthy controls using the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Our results were then compared to previous studies of empathy in patients with more chronic schizophrenia via a meta-analysis. In addition, we also assessed the relationship between empathy ratings, Mentalizing performance and clinical symptoms. Contrary to what has been reported in people with more chronic schizophrenia, the IRI ratings did not significantly differ between FEP and controls in our study, though a trend was observed for the Personal distress scale. For the Perspective taking scale, our meta-analysis revealed a significantly lower effect size in this study with FEP patients relative to previous schizophrenia studies. In the FEP group, the IRI ratings were not related to positive, negative or general psychopathology symptoms, but a significant relationship emerged between the Liebowitz Social Anxiety Scale and Perspective taking (negative correlation). In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between the Empathic concern subscale and our theory of mind task. This study supports the idea that the cognitive component of empathy is less affected in patients with first-episode psychosis relative to patients with more chronic schizophrenia, and the impairments reported in previous reports with more chronic populations should be interpreted in light of a possible deterioration of this cognitive skill. The findings also provide some insight into the relationship between empathy and clinical symptoms such as social anxiety.

  3. Biochemical Studies on the Mechanism of Drug Action.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The primary objectives of this research project were to study the mechanism of action of three common drugs, theophylline, acetylsalicylic acid and diphenylthiohydantoin (DPTH), in normal and thiamin deficient rats.

  4. Environmental Education in Action - I: Case Studies of Selected Public School and Public Action Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schoenfeld, Clay, Ed.; Disinger, John, Ed.

    This publication presents a collection of 26 environmental education case studies recognized as being representative of curriculum materials and/or projects. Contained are action programs that can serve as models for the classroom teacher, principal, curriculum consultant, superintendent, state department official, or teacher educators in the…

  5. Professional Vision in Action: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sherin, Miriam Gamoran; Russ, Rosemary S.; Sherin, Bruce L.; Colestock, Adam

    2008-01-01

    The study of teachers' professional vision poses some unique challenges. The application of professional vision happens in a manner that is fleeting, and that is distributed through the moments of instruction. Because of the ongoing nature of instruction, it is not realistic to expect that one could "pause" instruction momentarily, ask a…

  6. Studying Distance Students: Methods, Findings, Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wahl, Diane; Avery, Beth; Henry, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    University of North Texas (UNT) Libraries began studying the library needs of distance learners in 2009 using a variety of approaches to explore and confirm these needs as well as obtain input into how to meet them. Approaches used to date include analysis of both quantitative and qualitative responses by online students to the LibQUAL+[R] surveys…

  7. New Case Studies of Citizen Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanner, Thomas

    1977-01-01

    Describes a six-unit case study curriculum package designed for secondary and college-level courses relating to environmental education. The units deal with nuclear power, stream channelization, a river dam project, overgrazing of public lands, agribusiness versus the family farm, and swamp preservation. (Author/DB)

  8. A multicenter phase II study of irinotecan in patients with advanced colorectal cancer previously treated with 5-fluorouracil.

    PubMed

    Méndez, Miguel; Salut, Antonieta; García-Girón, Carlos; Navalon, Marta; Diz, Pilar; García López, Maria José; España, Pilar; de la Torre, Ascensión; Martínez del Prado, Purificación; Duarte, Isabel; Pujol, Eduardo; Arizcun, Alberto; Cruz, Juan Jesús

    2003-11-01

    This multicenter, open-label, phase II study was performed to assess the efficacy and toxicity of irinotecan 350 mg/m2 intravenously every 3 weeks in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC) previously treated with 5-fluorouracil (5-FU). The study enrolled 115 patients and a total of 558 cycles (median, 6 per patient) were administered. The overall objective response rate on an intent-to-treat basis was 18% (with 1 complete response and 20 partial responses), whereas 42 patients (37%) showed stable disease. Median time to progression was 4.8 months and median survival was 13.6 months. Grade 3/4 toxicities included delayed diarrhea (19.1%), nausea/vomiting (10.4%), and neutropenia (8.7%). There were 2 toxic deaths, 1 from delayed diarrhea and 1 from hemorrhage and grade 4 mucositis. In conclusion, the present study confirms the antitumor efficacy of irinotecan monotherapy in patients with CRC pretreated with 5-FU.

  9. Study of solar activity and cosmic ray modulation during solar cycle 24 in comparison to previous solar cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, V. K.; Mishra, A. P.

    2016-12-01

    Based on the monthly data of sunspot numbers (SSN), sunspot area of full disc (SSA) and cosmic ray intensity (CRI) observed by neutron monitors (NM) located at Oulu (Cut off Rigidity = 0.8 GV) and Moscow (Cut off Rigidity = 2.3 GV), the trend of solar activity variation and cosmic ray modulation has been studied during the cycles 23 & 24. The SSN have maintained its minimum level exceptionally for a long period (July 2008-Aug. 2009) of time. The intensity of galactic cosmic rays measured by ground based detectors is the highest ever recorded by Oulu NM since April 1964 during the recent solar minimum. Furthermore, the maximum value of SSN is found to be very low in the present cycle in comparison to previous solar cycles (19-23). The correlation coefficient between SSN and CRI without and with time-lag as well as regression analysis during the solar cycle 24 (Jan. 2008-Dec. 2015) has been estimated and compared with previous solar cycle. Based on the maximum value of correlation coefficient, the time-lag during present solar cycle is found to be 4 and 10 months for both the stations, while it is 13-14 months during cycle 23. The behaviour of running cross correlation function has also been examined during present solar cycle and it is found that it attains its maximum value -0.8 to -0.9 for a long duration in comparison to previous cycles. The variation of SSN and SSA has also been compared and found that they are highly correlated to each other (r > .92) for both the cycles. In the light of exceptional behaviour of solar cycle 24, the trend of cosmic ray modulation has been discussed and compared with earlier cycles.

  10. Predicting DUI recidivism of male drunken driving: a prospective study of the impact of alcohol markers and previous drunken driving.

    PubMed

    Portman, M; Penttilä, A; Haukka, J; Eriksson, P; Alho, H; Kuoppasalmi, K

    2010-01-15

    The aim of the present study was to determine whether the alcohol biomarkers CDT, GGT, the biomarker gamma-CDT index and previous drunken driving contributed significantly to the prediction of DUI recidivism. The subjects consisted of two different samples of drivers, viz. drivers who were found to have a positive breath alcohol concentration during random breath testing surveys (n=237), and drunken drivers who were apprehended during ordinary police work (n=193). The drunken driving events were monitored using a data-base both retrospectively and prospectively. It was found that the biomarker index, gamma-CDT, emerged as a notable predictor of recidivism in the group of random breath tested drivers. Measurement of gamma-CDT and its impact on DUI recidivism has not to our knowledge been applied to random breath tested drivers before. The apprehended drunken drivers, on the other hand, did not show a significant relationship between gamma-CDT and DUI recidivism. However, in both groups of drivers it was found that a previous conviction for drunken driving strongly predicted DUI recidivism. More attention should be paid by both physicians and the police to the high risk of recidivism among those convicted of drunken driving.

  11. Identification of a new locus and validation of previously reported loci showing differential methylation associated with smoking. The REGICOR study

    PubMed Central

    Sayols-Baixeras, Sergi; Lluís-Ganella, Carla; Subirana, Isaac; Salas, Lucas A; Vilahur, Nadia; Corella, Dolores; Muñoz, Dani; Segura, Antonio; Jimenez-Conde, Jordi; Moran, Sebastián; Soriano-Tárraga, Carolina; Roquer, Jaume; Lopez-Farré, Antonio; Marrugat, Jaume; Fitó, Montse; Elosua, Roberto

    2015-01-01

    Smoking increases the risk of many diseases and could act through changes in DNA methylation patterns. The aims of this study were to determine the association between smoking and DNA methylation throughout the genome at cytosine-phosphate-guanine (CpG) site level and genomic regions. A discovery cross-sectional epigenome-wide association study nested in the follow-up of the REGICOR cohort was designed and included 645 individuals. Blood DNA methylation was assessed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Smoking status was self-reported using a standardized questionnaire. We identified 66 differentially methylated CpG sites associated with smoking, located in 38 genes. In most of these CpG sites, we observed a trend among those quitting smoking to recover methylation levels typical of never smokers. A CpG site located in a novel smoking-associated gene (cg06394460 in LNX2) was hypomethylated in current smokers. Moreover, we validated two previously reported CpG sites (cg05886626 in THBS1, and cg24838345 in MTSS1) for their potential relation to atherosclerosis and cancer diseases, using several different approaches: CpG site methylation, gene expression, and plasma protein level determinations. Smoking was also associated with higher THBS1 gene expression but with lower levels of thrombospondin-1 in plasma. Finally, we identified differential methylation regions in 13 genes and in four non-coding RNAs. In summary, this study replicated previous findings and identified and validated a new CpG site located in LNX2 associated with smoking. PMID:26829059

  12. Propagandizing Social Studies Education through Media Production: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altun, Adnan

    2015-01-01

    This study was carried out with 44 students attending the Social Studies Education Department of Faculty of Education at Abant Izzet Baysal University, who chose the elective Media Literacy Course. In the study, that was planned as an action research, the assistant professor of the course acted as "researcher" and the students (teacher…

  13. The different neural correlates of action and functional knowledge in semantic memory: an FMRI study.

    PubMed

    Canessa, Nicola; Borgo, Francesca; Cappa, Stefano F; Perani, Daniela; Falini, Andrea; Buccino, Giovanni; Tettamanti, Marco; Shallice, Tim

    2008-04-01

    Previous reports suggest that the internal organization of semantic memory is in terms of different "types of knowledge," including "sensory" (information about perceptual features), "action" (motor-based knowledge of object utilization), and "functional" (abstract properties, as function and context of use). Consistent with this view, a specific loss of action knowledge, with preserved functional knowledge, has been recently observed in patients with left frontoparietal lesions. The opposite pattern (impaired functional knowledge with preserved action knowledge) was reported in association with anterior inferotemporal lesions. In the present study, the cerebral representation of action and functional knowledge was investigated using event-related analysis of functional magnetic resonance imaging data. Fifteen subjects were presented with pictures showing pairs of manipulable objects and asked whether the objects within each pair were used with the same manipulation pattern ("action knowledge" condition) or in the same context ("functional knowledge" condition). Direct comparisons showed action knowledge, relative to functional knowledge, to activate a left frontoparietal network, comprising the intraparietal sulcus, the inferior parietal lobule, and the dorsal premotor cortex. The reverse comparison yielded activations in the retrosplenial and the lateral anterior inferotemporal cortex. These results confirm and extend previous neuropsychological data and support the hypothesis of the existence of different types of information processing in the internal organization of semantic memory.

  14. Association between previous history of gout attack and risk of deep vein thrombosis - a nationwide population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chun-Chih; Chen, Yung-Tai; Hsu, Chien-Yi; Chang, Chun-Chin; Huang, Chin-Chou; Leu, Hsin-Bang; Li, Szu-Yuan; Kuo, Shu-Chen; Huang, Po-Hsun; Chen, Jaw-Wen; Lin, Shing-Jong

    2016-01-01

    Although the association of hyperuricemia and cardiovascular diseases is well established by previous research studies, the relationship between gout and deep vein thrombosis (DVT) remains unclear. We conducted a nationwide longitudinal cohort study to investigate the relationship between gout and DVT. We used the Taiwan National Health Insurance Research Database to identify patients with gout diagnosed in Taiwan during 2000–2011, and we followed up these patients to determine the incidence of DVT among them. The association between gout and DVT was analyzed by cox proportional hazard model. The study cohort included 35,959 patients with history of gout attack and 35,959 matched controls without gout attack. During the median follow-up of 7.5 ± 3.6 years, the incidence rate of DVT was significantly higher in patients with gout than that in control group (13.48 versus 9.77 per 104 person-years, p < 0.001). Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed a tendency toward DVT development in gout patients (log rank test, p < 0.001). In a Cox model, patients with gout were found to have a 1.38-fold (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.18 to 1.62, p < 0.001) higher risk of developing DVT. Hyperuricemia with gout attack could be a possible risk predictor for DVT, but these findings need to be confirmed in future clinical and experimental studies. PMID:27231197

  15. Observational cohort study focused on treatment continuity of patients administered XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Kotaka, Masahito; Ikeda, Fusao; Tsujie, Masaki; Yoshioka, Shinichi; Nakamoto, Yoshihiko; Ishii, Takaaki; Kyogoku, Takahisa; Kato, Takeshi; Tsuji, Akihito; Kobayashi, Michiya

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been remarkable progress in systemic chemotherapy for metastatic colorectal cancer due to the widespread use of irinotecan, oxaliplatin, anti-vascular endothelial growth factor antibody, and anti-epidermal growth factor receptor antibody. It is important to continue treatment with the optimal combination of these drugs and prolong progression-free survival (PFS) to improve overall survival (OS). We conducted a prospective observational cohort study of 40 patients treated with XELOX plus bevacizumab for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer to investigate treatment continuity. Patients and methods Eligibility criteria were as follows: 1) histologically confirmed metastatic colorectal cancer; 2) lesions evaluable by imaging; 3) previously untreated; 4) suitable condition to receive XELOX plus bevacizumab; and 5) written informed consent. Outcomes were treatment continuity, overall response rate, resection rate, liver resection rate, time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS. Forty patients were enrolled and followed up for 2 years. Results Between July 2010 and June 2012, 40 patients were enrolled. The median number of treatment cycles was 7.5, and the reasons for discontinuation of treatment were as follows: complete response (five patients), resection (ten patients), progression (15 patients), adverse events (seven patients), and patient refusal (three patients). The overall response rate was 57.5%, resection rate was 25%, and liver resection rate was 15%. After a median follow-up of 31.4 months, the median time to treatment failure, PFS, and OS were 5.3, 13.3, and 38.9 months, respectively. Conclusion Although the median time to treatment failure was 5.3 months, the median PFS and OS were prolonged to 13.3 and 38.9 months, respectively. This may have resulted from the chemotherapy-free interval due to complete response in five patients and resection in ten patients. PMID:27468238

  16. A Flexible-Dose Study of Paliperidone ER in Patients With Nonacute Schizophrenia Previously Treated Unsuccessfully With Oral Olanzapine

    PubMed Central

    KOTLER, MOSHE; DILBAZ, NESRIN; ROSA, FERNANDA; PATERAKIS, PERIKLIS; MILANOVA, VIHRA; SMULEVICH, ANATOLY B.; LAHAYE, MARJOLEIN

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The goal of this study was to explore the tolerability, safety, and treatment response of switching from oral olanzapine to paliperidone extended release (ER). Methods: Adult patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had been treated unsuccessfully with oral olanzapine were switched to flexible doses of paliperidone ER (3 to 12 mg/d). The primary efficacy outcome was a ≥20% improvement in Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) total scores from baseline to endpoint for patients who switched medications because of lack of efficacy with olanzapine and noninferiority versus previous olanzapine treatment (mean endpoint change in PANSS total scores vs. baseline of ≤5 points) for patients who switched for reasons other than lack of efficacy. Safety and tolerability were assessed by monitoring adverse events, extrapyramidal symptoms, and weight change. Results: Of 396 patients, 65.2% were men, mean age was 40.0±12.0 years, and 75.5% had paranoid schizophrenia. Among the patients whose main reason for switching was lack of efficacy, an improvement in the PANSS total score of ≥20% occurred in 57.4% of patients. Noninferiority was confirmed for each subgroup of patients whose main reason for switching was something other than lack of efficacy. Paliperidone ER was generally well tolerated. Extrapyramidal symptoms as measured by total Extrapyramidal Symptom Rating Scale scores showed statistically significant and clinically relevant improvements at endpoint, the average weight decreased by 0.8±5.2 kg at endpoint, and a clinically relevant weight gain of ≥7% occurred in 8.0% of patients. Conclusion: Paliperidone ER flexibly-dosed over 6 months was well tolerated and associated with a meaningful clinical response in patients with nonacute schizophrenia who had previously been unsuccessfully treated with oral olanzapine. PMID:26813484

  17. Preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis: A multicentric phase II study

    SciTech Connect

    Valentini, Vincenzo . E-mail: vvalentini@rm.unicatt.it; Morganti, Alessio G.; Gambacorta, M. Antonietta; Mohiuddin, Mohammed; Doglietto, G. Battista; Coco, Claudio; De Paoli, Antonino; Rossi, Carlo; Di Russo, Annamaria; Valvo, Francesca; Bolzicco, Giampaolo; Dalla Palma, Maurizio

    2006-03-15

    Purpose: The combination of irradiation and total mesorectal excision for rectal carcinoma has significantly lowered the incidence of local recurrence. However, a new problem is represented by the patient with locally recurrent cancer who has received previous irradiation to the pelvis. In these patients, local recurrence is very often not easily resectable and reirradiation is expected to be associated with a high risk of late toxicity. The aim of this multicenter phase II study is to evaluate the response rate, resectability rate, local control, and treatment-related toxicity of preoperative hyperfractionated chemoradiation for locally recurrent rectal cancer in patients previously irradiated to the pelvis. Methods and Materials: Patients with histologically proven pelvic recurrence of rectal carcinoma, with the absence of extrapelvic disease or bony involvement and previous pelvic irradiation with doses {<=}55 Gy; age {>=}18 years; performance status (PS) (Karnofsky) {>=}60, and who gave institutional review board-approved written informed consent were treated by preoperative chemoradiation. Radiotherapy was delivered to a planning target volume (PTV2) including the gross tumor volume (GTV) plus a 4-cm margin, with a dose of 30 Gy (1.2 Gy twice daily with a minimum 6-h interval). A boost was delivered, with the same fractionation schedule, to a PTV1 including the GTV plus a 2-cm margin (10.8 Gy). During the radiation treatment, concurrent chemotherapy was delivered (5-fluorouracil, protracted intravenous infusion, 225 mg/m{sup 2}/day, 7 days per week). Four to 6 weeks after the end of chemoradiation, patients were evaluated for tumor resectability, and, when feasible, surgical resection of recurrence was performed between 6-8 weeks from the end of chemoradiation. Adjuvant chemotherapy was prescribed to all patients, using Raltitrexed, 3 mg/square meter (sm), every 3 weeks, for a total of 5 cycles. Patients were staged using the computed tomography (CT)-based F

  18. Congress in Action: Social Studies. 6448.03.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heggy, Joan

    The publication is an outline of a grade 10-12 course which analyzes congressional functions through a study of the evolution of Congress and examines current legislative actions and their influencing forces. Courses objectives are as follows: 1) to identify and study the factors which affect the legislative process; 2) to analyze the recruitment…

  19. Disease surveillance based on Internet-based linear models: an Australian case study of previously unmodeled infection diseases

    PubMed Central

    Rohart, Florian; Milinovich, Gabriel J.; Avril, Simon M. R.; Lê Cao, Kim-Anh; Tong, Shilu; Hu, Wenbiao

    2016-01-01

    Effective disease surveillance is critical to the functioning of health systems. Traditional approaches are, however, limited in their ability to deliver timely information. Internet-based surveillance systems are a promising approach that may circumvent many of the limitations of traditional health surveillance systems and provide more intelligence on cases of infection, including cases from those that do not use the healthcare system. Infectious disease surveillance systems built on Internet search metrics have been shown to produce accurate estimates of disease weeks before traditional systems and are an economically attractive approach to surveillance; they are, however, also prone to error under certain circumstances. This study sought to explore previously unmodeled diseases by investigating the link between Google Trends search metrics and Australian weekly notification data. We propose using four alternative disease modelling strategies based on linear models that studied the length of the training period used for model construction, determined the most appropriate lag for search metrics, used wavelet transformation for denoising data and enabled the identification of key search queries for each disease. Out of the twenty-four diseases assessed with Australian data, our nowcasting results highlighted promise for two diseases of international concern, Ross River virus and pneumococcal disease. PMID:27994231

  20. Patterns and Determinants of Treatment Seeking among Previously Untreated Psychotic Patients in Aceh Province, Indonesia: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    Marthoenis, Marthoenis; Aichberger, Marion C.; Schouler-Ocak, Meryam

    2016-01-01

    Immediate treatment of first-episode psychosis is essential in order to achieve a positive outcome. However, Indonesian psychiatric patients often delay accessing health services, the reason for which is not yet fully understood. The current study aimed to understand patterns of treatment seeking and to reveal determinants of the delay in accessing psychiatric care among first-time user psychotic patients. Qualitative interviews were conducted with sixteen family members who accompanied the patients to a psychiatric hospital. Many families expressed beliefs that mental illness appertains to village sickness and not hospital sickness; therefore, they usually take the patients to traditional or religious healers before taking them to a health professional. They also identified various factors that potentially delay accessing psychiatric treatment: low literacy and beliefs about the cause of the illness, stigmatisation, the role of extended family, financial problems, and long distance to the psychiatric hospital. On the other hand, the family mentioned various factors related to timely help seeking, including being a well-educated family, living closer to health facilities, previous experience of successful psychotic therapy, and having more positive symptoms of psychosis. The findings call for mental health awareness campaigns in the community. PMID:27382501

  1. Risk factors and therapeutic coverage at 6 years in patients with previous myocardial infarction: the CASTUO study

    PubMed Central

    Félix-Redondo, Francisco Javier; Lozano Mera, Luis; Consuegra-Sánchez, Luciano; Giménez Sáez, Fernando; Garcipérez de Vargas, Francisco Javier; Castellano Vázquez, José María; Fernández-Bergés, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To determine the degree of risk factor control, the clinical symptoms and the therapeutic management of patients with a history of previous myocardial infarction. Methods Cross-sectional study at 6 years of a first episode of acute myocardial infarction between 2000 and 2009, admitted at a hospital in the region of Extremadura (Spain). Of 2177 patients with this diagnosis, 1365 remained alive and therefore were included in the study. Results We conducted a person-to-person survey in 666 (48.8%) individuals and telephone survey in 437 (31.9%) individuals. The former are analysed. 130 were female (19.5%). The mean age was 67.4 years and the median time since the event was 5.8 (IQR 3.6–8.2) years. Active smokers made up 13.8%, low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol was ≥70 mg/dL: 82%, blood pressure ≥140/90 mm Hg (≥140/85 in diabetics): 49.8%, fasting glucose ≥126 mg/dL: 26%, heart rate 50–59 bpm: 60.7%, and obesity: 45.9%. Patients reported presenting angina comprised 22.4% and those with dyspnoea, 29.3%. Drug coverage was: 88.0% antiplatelet drugs, 86.5% statins, 75.6% β-blockers and 65.8% blockers of the renin-angiotensin system. Patients receiving all four types of drugs made up 41.9%, with only 3.0% having jointly controlled cholesterol, blood pressure, heart rate and glycaemia. Conclusions LDL cholesterol, heart rate and blood pressure were risk factors with less control. More than 1/5 of patients had angina and more than 1/4, dyspnoea. Risk factor control and the clinical condition were far from optimal, as was drug coverage, although to a lesser degree. PMID:27127637

  2. Effective Use of Action-Oriented Studies in Pakistan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, M.

    1991-01-01

    This article summarizes results from action-oriented studies carried out at the Mental Heath Centre in Peshawar, Pakistan, dealing with such topics as attitudes toward disability, casual integration, and trends in polio paralysis. The article also considers problems associated with the dissemination of special education and rehabilitation research…

  3. Case Studies of Action Research in Various Adult Education Settings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda

    1997-01-01

    Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)

  4. Efficacy and safety of nivolumab in Japanese patients with previously untreated advanced melanoma: a phase II study.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Naoya; Kiyohara, Yoshio; Uhara, Hisashi; Uehara, Jiro; Fujimoto, Manabu; Takenouchi, Tatsuya; Otsuka, Masaki; Uchi, Hiroshi; Ihn, Hironobu; Minami, Hironobu

    2017-03-25

    Treating advanced or recurrent melanoma remains a challenge. Cancer cells can evade the immune system by blocking T-cell activation via overexpression of the inhibitory receptor programmed death 1 (PD-1) ligands. The PD-1 inhibitor nivolumab blocks the inhibitory signal in T cells, thus overcoming the immune resistance of cancer cells. Nivolumab has demonstrated promising anti-cancer activity in various cancers. We conducted a single-arm, open-label, multicenter, phase II study to investigate the efficacy and safety of nivolumab in previously untreated Japanese patients with advanced melanoma. Twenty-four patients with stage III/IV or recurrent melanoma were enrolled and received intravenous nivolumab 3 mg/kg every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity. The primary endpoint was overall response rate evaluated by an independent radiology review committee. The independent radiology review committee-assessed overall response rate was 34.8% (90% confidence interval [CI]: 20.8, 51.9), and the overall survival rate at 18 months was 56.5% (90% CI: 38.0, 71.4). Treatment-related adverse events (AEs) of grade 3 or 4 only occurred in three patients (12.5%). Two patients discontinued nivolumab because of AEs, but all AEs were considered manageable by early diagnosis and appropriate treatment. Subgroup analyses showed that nivolumab was clinically beneficial and tolerable regardless of BRAF genotype and that patients with treatment-related select AEs and with vitiligo showed tendency for better survival. In conclusion, nivolumab demonstrated favorable efficacy and safety profiles in Japanese patients with advanced or recurrent melanoma, with or without BRAF mutations. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  5. How specifically are action verbs represented in the neural motor system: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    van Dam, Wessel O; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Bekkering, Harold

    2010-12-01

    Embodied accounts of language processing suggest that sensorimotor areas, generally dedicated to perception and action, are also involved in the processing and representation of word meaning. Support for such accounts comes from studies showing that language about actions selectively modulates the execution of congruent and incongruent motor responses (e.g., Glenberg & Kaschak, 2002), and from functional neuroimaging studies showing that understanding action-related language recruits sensorimotor brain areas (e.g. Hauk, Johnsrude, & Pulvermueller, 2004). In the current experiment we explored the basis of the neural motor system's involvement in representing words denoting actions. Specifically, we investigated whether the motor system's involvement is modulated by the specificity of the kinematics associated with a word. Previous research in the visual domain indicates that words denoting basic level category members lacking a specific form (e.g., bird) are less richly encoded within visual areas than words denoting subordinate level members (e.g., pelican), for which the visual form is better specified (Gauthier, Anderson, Tarr, Skudlarski, & Gore, 1997). In the present study we extend these findings to the motor domain. Modulation of the BOLD response elicited by verbs denoting a general motor program (e.g., to clean) was compared to modulation elicited by verbs denoting a more specific motor program (e.g., to wipe). Conform with our hypothesis, a region within the bilateral inferior parietal lobule, typically serving the representation of action plans and goals, was sensitive to the specificity of motor programs associated with the action verbs. These findings contribute to the growing body of research on embodied language representations by showing that the concreteness of an action-semantic feature is reflected in the neural response to action verbs.

  6. Students of Action? A Comparative Investigation of Secondary Science and Social Studies Students' Action Repertoires in a Land Use Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kumler, Lori M.

    2011-01-01

    Environmental education (EE) and social studies education share an interest in behavioral outcomes. This study compares behavioral outcomes--including both self-reported knowledge of actions and reported actions taken--in the context of a land use curriculum enacted in secondary science versus social studies classes with 500 students and nine…

  7. Issues concerning a diagnostic study of an action plan for the San Juan river basin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Hiromi; Futamura, Hisanori; Nakayama, Mikiyasu

    2004-11-01

    An action plan is being formulated for the San Juan River basin, shared by Costa Rica and Nicaragua in Central America. The action plan is assumed to be a planning tool designed to ensure the availability of the goods and services that water resources provide for the conservation of ecosystems and for social and economic development. Development of the action plan comprises two phases, namely elaboration of the diagnostic study and drafting of the action plan. The diagnostic study was published in 1997. After examining previous cases in international water systems, for which the diagnostic study was developed as the precursor of an action plan, the author felt that the existing diagnostic study for the San Juan River basin still had room for improvements, in particular in the following aspects: (a) inventory of past, ongoing and future projects; (b) impacts of reserved areas on the basin as a whole; (c) instruments to promote public participation; (d) support by central decision makers; (e) mechanisms for information transparency. These aspects, which need enhancements, seem to suggest that more emphasis should be put on the soft aspects of the sciences. While the diagnostic study addresses issues of natural environment in detail, both data and analysis of human environments are in low profile. The lesson gained from the Zambezi River basin project is that lack of a proper strategy and political commitments by the central decision makers (of the riparian states) will lead to an impasse in implementation of the project, due mainly to paucity of support within basin countries. Lack of support by the general public may also lead to a failure in the implementation phase. These aspects should have been sufficiently addressed in the diagnostic study, so that appropriate actions (to be listed in the action plan) should be elaborated for implementation.

  8. Action Researchers' Perspectives about the Distinguishing Characteristics of Action Research: A Delphi and Learning Circles Mixed-Methods Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…

  9. An EEG study on the somatotopic organisation of sensorimotor cortex activation during action execution and observation in infancy

    PubMed Central

    de Klerk, Carina C.J.M.; Johnson, Mark H.; Southgate, Victoria

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that sensorimotor cortex activation is somatotopically-organised during action execution and observation in adulthood. Here we aimed to investigate the development of this phenomenon in infancy. We elicited arm and leg actions from 12-month-old infants and presented them, and a control group of adults, with videos of arm and leg actions while we measured their sensorimotor alpha suppression using EEG. Sensorimotor alpha suppression during action execution was somatotopically organised in 12-month-old infants: there was more suppression over the arm areas when infants performed reaching actions, and more suppression over the leg area when they performed kicking actions. Adults also showed somatotopically-organised activation during the observation of reaching and kicking actions. In contrast, infants did not show somatotopically-organised activation during action observation, but instead activated the arm areas when observing both reaching and kicking actions. We suggest that the somatotopic organisation of sensorimotor cortex activation during action observation may depend on infants’ understanding of the action goal and their expectations about how this goal will be achieved. PMID:26318840

  10. Associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic diseases in Chinese adults: a case-control study

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Biao; Wang, Zhiqiang; Wang, Yupeng; Liu, Meina; Wang, Yongchen

    2017-01-01

    To assess the associations of obesity with newly diagnosed and previously known atopic disorders in Chinese adults. 4,629 adults aged 18 years or older were recruited in Harbin, China. Among them, 1,114 were previously diagnosed atopic cases, 1,298 were newly diagnosed cases, and 2,217 non-atopic controls. Obesity and overweight are defined according to the criteria established by the Working Group on Obesity in China. The associations of obesity with known and newly diagnosed atopic disorders were assessed using logistic regressions. Obesity was significantly associated with known atopic disorders (adjusted OR = 2.41 (95% CI: 1.81, 3.22)). The association of obesity with newly diagnosed atopic cases was not as strong as that with known cases, and was not statistically significant (adjusted OR = 1.27 (95% CI: 0.94, 1.72)). The similar pattern was observed in different allergic diseases, gender and age stratifications. The association between overweight and atopic diseases were not significant. Obesity is strongly associated with previously diagnosed atopic cases but not so with newly diagnosed atopic cases in Chinese adults. It is likely that people with atopic disorders have a higher risk of developing obesity. Our findings are important for the management of atopic disorders and chronic disease prevention among atopic disease patients. PMID:28252017

  11. General practitioners' adoption of new drugs and previous prescribing of drugs belonging to the same therapeutic class: a pharmacoepidemiological study

    PubMed Central

    Dybdahl, Torben; Andersen, Morten; Kragstrup, Jakob; Kristiansen, Ivar Sønbø; Søndergaard, Jens

    2005-01-01

    Aim To test the hypothesis that general practitioners (GPs) with high prescribing levels of certain drugs will adopt new drugs belonging to the same therapeutic group faster than those with low prescribing levels. Methods The adoption of four new drugs: esomeprazol, selective cyclo-oxygenase-2 inhibitors, new triptans, and angiotensin-II receptor blockers were analysed using population-based prescription data. We used the preference proportion (prescriptions for new rather than older alternatives for the same indication) to measure GPs' adoption rate. Annual prescribing volume and prevalence were used to measure previous prescribing of older drug alternatives. We modelled the preference proportion using multiple linear regression analysis and the prescribing of older drugs as independent variables. We controlled for the GPs' general prescribing level and weighted for practice size. In the first three analyses, we dichotomized data using the median, lower and upper quartile as cut-off point. Next, we grouped data into quartiles and finally, we used continuous data. Results For esomeprazol and new triptans there was a higher preference for new drugs among ‘high prescribers’, but only when this term was defined as the upper quarter and the upper half of previous prescribing levels, respectively (mean difference in preference proportion: 10.2% (99% confidence interval = 1.3%, 19.1%) and 8.2% (0.2%, 16.2%)). For the remaining two drug classes the associations were weak and almost all statistically nonsignificant. Conclusion There is no consistent association between GPs' level of drug prescribing and their adoption of new drugs of the same therapeutic group. PMID:16236043

  12. Priorities for Action in a Rural Older Adults Study

    PubMed Central

    Averill, Jennifer B.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports the findings from a recent study of older adults in the rural southwestern United States and discusses practice and research implications. The aim of the study was to analyze health disparities and strengths in the contexts of rurality, aging, a depressed economy, and limited health resources. Identified themes needing action included sustained access to prescriptions, transportation solutions for older adults in isolated communities, inadequate access to care, poor infrastructure and coordination of services, scarce assisted living and in-home care for frail older adults, and barriers related to culture, language, and economics. PMID:22929381

  13. A case study of IMRT planning (Plan B) subsequent to a previously treated IMRT plan (Plan A)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, F.; Leong, C.; Schroeder, J.; Lee, B.

    2014-03-01

    Background and purpose: Treatment of the contralateral neck after previous ipsilateral intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) for head and neck cancer is a challenging problem. We have developed a technique that limits the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while maximizing coverage of a planning target volume (PTV) in the contralateral neck. Our case involves a patient with right tonsil carcinoma who was given ipsilateral IMRT with 70Gy in 35 fractions (Plan A). A left neck recurrence was detected 14 months later. The patient underwent a neck dissection followed by postoperative left neck radiation to a dose of 66 Gy in 33 fractions (Plan B). Materials and Methods: The spinal cord-brainstem margin (SCBM) was defined as the spinal cord and brainstem with a 1.0 cm margin. Plan A was recalculated on the postoperative CT scan but the fluence outside of SCBM was deleted. A further modification of Plan A resulted in a base plan that was summed with Plan B to evaluate the cumulative dose received by the spinal cord and brainstem. Plan B alone was used to evaluate for coverage of the contralateral neck PTV. Results: The maximum cumulative doses to the spinal cord with 0.5cm margin and brainstem with 0.5cm margin were 51.96 Gy and 45.60 Gy respectively. For Plan B, 100% of the prescribed dose covered 95% of PTVb1. Conclusion: The use of a modified ipsilateral IMRT plan as a base plan is an effective way to limit the cumulative dose to the spinal cord and brainstem while enabling coverage of a PTV in the contralateral neck.

  14. A Study of the Relationship between Previous Exposure to Education and Practice-Teaching Performance at the University of Ife.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olatunji, S. A.

    1976-01-01

    A study to identify relationships between the amount of exposure students have to education (as a discipline) and their student teaching performances is reported. Students attending the University of Ife from 1973-1976 were studied. A positive relationship was discovered, but other factors need to be researched further. (MLW)

  15. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  16. Women's Awareness of and Attitudes Towards the Flood Action Plan (FAP) of Bangladesh: A Comparative Study.

    PubMed

    PAUL

    1999-01-01

    / Bangladesh has recently tested a program called the Flood Action Plan (FAP) to solve its chronic flood problem. The FAP envisages that all the major rivers of Bangladesh will eventually be embanked on both sides in order to prevent flooding. This paper reports on the responses of rural women to the possible impacts of the proposed embankment projects as outlined in the FAP. A further attempt is also made to compare their responses with the results of an earlier survey conducted among male respondents. Data for this study were collected from two rural areas of Bangladesh. It shows that almost all respondents had heard about the proposed construction and that they overwhelmingly support the embankment project of the FAP. Respondents are also aware of both positive and negative impacts of embankment construction. Similar findings were also reported by a previous study dealing with male responses to the embankment project. KEY WORDS: Flood Action Plan; Bangladesh; Women

  17. Venlafaxine extended release versus conventional antidepressants in the remission of depressive disorders after previous antidepressant failure: ARGOS study.

    PubMed

    Baldomero, E Baca; Ubago, J Giner; Cercós, C Leal; Ruiloba, J Vallejo; Calvo, C García; López, R Prieto

    2005-01-01

    Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) may be used as an alternative treatment for depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant. This randomized, open-label, multicenter study compared the effectiveness of the SNRI venlafaxine extended release (VXR) with that of conventional antidepressants (CA) in patients who were referred to an outpatient psychiatric specialty care setting for treatment after failure to tolerate or respond to at least 4 weeks of treatment with a CA in a primary care setting. Patients with a Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D17) score > or =17 were randomly assigned to treatment with an alternative CA or VXR. Remission was defined as a score < or =7 on the HAM-D17. Efficacy analyses were carried out on 3,097 patients from the intent-to-treat (ITT) population (1,632 VXR; 1,465 CA). The antidepressants prescribed most frequently in the CA group were paroxetine (21.3%), citalopram (20.1%), sertraline (19.1%), fluoxetine (17.0%), and mirtazapine (7.9%). After 24 weeks of treatment, the VXR group demonstrated a significantly higher remission rate than did the CA group (59.3% VXR; 51.5% CA; P<.0001; odds ratio: 1.37; 95% CI: 1.19-1.58; P<.01). Despite the limitations of the open design, the results of this study suggest that venlafaxine extended release may be more effective than the conventional antidepressants used in this study when treating depressed patients who do not tolerate or respond adequately to treatment with a conventional antidepressant.

  18. Effect of Previous Miscarriage on Depressive Symptoms during Subsequent Pregnancy and Postpartum in the First Baby Study

    PubMed Central

    Bicking Kinsey, Cara; Baptiste-Roberts, Kesha; Zhu, Junjia; Kjerulff, Kristen H.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Our objective was to test the hypothesis that nulliparous women with a history of miscarriage have an increased risk of depression during late pregnancy, and at 1, 6, and 12 months postpartum compared to women without a history of miscarriage. Methods We conducted secondary analysis of a longitudinal cohort study, the First Baby Study, and compared 448 pregnant women with a history of miscarriage to 2343 pregnant women without a history of miscarriage on risk of probable depression (score >12 on the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale). Logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios at each time point and generalized estimating equations were used to obtain estimates in longitudinal analysis. Results Women with a history of miscarriage were not more likely than woman without a history of miscarriage to score in the probable depression range during the third trimester or at 6 or 12 months postpartum but were more likely at 1 month postpartum, after adjustment for sociodemographic factors (OR 1.66, 95% CI 1.03 – 2.69). Conclusions Women with a history of miscarriage may be more vulnerable to depression during the first month postpartum than women without prior miscarriage, but this effect does not appear to persist beyond this time period. We support the promotion of awareness surrounding this issue and recommend that research is planned to identify risk factors that may position a woman with a history of miscarriage to be at higher risk for depression. PMID:24894728

  19. Trabecular volumetric bone mineral density is associated with previous fracture during childhood and adolescence in males: the GOOD study.

    PubMed

    Darelid, Anna; Ohlsson, Claes; Rudäng, Robert; Kindblom, Jenny M; Mellström, Dan; Lorentzon, Mattias

    2010-03-01

    Areal bone mineral density (aBMD) measured with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA) has been associated with fracture risk in children and adolescents, but it remains unclear whether this association is due to volumetric BMD (vBMD) of the cortical and/or trabecular bone compartments or bone size. The aim of this study was to determine whether vBMD or bone size was associated with X-ray-verified fractures in men during growth. In total, 1068 men (aged 18.9 +/- 0.6 years) were included in the population-based Gothenburg Osteoporosis and Obesity Determinants (GOOD) Study. Areal BMD was measured by DXA, whereas cortical and trabecular vBMD and bone size were measured by peripheral quantitative computerized tomography (pQCT). X-ray records were searched for fractures. Self-reported fractures in 77 men could not be confirmed in these records. These men were excluded, resulting in 991 included men, of which 304 men had an X-ray-verified fracture and 687 were nonfracture subjects. Growth charts were used to establish the age of peak height velocity (PHV, n = 600). Men with prevalent fractures had lower aBMD (lumbar spine 2.3%, p = .005; total femur 2.6%, p = .004, radius 2.1%, p < .001) at all measured sites than men without fracture. Using pQCT measurements, we found that men with a prevalent fracture had markedly lower trabecular vBMD (radius 6.6%, p = 7.5 x 10(-8); tibia 4.5%, p = 1.7 x 10(-7)) as well as a slightly lower cortical vBMD (radius 0.4%, p = .0012; tibia 0.3%, p = .015) but not reduced cortical cross-sectional area than men without fracture. Every SD decrease in trabecular vBMD of the radius and tibia was associated with 1.46 [radius 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.26-1.69; tibia 95% CI 1.26-1.68] times increased fracture prevalence. The peak fracture incidence coincided with the timing of PHV (+/-1 year). In conclusion, trabecular vBMD but not aBMD was independently associated with prevalent X-ray-verified fractures in young men. Further studies are

  20. Studying Studies on Teacher Reflection and Action: An Appraisal of Research Contributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marcos, Juan Jose Mena; Tillema, Harm

    2006-01-01

    For decades a substantial body of research on teacher reflection and action has been conducted. This research contains a wealth of information on teachers' thinking about their daily work in classrooms. But what do these studies tell us about the linkage between thought and action in actual teaching? How do they contribute to our understanding, or…

  1. Chemical Processes with Supercritical CO2 in Engineered Geologic Systems: Significance, Previous Study, and Path Forward (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, T.; Pruess, K.

    2009-12-01

    Chemical reactions with dissolved CO2 in the aqueous phase have long been considered in fundamental geosciences and practical applications. Recently, studies on geologic carbon sequestration and enhanced geothermal systems using CO2 as heat transmission fluid have brought new interests in chemical reaction processes directly with supercritical CO2 (scCO2, or gas phase). In the vicinity of a CO2 injection well, the aqueous fluid initially present in a geological formation would be quickly removed by dissolution (evaporation) into the flowing gas stream and by immiscible displacement by the scCO2, creating a gas phase dominant zone. In this zone, the water evaporation could cause formation dry-out and precipitation of salt near the injection well, reducing formation porosity, permeability, and injectivity. The scCO2 may directly attack well construction materials such as cement. Over time, the gas phase will tend to migrate upwards towards the caprock because the density of the scCO2 is lower than that of the aqueous phase. In the upper portions of the reservoir, the scCO2 will directly react with caprock minerals and alter the hydrological properties and mechanical strength. On the other hand, the scCO2 phase will maintain the dissolution into the aqueous phase, lowering pH, inducing mineral dissolution, complexing with dissolved cations, increasing CO2 solubility, increasing the density of the aqueous phase, and promoting “convective mixing”. Chemical processes are quite different in the scCO2 dominant geologic systems. The absence of an aqueous phase poses unique questions, as little is presently known about the chemistry of non-aqueous systems. Additional issues arise from the reactivity of water that is dissolved in the ScCO2 phase. In this presentation, the author will discuss the importance, state of the studies performed, and future research directions.

  2. THE INTEGRATION OF ENGINEERED AND INSTITUTIONAL CONTROLS: A CASE STUDY APPROACH WITH LESSONS LEARNED FROM PREVIOUSLY CLOSED SITES

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin M. Kostelnik; James H. Clarke; Jerry L. Harbour

    2005-02-01

    Environmental remediation efforts that are underway at hundreds of contaminated sites in the United States will not be able to remediate large portions of those sites to conditions that would permit unrestricted access. Rather, large volumes of waste materials, contaminated soils and cleanup residuals will have to be isolated either in place or in new, often on-site, disposal cells with long term monitoring, maintenance and institutional control needs. The challenge continues to be to provide engineering systems and controls that can ensure the protection of public health and the environment over very long time horizons (hundreds to perhaps thousands of years) with minimal intervention. Effective long term management of legacy hazardous and nuclear waste requires an integrated approach that addresses both the engineered containment and control system itself and the institutional controls and other responsibilities that are needed. Decisions concerning system design, monitoring and maintenance, and the institutional controls that will be employed are best done through a "risk-nformed, performance-based" approach. Such an approach should incorporate an analysis of potential "failure" modes and consequences for all important system features, together with lessons learned from experience with systems already in place. The authors will present the preliminary results of a case study approach that included several sites where contamination isolation systems including institutional controls have been implemented. The results are being used together with failure trees and logic diagrams that have been developed for both the engineered barriers and the institutional controls. The use of these analytical tools to evaluate the potential for different levels of failure and associated consequences will be discussed. Of special interest is the robustness of different approaches to providing long-term protection through redundancy and defense in depth.

  3. A Self-Study of the Teaching of Action Research in a University Context

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Jung-ah

    2011-01-01

    Despite the potential benefits of action research, teaching action research in a university setting can present challenges. Analyzing my own experiences of teaching a university-based course on action research, this self-study investigates what my students (all classroom teachers) did and did not understand about action research and what hindered…

  4. Final corrective action study for the former CCC/USDA facility in Ramona, Kansas.

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, L. M.

    2011-04-20

    Past operations at a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) in Ramona, Kansas, resulted in low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater that slightly exceed the regulatory standard in only one location. As requested by the Kansas Department of Health and Environment, the CCC/USDA has prepared a Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address groundwater impacted by the former CCC/USDA facility but not releases caused by other potential groundwater contamination sources in Ramona. Four remedial alternatives were considered in the CAS. The recommended remedial alternative in the CAS consists of Environmental Use Control to prevent the inadvertent use of groundwater as a water supply source, coupled with groundwater monitoring to verify the continued natural improvement in groundwater quality. The Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA) has directed Argonne National Laboratory to prepare a Corrective Action Study (CAS), consistent with guidance from the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2001a), for the CCC/USDA grain storage facility formerly located in Ramona, Kansas. This effort is pursuant to a KDHE (2007a) request. Although carbon tetrachloride levels at the Ramona site are low, they remain above the Kansas Tier 2 risk-based screening level (RBSL) and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) maximum contaminant level (MCL) of 5 {micro}g/L (Kansas 2003, 2004). In its request for the CAS, the KDHE (2007a) stated that, because of these levels, risk is associated with potential future exposure to contaminated groundwater. The KDHE therefore determined that additional measures are warranted to limit future use of the property and/or exposure to contaminated media as part of site closure. The KDHE further requested comparison of at least two corrective

  5. Headlines Previous Editions

    Science.gov Websites

    Previous Editions: Volume 17 Volume 16 Volume 15 Volume 14 Volume 13 FEB 2017 JAN 2017 DEC 2016 NOV 2016 OCT 2016 SEP 2016 AUG 2016 JUL 2016 JUN 2016 MAY 2016 APR 2016 MAR 2016 FEB ...

  6. Motor Execution Affects Action Prediction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Springer, Anne; Brandstadter, Simone; Liepelt, Roman; Birngruber, Teresa; Giese, Martin; Mechsner, Franz; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2011-01-01

    Previous studies provided evidence of the claim that the prediction of occluded action involves real-time simulation. We report two experiments that aimed to study how real-time simulation is affected by simultaneous action execution under conditions of full, partial or no overlap between observed and executed actions. This overlap was analysed by…

  7. Mode of Action for Reproductive and Hepatic Toxicity Inferred from a Genomic Study of Triazole Antifungals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The mode of action for the reproductive toxicity of triazole antifungals have been previously characterized by an observed increased in serum testosterone, hepatotoxicity, and reduced insemination and fertility indices. In order to refine our mechanistic understanding of these m...

  8. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed. PMID:26136720

  9. Examination of mechanisms underlying enhanced memory performance in action video game players: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Li, Xianchun; Cheng, Xiaojun; Li, Jiaying; Pan, Yafeng; Hu, Yi; Ku, Yixuan

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have shown enhanced memory performance resulting from extensive action video game playing. The mechanisms underlying the cognitive benefit were investigated in the current study. We presented two types of retro-cues, with variable intervals to memory array (Task 1) or test array (Task 2), during the retention interval in a change detection task. In Task 1, action video game players demonstrated steady performance while non-action video game players showed decreased performance as cues occurred later, indicating their performance difference increased as the cue-to-memory-array intervals became longer. In Task 2, both participant groups increased their performance at similar rates as cues presented later, implying the performance difference in two groups were irrespective of the test-array-to-cue intervals. These findings suggested that memory benefit from game plays is not attributable to the higher ability of overcoming interference from the test array, but to the interactions between the two processes of protection from decay and resistance from interference, or from alternative hypotheses. Implications for future studies were discussed.

  10. Factors Affecting Collective Action for Forest Fire Management: A Comparative Study of Community Forest User Groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P.

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  11. Factors affecting collective action for forest fire management: a comparative study of community forest user groups in central Siwalik, Nepal.

    PubMed

    Sapkota, Lok Mani; Shrestha, Rajendra Prasad; Jourdain, Damien; Shivakoti, Ganesh P

    2015-01-01

    The attributes of social ecological systems affect the management of commons. Strengthening and enhancing social capital and the enforcement of rules and sanctions aid in the collective action of communities in forest fire management. Using a set of variables drawn from previous studies on the management of commons, we conducted a study across 20 community forest user groups in Central Siwalik, Nepal, by dividing the groups into two categories based on the type and level of their forest fire management response. Our study shows that the collective action in forest fire management is consistent with the collective actions in other community development activities. However, the effectiveness of collective action is primarily dependent on the complex interaction of various variables. We found that strong social capital, strong enforcement of rules and sanctions, and users' participation in crafting the rules were the major variables that strengthen collective action in forest fire management. Conversely, users' dependency on a daily wage and a lack of transparency were the variables that weaken collective action. In fire-prone forests such as the Siwalik, our results indicate that strengthening social capital and forming and enforcing forest fire management rules are important variables that encourage people to engage in collective action in fire management.

  12. Animal models to study thyroid hormone action in cerebellum.

    PubMed

    Koibuchi, Noriyuki

    2009-06-01

    Thyroid hormone plays a crucial role in the development and functional maintenance of the central nervous system including the cerebellum. To study the molecular mechanisms of thyroid hormone action, various animal models have been used. These are classified: (1) congenital hypothyroid animals due to thyroid gland dysgenesis or thyroid dyshormonogenesis, (2) thyroid hormone receptor (TR) gene-mutated animals, and (3) thyroid hormone transport or metabolism-modified animals. TR is a ligand-activated transcription factor. In the presence of ligand, it activates transcription of target gene, whereas it represses the transcription without ligand. Thus, phenotype of TR-knockout mouse is different from that of hypothyroid animal (low thyroid hormone level), in which unliganded TR actively represses the transcription. On the other hand, human patient harboring mutant TR expresses different phenotypes depending on the function of mutated TR. To mimic this phenotype, other animal models are generated. In addition, recent human studies have shown that thyroid hormone transporters such as monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) 8 may play an important role in thyroid hormone-mediated brain development. However, MCT8 knockout mouse show different phenotypes from a human patient. This article introduces representative animal models currently used to study various aspects of thyroid hormone, particularly to study the involvement of the thyroid hormone system on the development and functional maintenance of the cerebellum.

  13. Insight and Action Analytics: Three Case Studies to Consider

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milliron, Mark David; Malcolm, Laura; Kil, David

    2014-01-01

    Civitas Learning was conceived as a community of practice, bringing together forward-thinking leaders from diverse higher education institutions to leverage insight and action analytics in their ongoing efforts to help students learn well and finish strong. We define insight and action analytics as drawing, federating, and analyzing data from…

  14. Learning Action Research and Managing Educational Change-Improvement in Careers Education: A Case Study of Managerialism in Action?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutchinson, Barry

    1998-01-01

    Asks why so few prospective teachers, on completing their studies (extolling action research), continue to use this approach in their subsequent practice. Drawing upon Esland's notion of "managerialism" and employing an indepth case study of Gerard, a recent graduate, concludes that marketing pressures have taken priority over core…

  15. Nonperturbative study of the action parameters for anisotropic-lattice quarks

    SciTech Connect

    Foley, Justin; Cais, Alan O; Peardon, Mike; Ryan, Sinead M.

    2006-01-01

    A quark action designed for highly anisotropic-lattice simulations is discussed. The mass-dependence of the parameters in the action is studied and the results are presented. Applications of this action in studies of heavy quark quantities are described and results are presented from simulations at an anisotropy of six, for a range of quark masses from strange to bottom.

  16. Polychlorinated biphenyl exposure, diabetes and endogenous hormones: a cross-sectional study in men previously employed at a capacitor manufacturing plant

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Studies have shown associations of diabetes and endogenous hormones with exposure to a wide variety of organochlorines. We have previously reported positive associations of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and inverse associations of selected steroid hormones with diabetes in postmenopausal women previously employed in a capacitor manufacturing plant. Methods This paper examines associations of PCBs with diabetes and endogenous hormones in 63 men previously employed at the same plant who in 1996 underwent surveys of their exposure and medical history and collection of bloods and urine for measurements of PCBs, lipids, liver function, hematologic markers and endogenous hormones. Results PCB exposure was positively associated with diabetes and age and inversely associated with thyroid stimulating hormone and triiodothyronine-uptake. History of diabetes was significantly related to total PCBs and all PCB functional groupings, but not to quarters worked and job score, after control for potential confounders. None of the exposures were related to insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) in non-diabetic men. Conclusions Associations of PCBs with specific endogenous hormones differ in some respects from previous findings in postmenopausal women employed at the capacitor plant. Results from this study, however, do confirm previous reports relating PCB exposure to diabetes and suggest that these associations are not mediated by measured endogenous hormones. PMID:22931295

  17. Genome-wide association study for birth weight Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenuis indicus) points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits. One region of the cattle genome, located on bovine autosome (BTA) 14, has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains ...

  18. What Will Be the Impact of Programs of Study? A Preliminary Assessment Based on Similar Previous Initiatives, State Plans for Implementation, and Career Development Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Morgan V.; Kosine, Natalie R.

    2008-01-01

    This publication provides background to inform the implementation of Programs of Study (POS) as required by grantees of funds authorized under the Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006. The report is a review of the evidence on the effectiveness of previous similar initiatives and an examination of the implications…

  19. 1981 Follow-Up Study of Students Enrolled and Previously Enrolled in the Michigan School for the Blind and the Michigan School for the Deaf.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingston-White, Deborah J. H.

    A followup study of currently and previously enrolled students of the Michigan School for the Blind (MSB) and the Michigan School for the Deaf (MSD) is reported. Eligibility guidelines, services, enrollment, costs, and nature of the student body at each institution are described. Development and use of four questionnaires to evaluate eight…

  20. Perturbation of lipids and glucose metabolism associated with previous 2,4-D exposure: a cross-sectional study of NHANES III data, 1988-1994

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background Results from previous population studies showed that mortality rates from acute myocardial infarction and type-2 diabetes during the 1980s and 1990s in rural, agricultural counties of Minnesota, Montana, North and South Dakota, were higher in counties with a higher le...

  1. [Study of the mechanism of action of phytostimulines].

    PubMed

    Viano, I; Santiano, M

    1978-01-01

    Cell culture of mouse fibroblasts and lymphocytes show an increase of mRNA and DNA synthesis after treatment with "Fitostimoline". In this activity may consist the mechanism of action of these substances, which stimulate regenerating tissues.

  2. Study on Neuromuscular Blockade Action of Verapamil in Albino Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nagaral, Jayashree; GH, Shashikala; K, Jagadeesh; Kumar K, Sharath; GS, Jayanth; PK, Chennaveerappa; Patil, Rajani

    2013-01-01

    Background: Calcium Channel Blockers (CCBs) are now widely employed in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and peri operative hypertension. It has been reported that calcium channel blockers inhibit neuromuscular transmission. They have been shown to increase the neuromuscular blockade produced by neuromuscular blocking agents in in-vitro muscle nerve preparations. The present study is undertaken to demonstrate the effect of calcium channel blocker, verapamil on neuromuscular transmission in albino rats. Objectives: To study the neuromuscular blockade action of verapamil in albino rats. Methods: Twenty four albino rats of either sex weigh 150-250gms are selected and are randomly divided into 4 equal groups. The experimental rats are divided into four groups of 6 rats each and they are given the following treatment. Group 1(Control) - Normal saline (1ml/ kg), Group 2 (Standard) - Pancuronium (0.04 mg/kg) Group 3-Verapamil (2.5mg/kg), Group 4-given Verapamil (10mg/kg). The time of onset of hind limb paralysis and total duration of recovery are noted using inclined screen method. Results: Analysis of the results of group 3 that was received 2.5mg/kg of Verapamil, there was no onset of paralysis, in group 4 that received injection Verapamil 10mg/kg, showed neuromuscular blockade activity. The mean onset of hind limb paralysis was delayed compared to standard group and the mean duration of hind limb paralysis was shorter than standard group. It was statistically significant (P≤ 0.05). Interpretation and conclusion: It is generally held that external calcium is not necessary for the contraction of mammalian skeletal muscle, the demonstration of inward calcium currents that can be abolished by CCBs in these muscles prompted to re-examine the effect of Verapamil on the neuromuscular transmission. The present study allows us to determine the neuromuscular blockade activity of Verapamil. PMID:24086855

  3. Acceptable Risk? The Nuclear Age in the United States. Study/Action Guide [and] Companion to Study/Action Guide for Congregations and Religious Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American Friends Service Committee, Philadelphia, PA. National Action/Research on the Military Industrial Complex.

    A study-action guide and a companion guide are intended to help citizens explore some of the challenging dilemmas of U.S. nuclear policy. The two guides place strong emphasis on group discussion and participation as well as action citizens might want to take to bring about a non-nuclear world. The companion guide is intended for congregations and…

  4. Exploring Coaching Actions Based on Developed Values: A Case Study of a Female Hockey Coach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Callary, Bettina; Werthner, Penny; Trudel, Pierre

    2013-01-01

    There are few empirical studies that demonstrate how values are developed and how they are linked to coaching actions. There can be a discrepancy between the statement of coaches' values and their actual coaching actions. In order to examine how coaching actions are influenced by values that are developed over a lifetime, the purpose of this…

  5. In vitro evaluation of oestrogenic/androgenic activity of the serum organochlorine pesticide mixtures previously described in a breast cancer case-control study.

    PubMed

    Rivero, Javier; Luzardo, Octavio P; Henríquez-Hernández, Luis A; Machín, Rubén P; Pestano, José; Zumbado, Manuel; Boada, Luis D; Camacho, María; Valerón, Pilar F

    2015-12-15

    Some organochlorine pesticides (OCs) have been individually linked to breast cancer (BC) because they exert oestrogenic effects on mammary cells. However, humans are environmentally exposed to more or less complex mixtures of these organochlorines, and the biological effects of these mixtures must be elucidated. In this work we evaluated the in vitro effects exerted on human BC cells by the OC mixtures that were most frequently detected in two groups of women who participated in a BC case-control study developed in Spain: healthy women and women diagnosed with BC. The cytotoxicity, oestrogenicity, and androgenicity of the most prevalent OC mixtures found in healthy women (H-mixture) and in BC patients (BC-mixture) were tested at concentrations that resembled those found in the serum of the evaluated women. Our results showed that both OC mixtures presented a similar oestrogenic activity and effect on cell viability, but BC-mixture showed an additional anti-androgenic effect. These results indicate that although the proliferative effect exerted by these mixtures on human breast cells seems to depend mainly on their oestrogenic action, the BC-mixture might additionally induce cell proliferation due to its anti-androgenic activity, therefore increasing the carcinogenic potential of this mixture. The findings of this study demonstrate that subtle variations in the composition of a mixture may induce relevant changes in its biological action.

  6. ATLANTIC-DIP: prevalence of metabolic syndrome and insulin resistance in women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus by International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups criteria.

    PubMed

    Noctor, Eoin; Crowe, Catherine; Carmody, Louise A; Kirwan, Breda; O'Dea, Angela; Glynn, Liam G; McGuire, Brian E; O'Shea, Paula M; Dunne, Fidelma P

    2015-02-01

    Women with previous gestational diabetes (GDM) are a high-risk group for future development of diabetes, metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. The new International Association of Diabetes in Pregnancy Study Groups (IADPSG) criteria significantly increase the number of women diagnosed with GDM. The long-term metabolic outcome in these women is unknown. We set out to determine the prevalence of metabolic syndrome, using adult treatment panel-III criteria; and insulin resistance, using HOMA2-IR, in white European women with previous GDM. Using a cohort design, we invited women meeting IADPSG GDM criteria across four Irish antenatal centres between 2007 and 2010 to participate. Two hundred and sixty-five women with previous values meeting IADPSG criteria for GDM participated (44 % of the population eligible for participation). Mean age was 36.7 years (SD 5.0). These women were compared with a randomly selected control group of 378 women (mean age 37.6 years, SD 5.1) known to have normal glucose tolerance (NGT) in pregnancy during the same period. A total of 25.3 % of women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM met metabolic syndrome criteria, compared to 6.6 % of women with NGT [at 2.6 (SD 1.0) vs. 3.3 years (SD 0.7) post-partum]. The prevalence of HOMA2-IR >1.8 was higher in women with previous IADPSG-defined GDM (33.6 vs. 9.1 % with NGT, p < 0.001). Women with previous GDM by IADPSG criteria demonstrate a greater than threefold prevalence of metabolic syndrome compared to women with NGT in pregnancy. Efforts to prevent projected long-term consequences of this should focus on interventions both in the preconception and post-partum periods.

  7. Using action observation to study superior motor performance: a pilot fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Olsson, Carl-Johan; Lundström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The most efficient way to acquire motor skills may be through physical practice. Nevertheless, it has also been shown that action observation may improve motor performance. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine a potential action observation paradigm used to (1) capture the superior performance of expert athletes and (2) capture the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action observation in relation to task experience. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to measure regional blood flow while presenting videos of a hockey player shooting a puck toward a hockey goal. The videos (a total of 120) where stopped at different time frames with different amount of information provided, creating a paradigm with three different levels of difficulty to decide the fate of a shot. Since this was only a pilot study, we first tested the paradigm behaviorally on six elite expert hockey players, five intermediate players, and six non-hockey playing controls. The results showed that expert hockey players were significantly (p < 0.05) more accurate on deciding the fate of the action compared to the others. Thus, it appears as if the paradigm can capture superior performance of expert athletes (aim 1). We then tested three of the hockey players and three of the controls on the same paradigm in the MRI scanner to investigate the underlying neural mechanisms of successful action anticipation. The imaging results showed that when expert hockey players observed and correctly anticipated situations, they recruited motor and temporal regions of the brain. Novices, on the other hand, relied on visual regions during observation and prefrontal regions during action decision. Thus, the results from the imaging data suggest that different networks of the brain are recruited depending on task experience (aim 2). In conclusion, depending on the level of motor skill of the observer, when correctly anticipating actions different neural systems will be recruited. PMID

  8. Motivating Struggling Adolescent Readers: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, Eileen M.

    2016-01-01

    In a high-school reading class, the author used Reader's Theater as an instructional and motivational strategy for underachieving students. This action research focused on the extent to which implementing Reader's Theater motivated students to read and improve their reading skills. Consistent increases in scores for all students occurred over the…

  9. Action Learning with Second Life--A Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Christian; Ip, Rachael K. F.

    2009-01-01

    Virtual worlds, computer-based simulated environments in which users interact via avatars, provide an opportunity for the highly realistic enactment of real life activities online. Unlike computer games, which have a pre-defined purpose, pay-off structure, and action patterns, virtual worlds can leave many of these elements for users to determine.…

  10. Decision-Making and Social Action in the Social Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banks, James A.

    This paper delineates a process of rational decision-making and social action. To make a rational decision, the social actor must use concepts, generalizations and theories from the social sciences, knowledge which has high predictive value, and knowledge which constitutes the structures of the social science disciplines. He must also identify,…

  11. Action Research. Case Studies in TESOL Practice Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edge, Julian, Ed.

    Chapter titles in this book include the following: "Attitude and Access: Building a New Teaching/Learning Community in TESOL" (Julian Edge); "Here It Is, Rough Though It May Be: Basic Computer for ESL" (Alison Perkins); "An 'It's Not Action Research Yet, but I'm Getting There' Approach to Teaching Writing" (Neil Cowie); "Early Reflections:…

  12. STUDY OF THE ACTION OF SODIUM LAURYLSULFATE ON E. COLI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Sodium laurylsulfate (L.S.) lyses E . coli cells when their metabolism is halted or inhibited by any of a number of antimetabolites. Actively growing...L.S. has an extremely rapid lytic action on globular forms of E . coli . The probable mechanism of the cytolysis of nonmetabolizing whole cells is discussed.

  13. Hearing a Voice: Results of a Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.

    2012-01-01

    Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…

  14. Comparative Actions of Barbiturates Studied by Pollen Grain Germination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kordan, Herbert A.; Mumford, Pauline M.

    1979-01-01

    Describes a simple experimental system whereby the comparative actions of long, medium, and short-acting barbiturates can be demonstrated in a relatively short period of time under optical microscopy using pollen grains as the biological test or assay system. (Author/HM)

  15. Sensitivity of Alpha and Beta Oscillations to Sensorimotor Characteristics of Action: An EEG Study of Action Production and Gesture Observation

    PubMed Central

    Quandt, Lorna C.; Marshall, Peter J.; Shipley, Thomas F.; Beilock, Sian L.; Goldin-Meadow, Susan

    2012-01-01

    The sensorimotor experiences we gain when performing an action have been found to influence how our own motor systems are activated when we observe others performing that same action. Here we asked whether this phenomenon applies to the observation of gesture. Would the sensorimotor experiences we gain when performing an action on an object influence activation in our own motor systems when we observe others performing a gesture for that object? Participants were given sensorimotor experience with objects that varied in weight, and then observed video clips of an actor producing gestures for those objects. Electroencephalography (EEG) was recorded while participants first observed either an iconic gesture (pantomiming lifting an object) or a deictic gesture (pointing to an object) for an object, and then grasped and lifted the object indicated by the gesture. We analyzed EEG during gesture observation to determine whether oscillatory activity was affected by the observer’s sensorimotor experiences with the object represented in the gesture. Seeing a gesture for an object previously experienced as light was associated with a suppression of power in alpha and beta frequency bands, particularly at posterior electrodes. A similar pattern was found when participants lifted the light object, but over more diffuse electrodes. Moreover, alpha and beta bands at right parieto-occipital electrodes were sensitive to the type of gesture observed (iconic vs. deictic). These results demonstrate that sensorimotor experience with an object affects how a gesture for that object is processed, as measured by the gesture-observer’s EEG, and suggest that different types of gestures recruit the observer’s own motor system in different ways. PMID:22910276

  16. Toxicity of fludarabine and cyclophosphamide with or without rituximab as initial therapy for patients with previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma: results of a randomised phase II study.

    PubMed

    Eve, Heather E; Linch, David; Qian, Wendi; Ross, Moira; Seymour, John F; Smith, Paul; Stevens, Lindsey; Rule, Simon A J

    2009-02-01

    The National Cancer Research Network (NCRN) is currently coordinating a Phase III randomised study (LY05) comparing fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (FC) with or without rituximab (R) for previously untreated mantle cell lymphoma (MCL). The combination of FC is well-recognised as significantly immunosuppressive and there are concerns that adding rituximab may increase infection risk further. The impact of rituximab on other markers of toxicity is also unclear. We analysed the toxicity data on 139 patients treated within the NCRN LY05 trial. Non-hematological toxicity was similar between the two treatment arms. The only difference in hematological toxicity was a higher rate of lymphocytopenia with fludarabine cyclophosphamide and rituximab (FCR), which did not translate into increased febrile episodes or infections. In conclusion, the addition of rituximab to FC for previously untreated MCL has no significant impact on toxicity.

  17. Phase II study of capecitabine as palliative treatment for patients with recurrent and metastatic squamous head and neck cancer after previous platinum-based treatment

    PubMed Central

    Martinez-Trufero, J; Isla, D; Adansa, J C; Irigoyen, A; Hitt, R; Gil-Arnaiz, I; Lambea, J; Lecumberri, M J; Cruz, J J

    2010-01-01

    Background: Platinum-based therapy (PBT) is the standard therapy for recurrent and/or metastatic head and neck cancer (HNC), but the incidence of recurrence remains high. This study evaluates the efficacy and tolerability of capecitabine as palliative monotherapy for recurrent HNC previously treated with PBT. Methods: Patients aged 18–75 years, with Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status 0–2, squamous HNC with locoregional and/or metastatic recurrence previously treated with PBT and adequate organ functions, were included. Capecitabine (1.250 mg m−2 BID) was administered on days 1–14 every 21 days for at least two cycles. Results: A total of 40 male patients with a median age of 58 years were analysed. All patients received a median number of four cycles of capecitabine (range: 1–9) and the median relative dose intensity was 91%. Seven patients were not evaluable for response. Overall response rate was 24.2%. Median time to progression and overall survival were 4.8 and 7.3 months, respectively. Haematological adverse events (AEs) grade 3/4 were reported in six patients. Most common grade 3/4 non-haematological AEs were asthenia (12.5%), palmar-plantar eritrodisestesia (10%), mucositis (10%), dysphagia (10%) and diarrhoea (7.5%). Conclusions: Capecitabine seems to be an active, feasible and well-tolerated mode of palliative treatment for advanced HNC patients who have previously received PBT schedules. PMID:20485287

  18. Learning from Action Evaluation of the Use of Multimedia Case Studies in Management Information Systems Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawulich, Barbara B.

    2011-01-01

    This manuscript shares lessons learned from conducting an action evaluation of the use of multimedia case studies in Management Information Systems (MIS) courses. Three undergraduate MIS classes took part in the study. The purpose for using case studies in these classes was to teach students about the role of MIS in business. An action evaluation…

  19. Shallow landslide susceptibility model for the Oria river basin, Gipuzkoa province (North of Spain). Application of the logistic regression and comparison with previous studies.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bornaetxea, Txomin; Antigüedad, Iñaki; Ormaetxea, Orbange

    2016-04-01

    In the Oria river basin (885 km2) shallow landslides are very frequent and they produce several roadblocks and damage in the infrastructure and properties, causing big economic loss every year. Considering that the zonification of the territory in different landslide susceptibility levels provides a useful tool for the territorial planning and natural risk management, this study has the objective of identifying the most prone landslide places applying an objective and reproducible methodology. To do so, a quantitative multivariate methodology, the logistic regression, has been used. Fieldwork landslide points and randomly selected stable points have been used along with Lithology, Land Use, Distance to the transport infrastructure, Altitude, Senoidal Slope and Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) independent variables to carry out a landslide susceptibility map. The model has been validated by the prediction and success rate curves and their corresponding area under the curve (AUC). In addition, the result has been compared to those from two landslide susceptibility models, covering the study area previously applied in different scales, such as ELSUS1000 version 1 (2013) and Landslide Susceptibility Map of Gipuzkoa (2007). Validation results show an excellent prediction capacity of the proposed model (AUC 0,962), and comparisons highlight big differences with previous studies.

  20. A Quantification of Methane Emissions from Oil and Natural Gas Extraction Regions in the Central/Western U.S. and a Comparison to Previous Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peischl, J.; Aikin, K. C.; Eilerman, S. J.; Gilman, J.; De Gouw, J. A.; Herndon, S. C.; Lerner, B. M.; Neuman, J. A.; Tokarek, T. W.; Trainer, M.; Warneke, C.; Ryerson, T. B.

    2015-12-01

    We present airborne measurements of methane and ethane taken aboard a NOAA WP-3D research aircraft over five regions of oil and natural gas extraction in March and April, 2015, as part of the Shale Oil and Natural Gas Nexus (SONGNEX) field study. The five regions are the (1) Haynesville, (2) Barnett, and (3) Eagle Ford regions in Texas, (4) the Denver-Julesburg region of Colorado, and (5) the Bakken region of North Dakota. From these measurements, we derive methane emission rates from these regions using the mass balance method. Next, we attribute the methane emissions to oil and natural gas extraction, livestock operations, and other source sectors based on correlations of methane with ethane and ammonia. We then compare these emissions to those reported from previous studies, where applicable. Finally, we compare reported methane emissions from multiple regional-scale studies with inventory estimates of methane emissions from U.S. oil and natural gas production.

  1. High Altitude Pulmonary Edema Without Appropriate Action Progresses to Right Ventricular Strain: A Case Study.

    PubMed

    Mills, Logan; Harper, Chris; Rozwadowski, Sophie; Imray, Chris

    2016-09-01

    Mills, Logan, Chris Harper, Sophie Rozwadowski, and Chris Imray. High altitude pulmonary edema without appropriate action progresses to right ventricular strain: A case study. High Alt Med Biol. 17:228-232, 2016.-A 24-year-old male developed high altitude pulmonary edema (HAPE) after three ascents to 4061 m over 3 days, sleeping each night at 2735 m. He complained of exertional dyspnea, dry cough, chest pain, fever, nausea, vertigo, and a severe frontal headache. Inappropriate continuation of ascent despite symptoms led to functional impairment and forced a return to the valley, but dyspnea persisted in addition to new orthopnea. Hospital admission showed hypoxemia, resting tachycardia, and systemic hypertension. ECG revealed right ventricular strain and a chest X-ray revealed right lower zone infiltrates. This case demonstrates that HAPE can develop in previously unaffected individuals given certain precipitating factors, and that in the presence of HAPE, prolonged exposure to altitude with exercise (or exertion) does not confer acclimatization with protective adaptations and that rest and descent are the appropriate actions. The case additionally demonstrates well-characterized right ventricular involvement.

  2. Numerical Studies of Dynamo Action in a Turbulent Shear Flow. I.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nishant K.; Jingade, Naveen

    2015-06-01

    We perform numerical experiments to study the shear dynamo problem where we look for the growth of a large-scale magnetic field due to non-helical stirring at small scales in a background linear shear flow in previously unexplored parameter regimes. We demonstrate the large-scale dynamo action in the limit where the fluid Reynolds number (\\operatorname{Re}) is below unity while the magnetic Reynolds number (Rm) is above unity; the exponential growth rate scales linearly with shear, which is consistent with earlier numerical works. The limit of low \\operatorname{Re} is particularly interesting, as seeing the dynamo action in this limit would provide enough motivation for further theoretical investigations, which may focus attention on this analytically more tractable limit of \\operatorname{Re}\\lt 1 compared to the more formidable limit of \\operatorname{Re}\\gt 1. We also perform simulations in the regimes where (i) both (\\operatorname{Re}, Rm) < 1, and (ii) \\operatorname{Re}\\gt 1 and Rm\\lt 1, and compute all of the components of the turbulent transport coefficients ({{α }ij} and {{η }ij}) using the test-field method. A reasonably good agreement is observed between our results and the results of earlier analytical works in similar parameter regimes.

  3. Strengthening Interprofessional Requirements Engineering Through Action Sheets: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Pohlmann, Sabrina; Heinze, Oliver; Brandner, Antje; Reiß, Christina; Kamradt, Martina; Szecsenyi, Joachim; Ose, Dominik

    2016-01-01

    Background The importance of information and communication technology for healthcare is steadily growing. Newly developed tools are addressing different user groups: physicians, other health care professionals, social workers, patients, and family members. Since often many different actors with different expertise and perspectives are involved in the development process it can be a challenge to integrate the user-reported requirements of those heterogeneous user groups. Nevertheless, the understanding and consideration of user requirements is the prerequisite of building a feasible technical solution. In the course of the presented project it proved to be difficult to gain clear action steps and priorities for the development process out of the primary requirements compilation. Even if a regular exchange between involved teams took place there was a lack of a common language. Objective The objective of this paper is to show how the already existing requirements catalog was subdivided into specific, prioritized, and coherent working packages and the cooperation of multiple interprofessional teams within one development project was reorganized at the same time. In the case presented, the manner of cooperation was reorganized and a new instrument called an Action Sheet was implemented. This paper introduces the newly developed methodology which was meant to smooth the development of a user-centered software product and to restructure interprofessional cooperation. Methods There were 10 focus groups in which views of patients with colorectal cancer, physicians, and other health care professionals were collected in order to create a requirements catalog for developing a personal electronic health record. Data were audio- and videotaped, transcribed verbatim, and thematically analyzed. Afterwards, the requirements catalog was reorganized in the form of Action Sheets which supported the interprofessional cooperation referring to the development process of a personal

  4. Impact of availability and use of ART/PMTCT services on fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Litwin, Lindsay E.; Makumbi, Frederick E.; Gray, Ronald; Wawer, Maria; Kigozi, Godfrey; Kagaayi, Joseph; Nakigozi, Gertrude; Lutalo, Tom; Serwada, David; Brahmbhatt, Heena

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess fertility desires by availability and use of ART/PMTCT services in Rakai, Uganda. Design Retrospective analyses of longitudinal data from the Rakai Community Cohort Study. Methods Study participants were retrospectively identified and categorized by HIV status. Availability of antiretroviral therapy and prevention of mother-to-child transmission (ART/PMTCT) services in Rakai was defined in three periods: 1) Pre-ART/PMTCT (<2005), 2) ART/PMTCT rollout (2005-06), and 3) universal ART/PMTCT (>2006); and use of ART/PMTCT was coded as yes if the woman received services. Trends in fertility desires were assessed by chi-square. “Modified” Poisson regression was performed using generalized linear models with a log link and Poisson family to estimate prevalence rate ratios (PRR) and 95% confidence intervals of desire for another child among previously and currently pregnant women; PRR were adjusted for demographic and behavioral factors. Results 4,227 sexually active women in Rakai, including 436 HIV+ women, contributed 13,970 observations over 5 survey rounds. Fertility desires increased in the population in the ART/PMTCT rollout (adjusted PRR: 1.08, CI: 1.04-1.13) and the universal availability periods (adj. PRR: 1.11, CI: 1.08-1.14) compared to pre-ART/PMTCT period. A total of 862 woman observations used ART/PMTCT services. Fertility desires were similar among ART/PMTCT service users and non-users in cross-sectional analysis (adj. PRR: 0.84, CI: 0.62-1.14) and one year after ART/PMTCT use (adj. PRR: 1.27, CI: 0.83-1.94). Conclusion Availability of ART/PMTCT may increase fertility desires of previously pregnant women in Rakai, Uganda. Use of ART/PMTCT services was not correlated with fertility desires of previously or current pregnant women. PMID:25835605

  5. Experimental study of cyclic action of plasma on tungsten

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. V.; Aleksandrov, A. E.; Ber, B. Ya.; Brunkov, P. N.; Bormatov, A. A.; Gusev, V. K.; Demina, E. V.; Novokhatskii, A. N.; Pavlov, S. I.; Prusakova, M. D.; Sotnikova, G. Yu.; Yagovkina, M. A.

    2016-03-01

    We report on experimental results on multiple action of hydrogen, deuterium, and helium plasmas produced by a plasma gun and the Globus-M tokamak on tungsten. The surface temperature in the course of irradiation is measured with a bichromatic pyrometer with a time resolution of ⩾1 μs. The morphology of the surface layer is investigated and X-ray structure analysis of tungsten exposed to multiple radiations by the plasma under various conditions is carried out. A slight decrease in the lattice parameter in the sample subjected to the maximal number of irradiation cycles is detected. It is shown that the morphology of the tungsten surface irradiated by the hydrogen plasma from the gun and by the deuterium plasma from the Globus-M tokamak changes (the structure becomes smoother). The characteristic depth of the layer in which impurities have been accumulated exceeds 0.5 μm. This depth was the largest for the sample exposed to 1000 shots from the gun and 2370 shots from the tokamak. It is shown that the helium jet from the plasma gun makes it possible to simulate the action of helium ions on the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) diverter, producing a layer of submicrometer particles (bubbles).

  6. Previous gestational diabetes is independently associated with increased carotid intima-media thickness, similarly to metabolic syndrome – a case control study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Women with previous gestational diabetes mellitus (pGDM) face a higher risk of developing type 2 diabetes and, consequently, a higher cardiovascular risk. This study aimed to compare the carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) from young women with pGDM to those with metabolic syndrome (MS) and to healthy controls (CG) to verify whether a past history of pGDM could be independently associated with increased cIMT. Methods This is a cross-sectional study performed in two academic referral centers. Seventy-nine women with pGDM, 30 women with MS, and 60 CG aged between 18 and 47 years were enrolled. They all underwent physical examination and had blood glucose, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLc), and triglycerides determined. The cIMT was measured by ultrasound in several carotid segments. The primary endpoint was cIMT and clinically relevant parameters included as predictors were: age, systolic blood pressure, waist, BMI, total cholesterol, LDLc, triglycerides, fasting glucose, previous history of GDM as a whole group, previous history of GDM without MS, presence of DM, presence of MS, and parity. Results cIMT was significantly higher in pGDM when compared to CG in all sites of measurements (P < 0.05) except for the right common carotid. The pGDM women showed similar cIMT measurements to MS in all sites of measurements, except for the left carotid bifurcation, where it was significantly higher than MS (P < 0.001). In a multivariate analysis which included classical cardiovascular risk factors and was adjusted for confounders, pGDM was shown to be independently associated with increased composite cIMT (P < 0.01). The pGDM without risk factors further showed similar cIMT to MS (P > 0.05) and an increased cIMT when compared to controls (P < 0.05). Conclusions Previous GDM was independently associated with increased composite cIMT in this young population, similarly to those with

  7. A School Action Plan with Stakeholder Involvement: A Case Study of One Elementary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Getty, Jacob J., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    This case study focused on a school action plan, using a planning and implementation process that focused on improving stakeholder involvement and responsibility for student reading achievement at Eisenberg Elementary School. This study examined the impact of the school action process on the development of a new plan compared to other traditional…

  8. The Impact of Special Education on Self-Perception: An Autoethnographic-Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zabonick, Lisa A.

    2013-01-01

    This qualitative autoethnographic-action research study examined how lack of voice as a special education student in the mid-1970s influenced my self-perception. This study also examined, through the use of action research, what influence storytelling had on teacher perceptions of students with disabilities. Autoethnographic data results were used…

  9. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yang, Eunah

    2012-01-01

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed…

  10. Creative Expression as a Way of Knowing in Diabetes Adult Health Education: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuckey, Heather L.

    2009-01-01

    This action research study explores the meaning-making process using forms of creative expression for eight women with insulin-dependent diabetes. The study is theoretically informed by arts-based ways of knowing and aspects of feminist poststructuralism, and explains the process of creativity used in the action research process. The findings…

  11. Four Forensic Entomology Case Studies: Records and Behavioral Observations on Seldom Reported Cadaver Fauna With Notes on Relevant Previous Occurrences and Ecology.

    PubMed

    Lindgren, Natalie K; Sisson, Melissa S; Archambeault, Alan D; Rahlwes, Brent C; Willett, James R; Bucheli, Sibyl R

    2015-03-01

    A yearlong survey of insect taxa associated with human decomposition was conducted at the Southeast Texas Applied Forensic Science (STAFS) facility located in the Center for Biological Field Studies of Sam Houston State University in Huntsville, TX. During this study, four insect-cadaver interactions were observed that represent previously poorly documented yet forensically significant interactions: Syrphidae maggots colonized a corpse in an aquatic situation; Psychodidae adults mated and oviposited on an algal film that was present on a corpse that had been recently removed from water; several Panorpidae were the first insects to feed upon a freshly placed corpse in the autumn; and a noctuid caterpillar was found chewing and ingesting dried human skin. Baseline knowledge of insect-cadaver interactions is the foundation of forensic entomology, and unique observations have the potential to expand our understanding of decomposition ecology.

  12. Genome-wide association study for birth weight in Nellore cattle points to previously described orthologous genes affecting human and bovine height

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Birth weight (BW) is an economically important trait in beef cattle, and is associated with growth- and stature-related traits and calving difficulty. One region of the cattle genome, located on Bos primigenius taurus chromosome 14 (BTA14), has been previously shown to be associated with stature by multiple independent studies, and contains orthologous genes affecting human height. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) for BW in Brazilian Nellore cattle (Bos primigenius indicus) was performed using estimated breeding values (EBVs) of 654 progeny-tested bulls genotyped for over 777,000 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs). Results The most significant SNP (rs133012258, PGC = 1.34 × 10-9), located at BTA14:25376827, explained 4.62% of the variance in BW EBVs. The surrounding 1 Mb region presented high identity with human, pig and mouse autosomes 8, 4 and 4, respectively, and contains the orthologous height genes PLAG1, CHCHD7, MOS, RPS20, LYN, RDHE2 (SDR16C5) and PENK. The region also overlapped 28 quantitative trait loci (QTLs) previously reported in literature by linkage mapping studies in cattle, including QTLs for birth weight, mature height, carcass weight, stature, pre-weaning average daily gain, calving ease, and gestation length. Conclusions This study presents the first GWAS applying a high-density SNP panel to identify putative chromosome regions affecting birth weight in Nellore cattle. These results suggest that the QTLs on BTA14 associated with body size in taurine cattle (Bos primigenius taurus) also affect birth weight and size in zebu cattle (Bos primigenius indicus). PMID:23758625

  13. Action observation and acquired motor skills: an FMRI study with expert dancers.

    PubMed

    Calvo-Merino, B; Glaser, D E; Grèzes, J; Passingham, R E; Haggard, P

    2005-08-01

    When we observe someone performing an action, do our brains simulate making that action? Acquired motor skills offer a unique way to test this question, since people differ widely in the actions they have learned to perform. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging to study differences in brain activity between watching an action that one has learned to do and an action that one has not, in order to assess whether the brain processes of action observation are modulated by the expertise and motor repertoire of the observer. Experts in classical ballet, experts in capoeira and inexpert control subjects viewed videos of ballet or capoeira actions. Comparing the brain activity when dancers watched their own dance style versus the other style therefore reveals the influence of motor expertise on action observation. We found greater bilateral activations in premotor cortex and intraparietal sulcus, right superior parietal lobe and left posterior superior temporal sulcus when expert dancers viewed movements that they had been trained to perform compared to movements they had not. Our results show that this 'mirror system' integrates observed actions of others with an individual's personal motor repertoire, and suggest that the human brain understands actions by motor simulation.

  14. How action selection influences the sense of agency: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Sidarus, Nura; Vuorre, Matti; Haggard, Patrick

    2017-02-08

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling that we are in control of our actions and, through them, of events in the outside world. One influential view claims that the SoA depends on retrospectively matching the expected and actual outcomes of action. However, recent studies have revealed an additional, prospective component to SoA, driven by action selection processes. We used event-related potentials (ERPs) to clarify the neural mechanisms underlying prospective agency. Subliminal priming was used to manipulate the fluency of selecting a left or right hand action in response to a supraliminal target. These actions were followed by one of several coloured circles, after a variable delay. Participants then rated their degree of control over this visual outcome. Incompatible priming impaired action selection, and reduced sense of agency over action outcomes, relative to compatible priming. More negative ERPs immediately after the action, linked to post-decisional action monitoring, were associated with reduced agency ratings over action outcomes. Additionally, feedback-related negativity evoked by the outcome was also associated with reduced agency ratings. These ERP components may reflect brain processes underlying prospective and retrospective components of sense of agency respectively.

  15. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  16. Biomarker-driven trial in metastatic pancreas cancer: feasibility in a multicenter study of saracatinib, an oral Src inhibitor, in previously treated pancreatic cancer.

    PubMed

    Arcaroli, John; Quackenbush, Kevin; Dasari, Arvind; Powell, Rebecca; McManus, Martine; Tan, Aik-Choon; Foster, Nathan R; Picus, Joel; Wright, John; Nallapareddy, Sujatha; Erlichman, Charles; Hidalgo, Manuel; Messersmith, Wells A

    2012-10-01

    Src tyrosine kinases are overexpressed in pancreatic cancers, and the oral Src inhibitor saracatinib has shown antitumor activity in preclinical models of pancreas cancer. We performed a CTEP-sponsored Phase II clinical trial of saracatinib in previously treated pancreas cancer patients, with a primary endpoint of 6-month survival. A Simon MinMax two-stage phase II design was used. Saracatinib (175 mg/day) was administered orally continuously in 28-day cycles. In the unselected portion of the study, 18 patients were evaluable. Only two (11%) patients survived for at least 6 months, and three 6-month survivors were required to move to second stage of study as originally designed. The study was amended as a biomarker-driven trial (leucine rich repeat containing protein 19 [LRRC19] > insulin-like growth factor-binding protein 2 [IGFBP2] "top scoring pairs" polymerase chain reaction [PCR] assay, and PIK3CA mutant) based on preclinical data in a human pancreas tumor explant model. In the biomarker study, archival tumor tissue or fresh tumor biopsies were tested. Biomarker-positive patients were eligible for the study. Only one patient was PIK3CA mutant in a 3' untranslated region (UTR) portion of the gene. This patient was enrolled in the study and failed to meet the 6-month survival endpoint. As the frequency of biomarker-positive patients was very low (<3%), the study was closed. Although we were unable to conclude whether enriching for a subset of second/third line pancreatic cancer patients treated with a Src inhibitor based on a biomarker would improve 6-month survival, we demonstrate that testing pancreatic tumor samples for a biomarker-driven, multicenter study in metastatic pancreas cancer is feasible.

  17. EXPERIMENTAL CHALLENGE STUDY OF FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTION IN PREVIOUSLY FV3-LIKE RANAVIRUS INFECTED EASTERN BOX TURTLES (TERRAPENE CAROLINA CAROLINA) TO ASSESS INFECTION AND SURVIVAL.

    PubMed

    Hausmann, Jennifer C; Wack, Allison N; Allender, Matthew C; Cranfield, Mike R; Murphy, Kevin J; Barrett, Kevin; Romero, Jennell L; Wellehan, James F X; Blum, Stella A; Zink, M Christine; Bronson, Ellen

    2015-12-01

    The Maryland Zoo in Baltimore experienced an outbreak of Frog virus-3 (FV3)-like ranavirus during the summer of 2011, during which 14 of 27 (52%) of its captive eastern box turtles (Terrapene carolina carolina) survived. To assess survival, immunity, and viral shedding, an experimental challenge study was performed in which the surviving, previously infected turtles were reinfected with the outbreak strain of FV3-like ranavirus. Seven turtles were inoculated with virus intramuscularly and four control turtles received saline intramuscularly. The turtles were monitored for 8 wk with blood and oral swabs collected for quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). During that time, one of seven (14%) inoculated turtles and none of the controls (0%) died; there was no significant difference in survival. Clinical signs of the inoculated turtles, except for the turtle that died, were mild compared to the original outbreak. Quantitative PCR for FV3-like ranavirus on blood and oral swabs was positive for all inoculated turtles and negative for all controls. The turtle that died had intracytoplasmic inclusion bodies in multiple organs. Three inoculated and two control turtles were euthanized at the end of the study. No inclusion bodies were present in any of the organs. Quantitative PCR detected FV3-like ranavirus in the spleen of a control turtle, which suggested persistence of the virus. The surviving five turtles were qPCR-negative for FV3-like ranavirus from blood and oral swabs after brumation. Quantitative PCR for Terrapene herpesvirus 1 found no association between ranavirus infection and herpesvirus loads. In conclusion, previously infected eastern box turtles can be reinfected with the same strain of FV3-like ranavirus and show mild to no clinical signs but can shed the virus from the oral cavity.

  18. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies.

  19. Action Video Game Training for Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analytic Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ping; Liu, Han-Hui; Zhu, Xing-Ting; Meng, Tian; Li, Hui-Jie; Zuo, Xi-Nian

    2016-01-01

    Action video game (AVG) has attracted increasing attention from both the public and from researchers. More and more studies found video game training improved a variety of cognitive functions. However, it remains controversial whether healthy adults can benefit from AVG training, and whether young and older adults benefit similarly from AVG training. In the present study, we aimed to quantitatively assess the AVG training effect on the cognitive ability of adults and to compare the training effects on young and older adults by conducting a meta-analysis on previous findings. We systematically searched video game training studies published between January 1986 and July 2015. Twenty studies were included in the present meta-analysis, for a total of 313 participants included in the training group and 323 participants in the control group. The results demonstrate that healthy adults achieve moderate benefit from AVG training in overall cognitive ability and moderate to small benefit in specific cognitive domains. In contrast, young adults gain more benefits from AVG training than older adults in both overall cognition and specific cognitive domains. Age, education, and some methodological factors, such as the session duration, session number, total training duration, and control group type, modulated the training effects. These meta-analytic findings provide evidence that AVG training may serve as an efficient way to improve the cognitive performance of healthy adults. We also discussed several directions for future AVG training studies. PMID:27378996

  20. Failing Schools: A Study of Corrective Actions in Relation to Underperforming Elementary Schools in California

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Francine A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find out which corrective actions have a positive impact on improving students' learning and achievement and ultimately moving underperforming elementary schools out of Program Improvement (PI) status in California. Some common corrective actions include, but are not limited to, instructional program, instructional…

  1. Mood as Embodied Action: A Phenomenological Study of Interaction between Self and the Environment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manley, Dolores R.

    2009-01-01

    This phenomenological study explored the interaction between the affective phenomenon of mood (Davidson, et al., 2003) and embodied action (Varela, et al., 1993) experienced during interaction between self and the environment. Exploring the complementarity of mood and embodied action for organizations, teams, or individuals provided insightful…

  2. An Exploratory Study of Undergraduates' Attitudes toward Affirmative Action Policies for Asian Americans in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartlep, Nicholas Daniel; Lowinger, Robert Jay

    2014-01-01

    This exploratory study examined white undergraduate students' (a) racial attitudes towards Asian Americans, (b) principled policy attitudes toward affirmative action, and (c) self-interest in relation to their support for college-based affirmative action policies for Asian Americans at a Midwestern university. A sample (n = 264, 28% male, 72%…

  3. When patients report diseases that prescribers seem unaware of: discordance between patient and physician reporting of risk-related previous history in NSAID users from the CADEUS study.

    PubMed

    Fourrier-Réglat, A; Lacoin, L; Pariente, A; Lassalle, R; Robinson, P; Droz-Perroteau, C; Bégaud, B; Blin, P; Moore, N D

    2010-11-01

    Prescribers are often unaware of possibly dangerous previous medical histories (PMHs) of their patients. Data from a study of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID) users served to identify factors associated with this lack of awareness. In this study, we analyzed the factors that may have led prescribers to report the absence of some PMHs that the patients reported as being present. Of 26,618 patients prescribed an NSAID, 469 (1.7%) reported a PMH of unstable angina, 648 (2.4%) reported heart failure, 2,244 (8.4%) reported gastric or duodenal ulcer, 489 (1.8%) reported upper gastrointestinal tract bleeding (UGIB), 5,343 (20.0%) reported gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD), and 7,832 (29.4%) reported dyspepsia. Between 64 (GERD) and 92% (UGIB) of these patient-reported PMHs were absent in the corresponding prescribers' reports. This discordance was associated with the following factors: patients of younger age, female patients, less frequent patient-prescriber contact, prescription of NSAID by a specialist, no recent specialist consultation, hospitalization or surgery related to the PMH, and no dispensation of proton-pump inhibitors (PPIs) for digestive disorder-related PMHs. The study showed that a substantial proportion of prescribers seemed unaware of the presence of risk-related PMHs that the patient reported when asked.

  4. Everolimus in patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma previously treated with bevacizumab: a prospective multicenter study CRAD001LRU02T.

    PubMed

    Tsimafeyeu, Ilya; Snegovoy, Anton; Varlamov, Sergei; Safina, Sufia; Varlamov, Ilya; Gurina, Ludmila; Manzuk, Ludmila

    2015-09-01

    Everolimus is an orally administered inhibitor of the mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) recommended for patients with metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC) who progressed on previous vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitor therapy. Efficacy of everolimus in patients who progressed on anti-VEGF monoclonal antibody bevacizumab is unknown. We did a multicenter prospective trial of everolimus in patients with mRCC whose disease had progressed on bevacizumab ± interferon alpha (IFN). Patients with clear-cell mRCC which had progressed on bevacizumab ± IFN received everolimus 10 mg once daily. The primary end point was the proportion of patients remaining progression-free for 56 days, and a two-stage Simon design was used, with 80% power and an alpha risk of 5%. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT02056587. From December 2011 to October 2013, a total of 37 patients (28 M, 9 F) were enrolled. Median age was 60.5 years (range 41-66), 1% had Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group Performance Status (ECOG PS) >2, and Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center (MSKCC) favorable/intermediate risk was 38/62%. Five (14%) patients had a confirmed partial response and 26 (70%) patients had a stable disease. Median progression-free survival was 11.5 months (95% CI, 8.8-14.2). Median overall survival was not reached. No grade 3 or 4 treatment-related toxicities were observed. The most common grade 2 adverse events were fatigue (19%) and pneumonitis (8%). Everolimus demonstrated a favorable toxicity profile and promising anti-tumor activity as a second-line therapy in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (RCC) patients previously treated with bevacizumab ± IFN.

  5. A Feasibility Study on Adaptive 18F-FDG-guided Radiotherapy for Recurrent and Second Primary Head and Neck Cancer in the Previously Irradiated Territory.

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2015-11-30

    Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.; Recurrent and Second Primary Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx in the Previously Irradiated Territory in Case of Primary Unresectable Tumor.

  6. Indoor air quality during renovation actions: a case study.

    PubMed

    Abdel Hameed, A A; Yasser, I H; Khoder, I M

    2004-09-01

    A temporary renovation activity releases considerably high concentrations of particulate matter, viable and non-viable, into air. These pollutants are a potential contributor to unacceptable indoor air quality (IAQ). Particulate matter and its constituents lead, sulfate, nitrate, chloride, ammonium and fungi as well as fungal spores in air were evaluated in a building during renovation action. Suspended dust was recorded at a mean value of 6.1 mg m(-3) which exceeded the Egyptian limit values for indoor air (0.15 mg m(-3)) and occupational environments (5 mg m(-3)). The highest particle frequency (23%) of aerodynamic diameter (dae) was 1.7 microm. Particulate sulfate (SO(4)(2-)), nitrate (NO(3)(-)), chloride (Cl(-)), ammonium (NH(4)(+)) and lead components of suspended dust averaged 2960, 28, 1350, 100 and 13.3 microg m(-3), respectively. Viable fungi associated with suspended dust and that in air averaged 1.11 x 10(6) colony forming unit per gram (cfu g(-1)) and 92 colony forming unit per plate per hour (cfu p(-1) h(-1)), respectively. Cladosporium(33%), Aspergillus(25.6%), Alternaria(11.2%) and Penicillium(6.6%) were the most frequent fungal genera in air, whereas Aspergillus(56.8%), Penicillium(10.3%) and Eurotium(10.3%) were the most common fungal genera associated with suspended dust. The detection of Aureobasidium, Epicoccum, Exophiala, Paecilomyces, Scopulariopsis, Ulocladium and Trichoderma is an indication of moisture-damaged building materials. Alternaria, Aureobasidium, Cladosporium, Scopulariopsis and Nigrospora have dae > 5 microm whereas Aspergillus, Penicillium and Verticillium have dae < 5 microm which are suited to penetrate deeply into lungs. Particulate matter from the working area infiltrates the occupied zones if precautionary measures are inadequate. This may cause deterioration of IAQ, discomfort and acute health problems. Renovation should be carefully designed and managed, in order to minimize degradation of the indoor and outdoor air

  7. Development of the action observation network during early adolescence: a longitudinal study

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce

    2012-01-01

    Adolescence places high demands on inter-personal interactions and, hence, on the extraction and processing of social cues. Here we assess longitudinally the development of brain activity within a network implicated in social cognition—the action observation network. We performed activation likelihood estimation meta-analyses to define regions of interest based upon the mature action observation network of adults. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we then examined developmental trajectories of functional brain activity within these brain regions. Using this approach, we reveal quadratic trajectories within a fronto-parietal network previously shown to demonstrate correlated morphological development. PMID:21278194

  8. Immunogenicity and safety of tetravalent dengue vaccine in 2-11 year-olds previously vaccinated against yellow fever: randomized, controlled, phase II study in Piura, Peru.

    PubMed

    Lanata, Claudio F; Andrade, Teresa; Gil, Ana I; Terrones, Cynthia; Valladolid, Omar; Zambrano, Betzana; Saville, Melanie; Crevat, Denis

    2012-09-07

    In a randomized, placebo-controlled, monocenter, observer blinded study conducted in an area where dengue is endemic, we assessed the safety and immunogenicity of a recombinant, live, attenuated, tetravalent dengue vaccine candidate (CYD-TDV) in 2-11 year-olds with varying levels of pre-existing yellow-fever immunity due to vaccination 1-7 years previously. 199 children received 3 injections of CYD-TDV (months 0, 6 and 12) and 99 received placebo (months 0 and 6) or pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (month 12). One month after the third dengue vaccination, serotype specific neutralizing antibody GMTs were in the range of 178-190 (1/dil) (versus 16.7-38.1 in the control group), a 10-20 fold-increase from baseline, and 94% of vaccines were seropositive to all four serotypes (versus 39% in the control group). There were no vaccine-related SAEs. The observed reactogenicity profile was consistent with phase I studies, with severity grade 1-2 injection site pain, headache, malaise and fever most frequently reported and no increase after subsequent vaccinations. Virologically confirmed dengue cases were seen after completion of the 3 doses: 1 in the CYD-TDV group (N=199), and 3 in the control group (N=99). A 3-dose regimen of CYD-TDV had a good safety profile in 2-11 year olds with a history of YF vaccination and elicited robust antibody responses that were balanced against the four serotypes.

  9. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Study Area 14, Landfill No. 10, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    I I I U.S. ArmyEnvironmentalCenter NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER 5 CERCLA * STUDY AREA 14 LANDFILL NO. 10 U FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS CONTRACT...45, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. U 1I NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 14 LANDFILL NO. 10 3 FORT DEVENS...Environmental Services, Inc. Portland, Maine Project No. 7053-12 JANUARY 1995 ! I I I U NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 14 LANDFILL NO. 10

  10. ACTG-HIV symptoms changes in patients switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to previous intolerance to CART. Interim analysis of the PRO-STR study

    PubMed Central

    Podzamczer, Daniel; Rozas, Nerea; Domingo, Pere; Ocampo, Antonio; Van den Eynde, Eva; Deig, Elisabeth; Vergara, Antonio; Knobel, Hernando; Pasquau, Juan; Antela, Antonio; Crespo, Manuel; Clotet, Bonaventure; Muñoz, Jessica; Fernandez, Pedro; Geijo, Paloma; Rodríguez de Castro, Eduardo; Diz, Julio; Casado, Araceli; Torres, Covadonga

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tolerability and convenience are crucial aspects for the long-term success of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART). The aim of this study was to investigate the impact in routine clinical practice of switching to the single tablet regimen (STR) RPV/FTC/TDF in patients with intolerance to previous cART, in terms of patients’ well-being, assessed by several validated measures. Methods Prospective, multicenter study. Adult HIV-infected patients with viral load under 1.000 copies/mL while receiving a stable ART for at least the last three months and switched to RPV/FTC/TDF due to intolerance of previous regimen, were included. Analyses were performed by ITT. Presence/magnitude of symptoms (ACTG-HIV Symptom Index), quality of life (EQ-5D, EUROQoL & MOS-HIV), adherence (SMAQ), preference of treatment and perceived ease of medication (ESTAR) through 48 weeks were performed. Results Interim analysis of 125 patients with 16 weeks of follow up was performed. 100 (80%) were male, mean age 46 years. Mean CD4 at baseline was 629.5±307.29 and 123 (98.4%) had viral load <50 copies/mL; 15% were HCV co-infected. Ninety two (73.6%) patients switched from a NNRTI (84.8% from EFV/FTC/TDF) and 33 (26.4%) from a PI/r. The most frequent reasons for switching were psychiatric disorders (51.2%), CNS adverse events (40.8%), gastrointestinal (19.2%) and metabolic disorders (19.2%). At the time of this analysis (week 16), four patients (3.2%) discontinued treatment: one due to adverse events, two virologic failures and one with no data. A total of 104 patients (83.2%) were virologically suppressed (<50 copies/mL). The average degree of discomfort in the ACTG-HIV Symptom Index significantly decreased from baseline (21±15.55) to week 4 (10.89±12.36) & week 16 (10.81±12.62), p<0.001. In all the patients, quality of life tools showed a significant benefit in well-being of the patients (Table 1). Adherence to therapy significantly and progressively increased (SMAQ) from

  11. Preoperative Association of Abdominal Striae Gravidarum with Intraabdominal Adhesions in Pregnant Women with a History of Previous Cesarean Section: a Cross-sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Dogan, A.; Ertas, I. E.; Uyar, I.; Karaca, I.; Bozgeyik, B.; Töz, E.; Ozeren, M.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Intraabdominal adhesions that develop because of prior abdominal or pelvic surgery may cause problems during surgery. Complications can include difficult intraabdominal entry; injury to the urinary bladder, uterus or small intestine; longer operation times, and increased blood loss. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the association between abdominal striae gravidarum and intraabdominal adhesions in the preoperative period in pregnant women with a history of cesarean section. Materials and Methods: The study included 247 pregnant women at ≥ 37 weeks of gestation admitted to the labor unit for delivery; all had undergone at least one previous cesarean section. Abdominal striae were assessed preoperatively using the Davey scoring system; the severity and intensity of adhesions were subsequently evaluated intraoperatively according to the modified Nair scoring system. Results: No striae were seen in 104 pregnant women; 41 had mild striae and 102 had severe striae. Overall, 113 cases had no adhesions (grade 0), 106 had grade 1–2 adhesions, and 28 had grade 3–4 adhesions. Among patients with grade 0 adhesions, 34 (13.7 %) had no striae, while 79 (31.9 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001; sensitivity 55 %; specificity 67 %; positive predictive value 69 %; negative predictive value 52 %). Among women with grade 1–2 adhesions, 48 (19.4 %) had no striae, while 58 (23.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae. Finally, among women with grade 3–4 adhesions, 22 (8.9 %) had no striae, while 6 (2.4 %) had mild-to-severe striae (p < 0.001). A p-value < 0.05 was taken to indicate statistical significance. Conclusions: The abdominal adhesion score dropped as the abdominal striae gravidarum score rose during the preoperative period. Addition of this useful, easy-to-apply, inexpensive, adjunctive, observational, abdominal scoring method to the obstetrical work-up can provide important clues about the intraabdominal adhesion

  12. Amplitudes of sural and radial sensory nerve action potentials in orthodromic and antidromic studies in children.

    PubMed

    Melendrez, J L; MacMillan, L J; Vajsar, J

    1998-01-01

    Several previous studies of adults have reported that the amplitudes of the sural and superficial radial nerve action potentials (SN and SRN SNAP respectively) are larger with antidromic than with orthodromic recordings. However, this difference has not been documented in children. This study evaluated the amplitudes of SN and SRN SNAPs obtained with antidromic and orthodromic recordings in children with and without neuropathy and compared these data with findings in adults. The SN or SRN or both of 10 neurologically normal children, 6 children with neuropathy and 7 healthy adults were studied with surface stimulation and recording. The position of the stimulating and recording electrodes for the orthodromic recordings was the reverse of that for the antidromic recordings. Peak-to-peak SNAP amplitudes were measured and analyzed. The mean of the SRN SNAP amplitude was significantly higher with the antidromic than the orthodromic technique for the first and third groups (p < 0.05). The mean SN SNAP amplitude was higher in the three groups, but not statistically significant when the data for the children and adult normal groups were combined and reanalyzed (p < 0.05). Consistent responses were obtained with both techniques. However, the antidromic technique was superior to the orthodromic technique because of the greater amplitude of responses. We recommend the use of the antidromic technique because of its greater amplitudes, ease of use and potential reduction of discomfort to the patient.

  13. Mechanism of Action of Bimatoprost, Latanoprost, and Travoprost in Healthy Subjects: A Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Lim, K. Sheng; Nau, Cherie B.; O’Byrne, Megan M.; Hodge, David O.; Toris, Carol B.; McLaren, Jay W.; Johnson, Douglas H.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose To study the effects of 3 prostaglandin analogs, bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost, on aqueous dynamics in the same subjects and to compare techniques of assessing outflow facility. Design Experimental study (double-masked, placebo-controlled, randomized paired comparison, 4-period crossover). Participants Thirty healthy adult subjects. Methods Bimatoprost, latanoprost, travoprost, or a placebo was administered to the left eye once a day in the evening for 7 days, after a minimum 4-week washout period between each session. Tonographic outflow facility was measured by Schiøtz tonography and pneumatonography on day 7. On day 8, the aqueous humor flow rate and fluorophotometric outflow facility were measured by fluorophotometry. Uveoscleral outflow was calculated from the aqueous humor flow rate and outflow facility using the Goldmann equation. Main Outcome Measures Facility of outflow, aqueous humor flow rate, intraocular pressure (IOP), and calculation of uveoscleral outflow. Results All medications lowered IOP relative to a placebo. None of the drugs affected aqueous humor production. All medications increased outflow facility compared with placebo when measured by Schiøtz and 2-minute pneumatonography (P≤0.02); the apparent increase of outflow facility measured with fluorophotometry and 4-minute pneumatonography did not reach statistical significance. In contrast, uveoscleral outflow was significantly increased by all medications when calculated from 4-minute pneumatonography data, and fluorophotometry and Schiøtz data at higher episcleral venous pressures. The apparent increase found with 2-minute pneumatonography did not reach statistical significance. These differing results in the same patients indicate that differences in measurement techniques, and not differences in mechanism of action, explain previous conflicting published reports on the mechanism of action of the prostaglandins. Conclusions Bimatoprost, latanoprost, and travoprost

  14. A phase 2 study of the farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in poor-risk and elderly patients with previously untreated acute myelogenous leukemia.

    PubMed

    Lancet, Jeffrey E; Gojo, Ivana; Gotlib, Jason; Feldman, Eric J; Greer, Jacqueline; Liesveld, Jane L; Bruzek, Laura M; Morris, Lawrence; Park, Youn; Adjei, Alex A; Kaufmann, Scott H; Garrett-Mayer, Elizabeth; Greenberg, Peter L; Wright, John J; Karp, Judith E

    2007-02-15

    Outcomes for older adults with acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) are poor due to both disease and host-related factors. In this phase 2 study, we tested the oral farnesyltransferase inhibitor tipifarnib in 158 older adults with previously untreated, poor-risk AML. The median age was 74 years, and a majority of patients had antecedent myelodysplastic syndrome. Complete remission (CR) was achieved in 22 patients (14%); partial remission or hematologic improvement occurred in 15 patients, for an overall response rate of 23%. The median duration of CR was 7.3 months and the median survival of complete responders was 18 months. Adverse karyotype, age 75 years or older, and poor performance status correlated negatively with survival. Early death in the absence of progressive disease was rare, and drug-related nonhematologic serious adverse events were observed in 74 patients (47%). Inhibition of farnesylation of the surrogate protein HDJ-2 occurred in the large majority of marrow samples tested. Baseline levels of phosphorylated mitogen-activated protein kinase and AKT did not correlate with clinical response. Tipifarnib is active and well tolerated in older adults with poor-risk AML and may impart a survival advantage in those patients who experience a clinical response.

  15. Phase II study of second-line therapy with DTIC, BCNU, cisplatin and tamoxifen (Dartmouth regimen) chemotherapy in patients with malignant melanoma previously treated with dacarbazine.

    PubMed

    Propper, D J; Braybrooke, J P; Levitt, N C; O'Byrne, K; Christodoulos, K; Han, C; Talbot, D C; Ganesan, T S; Harris, A L

    2000-06-01

    This study assessed response rates to combination dacarbazine (DTIC), BCNU (carmustine), cisplatin and tamoxifen (DBPT) chemotherapy in patients with progressive metastatic melanoma previously treated with DTIC, as an evaluation of DBPT as a second-line regimen, and as an indirect comparison of DBPT with DTIC. Thirty-five consecutive patients received DBPT. The patients were divided into two groups. Group 1 comprised 17 patients with progressive disease (PD) on DTIC + tamoxifen therapy who were switched directly to DBPT. Group 2 comprised 18 patients not immediately switched to DBPT and included patients who had either a partial response (PR; one patient) or developed stable disease (SD; four patients) with DTIC, or received adjuvant DTIC (nine patients). All except four patients had received tamoxifen at the time of initial DTIC treatment. Median times since stopping DTIC were 22 days (range 20-41) and 285 days (range 50-1,240) in Groups 1 and 2 respectively. In Group 1, one patient developed SD for 5 months and the remainder had PD. In Group 2, there were two PRs, four patients with SD (4, 5, 6, and 6 months), and 11 with PD. These results indicate that the DBPT regimen is not of value in melanoma primarily refractory to DTIC. There were responses in patients not directly switched from DTIC to DBPT, suggesting combination therapy may be of value in a small subgroup of melanoma patients.

  16. STUDIES ON THE ANTIPYRETIC ACTION OF CORTISONE IN PYROGEN-INDUCED FEVER

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Elisha; Allison, Fred; Smith, Mary Ruth; Wood, W. Barry

    1955-01-01

    The mode of action of cortisone as an antipyretic has been studied in rabbits challenged with intravenous injections of bacterial pyrogens. The fever induced by pyromen or dextran was found to be markedly suppressed when cortisone was administered in liberal amounts (25 mg. twice daily) for 3 days prior to the challenge. Although the cortisone effectively blocked the febrile response to both pyrogens, it failed to influence the transient but marked leucopenia which characteristically precedes the onset of fever. The antipyretic action of the drug also was shown to bear no relation to the activity of the serum factor recently demonstrated by Farr, Grant, and others to be involved in the production of pyrogen-induced fever. In preliminary experiments with typhoid vaccine as the inciting pyrogen, the presence of serum factor activity in normal blood and its absence in the blood of pyrogen-tolerant rabbits was confirmed. Subsequently the blood of rabbits treated with antipyretically effective doses of cortisone was shown to contain just as much serum factor activity as that of normal rabbits. In addition, previous incubation of the pyrogen with serum factor failed to influence the antipyretic effect of the drug. It is concluded from these findings that in suppressing pyrogen fever, cortisone acts neither upon the leucopenic reaction nor upon the fever-accelerating factor of the serum. By exclusion it would appear that the drug must influence some later stage of the fever-producing process. The mechanisms involved in the later stages of the response to exogenous pyrogen remain undefined, and the need for determining whether they are related to the prefebrile leucopenia is emphasized. PMID:14354106

  17. Neuromodulatory action of dopamine in the nucleus accumbens: an in vivo intracellular study.

    PubMed

    Yim, C Y; Mogenson, G J

    1988-08-01

    Intracellular recordings were made from neurons in the nucleus accumbens in situ to determine how dopamine produces the selective neuromodulatory action in the accumbens observed in previous studies. Electrical stimulation of the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala was found to produce monosynaptically evoked depolarizing and hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potential sequences in a large proportion of the accumbens neurons sampled. Dopamine applied iontophoretically or released endogenously by stimulation of the ventral tegmental area produced consistent membrane depolarization and an increase in membrane conductance but not an increase in spontaneous activity of the accumbens neurons. Stimulation of the ventral tegmental area with trains of 10 pulses at 10 Hz prior to stimulation of the amygdala produced 8-58% reduction in the amplitude of the depolarizing postsynaptic potential but no change in the late hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potential. Although attenuation of the depolarizing postsynaptic potential amplitude from ventral tegmental area stimulation was often accompanied by membrane depolarization, it appeared that the two responses were not causally related. The effect of ventral tegmental area stimulation on the evoked depolarizing postsynaptic potential and the membrane potential were blocked by haloperidol indicating the involvement of dopamine. Iontophoretically applied dopamine produced responses similar to ventral tegmental area stimulation with two exceptions: (i) iontophoretically applied dopamine produced consistently stronger maximal attenuation of the depolarizing postsynaptic potential than did ventral tegmental area stimulation; and (ii) iontophoretically applied dopamine always attenuated both the depolarizing postsynaptic potential and hyperpolarizing postsynaptic potential whereas ventral tegmental area stimulation produced selective attenuation of the depolarizing postsynaptic potential only. These electrophysiological results are

  18. Adverse events, bone mineral density and discontinuation associated with generic alendronate among postmenopausal women previously tolerant of brand alendronate: a retrospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A rise in gastrointestinal (GI) adverse events (AEs) and a decline in bone mineral density (BMD) was observed in patients previously tolerant to brand alendronate shortly after generic versions were introduced in July 2005 to the Canadian market. The objective of our study was to quantify changes in AE rates and BMD scores, as well as associated alendronate discontinuation among patients before and after switch from brand to generic alendronate. Methods A chart review of postmenopausal women 50 years of age and older between 2003 and 2007 was conducted in two specialized tertiary care referral centers. Patients on alendronate both before and after July 2005 were included. The change in the number of AEs, changes in BMD and associated alendronate discontinuation was compared before and after the switch from brand to generic alendronate. Results 301 women with an average age of 67.6 years (standard deviation (SD) = 9.5) had a total of 47 AEs between July 2003 and December 2007 that resulted in discontinuation of the medication. There was a significant increase in the rate of AEs per patient-months-at-risk from 0.0001 before to 0.0044 after October 2005 (p < 0.001). The most common AEs were GI in nature (stomach pain, GI upset, nausea, and reflux). In addition, 23 patients discontinued alendronate due to BMD reduction after January 2006. In these patients, BMD scores were significantly reduced from their prior BMD measures (change of -0.0534, p < 0.001 for spine BMD and change of -0.0338, p = 0.01 for femur BMD). Among patients who discontinued due to BMD reduction, BMD was stable in the period prior to January 2006 (change of -0.0066, p = 0.5 for spine BMD and change of 0.0011, p = 0.9 for femur BMD); however, testing for reduction after January 2006 in BMD measures (one-sided T-test) revealed there was a significant reduction in BMD scores for both anatomic sites (change of -0.0321, p = .005 for spine, change of -0.0205, p = 0.05 for femur). Conclusions

  19. Directed forgetting of negative performed actions is difficult: A behavioural study.

    PubMed

    Li, Guangzheng; Wang, Lijuan; Han, Ying

    2016-07-19

    Strong evidence suggests that both performing actions and emotional stimuli can enhance memory by capturing attention. However, the synergetic effect of the two factors on directed forgetting has not been assessed. In this study, we used an item-method directed forgetting paradigm to examine the forgetting of emotional materials depending on whether actions were performed. The results showed that action performance influenced the directed forgetting of emotional words. Specifically, when actions were performed there was a directed forgetting effect for neutral and positive words but not for negative words. In comparison, for verbal tasks, directed forgetting was observed for all words. The elaborative encoding prior to the remember/forget instructions and the influence of negative emotion on attentional inhibition after the presentation of the instructions together suggest that it is more difficult to intentionally forget negative performed actions.

  20. Automatic Imitation of Intransitive Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Press, Clare; Bird, Geoffrey; Walsh, Eamonn; Heyes, Cecilia

    2008-01-01

    Previous research has indicated a potential discontinuity between monkey and human ventral premotor-parietal mirror systems, namely that monkey mirror systems process only transitive (object-directed) actions, whereas human mirror systems may also process intransitive (non-object-directed) actions. The present study investigated this discontinuity…

  1. The Girl Child and the Family: An Action Research Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anandalakshmy, S., Comp.

    This report describes a nationwide study of female children and the family in rural India. The objectives of the study were to generate data on the situation of female children; to identify the major problems related to their status; to start a series of programs to help remedy those shortcomings; and to assist communities, and women in…

  2. Mathematics in Action: Two New Zealand Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, David M.

    Mathematics is playing an increasingly important role in business and industry. In this paper we present two case studies to illustrate the power and impact of mathematics in two important practical applications in New Zealand. The first case study describes the development of a mathematical optimization model to maximize the value of aluminum…

  3. Educational Cost Analysis in Action: Case Studies for Planners -- II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coombs, Philip H.; Hallak, Jacques

    This document is the second in a series of three documents, which together contain 27 case studies on the uses of cost analysis in educational planning. The case studies are presented to help planners and administrators see how cost analysis can be used to improve the efficiency of their educational systems, or to get the best value existing…

  4. Counselling and knowledge about contraceptive mode of action among married women; a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Topsever, Pınar; Filiz, Müge; Aladağ, Nihal; Topallı, Ruşen; Ciğerli, Özlem; Görpelioğlu, Süleyman

    2006-01-01

    Background Family planning counselling which covers knowledge transfer about contraceptive mode of action, by enabling informed choice, improves compliance to and efficiency of contraceptive methods. The objective of this study was to investigate associations between family planning counselling, counsellor and correct knowledge about mode of action of modern contraceptive methods among married women. Methods For this cross-sectional study, stratified (according to current modern contraceptive method in use) random sampling was performed from the registries of two primary health care centres. Main outcomes were; prevalence of family planning counselling, professional background of the counsellor and correct knowledge about mode of action. A semi-structured questionnaire developed by the researchers was applied via face-to-face interview. The answers about mode of action were categorized as correct vs. incorrect by consensus rating. Results Prevalence of counselling and correct knowledge about mode of action was 49.0% and 39.3%, respectively. Higher educated women were significantly more likely to know the mode of action (p < 0.001). Being counselled by a physician (54.1%, n = 120) was not associated with correct knowledge about mode of action (p = 0.79). Non-barrier method users were less educated (p = 0.001), more often counselled (60.8% vs. 8.0%) and less knowledgeable (p < 0.001) about mode of action of their contraceptive method, compared to condom users. Nevertheless, counselled non-barrier method users were significantly more likely to know the correct mode of action of their chosen method (p = 0.021) than counselled condom users. Conclusion The beneficial effect of counselling on knowledge about mode of action of the more complicated, medical (non-barrier) contraceptive methods suggests that the use of family planning counselling services in primary health care should be promoted; furthermore, counselling strategies and content should be re-structured for

  5. An fMRI Study of Perception and Action in Deaf Signers

    PubMed Central

    Okada, Kayoko; Rogalsky, Corianne; O’Grady, Lucinda; Hanaumi, Leila; Bellugi, Ursula; Corina, David; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Since the discovery of mirror neurons, there has been a great deal of interest in understanding the relationship between perception and action, and the role of the human mirror system in language comprehension and production. Two questions have dominated research. One concerns the role of Broca’s area in speech perception. The other concerns the role of the motor system more broadly in understanding action-related language. The current study investigates both of these questions in a way that bridges research on language with research on manual actions. We studied the neural basis of observing and executing American Sign Language (ASL) object and action signs. In an fMRI experiment, deaf signers produced signs depicting actions and objects as well as observed/comprehended signs of actions and objects. Different patterns of activation were found for observation and execution although with overlap in Broca’s area, providing prima facie support for the claim that the motor system participates in language perception. In contrast, we found no evidence that action related signs differentially involved the motor system compared to object related signs. These findings are discussed in the context of lesion studies of sign language execution and observation. In this broader context, we conclude that the activation in Broca’s area during ASL observation is not causally related to sign language understanding. PMID:26796716

  6. Effects of Action Video Game on Attention Distribution: A Cognitive Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xuemin; Yan, Bin; Shu, Hua

    Based on the previous researches, Flanker compatibility effect paradigm was applied to explore the degree where people process the visual information presented on to-be-ignored locations. In present study, this paradigm was used to investigate attention distribution of Video Game Players (VGPs) and Non Video Game Players (NVGPs). The results suggested, under low perceptual load, VGPs tried to focus their attention on the task at-hand whereas the NVGPs tried to explore the adjacent locations with the left-over resources from the research task; however, under high perceptual load, the players would process the visual information at the adjacent locations of the target with the left-over resources, because they had comparatively greater attention capability, whereas the non-players focused their attention on the target locations to finish the search task. To conclude, the present study suggested that action video game play could not only enhance the attention capacity but also cause a different way of attention distribution in different perceptual load situations.

  7. Ground-water quality in Geauga County, Ohio; review of previous studies, status in 1999, and comparison of 1986 and 1999 data

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Jagucki, Martha L.; Darner, Robert A.

    2001-01-01

    Most residents in Geauga County, Ohio, rely on ground water as their primary source of drinking water. With population growing at a steady rate, the possibility that human activity will affect ground-water quality becomes considerable. This report presents the results of a study by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with the Geauga County Planning Commission and Board of County Commissioners, to provide a brief synopsis of work previously done within the county, to assess the present (1999) ground-water quality, and to determine any changes in ground-water quality between 1986 and 1999. Previous studies of ground-water quality in the county have consistently reported that manganese and iron concentrations in ground water in Geauga County often exceed the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) Secondary Maximum Contaminant Level (SMCL). Road salt and, less commonly, oil-field brines and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been found in ground water at isolated locations. Nitrate has not been detected above the USEPA Maximum Contaminant Level (MCL) of 10 milligrams per liter as N; however, nitrate has been found in some locations at levels that may indicate the effects of fertilizer application or effluent from septic systems. Between June 7 and July 1, 1999, USGS personnel collected a total of 31 water-quality samples from wells completed in glacial deposits, the Pottsville Formation, the Cuyahoga Group, and the Berea Sandstone. All samples were analyzed for VOCs, sulfide, dissolved organic carbon, major ions, trace elements, alkalinity, total coliforms, and Escherichia coli bacteria. Fourteen of the samples also were analyzed for tritium. Water-quality data were used to determine (1) suitability of water for drinking, (2) age of ground water, (3) stratigraphic variation in water quality, (4) controls on water quality, and (5) temporal variation in water quality. Water from 16 of the 31 samples exceeded the Geauga County General Health

  8. The antibacterial action of honey. An in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Jeddar, A; Kharsany, A; Ramsaroop, U G; Bhamjee, A; Haffejee, I E; Moosa, A

    1985-02-16

    The reported antibacterial effect of pure honey was evaluated by an in vitro study testing the growth of various Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria in media containing varying concentrations of honey. It was found that most pathogenic bacteria failed to grow in honey at a concentration of 40% and above. The possible mechanisms of this effect are briefly outlined.

  9. Rural Action: A Collection of Community Work Case Studies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Henderson, Paul, Ed.; Francis, David, Ed.

    This book contains 10 case studies of rural community development in England, Wales, Scotland, Ireland, and Catalonia, as seen from the perspective of community-work practitioners. Development projects encompassed such activities as promotion of tourism, establishment of community centers, vocational training for school dropouts, adult community…

  10. A Multidisciplinary Osteoporosis Service-Based Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehead, Dean; Keast, John; Montgomery, Val; Hayman, Sue

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To investigate an existing Trust-based osteoporosis service's preventative activity, determine any issues and problems and use this data to reorganise the service, as part of a National Health Service Executive/Regional Office-commissioned and funded study. Setting: A UK Hospital Trust's Osteoporosis Service. Design & Method: A…

  11. Distributed Curriculum Leadership in Action: A Hong Kong Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Law, Edmond; Galton, Maurice; Wan, Sally

    2010-01-01

    This study was designed primarily to investigate the impact of school-based curriculum development teams on teacher development within the tradition of school-based curriculum development. The results are expected to provide valuable insights for teachers, school management and policy making. Teacher interviews in a primary school in Hong Kong…

  12. Phase I study of dasatinib in combination with capecitabine, oxaliplatin and bevacizumab followed by an expanded cohort in previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Strickler, John H.; McCall, Shannon; Nixon, Andrew B.; Brady, John C.; Pang, Herbert; Rushing, Christel; Cohn, Allen; Starodub, Alexander; Arrowood, Christy; Haley, Sherri; Meadows, Kellen L.; Morse, Michael A.; Uronis, Hope E.; Blobe, Gerard C.; Hsu, S. David; Zafar, S. Yousuf; Hurwitz, Herbert I.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Dasatinib inhibits src family kinases and has anti-angiogenic properties. We conducted a phase I study of dasatinib, capecitabine, oxaliplatin, and bevacizumab (CapeOx/bevacizumab), with an expansion cohort in metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC). Methods Patients were enrolled in a dose escalation cohort to establish the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). Using a “3+3” design, twelve patients with advanced solid tumors received dasatinib (50mg twice daily or 70mg daily), capecitabine (850mg/m2 twice daily, days 1-14), oxaliplatin (130mg/m2 on day 1) and bevacizumab (7.5mg/kg on day1), every 3 weeks. Ten patients with previously untreated metastatic CRC were then enrolled in an expansion cohort. Activated src (srcact) expression was measured by immunohistochemistry, using an antibody that selectively recognizes the active conformation of src (clone 28). Results Twenty-two patients were enrolled between June 2009 and May 2011. Two DLTs were observed in the 50mg bid dasatinib cohort, and one DLT was observed in the 70mg daily dasatinib cohort. The MTD and RP2D for dasatinib was 70mg daily. The most common treatment-related adverse events were fatigue (20; 91%) and diarrhea (18; 82%). Biomarker analysis of srcact expression demonstrated that the overall response rate (ORR) was 75% (6/8) for patients with high srcact expression (IHC≥ 2), compared to 0% (0/8) for patients with low srcact expression (IHC 0 or 1); (p =0.007). Conclusions The RP2D of dasatinib is 70 mg daily in combination with CapeOx/bevacizumab. High levels of srcact expression may predict those patients most likely to benefit from dasatinib. PMID:24173967

  13. Low-calorie energy drink improves physiological response to exercise in previously sedentary men: a placebo-controlled efficacy and safety study.

    PubMed

    Lockwood, Christopher M; Moon, Jordan R; Smith, Abbie E; Tobkin, Sarah E; Kendall, Kristina L; Graef, Jennifer L; Cramer, Joel T; Stout, Jeffrey R

    2010-08-01

    Energy drink use has grown despite limited research to support efficacy or safety and amid concerns when combined with exercise. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of 10 weeks of once-daily energy drink consumption or energy drink consumption with exercise on measures of body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, strength, mood, and safety in previously sedentary males. Thirty-eight males were randomly assigned to energy drink + exercise (EX-A), energy drink (NEX-A), placebo + exercise (EX-B), or placebo (NEX-B). All participants consumed 1 drink per day for 10 weeks; EX-A and EX-B participated in 10 weeks of resistance and endurance exercise. Testing was performed before (PRE) and after (POST) the 10-week intervention. No significant (p > 0.05) changes were observed for body composition, fitness, or strength in NEX-A; however, significantly greater decreases in fat mass and percentage body fat and increases in VO2peak were observed in EX-A versus EX-B. Ventilatory threshold (VT), minute ventilation, VO2 at VT, and power output at VT improved significantly PRE to POST in EX-A but not in EX-B or nonexercising groups. Clinical markers for hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, and immune function, as determined by PRE and POST blood work revealed no adverse effects in response to the energy drink. Mood was not affected by energy drink use. Absent energy restriction or other dietary controls, chronic ingestion of a once-daily low-calorie energy drink appears ineffective at improving body composition, cardiorespiratory fitness, or strength in sedentary males. However, when combined with exercise, preworkout energy drink consumption may significantly improve some physiological adaptations to combined aerobic and resistance training.

  14. Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study/Interim Response Actions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-03-25

    BASESEOLIECHNICAL.EROGRAL.ELAN 1- 12 1.4.1 Assumptions 1- 12 1.4.2 RI/FS Process 1-13 1.4.3 Records of Decision 1-22 2.0 RI/EA/FS PROCESS 2-1 2.1 OVERVIEW 2-1 2.2...oL.Basin.I 3-6 3.3.1.4 Clasure-oLAbandoned..Weliiaon-.BIA 3-7 3.3.1.5 laasts &lirk-rauud.. atar -antercept and-.Ireatment-.SYstem 3-7 3.3.2 Soils and...10 5.4 UEASIIIIILSIUDLSCHEDULE 5- 12 5.4.1 Onpost Feasibility Study 5- 12 5.4.2 Onpost Feasibility Study Deadlines 5- 12 5.4.3 Onpost RI/FS Report

  15. ELF magnetic fields: animal studies, mechanisms of action.

    PubMed

    Lagroye, Isabelle; Percherancier, Yann; Juutilainen, Jukka; De Gannes, Florence Poulletier; Veyret, Bernard

    2011-12-01

    Animal studies can contribute to addressing the issue of possible greater health risk for children exposed to 50-60 Hz extremely low frequency (ELF) magnetic fields (MFs), mostly in terms of teratological effects and cancer. Teratology has been extensively studied in animals exposed to ELF MFs but experiments have not established adverse developmental effects. Childhood leukaemia has been the only cancer consistently reported in epidemiological studies as associated with exposure to ELF MFs. This association has been the basis for the classification as "possibly carcinogenic to humans" by the International Agency for Research on Cancer in 2002. Animal experiments have provided only limited support for these epidemiological findings. However, none but one study used an animal model for acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL), the main form of childhood leukaemia, and exposures to ELF MFs were not carried out over the whole pregnancy period, when the first hit of ALL is assumed to occur. Moreover, there are no generally accepted biophysical mechanisms that could explain carcinogenic effects of low-level MFs. The radical pair mechanism and related cryptochromes (CRY) molecules have recently been identified in birds and other non-mammalian species, as a sensor of the geomagnetic field, involved in navigation. The hypothesis has to be tested in mammalian models. CRY, which is part of the molecular circadian clock machinery, is a ubiquitous protein likely to be involved in cancer cell growth and DNA repair. In summary, we now have some clues to test for a better characterization of the interaction between ALL and ELF MFs exposure.

  16. Stability Study of Anthropomorphic Robot Antares under External Load Action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodyakov, A. S.; Pavlyuk, N. A.; Budkov, V. Yu; Prakapovich, R. A.

    2017-01-01

    The paper presents the study of the behavior of the major structural elements of the lower limbs of anthropomorphic robot Antares under the influence of different types of loads (torsion, fracture). We have determined the required values for actuators torques for motion of the robot in space. The maximum values of torques are 5 Nm and 5.2 Nm respectively, and are able to withstand the upper and lower leg structures.

  17. Action tremor and weakness in Parkinson's disease: a study of the elbow extensors.

    PubMed

    Brown, P; Corcos, D M; Rothwell, J C

    1998-01-01

    We have previously shown that action tremor persists during maximal wrist extension in patients with Parkinson's disease, and that this contributes to weakness at this joint by preventing the fully fused contraction of the forearm extensor muscles. Antiparkinsonian medication reduces the action tremor in torque and electromyographic (EMG) records, thereby improving strength at the wrist. In the present experiments, peak torque and action tremor were recorded during maximal extension of the elbow in nine patients with Parkinson's disease while they were on and off antiparkinsonian medication, and in eight age- and sex-matched healthy subjects. Peak torque and mean rectified EMG levels were reduced by 34% and 36%, respectively, during maximal elbow extension when patients off medication were compared to those in the treated state. Action tremor was visible in torque records and had a frequency of approximately 10 Hz both in parkinsonian patients and in normal controls. Activity of a similar frequency was often detected in EMG records, especially in patients off therapy. The absolute amplitude of action tremor in torque (A[torque]) and EMG (A[EMG]) records from the elbow was unaffected by therapy and was little different from that recorded in healthy controls. The relative action tremor in torque ([A(torque)/peak torque] x 100) and EMG ([A(EMG)/mean rectified EMG] x 100) was reduced by treatment, but this was the result of the increase in peak torque and mean rectified EMG. Thus, in contrast to the results at the wrist, antiparkinsonian medication has little effect on the 10-Hz action tremor at the elbow. Increased strength is produced by a different mechanism which allows recruitment of triceps motor units outside of this synchronizing influence.

  18. The cerebellum in action: a simulation and robotics study.

    PubMed

    Hofstötter, Constanze; Mintz, Matti; Verschure, Paul F M J

    2002-10-01

    The control or prediction of the precise timing of events are central aspects of the many tasks assigned to the cerebellum. Despite much detailed knowledge of its physiology and anatomy, it remains unclear how the cerebellar circuitry can achieve such an adaptive timing function. We present a computational model pursuing this question for one extensively studied type of cerebellar-mediated learning: the classical conditioning of discrete motor responses. This model combines multiple current assumptions on the function of the cerebellar circuitry and was used to investigate whether plasticity in the cerebellar cortex alone can mediate adaptive conditioned response timing. In particular, we studied the effect of changes in the strength of the synapses formed between parallel fibres and Purkinje cells under the control of a negative feedback loop formed between inferior olive, cerebellar cortex and cerebellar deep nuclei. The learning performance of the model was evaluated at the circuit level in simulated conditioning experiments as well as at the behavioural level using a mobile robot. We demonstrate that the model supports adaptively timed responses under real-world conditions. Thus, in contrast to many other models that have focused on cerebellar-mediated conditioning, we investigated whether and how the suggested underlying mechanisms could give rise to behavioural phenomena.

  19. Motor Inhibition during Overt and Covert Actions: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study.

    PubMed

    Angelini, Monica; Calbi, Marta; Ferrari, Annachiara; Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Franca, Michele; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Given ample evidence for shared cortical structures involved in encoding actions, whether or not subsequently executed, a still unsolved problem is the identification of neural mechanisms of motor inhibition, preventing "covert actions" as motor imagery from being performed, in spite of the activation of the motor system. The principal aims of the present study were the evaluation of: 1) the presence in covert actions as motor imagery of putative motor inhibitory mechanisms; 2) their underlying cerebral sources; 3) their differences or similarities with respect to cerebral networks underpinning the inhibition of overt actions during a Go/NoGo task. For these purposes, we performed a high density EEG study evaluating the cerebral microstates and their related sources elicited during two types of Go/NoGo tasks, requiring the execution or withholding of an overt or a covert imagined action, respectively. Our results show for the first time the engagement during motor imagery of key nodes of a putative inhibitory network (including pre-supplementary motor area and right inferior frontal gyrus) partially overlapping with those activated for the inhibition of an overt action during the overt NoGo condition. At the same time, different patterns of temporal recruitment in these shared neural inhibitory substrates are shown, in accord with the intended overt or covert modality of action performance. The evidence that apparently divergent mechanisms such as controlled inhibition of overt actions and contingent automatic inhibition of covert actions do indeed share partially overlapping neural substrates, further challenges the rigid dichotomy between conscious, explicit, flexible and unconscious, implicit, inflexible forms of motor behavioral control.

  20. Microcalorimetry studies of the antimicrobial actions of Aconitum alkaloids.

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-bin; Liu, Lian; Shao, Wei; Wei, Ting; Lin, Gui-mei

    2015-08-01

    The metabolic activity of organisms can be measured by recording the heat output using microcalorimetry. In this paper, the total alkaloids in the traditional Chinese medicine Radix Aconiti Lateralis were extracted and applied to Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The effect of alkaloids on bacteria growth was studied by microcalorimetry. The power-time curves were plotted with a thermal activity monitor (TAM) air isothermal microcalorimeter and parameters such as growth rate constant (μ), peak-time (Tm), inhibitory ratio (I), and enhancement ratio (E) were calculated. The relationships between the concentration of Aconitum alkaloids and μ of E. coli or S. aureus were discussed. The results showed that Aconitum alkaloids had little effect on E. coli and had a potentially inhibitory effect on the growth of S. aureus.

  1. Mechanistic Studies of Anti-Hyperpigmentary Compounds: Elucidating Their Inhibitory and Regulatory Actions

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Rosanna Y. Y.; Lin, Zhi-Xiu; Sviderskaya, Elena V.; Cheng, Christopher H. K.

    2014-01-01

    Searching for depigmenting agents from natural sources has become a new direction in the cosmetic industry as natural products are generally perceived as relatively safer. In our previous study, selected Chinese medicines traditionally used to treat hyperpigmentation were tested for anti-hyperpigmentary effects using a melan-a cell culture model. Among the tested chemical compounds, 4-ethylresorcinol, 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol were found to possess hypopigmentary effects. Western blot analysis, reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP) assay, protein kinase A (PKA) activity assay, tyrosinase inhibition assay and lipid peroxidation inhibition assay were performed to reveal the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms of the hypopigmentary effects. 4-Ethylresorcinol and 4-ethylphenol attenuated mRNA and protein expression of tyrosinase-related protein (TRP)-2, and possessed antioxidative effect by inhibiting lipid peroxidation. 1-Tetradecanol was able to attenuate protein expression of tyrosinase. The hypopigmentary actions of 4-ethylresorcinol, 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol were associated with regulating downstream proteins along the PKA pathway. 4-Ethylresorcinol was more effective in inhibiting melanin synthesis when compared to 4-ethylphenol and 1-tetradecanol. PMID:25196602

  2. Mature age students access, entry and success in nurse education: an action research study.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Amanda; Kidd, Tracy; Nankervis, Katrina; Connell, Sarah

    2011-01-01

    This action research study involved an 'expert group' that was convened to consider issues for mature age nursing students in the Australian context and develop recommendations that could be used to strengthen mature age entry, access and success in nursing programs. Consistent with action research, the group worked through phases of planning, action, observation, evaluation and critical reflection. In developing recommendations that could be used for future planning, the group met regularly, reviewed extensive literature, and conducted two data collection activities, a questionnaire and focus group with education providers. From the action research activities, five major recommendations were generated. These focused on the value of mature age students, the need for specific information, transparent and clear processes for students entering nurse education, study support and finally, the provision of financial assistance.

  3. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients.

    PubMed

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Candidi, Matteo; Avenanti, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others' actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal, and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others' actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however, are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding.

  4. Neuroanatomical substrates of action perception and understanding: an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of lesion-symptom mapping studies in brain injured patients

    PubMed Central

    Urgesi, Cosimo; Candidi, Matteo; Avenanti, Alessio

    2014-01-01

    Several neurophysiologic and neuroimaging studies suggested that motor and perceptual systems are tightly linked along a continuum rather than providing segregated mechanisms supporting different functions. Using correlational approaches, these studies demonstrated that action observation activates not only visual but also motor brain regions. On the other hand, brain stimulation and brain lesion evidence allows tackling the critical question of whether our action representations are necessary to perceive and understand others’ actions. In particular, recent neuropsychological studies have shown that patients with temporal, parietal, and frontal lesions exhibit a number of possible deficits in the visual perception and the understanding of others’ actions. The specific anatomical substrates of such neuropsychological deficits however, are still a matter of debate. Here we review the existing literature on this issue and perform an anatomic likelihood estimation meta-analysis of studies using lesion-symptom mapping methods on the causal relation between brain lesions and non-linguistic action perception and understanding deficits. The meta-analysis encompassed data from 361 patients tested in 11 studies and identified regions in the inferior frontal cortex, the inferior parietal cortex and the middle/superior temporal cortex, whose damage is consistently associated with poor performance in action perception and understanding tasks across studies. Interestingly, these areas correspond to the three nodes of the action observation network that are strongly activated in response to visual action perception in neuroimaging research and that have been targeted in previous brain stimulation studies. Thus, brain lesion mapping research provides converging causal evidence that premotor, parietal and temporal regions play a crucial role in action recognition and understanding. PMID:24910603

  5. Activity-Based Teaching in Social Studies Education: An Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Akkus, Zekerya

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine pre-service social studies teachers' skills to plan and apply the activity-based teaching and contribute to their development of these skills. In the study, the action research design of qualitative research was used. The sample of the study consisted of 6 pre-service teachers who were 4th year students at…

  6. Biosphere reserves in action: Case studies of the American experience

    SciTech Connect

    1995-06-26

    For nearly 20 years, biosphere reserves have offered a unique framework for building the knowledge, skills, and attitudes required for conservation and sustainable use of ecosystems. The 12 case studies in this volume chronicle many of the cooperative efforts to implement the biosphere reserve concept in the United States. Considered together, these efforts involve more than 20 types of protected areas, and the participation of all levels of government, and many private organizations, academic institutions, citizens groups, and individuals. Biosphere reserves are multi-purpose areas that are nominated by the national committee of the Man and the Biosphere Program (MAB) and designated by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) to serve as demonstration areas for cooperation in building harmonious relationships between human activities and the conservation of ecosystems and biological diversity. Each biosphere reserve exemplifies the characteristic ecosystems of one of the worlds biogeographical regions. It is a land or coas%arine area involving human communities as integral components and including resources managed for objectives ranging from complete protection to intensive, yet sustainable development. A biosphere reserve is envisioned as a regional ''landscape for learning'' in which monitoring, research, education, and training are encouraged to support sustainable conservation of natural and managed ecosystems. It is a framework for regional cooperation involving government decisionmakers, scientists, resource managers, private organizations and local people (i.e., the biosphere reserve ''stakeholders''). Finally, each biosphere reserve is part of a global network for sharing information and experience to help address complex problems of conservation and development. The 12 case studies presented in this report represent only a few of the possible evolutions of a biosphere reserve in its efforts to reach out to the local

  7. Seeing biological actions in 3D: An fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Jastorff, Jan; Abdollahi, Rouhollah O.; Fasano, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Precise kinematics or body configuration cannot be recovered from visual input without disparity information. Yet, no imaging study has investigated the role of disparity on action observation. Here, we investigated the interaction between disparity and the main cues of biological motion, kinematics and configuration, in two fMRI experiments. Stimuli were presented as point‐light figures, depicting complex action sequences lasting 21 s. We hypothesized that interactions could occur at any of the three levels of the action observation network, comprising occipitotemporal, parietal and premotor cortex, with premotor cortex being the most likely location. The main effects of kinematics and configuration confirmed that the biological motion sequences activated all three levels of the action observation network, validating our approach. The interaction between configuration and disparity activated only premotor cortex, whereas interactions between kinematics and disparity occurred at all levels of the action observation network but were strongest at the premotor level. Control experiments demonstrated that these interactions could not be accounted for by low level motion in depth, task effects, spatial attention, or eye movements, including vergence. These results underscore the role of premotor cortex in action observation, and in imitating others or responding to their actions. Hum Brain Mapp 37:203–219, 2016. © 2015 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26510637

  8. A phase II/III randomized study to compare the efficacy and safety of rigosertib plus gemcitabine versus gemcitabine alone in patients with previously untreated metastatic pancreatic cancer†

    PubMed Central

    O'Neil, B. H.; Scott, A. J.; Ma, W. W.; Cohen, S. J.; Aisner, D. L.; Menter, A. R.; Tejani, M. A.; Cho, J. K.; Granfortuna, J.; Coveler, L.; Olowokure, O. O.; Baranda, J. C.; Cusnir, M.; Phillip, P.; Boles, J.; Nazemzadeh, R.; Rarick, M.; Cohen, D. J.; Radford, J.; Fehrenbacher, L.; Bajaj, R.; Bathini, V.; Fanta, P.; Berlin, J.; McRee, A. J.; Maguire, R.; Wilhelm, F.; Maniar, M.; Jimeno, A.; Gomes, C. L.; Messersmith, W. A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Rigosertib (ON 01910.Na), a first-in-class Ras mimetic and small-molecule inhibitor of multiple signaling pathways including polo-like kinase 1 (PLK1) and phosphoinositide 3-kinase (PI3K), has shown efficacy in preclinical pancreatic cancer models. In this study, rigosertib was assessed in combination with gemcitabine in patients with treatment-naïve metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Materials and methods Patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma were randomized in a 2:1 fashion to gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle plus rigosertib 1800 mg/m2 via 2-h continuous IV infusions given twice weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle (RIG + GEM) versus gemcitabine 1000 mg/m2 weekly for 3 weeks in a 4-week cycle (GEM). Results A total of 160 patients were enrolled globally and randomly assigned to RIG + GEM (106 patients) or GEM (54). The most common grade 3 or higher adverse events were neutropenia (8% in the RIG + GEM group versus 6% in the GEM group), hyponatremia (17% versus 4%), and anemia (8% versus 4%). The median overall survival was 6.1 months for RIG + GEM versus 6.4 months for GEM [hazard ratio (HR), 1.24; 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.85–1.81]. The median progression-free survival was 3.4 months for both groups (HR = 0.96; 95% CI 0.68–1.36). The partial response rate was 19% versus 13% for RIG + GEM versus GEM, respectively. Of 64 tumor samples sent for molecular analysis, 47 were adequate for multiplex genetic testing and 41 were positive for mutations. The majority of cases had KRAS gene mutations (40 cases). Other mutations detected included TP53 (13 cases) and PIK3CA (1 case). No correlation between mutational status and efficacy was detected. Conclusions The combination of RIG + GEM failed to demonstrate an improvement in survival or response compared with GEM in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma. Rigosertib showed a similar safety profile to that seen in previous trials using the IV

  9. Source modification special study. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project

    SciTech Connect

    1989-04-01

    One of the major issues that must be addressed during the evaluation of the efficiency of tailings embankment designs for compliance with groundwater standards is the estimation of source concentrations and the change in these concentrations with time. Because any effort to predict concentrations of contaminants in the uppermost aquifer requires a source concentration, data from these analyses are essential. Thetechnical approach of this study was twofold. The first approach was to investigate the rates of natural flushing of contaminants. Two sets of tailings samples were collected at two sites on the Old Rifle tailings pile at the Rifle UMTRA Project site in Colorado. One set of samples was collected at a site where the lower portion of the profile is continuously inundated with water and the other set was collected in anarea that only receives water from precipitation. The tailings samples were refluxed in strong acid (nitric acid) and the leachate was analyzed for hazardous constituents. The results of this investigation indicate that many of the hazardous constituents have been leached from the tailings at the wet site and that there has been little redistribution of elemental hazardous constituents at the dry site. The second approach involved a laboratory investigation of contaminant removal from tailings by doubly distilled water and two lixiviants. Tailings samples from the Gunnison, Colorado, UMTRA Project site were subjected to leaching by doubly distilled water, and by the lixiviants sodium bicarbonate and disodium ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid. The resulting data were tabulated and plotted with concentration as a function of pore volume. Evaluation of the data indicates that pore fluids should show a decrease in concentration after very few pore volumes of liquid have eluted through the tailings. It is also demonstrated that lixiviants significantly increase the solubility and rate of elution of all of the hazardous constituents.

  10. A Cross-Sectional Study of ‘Yaws’ in Districts of Ghana Which Have Previously Undertaken Azithromycin Mass Drug Administration for Trachoma Control

    PubMed Central

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W.; Bailey, Robin L.; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C. W.; Chen, Cheng-Yen

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5–17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes. PMID:25632942

  11. A cross-sectional study of 'yaws' in districts of Ghana which have previously undertaken azithromycin mass drug administration for trachoma control.

    PubMed

    Ghinai, Rosanna; El-Duah, Philip; Chi, Kai-Hua; Pillay, Allan; Solomon, Anthony W; Bailey, Robin L; Agana, Nsiire; Mabey, David C W; Chen, Cheng-Yen; Adu-Sarkodie, Yaw; Marks, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Yaws, caused by Treponema pallidum ssp. pertenue, is reportedly endemic in Ghana. Mass distribution of azithromycin is now the cornerstone of the WHO yaws eradication campaign. Mass distribution of azithromycin at a lower target dose was previously undertaken in two regions of Ghana for the control of trachoma. Ongoing reporting of yaws raises the possibility that resistance may have emerged in T. pallidum pertenue, or that alternative infections may be responsible for some of the reported cases. We conducted a cross-sectional survey in thirty communities in two districts of Ghana where MDA for trachoma had previously been conducted. Children aged 5-17 years with ulcerative lesions compatible with yaws were enrolled. Samples for treponemal serology and lesion PCR were collected from all children. 90 children with 98 lesions were enrolled. Syphilis serology was negative in all of them. PCR for T. pallidum ssp pertenue was negative in all children, but Haemophilus ducreyi DNA was detected in 9 lesions. In these communities, previously treated for trachoma, we found no evidence of ongoing transmission of yaws. H. ducreyi was associated with a proportion of skin lesions, but the majority of lesions remain unexplained. Integration of diagnostic testing into both pre and post-MDA surveillance systems is required to better inform yaws control programmes.

  12. Translational studies of goal-directed action as a framework for classifying deficits across psychiatric disorders

    PubMed Central

    Griffiths, Kristi R.; Morris, Richard W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    The ability to learn contingencies between actions and outcomes in a dynamic environment is critical for flexible, adaptive behavior. Goal-directed actions adapt to changes in action-outcome contingencies as well as to changes in the reward-value of the outcome. When networks involved in reward processing and contingency learning are maladaptive, this fundamental ability can be lost, with detrimental consequences for decision-making. Impaired decision-making is a core feature in a number of psychiatric disorders, ranging from depression to schizophrenia. The argument can be developed, therefore, that seemingly disparate symptoms across psychiatric disorders can be explained by dysfunction within common decision-making circuitry. From this perspective, gaining a better understanding of the neural processes involved in goal-directed action, will allow a comparison of deficits observed across traditional diagnostic boundaries within a unified theoretical framework. This review describes the key processes and neural circuits involved in goal-directed decision-making using evidence from animal studies and human neuroimaging. Select studies are discussed to outline what we currently know about causal judgments regarding actions and their consequences, action-related reward evaluation, and, most importantly, how these processes are integrated in goal-directed learning and performance. Finally, we look at how adaptive decision-making is impaired across a range of psychiatric disorders and how deepening our understanding of this circuitry may offer insights into phenotypes and more targeted interventions. PMID:24904322

  13. Motor Inhibition during Overt and Covert Actions: An Electrical Neuroimaging Study

    PubMed Central

    Angelini, Monica; Calbi, Marta; Ferrari, Annachiara; Sbriscia-Fioretti, Beatrice; Franca, Michele; Gallese, Vittorio; Umiltà, Maria Alessandra

    2015-01-01

    Given ample evidence for shared cortical structures involved in encoding actions, whether or not subsequently executed, a still unsolved problem is the identification of neural mechanisms of motor inhibition, preventing “covert actions” as motor imagery from being performed, in spite of the activation of the motor system. The principal aims of the present study were the evaluation of: 1) the presence in covert actions as motor imagery of putative motor inhibitory mechanisms; 2) their underlying cerebral sources; 3) their differences or similarities with respect to cerebral networks underpinning the inhibition of overt actions during a Go/NoGo task. For these purposes, we performed a high density EEG study evaluating the cerebral microstates and their related sources elicited during two types of Go/NoGo tasks, requiring the execution or withholding of an overt or a covert imagined action, respectively. Our results show for the first time the engagement during motor imagery of key nodes of a putative inhibitory network (including pre-supplementary motor area and right inferior frontal gyrus) partially overlapping with those activated for the inhibition of an overt action during the overt NoGo condition. At the same time, different patterns of temporal recruitment in these shared neural inhibitory substrates are shown, in accord with the intended overt or covert modality of action performance. The evidence that apparently divergent mechanisms such as controlled inhibition of overt actions and contingent automatic inhibition of covert actions do indeed share partially overlapping neural substrates, further challenges the rigid dichotomy between conscious, explicit, flexible and unconscious, implicit, inflexible forms of motor behavioral control. PMID:26000451

  14. Physiology and Endocrinology Symposium: FGF21: Insights into mechanism of action from preclinical studies.

    PubMed

    Antonellis, P J; Kharitonenkov, A; Adams, A C

    2014-02-01

    Fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) is a multifaceted metabolic regulator which has several potential applications in the treatment of metabolic disease. When administered in vivo, FGF21 exhibits a plethora of actions, modulating metabolic homeostasis in a diverse manner. However, the mechanism and site of action underlying these effects were, until recently, entirely uncertain. Using mouse models lacking either FGF receptor isoform 1 (FGFR1) or βKlotho (KLB), a transmembrane co-factor critical for FGF21 action, our group and others sought to determine the tissue on which FGF21 acts and the receptor complex responsible for mediating its in vivo efficacy. Importantly, when KLB was ablated from all tissues mice were completely refractory to FGF21 action. Therefore, to determine the precise tissue of action we utilized mice with tissue specific deletion of FGFR1 in either adipose tissue or neurons, respectively. Surprisingly, in animals with neuronal FGFR1 loss there was no change in the metabolic activity of FGF21, suggesting a lack of central FGF21 action in the pharmacologic setting. In contrast, we found dramatic attenuation of metabolic efficacy in mice with adipose-specific FGFR1 ablation following either acute or chronic dosing with recombinant FGF21. Furthermore, several recent studies have suggested that the metabolic effects of FGF21 may occur via modulation of adipokines such as adiponectin and leptin. Importantly, the action of FGF21 via adipose tissue results in alterations in both secretion as well as systemic sensitivity to these factors. Therefore, while FGF21 itself does not seem to directly act on the CNS, leptin and other endocrine mediators may serve as intermediary facilitators of FGF21's secondary central effects downstream of an initial and direct engagement of FGF21 receptor complex in adipose tissue. Further studies are required to delineate the precise mechanistic basis underlying the interplay between peripheral and central FGF21 modes of

  15. Action-effect bindings and ideomotor learning in intention- and stimulus-based actions.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Arvid; Waszak, Florian

    2012-01-01

    According to ideomotor theory, action-effect associations are crucial for voluntary action control. Recently, a number of studies started to investigate the conditions that mediate the acquisition and application of action-effect associations by comparing actions carried out in response to exogenous stimuli (stimulus-based) with actions selected endogenously (intention-based). There is evidence that the acquisition and/or application of action-effect associations is boosted when acting in an intention-based action mode. For instance, bidirectional action-effect associations were diagnosed in a forced choice test phase if participants previously experienced action-effect couplings in an intention-based but not in a stimulus-based action mode. The present study aims at investigating effects of the action mode on action-effect associations in more detail. In a series of experiments, we compared the strength and durability of short-term action-effect associations (binding) immediately following intention- as well as stimulus-based actions. Moreover, long-term action-effect associations (learning) were assessed in a subsequent test phase. Our results show short-term action-effect associations of equal strength and durability for both action modes. However, replicating previous results, long-term associations were observed only following intention-based actions. These findings indicate that the effect of the action mode on long-term associations cannot merely be a result of accumulated short-term action-effect bindings. Instead, only those episodic bindings are selectively perpetuated and retrieved that integrate action-relevant aspects of the processing event, i.e., in case of intention-based actions, the link between action and ensuing effect.

  16. Transforming Language Ideologies through Action Research: A Case Study of Bilingual Science Learning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Eunah

    This qualitative case study explored a third grade bilingual teacher's transformative language ideologies through participating in a collaborative action research project. By merging language ideologies theory, Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT), and action research, I was able to identify the analytic focus of this study. I analyzed how one teacher and I, the researcher, collaboratively reflected on classroom language practices during the video analysis meetings and focus groups. Further, I analyzed twelve videos that we coded together to see the changes in the teacher's language practices over time. My unit of analysis was the discourse practice mediated by additive language ideologies. Throughout the collaborative action research process, we both critically reflected on the classroom language use. We also developed a critical consciousness about the participatory shifts and learning of focal English Learner (EL) students. Finally, the teacher made changes to her classroom language practices. The results of this study will contribute to the literacy education research field for theoretical, methodological, and practical insights. The integration of language ideologies, CHAT, and action research can help educational practitioners, researchers, and policy makers understand the importance of transforming teachers' language ideologies in designing additive learning contexts for ELs. From a methodological perspective, the transformative language ideologies through researcher and teacher collaborated video analysis process provide a unique contribution to the language ideologies in education literature, with analytic triangulation. As a practical implication, this study suggests action research can be one of the teacher education tools to help the teachers transform language ideologies for EL education.

  17. Effects of calcium antagonists on central actions of ethanol: comparative studies with nifedipine, verapamil and cinnarizine.

    PubMed

    Czarnecka, E; Kubik-Bogucka, E

    1993-11-01

    The effects of nifedipine (17.5 and 50 mg/kg), verapamil (5 and 15 mg/kg) and cinnarizine (75 and 200 mg/kg) on acute toxicity and central actions of ethanol (i.e. ethanol-induced sleep and hypothermia, disturbances of rota-rod performance and spontaneous activity) were investigated in mice. Additionally, effects of these drugs on the development of tolerance to hypothermic and sleep-inducing action of ethanol were studied in rats. Calcium antagonists were given acutely 30 min before ethanol administration, or chronically once daily (lower dose) for 10 days, and on the 11th day the animals received an ethanol injection. Single doses of nifedipine increased the acute toxicity of ethanol and potentiated its central effects. After long-term administration of nifedipine no significant alterations in the central actions of ethanol were observed. Verapamil and cinnarizine antagonized the ethanol-induced sleep and impairment of locomotor activity. Nifedipine did not affect the development of tolerance to hypnotic and hypothermic action of ethanol. Verapamil prevents the development of tolerance to hypnotic action of ethanol, whereas cinnarizine prevents the development of tolerance to the hypnotic and hypothermic action of ethanol.

  18. The role of immediate and final goals in action planning: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Majdandzić, Jasminka; Grol, Meike J; van Schie, Hein T; Verhagen, Lennart; Toni, Ivan; Bekkering, Harold

    2007-08-15

    To interact effectively with our environment, we need to specify the intended outcomes (goals) of our actions. In this process, immediate goals and final goals can be regarded as different levels within a hierarchically organized system for action planning: immediate goals and movement details are selected to accomplish more remote goals. Behavioral studies support this notion of different levels of action planning, but the neurophysiological basis remains unclear. Using fMRI, we examined the neural correlates of preparing object manipulations based on either the desired end-state (the final goal) or the initial movement towards a target (the immediate goal). Subjects had to insert an object (consisting of a large and a small cube) into one of two corresponding large and small slots. The subjects were cued on either which slot to fill (Final Goal trials) or which object part to grasp (Immediate Goal trials). These actions required similar movements, but different planning. During Final Goal trials, there was differential preparatory activity along the superior frontal gyrus (bilaterally) and in left inferior parietal cortex. Immediate Goal trials evoked differential activity in occipito-parietal and occipito-temporal cortex. These findings support the notion that actions can be planned at different levels. We show that different fronto-parietal circuits plan the same action, by a relative emphasis on either selecting a sequence of movements to achieve a desired end-state, or selecting movements spatially compatible with given object properties.

  19. Cancer, Employment, and American Indians: A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Sharon R.; Finifrock, DeAnna; Marshall, Catherine A.; Jaakola, Julia; Setterquist, Janette; Burross, Heidi L.; Hodge, Felicia Schanche

    2011-01-01

    American Indian cancer survivors are an underserved and understudied group. In this pilot study we attempted to address, through participatory action research, missing information about those factors that serve to either facilitate employment or hinder it for adult cancer survivors. One task of the study was to develop and/or modify…

  20. Across the Curriculum: Hands-on Science [and] Math in Action [and] Social Studies Now.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    VanCleve, Janice; Burns, Marilyn; Lindquist, Tarry

    1997-01-01

    Three articles present elementary science, mathematics, and social studies activities. A hands-on science activity introduces students to microscopic water creatures. A math in action game has students build logic and number-sense skills. A social studies activity has students weave story cloths into conflict resolution. (SM)

  1. Understanding the Impact of Affirmative Action Bans in Different Graduate Fields of Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garces, Liliana M.

    2013-01-01

    This study examines the effects of affirmative action bans in four states (California, Florida, Texas, and Washington) on the enrollment of underrepresented students of color within six different graduate fields of study: the natural sciences, engineering, social sciences, business, education, and humanities. Findings show that affirmative action…

  2. Promoting Student Achievement: A Case Study of Change Actions Employed by an Urban School Superintendent

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bealer, David E.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the change strategies and actions taken by an urban district superintendent to improve student achievement. In a qualitative case study of a large urban school district, one research question and three subquestions focused on: 10 specific reform strategies to improve student achievement, how the quality and…

  3. Reconnecting with Your Passion: An Action Research Study Exploring Humanities and Professional Nursing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Snyder, Melissa J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was two-fold. The first purpose was to examine the process of how nurses engaged in a professional development program that drew upon reading and creative writing related to their lives and work as nurses. Secondly, this study examined the nurses' perspectives on how their involvement in the process…

  4. Kanbay's Global Leadership Development Program: A Case Study of Virtual Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsh, Catherine; Johnson, Carrie

    2005-01-01

    This study examines action learning as a vehicle for the transfer of organizational values in a multi-cultural, virtual-team based leadership development process. A Case Study of Kanbay International's Global Leadership Development Program is used as a lens through which HRD researchers and practitioners may glimpse new possibilities for the…

  5. Significant Life Experiences Affect Environmental Action: A Confirmation Study in Eastern Taiwan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsu, Shih-Jang

    2009-01-01

    Two field studies form the basis of this article. The major purposes of Study 1 were to examine significant life experiences affecting the cultivation of environmental activists in eastern Taiwan, and to reconstruct the life paths followed by those active people who engaged in effective environmental action. 40 usable autobiographical memories…

  6. A Change in Practice: A Case Study of Teacher Thinking-In-Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buswinka, Helen F.

    The case study presented in this paper describes the thinking-in-action of a first grade teacher who, within the natural setting of her classroom, was constructing a new way of teaching language arts by changing to a whole language approach. In contrast to traditional implementation models, this study highlights the constitutive nature of…

  7. A Study of Participatory Action Research as Professional Development for Educators in Areas of Educational Disadvantage

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, E. Alana

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents the final analysis of a mixed methodological study of participatory action research (PAR) as professional development. The participants were administrators and teachers studying extreme educational disadvantage caused by homeless and transient living conditions. Two questions are answered: 1. What was the experience of…

  8. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  9. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  10. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  11. The Coffee Challenge: a new method for the study of everyday action errors.

    PubMed

    Giovannetti, Tania; Schwartz, Myrna F; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2007-10-01

    Errors in everyday activities pose significant consequences for individuals with mild cognitive deficits. However, there are few performance-based methods available to study action in these populations; the Coffee Challenge (CC) was designed for this purpose. Experiment 1 examined CC performance in healthy participants across 10 practice trials. Analyses showed evidence for routinization after 10 trials. In Experiment 2, CC performance was disrupted by dividing attention. Errors increased significantly, but performance was not qualitatively different from baseline. The results shed light on action impairments in patient populations and validate the CC as a promising new tool for future studies.

  12. Neural Action Fields for Optic Flow Based Navigation: A Simulation Study of the Fly Lobula Plate Network

    PubMed Central

    Borst, Alexander; Weber, Franz

    2011-01-01

    Optic flow based navigation is a fundamental way of visual course control described in many different species including man. In the fly, an essential part of optic flow analysis is performed in the lobula plate, a retinotopic map of motion in the environment. There, the so-called lobula plate tangential cells possess large receptive fields with different preferred directions in different parts of the visual field. Previous studies demonstrated an extensive connectivity between different tangential cells, providing, in principle, the structural basis for their large and complex receptive fields. We present a network simulation of the tangential cells, comprising most of the neurons studied so far (22 on each hemisphere) with all the known connectivity between them. On their dendrite, model neurons receive input from a retinotopic array of Reichardt-type motion detectors. Model neurons exhibit receptive fields much like their natural counterparts, demonstrating that the connectivity between the lobula plate tangential cells indeed can account for their complex receptive field structure. We describe the tuning of a model neuron to particular types of ego-motion (rotation as well as translation around/along a given body axis) by its ‘action field’. As we show for model neurons of the vertical system (VS-cells), each of them displays a different type of action field, i.e., responds maximally when the fly is rotating around a particular body axis. However, the tuning width of the rotational action fields is relatively broad, comparable to the one with dendritic input only. The additional intra-lobula-plate connectivity mainly reduces their translational action field amplitude, i.e., their sensitivity to translational movements along any body axis of the fly. PMID:21305019

  13. A Participatory Action Research Study of Nature Education in Nature: Towards Community-Based Eco-Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eryaman, Mustafa Yunus; Yalcin-Ozdilek, Sukran; Okur, Emel; Cetinkaya, Zeynep; Uygun, Selcuk

    2010-01-01

    Contemporary nature education is exploring different ways to develop awareness for change and initiate action. Such educational activities go beyond creating understanding and awareness in order to develop a sense of commitment for individual and collective action. This participatory action research study aimed to improve teachers' sensitiveness…

  14. A RAPD based study revealing a previously unreported wide range of mesophilic and thermophilic spore formers associated with milk powders in China.

    PubMed

    Sadiq, Faizan A; Li, Yun; Liu, TongJie; Flint, Steve; Zhang, Guohua; He, GuoQing

    2016-01-18

    Aerobic spore forming bacteria are potential milk powder contaminants and are viewed as indicators of poor quality. A total of 738 bacteria, including both mesophilic and thermophilic, isolated from twenty-five powdered milk samples representative of three types of milk powders in China were analyzed based on the random amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) protocol to provide insight into species diversity. Bacillus licheniformis was found to be the most prevalent bacterium with greatest diversity (~43% of the total isolates) followed by Geobacillus stearothermophilus (~21% of the total isolates). Anoxybacillus flavithermus represented only 8.5% of the total profiles. Interestingly, actinomycetes represented a major group of the isolates with the predominance of Laceyella sacchari followed by Thermoactinomyces vulgaris, altogether comprising of 7.3% of the total isolates. Out of the nineteen separate bacterial species (except five unidentified groups) recovered and identified from milk powders, twelve proved to belong to novel or previously unreported species in milk powders. Assessment and characterization of the harmful effects caused by this particular micro-flora on the quality and safety of milk powders will be worth doing in the future.

  15. Prognostic factors in multiple myeloma: definition of risk groups in 410 previously untreated patients: a Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda study.

    PubMed

    Corrado, C; Santarelli, M T; Pavlovsky, S; Pizzolato, M

    1989-12-01

    Four hundred ten previously untreated multiple myeloma patients entered onto two consecutive Grupo Argentino de Tratamiento de la Leucemia Aguda (GATLA) protocols were analyzed to identify significant prognostic factors influencing survival. The univariate analysis selected the following variables: performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells at diagnosis, hemoglobin, and age. A multivariate analysis showed that performance status, renal function, percentage of bone marrow plasma cells, hemoglobin, and age were the best predictive variables for survival. A score was assigned to each patient according to these variables, which led to their classification in three groups: good, intermediate, and poor risk, with a probability of survival of 26% and 10% at 96 months, and 5% at 56 months, and median survival of 60, 37, and 14 months, respectively (P = .0000). In our patient population, this model proved to be superior to the Durie-Salmon staging system in defining prognostic risk groups, and separating patients with significantly different risks within each Durie-Salmon stage.

  16. Phase II study of alemtuzumab-rituximab therapy in previously untreated patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia: short- and long-term outcomes.

    PubMed

    Frankfurt, Olga; Ma, Shuo; Gordon, Leo; Winter, Jane N; Horowitz, Jeanne M; Rademaker, Alfred; Weitner, Bing Bing; Peterson, LoAnn C; Altman, Jessica K; Tallman, Martin S; Petrich, Adam; Rosen, Steven T

    2015-02-01

    We investigated the safety, efficacy, and long-term outcomes of alemtuzumab and rituximab (AR) combination therapy in previously untreated patients with CLL. Thirty patients, ages 28-80 years, 47% older than 60 years, 90% Rai clinical stages II-IV, and 67% without favorable cytogenetics received AR. Based on the NCI-WG 1996 criteria, OR was 100%, with 60% CR. With CT scans OR was 70%, with 23% CR, 47% PR, and 30% SD. Sixty-seven percent of patients showed no evidence of MRD in the bone marrow by 6-color flow cytometry. Median PFS, TFS, and 5-year OS were 24.4, 50.7 months, and 80%, respectively. Grade 3/4 neutropenia and thrombocytopenia were reported in 30% and 7% of patients, respectively. CMV reactivation, asymptomatic in all but one patient, occurred in 8 patients. Immunotherapy with alemtuzumab and rituximab results in robust responses and long asymptomatic therapy-free intervals. It is well tolerated with infrequent, predictable, and easily managed complications.

  17. Cellular uncoupling can unmask dispersion of action potential duration in ventricular myocardium. A computer modeling study.

    PubMed

    Lesh, M D; Pring, M; Spear, J F

    1989-11-01

    Although slow conduction is a requirement for the preparation of sustained reentry, it alone is not sufficient for the initiation of reentry. Additionally, unidirectional block and recovery of excitability distal to the site of block must occur. Thus, a comprehensive description of the electrophysiological determinants of reentry must explain both slow conduction and unidirectional block. Although there is a growing body of research exploring the influence of axial resistivity and anisotropy on slow conduction, somewhat less is known about the relation of axial resistivity to spatial dispersion of action potential duration, a condition favorable to the development of unidirectional block. We hypothesized that when cells are well coupled, local differences in intrinsic action potential duration are not evident and that, as axial resistivity increases, local variation in action potential duration becomes manifest. We tested this hypothesis in a numerical model of electrical propagation in a grid of resistively coupled ionic current sources simulating a sheet of ventricular myocardium. Spatial dispersion of intrinsic action potential duration was simulated by varying the magnitude of the fully activated slow inward conductance in Beeler-Reuter membrane ionic kinetics. By then altering coupling resistance, we showed that dispersion of manifest action potential duration is masked in the setting of normal low-resistance cellular coupling and unmasked by increased axial resistance. When nonuniform anisotropy was simulated, dramatic pacing-site-dependent changes in both the pattern of activation and dispersion of action potential duration were noted. These findings may be important in understanding the mechanism of reentrant tachycardia initiation in the border zone of chronic, healed myocardial infarctions where evidence suggests that abnormal cellular coupling is the predominant electrophysiological derangement. In this study, we have shown, using a detailed ionic

  18. No Previous Public Services Required

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Kelley R.

    2009-01-01

    In 2007, the Supreme Court heard a case that involved the question of whether a school district could be required to reimburse parents who unilaterally placed their child in private school when the child had not previously received special education and related services in a public institution ("Board of Education v. Tom F."). The…

  19. Prospective monitoring and self-report of previous falls among older women at high risk of falls and fractures: a study of comparison and agreement

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, Patrícia A.; Dias, João M. D.; Silva, Silvia L. A.; Dias, Rosângela C.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The identification of the occurrence of falls is an important step for screening and for rehabilitation processes for the elderly. The methods of monitoring these events are susceptible to recording biases, and the choice of the most accurate method remains challenging. Objectives: (i) To investigate the agreement between retrospective self-reporting and prospective monitoring of methods of recording falls, and (ii) to compare the retrospective self-reporting of falls and the prospective monitoring of falls and recurrent falls over a 12-month period among older women at high risk of falls and fractures. Method: A total of 118 community-dwelling older women with low bone density were recruited. The incidence of falls was monitored prospectively in 116 older women (2 losses) via monthly phone calls over the course of a year. At the end of this monitoring period, the older women were asked about their recall of falls in the same 12-month period. The agreement between the two methods was analyzed, and the sensitivity and specificity of self-reported previous falls in relation to the prospective monitoring were calculated. Results: There was moderate agreement between the prospective monitoring and the retrospective self-reporting of falls in classifying fallers (Kappa=0.595) and recurrent fallers (Kappa=0.589). The limits of agreement were 0.35±1.66 falls. The self-reporting of prior falls had a 67.2% sensitivity and a 94.2% specificity in classifying fallers among older women and a 50% sensitivity and a 98.9% specificity in classifying recurrent fallers. Conclusion: Self-reporting of falls over a 12-month period underestimated 32.8% of falls and 50% of recurrent falls. The findings recommend caution if one is considering replacing monthly monitoring with annual retrospective questioning. PMID:26083603

  20. Regulators of Androgen Action Resource: a one-stop shop for the comprehensive study of androgen receptor action.

    PubMed

    DePriest, Adam D; Fiandalo, Michael V; Schlanger, Simon; Heemers, Frederike; Mohler, James L; Liu, Song; Heemers, Hannelore V

    2016-01-01

    Androgen receptor (AR) is a ligand-activated transcription factor that is the main target for treatment of non-organ-confined prostate cancer (CaP). Failure of life-prolonging AR-targeting androgen deprivation therapy is due to flexibility in steroidogenic pathways that control intracrine androgen levels and variability in the AR transcriptional output. Androgen biosynthesis enzymes, androgen transporters and AR-associated coregulators are attractive novel CaP treatment targets. These proteins, however, are characterized by multiple transcript variants and isoforms, are subject to genomic alterations, and are differentially expressed among CaPs. Determining their therapeutic potential requires evaluation of extensive, diverse datasets that are dispersed over multiple databases, websites and literature reports. Mining and integrating these datasets are cumbersome, time-consuming tasks and provide only snapshots of relevant information. To overcome this impediment to effective, efficient study of AR and potential drug targets, we developed the Regulators of Androgen Action Resource (RAAR), a non-redundant, curated and user-friendly searchable web interface. RAAR centralizes information on gene function, clinical relevance, and resources for 55 genes that encode proteins involved in biosynthesis, metabolism and transport of androgens and for 274 AR-associated coregulator genes. Data in RAAR are organized in two levels: (i) Information pertaining to production of androgens is contained in a 'pre-receptor level' database, and coregulator gene information is provided in a 'post-receptor level' database, and (ii) an 'other resources' database contains links to additional databases that are complementary to and useful to pursue further the information provided in RAAR. For each of its 329 entries, RAAR provides access to more than 20 well-curated publicly available databases, and thus, access to thousands of data points. Hyperlinks provide direct access to gene

  1. Simulation during observation of human actions--theories, empirical studies, applications.

    PubMed

    Zentgraf, Karen; Munzert, Jörn; Bischoff, Matthias; Newman-Norlund, Roger D

    2011-04-22

    Historically, data from brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have supported the idea that the processing of observed actions recruits - among other areas - a distinct sub-set of brain sites in the sensory and motor cortices. These empirical findings have initially been linked with the thesis of direct matching as a mechanism of action understanding, i.e., the idea of motor resonance implemented by mirror neurons. In more recent approaches, it has been proposed that the mirror neuron system plays a role in minimizing prediction error when inferring the most likely cause of an observed action. According to these theories, motor resonance is thought to function as predictive coding. Other theoretical accounts suggest that action understanding might result from a hypothesis testing mechanism in which potential goals are continually fed into the system until the correct one is identified. In this review, we will explore the relationship of these theories to specific empirical findings. Finally, we will discuss the implications of these theoretical structures on action observation-based approaches to the optimization of skilled performance in athletes and patients.

  2. Bridging the gap between knowledge and action for health: Case studies.

    PubMed Central

    Thamlikitkul, Visanu

    2006-01-01

    Biomedical discoveries could improve people's health only if they are suited to the diverse political and social contexts, health systems and population groups. Knowledge generated through evidence-informed health policy and practice when applied to the local situation enhances the quality and efficiency of health care. This article describes four case studies on bridging the gap between knowledge and action for health in a tertiary care hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. Gaps between knowledge and action for health are classified into "know-do" and "do-know" gaps with knowledge implementation and knowledge generation being the key measures for bridging the gap. PMID:16917646

  3. Final Corrective Action Study for the Former CCC/USDA Facility in Hanover, Kansas

    SciTech Connect

    LaFreniere, Lorraine M.

    2013-11-01

    Low concentrations of carbon tetrachloride in groundwater and vapor intrusion into a limited number of residences (attributable to the contaminant concentrations in groundwater) have been identified in Hanover, Kansas, at and near a grain storage facility formerly leased and operated by the Commodity Credit Corporation of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (CCC/USDA). At the request of the Kansas Department of Health and Environment (KDHE 2009h), the CCC/USDA has prepared this Corrective Action Study (CAS) for the facility. The CAS examines corrective actions to address the contamination in groundwater and soil vapor.

  4. The Environmental Action and Philosophy Matrix: An Exploratory Study of the Environmental Attitudes of Recreation Management and Environmental Studies Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schultz, Jeremy R.; Simpson, Steven; Elfessi, Abdulaziz M.

    2011-01-01

    This study is a comparative analysis of the environmental philosophies of college undergraduates enrolled in a Midwestern university. Two courses were used for the research, one from a recreation management curriculum and the other from environmental studies. The study utilized a survey instrument called the Environmental Action and Philosophy…

  5. The association between protective actions and homicide risk: findings from the Oklahoma Lethality Assessment Study.

    PubMed

    Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Brown, Sheryll; Patchell, Beverly; Androff, David K; Wilson, Janet Sullivan

    2014-01-01

    This study focuses on the relationship between women's risk of homicide as measured by the Danger Assessment and 13 protective actions. Participants (N = 432) experienced an incident of police involved intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequently completed a structured telephone interview. Most women in this sample experienced severe violence and were classified as being at high risk for homicide. Participants engaged in an average of 3.81 (SD = 2.73) protective actions. With the exception of the use of formal domestic violence services, women in the high-risk category were significantly more likely than women in the lower risk category to have used each of the protective actions examined. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  6. Exploring a Science Teacher's Uncertainty with Integrating Engineering Design: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Capobianco, Brenda M.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines a fifth grade science teacher's attempts at integrating engineering design using the construct of uncertainty. Collaborative action research served as a supportive mechanism to uncover and confront the teacher's uncertainties. Data were gathered through semi-structured interviews, reflections, classroom observations, lesson…

  7. Using Images to Promote Reflection: An Action Research Study in Zambia and Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miles, Susie; Kaplan, Ian

    2005-01-01

    This paper focuses on the use of images to promote reflection and analysis of inclusive practices. The image-based work was set in the context of a two-year action research study, which took place in Tanzania and Zambia, 2001-2003, in collaboration with researchers from the Enabling Education Network (EENET), based at the University of…

  8. Building the Relations of New and Veteran Teachers to Address Retention: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, John-Bernard

    2016-01-01

    This dissertation analyzed the factors that affected the retention of new teachers in the United States. This action research study was conducted utilizing qualitative data. Qualitative methods were relied upon to investigate perspectives from new and veteran teachers. It was proposed that teachers left the profession due to opportunity cost…

  9. Education as Sustainability: An Action Research Study of the Burns Model of Sustainability Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Heather

    2009-01-01

    Postsecondary teaching and learning must be reoriented to equip learners with the knowledge, skills, and values they will need for creating a more sustainable world. This action research study examined the effects of implementing the "Burns model of sustainability pedagogy" in university courses taught by the researcher. This model is comprised of…

  10. Training and Work Organisation: An Action-Research Study in a Sales and Distribution Company

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernardes, Alda Cristina; Lopes, Albino Pedro

    2005-01-01

    This study seeks to define a method of designing work-linked training, based on day-to-day work practices and the collaboration between all those involved. From diagnosis to evaluation, no training is designed or given without considering the opinions and interests of the parties involved. The method used is based on action research (AR) and on…

  11. Habitual vs non-habitual manual actions: an ERP study on overt movement execution.

    PubMed

    Westerholz, Jan; Schack, Thomas; Schütz, Christoph; Koester, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the neurophysiological mechanisms underlying the planning and execution of an overt goal-related handle rotation task. More specifically, we studied the neural basis of motor actions concerning the influence of the grasp choice. The aim of the present study was to differentiate cerebral activity between grips executed in a habitual and a non-habitual mode, and between specified and free grip choices. To our knowledge, this is the first study to differentiate cerebral activity underlying overt goal-related actions executed with a focus on the habitual mode. In a handle rotation task, participants had to use thumb-toward (habitual) or thumb-away (non-habitual) grips to rotate a handle to a given target position. Reaction and reach times were shorter for the habitual compared to the non-habitual mode indicating that the habitual mode requires less cognitive processing effort than the non-habitual mode. Neural processes for action execution (measured by event-related potentials (ERPs)) differed between habitual and non-habitual conditions. We found differential activity between habitual and non-habitual conditions in left and right frontal areas from -600 to 200 ms time-locked to reaching the target position. No differential neural activity could be traced for the specification of the grip. The results suggested that the frontal negativity reflected increased difficulty in movement precision control in the non-habitual mode compared to the habitual mode during the homing in phase of grasp and rotation actions.

  12. The Treatment of Maladaptive Shame in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Pilot Study of "Opposite Action"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rizvi, Shireen L.; Linehan, Marsha M.

    2005-01-01

    This study sought to pilot test a short-term intervention for maladaptive shame in borderline personality disorder (BPD) based on the skill of "opposite action" from dialectical behavior therapy. Five women with BPD were treated with the intervention using a single-subject, multiple-baseline design. Results indicate that, although state ratings of…

  13. Task-Based Language Learning and Teaching: An Action-Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Calvert, Megan; Sheen, Younghee

    2015-01-01

    The creation, implementation, and evaluation of language learning tasks remain a challenge for many teachers, especially those with limited experience with using tasks in their teaching. This action-research study reports on one teacher's experience of developing, implementing, critically reflecting on, and modifying a language learning task…

  14. An Evaluation of Professional Development to Improve Teachers' Perspectives and Behaviors: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beckford-Young, Paulette Vivienne

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this action research study was to conduct a professional development activity to provide content-area teachers with academic vocabulary strategies to be implemented during instruction on a daily basis. Professional development is essential for teachers to gain new knowledge and skills in order to hone their craft to improve student…

  15. Integrating Critical Thinking Instruction and Assessment into Online University Courses: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason Heinrichs, Kim R.

    2016-01-01

    Universities claim that improved critical thinking ability is an educational outcome for their graduates, but they seldom create a path for students to achieve that outcome. In this practitioner action research study, the author created a job aid, entitled "Critical Thinking as a Differentiator for Distinguished Performance," to help…

  16. An Action Research Study Designed to Implement Student Negotiation to Improve Speaking Classroom Practice in Turkey

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uztosun, Mehmet Sercan; Skinner, Nigel; Cadorath, Jill

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports the second stage of an action research study designed to improve the effectiveness of speaking classes through negotiating the lesson contents with students. The data were collected through interviews, questionnaires and observations as a way of eliciting students' views. The research, conducted in an English language teaching…

  17. A Community Organizes for Action: A Case Study of the Mon-Yough Region in Pennsylvania.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Robert W.; Chesler, Herbert A.

    This case study examines the development and problems of the Mon-Yough Community Action Committee, Inc. (MYCAC), one of the local anti-poverty agencies in Allegheny County, Pennsylvania. The agency's major effort is to overcome problems created by the decline of the local steel industry by supporting existing welfare agencies, and through such…

  18. Implementing an Action Research Project: A Case Study in Making Decisions and Managing Challenges

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the challenges involved in implementing an action research project. It discusses a project which uses a series of interventions (unfreezing techniques, cases studies in conjunction with analogical encoding and lecturer input) to encourage students to critically reflect on their approach to career decision-making. This paper…

  19. A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study of Community Mural Making and Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossetto, Erica

    2012-01-01

    Through a hermeneutic phenomenological study of interview data from 8 community artists, the author sought to discover commonalities and differences in the worldviews and philosophies of self that underlie community mural making as they relate to art therapy as social action and art therapy practice within a traditional Western cultural framework.…

  20. An Action Research Study on the Effect of Interactive Technology and Active Learning on Student Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bear, Teresa J.

    2013-01-01

    This quantitative action science research study utilized a causal-comparative experimental research design in order to determine if the use of student response systems (clickers), as an active learning strategy in a community college course, improved student performance in the course. Students in the experimental group (n = 26) used clickers to…

  1. An Action Research Study of Student Self-Assessment in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walser, Tamara M.

    2009-01-01

    Although student self-assessment is considered a critical component of assessment for learning, its use and related research are rare in higher education. This article describes an action research study of self-assessment as an instructional strategy in two university courses. Results indicate that self-assessment exercises provided students the…

  2. Service Learning Experience and Undergraduate Leadership Behaviors: An Action Research Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kenary, Judy

    2010-01-01

    Service-learning has been shown to be an effective practice that positively affects students' academic achievement, self-esteem, and problem-solving skills (Billig, 2002; Eyler & Giles, 1999; Wilczenski & Coomey, 2007). This mixed-method action research case study was conducted to explore the possible link between service-learning…

  3. An Intervention to Increase the Use of Asthma Action Plans in Schools: A MASNRN Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulcini, Joyce; DeSisto, Marie C.; McIntyre, C. Lynne

    2007-01-01

    School nurses, in collaboration with primary care providers (PCPs), can work to better manage asthma by using the Asthma Action Plan (AAP) with peak flow monitoring. The aim of this pilot study was to determine the effectiveness of an intervention to increase the number of AAPs in schools for students with asthma by having school nurses provide…

  4. An Action Research Study in an Icelandic Preschool: Developing Consensus about Values and Values Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sigurdardottir, Ingibjorg; Einarsdottir, Johanna

    2016-01-01

    Values education is embedded in the curricula of all the Nordic countries. However, values education remains a neglected area for research and practice in early childhood education and care. This article reports on the aspects of an action research project conducted in a preschool in Iceland, across a period of 18 months. The study focused on the…

  5. Scientist-Teacher Partnerships as Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willcuts, Meredith Harris

    2009-01-01

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership…

  6. Reflective Practice and Motion Sickness: Thoughts on the First North American Action Research Study Day

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowell, Lonnie; Inoue, Noriyuki; Getz, Cheryl

    2014-01-01

    This paper examines the experience of an action research "Study Day" to investigate development of a culture of reflective practice among educators. Shared recognition of the importance of reflective practice in education is now a well-established part of both pre-service preparation and in-service work experience for educators. Osterman…

  7. Learning How to Manage Bias: A Case Study of Youth Participatory Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirshner, Ben; Pozzoboni, Kristen; Jones, Hannah

    2011-01-01

    Youth programs that are organized around intellectually challenging, socially relevant projects create opportunities for deep cognitive engagement. One type of authentic project that deserves attention from applied developmental scientists is youth participatory action research (YPAR), in which participants study a problem relevant to young…

  8. Characterizing Teaching Effectiveness in the Joint Action Theory in Didactics: An Exploratory Study in Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sensevy, Gérard

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an exploratory study of two consecutive reading sessions conducted in primary school by two different teachers. Our purpose is twofold. From a theoretical viewpoint, we propose a tentative set of conditions of teaching effectiveness by relying on the Joint Action Theory in Didactics. From a methodological viewpoint, drawing on…

  9. Seeking New Ways of Living Community in the Classroom and the World: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Anne

    2012-01-01

    Action research is a method of examining one's own practice through reflection and critical self-study. In this paper, the author considers her experience teaching a two-day lesson on connections and relationships in William Forsythe's dance "One Flat Thing, reproduced" (2000) and the accompanying website, Synchronous Objects. The author reviews…

  10. Interdisciplinary Literacy through Social Media in the Mathematics Classroom: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    This article looks at how social and participatory media can be used to strengthen interdisciplinary literacy and connects the multimodality of social environments with Middle-Years Mathematics curriculum and delivery. The article reports on part of an eighteen months action research study in an Australian public high school within the author's…

  11. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs through Collaborative Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmae, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory…

  12. Human Securitability: A Participatory Action Research Study Involving Novice Teachers and Youngsters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kravale-Paulina, Marite; Olehnovica, Eridiana

    2015-01-01

    Civic participation, initiative and interest in current events can bridge the alienation felt towards national and municipal institutions, thereby enabling individuals to improve their quality of life and contribute to all-round sustainable development of their resident state. This paper reports on a participatory action research study into civic…

  13. In-Service Teacher Training and Coaching on Marzano's Instructional Strategies: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Shenequa C.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this action research study was the implementation of a professional development initiative comprised of two phases: a training program for teachers on Marzano's nine research-based instructional strategies, and the implementation, supported by follow-up coaching, during "Pear Mountain" High School's (a pseudonym) six-week…

  14. Applying the Participatory Action Research Model to the Study of Social Inclusion at Worksites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyun-Sook; Gonsier-Gerdin, Jean; Hoffman, Stacey; Whaley, Susan; Yount, Michael

    1998-01-01

    A study used participatory action research (PAR) to explore social inclusion/relationships at worksites of 10 students (ages 17-21). The participatory intervention process assisted teachers and job coaches in making constructive changes in transition work experience programs to provide social opportunities for students and help them become part of…

  15. We Did It Together: A Participatory Action Research Study on Poverty and Disability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buettgen, Alexis; Richardson, Jason; Beckham, Kristie; Richardson, Kathy; Ward, Michelle; Riemer, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    This article presents the perspective of both non-disabled and developmentally disabled people working together in a research project on poverty and disability. Our study used a participatory action research approach that challenges the norm of exclusion in the research process. Control of the research agenda has been inclusive and shared to…

  16. Web 2.0 and Language Learners' Motivation: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anwaruddin, Sardar M.

    2013-01-01

    Based on the observation that most of my students use computer-based technology (CBT) in their daily activities, I used computer assisted language learning (CALL) as an intervention in this action research study, carried out at a university in Bangladesh. This CALL curriculum was focused on Web 2.0 and its applications for educational purposes.…

  17. An Action Research Study: Using Classroom Guidance Lessons to Teach Middle School Students about Sexual Harassment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Rebecca C.

    2006-01-01

    This article describes a three-part classroom guidance lesson that teaches middle school students the definition of sexual harassment, the difference between flirting and sexual harassment, and the harmful effects of sexual harassment. An action research study evaluated the effectiveness of the lessons in decreasing referrals for sexual harassment…

  18. A case study of the development of environmental action projects from the framework of participatory action research within two middle school classrooms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charmatz, Kim

    The purpose of this study was to understand student and teacher empowerment through a socially critical environmental education perspective. The main research question guiding this study was: How do participants make sense of a learning experience in which students design and carry out an environmental action project in their community? This study used participatory action research and critical theory as practical and theoretical frameworks. These frameworks were relevant as this study sought to examine social change, power, and relationships through participants' experiences. The context of this study was within one seventh and one eighth grade classroom participating in environmental projects. The study was conducted in spring 2005 with an additional follow-up data collection period during spring 2006. The school was located in a densely populated metropolitan suburb. Fifty-three students, a teacher researcher, and three science teachers participated. Data sources were written surveys, scores on Middle School Environmental Literacy Survey Instrument (MSELI), observations, interviews, and student work. This study used a mixed methodological approach. Quantitative data analysis involved dependent samples t-test scores on the MSELI before and after the completion of the projects. Qualitative data were analyzed using an inductive analysis approach. This study has implications for educators interested in democratic education. Environmental action projects provide a context for students and teachers to learn interdisciplinary content knowledge, develop personal beliefs, and learn ways to take action in their communities. This pedagogy has the potential to increase cooperation, communication, and tensions within school communities. Students' participation in the development of environmental action projects may lead to feelings of empowerment or being able to make a difference in their community, as an individual or member of a group. Future research is needed to discern

  19. A Pilot Study of Botulinum Toxin for Jerky, Position-Specific, Upper Limb Action Tremor

    PubMed Central

    Saifee, Tabish A.; Teodoro, Tiago; Erro, Roberto; Edwards, Mark J.; Cordivari, Carla

    2016-01-01

    Background We aimed to investigate the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin (BT) injections for jerky action tremor of the upper limb. Methods We performed an uncontrolled, prospective study of electromyography (EMG)-guided BT injections for jerky, position-specific, upper limb action tremor. The primary outcome was clinical global impression at 3–6 weeks after baseline. Results Eight patients with jerky, position-specific action tremor involving the upper limb were consecutively recruited. After a median follow-up of 4.4 weeks (interquartile range [IQR] 3.6–6 weeks), four of them rated themselves as “improved” and two as “much improved.” Five of these six subjects reported improvements in specific activities of daily living (bringing liquids to mouth, feeding, shaving, and dressing). Upper limb subscore of the Fahn–Tolosa–Marin Tremor Rating Scale (FTM) significantly decreased from 4.5 (4–6) to 3 (2–5) (p = 0.01). Discussion This pilot, prospective cohort study suggests that EMG-guided BT injections may improve jerky, position-specific, upper limb action tremor. Placebo-controlled studies evaluating larger samples of patients are warranted to confirm these findings. PMID:27818844

  20. Risk factors for fatal and non-fatal child maltreatment in families previously investigated by CPS: A case-control study.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Sheridan; Romano, Patrick S; Putnam-Hornstein, Emily; Thurston, Holly; Dharmar, Madan; Joseph, Jill G

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to identify individual, family and caregiver risk factors for serious child maltreatment, resulting in hospitalization or death, among children and families investigated by Child Protective Services (CPS). We conducted a matched case-control study of 234 children who sustained fatal or serious nonfatal maltreatment due to physical abuse or neglect and whose mother was named in a CPS investigation between 1999 and 2013. A total of 702 children and their caregivers were included in the study with 234 cases matched 2:1,resulting in 468 controls. Data on potential risk factors were abstracted from three county administrative databases. Differences between cases and controls were calculated and multivariable conditional logistic regression was used to estimate risk models. Variables associated with increased risk for serious maltreatment included male child gender,younger caregivers, three or more children under the age of 5 living in the home, families in which a biologic child was not living with either parent, and scoring moderate or high on the Structured Decision Making Risk Tool(®). Caregiver involvement in intimate partner violence (IPV) and child enrollment in public health insurance appears to mitigate the risk of serious maltreatment.

  1. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis.

    PubMed

    Kaliner, Michael A; Baraniuk, James N; Benninger, Michael S; Bernstein, Jonathan A; Lieberman, Phil; Meltzer, Eli O; Naclerio, Robert M; Settipane, Russell A; Farrar, Judith R

    2009-08-15

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise.

  2. Studies on the mechanisms of action of the herbicide safener CGA-92194

    SciTech Connect

    Zama, P.

    1986-01-01

    CGA-92194 is a herbicide safener that is used as a seed dressing agent to protect grain sorghum against metolachlor injury. The potential adverse phytotoxic effects and the mechanisms of the protective action of this safener were studied in laboratory experiments. Adverse phytotoxicity was assessed by comparing CGA-92194 and the herbicide safeners cyometrinil and flurazole for their effects on CO/sub 2/ fixation, protein, DNA, RNA and lipid synthesis of enzymatically isolated leaf cells of soybean. The safening action mechanisms of CGA-92194 were studied by examining the potential interactions of this safener with metolachlor at the levels of uptake and macromolecular syntheses in enzymatically isolated leaf mesophyll protoplasts of grain sorghum. When CGA-92194 and metolachlor were given simultaneously, CGA-92194 enhanced /sup 14/C-metolachlor uptake into the sorghum protoplasts in a concentration-dependent pattern. Treatments with metolachlor and CGA-92194 in combination inhibited the incorporation of /sup 14/C-uracil, /sup 3/H-thymidine and /sup 14/C-acetate into sorghum protoplast macromolecules less than metolachlor given alone, suggesting the potential involvement of a competitive antagonism in CGA-92194 mechanism of action. The metabolic activity and growth of sorghum seedlings grown from CGA-92194-pretreated seeds were lower than that of seedlings grown from untreated seeds at 10 or 20 days after planting. These results indicate that a safener-induced stimulation of the spontaneous or enzymatic conjugation of metolachlor with GSH is most likely involved in CGA-92194 protective action.

  3. Micro grants as a stimulus for community action in residential health programmes: a case study.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, M; Plochg, T; Harting, J; Klazinga, N S; Stronks, K

    2009-09-01

    This paper aimed to explore the contribution of a micro grant financing scheme to community action in terms of residential health-promoting initiatives, interorganizational collaboration and public participation. The scheme was two-fold, consisting of (i) micro grants of 500-3500 Euros, which were easily obtainable by local organizations and (ii) neighbourhood health panels of community and health workers, functioning as a distributing mechanism. Data were collected using three methods: (i) observations of the neighbourhood-based health panels, (ii) in-depth interviews with policy-makers and professionals and (iii) analyses of documents and reports. This study demonstrated the three-fold role of micro grants as a vehicle to enable community action at an organizational level in terms of increased network activities between the local organizations, to set an agenda for the 'health topic' in non-traditional health agencies and to enable a number of health-promoting initiatives. Although these initiatives were attended by small groups of residents normally considered hard to reach, the actual public participation was limited. In their role as a distributing mechanism, the health panels were vital with regard to the achieved impact on the community action. However, certain limitations were also seen, which were related to the governance of the panels. This case study provides evidence to suggest that micro grants have the potential to stimulate community action at an organizational and a residential level, but with the prerequisite that grants be accompanied by increased investments in infrastructure.

  4. A Case Study Examining Change in Teacher Beliefs Through Collaborative Action Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vaino, Katrin; Holbrook, Jack; Rannikmäe, Miia

    2013-01-01

    The main goal of this study was to explore the role of collaborative action research in eliciting change in teacher beliefs. The beliefs were those of five chemistry teachers in implementing a new teaching approach, geared to enhancing students' scientific and technological literacy (STL). The teacher beliefs were analysed based on Ajzen's Theory of Planned Behaviour (2005) by looking at the teacher's (a) attitude towards implementing STL modules, (b) perceived subjective norms, and (c) behavioural control regarding the new teaching approach. After an introductory year, when teachers familiarised themselves with the new approach, a collaborative action research project was initiated in the second year of the study, helping teachers to minimise or overcome initially perceived constraints when implementing STL modules in their classroom. The processes of teacher change and the course of the project were investigated by teacher interviews, teacher informal commentaries, and meeting records. The formation of positive beliefs towards a STL approach increased continuously, although its extent and character varied depending on the teacher. The close cooperation, in the format of collaborative action research and especially through teacher group reflections and perceived collegial support, did support teacher professional development including change in their beliefs towards the new teaching approach. Additionally, positive feedback gained from other teachers through running a two-day in-service course in year three helped to strengthen all five teachers' existing beliefs towards the new approach. The current research demonstrated that perceived constraints, where identified, can be meaningfully addressed by teachers, through undertaking collaborative action research.

  5. Consensus Description of Inclusion and Exclusion Criteria for Clinical Studies of Nonallergic Rhinopathy (NAR), Previously Referred to as Vasomotor Rhinitis (VMR), Nonallergic Rhinitis, and/or Idiopathic Rhinitis

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    "Nonallergic rhinopathy" was defined by consensus at a Roundtable conference in December 2008 as "a chronic nasal condition with symptoms that may be perennial, persistent, intermittent or seasonal and/or elicited by recognized triggers." The definition includes a well-recognized set of clinical exposures that lead to the symptoms, predominantly congestion, rhinorrhea, and postnasal drip. These clinical characteristics help to identify patients for participation in clinical trials examining the efficacy of treatments for this important disease. The next step is to establish inclusion and exclusion criteria that will provide a framework for the clinical trials. Agreement on study criteria was obtained at the consensus conference by discussion, counterpoint, and compromise. PMID:24228856

  6. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study 43R Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization... CERCLA STUDY AREA 43R HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS CONTRACT DAAA15-91-D-0008 U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER ABERDEEN PROVING...ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43R HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS I * Prepared for: U.S. Army Environmental Center

  7. Action-derived molecular dynamics in the study of rare events.

    PubMed

    Passerone, D; Parrinello, M

    2001-09-03

    We present a practical method to generate classical trajectories with fixed initial and final boundary conditions. Our method is based on the minimization of a suitably defined discretized action. The method finds its most natural application in the study of rare events. Its capabilities are illustrated by nontrivial examples. The algorithm lends itself to straightforward parallelization, and when combined with ab initio molecular dynamics it promises to offer a powerful tool for the study of chemical reactions.

  8. Phase II and Coagulation Cascade Biomarker Study of Bevacizumab with or without Docetaxel in Patients with Previously Treated Metastatic Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Astsaturov, Igor A.; Meropol, Neal J.; Alpaugh, R. Katherine; Burtness, Barbara A.; Cheng, Jonathan D.; McLaughlin, Sue; Rogatko, André; Xu, Zhiheng; Watson, James C.; Weiner, Louis M.; Cohen, Steven J.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Treatment options are limited for advanced pancreatic cancer progressive after gemcitabine therapy. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) pathway is biologically important in pancreatic cancer, and docetaxel has modest anti-tumor activity. We evaluated the role of the anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab as second-line treatment for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer. Design Patients with metastatic adenocarcinoma of the pancreas who had progressive disease on a gemcitabine-containing regimen were randomized to receive bevacizumab alone or bevacizumab in combination with docetaxel. Results Thirty-two patients were enrolled; 16 to bevacizumab alone (Arm A) and 16 to bevacizumab plus docetaxel (Arm B). Toxicities were greater in Arm B with the most common grade 3/4 nonhematologic toxicities including fatigue, diarrhea, dehydration and anorexia. No confirmed objective responses were observed. At 4 months, 2/16 patients in Arm A and 3/16 in Arm B were free from progression. The study was stopped according to the early stopping rule for futility. Median PFS and OS were 43 days and 165 days in Arm A and 48 days and 125 days in Arm B. Elevated D-dimer levels and thrombin-antithrombin complexes were associated with decreased survival and increased toxicity. Conclusion Bevacizumab with or without docetaxel does not have antitumor activity in gemcitabine-refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer. Baseline and on-treatment D-dimer and thrombin-antithrombin complex levels are associated with increased toxicity and decreased survival. PMID:20458210

  9. Prognostic nomogram for overall survival in previously untreated patients with extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type: a multicenter study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Y; Zhang, Y-J; Zhu, Y; Cao, J-Z; Yuan, Z-Y; Xu, L-M; Wu, J-X; Wang, W; Wu, T; Lu, B; Zhu, S-Y; Qian, L-T; Zhang, F-Q; Hou, X-R; Liu, Q-F; Li, Y-X

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a widely accepted prognostic nomogram for extranodal NK/T-cell lymphoma, nasal-type (NKTCL). The clinical data from 1383 patients with NKTCL treated at 10 participating institutions between 2000 and 2011 were reviewed. A nomogram was developed that predicted overall survival (OS) based on the Cox proportional hazards model. To contrast the utility of the nomogram against the widely used Ann Arbor staging system, the International Prognostic Index (IPI) and the Korean Prognostic Index (KPI), we used the concordance index (C-index) and a calibration curve to determine its predictive and discriminatory capacity. The 5-year OS rate was 60.3% for the entire group. The nomogram included five important variables based on a multivariate analysis of the primary cohort: stage; age; Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status; lactate dehydrogenase; and primary tumor invasion. The calibration curve showed that the nomogram was able to predict 5-year OS accurately. The C-index of the nomogram for OS prediction was 0.72 for both cohorts, which was superior to the predictive power (range, 0.56-0.64) of the Ann Arbor stage, IPI and KPI in the primary and validation cohorts. The proposed nomogram provides an individualized risk estimate of OS in patients with NKTCL.

  10. [Coming-out, support from family of origin and relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born in a previous heterosexual relationship: an exploratory study].

    PubMed

    Vyncke, Johanna D; Julien, Danielle

    2005-01-01

    Lesbian couples differ from heterosexual couples in that they must develop their relationship within an environment that is generally unsympathetic to homosexuality, a fact that could accentuate the importance of family support. Furthermore, the disclosure of their sexual orientation by lesbian couples could also affect the support given by family members. The present study examines the effect of coming-out and family support on the relationship adjustment of lesbian mothers whose children were born within a heterosexual context. It was expected that family support would mediate the relationship between coming-out and relationship adjustment. Fifty-five lesbian mothers currently in a relationship answered questions about their perception of family support, on their coming-out behaviour and their relationship adjustment. Results revealed a positive relationship between coming-out and family support, and between family support and relationship adjustment, however no association was found between coming-out and relationship adjustment. The mediation model was therefore not confirmed. Finally, the authors discuss the implications of these results.

  11. A Phase II study of trabectedin single agent in patients with recurrent ovarian cancer previously treated with platinum-based regimens

    PubMed Central

    Krasner, C N; McMeekin, D S; Chan, S; Braly, P S; Renshaw, F G; Kaye, S; Provencher, D M; Campos, S; Gore, M E

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the objective response rate in patients with platinum-sensitive and platinum-resistant recurrent ovarian cancer to treatment with trabectedin (Yondelis®) administered as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks of a 4-week cycle. We carried out a multicentre Phase II trial of trabectedin in patients with advanced recurrent ovarian cancer. Trabectedin (0.58 mg m−2) was administered via a central line, after premedication with dexamethasone, to 147 patients as a 3-h infusion weekly for 3 weeks followed by 1-week rest. Major eligibility criteria included measurable relapsed advanced ovarian cancer and not more than two prior platinum-containing regimens. Patients were stratified according to the treatment-free interval (TFI) between having either platinum-sensitive (⩾6 months TFI) or platinum-resistant disease (<6 months TFI)/platinum-refractory disease (progression during first line therapy). In the platinum-sensitive cohort, 62 evaluable patients with measurable disease had an overall response rate (ORR) of 29.0% (95% CI: 18.2–41.9%) and median progression-free survival (PFS) was 5.1 months (95% CI: 2.8–6.2). Four patients with measurable disease per Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumours (RECIST) criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. In the platinum-resistant/refractory cohort, 79 patients were evaluable with an ORR of 6.3% (95% CI: 2.1–14.2%). Median PFS was 2.0 months (95% CI: 1.7–3.5 months). Two patients with measurable disease per RECIST criteria had no follow-up scans at the end of treatment. The most frequent (⩾2% of patients) drug-related treatment-emergent grade 3/4 adverse events were reversible liver alanine transferase elevation (10%), neutropaenia (8%), nausea, vomiting, and fatigue (5% each). Trabectedin is an active treatment, with documented responses in patients with platinum sensitive advanced relapsed ovarian cancer, and has a manageable toxicity profile. PMID

  12. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care.

  13. Crossing the Boulevard: The Action of Genre as Social Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devitt, Amy J.

    2015-01-01

    This article describes the author's first encounter with Carolyn Miller's "Genre as Social Action," and how the article opened the genre scholarship in rhetoric and communication, and led the author to integrate previous knowledge of linguistics and composition studies with communication studies and rhetoric more generally. Miller's…

  14. [A morphohistochemical study of the embryotropic action of steroids with androgenic properties].

    PubMed

    Starkov, M V; Shashkina, L F; Remezova, M I

    1975-01-01

    Morphohistochemical study of an embryotoxic and teratogenic action of acetate of androstenolone, acetate of 16-dehydropregnenolone, and methyltestosterone applied dayly to the skin of white rats during the entire course of gestation was carried out. A marked embryotoxic effect of acetate of androstenolone has been established. The teratogenic effect of the agents under study manifested itself in impairment of the processes of differentiation of structural elements of organs and tissues, or in rough underdevelopment of foetuses on the whole (following the exposure to acetate of androstenolone). In addition, a decrease in contents of nucleic acids and proteins in tissues, as well as some disorders of the carbohydrate metabolism in different organs and tissues were noted. The authors recommend to use histological and histochemical methods in investigations of embryotropic action of low doses of steroids.

  15. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study.

    PubMed

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others' actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others' behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants' arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  16. Observation and imitation of actions performed by humans, androids, and robots: an EMG study

    PubMed Central

    Hofree, Galit; Urgen, Burcu A.; Winkielman, Piotr; Saygin, Ayse P.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding others’ actions is essential for functioning in the physical and social world. In the past two decades research has shown that action perception involves the motor system, supporting theories that we understand others’ behavior via embodied motor simulation. Recently, empirical approach to action perception has been facilitated by using well-controlled artificial stimuli, such as robots. One broad question this approach can address is what aspects of similarity between the observer and the observed agent facilitate motor simulation. Since humans have evolved among other humans and animals, using artificial stimuli such as robots allows us to probe whether our social perceptual systems are specifically tuned to process other biological entities. In this study, we used humanoid robots with different degrees of human-likeness in appearance and motion along with electromyography (EMG) to measure muscle activity in participants’ arms while they either observed or imitated videos of three agents produce actions with their right arm. The agents were a Human (biological appearance and motion), a Robot (mechanical appearance and motion), and an Android (biological appearance and mechanical motion). Right arm muscle activity increased when participants imitated all agents. Increased muscle activation was found also in the stationary arm both during imitation and observation. Furthermore, muscle activity was sensitive to motion dynamics: activity was significantly stronger for imitation of the human than both mechanical agents. There was also a relationship between the dynamics of the muscle activity and motion dynamics in stimuli. Overall our data indicate that motor simulation is not limited to observation and imitation of agents with a biological appearance, but is also found for robots. However we also found sensitivity to human motion in the EMG responses. Combining data from multiple methods allows us to obtain a more complete picture of action

  17. Synthesis, structure-activity relationship, and mode-of-action studies of antimalarial reversed chloroquine compounds.

    PubMed

    Burgess, Steven J; Kelly, Jane X; Shomloo, Shawheen; Wittlin, Sergio; Brun, Reto; Liebmann, Katherine; Peyton, David H

    2010-09-09

    We have previously shown that a "reversed chloroquine (RCQ)" molecule, composed of a chloroquine-like moiety and a resistance reversal-like moiety, can overcome chloroquine resistance in P. falciparum ( Burgess , S. J. ; Selzer , A. ; Kelly , J. X. ; Smilkstein , M. J. ; Riscoe , M. K. ; Peyton , D. H. J. Med. Chem. 2006 , 49 , 5623 . Andrews , S. ; Burgess , S. J. ; Skaalrud , D. ; Kelly , J. X. ; Peyton , D. H. J. Med. Chem. 2010 , 53 , 916 ). Here, we present an investigation into the structure-activity relationship of the RCQ structures, resulting in an orally active molecule with good in vitro and in vivo antimalarial activity. We also present evidence of the mode of action, indicating that the RCQ molecules inhibit hemozoin formation in the parasite's digestive vacuole in a manner similar to that of chloroquine.

  18. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 430 Historic Gas Station Sites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1996-04-01

    Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) on December 21, 1989. In...and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA). An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment (PA) was also...7 NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 430 U.S. Army HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES Environmental Center GROUP 2, 7, AND HISTORIC GAS

  19. [Comparison of the action of 2 effective analgesics. Experimental study: tramadol versus tilidine/naloxone].

    PubMed

    Bromm, B; Herrmann, W M; Scharein, E

    1989-06-10

    In the present study involving healthy test subjects, tilidin/naloxone (Valoron N; VAL) proved to have an analgesic effect roughly twice as pronounced as that of tramadol (TRA). Moreover, the analgesic effect of VAL showed a significantly more rapid onset than did that of TRA. This finding reflects the difference in rate of action of the active substances. In accordance with these findings, VAL is thus the most powerful analgesic presently available on the German market on simple prescription.

  20. Pharmacological studies of o-chloro-alpha-[(tert.-butylamino)methyl]benzylalcohol hydrochloride (C-78), a new bronchodilator. III. Actions on the nervous systems and miscellaneous organs.

    PubMed

    Uesaka, I; Kubo, S; Matsubara, I; Kasé, Y

    1977-07-01

    Pharmacological effects of o-chloro-alpha-[(tert.-butylamino)methyl]benzylalcohol hydrochloride (C-78) on the nervous systems and miscellaneous organs were studied. 1. Through a low dosage of C-78 had little influence on the central nervous system, a high dosage of C-78 had a little slow-waving effect on the spontaneous EEG in rabbits, inhibitory action of the convulsion caused by pentetrazol or electroshock in mice and anti-pyrogenic action in rabbits. C-78 also dose-dependently inhibited the increase of motility caused by amphetamine in mice. 2. Only high concentrations of C78 had a local anesthetic action on the cornea and the skin of the back in guinea pigs. 3. C-78 significantly increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and glucose contents of blood in rabbits, but these actions were inhibited by propranolol. Another, high dosage of C-78 had anti-ulcer and anti-inflammatory action. From the results of the previous experiments and this study, it was concluded that C-78 is a new beta 2-receptor stimulating drug where beta 2-receptor selectivity is greater than that of isoproterenol, salbutamol and clorprenaline.

  1. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system.

  2. Reforming primary science assessment practices: A case study of one teacher's professional development through action research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briscoe, Carol; Wells, Elaine

    2002-05-01

    Calls for reform have suggested that classroom practice can best be changed by teachers who engage in their own research. This interpretive study examines the process of action research and how it contributes to the professional development of a first-grade teacher. The purpose of the study was to explore the research process experienced by the teacher as she examined whether portfolios could be used as an effective means for facilitating and assessing young children's development of science process skills. Data sources included a journal kept by the teacher, documents produced by the teacher and students as part of the portfolio implementation process, hand-written records of teacher's informal interviews with students, and anecdotal records from research team meetings during the study. Data analysis was designed to explore how the teacher's classroom practices and thinking evolved as she engaged in action research and attempted to solve the problems associated with deciding what to assess and how to implement portfolio assessment. We also examined the factors that supported the teacher's learning and change as she progressed through the research process. Data are presented in the form of four assertions that clarify how the action research process was influenced by various personal and contextual factors. Implications address factors that facilitated the teacher as researcher, and how this research project, initiated by the teacher, affected her professional development and professional life.

  3. The CARN/ARNA Inaugural Study Day Inquiry: What Happens to Action Research after the Master's Degree?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shosh, Joseph M.; McAteer, Mary

    2016-01-01

    The Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN) held its first American study day on the east coast of the United States in conjunction with the Action Research Network of the Americas (ARNA) 2014 conference in Bethlehem, Pennsylvania, USA. Study day participants visited three American secondary schools, one each in Pennsylvania, New York, and…

  4. Participatory Action Research and the Reconstruction of Teachers' Practical Thinking: Lesson Studies and Core Reflection. An Experience in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Angel I.; Soto, Encarnacion; Servan, M. Jose

    2010-01-01

    Following the thoughts and topics we have discussed and worked on for a very long time with Bridget Somekh, we would like to present the theoretical relationship between lesson studies, action research and practical knowledge in teacher education. Inspired by the pedagogical philosophy of lesson studies, participatory action research, and core…

  5. ParticipACTION: Baseline assessment of the capacity available to the 'New ParticipACTION': A qualitative study of Canadian organizations

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Evaluation of the original ParticipACTION campaign effects focused on individual awareness, recall, and understanding. Less studied has been the impact such campaigns have had on the broader organizational capacity to mobilize and advocate for physical activity. With the relaunch of ParticipACTION, the purpose of this study was to qualitatively explore baseline organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services within the Canadian context. Methods Using a purposeful sampling strategy, we conducted semi-structured telephone interviews with 49 key informants representing a range of national, provincial, and local organizations with a mandate to promote physical activity. Interview data were analysed using a thematic analytic approach. Results Key informants painted a generally positive picture of current organizational capacity to promote physical activity messages, programs, and services in Canada. Will and leadership were clear strengths while infrastructure limitations remained the greatest concern. Some specific challenges included: 1) funding issues: the absence of core funding in a climate of shifting funding priorities; 2) the difficulty of working without a national physical activity policy (lack of leadership); 3) inconsistent provincial and educational sector level policies; and 4) a persistent focus on obesity rather than physical inactivity. Conclusion The data generated here can be utilized to monitor the future impact of ParticipACTION on enhancing and utilizing this organizational capacity. A range of indicators are suggested that could be used to illustrate ParticipACTION's impact on the broad field of physical activity promotion in the future. PMID:19995458

  6. Perceiving Virtual Geographical Slant: Action Influences Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gooch, Amy A.; Sahm, Cynthia S.; Thompson, William B.

    2004-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors varied the extent and nature of participant movement in a virtual environment to examine the influence of action on estimates of geographical slant. Previous studies showed that people consciously overestimate hill slant but can still accurately guide an action toward the hill (D. R. Proffitt, M. Bhalla, R.…

  7. Activity of Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil on Influenza virus A/PR/8: study on the mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Garozzo, A; Timpanaro, R; Stivala, A; Bisignano, G; Castro, A

    2011-01-01

    Our previous study demonstrated that Melaleuca alternifolia (tea tree) oil (TTO) had an interesting antiviral activity against Influenza A in MDCK cells. In fact, when we tested TTO and some of its components, we found that TTO had an inhibitory effect on influenza virus replication at doses below the cytotoxic dose; terpinen-4-ol, terpinolene, and alfa-terpineol were the main active components. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of action of TTO and its active components against Influenza A/PR/8 virus subtype H1N1 in MDCK cells. None of the test compounds showed virucidal activity nor any protective action for the MDCK cells. Thus, the effect of TTO and its active components on different steps of the replicative cycle of influenza virus was studied by adding the test compounds at various times after infection. These experiments revealed that viral replication was significantly inhibited if TTO was added within 2h of infection, indicating an interference with an early step of the viral replicative cycle of influenza virus. The influence of the compound on the virus adsorption step, studied by the infective center assay, indicated that TTO did not interfere with cellular attachment of the virus. TTO did not inhibit influenza virus neuraminidase activity, as shown by the experiment measuring the amount of 4-methylumbelliferone, cleaved by the influenza virus neuraminidase from the fluorogenic substrate 2'-O-(4-methylumbelliferyl)-N-acetylneuraminic acid. The effect of TTO on acidification of cellular lysosomes was studied by vital staining with acridine orange using bafilomycin A1 as positive control. The treatment of cells with 0.01% (v/v) of TTO at 37°C for 4h before staining inhibited the acridine orange accumulation in acid cytoplasmic vesicles, indicating that TTO could inhibit viral uncoating by an interference with acidification of intralysosomal compartment.

  8. Participatory action research in practice: a case study in addressing domestic violence in nine cultural communities.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Marianne; Bhuyan, Rupaleem; Senturia, Kirsten; Shiu-Thornton, Sharyne; Ciske, Sandy

    2005-08-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly recognized as a viable approach to developing relationships with communities and working closely with them to address complex public health problems. In the case of domestic violence research, where ensuring the safety of women participants who are battered is paramount, participatory approaches to research that include advocates and women who are battered in research design, implementation, analysis, and dissemination are critical to successful and mutually beneficial projects. This article presents a case study of a PAR project that conducted formative qualitative research on domestic violence in nine ethnic and sexual minority communities. The article describes the specific ways in which a PAR approach was operationalized and discusses in detail how community participation shaped various stages of the research. Furthermore, specific actions that resulted from the research project are reported.

  9. Illuminating drug action by network integration of disease genes: a case study of myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Rui-Sheng; Loscalzo, Joseph

    2016-04-26

    Drug discovery has produced many successful therapeutic agents; however, most of these drugs were developed without a deep understanding of the system-wide mechanisms of action responsible for their indications. Gene-disease associations produced by molecular and genetic studies of complex diseases provide great opportunities for a system-level understanding of drug activity. In this study, we focused on acute myocardial infarction (MI) and conducted an integrative network analysis to illuminate drug actions. We integrated MI drugs, MI drug interactors, drug targets, and MI disease genes into the human interactome and showed that MI drug targets are significantly proximate to MI disease proteins. We then constructed a bipartite network of MI-related drug targets and MI disease proteins and derived 12 drug-target-disease (DTD) modules. We assessed the biological relevance of these modules and demonstrated the benefits of incorporating disease genes. The results indicate that DTD modules provide insights into the mechanisms of action of MI drugs and the cardiovascular (side) effects of non-MI drugs.

  10. Visual exploration patterns of human figures in action: an eye tracker study with art paintings

    PubMed Central

    Villani, Daniela; Morganti, Francesca; Cipresso, Pietro; Ruggi, Simona; Riva, Giuseppe; Gilli, Gabriella

    2015-01-01

    Art exploration is a complex process conditioned by factors at different levels and includes both basic visual principles and complex cognitive factors. The human figure is considered a critical factor attracting the attention in art painting. Using an eye-tracking methodology, the goal of this study was to explore different elements of the human figure performing an action (face and body parts in action) in complex social scenes characterized by different levels of social interaction between agents depicted in scenes (individual vs. social). The sample included 44 laypersons, and the stimuli consisted of 10 fine art paintings representing the figurative style of classical art. The results revealed different scanning patterns of the human figure elements related to the level of social interaction of agents depicted in the scene. The agents’ face attracted eye movements in social interaction scenes while the agents’ body parts attracted eye movements only when the agents were involved in individual actions. These processes were confirmed specifically in participants with high empathic abilities who became immediately fixated on faces to develop a mimetic engagement with other agents. Future studies integrating other measures would help confirm the results obtained and strengthen their implication for embodiment processes. PMID:26579021

  11. Enhanced action tendencies in obsessive-compulsive disorder: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Dayan, Adi; Berger, Andrea; Anholt, Gideon Emanuel

    2017-03-22

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is characterized by repeated thoughts and behaviors. This study explored the stages of motor response preparation that precede action performance or inhibition: We investigated whether OCD is related to enhanced action tendencies in response to external stimuli. Response preparation processes were assessed using the event-related potential (ERP) component of the readiness potential (RP). ERPs were recorded while 15 participants with OCD and 16 healthy controls performed a variation of the go/no-go task and the stop-signal task using schematic faces (angry and neutral). The OCD group presented with a greater RP slope gradient and amplitude over bilateral frontoparietal areas corresponding to the motor cortex. The amplitude effect was further enhanced under negative valence, compared to the neutral condition. Results support the hypothesis that stronger readiness for action might characterize OCD, especially in the presence of threatening stimuli. These findings - specifically correlated with OCD and not with anxiety and depression symptoms - may underlie habitual behavior and embodiment tendencies in OCD. This study suggests that early stages of motor preparation might be important to the etiology and maintenance of OCD.

  12. CERCLA interim action at the Par Pond unit: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Hickey, H.M.; Matthews, S.S.; Neal, L.W.; Weiss, W.R.

    1993-11-01

    The Par Pond unit designated under CERCLA consists of sediments within a Savannah River Site (SRS) cooling water reservoir. The sediments are contaminated with radionuclides and nonradioactive constituents from nuclear production reactor operations. The mercury in Par Pond is believed to have originated from the Savannah River. Because of Par Pond Dam safety Issues, the water level of the reservoir was drawn down, exposing more than 1300 acres of contaminated sediments and triggering the need for CERCLA interim remedial action. This paper presents the interim action approach taken with Par Pond as a case study. The approach considered the complexity of the Par Pond ecosystem, the large size of Par Pond, the volume of contaminated sediments, and the institutional controls existing at SRS. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) considers units with large volumes of low-concentration wastes, as is the case with Par Pond, to be {open_quotes}special sites.{close_quotes} Accordingly, EPA guidance establishes that the range of alternatives developed focus primarily on containment options and other remedial approaches that mitigate potential risks associated with the {open_quotes}special site.{close_quotes} The remedial alternatives, according to EPA, are not to be prohibitively expensive or difficult to implement. This case study also is representative of the types of issues that will need to be addressed within the Department of Energy (DOE) complex as nuclear facilities are transitioned to inactive status and corrective/remedial actions are warranted.

  13. Action observers implicitly expect actors to act goal-coherently, even if they do not: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Hrkać, Mari; Wurm, Moritz F; Schubotz, Ricarda I

    2014-05-01

    Actions observed in everyday life normally consist of one person performing sequences of goal-directed actions. The present fMRI study tested the hypotheses that observers are influenced by the actor's identity, even when this information is task-irrelevant, and that this information shapes their expectation on subsequent actions of the same actor. Participants watched short video clips of action steps that either pertained to a common action with an overarching goal or not, and were performed by either one or by varying actors (2 × 2 design). Independent of goal coherence, actor coherence elicited activation in dorsolateral and ventromedial frontal cortex, together pointing to a spontaneous attempt to integrate all actions performed by one actor. Interestingly, watching an actor performing unrelated actions elicited additional activation in left inferior frontal gyrus, suggesting a search in semantic memory in an attempt to construct an overarching goal that can reconcile the disparate action steps with a coherent intention. Post-experimental surveys indicate that these processes occur mostly unconsciously. Findings strongly suggest a spontaneous expectation bias toward actor-related episodes in action observers, and hence to the immense impact of actor information on action observation.

  14. Entrepreneurial Learning through Action: A Case Study of the Six-Squared Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pittaway, Luke; Missing, Caroline; Hudson, Nigel; Maragh, Dean

    2009-01-01

    This paper explores the role of "action" in entrepreneurial learning and illustrates how programs designed to support action learning can enhance management development in entrepreneurial businesses. The paper begins by exploring action learning and the way "action" is conceived in different types of program. In the second part, the paper details…

  15. Pedestrian and motorists' actions at pedestrian hybrid beacon sites: findings from a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R

    2015-01-01

    This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.

  16. Study of reaction of a viscous oil structure on actions by a physical field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitrievskii, A. N.; Konov, V. I.; Volodin, I. A.; Degtyareva, O. V.; Terpugov, E. L.; Terpugova, S. E.; Savranskii, V. V.

    2011-03-01

    The regularities of reaction of the viscous bitumen (maltha) structure when affected by modulated and impulse electromagnetic and acoustic fields via recording of infrared emission spectra are studied. It has been found that characteristic reactions of viscous oil clusters and links between them are located in the THz range for electromagnetic waves and in the MHz range for acoustic actions, which are revealed in absorption and emission spectra. The reaction of the rest (non-THz) part of the infrared spectrum is described on the basis of the physical-mathematical model of the process of a photon-phonon soliton, which causes decrease of emission IR spectrum intensity after microwave action due to fixation of the electromagnetic field by a soliton. The obtained results, which establish selectability of the maltha specimen reaction on spectral composition of the affected radiation, are important for increasing the efficiency of ultrasonic and electromagnetic microwave actions on the productive stratum during application of secondary methods for oil deposit exploration.

  17. Enhancing local action planning through quantitative flood risk analysis: a case study in Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castillo-Rodríguez, Jesica Tamara; Escuder-Bueno, Ignacio; Perales-Momparler, Sara; Ramón Porta-Sancho, Juan

    2016-07-01

    This article presents a method to incorporate and promote quantitative risk analysis to support local action planning against flooding. The proposed approach aims to provide a framework for local flood risk analysis, combining hazard mapping with vulnerability data to quantify risk in terms of expected annual affected population, potential injuries, number of fatalities, and economic damages. Flood risk is estimated combining GIS data of loads, system response, and consequences and using event tree modelling for risk calculation. The study area is the city of Oliva, located on the eastern coast of Spain. Results from risk modelling have been used to inform local action planning and to assess the benefits of structural and non-structural risk reduction measures. Results show the potential impact on risk reduction of flood defences and improved warning communication schemes through local action planning: societal flood risk (in terms of annual expected affected population) would be reduced up to 51 % by combining both structural and non-structural measures. In addition, the effect of seasonal population variability is analysed (annual expected affected population ranges from 82 to 107 %, compared with the current situation, depending on occupancy rates in hotels and campsites). Results highlight the need for robust and standardized methods for urban flood risk analysis replicability at regional and national scale.

  18. From recording discrete actions to studying continuous goal-directed behaviours in team sports.

    PubMed

    Correia, Vanda; Araújo, Duarte; Vilar, Luís; Davids, Keith

    2013-01-01

    This paper highlights the importance of examining interpersonal interactions in performance analysis of team sports, predicated on the relationship between perception and action, compared to the traditional cataloguing of actions by individual performers. We discuss how ecological dynamics may provide a potential unifying theoretical and empirical framework to achieve this re-emphasis in research. With reference to data from illustrative studies on performance analysis and sport expertise, we critically evaluate some of the main assumptions and methodological approaches with regard to understanding how information influences action and decision-making during team sports performance. Current data demonstrate how the understanding of performance behaviours in team sports by sport scientists and practitioners may be enhanced with a re-emphasis in research on the dynamics of emergent ongoing interactions. Ecological dynamics provides formal and theoretically grounded descriptions of player-environment interactions with respect to key performance goals and the unfolding information of competitive performance. Developing these formal descriptions and explanations of sport performance may provide a significant contribution to the field of performance analysis, supporting design and intervention in both research and practice.

  19. Nurses’ Empowerment in Self-Care Education to Stroke Patients: An Action Research Study

    PubMed Central

    Aslani, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Khorasani, Parvaneh

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background: Self-care needs are major problems among stroke patients. Nurses can support them through interventions such as education, a change in their attitude and emphasis on their remaining abilities. However, research has shown some weak points in the quality of care given to these patients. So the aim of this study was to improve the nurses’ practice in self-care education to stroke patients. Methods: The findings of evaluation phase showed that during action research, approaching the nurses’ empowerment in self-care education to stroke patients has been set in motion. The nursing practice improvement, knowledge based practice, nurses’ attitude change, ability to respond against routinization, and motivation promotion emphasize the success of change process. Facilitators and barriers of educating patients are acknowledged by the participants as a factor influencing the continuation of change. Results: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. Conclusions: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. PMID:27713896

  20. Action-Monitoring Dysfunction in Obstructive Sleep Apnea - A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ping-Song; Hsu, Chung-Yao; Wu, Meng-Ni; Liou, Li-Min; Lu, Shinag-Ru; Liu, Ching-Kuan; Lai, Chiou-Lian

    2016-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is associated with a broad range of frontal lobe dysfunctions. However, no study has investigated action monitoring, a crucial domain of frontal cognitive functions, in patients with OSA. By using the modified Flanker task, we tested the hypothesis that patients with OSA have an impaired action monitoring function. We recruited 25 untreated patients with moderate–severe OSA and 12 control participants who were matched for age, sex, apolipoprotein E4, and education level. Every enrolled participant underwent a standard overnight laboratory-based polysomnography and completed a modified Flanker task. Compared with the controls, the patients with OSA presented a significantly lower correct response rate in all trials (78.9% vs 95.9%, P = .008), congruent trials (84.7% vs 98.3%, P = .016), and incongruent trials (77.4% vs 94.7%, P = .009). The post-error correction rate was significantly lower in the patients with OSA than in the controls (74.9% vs 93.8%, P = .005). Furthermore, strong significant correlations were observed between the arousal index and correct rate in all trials (r = −0.390, P < .05) and in the incongruent trials (r = −0.429, P < .01), as well as between the arousal index and rate of post-error correction (r = −0.435, P < .01). We concluded that the action monitoring function was impaired in the patients with OSA. Sleep fragmentation was a major determinant of impaired action monitoring in these patients. PMID:27300504

  1. Less irritative action of wine and Japanese sake in rat stomachs: a comparative study with ethanol.

    PubMed

    Nakagiri, Akari; Fukushima, Kazuhiro; Kato, Shinichi; Takeuchi, Koji

    2006-02-01

    The ingestion of alcohol, especially in excess, causes acute gastric lesions and gastritis in humans, yet the mucosal irritative action of alcoholic beverages remains largely unknown. We examined the mucosal irritative action of whiskey, wine and Japanese sake in the rat stomach both ex vivo and in vitro, in comparison with ethanol. Under urethane anesthesia, a rat stomach was mounted in an ex vivo chamber, then superfused with saline, and the transmucosal potential difference (PD) was measured. After the basal PD had stabilized, the mucosa was exposed for 30 min to 2 ml of 15% ethanol, whiskey (containing 15% ethanol), white wine, or Japanese sake (the ethanol concentration of the latter two is 12-15%). In the in vitro study, rat epithelial cells (RGM1) were treated with the alcoholic beverages for 5 min, and the cell viability was determined with crystal violet. Ethanol or whiskey applied to the chamber caused a decrease in PD, while wine or Japanese sake did not. Histologically, surface epithelial damage was observed after exposure to both ethanol and whiskey, yet no damage was induced by white wine and Japanese sake. Likewise, both ethanol and whiskey markedly reduced the viability of RGM1 cells after 5 min of incubation, while neither white wine nor Japanese sake had any effect. In addition, supplementation of glucose significantly prevented the reduction in both PD and cell viability caused by ethanol. These results suggest that the mucosal irritative action of Japanese sake and white wine is much less pronounced than that of ethanol or whiskey and that the less damaging action of Japanese sake and white wine may be, at least partly, accounted for by the glucose contained in these alcoholic beverages.

  2. The role of movement representation in episodic memory for actions: A study of patients with apraxia.

    PubMed

    Masumoto, Kouhei; Shirakawa, Masayuki; Higashiyama, Takeshi; Yokoyama, Kazumasa

    2015-01-01

    In attempting to memorize a sentence about an action, such as "Pick up the glass," performing the action (motor encoding) results in better memory performance than simply memorizing the words (verbal encoding). Such enhancement of memory is known as the enactment effect. Several theories have been proposed to explain this phenomenon using concepts such as physical motor information associated with speed, form, amplitude of movement and/or movement representations involved in movement imaging, knowledge on manipulating tools, and spatial relationships in the enactment effect. However, there have been no cognitive neuropsychological studies investigating whether the enactment effect is crucially influenced by physical motor information or movement representations. To clarify this issue, we compared healthy adult control participants with two different types of apraxia patients. One patient with left hemisphere lesions caused by cerebral infarction had a disability involving multiple movement representations. The other patient showed symptoms of corticobasal syndrome and was not able to benefit from feedback on the accuracy of her motor movements during enactment. Participants memorized action sentences via either verbal or motor encoding and responded to recall and recognition tests. Results indicated that the patient with the movement representation deficits exhibited worse memory performance than the other patient or control participants following both verbal and motor encoding. Although the enactment effect was present during recall in both patients, the effect was not observed for recognition in the patient with severe movement representation deficits. These results suggest that movement representations are involved in encoding episodic memories of action. Moreover, the role of movement representations appears to depend on the form of retrieval that is being used.

  3. Judgment of actions in experts: a high-resolution EEG study in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Babiloni, Claudio; Del Percio, Claudio; Rossini, Paolo M; Marzano, Nicola; Iacoboni, Marco; Infarinato, Francesco; Lizio, Roberta; Piazza, Marina; Pirritano, Mirella; Berlutti, Giovanna; Cibelli, Giuseppe; Eusebi, Fabrizio

    2009-04-01

    The present study tested the two following hypotheses: (i) compared to non-athletes, elite athletes are characterized by a reduced cortical activation during the judgment of sporting observed actions; (ii) in elite athletes, a good judgment of observed sporting actions is related to a low cortical activation. To address these issues, electroencephalographic (EEG) data were recorded in 15 elite rhythmic gymnasts and 13 non-gymnasts. They observed a series of 120 rhythmic gymnastic videos. At the end of each video, the subjects had to judge the artistic/athletic level of the exercise by a scale from 0 to 10. The mismatch between their judgment and that of the coach indexed the degree of action judgment. The EEG cortical sources were estimated by sLORETA. With reference to a pre-stimulus period, the power decrease of alpha (8-12 Hz) rhythms during the videos indexed the cortical activation (event related desynchronization, ERD). Regarding the hypothesis (i), low- and high-frequency alpha ERD was lower in amplitude in the elite rhythmic gymnasts compared to the non-gymnasts in occipital and temporal areas (ventral pathway) and in dorsal pathway. Regarding the hypothesis (ii), in the elite rhythmic gymnasts high-frequency alpha ERD was higher in amplitude with the videos characterized by a high judgment error than those characterized by a low judgment error; this was true in inferior posterior parietal and ventral premotor areas ("mirror" pathway). These results globally suggest that the judgment of observed sporting actions is related to low amplitude of alpha ERD, as a possible index of spatially selective cortical activation ("neural efficiency").

  4. Subliminal priming of actions influences sense of control over effects of action.

    PubMed

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming left or right keypress actions in response to a supraliminal visual target. The action caused the display of one of several colours as an action effect. The specific colour shown depended on whether the participant's action was compatible or incompatible with the preceding subliminal prime, and not on the prime identity alone. Unlike previous studies, therefore, the primes did not predict the to-be-expected action effects. Participants rated how much control they experienced over the different colours. Replicating previous results, compatible primes facilitated responding, whereas incompatible primes interfered with response selection. Crucially, priming also modulated the sense of control over action effects: participants experienced more control over colours produced by actions that were compatible with the preceding prime than over colours associated with prime-incompatible actions. Experiment 2 showed that this effect was not solely due to priming modulating action-effect contingencies. These results suggest that sense of control is linked to processes of selection between alternative actions, being strongest when selection is smooth and uncontested.

  5. Joint action modulates motor system involvement during action observation in 3-year-olds.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; Hunnius, Sabine; van Elk, Michiel; van Ede, Freek; Bekkering, Harold

    2011-06-01

    When we are engaged in a joint action, we need to integrate our partner's actions with our own actions. Previous research has shown that in adults the involvement of one's own motor system is enhanced during observation of an action partner as compared to during observation of an individual actor. The aim of this study was to investigate whether similar motor system involvement is present at early stages of joint action development and whether it is related to joint action performance. In an EEG experiment with 3-year-old children, we assessed the children's brain activity and performance during a joint game with an adult experimenter. We used a simple button-pressing game in which the two players acted in turns. Power in the mu- and beta-frequency bands was compared when children were not actively moving but observing the experimenter's actions when (1) they were engaged in the joint action game and (2) when they were not engaged. Enhanced motor involvement during action observation as indicated by attenuated sensorimotor mu- and beta-power was found when the 3-year-olds were engaged in the joint action. This enhanced motor activation during action observation was associated with better joint action performance. The findings suggest that already in early childhood the motor system is differentially activated during action observation depending on the involvement in a joint action. This motor system involvement might play an important role for children's joint action performance.

  6. Visual adaptation dominates bimodal visual-motor action adaptation

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Ferstl, Ylva; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.

    2016-01-01

    A long standing debate revolves around the question whether visual action recognition primarily relies on visual or motor action information. Previous studies mainly examined the contribution of either visual or motor information to action recognition. Yet, the interaction of visual and motor action information is particularly important for understanding action recognition in social interactions, where humans often observe and execute actions at the same time. Here, we behaviourally examined the interaction of visual and motor action recognition processes when participants simultaneously observe and execute actions. We took advantage of behavioural action adaptation effects to investigate behavioural correlates of neural action recognition mechanisms. In line with previous results, we find that prolonged visual exposure (visual adaptation) and prolonged execution of the same action with closed eyes (non-visual motor adaptation) influence action recognition. However, when participants simultaneously adapted visually and motorically – akin to simultaneous execution and observation of actions in social interactions - adaptation effects were only modulated by visual but not motor adaptation. Action recognition, therefore, relies primarily on vision-based action recognition mechanisms in situations that require simultaneous action observation and execution, such as social interactions. The results suggest caution when associating social behaviour in social interactions with motor based information. PMID:27029781

  7. Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures

    PubMed Central

    Lenski, Markus; Büser, Natalie; Scherer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Background and purpose Patients with osteoporosis who present with an acute onset of back pain often have multiple fractures on plain radiographs. Differentiation of an acute osteoporotic vertebral fracture (AOVF) from previous fractures is difficult. The aim of this study was to investigate the incidence of concomitant AOVFs and previous OVFs in patients with symptomatic AOVFs, and to identify risk factors for concomitant AOVFs. Patients and methods This was a prospective epidemiological study based on the Registry of Pathological Osteoporotic Vertebral Fractures (REPAPORA) with 1,005 patients and 2,874 osteoporotic vertebral fractures, which has been running since February 1, 2006. Concomitant fractures are defined as at least 2 acute short-tau inversion recovery (STIR-) positive vertebral fractures that happen concomitantly. A previous fracture is a STIR-negative fracture at the time of initial diagnostics. Logistic regression was used to examine the influence of various variables on the incidence of concomitant fractures. Results More than 99% of osteoporotic vertebral fractures occurred in the thoracic and lumbar spine. The incidence of concomitant fractures at the time of first patient contact was 26% and that of previous fractures was 60%. The odds ratio (OR) for concomitant fractures decreased with a higher number of previous fractures (OR =0.86; p = 0.03) and higher dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry T-score (OR =0.72; p = 0.003). Interpretation Concomitant and previous osteoporotic vertebral fractures are common. Risk factors for concomitant fractures are a low T-score and a low number of previous vertebral fractures in cases of osteoporotic vertebral fracture. An MRI scan of the the complete thoracic and lumbar spine with STIR sequence reduces the risk of under-diagnosis and under-treatment. PMID:28056595

  8. 'Ready. Set. ACTION!' A theater-based obesity prevention program for children: a feasibility study.

    PubMed

    Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne; Haines, Jess; Robinson-O'Brien, Ramona; Hannan, Peter J; Robins, Michael; Morris, Bonnie; Petrich, Christine A

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the feasibility of implementing an innovative theater-based after-school program, 'Ready. Set. ACTION!', to reach ethnically diverse and low-income children and their parents with obesity prevention messages. The study population included 96 children and 61 parents. Children were in fourth to sixth grade and 41% were overweight at baseline. Program impact was evaluated with a pre/post-randomized controlled study design, but a major focus was placed on the process evaluation conducted in the intervention schools. Intervention children and parents reported high program satisfaction and that they had made changes or intended to make positive changes in their behaviors due to program participation. However, few meaningful differences between the intervention and control conditions were found at follow-up. Thus, the combined process and impact evaluation results suggest that the intervention was effective in leading to increased awareness of the need for behavioral change, but was not powerful enough on its own to lead to behavioral change. From this feasibility study, we concluded that Ready. Set. ACTION! offers promise as a creative intervention strategy. The next research step may be to incorporate theater-based programs into more comprehensive school-based interventions, with both educational and environmental components, and evaluate program impact.

  9. Duration of activity and mode of action of modafinil: Studies on sleep and wakefulness in humans.

    PubMed

    Turner, C; Belyavin, A J; Nicholson, A N

    2014-07-01

    The duration of activity of modafinil was investigated in healthy male volunteers in two double-blind crossover studies. Mode of action was explored using a statistical model concerned with the relationship between total sleep duration and that of rapid eye movement (REM) sleep. Nocturnal sleep (23:00-07:00) followed by next-day performance (09:00-17:00) was studied in 12 subjects administered 100, 200, 300 mg modafinil and placebo, 0.5 h before bedtime. Performance overnight (19:00-08:45) followed by sleep (09:15-15:15) was studied in nine subjects administered 100, 200, 300, 400 mg modafinil, 300 mg caffeine and placebo at 22:15. Modafinil dose-dependently reduced sleep duration (nocturnal: 200 mg, p<0.05; 300 mg, p<0.001; morning: 300 and 400 mg, p<0.05) and REM sleep (nocturnal: 300 mg; morning: 400 mg; p<0.05). The statistical model revealed that reduced REM sleep was due to alerting activity, with no evidence of direct suppression of REM sleep, suggesting dopaminergic activity. Enhanced performance with modafinil during overnight work varied with dose (200 mg>100 mg; 300, 400 mg>200, 100 mg, caffeine). However, in the study of next-day performance, the enhancement was attenuated at the highest dose (300 mg) by the greater disturbance of prior sleep. These findings indicate that modafinil has a long duration of action, with alerting properties arising predominantly from dopaminergic activity.

  10. ERP correlates of action effect prediction and visual sensory attenuation in voluntary action.

    PubMed

    Hughes, Gethin; Waszak, Florian

    2011-06-01

    Sensory attenuation of voluntary action effects has been widely reported in both somatosensory and auditory domains. However, relatively little research has focused on physiological measures of sensory attenuation of visual action effects. One previous study found, perhaps surprisingly, that both auditory and visual sensory attenuation were manifested as decreased ERP amplitude over the vertex. The present study aimed to extend these findings using a novel paradigm in which voluntary actions were either associated with a visual action effect or to no effect. Crucially, this allowed us to explore both sensory attenuation (by comparing ERPs to action-triggered versus externally triggered stimuli) and action effect prediction (by comparing actions that triggered a stimulus with actions that did not). With regard to sensory attenuation, we found that attenuation of cortical responses to visual action effects was manifested in a reduced activation of a frontoparietal network, from 150 ms after stimulus. Differences between actions that produced an effect and those that did not were observed in lateralized motor potentials and may reflect the cortical correlates of the action effect prediction. We also observed a re-activation of lateralized motor activity following onset of the action effect, suggesting a common representation of action effects in visual and motor cortices. Taken together, these findings help to elucidate the cortical mechanisms of voluntary action as well as their sensory consequences and inform how our interaction with the external world is processed and controlled.

  11. Laboratory Grouping Based on Previous Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doemling, Donald B.; Bowman, Douglas C.

    1981-01-01

    In a five-year study, second-year human physiology students were grouped for laboratory according to previous physiology and laboratory experience. No significant differences in course or board examination performance were found, though correlations were found between predental grade-point averages and grouping. (MSE)

  12. Defining principles for good practice: using case studies to inform health systems action on health inequalities.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Sarah; Kelly, Michael P; Morgan, Antony

    2013-02-01

    This paper presents work using case studies as a source of data to see if we could extrapolate from the specific to the general particularly with regard to understanding what constitutes effective practice in taking action on SDHI and as a way of enabling policy makers to make better use of knowledge within the case studies and as a way of better understanding what works, in what context and why. Case studies are important to evaluators in that they are relatively straightforward to undertake and because those involved in implementing an intervention are usually keen to profile the intervention. A checklist described in this paper will enable policy advisers and evaluators to quickly review a case study and right away see if it contains enough information to assist in the development of policy options for reducing socially determined health inequalities.

  13. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43S Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    I SApr( eid for Public 𔃽ase i i D stribution Unhirnited I U.S. Army Environmental , Center NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER I : CERCLA STUDY AREA 43S...ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43S HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES 3 FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSET’TS I I, £ Prepared for: U.S. Army Environmental...JANUARY 1995 I 3 I I I I NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43S HISTORIC GAS STATION SITESU FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS 5- TABLE OF

  14. Spiral Development in Action: A Case Study of Spiral Development in the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Program

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-12-01

    government acquisitions, and presented lessons learned through a case study of the Global Hawk UAV Program. This paper examined the Global Hawk’s spiral...NAVAL POSTGRADUATE SCHOOL MONTEREY, CALIFORNIA MBA PROFESSIONAL REPORT Spiral Development in Action: A Case Study of Spiral...Professional Report 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE: Spiral Development in Action: A Case Study of Spiral Development in the Global Hawk Unmanned Aerial

  15. The predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on low back pain among newly qualified health care workers with and without previous low back pain: a prospective cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Jette Nygaard; Albertsen, Karen; Borg, Vilhelm; Nabe-Nielsen, Kirsten

    2009-01-01

    Background Health care workers have a high prevalence of low back pain (LBP). Although physical exposures in the working environment are linked to an increased risk of LBP, it has been suggested that individual coping strategies, for example fear-avoidance beliefs, could also be important in the development and maintenance of LBP. Accordingly, the main objective of this study was to examine (1) the association between physical work load and LBP, (2) the predictive effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the development of LBP, and (3) the moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP among cases with and without previous LBP. Methods A questionnaire survey among 5696 newly qualified health care workers who completed a baseline questionnaire shortly before completing their education and a follow-up questionnaire 12 months later. Participants were selected on the following criteria: (a) being female, (b) working in the health care sector (n = 2677). Multinomial logistic regression analysis was used to evaluate the effect of physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs on the severity of LBP. Results For those with previous LBP, physical work load has an importance, but not among those without previous LBP. In relation to fear-avoidance beliefs, there is a positive relation between it and LBP of than 30 days in both groups, i.e. those without and with previous LBP. No moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP was found among cases with and without LBP. Conclusion Both physical work load and fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those with previous LBP. Only fear-avoidance beliefs matters in those without previous LBP. The study did not find a moderating effect of fear-avoidance beliefs on the association between physical work load and LBP. PMID:19778413

  16. Designing for Online Collaborations and Local Environmental Action In Citizen Science: A Multiple Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kermish-Allen, Ruth

    Traditional citizen science projects have been based on the scientific communities need to gather vast quantities of high quality data, neglecting to ask what the project participants get in return. How can participants be seen more as collaborative partners in citizen science projects? Online communities for citizen science are expanding rapidly, giving participants the opportunity to take part in a wide range of activities, from monitoring invasive species to identifying far-off galaxies. These communities can bring together the virtual and physical worlds in new ways that are egalitarian, collaborative, applied, localized and globalized to solve real environmental problems. There are a small number of citizen science projects that leverage the affordances of an online community to connect, engage, and empower participants to make local change happen. This multiple case study applies a conceptual framework rooted in sociocultural learning theory, Non-Hierarchical Online Learning Communities (NHOLCs), to three online citizen communities that have successfully fostered online collaboration and on-the-ground environmental actions. The purpose of the study is to identify the range and variation of the online and programmatic functions available in each project. The findings lead to recommendations for designing these innovative communities, specifically the technological and programmatic components of online citizen science communities that support environmental actions in our backyards.

  17. Distinctive laterality of neural networks supporting action understanding in left- and right-handed individuals: An EEG coherence study.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Rachel; Mizelle, J C; Wheaton, Lewis A

    2015-08-01

    Prior work has demonstrated that perspective and handedness of observed actions can affect action understanding differently in right and left-handed persons, suggesting potential differences in the neural networks underlying action understanding between right and left-handed individuals. We sought to evaluate potential differences in these neural networks using electroencephalography (EEG). Right- and left-handed participants observed images of tool-use actions from egocentric and allocentric perspectives, with right- and left-handed actors performing the actions. Participants judged the outcome of the observed actions, and response accuracy and latency were recorded. Behaviorally, the highest accuracy and shortest latency was found in the egocentric perspective for right- and left-handed observers. Handedness of subject showed an effect on accuracy and latency also, where right-handed observers were faster to respond than left-handed observers, but on average were less accurate. Mu band (8-10 Hz) cortico-cortical coherence analysis indicated that right-handed observers have coherence in the motor dominant left parietal-premotor networks when looking at an egocentric right or allocentric left hands. When looking in an egocentric perspective at a left hand or allocentric right hand, coherence was lateralized to right parietal-premotor areas. In left-handed observers, bilateral parietal-premotor coherence patterns were observed regardless of actor handedness. These findings suggest that the cortical networks involved in understanding action outcomes are dependent on hand dominance, and notably right handed participants seem to utilize motor systems based on the limb seen performing the action. The decreased accuracy for right-handed participants on allocentric images could be due to asymmetrical lateralization of encoding action and motoric dominance, which may interfere with translating allocentric limb action outcomes. Further neurophysiological studies will

  18. School Administrator Perceptions of Cyberbullying Facilitators and Barriers to Preventive Action: A Qualitative Study.

    PubMed

    Young, Rachel; Tully, Melissa; Ramirez, Marizen

    2016-10-17

    Background Schools are often held responsible for preventing or addressing cyberbullying, yet little is known about school administrator perceptions of cyberbullying and the challenges they face in addressing this public health issue. Aims The goal of this study is to examine school administrators' perceptions of the facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to primary and secondary prevention strategies. Method Public school administrators (N = 36) participated in in-depth interviews about bullying and discussed their experiences with cyberbullying and their perceptions of cyberbullying facilitators and barriers to prevention. Results Three main themes arose from the analysis: (1) cyberbullying as a major challenge; (2) facilitators of cyberbullying and barriers to preventive action, including parents and technology; and (3) prevention efforts, including unclear jurisdiction for action, primary versus secondary prevention efforts, and technology attributes that facilitate school response to bullying. Discussion Although administrators perceive cyberbullying as a major challenge facing their schools, they are often unsure about appropriate primary and secondary prevention efforts. Relationships with parents and police complicate response and prevention as schools attempt to navigate unclear jurisdiction. Additionally, technology presents a challenge to schools because it is seen as an enabler of cyberbullying, a facilitator of prevention, and a necessary part of education efforts. Conclusion Lack of research on prevention strategies, parents' knowledge and attitudes, and confusion about responsibility for addressing cyberbullying are barriers to action. Findings suggest administrators could benefit from additional clarity on which strategies are most effective for primary prevention of cyberbullying, and that prevention strategies should proactively involve parents to promote effective collaboration with schools.

  19. Studies on the mechanisms of action of picrotoxin, quercetin and pregnanolone at the GABAρ1 receptor

    PubMed Central

    Goutman, Juan D; Calvo, Daniel J

    2004-01-01

    The mechanisms of action of antagonists of the γ-aminobutyric acid C (GABAC) receptor picrotoxin, quercetin and pregnanolone were studied. Ionic currents (chloride), mediated through human homomeric GABAρ1 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes, were recorded by two-electrode voltage clamp. Dose–response (D–R) curves and kinetic measurements of GABAρ1 currents were carried out in the presence or absence of antagonists. Use-dependent actions were also evaluated. Picrotoxin, quercetin and pregnanolone exerted noncompetitive actions. IC50 values measured at the EC50 for GABA (1 μM) were as follows: picrotoxin 0.6±0.1 μM (Hill coefficient n=1.0±0.2); quercetin 4.4±0.4 μM (n=1.5±0.2); pregnanolone 2.1±0.5 μM (n=0.8±0.1). These antagonists produced changes only in the slope of the linear current–voltage relationships, which was indicative of voltage-independent effects. The effect of picrotoxin on GABAρ1 currents was use-dependent, strongly relied on agonist concentration and showed a slow onset and offset. The mechanism was compatible with an allosteric inhibition and receptor activation was a prerequisite for antagonism. The effect of quercetin was use-independent, showed relatively fast onset and offset, and resulted in a slowed time course of the GABA-evoked currents. The effect of pregnanolone was use-independent, presented fast onset and a very slow washout, and did not affect current activation. All the antagonists accelerated the time course of deactivation of the GABAρ1 currents. PMID:14732759

  20. Feasibility study for remedial action for the Quarry Residuals Operable Unit at the Weldon Spring Site, Weldon Spring, Missouri

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is conducting cleanup activities at the Weldon Spring site, which is located in St. Charles County, Missouri, about 48 km (30 mi) west of St. Louis (Figure 1.1). Cleanup of the Weldon Spring site consists of several integrated components. The quarry residuals operable unit (QROU) is one of four operable units being evaluated. In accordance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA), as amended, a remedial investigation/feasibility study (RI/FS) is being conducted to evaluate conditions and potential responses for the following areas and/or media that constitute the QROU: (1) the residual material (soil and sediment) remaining at the Weldon Spring quarry after removal of the bulk waste (about 11 million L [3 million gal] of uranium-contaminated ponded water was also addressed previous to bulk waste removal); (2) other media located in the surrounding vicinity of the quarry, including adjacent soil, surface water, and sediment in Femme Osage Slough and several creeks; and (3) quarry groundwater located primarily north of Femme Osage Slough. Potential impacts to the St. Charles County well field downgradient of the quarry area are also being addressed as part of QROU RI/FS evaluations. For remedial action sites, it is DOE policy to integrate values associated with the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) into the CERCLA decision-making process. The analyses contained herein address NEPA values as appropriate to the actions being considered for the QROU. A work plan summarizing initial site conditions and providing conceptual site hydrogeological and exposure models was published in January 1994. The RI and baseline risk assessment (BRA) reports have been completed. The RI discusses in detail the nature and extent and the fate and transport of contamination at the quarry area.

  1. [Comparative action of 8 azole derivatives against Candida albicans: fungistatic action and cytologic study by scanning electron microscopy].

    PubMed

    Mallie, M; Jouvert, S; Bastide, M; Montes, B; Lebecq, J C; Bastide, J M

    1988-05-01

    The authors compared the in vitro antifungal activity of eight imidazole derivatives (clotrimazole, econazole, isoconazole, ketoconazole, miconazole, oxiconazole, terconazole, tioconazole) against 42 strains of Candida albicans by the agar dilution method using casitone medium. The geometric (G) mean MIC values, the MIC 90 and the MIC 50 values and the corresponding standard deviations of each antifungal agent were determined. The G-MIC values were found to be in the range of 0.008-0.390 micrograms ml-1. The effects of these eight antifungal agents on the ultrastructure of C. albicans yeast cells and spheroplasts were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed a good correlation between the lesions observed and the structure of the imidazole derivatives tested. On the basis of the SEM results, the compounds could be divided into three groups: (1) ketoconazole and terconazole; (2) econazole, isoconazole, miconazole, oxiconazole and tioconazole; (3) clotrimazole.

  2. Comparative study of methods for recognition of an unknown person's action from a video sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hori, Takayuki; Ohya, Jun; Kurumisawa, Jun

    2009-02-01

    This paper proposes a Tensor Decomposition Based method that can recognize an unknown person's action from a video sequence, where the unknown person is not included in the database (tensor) used for the recognition. The tensor consists of persons, actions and time-series image features. For the observed unknown person's action, one of the actions stored in the tensor is assumed. Using the motion signature obtained from the assumption, the unknown person's actions are synthesized. The actions of one of the persons in the tensor are replaced by the synthesized actions. Then, the core tensor for the replaced tensor is computed. This process is repeated for the actions and persons. For each iteration, the difference between the replaced and original core tensors is computed. The assumption that gives the minimal difference is the action recognition result. For the time-series image features to be stored in the tensor and to be extracted from the observed video sequence, the human body silhouette's contour shape based feature is used. To show the validity of our proposed method, our proposed method is experimentally compared with Nearest Neighbor rule and Principal Component analysis based method. Experiments using 33 persons' seven kinds of action show that our proposed method achieves better recognition accuracies for the seven actions than the other methods.

  3. Involvement of the Motor System in Comprehension of Non-Literal Action Language: A Meta-Analysis Study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Shu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Although numerous studies have shown that the sensory-motor system is involved in semantic processing of language stimuli, it is still unclear whether comprehension of abstract concepts is embodied, and whether the involvement of the sensory-motor system is context-dependent. Investigation of how the motor system is activated during comprehension of non-literal action languages can help address these issues. So far several studies have reported brain activations during non-literal action language comprehension, but the findings are highly inconsistent because of different types of non-literal action language stimuli. To clarify how the motor system is involved in comprehension of different types of non-literal languages, the current study conducted quantitative meta-analyses on fMRI findings about comprehension of sentences describing fictive motions, metaphoric actions, and idiomatic actions. Results showed that fictive motion sentences elicited activation in the right parahippocampal gyrus, an area important for spatial processing. For metaphoric actions, the left precentral gyrus (BA 6) was strongly activated, suggesting a link between metaphoric and literal meanings. For idiomatic actions, activity was found in the left inferior frontal gyrus (BA 44/45), highlighting semantic selection and inhibition. No premotor or motor activity was found in idiom condition. These results together suggest that the involvement of the sensory-motor system in abstract concepts processing is flexible, depending on semantic features of the language stimuli and links between abstract and literal meanings.

  4. Using goal- and grip-related information for understanding the correctness of other's actions: an ERP study.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other's actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other's actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips.

  5. In Vitro and In Vivo Studies on Protective Action of N-Phenethyl Caffeamide against Photodamage of Skin

    PubMed Central

    Kuo, Yueh-Hsiung; Chen, Chien-Wen; Chu, Yin; Lin, Ping; Chiang, Hsiu-Mei

    2015-01-01

    In our previous study, N-phenethyl caffeamide (K36) was proved to act as an antioxidant and an antiphotoaging agent by inhibiting type I procollagen degradation and stimulating collagen synthesis in human skin fibroblasts. In the present study, in vitro and in vivo experiments were conducted to investigate the mechanism of action and the antiinflammatory and antiphotoaging activity of K36. K36 reduced UVB-induced cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthases (iNOS) expression by regulating IκB and p-IκB expression. K36 also inhibited the nuclear translocation of NF-κB. Furthermore, the inhibition of mitogen-activated protein (MAP) kinases by K36 was attributed to the downregulation of COX-2. Topically applying K36 led to efficient antiwrinkle formation and reduced UVB-induced erythema and thickness of epidermis in hairless mice. In addition, K36 penetrated into the skin of hairless mice. Our findings show that K36 has significant beneficial effects on antioxidant, antiinflammatory, and antiphotoaging activity and suggest that K36 can be developed as an antiaging agent for cosmetic and skin care products. PMID:26367260

  6. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Fort Devens Study Area 19, 20 and 21, Waste Water Treatment Plant

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and...i U.S. Army NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA - Environmental Center FORT DEVENS STUDY AREA 19, 20 AND 21 WASTE WATER TREATMENT PLANT II...AEC Farm 45, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. I I I NO FURTHER ACTION DECISIONI UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREAS 19, 20 and 213WASTE WATER

  7. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Study Area 31, Moore Army Airfield Fire Fighting Training Area, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund ...NLIl U.S. Army Environmental Center NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER I CERCLA STUDY AREA 31 MOORE ARMY AIRFIELD FIRE FIGHTING TRAINING AREA 3 FORT...RECYCLED PAPER AF AEC Form 󈧱,, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. I I I, NO FURTHER ACTION DECISIONU UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 313 MOORE

  8. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43M Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and...Approwved for public Rl~eease Distribution Unhrnited U.S. Army Environmental Center NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43M HISTORIC...PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER 20070502728 AEC Form 45, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 󈧱 which is obsolete. NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY

  9. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Fort Devens Study Area 58, Buildings 2648 and 2650 Fuel Oil Spills

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-11-01

    National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments...U.S. Army NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA IEnvironmental Center FORT DEVENS STUDY AREA 58 BUILDINGS 2648 AND 2650 FUEL OIL SPILLS DATA ITEM...PAPER AEC Form 45, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 58 BUILDINGS 2648 AND 2650

  10. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43K Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment (PA) was also...DiSTR1BUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43K HISTORIC GAS...Distribution Unlimited U.S. ArmyEnvironmentalCenter NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43K HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS,9

  11. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43E Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) asg amended by the Superfund ...U T7,UTION1 STA 7 TAApproved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited I U.S. Army NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER Environmental Center CERCLA STUDY...FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43E HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES I FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS i I 1 Prepared for: U.S. Army

  12. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Study Area 43B, Historic Gas Station Sites, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    8217on the National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ), as amended by the Superfund ...I U.S. Army EnvironmentalCenter NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA * STUDY AREA 43B HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES U FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS I I...AEC Form 45, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. I NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43B HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES I

  13. Ethical dilemmas in participatory action research: a case study from the disability community.

    PubMed

    Minkler, Meredith; Fadem, Pamela; Perry, Martha; Blum, Klaus; Moore, Leroy; Rogers, Judith

    2002-02-01

    Participatory action research (PAR) is a collaborative approach to inquiry for education and social change that is gaining increasing prominence in health education. This case study explores the use of PAR by and with a community of people with disabilities in addressing a polarizing issue in that community: death with dignity or physician-assisted suicide legislation. Following a brief review of the debate within the community about this issue and the goals, methods, and findings of this project, the authors examine four key ethical challenges. These are dilemmas in issue selection when the community is deeply divided over a problem area, inclusion and exclusion in study team makeup and sample selection, insider/outsider issues, and how best to use findings in ways that can unite and strengthen the community. The implications of these issues for health educators and others engaged in community-based PAR efforts are presented.

  14. Girls Study Girls Inc.: engaging girls in evaluation through participatory action research.

    PubMed

    Chen, Peiyao; Weiss, Faedra Lazar; Nicholson, Heather Johnston

    2010-09-01

    Between 2004 and 2007, Girls Incorporated conducted research about the experience of five affiliates from different parts of the United States as they engaged with girls in Girls Study Girls Inc., a participatory evaluation project that explored the meaning and impact of Girls Inc. environments and uncovered ways such environments can be improved. We describe the context and motivation for using participatory action research [PAR] in Girls Inc. environments and discuss the relevance and importance of PAR for organizations that empower girls and young women. We explain the process of training and engaging Girls Inc. members in research, discuss the effectiveness of Girls Study Girls Inc. as an evaluation strategy, and conclude this article with lessons learned and recommendations for using PAR in evaluating youth development programs.

  15. Experimental Semiotics: A New Approach For Studying Communication As A Form Of Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Galantucci, Bruno

    2015-01-01

    In the last few years, researchers have begun to investigate the emergence of novel forms of human communication in the laboratory. I survey this growing line of research, which may be called experimental semiotics, from three distinct angles. First, I situate the new approach in its theoretical and historical context. Second, I review a sample of studies that exemplify experimental semiotics. Third, I present an empirical study that illustrates how the new approach can help us understand the sociocognitive underpinnings of human communication. The main conclusion of the paper will be that, by reproducing micro samples of historical processes in the laboratory, experimental semiotics offers new powerful tools for investigating human communication as a form of joint action. PMID:25164941

  16. Inconsistencies in findings from the early lung cancer action project studies of lung cancer screening.

    PubMed

    Bach, Peter B

    2011-07-06

    Long-standing guidelines against screening high-risk individuals for lung cancer may change following the publication of the randomized National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which shows a benefit of computed tomography compared with chest x-ray screening. Guideline panels will likely also seek additional information from nonrandomized studies of computed tomography screening, such as the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP). However, for the ELCAP findings to be incorporated into new guidelines, some inconsistencies in the published data should first be resolved. Specifically, some of the reports from ELCAP appear to contradict others in terms of important endpoints, and several findings from ELCAP appear to be statistically improbable or outliers when compared with analyses and studies by other research groups. Clarification of both internal and external inconsistencies is a prerequisite for evaluation of the body of work published by ELCAP investigators.

  17. Collaborative agency to support integrated care for children, young people and families: an action research study

    PubMed Central

    Stuart, Kaz

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Collaboration was legislated in the delivery of integrated care in the early 2000s in the UK. This research explored how the reality of practice met the rhetoric of collaboration. Theory The paper is situated against a theoretical framework of structure, agency, identity and empowerment. Collectively and contextually these concepts inform the proposed model of ‘collaborative agency’ to sustain integrated care. The paper brings sociological theory on structure and agency to the dilemma of collaboration. Methods Participative action research was carried out in collaborative teams that aspired to achieve integrated care for children, young people and families between 2009 and 2013. It was a part time, PhD study in collaborative practice. Results The research established that people needed to be able to be jointly aware of their context, to make joint decisions, and jointly act in order to deliver integrated services, and proposes a model of collaborative agency derived from practitioner’s experiences and integrated action research and literature on agency. The model reflects the effects of a range of structures in shaping professional identity, empowerment, and agency in a dynamic. The author proposes that the collaborative agency model will support integrated care, although this is, as yet, an untested hypothesis. PMID:24868192

  18. Do emotions or gender drive our actions? A study of motor distractibility.

    PubMed

    Ambron, Elisabetta; Rumiati, Raffaella I; Foroni, Francesco

    2016-01-01

    People's interaction with the social environment depends on the ability to attend social cues with human faces being a key vehicle of this information. This study explores whether directing the attention to gender or emotion of a face interferes with ongoing actions. In two experiments, participants reached for one of two possible targets by relying on one of two features of a face, namely, emotion (Experiment 1) or gender (Experiment 2) of a non-target stimulus (a task-relevant distractor). Participants' reaching movements deviated toward the task-relevant distractor in both experiments. However, when attending to the gender of the face the distractor effect was modulated by both gender (task-relevant feature) and emotion (task-irrelevant feature), with the largest movement deviation being observed toward angry male faces. Endogenous allocation of attention toward faces elicits a competing motor response to the ongoing action and the emotional content of the face contributes to this process at a more automatic and implicit level.

  19. Health activism and the logic of connective action. A case study of rare disease patient organisations

    PubMed Central

    Vicari, Stefania; Cappai, Franco

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This exploratory work investigates the role of digital media in expanding health discourse practices in a way to transform traditional structures of agency in public health. By focusing on a sample of rare disease patient organisations as representative of contemporary health activism, this study investigates the role of digital communication in the development of (1) bottom-up sharing and co-production of health knowledge, (2) health public engagement dynamics and (3) health information pathways. Findings show that digital media affordances for patient organisations go beyond the provision of social support for patient communities; they ease one-way, two-way and crowdsourced processes of health knowledge sharing, exchange and co-production, provide personalised routes to health public engagement and bolster the emergence of varied pathways to health information where experiential knowledge and medical authority are equally valued. These forms of organisationally enabled connective action can help the surfacing of personal narratives that strengthen patient communities, the bottom-up production of health knowledge relevant to a wider public and the development of an informational and eventually cultural context that eases patients’ political action. PMID:27499676

  20. Scientist-teacher partnerships as professional development: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willcuts, Meredith Harris

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study's findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses -- that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.

  1. The study of combined action of agents using differential geometry of dose-effect surfaces.

    PubMed

    Lam, G K

    1992-09-01

    Although graphic surfaces have been used routinely in the study of combined action of agents, they are mainly used for display purposes. In this paper, it is shown that useful mechanistic information can be obtained from an analytical study of these surfaces using the tools of differential geometry. From the analysis of some simple dose-effect surfaces, it is proposed that the intrinsic curvature, referred to in differential geometry as the Gaussian curvature, of a dose-effect surface can be used as a general criterion for the classification of interaction between different agents. This is analogous to the interpretation of the line curvature of a dose-effect curve as an indication of self-interaction between doses for an agent. In this framework, the dose-effect surface would have basic uniform fabric with zero curvature in the absence of interaction, tentatively referred to as null-interaction. Pictorially speaking, this fabric is distorted locally or globally like the stretching and shrinking of a rubber sheet by the presence of interaction mechanisms between different agents. Since self-interaction with dilution dummies does not generate intrinsic curvature, this criterion of null-interaction would describe the interaction between two truly different agents. It is shown that many of the published interaction mechanisms give rise to dose-effect surfaces with characteristic curvatures. This possible correlation between the intrinsic geometric curvature of dose-effect surfaces and the biophysical mechanism of interaction presents an interesting philosophical viewpoint for the study of combined action of agents.

  2. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  3. Linking Knowledge and Action for a Transition to Sustainability: Lessons from the Yaqui Valley agricultural region and other case studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matson, P. A.

    2012-12-01

    In recent years, there has been a call-to-arms for the science community to focus on sustainability challenges, and many research programs and projects, publication venues, and meetings provide evidence of progress in this realm. Purposeful actions to link this new knowledge with action for meeting sustainability goals are less evident. This talk will provide several examples of linking knowledge and action for sustainability in agricultural systems of Sonora, Mexico, and will summarize some of the lessons learned from this case study in comparison with a number of others.

  4. 25 CFR 83.8 - Previous Federal acknowledgment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... evidence of previous Federal action acknowledging tribal status shall be made during the technical assistance review of the documented petition conducted pursuant to § 83.10(b). If a petition is awaiting...(b) to demonstrate that it comprises a distinct community at present. However, it need not...

  5. Imagining being the agent of actions that carry different moral consequences: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Decety, Jean; Porges, Eric C

    2011-09-01

    To investigate the contribution of agency to neural processing involved in aggression and morality, participants viewed in the MRI scanner a series of short visual scenarios in which an individual was either intentionally harming another person or easing the other's pain. They were required to mentally simulate being the perpetrator or the recipient of those actions. Functional connectivity analyses demonstrate that positive agency (easing the pain of another) was associated with increased activity in ventral striatum, while negative agency (harming the other) resulted in a strong signal decrease in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and activation in the amygdala. Overall, our data show that explicit perspective taking strategy has profound impact on the neural recruitment associated with distinct behaviors as well as their moral consequences. Results from this study can inform new strategies both for therapeutic interventions for patients with socioemotional disorders and the education of medical practitioners.

  6. Developing theory from complexity: reflections on a collaborative mixed method participatory action research study.

    PubMed

    Westhues, Anne; Ochocka, Joanna; Jacobson, Nora; Simich, Laura; Maiter, Sarah; Janzen, Rich; Fleras, Augie

    2008-05-01

    Research studies are increasingly complex: They draw on multiple methods to gather data, generate both qualitative and quantitative data, and frequently represent the perspectives of more than one stakeholder. The teams that generate them are increasingly multidisciplinary. A commitment to engaging community members in the research process often adds a further layer of complexity. How to approach a synthesizing analysis of these multiple and varied data sources with a large research team requires considerable reflection and dialogue. In this article, we outline the strategies used by one multidisciplinary team committed to a participatory action research (PAR) approach and engaged in a mixed method program of research to synthesize the findings from four subprojects into a conceptual framework that could guide practice in community mental health organizations. We also summarize factors that hold promise for increasing productivity when managing complex research projects.

  7. Understanding the data-action cycle of surveillance: a qualitative study of federal and state stakeholders.

    PubMed

    Lindsay, Ana Cristina; Sussner, Katarina M; Greaney, Mary L; Mierzwa, Sharon; Rich-Edwards, Janet; Wiecha, Jean; Peterson, Karen

    2010-03-01

    This qualitative study aims to understand how personnel in state and federal agencies view surveillance systems and the extent to which systematically collected data inform nutrition and physical activity policies and interventions addressing obesity. In-depth interviews were conducted with 17 respondents purposively sampled from state health departments, federal public health agencies, and prevention research centers. All informants acknowledged the importance of surveillance systems and influence of the data-action cycle for monitoring trends and increasing obesity awareness. However, state-level respondents believed surveillance systems should be designed for programmatic purposes, whereas federal participants thought they should be designed for monitoring. Respondents held differing opinions about the flexibility, timeliness, accessibility, and usefulness of existing national surveillance systems, highlighting significant differences in state and federal agencies' perceptions and utilization of surveillance systems. Such discrepancies call for increased communication surrounding purposes and uses of surveillance data, enabling stronger partnerships between state and federal agencies.

  8. The study of hydrogen peroxide level under cisplatin action using genetically encoded sensor hyper

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belova, A. S.; Orlova, A. G.; Maslennikova, A. V.; Brilkina, A. A.; Balalaeva, I. V.; Antonova, N. O.; Mishina, N. M.; Shakhova, N. M.; Belousov, V. V.

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the work was to study the participation of hydrogen peroxide in reaction of cervical cancer cell line HeLa Kyoto on cisplatin action. Determination of hydrogen peroxide level was performed using genetically encoded fluorescent sensor HyPer2. The dependence of cell viability on cisplatin concentration was determined using MTT assay. Mechanisms of cell death as well as HyPer2 reaction was revealed by flow cytometry after 6-hours of incubation with cisplatin in different concentrations. Cisplatin used in low concentrations had no effect on hydrogen peroxide level in HeLa Kyoto cells. Increase of HyPer2 fluorescence was detected only after exposure with cisplatin in high concentration. The reaction was not the consequence of cell death.

  9. An action research study; cultural differences impact how manufacturing organizations receive continuous improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kattman, Braden R.

    National culture and organizational culture impact how continuous improvement methods are received, implemented and deployed by suppliers. Previous research emphasized the dominance of national culture over organizational culture. The countries studied included Poland, Mexico, China, Taiwan, South Korea, Estonia, India, Canada, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Japan. The research found that Canada was most receptive to continuous improvement, with China being the least receptive. The study found that organizational culture was more influential than national culture. Isomorphism and benchmarking is driving continuous-improvement language and methods to be more universally known within business. Business and management practices are taking precedence in driving change within organizations.

  10. Inhibitory action of sphingosine, sphinganine and dexamethasone on glucose uptake: Studies with hydrogen peroxide and phorbol ester

    SciTech Connect

    Murray, D.K.; Hill, M.E.; Nelson, D.H. )

    1990-01-01

    The mechanism of the inhibitory action of glucocorticoids on glucose uptake is incompletely understood. Treatment with corticosteriods of cells in which glucose uptake is stimulated at insulin postbinding and postreceptor sites may clarify the site of the steroid inhibitory action. Hydrogen peroxide, which has been shown to stimulate the insulin receptor tyrosine kinase, and phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) which stimulates protein kinase C were, therefore, used as stimulators of glucose transport in this study. These studies demonstrate that dexamethasone and the sphingoid bases, sphinganine and sphingosine, inhibit glucose uptake that has been stimulated at either the receptor kinase or protein kinase C level in both 3T3-L1 and 3T3-C2 cells. These data confirm glucocorticoid inhibitory action at a post binding level and support the suggestion that some corticosteriod inhibitory effects may be mediated by an action on sphingolipid metabolism.

  11. Scientist-Teacher Partnerships as Professional Development: An Action Research Study

    SciTech Connect

    Willcuts, Meredith H.

    2009-04-01

    The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.

  12. Neighborhood and weight-related health behaviors in the Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) Study

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Previous studies have shown that neighborhood factors are associated with obesity, but few studies have evaluated the association with weight control behaviors. This study aims to conduct a multi-level analysis to examine the relationship between neighborhood SES and weight-related health behaviors. Methods In this ancillary study to Look AHEAD (Action for Health in Diabetes) a trial of long-term weight loss among individuals with type 2 diabetes, individual-level data on 1219 participants from 4 clinic sites at baseline were linked to neighborhood-level data at the tract level from the 2000 US Census and other databases. Neighborhood variables included SES (% living below the federal poverty level) and the availability of food stores, convenience stores, and restaurants. Dependent variables included BMI, eating patterns, weight control behaviors and resource use related to food and physical activity. Multi-level models were used to account for individual-level SES and potential confounders. Results The availability of restaurants was related to several eating and weight control behaviors. Compared to their counterparts in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants, participants in neighborhoods with more restaurants were more likely to eat breakfast (prevalence Ratio [PR] 1.29 95% CI: 1.01-1.62) and lunch (PR = 1.19, 1.04-1.36) at non-fast food restaurants. They were less likely to be attempting weight loss (OR = 0.93, 0.89-0.97) but more likely to engage in weight control behaviors for food and physical activity, respectively, than those who lived in neighborhoods with fewer restaurants. In contrast, neighborhood SES had little association with weight control behaviors. Conclusion In this selected group of weight loss trial participants, restaurant availability was associated with some weight control practices, but neighborhood SES was not. Future studies should give attention to other populations and to evaluating various aspects of the physical and social

  13. A phase I pilot study of the insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor pathway modulator AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Holgersson, Georg; Bergström, Stefan; Harmenberg, Johan; Ringbom, Magnus; Klockare, Maria; Jerling, Markus; Ekman, Simon; Lundström, Kristina Lamberg; Koyi, Hirsh; Brandén, Eva; Larsson, Olle; Bergqvist, Michael

    2015-04-01

    AXL1717 is an orally bioavailable IGF-1R pathway modulator that has been shown to have anti-tumoral effects. The objectives of the present study were to define maximum tolerated dose and the recommended phase II dose (RPTD) of AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Patients with previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic NSCLC (squamous cell cancer or adenocarcinoma) in good performance status and with preserved major organ functions were enrolled in the study. The study was an open-label phase I study with planned cohorts of three patients per dose level of AXL1717 (215, 290, and 390 mg BID). In total, 12 patients were enrolled in the study, and of these, two were prematurely excluded. AXL1717 was administered at one dose level, 215 mg BID. A total number of 81 unique adverse events were reported. Bone marrow toxicity was reported in 10 out of 12 patients, and this organ class showed the largest number of related events. AXL1717 in combination with gemcitabine HCl and carboplatin is a possible treatment approach in previously untreated, locally advanced, or metastatic non-small cell lung cancer. However, due to the bone marrow toxicity profile shown in the present study, further dose increases of AXL1717 above 215 mg BID will probably not be feasible. Therefore, 215 mg BID constitutes maximum tolerated dose and RPTD.

  14. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  15. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43F Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. "An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment (PA) was also performed at Fort Devens...I . Approved ior Public Release Distribution Unlimited I U.S. ArmyEnvironmentalCenter NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER I CERCLA 3 STUDY AREA 43F...JANUARY 1995 PRINTED ON RECYCLED PAPER 20070502736 AEC Form 45, 1 Feb 93 replaces THAMA Form 45 which is obsolete. NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA

  16. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43C Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. An Enhanced Preliminary...DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited U.S. Army Environmental NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER Center CERCLA ...NO FURTHER ACTION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43C HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS Section Title Page No. U

  17. 77 FR 70176 - Previous Participation Certification

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-23

    ... URBAN DEVELOPMENT Previous Participation Certification AGENCY: Office of the Chief Information Officer... programs. The information will be used to evaluate participants' previous participation in government...: Previous Participation Certification. OMB Approval Number: 2502-0118. Form Numbers: HUD-2530 ....

  18. Estrogen receptors and estetrol-dependent neuroprotective actions: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Pequeux, Christel; Munaut, Carine; Viellevoye, Renaud; Nisolle, Michelle; Noël, Agnes; Foidart, Jean-Michel

    2016-01-01

    Estetrol (E4) has strong antioxidative, neurogenic and angiogenic effects in neural system resulting in the attenuation of neonatal hypoxic–ischemic encephalopathy. We aimed to define the role of estrogen receptors in E4-dependent actions in neuronal cell cultures and prove the promyelinating effect of E4. In vitro the antioxidative and cell survival/proliferating effects of E4 on H2O2-induced oxidative stress in primary hippocampal cell cultures were studied using different combinations of specific inhibitors for ERα (MPP dihydrochloride), ERβ (PHTTP), GPR30 (G15) and palmytoilation (2-BR). LDH activity and cell survival assays were performed. In vivo the promyelinating role of different concentrations of E4 (1 mg/kg/day, 5 mg/kg/day, 10 mg/kg/day, 50 mg/kg/day) was investigated using the hypoxic–ischemic brain damage model in the 7-day-old immature rats before/after the induction of hypoxic–ischemic insult. Myelin basic protein (MBP) immunostaining was performed on brain coronal sections. Our results show that LDH activity is significantly upregulated in cell cultures where the E4’s effect was completely blocked by concomitant treatment either with ERα and ERβ inhibitors (MPP and PHTPP, respectively), or ERα and ERβ inhibitors combined with 2-BR. Cell survival is significantly downregulated in cell cultures where the effect of E4 was blocked by ERβ inhibitor (PHTTP) alone. The blockage of GRP30 receptor did affect neither LDH activity nor cell survival. MBP immunostaining is significantly upregulated in E4-pretreated groups at a concentration of 5 mg/kg/day and 50 mg/kg/day E4, whereas the MBP-positive area OD ratio is significantly increased in all the E4-treated groups. E4’s antioxidative actions mostly depend on ERα and ERβ, whereas neurogenesis and possibly promyelinating activities might be realized through ERβ. PMID:27799463

  19. In vivo and in vitro hyperbaric studies in mice suggest novel sites of action for ethanol.

    PubMed

    Davies, D L; Bolger, M B; Brinton, R D; Finn, D A; Alkana, R L

    1999-02-01

    The present study uses increased atmospheric pressure as an ethanol antagonist to test the hypothesis that allosteric coupling pathways in the GABA(A) receptor complex represent initial sites of action for ethanol. This was accomplished using behavioral and in vitro measures to determine the effects of pressure on ethanol and other GABAergic drugs in C57BL/6 and LS mice. Behaviorally, exposure to 12 times normal atmospheric pressure (ATA) of a helium-oxygen gas mixture (heliox) antagonized loss of righting reflex (LORR) induced by the allosteric modulators ethanol and pentobarbital, but did not antagonize LORR induced by the direct GABA agonist 4,5,6,7-tetrahydroisoxazolo-pyridin-3-ol (THIP). Similarly, exposure to 12 ATA heliox antagonized the anticonvulsant effects verses isoniazid of ethanol, diazepam and pentobarbital. Biochemically, exposure to 12 ATA heliox antagonized potentiation of GABA-activated 36Cl-uptake by ethanol, flunitrazepam and pentobarbital in LS mouse brain preparations, but did not alter GABA-activated 36Cl- uptake per se. In contrast to its antagonist effect versus other allosteric modulators, pressure did not antagonize these behavioral or in vitro effects induced by the neuroactive steroid, 3alpha-hydroxy-5beta-pregnan-20-one (3alpha,5beta-P). These findings add to evidence that pressure directly and selectively antagonizes drug effects mediated through allosteric coupling pathways. The results fit predictions, and thus support the hypothesis that allosteric coupling pathways in GABA(A) receptors represent initial sites of action for ethanol. Collectively, the results suggest that there may be common physicochemical and underlying structural characteristics that define ethanol sensitive regions of receptor proteins and/or their associated membranes that can be identified by pressure within (e.g., GABA(A)) and possibly across (e.g., GABA(A), NMDA, 5HT3) receptors.

  20. Familiarity modulates motor activation while other species' actions are observed: a magnetic stimulation study.

    PubMed

    Amoruso, Lucia; Urgesi, Cosimo

    2016-03-01

    Observing other people's actions facilitates the observer's motor system as compared with observing the same individuals at rest. This motor activation is thought to result from mirror-like activity in fronto-parietal areas, which enhances the excitability of the primary motor cortex via cortico-cortical pathways. Although covert motor activation in response to observed actions has been widely investigated between conspecifics, how humans cope with other species' actions has received less attention. For example, it remains unclear whether the human motor system is activated by observing other species' actions, and whether prior familiarity with the non-conspecific agent modulates this activation. Here, we combined single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation and motor-evoked potential recording to explore the impact of familiarity on motor activation during the observation of non-conspecific actions. Videos displaying actions performed either by a conspecific (human) or by a non-conspecific (dog) were shown to individuals who had prior familiarity or no familiarity at all with the non-conspecific agent. We found that, whereas individuals with long-lasting familiarity showed similar levels of motor activation for human and canine actions, individuals who had no familiarity showed higher motor activation for human than for canine actions. These findings suggest that the human motor system is flexible enough to resonate with other species, and that familiarity plays a key role in tuning this ability.

  1. Aristotelian Action Research: Its Value for Studying Character Education in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanderse, Wouter

    2016-01-01

    This article explores what it means for teachers to engage in and evaluate students' character education, by examining the connections between action research and Aristotelian virtue ethics. These connections are explored in two ways. Firstly, the article examines what perspective action research has on how moral education, understood in an…

  2. Does Lean Production Sacrifice Learning in a Manufacturing Environment? An Action Learning Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scott, Fiona M.; Butler, Jim; Edwards, John

    2001-01-01

    An action learning program was implemented by a manufacturer using lean production practices. Action learning practices were accommodated during times of stability, but abandoned in times of crisis. The meaning of work in this organizational culture excluded all practices, such as reflection, that were not visible and targeted at immediate…

  3. Our School at Blair Grocery: A Case Study in Promoting Environmental Action through Critical Environmental Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2012-01-01

    Despite wide agreement on the goals of environmental education (EE), the promotion of action is still considered contentious. Critical environmental education (critical EE) teaches students to combine critical reflection with the ability to engage in local action to address social/environmental problems. This article examines a critical urban…

  4. Improved gauge actions on anisotropic lattices I. Study of fundamental parameters in the weak coupling limit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sakai, S.; Saito, T.; Nakamura, A.

    2000-09-01

    On anisotropic lattices with the anisotropy ξ=a σ/a τ the following basic parameters are calculated by perturbative method: (1) the renormalization of the gauge coupling in spatial and temporal directions, g σ and g τ, (2) the Λ parameter, (3) the ratio of the renormalized and bare anisotropy η=ξ/ξ B and (4) the derivatives of the coupling constants with respect to ξ, ∂g σ-2/∂ξ and ∂g τ-2/∂ξ . We employ the improved gauge actions which consist of plaquette and six-link rectangular loops, c 0P(1×1) μν+c 1P(1×2) μν. This class of actions covers Symanzik, Iwasaki and DBW2 actions. The ratio η shows an impressive behavior as a function of c 1, i.e., η>1 for the standard Wilson and Symanzik actions, while η<1 for Iwasaki and DBW2 actions. This is confirmed non-perturbatively by numerical simulations in weak coupling regions. The derivatives ∂g -2τ/∂ξ and ∂g -2σ/∂ξ also change sign as -c 1 increases. For Iwasaki and DBW2 actions they become opposite sign to those for standard and Symanzik actions. However, their sum is independent of the type of actions due to Karsch's sum rule.

  5. Neuro-cognitive mechanisms of decision making in joint action: a human-robot interaction study.

    PubMed

    Bicho, Estela; Erlhagen, Wolfram; Louro, Luis; e Silva, Eliana Costa

    2011-10-01

    In this paper we present a model for action preparation and decision making in cooperative tasks that is inspired by recent experimental findings about the neuro-cognitive mechanisms supporting joint action in humans. It implements the coordination of actions and goals among the partners as a dynamic process that integrates contextual cues, shared task knowledge and predicted outcome of others' motor behavior. The control architecture is formalized by a system of coupled dynamic neural fields representing a distributed network of local but connected neural populations. Different pools of neurons encode task-relevant information about action means, task goals and context in the form of self-sustained activation patterns. These patterns are triggered by input from connected populations and evolve continuously in time under the influence of recurrent interactions. The dynamic model of joint action is evaluated in a task in which a robot and a human jointly construct a toy object. We show that the highly context sensitive mapping from action observation onto appropriate complementary actions allows coping with dynamically changing joint action situations.

  6. Work Plan for the Feasibility Study for Remedial Action at J-Field, Aberdeen Proving Ground, Maryland

    SciTech Connect

    Benioff, P.; Biang, C.; Haffenden, R.; Goyette, M.; Martino, L.; Patton, T.; Yuen, C.

    1995-05-01

    The purpose of the feasibility study is to gather sufficient information to develop and evaluate alternative remedial actions to address contamination at J-Field in compliance with the NCP, CERCLA, and SARA. This FS Work Plan summarizes existing environmental data for each AOC and outlines the tasks to be performed to evaluate and select remedial technologies. The tasks to be performed will include (1) developing remedial action objectives and identifying response actions to meet these objectives; (2) identifying and screening remedial action technologies on the basis of effectiveness, implementability, and cost; (3) assembling technologies into comprehensive alternatives for J-Field; (4) evaluating, in detail, each alternative against the nine EPA evaluation criteria and comparing the alternatives to identify their respective strengths and weaknesses; and (5) selecting the preferred alternative for each operable unit.

  7. Culture-specific familiarity equally mediates action representations across cultures.

    PubMed

    Umla-Runge, Katja; Fu, Xiaolan; Wang, Lamei; Zimmer, Hubert D

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that we need to distinguish between means and end information about actions. It is unclear how these two subtypes of action information relate to each other with theoretical accounts postulating the superiority of end over means information and others linking separate means and end routes of processing to actions of differential meaningfulness. Action meaningfulness or familiarity differs between cultures. In a cross-cultural setting, we investigated how action familiarity influences recognition memory for means and end information. Object directed actions of differential familiarity were presented to Chinese and German participants. Action familiarity modulated the representation of means and end information in both cultures in the same way, although the effects were based on different stimulus sets. Our results suggest that, in the representation of actions in memory, end information is superordinate to means information. This effect is independent of culture whereas action familiarity is not.

  8. "Creative Blocs": Action Research Study on the Implementation of Lego as a Tool for Reflective Practice with Social Care Practitioners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cavaliero, Tamsin

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether Lego could be used as a tool for reflective practice with social care practitioners (SCPs) and student practitioners. This article outlines an action research study conducted in an institute of higher education in Ireland. Findings from this study suggest that Lego can be used to support student…

  9. Bentonite-amended soil special study. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-12-01

    This special study was conducted to assess the viability of soil with a high percentage of bentonite added as an infiltration barrier in the cover of Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project disposal cells. To achieve maximum concentration limits (MCLs) at several UMTRA Project sites, covers with a very low permeability are needed. If alternate concentration limits (ACLs) are the appropriate site groundwater compliance strategy, the US Department of Energy (DOE) is required to demonstrate, among other things, that the infiltration to the disposal cell is as low as reasonably achievable, and hence that the cover has a very low permeability. When the study discussed here was begun, the lowest permeability element available was CLAYMAX[sub R], a manufactured liner material constructed of natural material (bentonite clay) between two geosynthetics.The strength of soil-bentonite mixes was measured to see if they could be placed on sideslopes and not pose stability problems. Also evaluated were the hydraulic conductivities of soil-bentonite mixes. If the strengths and permeabilities of soils with a high percentage of bentonite are favorable, the soils may be used as infiltration barriers in current cover designs without changing pile geometries. The scope of work for this study called for a literature review and a two-phased laboratory testing program. This report presents the results of the literature review and the first phase of the testing program.

  10. An action research study on the effect of an examination preparation course on Veterinary Technology National Examination scores

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Limon, Jennifer S.

    The action research project used for this dissertation was intended to examine the effect of implementing an examination preparation course for graduates taking the Veterinary Technology National Examination in Louisiana. Previous data showed that scores on the VTNE were declining at not only the state, but also the national level, thus allowing less graduates to enter the workforce as Registered Veterinary Technicians in Louisiana. The research question was "What impact did the exam prep course have on VTNE test scores?" The researcher focused on helping to better prepare graduates from a local community college Veterinary Technology program to take the VTNE by implementing an exam review course in the semester prior to graduation from the program. The focus of the review course was not only content review, but also test taking techniques, help with study habits, as well as presentation of techniques to help deal with test anxiety. Three sources of data were collected by the researcher including pre and post intervention VTNE scores, as well as survey results completed by the graduates participating in the study. There were 13 graduates who participated in the study, and the data for 50 prior graduates was used as a comparison for score improvement. Upon completion of the intervention, Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were used to analyze the data. The results revealed that while the intervention did have a positive effect on the graduates in terms of feeling prepared for the exam, it did not improve VTNE scores. A survey was administered to the participants upon completion of the course, and thematic coding was used to analyze the qualitative data. Overall the results indicated the learners felt the course helped prepare them for the VTNE, and the majority recommended implementing it for future learners.

  11. Understanding approach and avoidance in verbal descriptions of everyday actions: An ERP study.

    PubMed

    Marrero, Hipólito; Urrutia, Mabel; Beltrán, David; Gámez, Elena; Díaz, José M

    2017-02-13

    Understanding verbal descriptions of everyday actions could involve the neural representation of action direction (avoidance and approach) toward persons and things. We recorded the electrophysiological activity of participants while they were reading approach/avoidance action sentences that were directed toward a target: a thing/a person (i.e., "Petra accepted/rejected Ramón in her group"/ "Petra accepted/rejected the receipt of the bank"). We measured brain potentials time locked to the target word. In the case of things, we found a N400-like component with right frontal distribution modulated by approach/avoidance action. This component was more negative in avoidance than in approach sentences. In the case of persons, a later negative event-related potential (545-750 ms) with left frontal distribution was sensitive to verb direction, showing more negative amplitude for approach than avoidance actions. In addition, more negativity in approach-person sentences was associated with fear avoidance trait, whereas less negativity in avoidance-person sentences was associated with a greater approach trait. Our results support that verbal descriptions of approach/avoidance actions are encoded differently depending on whether the target is a thing or a person. Implications of these results for a social, emotional and motivational understanding of action language are discussed.

  12. Effects of binge drinking on action cascading processes: an EEG study.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Blaszkewicz, Meinolf; Beste, Christian

    2014-02-01

    High-dosage alcohol intoxication (i.e., binge drinking in humans) is an increasingly prevalent problem. Despite the well-known long-term consequences, the acute effects of high-dosage alcohol intoxication on cognitive control processes have not been investigated with respect to neurophysiological changes in humans. We provide insights into the effects of high-dosage ethanol intoxication on action control functions in humans on the basis of neurophysiological (EEG) data. Action control processes were examined in a stop-change task. Based on a detailed analysis of behavioral and electrophysiological data, we demonstrate a specific modulation of action cascading processes. Opposed to commonly held views, high-dosage ethanol intoxication (0.9-1.13 ‰) exerts highly specific effects on cognitive subprocesses mediating action control. If action control processes are performed in succession, intoxicated and non-intoxicated participants perform equally well. However, action control processes become compromised during high-dosage ethanol intoxication, when different response options require processing resources in parallel. Under high-dose ethanol intoxication, subjects are not able to prioritize different response options. We could demonstrate that the effects were of high effect sizes (η (2) = 0.702) and rely more on response selection deficits than on deficits in attentional processing. The changes in response selection processes are mediated via the anterior cingulate cortex. The specificity of the observed effects may be due to a differential involvement of dopaminergic and GABAergic processes in action control and attentional selection processes.

  13. Safer@home—Simulation and training: the study protocol of a qualitative action research design

    PubMed Central

    Wiig, Siri; Guise, Veslemøy; Anderson, Janet; Storm, Marianne; Lunde Husebø, Anne Marie; Testad, Ingelin; Søyland, Elsa; Moltu, Kirsti L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction While it is predicted that telecare and other information and communication technology (ICT)-assisted services will have an increasingly important role in future healthcare services, their implementation in practice is complex. For implementation of telecare to be successful and ensure quality of care, sufficient training for staff (healthcare professionals) and service users (patients) is fundamental. Telecare training has been found to have positive effects on attitudes to, sustained use of, and outcomes associated with telecare. However, the potential contribution of training in the adoption, quality and safety of telecare services is an under-investigated research field. The overall aim of this study is to develop and evaluate simulation-based telecare training programmes to aid the use of videophone technology in elderly home care. Research-based training programmes will be designed for healthcare professionals, service users and next of kin, and the study will explore the impact of training on adoption, quality and safety of new telecare services. Methods and analysis The study has a qualitative action research design. The research will be undertaken in close collaboration with a multidisciplinary team consisting of researchers and managers and clinical representatives from healthcare services in two Norwegian municipalities, alongside experts in clinical education and simulation, as well as service user (patient) representatives. The qualitative methods used involve focus group interviews, semistructured interviews, observation and document analysis. To ensure trustworthiness in the data analysis, we will apply member checks and analyst triangulation; in addition to providing contextual and sample description to allow for evaluation of transferability of our results to other contexts and groups. Ethics and dissemination The study is approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. The study is based on voluntary participation and informed

  14. Action observation versus motor imagery in learning a complex motor task: a short review of literature and a kinematics study.

    PubMed

    Gatti, R; Tettamanti, A; Gough, P M; Riboldi, E; Marinoni, L; Buccino, G

    2013-04-12

    Both motor imagery and action observation have been shown to play a role in learning or re-learning complex motor tasks. According to a well accepted view they share a common neurophysiological basis in the mirror neuron system. Neurons within this system discharge when individuals perform a specific action and when they look at another individual performing the same or a motorically related action. In the present paper, after a short review of literature on the role of action observation and motor imagery in motor learning, we report the results of a kinematics study where we directly compared motor imagery and action observation in learning a novel complex motor task. This involved movement of the right hand and foot in the same angular direction (in-phase movement), while at the same time moving the left hand and foot in an opposite angular direction (anti-phase movement), all at a frequency of 1Hz. Motor learning was assessed through kinematics recording of wrists and ankles. The results showed that action observation is better than motor imagery as a strategy for learning a novel complex motor task, at least in the fast early phase of motor learning. We forward that these results may have important implications in educational activities, sport training and neurorehabilitation.

  15. Studies on the mechanism of action of antitumor bis(aminophenolate) ruthenium(III) complexes.

    PubMed

    Dömötör, Orsolya; de Almeida, Rodrigo F M; Côrte-Real, Leonor; Matos, Cristina P; Marques, Fernanda; Matos, António; Real, Carla; Kiss, Tamás; Enyedy, Éva Anna; Helena Garcia, M; Tomaz, Ana Isabel

    2017-03-01

    Two recently published Ru(III) complexes bearing (N2O2) tetradentate bis(aminophenolate) ligands, formulated as [Ru(III)(salan)(PPh3)Cl] (salan is the tetradentate ligand 6,6'-(1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(3-methoxyphenol) in complex 1, or 2,2'-(1S,2S)-cyclohexane-1,2-diylbis(azanediyl)bis(methylene)bis(4-methoxyphenol) in complex 2; PPh3 is triphenylphosphane) and found very active against ovarian and breast adenocarcinoma human cells were studied to outline their antitumor mode of action. The human cisplatin-sensitive ovarian adenocarcinoma line A2780 was used herein as the cell model. At a 24h challenge (similarly as found before for 72h) both complexes are active, their cytotoxicity being comparable to that of cisplatin in the same conditions. As a possible target in the cell for their action, the interaction of 1 and 2 with DNA was assessed through displacement of well-established DNA fluorescent probes (ethidium bromide, EB, and 4',6-diamidino-2-phenylindole, DAPI) through steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence spectroscopy. The whole emission spectra were analyzed globally for the binary DNA-probe and ternary DNA-probe-Ru(III) complex systems. Both Ru(III) complexes can displace EB and bind to DNA with similar and moderate strong affinity with conditional stability constants of logK'=(5.05±0.01) for 1 and logK'=(4.79±0.01) for 2. The analysis of time-domain fluorescence intensity decays confirmed both qualitatively and quantitatively the model used to describe the binding and competition processes. Cell studies indicated that apoptosis is the major mechanism of cell death for both complexes, with 2 (the more active complex) promoting that process more efficiently than 1. Transmission electron micrographs revealed clear alterations on intracellular organization consistent with the induction of programmed cell death processes.

  16. An exploratory pilot study of mechanisms of action within normative feedback for adult drinkers

    PubMed Central

    Muench, Frederick J.; Lee, Rufina; Pena, Juan; Hail, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    Background. Normative feedback (NF), or receiving information about one’s drinking compared to peer drinking norms, is one of the most widely used brief interventions for prevention and intervention for hazardous alcohol use. NF has demonstrated predominantly small but significant effect sizes for intention to change and other drinking related outcomes. Identifying mechanisms of action may improve the effectiveness of NF; however, few studies have examined NF’s mechanisms of action, particularly among adults. Objective. This study is an exploratory analysis of two theorized mechanisms of NF: discrepancy (specifically personal dissonance—the affective response to feedback) and belief in the accuracy of feedback. Method. Using Amazon’s Mechanical Turk, 87 men (n = 56) and women (n = 31) completed an online survey during which they were asked about their perceptions about their drinking and actual drinking behaviors. Then participants were provided tailored NF and evaluated for their reactions. Severity of discrepancy was measured by the difference between one’s estimated percentile ranking of drinking compared to peers and actual percentile ranking. Surprise and worry reported due to the discrepancy were proxies for personal dissonance. Participants were also asked if they believed the feedback and if they had any plans to change their drinking. Mediation analyses were implemented, exploring whether surprise, worry, or belief in the accuracy of feedback mediated severity of discrepancy’s impact on plan for change. Results. Among this sample of adult drinkers, severity of discrepancy did not predict plan for change, and personal dissonance did not mediate severity of discrepancy. Severity of discrepancy was mediated by belief in the accuracy of feedback. In addition, viewing one’s drinking as a problem prior to feedback and post-NF worry both predicted plan for change independently. Conclusions. Results revealed that NF may not work to create personal

  17. Action Processing and Mirror Neuron Function in Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Jelsone-Swain, Laura; Persad, Carol; Burkard, David; Welsh, Robert C.

    2015-01-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a highly debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease. It has been suggested that social cognition may be affected, such as impairment in theory of mind (ToM) ability. Despite these findings, research in this area is scarce and the investigation of neural mechanisms behind such impairment is absent. Nineteen patients with ALS and eighteen healthy controls participated in this study. Because the mirror neuron system (MNS) is thought to be involved in theory of mind, we first implemented a straightforward action-execution and observation task to assess basic MNS function. Second, we examined the social-cognitive ability to understand actions of others, which is a component of ToM. We used fMRI to assess BOLD activity differences between groups during both experiments. Theory of mind was also measured behaviorally using the Reading the Mind in the Eyes test (RME). ALS patients displayed greater BOLD activity during the action-execution and observation task, especially throughout right anterior cortical regions. These areas included the right inferior operculum, premotor and primary motor regions, and left inferior parietal lobe. A conjunction analysis showed significantly more co-activated voxels during both the observation and action-execution conditions in the patient group throughout MNS regions. These results support a compensatory response in the MNS during action processing. In the action understanding experiment, healthy controls performed better behaviorally and subsequently recruited greater regions of activity throughout the prefrontal cortex and middle temporal gyrus. Lastly, action understanding performance was able to cluster patients with ALS into high and lower performing groups, which then differentiated RME performance. Collectively, these data suggest that social cognition, particularly theory of mind, may be affected in a subset of patients with ALS. This impairment may be related to functioning of

  18. Using Goal- and Grip-Related Information for Understanding the Correctness of Other’s Actions: An ERP Study

    PubMed Central

    van Elk, Michiel; Bousardt, Roel; Bekkering, Harold; van Schie, Hein T.

    2012-01-01

    Detecting errors in other’s actions is of pivotal importance for joint action, competitive behavior and observational learning. Although many studies have focused on the neural mechanisms involved in detecting low-level errors, relatively little is known about error-detection in everyday situations. The present study aimed to identify the functional and neural mechanisms whereby we understand the correctness of other’s actions involving well-known objects (e.g. pouring coffee in a cup). Participants observed action sequences in which the correctness of the object grasped and the grip applied to a pair of objects were independently manipulated. Observation of object violations (e.g. grasping the empty cup instead of the coffee pot) resulted in a stronger P3-effect than observation of grip errors (e.g. grasping the coffee pot at the upper part instead of the handle), likely reflecting a reorienting response, directing attention to the relevant location. Following the P3-effect, a parietal slow wave positivity was observed that persisted for grip-errors, likely reflecting the detection of an incorrect hand-object interaction. These findings provide new insight in the functional significance of the neurophysiological markers associated with the observation of incorrect actions and suggest that the P3-effect and the subsequent parietal slow wave positivity may reflect the detection of errors at different levels in the action hierarchy. Thereby this study elucidates the cognitive processes that support the detection of action violations in the selection of objects and grips. PMID:22606261

  19. Studies on the kinetics of killing and the proposed mechanism of action of microemulsions against fungi.

    PubMed

    Al-Adham, Ibrahim S I; Ashour, Hana; Al-Kaissi, Elham; Khalil, Enam; Kierans, Martin; Collier, Phillip J

    2013-09-15

    Microemulsions are physically stable oil/water clear dispersions, spontaneously formed and thermodynamically stable. They are composed in most cases of water, oil, surfactant and cosurfactant. Microemulsions are stable, self-preserving antimicrobial agents in their own right. The observed levels of antimicrobial activity associated with microemulsions may be due to the direct effect of the microemulsions themselves on the bacterial cytoplasmic membrane. The aim of this work is to study the growth behaviour of different microbes in presence of certain prepared physically stable microemulsion formulae over extended periods of time. An experiment was designed to study the kinetics of killing of a microemulsion preparation (17.3% Tween-80, 8.5% n-pentanol, 5% isopropyl myristate and 69.2% sterile distilled water) against selected test microorganisms (Candida albicans, Aspergillus niger, Schizosaccharomyces pombe and Rhodotorula spp.). Secondly, an experiment was designed to study the effects of the microemulsion preparation on the cytoplasmic membrane structure and function of selected fungal species by observation of 260 nm component leakage. Finally, the effects of the microemulsion on the fungal membrane structure and function using S. pombe were studied using transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the prepared microemulsions are stable, effective antimicrobial systems with effective killing rates against C. albicans, A. niger, S. pombe and Rhodotorula spp. The results indicate a proposed mechanism of action of significant anti-membrane activity, resulting in the gross disturbance and dysfunction of the cytoplasmic membrane structure which is followed by cell wall modifications, cytoplasmic coagulation, disruption of intracellular metabolism and cell death.

  20. Mode of action from dose-response microarray data: case study using 10 environmental chemicals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ligand-activated nuclear receptors regulate many biological processes through complex interactions with biological macromolecules. Certain xenobiotics alter nuclear receptor signaling through direct or indirect interactions. Defining the mode of action of such xenobiotics is di...

  1. NIH study uncovers new mechanism of action for class of chemotherapy drugs

    Cancer.gov

    NIH researchers have discovered a significant new mechanism of action for a class of chemotherapy drugs known as poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors, or PARP inhibitors. They have also identified differences in the toxic capabilities of three drugs in

  2. Action-State Orientation and the Theory of Planned Behavior: A Study of Job Search in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Song, Zhaoli; Wanberg, Connie; Niu, Xiongying; Xie, Yizhong

    2006-01-01

    Job search is an important element of people's careers and is especially critical for unemployed individuals. The current study surveyed a sample of 328 unemployed job seekers in China to test hypotheses related to the theory of planned behavior and action-state orientation theory. Results of the three-wave longitudinal study demonstrated that the…

  3. Parent Drug Education: A Participatory Action Research Study into Effective Communication about Drugs between Parents and Unrelated Young People

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallick, Jane

    2007-01-01

    Parent drug education is considered a key aspect of drug prevention. Effective communication acts as protective factor for drug misuse in young people. This study is a Participatory Action Research study of "Drugsbridge", a drug education programme that has an emphasis on facilitating intergenerational communication about drugs between parents and…

  4. "Facing the Battle": A Study of Michigan's and Maryland's Institutional Responses to Affirmative Action Litigation. ASHE Annual Meeting Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Denise O'Neil

    This study sought to understand the institutional behavior processes that occur when institutions are faced with anti-affirmative action litigation. A dual case study, conducted at the University of Maryland and at the University of Michigan, was designed to develop concepts linking litigation and institutional response. Using a grounded theory…

  5. Bortezomib Added to Daunorubicin and Cytarabine During Induction Therapy and to Intermediate-Dose Cytarabine for Consolidation in Patients With Previously Untreated Acute Myeloid Leukemia Age 60 to 75 Years: CALGB (Alliance) Study 10502

    PubMed Central

    Attar, Eyal C.; Johnson, Jeffrey L.; Amrein, Philip C.; Lozanski, Gerard; Wadleigh, Martha; DeAngelo, Daniel J.; Kolitz, Jonathan E.; Powell, Bayard L.; Voorhees, Peter; Wang, Eunice S.; Blum, William; Stone, Richard M.; Marcucci, Guido; Bloomfield, Clara D.; Moser, Barry; Larson, Richard A.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this study was to determine remission induction frequency when bortezomib was combined with daunorubicin and cytarabine in previously untreated older adults with acute myeloid leukemia (AML) and safety of bortezomib in combination with consolidation chemotherapy consisting of intermediate-dose cytarabine (Int-DAC). Patients and Methods Ninety-five adults (age 60 to 75 years; median, 67 years) with previously untreated AML (including therapy-related and previous myelodysplastic syndrome) received bortezomib 1.3 mg/m2 intravenously (IV) on days 1, 4, 8, and 11 with daunorubicin 60 mg/m2 on days 1 through 3 and cytarabine 100 mg/m2 by continuous IV infusion on days 1 through 7. Patients who achieved complete remission (CR) received up to two courses of consolidation chemotherapy with cytarabine 2 gm/m2 on days 1 through 5 with bortezomib. Three cohorts with escalating dose levels of bortezomib were tested (0.7, 1.0, and 1.3 mg/m2). Dose-limiting toxicities were assessed during the first cycle of consolidation. The relationship between cell surface expression of CD74 and clinical outcome was assessed. Results Frequency of CR was 65% (62 of 95), and 4% of patients (four of 95) achieved CR with incomplete platelet recovery (CRp). Eleven patients developed grade 3 sensory neuropathy. Bortezomib plus Int-DAC proved tolerable at the highest dose tested. Lower CD74 expression was associated with CR/CRp (P = .04) but not with disease-free or overall survival. Conclusion The addition of bortezomib to standard 3 + 7 daunorubicin and cytarabine induction chemotherapy for AML resulted in an encouraging remission rate. The maximum tested dose of bortezomib administered in combination with Int-DAC for remission consolidation was 1.3 mg/m2 and proved tolerable. Further testing of this regimen is planned. PMID:23129738

  6. Biological mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant: case study

    PubMed Central

    Przybysz, Arkadiusz; Gawrońska, Helena; Gajc-Wolska, Janina

    2014-01-01

    The challenges facing modern plant production involve (i) responding to the demand for food and resources of plant origin from the world's rapidly growing population, (ii) coping with the negative impact of stressful conditions mainly due to anthropopressure, and (iii) meeting consumers' new requirements and preferences for food that is high in nutritive value, natural, and free from harmful chemical additives. Despite employing the most modern plant cultivation technologies and the progress that has been made in breeding programs, the genetically-determined crop potential is still far from being fully exploited. Consequently yield and quality are often reduced, making production less, both profitable and attractive. There is an increasing desire to reduce the chemical input in agriculture and there has been a change toward integrated plant management and sustainable, environmentally-friendly systems. Biostimulants are a category of relatively new products of diverse formulations that positively affect a plant's vital processes and whose impact is usually more evident under stressful conditions. In this paper, information is provided on the mode of action of a nitrophenolates-based biostimulant, Atonik, in model species and economically important crops grown under both field and controlled conditions in a growth chamber. The effects of Atonik on plant morphology, physiology, biochemistry (crops and model plant) and yield and yield parameters (crops) is demonstrated. Effects of other biostimulants on studied in this work processes/parameters are also presented in discussion. PMID:25566287

  7. Proteomic studies on protein modification by cyclopentenone prostaglandins: expanding our view on electrophile actions.

    PubMed

    Garzón, Beatriz; Oeste, Clara L; Díez-Dacal, Beatriz; Pérez-Sala, Dolores

    2011-10-19

    Cyclopentenone prostaglandins (cyPG) are lipid mediators that participate in the mechanisms regulating inflammation and tumorigenesis. cyPG are electrophilic compounds that act mainly through the covalent modification of cellular proteins. The stability of many cyPG-protein adducts makes them suitable for proteomic analysis. Indeed, methodological advances in recent years have allowed identifying many cyPG targets, including components of pro-inflammatory transcription factors, cytoskeletal proteins, signaling kinases and proteins involved in redox control. Insight into the diversity of cyPG targets is providing a better understanding of their mechanism of action, uncovering novel links between resolution of inflammation, proliferation and redox regulation. Moreover, identification of the target residues has unveiled the selectivity of protein modification by these electrophiles, providing valuable information for potential pharmacological applications. Among the challenges ahead, the detection of proteins modified by endogenous cyPG and the quantitative aspects of the modification require further efforts. Importantly, only a few years after the appearance of the first proteomic studies, research on cyPG targets is yielding new paradigms for redox and electrophilic signaling.

  8. Site of anticonvulsant action on sodium channels: autoradiographic and electrophysiological studies in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Worley, P.F.; Baraban, J.M.

    1987-05-01

    The anticonvulsants phenytoin and carbamazepine interact allosterically with the batrachotoxin binding site of sodium channels. In the present study, we demonstrate an autoradiographic technique to localize the batrachotoxin binding site on sodium channels in rat brain using (/sup 3/H)batrachotoxinin-A 20-alpha-benzoate (BTX-B). Binding of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B to brain sections is dependent on potentiating allosteric interactions with scorpion venom and is displaced by BTX-B (Kd approximately 200 nM), aconitine, veratridine, and phenytoin with the same rank order of potencies as described in brain synaptosomes. The maximum number of (/sup 3/H)BTX-B binding sites in forebrain sections also agrees with biochemical determinations. Autoradiographic localizations indicate that (/sup 3/H)BTX-B binding sites are not restricted to cell bodies and axons but are present in synaptic zones throughout the brain. For example, a particularly dense concentration of these sites in the substantia nigra is associated with afferent terminals of the striatonigral projection. By contrast, myelinated structures possess much lower densities of binding sites. In addition, we present electrophysiological evidence that synaptic transmission, as opposed to axonal conduction, is preferentially sensitive to the action of aconitine and veratridine. Finally, the synaptic block produced by these sodium channel activators is inhibited by phenytoin and carbamazepine at therapeutic anticonvulsant concentrations.

  9. Hearsay Ethnography: Conversational Journals as a Method for Studying Culture in Action

    PubMed Central

    Watkins, Susan Cotts; Swidler, Ann

    2009-01-01

    Social scientists have long struggled to develop methods adequate to their theoretical understanding of meaning as collective and dynamic. While culture is widely understood as an emergent property of collectivities, the methods we use keep pulling us back towards interview-situated accounts and an image of culture as located in individual experience. Scholars who seek to access supra-individual semiotic structures by studying public rituals and other collectively-produced texts then have difficulty capturing the dynamic processes through which such meanings are created and changed in situ. To try to capture more effectively the way meaning is produced and re-produced in everyday life, we focus here on conversational interactions—the voices and actions that constitute the relational space among actors. Conversational journals provide us with a method: the analysis of texts produced by cultural insiders who keep journals of who-said-what-to-whom in conversations they overhear or events they participate in during the course of their daily lives. We describe the method, distinguishing it from other approaches and noting its drawbacks. We then illustrate the methodological advantages of conversational journals with examples from our texts. We end with a discussion of the method’s potential in our setting as well as in other places and times. PMID:20161457

  10. Study of physiological and biochemical mechanisms of insulin action on the emotional state of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Sakandelidze, R; Lomsianidze, I; Shalamberidze, A

    2011-09-01

    Insulin is an anabolic hormone with a broad spectrum of action. When linked with the specific receptors of the cell membrane insulin causes the changes in the whole plasmatic net of the cell and favourable conditions are created for complex biochemical processes. The goal of the research is to study the metabolic effect of insulin on the emotional state of the anxiety according to the animal model (rats). In order to reach the aim passive avoidance test ("punished water drinking") was used in an intact animal model as well as in the one with the experimental diabetes mellitus. Pharmacological substances: insulin and dithizone were applied. After insulin injection the intensification of anxiety state in central neural system is connected to the activation of the enzyme (thirozin-amino-transpherasa), which in its turn intensifies formation of amino acids (glutamine). The latter through either synaptic or outer-synaptic ways effects hippocampus and neurons of the brain tunic causing the increase of excitation and consequently intensifies the anxiety state. It was confirmed that exogenic introduction of insulin causes activation of innate behaviours, in particular the generation of anxiety emotion, that should be considered by an endocrinologist within the whole treatment period of insulin-dependent diabetic patients.

  11. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection.

  12. Embodied Action Improves Cognition in Children: Evidence from a Study Based on Piagetian Conservation Tasks

    PubMed Central

    Lozada, Mariana; Carro, Natalia

    2016-01-01

    Converging evidence highlights the relevance of embodied cognition in learning processes. In this study we evaluate whether embodied action (enaction) improves cognitive understanding in children. Using the Piagetian conservation tasks in 6–7 year olds, we analyzed quantity conservation conceptualization in children who were active participants in the transformation process and compared these results to those of children who were mere observers of an adult's demonstration (as traditionally conducted). The investigation was performed with 105 first-graders. Conservation tasks were demonstrated to half the children, while the other half actively carried out the transformation of matter. Our findings showed that active manipulation of the material helped children recognize quantity invariance in a higher proportion than when the demonstration was only observed. That is, their enactive experience enabled them to comprehend conservation phenomena more easily than if they were merely passive observers. The outcome of this research thus emphasizes how active participation benefits cognitive processes in learning contexts, promoting autonomy, and agency during childhood. PMID:27047420

  13. [Study on action mechanism of Danhong injection based on computational system biology approach].

    PubMed

    Lv, Yan-ni; Wei, Xiao-hua; Xiao, Pin

    2015-02-01

    Danhong injection is a compound preparation of traditional Chinese medicine Salvia miltiorrhiza and Carthamus tinctorius, and has been widely applied in treating coronary heart diseases and ischemic encephalopathy in clinic. Despite the complexity of its chemical compounds and the diversity of targets, especially in system biology, there have not a report for its action mechanism as a whole regulatory biological network. In this study, protein data of S. miltiorrhiza and C. tinctorius were searched in TCMGeneDIT database and agilent literature search (ALS) system to establish the multi-component protein network of S. miltiorrhiza, C. tinctorius and Danhong injection. Besides, the protein interaction network was built based on the protein-protein interaction in Genecards, BIND, BioGRID, IntAct, MINT and other databases. According to the findings, 10 compounds of S. miltiorrhiza and 14 compounds of C. tinctorius were correlated with proteins. The 24 common compounds had interactions with 81 proteins, and formed a protein interaction network with 60 none-isolated nodes. The Cluster ONE module was applied to make an enrichment analysis on the protein interaction network and extract one sub-network with significant difference P <0.05. The sub-network contains 23 key proteins, which involved five signaling pathways, namely Nod-like receptor signaling pathway, epithelial cell signaling in helicobacter pylori infection, Toll-like receptor signaling pathway, RIG-I-like receptor signaling pathway and neurotrophin signaling pathway through KEGG signaling pathway mapping. In this study, the computational system biology approach was adopted to preliminarily explain the molecular mechanism of main compounds of Danhong injection in preventing and treating diseases and provide reference for systematic studies on traditional Chinese medicine compounds.

  14. Protective action of low-intensity laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals (experimental study in vitro)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dejneka, S. Y.

    1997-12-01

    The study of a possible cytotoxic effect of different doses of low-insensitive laser radiation and protective action of low-intensive laser radiation relative to the toxic effect of metals was carried out by means of the alternative method of investigation in vitro on cell cultura Hela. It was established that the investigated doses of low-intensive laser radiation had not produced any toxic effect on cell culture Hela, so the mentioned doses were not cytotoxic. It was revealed that laser radiation reduced the level of the cytotoxic effect of the studied metal salts on the cell culture, and possessed the protective action against the toxic effect of metals. This action has a clear-cut dose- related character.

  15. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  16. Vilazodone for the Treatment of Major Depressive Disorder: Focusing on Its Clinical Studies and Mechanism of Action

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S

    2015-01-01

    We tried to review and update clinical and preclinical studies evaluating vilazodone's role as an antidepressant for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In terms of its mechanism of actions, we sought to elaborate them mainly through preclinical animal studies. A data search was conducted in November 1, 2013, using the key terms "vilazodone" or "Viibryd," in PubMed and Medline databases. All published and unpublished studies are included and citations from publications were also reviewed for additional references. Five unpublished, phase-II and two pivotal published phase-III clinical trials with nearly identical design (8-week, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled) investigated efficacy of vilazodone, were found for the treatment of patients with MDD. Two post-hoc studies and one long-term open study were also included. Data were thoroughly reviewed to incorporate the pharmacology, action mechanism, efficacy and safety for the vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Vilazodone is an antidepressant with novel mechanism of action because its chemical structure is unrelated to conventional antidepressant, and it has a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist profile. Vilazodone is an effective and safe treatment option with its novel action mechanisms for patients with depression. Its putative benefits compared with other antidepressants must be thoroughly studied in adequately-powered and well-designed future clinical trials. PMID:25866514

  17. Vilazodone for the treatment of major depressive disorder: focusing on its clinical studies and mechanism of action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Sheng-Min; Han, Changsu; Lee, Soo-Jung; Patkar, Ashwin A; Masand, Prakash S; Pae, Chi-Un

    2015-04-01

    We tried to review and update clinical and preclinical studies evaluating vilazodone's role as an antidepressant for patients with major depressive disorder (MDD). In terms of its mechanism of actions, we sought to elaborate them mainly through preclinical animal studies. A data search was conducted in November 1, 2013, using the key terms "vilazodone" or "Viibryd," in PubMed and Medline databases. All published and unpublished studies are included and citations from publications were also reviewed for additional references. Five unpublished, phase-II and two pivotal published phase-III clinical trials with nearly identical design (8-week, double-blind, randomized, and placebo-controlled) investigated efficacy of vilazodone, were found for the treatment of patients with MDD. Two post-hoc studies and one long-term open study were also included. Data were thoroughly reviewed to incorporate the pharmacology, action mechanism, efficacy and safety for the vilazodone in the treatment of major depressive disorder. Vilazodone is an antidepressant with novel mechanism of action because its chemical structure is unrelated to conventional antidepressant, and it has a selective serotonin (5-HT) reuptake inhibitor and 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist profile. Vilazodone is an effective and safe treatment option with its novel action mechanisms for patients with depression. Its putative benefits compared with other antidepressants must be thoroughly studied in adequately-powered and well-designed future clinical trials.

  18. A case study of global health at the university: implications for research and action

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Andrew D.; Cole, Donald C.; ter Kuile, Aleida; Forman, Lisa; Rouleau, Katherine; Philpott, Jane; Pakes, Barry; Jackson, Suzanne; Muntaner, Carles

    2014-01-01

    Background Global health is increasingly a major focus of institutions in high-income countries. However, little work has been done to date to study the inner workings of global health at the university level. Academics may have competing objectives, with few mechanisms to coordinate efforts and pool resources. Objective To conduct a case study of global health at Canada's largest health sciences university and to examine how its internal organization influences research and action. Design We drew on existing inventories, annual reports, and websites to create an institutional map, identifying centers and departments using the terms ‘global health’ or ‘international health’ to describe their activities. We compiled a list of academics who self-identified as working in global or international health. We purposively sampled persons in leadership positions as key informants. One investigator carried out confidential, semi-structured interviews with 20 key informants. Interview notes were returned to participants for verification and then analyzed thematically by pairs of coders. Synthesis was conducted jointly. Results More than 100 academics were identified as working in global health, situated in numerous institutions, centers, and departments. Global health academics interviewed shared a common sense of what global health means and the values that underpin such work. Most academics interviewed expressed frustration at the existing fragmentation and the lack of strategic direction, financial support, and recognition from the university. This hampered collaborative work and projects to tackle global health problems. Conclusions The University of Toronto is not exceptional in facing such challenges, and our findings align with existing literature that describes factors that inhibit collaboration in global health work at universities. Global health academics based at universities may work in institutional siloes and this limits both internal and external

  19. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  20. Banishing the Control Homunculi in Studies of Action Control and Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    McLaren, Ian P. L.; Chambers, Christopher D.

    2014-01-01

    For centuries, human self-control has fascinated scientists and nonscientists alike. Current theories often attribute it to an executive control system. But even though executive control receives a great deal of attention across disciplines, most aspects of it are still poorly understood. Many theories rely on an ill-defined set of “homunculi” doing jobs like “response inhibition” or “updating” without explaining how they do so. Furthermore, it is not always appreciated that control takes place across different timescales. These two issues hamper major advances. Here we focus on the mechanistic basis for the executive control of actions. We propose that at the most basic level, action control depends on three cognitive processes: signal detection, action selection, and action execution. These processes are modulated via error-correction or outcome-evaluation mechanisms, preparation, and task rules maintained in working and long-term memory. We also consider how executive control of actions becomes automatized with practice and how people develop a control network. Finally, we discuss how the application of this unified framework in clinical domains can increase our understanding of control deficits and provide a theoretical basis for the development of novel behavioral change interventions. PMID:25419227

  1. Cortical neural responses to previous trial outcome during learning of a directional choice task.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Mao, Hongwei; Si, Jennie

    2015-04-01

    The outcomes that result from previous behavior affect future choices in several ways, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. Previous studies have shown that the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular areas of the rat frontal cortex are involved in the learning and selection of action. Here we describe the activity of single neurons in AGl and AGm as rats learned to perform a directional choice task. Our analysis shows that single-cell activity in AGl and AGm was modulated by the outcome of the previous trial. A larger proportion of neurons encoded the previous trial's outcome shortly after cue onset than during other time periods of a trial. Most of these neurons had greater activity after correct trials than after error trials, a difference that increased as behavioral performance improved. The number of neurons encoding the previous trial's outcome correlated positively with performance accuracy. In summary, we found that neurons in both AGl and AGm encode the outcome of the immediately preceding trial, information that might play a role in the successful selection of action based on past experience.

  2. Cortical neural responses to previous trial outcome during learning of a directional choice task

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Yuan; Mao, Hongwei

    2014-01-01

    The outcomes that result from previous behavior affect future choices in several ways, but the neural mechanisms underlying these effects remain to be determined. Previous studies have shown that the lateral (AGl) and medial (AGm) agranular areas of the rat frontal cortex are involved in the learning and selection of action. Here we describe the activity of single neurons in AGl and AGm as rats learned to perform a directional choice task. Our analysis shows that single-cell activity in AGl and AGm was modulated by the outcome of the previous trial. A larger proportion of neurons encoded the previous trial's outcome shortly after cue onset than during other time periods of a trial. Most of these neurons had greater activity after correct trials than after error trials, a difference that increased as behavioral performance improved. The number of neurons encoding the previous trial's outcome correlated positively with performance accuracy. In summary, we found that neurons in both AGl and AGm encode the outcome of the immediately preceding trial, information that might play a role in the successful selection of action based on past experience. PMID:25552636

  3. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  4. Comparative Study of Action of Cell Wall Proteinases from Various Strains of Streptococcus cremoris on Bovine αs1-, β-, and κ-Casein

    PubMed Central

    Visser, Servaas; Exterkate, Fred A.; Slangen, Charles J.; de Veer, Gerrie J. C. M.

    1986-01-01

    Partially purified cell wall proteinases of eight strains of Streptococcus cremoris were compared in their action on bovine αs1-, β-, and κ-casein, as visualized by starch gel electrophoresis, sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and thin-layer chromatography. Characteristic degradation profiles could be distinguished, from which the occurrence of two proteinases, represented by strain HP and strain AM1, was concluded. The action of the HP-type proteinase P1 (also detectable in strains Wg2, C13, and TR) was established by electrophoretic methods to be directed preferentially towards β-casein. The AM1-type proteinase PIII (also detectable in strain SK11) was also able to degrade β-casein, but at the same time split αs1- and κ-casein more extensively than did PI. Strain FD27 exhibited mainly PI activity but also detectable PIII degradation characteristics. The cell wall proteinase preparation of strain E8 showed low PI as well as low PIII activity. All proteinase preparations produced from κ-casein positively charged degradation products with electrophoretic mobilities similar to those of degradation products released by the action of the milk-clotting enzyme chymosin. The differences between PI and PIII in mode of action, as detected by gel electrophoresis and thin-layer chromatography, were reflected by the courses of the initial degradation of methyl-14C-labeled β-casein and by the effect of αs1- plus κ-casein on these degradations. The results are discussed in the light of previous comparative studies of cell wall proteinases in strains of S. cremoris and with respect to the growth of this organism in milk. Images PMID:16347215

  5. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    This Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year (FY) 1995 (1 July 1994 through 30 June 1995). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Gunnison, Maybell, Naturita, Rifle, and Slick Rock, Colorado. Economic data were requested from the Remedial Action Contractor (RAC), the Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC) and the US Department of Energy (DOE). The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  6. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1993 (July 1, 1992, through June 30, 1993). To capture employment benefits, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Rifle, and Gunnison, Colorado. An estimated 52 percent of the employees working on the UMTRA Project responded to this information request. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. The most significant benefits associated with the UMTRA Project in Colorado are summarized.

  7. Introducing undergraduate medical teaching into general practice: an action research study.

    PubMed

    Grant, Andy; Robling, Michael

    2006-11-01

    Following the publication of Tomorrow's Doctors and as a result of increasing numbers of students recruited to medical school it is necessary to involve more general practitioners (family physicians) in undergraduate medical education. Students have responded positively regarding experiences in general practices with a broad spectrum of clinical conditions to be seen and greater involvement in clinical decision-making. This action research study followed a small group general practice in South Wales through the required preparation for undergraduate medical education and its first year of teaching. Preparatory work for the practice focused mainly on summarizing patient notes, setting up a practice library and arranging accommodation for the students. Members of the Primary Health Care Team (PHCT) found that having students in the practice gave them a sense of achievement and enhanced self-worth. Individuals within the practice felt more confident in their professional role and the team ethic within the practice was strengthened. Doctors' anxieties regarding the adequacy of their clinical skills proved unfounded. Patients were reported to feel more included in their care and to have enjoyed hearing their condition being discussed with the students. Students valued the one-to-one teaching, seeing common illnesses and a variety of consulting styles. It is hoped that this paper will be of value to those responsible for recruiting GP practices into undergraduate teaching. It demonstrates benefits for the primary health care team in terms of improved morale and sense of professional self-worth. Patients felt more involved in their care. Generalization from these findings is limited by only one practice having been involved. Undergraduate teaching offers advantages, particularly in terms of professional self-esteem and team morale.

  8. Molecular actions and therapeutic potential of lithium in preclinical and clinical studies of CNS disorders

    PubMed Central

    Chiu, Chi-Tso; Chuang, De-Maw

    2011-01-01

    Lithium has been used clinically to treat bipolar disorder for over half a century, and remains a fundamental pharmacological therapy for patients with this illness. Although lithium’s therapeutic mechanisms are not fully understood, substantial in vitro and in vivo evidence suggests that it has neuroprotective/neurotrophic properties against various insults, and considerable clinical potential for the treatment of several neurodegenerative conditions. Evidence from pharmacological and gene manipulation studies support the notion that glycogen synthase kinase-3 inhibition and induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor-mediated signaling are lithium’s main mechanisms of action, leading to enhanced cell survival pathways and alteration of a wide variety of downstream effectors. By inhibiting N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-mediated calcium influx, lithium also contributes to calcium homeostasis and suppresses calcium-dependent activation of pro-apoptotic signaling pathways. In addition, lithium decreases inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate by inhibiting phosphoinositol phosphatases, a process recently identified as a novel mechanism for inducing autophagy. Through these mechanisms, therapeutic doses of lithium have been demonstrated to defend neuronal cells against diverse forms of death insults and to improve behavioral as well as cognitive deficits in various animal models of neurodegenerative diseases, including stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, fragile X syndrome, as well as Huntington’s, Alzheimer’s, and Parkinson’s diseases, among others. Several clinical trials are also underway to assess the therapeutic effects of lithium for treating these disorders. This article reviews the most recent findings regarding the potential targets involved in lithium’s neuroprotective effects, and the implication of these findings for the treatment of a variety of diseases. PMID:20705090

  9. Quantitative structure-activity relationships of insecticides and plant growth regulators: comparative studies toward understanding the molecular mechanism of action.

    PubMed Central

    Iwamura, H; Nishimura, K; Fujita, T

    1985-01-01

    Emphasis was put on the comparative quantitative structure-activity approaches to the exploration of action mechanisms of structurally different classes of compounds showing the same type of activity as well as those of the same type of compounds having different actions. Examples were selected from studies performed on insecticides and plant growth regulators, i.e., neurotoxic carbamates, phosphates, pyrethroids and DDT analogs, insect juvenile hormone mimics, and cytokinin agonistic and antagonistic compounds. Similarities and dissimilarities in structures required to elicit activity between compounds classes were revealed in terms of physicochemical parameters, provoking further exploration and evoking insights into the molecular mechanisms of action which may lead to the development of new structures having better qualities. PMID:3905379

  10. The Impact of Career Workshops on Freshman College Students At-Risk for Dropout: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Donjanea F.

    2012-01-01

    College students on probation are generally considered at-risk for dropping out, as indicated by a wide range of literature. This article focuses on an action research study that explored the impact of a career workshop series on freshman students in a probation course at a medium-sized university located in the southeastern United States. The…

  11. Investigating the Value of Restorative Practice: An Action Research Study of One Boy in a Mixed Secondary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Standing, Vicky; Fearon, Colm; Dee, Tim

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In response to an increasingly high level of exclusion rates for boys within secondary school in the UK, this study seeks to explore the value of restorative practice and justice for changing student behaviour. Design/methodology/approach: As a piece of action research, the authors aimed to look at how methods of restorative practice…

  12. Building a Student-Centred Learning Framework Using Social Software in the Middle Years Classroom: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Gail

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the development of the online spaces that were used to create a learning framework: a student-centred framework that combined face-to-face teaching with online social and participatory media. The author, as part of her Doctoral research study, used action research as a mechanism for continual improvement as she redesigned…

  13. A Synthesis and Application Teaching Approach for Group Projects in an Undergraduate Business Course: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Laurena E.

    2009-01-01

    Scholars proposed it would be possible to enhance group effectiveness and functioning if people could develop a better appreciation of the processes surrounding group development (M. K. Smith, 2005). The action research study explored the facilitation of a synthesis and application teaching approach for group projects in the practice of two…

  14. A Study of the Influence of Service on Early Adolescents' Critical and Caring Thoughts and Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashley, Judith A.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the question of what impact opportunities for service had on early adolescents. I also hoped to discover what types of service might inspire critical, caring thought and action. Four principal implications emerged from this inquiry. For service to inspire caring, it should be practiced and personally…

  15. Using Action Research to Stimulate Organisational Change within Health Services: Experiences from Two Community-Based Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elsey, Helen; Lathlean, Judith

    2006-01-01

    The relevance of action research to organisational change within contemporary health services in the United Kingdom is discussed in this article. Two examples of collaborative community-based studies are presented: one exploring ways to encourage community participation within a health and regeneration programme and the other considering the types…

  16. 78 FR 59754 - Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION Federal Highway Administration Notice of Final Federal Agency Actions on the Proposed U.S. 50 Study Crossing Over Sinepauxent Bay in the Town of Ocean City, Worcester County, Maryland Correction In...

  17. Action at an Attentional Distance: A Study of Children's Reasoning about Causes and Effects Involving Spatial and Attentional Discontinuity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grotzer, Tina A.; Solis, S. Lynneth

    2015-01-01

    Spatial discontinuity between causes and effects is a feature of many scientific concepts, particularly those in the environmental and ecological sciences. Causes can be spatially separated from their effects by great distances. Action at a distance, the idea that causes and effects can be separated in physical space, is a well-studied concept in…

  18. Using Knowledge of Transactional Distance Theory to Strengthen an Online Developmental Reading Course: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minor, Jacquelyn Ileen

    2014-01-01

    Low retention rates for students enrolled in online developmental reading courses prompted instructors at 1 large Texas community college to examine their online classrooms for elements that were creating psychological distance and disconnectedness for their students. The purpose of this action research study was to assess the efficacy of using a…

  19. A Narrative Study of How an Online Practitioner Used a Personal Action Research Journal as a Form of Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker-Floyd, La-Kicia K.

    2011-01-01

    This narrative study will allow my reader a glimpse into real situations I have faced as an asynchronous online instructor in hopes to help me and my audience better understand how I, as a self-directed online practitioner, utilized action research recorded in a journal as a method to build capacity for continuous professional development to…

  20. Consent for genetics studies among clinical trial participants: findings from Action for Health in Diabetes (Look AHEAD)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Increasingly, genetic specimens are collected to expand the value of clinical trials through study of genetic effects on disease incidence, progression or response to interventions. We describe the experience obtaining IRB-approved DNA consent forms across the 19 institutions in the Action for Healt...

  1. Using a Participatory Action Research Approach to Create a Universally Designed Inclusive High School Science Course: A Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dymond, Stacy K.; Renzaglia, Adelle; Rosenstein, Amy; Chun, Eul Jung; Banks, Ronald A.; Niswander, Vicki; Gilson, Christie L.

    2006-01-01

    Case study methodology was used in combination with a participatory action research (PAR) approach to examine the process of redesigning one high school science course to incorporate the principles of Universal Design for Learning (UDL) and to promote access to the general curriculum. The participants included one general education teacher and two…

  2. The Mutual Shaping of Human Action and Institutional Settings: A Study of the Transformation of Children's Services and Professional Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Harry

    2010-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the way we understand and investigate the relationship between human functioning and social setting. The central argument draws on the work of Bernstein and Vygotsky. A novel approach to the study of the mutual shaping of human action and institutional settings is developed and an empirical example of its application…

  3. Making Space for Democracy through Assessment and Feedback in Higher Education: Thoughts from an Action Research Project in Education Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonnell, Jane; Curtis, Will

    2014-01-01

    This paper reports on an action research project into the development of a "democratic feedback model" with students on an education studies programme at a post-1992 university in the UK. Building on work that has explored the dialogic dimensions of assessment and feedback, the research explored the potential for more…

  4. AVIATION SECURITY: FAA’s Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-02-01

    Actions to Study Responsibilities and Funding for Airport Security and to Certify Screening Companies DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A Approved for...local law enforcement support relating to air carrier and airport security measures. The funding of the security operations is divided among FAA, the...generally agreed with the current division of airport security responsibilities. These officials stated that the continuity of screening would be

  5. Species diversity can be overestimated by a fixed empirical threshold: insights from DNA barcoding of the genus Cletus (Hemiptera: Coreidae) and the meta-analysis of COI data from previous phylogeographical studies.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hai-Guang; Lv, Min-Hua; Yi, Wen-Bo; Zhu, Wei-Bing; Bu, Wen-Jun

    2017-03-01

    The use of genetic distances to identify species within the framework of DNA barcoding has to some extent improved the development of biodiversity studies. However, using a fixed empirical threshold to delimit species may lead to overestimating species diversity. In this study, we use a new data set of COI sequences for 366 specimens within the genus of Cletus as well as conduct an analysis on the same genetic data for collected morphologically defined species from previous phylogeographical studies, to test whether high intraspecific genetic divergences are common with the premises of comprehensive sampling. The results indicate C. graminis Hsiao & Cheng , is the same species with C. punctiger (Dallas, 1852) and should be synonymized and that the distributional record of C. pugnator (Fabricius, 1787) in China is correct. High intraspecific genetic differentiations (0%-4.35%) were found in C. punctiger. Furthermore, as to the mined data, the maximum intraspecific K2P distances of 186 species (48.44% of 384) exceed 3%, and 101 species (26.30%) can be divided into two or more clusters with a threshold of 3% in cluster analysis. If genetic distance is used to delimit species boundaries, the minimum interspecific K2P distance of the congeneric species should be considered rather than only using the fixed empirical value; otherwise, the species richness may be overestimated in some cases.

  6. Transformative science education through action research and self-study practices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calderon, Olga

    The research studies human emotions through diverse methods and theoretical lenses. My intention in using this approach is to provide alternative ways of perceiving and interpreting emotions being experienced in the moment of arousal. Emotions are fundamental in human interactions because they are essential in the development of effective relationships of any kind and they can also mediate hostility towards others. I begin by presenting an impressionist auto-ethnography, which narrates a personal account of how science and scientific inquiry has been entrenched in me since childhood. I describe how emotions are an important part of how I perceive and respond to the world around me. I describe science in my life in terms of natural environments, which were the initial source of scientific wonder and bafflement for me. In this auto-ethnography, I recount how social interactions shaped my perceptions about people, the world, and my education trajectory. Furthermore, I illustrate how sociocultural structures are used in different contexts to mediate several life decisions that enable me to pursue a career in science and science education. I also reflect on how some of those sociocultural aspects mediated my emotional wellness. I reveal how my life and science are interconnected and I present my story as a segue to the remainder of the dissertation. In chapters 2 and 3, I address a methodology and associated methods for research on facial expression of emotion. I use a facial action coding system developed by Paul Ekman in the 1970s (Ekman, 2002) to study facial representation of emotions. In chapters 4 and 5, I review the history of oximetry and ways in which an oximeter can be used to obtain information on the physiological expression of emotions. I examine oximetry data in relation to emotional physiology in three different aspects; pulse rate, oxygenation of the blood, and plethysmography (i.e., strength of pulse). In chapters 3 and 5, I include data and

  7. Sural sensory nerve action potential: A study in healthy Indian subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sreenivasan, Aarthika; Mansukhani, Khushnuma A; Sharma, Alika; Balakrishnan, Lajita

    2016-01-01

    Background: The sural sensory nerve action potential (SNAP) is an important electrodiagnostic study for suspected peripheral neuropathies. Incorrect technique and unavailability of reference data can lead to erroneous conclusions. Objectives: To establish reference data for sural SNAP in age-stratified healthy subjects at three sites of stimulation. Materials and Methods: A prospective study was conducted in 146 nerves from healthy subjects aged between 18 years and 90 years, stratified into six age groups (a = 18-30 years, b = 31–40 years, c = 41–50 years, d = 51–60 years, e = 61–70 years, and f >71 years). Sural SNAP was recorded antidromically, stimulating at three sites at distances of 14 cm, 12 cm, and 10 cm from the recording electrode. Mean – 2 standard deviation (SD) of the transformed data was used to generate reference values for amplitudes. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) test was used for inter-group and between three sites comparisons of amplitudes. Results: The lower limits of amplitude at 14 cm were 12.4 μV, 10.4 μV, 6.5 μV, 5.3 μV, 2.9 μV, and 1.9 μV; at 12 cm were 13.5 μV, 13.6 μV, 8.5 μV, 7.8 μV, 3.5 μV, and 2.8 μV; and at 10 cm were 16.3 μV, 16.3 μV, 11.1 μV, 10.0 μV, 4.8 μV, and 3.7 μV for groups a, b, c, d, e, and f, respectively. A statistically significant difference in amplitudes was noted from the three different sites of stimulation (P < 0.001). The amplitude differed significantly above the age of 60 years (P < 0.01) but not between groups e and f (P > 0.05). Conclusion: This study provides reference data for sural SNAP in Indian population at three different sites of stimulation along the calf in six age groups. It also shows significant variation in amplitude from the three different sites of stimulation. PMID:27570380

  8. Phase II study of the effectiveness and safety of trastuzumab and paclitaxel for taxane‐ and trastuzumab‐naïve patients with HER2‐positive, previously treated, advanced, or recurrent gastric cancer (JFMC45‐1102)

    PubMed Central

    Nishikawa, Kazuhiro; Takahashi, Tsunehiro; Takaishi, Hiromasa; Miki, Akira; Noshiro, Hirokazu; Yoshikawa, Takaki; Nishida, Yasunori; Iwasa, Satoru; Miwa, Hiroto; Masuishi, Toshiki; Boku, Narikazu; Yamada, Yasuhide; Kodera, Yasuhiro; Yoshida, Kazuhiro; Morita, Satoshi; Sakamoto, Junichi; Saji, Shigetoyo

    2016-01-01

    Paclitaxel is a standard second‐line gastric cancer treatment in Japan. Trastuzumab could be active as second‐line chemotherapy for taxane/trastuzumab‐naïve patients with epidermal growth factor 2 (HER2)‐positive advanced gastric cancer. Patients aged ≥20 years with HER2‐positive, previously treated (except for trastuzumab and taxane), unresectable or recurrent gastric adenocarcinoma underwent combined trastuzumab (first and subsequent doses of 8 and 6 mg kg−1, respectively, every 3 weeks) and paclitaxel (days 1, 8, 15, every 4 weeks) treatment. Study endpoints were best overall response, progression‐free survival, overall survival, and safety. From September 2011 to March 2012, 47 Japanese patients were enrolled. Forty patients discontinued treatment after a median of 128.5 (range 4–486) days. Complete and partial responses were obtained in one and 16 patients (response rate of 37% [95% CI 23–52]), respectively. Median progression‐free survival and overall survival were 5.1 (95% CI 3.8–6.5) and 17.1 (95% CI 13.5–18.6) months, respectively. Grade 3/4 adverse events were neutropenia (32.6%), leukopenia (17.4%), anemia (15.2%) and hypoalbuminemia (8.7%). There was no clinically significant cardiotoxicity or cumulative toxicity. Three (disturbed consciousness, pulmonary fibrosis, and rapid disease progression) grade 5 events occurred. In conclusion, trastuzumab combined with paclitaxel was well tolerated and was a promising regimen for patients with HER2‐positive, previously treated, advanced or recurrent gastric cancer. PMID:27521503

  9. Venetoclax in patients with previously treated chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Roberts, Andrew W; Stilgenbauer, Stephan; Seymour, John F; Huang, David C S

    2017-01-18

    Venetoclax is the first BCL2 inhibitor to enter routine clinical practice. It is an orally bioavailable small molecule that binds BCL2 very specifically. Acting as a pharmacological mimic of the proteins that initiate apoptosis (a so-called BH3-mimetic), venetoclax rapidly induces apoptosis in chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) cells which express high levels of BCL2 and rely on it to maintain their survival. As a single agent, daily venetoclax treatment induced durable responses in 79% of patients with relapsed or refractory CLL or small lymphocytic lymphoma in a Phase 1 study, including complete remissions in 20% of patients. Its use was approved by the FDA in April 2016 for patients with previously treated del(17p) CLL on the basis of a single arm Phase 2 trial demonstrating a 79% response rate and an estimated 1 year progression-free survival of 72% with 400mg/day continuous therapy. This review focuses on venetoclax, its mechanism-of-action, pharmacology and clinical trial data, and seeks to place it in the context of rapid advances in therapy for patients with relapsed CLL, especially those with del(17p) CLL.

  10. Study of a Self-Managed Action Learning Set: What Makes It Last 14 Years?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    What contributes to longevity in an action learning (AL) set? What holds it together over a long period? The article relates the chronology and reasons why a self-managed set has flourished when so many sets of voluntary membership peter out. Major attributes of successful longevity are the adherence to strong ground rules and disciplined…

  11. Impact of Action Learning on Entrepreneurial Traits and Inclination: Evidence from a Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Hilleas Chi Hang; Man, Thomas Wing Yan

    2012-01-01

    Based on a comparative survey supplemented with focus group interviews, it was found that an action learning activity in an entrepreneurship programme produced both positive and negative results with regard to the entrepreneurial traits of students and their inclination towards entrepreneurship, depending on the influence of external and…

  12. A Multiple Case Study Based on Action-Oriented Sexuality Education: Perspectives of the Portuguese Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vilaça, Teresa

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to discuss teachers' practices, barriers and facilitating factors associated with a regional school-based action-oriented sexuality education (SE) project with the use of information and communication technology. Design/methodology/approach: This qualitative research was anchored in a constructivist paradigm,…

  13. Addressing Teen Dating Violence within a Rural Community: A Participatory Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, David N.

    2014-01-01

    Teen Dating Violence (TDV) has become a pervasive problem for youth in the United States, with 10% to 25% of high school students engaging in physical and sexual dating violence, and with even a greater percentage of youth experiencing some form of psychological maltreatment (Kervin & Obinna, 2010, "Youth action strategies in the primary…

  14. Development of Chemical Engineering Course Methods Using Action Research: Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Virkki-Hatakka, Terhi; Tuunila, Ritva; Nurkka, Niina

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on the systematic development of a teaching methodology for two chemical engineering courses. The aim was to improve the quality of teaching to achieve expected learning outcomes more effectively. The development was carried out over a period of several years based on an action research methodology with data systematically…

  15. Action Research as an Approach to Integrating Sustainability into MBA Programs: An Exploratory Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benn, Suzanne; Dunphy, Dexter

    2009-01-01

    This article reports on an exploratory project that employed an action research approach to integrating sustainability into core subjects in the MBA program at an Australian university. It documents the change methodology used, the theoretical basis for this choice, and the project outcomes. It then identifies some key enabling factors and…

  16. Development of Functional Connectivity during Adolescence: A Longitudinal Study Using an Action-Observation Paradigm

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shaw, Daniel J.; Grosbras, Marie-Helene; Leonard, Gabriel; Pike, G. Bruce; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Successful interpersonal interactions rely on an ability to read the emotional states of others and to modulate one's own behavior in response. The actions of others serve as valuable social stimuli in this respect, offering the observer an insight into the actor's emotional state. Social cognition continues to mature throughout adolescence. Here…

  17. Social Contributions to the Equilibration of Action Schemes: A Longitudinal Study of Locomotion.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lightfoot, Cynthia

    According to Jaan Valsiner, development takes place within culturally structured environments jointly organized by the activities of children and the people around them. When overlap between promoted activity and the child's zone of proximal development exists, the structure of action that results from the interplay of the two is internalized by…

  18. Adoption Actions and Attitudes of Couples Seeking In Vitro Fertilization: An Exploratory Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Linda S.

    1992-01-01

    Examined adoption actions and attitudes of 16 childless women, and husbands of 14 of the women, who applied for or underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF). Found that IVF and adoption were sought concurrently by most and that wives were more in favor of adoption than were husbands. (Author/NB)

  19. Fostering Communication between Students Working Collaboratively: Results from a Practitioner Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quebec Fuentes, Sarah

    2013-01-01

    As a secondary mathematics teacher, I used practitioner action research to determine effective ways to intervene with students working in groups, with the goal of improving their communication. Utilising transcripts of group interactions and teacher interventions, field notes, and student feedback, I discovered ten different issues that prevent…

  20. An Emancipation Framework for Technology Education Teachers: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mapotse, Tomé Awshar

    2015-01-01

    This article reports on how action research (AR) was influential in designing an educational instrument to contribute to emancipating teachers with no formal training to teach technology as a subject in secondary schools. The subject technology is referred to using different names in different countries. Some call it "science and…

  1. Edmund Burke's "Letter to a Noble Lord": A Textual Study in Political Philosophy and Rhetorical Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, Stephen H.

    1988-01-01

    Analyzes Edmund Burke's "Letter to a Noble Lord," noting that it not only reflects Burke's character, but also represents a significant example of the public letter as a rhetorical form and illustrates Burke's concern for the alignment of principle with public action. (MM)

  2. Supporting Parents of Young Children with Severe Disabilities: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yates, Andrea

    2012-01-01

    Parents of children with severe disabilities face many challenges. They must adjust to the changes in family dynamics, educational decisions, and the long-term implications of the severity of the disability. This action research project provides a detailed look into the lives of four families of children with severe disabilities. The parent…

  3. Seventh-Grade Students' Understanding of Chemical Reactions: Reflections from an Action Research Interview Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eilks, Ingo; Moellering, Jens; Valanides, Nicos

    2007-01-01

    This paper discusses seventh-grade students' explanations of dissolution and combustion and also identifies their understanding of the differences between physical and chemical changes. A teaching strategy was initially negotiated within an action research group and this strategy was then employed in teaching seventh-grade students. The teaching…

  4. Can We Remember Future Actions yet Forget the Last Two Minutes? Study in Transient Global Amnesia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hainselin, Mathieu; Quinette, Peggy; Desgranges, Beatrice; Martinaud, Olivier; Hannequin, Didier; de La Sayette, Vincent; Viader, Fausto; Eustache, Francis

    2011-01-01

    Transient global amnesia (TGA) is a clinical syndrome characterized by the abrupt onset of a massive episodic memory deficit that spares other cognitive functions. If the anterograde dimension is known to be impaired in TGA, researchers have yet to investigate prospective memory (PM)--which involves remembering to perform an intended action at…

  5. California: A Case Study in the Loss of Affirmative Action. A Policy Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gandara, Patricia

    2012-01-01

    This paper briefly reviews the various efforts undertaken by the University of California to maintain diversity in the institution, and especially at its highly competitive flagship campuses, UCLA and Berkeley, in the face of the loss of affirmative action during the mid-1990s. It demonstrates the continuing decline in representation of…

  6. Counterfactuals in Action: An fMRI Study of Counterfactual Sentences Describing Physical Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Urrutia, Mabel; Gennari, Silvia P.; de Vega, Manuel

    2012-01-01

    Counterfactual statements such as "if Mary had cleaned the room, she would have moved the sofa" convey both actual and hypothetical actions, namely, that Mary did not clean the room or move the sofa, but she would have done so in some possible past situation. Such statements are ubiquitous in daily life and are involved in critical cognitive…

  7. Children as Innovators in Action--A Study of Microcontrollers in Finnish Comprehensive Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Järvinen, Esa-Matti; Karsikas, Arto; Hintikka, Jouni

    2007-01-01

    In authoritative teaching methods, whereby the teacher controls the social interaction and other classroom activities, the actions of many children are often in response to what they perceive to be the teacher's expectations and the requirements of traditional school evaluation practices, such as examinations and tests. In this kind of school…

  8. Instruments of Change: An Action Research Study of Studio Art Instruction in Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Soganci, Ismail O.

    2016-01-01

    This article narrates a nine-month action research project conducted in order to improve studio art instruction in a preservice art education programme in Turkey. Setting out to determine the relevant problems through interpretation of conversations, anecdotes, essays and observations of 16 third-year BA students, the instructional atmosphere was…

  9. An Examination of Student Reengagement District Administrative Procedures: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Jared Louis

    2016-01-01

    Changes in Washington State law require all school districts to adopt policies and procedures concerned with student reengagement. This dissertation describes the action research undertaken in the Mead School District to address requirements of the new law to successfully reenter students after being absent due to exclusionary discipline. The…

  10. Empowering Parents in the College-Planning Process: An Action-Inquiry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Griffen, Jacalyn

    2015-01-01

    Involving parents in the college-planning process is essential to increasing access for students from low-income communities of color. Using the action inquiry model, we explore how collaboration between a school district and a university can empower parents to engage in meaningful conversations and planning related to college access. This…

  11. Values and Actions: An Exploratory Study of School Principals in the Mainland of China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pisapia, John R.; Lin, Ying

    2011-01-01

    This paper explores the relationship between leader values and actions in the Chinese context. The Chinese Value Instrument (CVI) and the Strategic Leadership Questionnaire (SLQ) were used as the primary data collection tools. The CVI was used to measure the presence of ten values: (1) social harmony, (2) benevolence and honesty, (3) initiative…

  12. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action project in Colorado: Colorado state fiscal year 1995. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-01

    As required by the Romer-Twining Agreement of 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared this annual economic impact study for the state of Colorado. This report assesses the economic impacts related to the DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project in Colorado during the state fiscal year (FY) between 1 July 1994 and 30 June 1995. To estimate net economic benefit, employment, salaries and wages, and other related economic benefits are discussed, quantified, and then compared to the state`s 10 percent share of the remedial action costs. Actual data obtained from sites currently undergoing remedial action were used as the basis for analyses. If data were not available, estimates were used to derive economic indicators. This study describes the types of employment associated with the UMTRA Project and estimates of the numbers of people employed by UMTRA Project subcontractors in Colorado during state FY 1995. Employment totals are reported in estimated average annual jobs; however, the actual number of workers at the site fluctuates depending on weather and on the status of remedial action activities. In addition, the actual number of people employed on the Project during the year may be higher than the average annual employment reported due to the temporary nature of some of the jobs.

  13. Preseason Perceived Physical Capability and Previous Injury

    PubMed Central

    Sciascia, Aaron; Haegele, Lauren E.; Lucas, Jean; Uhl, Timothy L.

    2015-01-01

    Context  Patient opinion about the ability to perform athletic maneuvers is important after injury; however, prospective assessment of self-perceived physical capability for athletes before the beginning of a season is lacking. Objective  To perform a descriptive analysis of knee, shoulder, and elbow self-perceived measures of physical capability specific to athletics and to compare the measures between athletes with and without a history of injury. Design  Cross-sectional study. Setting  Preparticipation physical examinations. Patients or Other Participants  A total of 738 collegiate athletes (486 men, 251 women; age = 19 ± 1 years) were administered questionnaires after receiving medical clearance to participate in their sports. Of those athletes, 350 reported a history of injury. Main Outcome Measure(s)  Athletes self-reported a history of knee, shoulder, or elbow injury. Perceived physical capability of the 3 joints was evaluated using the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sport and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score. We conducted nonparametric analysis to determine if scores differed between athletes with and without a history of injury. Results  Median values for the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score Sports and Recreation Function and Knee-Related Quality of Life subscales and the Kerlan-Jobe Orthopaedic Clinic Shoulder and Elbow Score for all athletes were 100. Median values for perceived physical capability of athletes with a history of injury were 3 to 12 points lower for each questionnaire before the start of the season (P < .001). Conclusions  Our study provided descriptive values for individual perceived knee, shoulder, and elbow physical capability of collegiate athletes participating in 19 sports. Athletes who did not report previous injuries perceived their physical capabilities to be nearly perfect, which could set the

  14. Process Assured Corrective Action- Human-in-the-Loop Case Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frechette, A.; Trujillo, M.; Evetts, S.; Sundblad, P.; Damann, V.; Fuglesang, C.; Herd, A.

    2010-09-01

    Operations on the International Space Station(ISS) are achieved through varying degrees of direct(on-orbit crew) and remote(ground-based operations teams) activity. Crew activities are undertaken following predefined and trained procedures. On ground, teams undertake rehearsed operational protocols and remote commanding based on the data received from on-orbit hardware(via tele-command and telemetry displays). One particular aspect of ISS operations, where the crew member forms a direct part of the system operations and the source of data collection, requires them to be the subjects of experimentation for data collection. These experiments(payloads) require additional considerations for Human-in-the-Loop(HITL) testing. It is regular practice that in parallel with on-orbit hardware operations, ground-based hardware is operating(in advance of, in time equivalence to or lagging behind) providing predictive data, replicating on-orbit operations, or allowing for corrections relative to actual on-orbit operations(respectively). For experimental physiology hardware and countermeasure device this presents specific challenges, as the normal ground-based parallel operations are not always an exact, "flight like", replica of the flight hardware. Furthermore, ground-based HITL operations must occur prior to flight with representative subjects as the actual crew member is often fully engaged with mission preparation training activities. In the context of corrective action, opportunities have been found to exist for process improvements in the application of Human Factors(HF) engineering standards and HITL simulations, in support of the design development for safety and mission assurance. The specific case studies highlighted, whilst limited in number, have provided detailed proposals to implement procedures for HITL simulation and usability testing during physiology hardware and countermeasure device development. The inclusion of HITL and usability testing in representative

  15. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43N Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    National Priorities List under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ), as amended by the Superfund ...T UT1ON STATEM4NT A Approved for Public Release Distribution Unlimited NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43N HISTORIC GAS STATION...DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43N HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS 3 TABLE OF CONTENTS U Section Title Page No. EXECUTIVE SUMMARY

  16. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Study Area 43P Historic Gas Station Sites, Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Compensation and Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment (PA) was also...I Approved for Public ’,eas e, Distribution Unlimited E U.S. Army IEnvironmentalCenter NO FURTHER ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA i STUDY AREA 43P... CERCLA STUDY AREA 43P HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS a I I Prepared for: U.S. Army Environmental Center Aberdeen Proving Ground

  17. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA, Fort Devens Study Area 28 Waste Explosives Detonation Range (Training Area 14)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1994-01-01

    Environmental Response, Compensation and Lability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. An Enhanced Preliminary...til3i NO FURT ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA FORT DEVENS STUDY AREA 28 WASTE EXPLOSIVES DETONATION RANGE (TRAINING AREA 14) DATA ITEM A009...UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 28 WASTE EXPLOSIVES DETONATION RANGE (TRAINING AREA 14) FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS Prepared for: U.S. Army Environmental

  18. No Further Action Decision Under CERCLA Study Area 43Q Historic Gas Station Sites Fort Devens, Massachusetts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-01-01

    Liability Act ( CERCLA ) as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act. An Enhanced Preliminary Assessment (PA) was also performed at... CERCLA STUDY AREA 43Q HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS , CONTRACT DAAA15-91-D-0008 U.S. ARMY ENVIRONMENTAL CENTER ABERDEEN PROVING...ACTION DECISION UNDER CERCLA STUDY AREA 43Q HISTORIC GAS STATION SITES 5 FORT DEVENS, MASSACHUSETTS V a I i Prepared for: U.S. Army Environmental Center

  19. Place-based pedagogy in the era of accountability: An action research study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracino, Peter C.

    Today's most common method of teaching biology---driven by calls for standardization and high-stakes testing---relies on a standards-based, de-contextualized approach to education. This results in "one size fits all" curriculums that ignore local contexts relevant to students' lives, discourage student engagement and ultimately work against a deep and lasting understanding of content. In contrast, place-based education---a pedagogical paradigm grounded in situated cognition and the progressive education tradition of John Dewey---utilizes the community as an integrating context for learning. It encourages the growth of school-community partnerships with an eye towards raising student achievement while also drawing students into the economic, political, social and ecological life of their communities. Such an approach seeks to provide students with learning experiences that are both academically significant and valuable to their communities. This study explores how high school science teachers can capitalize on the rich affordances offered by a place-based approach despite the constraints imposed by a state-mandated curriculum and high-stakes testing. Using action research, I designed, implemented, evaluated and refined an intervention that grounded a portion of a Living Environment high school course I teach in a place-based experience. This experience served as a unique anchoring event to contextualize students' learning of other required core topics. The overarching question framing this study is: How can science teachers capitalize on the rich affordances offered by a place-based approach despite the constraints imposed by a state-mandated curriculum and high-stakes testing? The following more specific questions were explored within the context of the intervention: (1) Which elements of the place-based paradigm could I effectively integrate into a Living Environment course? (2) In what ways would this integration impact students' interest? (3) In what ways would

  20. Efficacy of Zofenopril vs. Irbesartan in Combination with a Thiazide Diuretic in Hypertensive Patients with Multiple Risk Factors not Controlled by a Previous Monotherapy: A Review of the Double-Blind, Randomized "Z" Studies.

    PubMed

    Omboni, Stefano; Malacco, Ettore; Napoli, Claudio; Modesti, Pietro Amedeo; Manolis, Athanasios; Parati, Gianfranco; Agabiti-Rosei, Enrico; Borghi, Claudio

    2017-04-01

    Combinations between an angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin II receptor blocker (ARB) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) are among the recommended treatments for hypertensive patients uncontrolled by monotherapy. Four randomized, double-blind, parallel group studies with a similar design, including 1469 hypertensive patients uncontrolled by a previous monotherapy and with ≥1 cardiovascular risk factor, compared the efficacy of a combination of a sulfhydryl ACE inhibitor (zofenopril at 30 or 60 mg) or an ARB (irbesartan at 150 or 300 mg) plus HCTZ 12.5 mg. The extent of blood pressure (BP)-lowering was assessed in the office and over 24 h. Pleiotropic features of the treatments were evaluated by studying their effect on systemic inflammation, organ damage, arterial stiffness, and metabolic biochemical parameters. Both treatments similarly reduced office and ambulatory BPs after 18-24 weeks. In the ZODIAC study a larger reduction in high sensitivity C reactive protein (hs-CRP) was observed under zofenopril (-0.52 vs. +0.97 mg/dL under irbesartan, p = 0.001), suggesting a potential protective effect against the development of atherosclerosis. In the ZENITH study the rate of carotid plaque regression was significantly larger under zofenopril (32% vs. 16%; p = 0.047). In the diabetic patients of the ZAMES study, no adverse effects of treatments on blood glucose and lipids as well as an improvement of renal function were observed. In patients with isolated systolic hypertension of the ZEUS study, a slight and similar improvement in renal function and small reductions in pulse wave velocity (PWV), augmentation index (AI), and central systolic BP were documented with both treatments. Thus, the fixed combination of zofenopril and HCTZ may have a relevant place in the treatment of high-risk or monotherapy-treated uncontrolled hypertensive patients requiring a more prompt, intensive, and sustained BP reduction, in line with the

  1. Studies on the Mode of Action of Aminotriazole in the Induction of Chlorosis

    PubMed Central

    Vivekanandan, M.; Gnanam, A.

    1975-01-01

    The herbicide 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole induces complete chlorosis without any morphogenetic effect on Canna edulis leaves. Comparative analyses of the mineral and biochemical composition and also of the physiological properties of normal and bleached leaf cells establish a high specificity of this herbicide for inhibition of formation of chloroplast membranes. The synthesis of membrane lipids and chloroplastic terpenoid derivatives were specifically inhibited. This compound was found to inhibit photosynthetic O2 evolution and 14CO2 fixation at the whole cell level and ferricyanide reduction in isolated chloroplasts immediately after its application. This inhibition was reversible with the addition of a number of unrelated compounds shown to nullify its herbicidal effect. The mechanism of action of this compound in specifically blocking the development of chloroplast membranes in discussed in terms of its primary action on photosynthetic carbon fixation. PMID:16659115

  2. Studies on the mode of action of aminotriazole in the induction of chlorosis.

    PubMed

    Vivekanandan, M; Gnanam, A

    1975-03-01

    The herbicide 3-amino-1, 2, 4-triazole induces complete chlorosis without any morphogenetic effect on Canna edulis leaves. Comparative analyses of the mineral and biochemical composition and also of the physiological properties of normal and bleached leaf cells establish a high specificity of this herbicide for inhibition of formation of chloroplast membranes. The synthesis of membrane lipids and chloroplastic terpenoid derivatives were specifically inhibited. This compound was found to inhibit photosynthetic O(2) evolution and (14)CO(2) fixation at the whole cell level and ferricyanide reduction in isolated chloroplasts immediately after its application. This inhibition was reversible with the addition of a number of unrelated compounds shown to nullify its herbicidal effect.The mechanism of action of this compound in specifically blocking the development of chloroplast membranes in discussed in terms of its primary action on photosynthetic carbon fixation.

  3. Gallium a unique anti-resorptive agent in bone: Preclinical studies on its mechanisms of action

    SciTech Connect

    Bockman, R.; Adelman, R.; Donnelly, R.; Brody, L.; Warrell, R. ); Jones, K.W. )

    1990-01-01

    The discovery of gallium as a new and unique agent for the treatment of metabolic bone disorders was in part fortuitous. Gallium is an exciting new therapeutic agent for the treatment of pathologic states characterized by accelerated bone resorption. Compared to other therapeutic metal compounds containing platinum or germanium, gallium affects its antiresorptive action without any evidence of a cytotoxic effect on bone cells. Gallium is unique amongst all therapeutically available antiresorptive agents in that it favors bone formation. 18 refs., 1 fig.

  4. A school-based program implemented by community providers previously trained for the prevention of eating and weight-related problems in secondary-school adolescents: the MABIC study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The prevention of eating disorders and disordered eating are increasingly recognized as public health priorities. Challenges in this field included moving from efficacy to effectiveness and developing an integrated approach to the prevention of a broad spectrum of eating and weight-related problems. A previous efficacy trial indicated that a universal disordered eating prevention program, based on the social cognitive model, media literacy educational approach and cognitive dissonance theory, reduced risk factors for disordered eating, but it is unclear whether this program has effects under more real-world conditions. The main aim of this effectiveness trial protocol is to test whether this program has effects when incorporating an integrated approach to prevention and when previously-trained community providers implement the intervention. Methods/design The research design involved a multi-center non-randomized controlled trial with baseline, post and 1-year follow-up measures. Six schools from the city of Sabadell (close to Barcelona) participated in the intervention group, and eleven schools from four towns neighboring Sabadell participated in the control group. A total of 174 girls and 180 boys in the intervention group, and 484 girls and 490 boys in the control group were registered in class lists prior to baseline. A total of 18 community providers, secondary-school class tutors, nurses from the Catalan Government’s Health and School Program, and health promotion technicians from Sabadell City Council were trained and delivered the program. Shared risk factors of eating and weight-related problems were assessed as main measures. Discussion It will be vital for progress in disordered eating prevention to conduct effectiveness trials, which test whether interventions are effective when delivered by community providers under ecologically valid conditions, as opposed to tightly controlled research trials. The MABIC project will provide new

  5. Sebacinales Everywhere: Previously Overlooked Ubiquitous Fungal Endophytes

    PubMed Central

    Weiß, Michael; Sýkorová, Zuzana; Garnica, Sigisfredo; Riess, Kai; Martos, Florent; Krause, Cornelia; Oberwinkler, Franz; Bauer, Robert; Redecker, Dirk

    2011-01-01

    Inconspicuous basidiomycetes from the order Sebacinales are known to be involved in a puzzling variety of mutualistic plant-fungal symbioses (mycorrhizae), which presumably involve transport of mineral nutrients. Recently a few members of this fungal order not fitting this definition and commonly referred to as ‘endophytes’ have raised considerable interest by their ability to enhance plant growth and to increase resistance of their host plants against abiotic stress factors and fungal pathogens. Using DNA-based detection and electron microscopy, we show that Sebacinales are not only extremely versatile in their mycorrhizal associations, but are also almost universally present as symptomless endophytes. They occurred in field specimens of bryophytes, pteridophytes and all families of herbaceous angiosperms we investigated, including liverworts, wheat, maize, and the non-mycorrhizal model plant Arabidopsis thaliana. They were present in all habitats we studied on four continents. We even detected these fungi in herbarium specimens originating from pioneering field trips to North Africa in the 1830s/40s. No geographical or host patterns were detected. Our data suggest that the multitude of mycorrhizal interactions in Sebacinales may have arisen from an ancestral endophytic habit by specialization. Considering their proven beneficial influence on plant growth and their ubiquity, endophytic Sebacinales may be a previously unrecognized universal hidden force in plant ecosystems. PMID:21347229

  6. Outlier-based detection of unusual patient-management actions: An ICU study.

    PubMed

    Hauskrecht, Milos; Batal, Iyad; Hong, Charmgil; Nguyen, Quang; Cooper, Gregory F; Visweswaran, Shyam; Clermont, Gilles

    2016-12-01

    Medical errors remain a significant problem in healthcare. This paper investigates a data-driven outlier-based monitoring and alerting framework that uses data in the Electronic Medical Records (EMRs) repositories of past patient cases to identify any unusual clinical actions in the EMR of a current patient. Our conjecture is that these unusual clinical actions correspond to medical errors often enough to justify their detection and alerting. Our approach works by using EMR repositories to learn statistical models that relate patient states to patient-management actions. We evaluated this approach on the EMR data for 24,658 intensive care unit (ICU) patient cases. A total of 16,500 cases were used to train statistical models for ordering medications and laboratory tests given the patient state summarizing the patient's clinical history. The models were applied to a separate test set of 8158 ICU patient cases and used to generate alerts. A subset of 240 alerts generated by the models were evaluated and assessed by eighteen ICU clinicians. The overall true positive rates for the alerts (TPARs) ranged from 0.44 to 0.71. The TPAR for medication order alerts specifically ranged from 0.31 to 0.61 and for laboratory order alerts from 0.44 to 0.75. These results support outlier-based alerting as a promising new approach to data-driven clinical alerting that is generated automatically based on past EMR data.

  7. Protonation Preferentially Stabilizes Minor Tautomers of the Halouracils: IRMPD Action Spectroscopy and Theoretical Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crampton, K. T.; Rathur, A. I.; Nei, Y.-w.; Berden, G.; Oomens, J.; Rodgers, M. T.

    2012-09-01

    Tautomerization induced by protonation of halouracils may increase their efficacy as anti-cancer drugs by altering their reactivity and hydrogen bonding characteristics, potentially inducing errors during DNA and RNA replication. The gas-phase structures of protonated complexes of five halouracils, including 5-fluorouracil, 5-chlorouracil, 5-bromouracil, 5-iodouracil, and 6-chlorouracil are examined via infrared multiple photon dissociation (IRMPD) action spectroscopy and theoretical electronic structure calculations. IRMPD action spectra were measured for each complex in the IR fingerprint region extending from ~1000 to 1900 cm-1 using the free electron laser (FELIX). Correlations are made between the measured IRMPD action spectra and the linear IR spectra for the stable low-energy tautomeric conformations computed at the B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,2p)//B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Absence of an intense band(s) in the IRMPD spectrum arising from the carbonyl stretch(es) that are expected to appear near 1825 cm-1 provides evidence that protonation induces tautomerization and preferentially stabilizes alternative, noncanonical tautomers of these halouracils where both keto functionalities are converted to hydroxyl groups upon binding of a proton. The weak, but measurable absorption, which does occur for these systems near 1835 cm-1 suggests that in addition to the ground-state conformer, very minor populations of excited, low-energy conformers that contain keto functionalities are also present in these experiments.

  8. Caenorhabditis elegans as a platform to study the mechanism of action of synthetic antitumor lipids.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Blanco, Adolfo; Rodríguez-Matellán, Alberto G; Reis-Sobreiro, Mariana; Sáenz-Narciso, Beatriz; Cabello, Juan; Mohler, William A; Mollinedo, Faustino

    2014-01-01

    Drugs capable of specifically recognizing and killing cancer cells while sparing healthy cells are of great interest in anti-cancer therapy. An example of such a drug is edelfosine, the prototype molecule of a family of synthetic lipids collectively known as antitumor lipids (ATLs). A better understanding of the selectivity and the mechanism of action of these compounds would lead to better anticancer treatments. Using Caenorhabditis elegans, we modeled key features of the ATL selectivity against cancer cells. Edelfosine induced a selective and direct killing action on C. elegans embryos, which was dependent on cholesterol, without affecting adult worms and larvae. Distinct ATLs ranked differently in their embryonic lethal effect with edelfosine > perifosine > erucylphosphocholine > miltefosine. Following a biased screening of 57 C. elegans mutants we found that inactivation of components of the insulin/IGF-1 signaling pathway led to resistance against the ATL edelfosine in both C. elegans and human tumor cells. This paper shows that C. elegans can be used as a rapid platform to facilitate ATL research and to further understand the mechanism of action of edelfosine and other synthetic ATLs.

  9. Controlling Attention through Action: Observing Actions Primes Action-Related Stimulus Dimensions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fagioli, Sabrina; Ferlazzo, Fabio; Hommel, Bernhard

    2007-01-01

    Previous findings suggest that planning an action "backward-primes" perceptual dimension related to this action: planning a grasp facilitates the processing of visual size information, while planning a reach facilitates the processing of location information. Here we show that dimensional priming of perception through action occurs even in the…

  10. Pharmacokinetics, efficacy and safety of BAX326, a novel recombinant factor IX: a prospective, controlled, multicentre phase I/III study in previously treated patients with severe (FIX level <1%) or moderately severe (FIX level ≤2%) haemophilia B.

    PubMed

    Windyga, J; Lissitchkov, T; Stasyshyn, O; Mamonov, V; Rusen, L; Lamas, J L; Oh, M-S; Chapman, M; Fritsch, S; Pavlova, B G; Wong, W-Y; Abbuehl, B E

    2014-01-01

    BAX326 is a recombinant factor IX (rFIX; nonacog gamma) manufactured without the addition of any materials of human or animal origin, and with two viral inactivation steps (solvent/detergent treatment and 15 nm nanofiltration). The aim of this prospective trial was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, haemostatic efficacy and safety of BAX326 in previously treated patients aged 12-65 years with severe or moderately severe haemophilia B. BAX326 was safe and well tolerated in all 73 treated subjects; adverse events considered related to treatment (2.7% incidence, all non-serious) were transient and mild, and no hypersensitivity reactions, inhibitor formation or thrombotic events were observed. Pharmacokinetic (PK) equivalence (n = 28) between BAX326 and a licensed rFIX was confirmed in terms of the ratio of geometric mean AUC(0-72) h per dose. Twice-weekly prophylaxis [mean duration 6.2 (±0.7) months; 1.8 (±0.1) infusions per week, 49.5 (±4.8) IU kg(-1) per infusion] was effective in preventing bleeding episodes, with a significantly lower (79%, P < 0.001) annualized bleed rate (4.2) compared to an on-demand treatment in a historical control group (20.0); 24 of 56 subjects on prophylaxis (43%) did not bleed throughout the study observation period. Of 249 total acute bleeds, 211 (84.7%) were controlled with one to two infusions of BAX326. Haemostatic efficacy at resolution of bleed was rated excellent or good in 96.0% of all treated bleeding episodes. The results of this study indicate that BAX326 is safe and efficacious in treating bleeds and routine prophylaxis in patients aged 12 years and older with haemophilia B.

  11. Completed Suicides and their Previous Attempts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, David; Beck, Aaron T.

    1976-01-01

    Investigates the reliability of the findings of Ovenstone and Krietman (some completed suicides have attempted suicide previously, whereas other completed suicides have no such history) with a sample of completed suicides in the United States. (Author/RK)

  12. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control.

    PubMed

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  13. Slips of Action and Sequential Decisions: A Cross-Validation Study of Tasks Assessing Habitual and Goal-Directed Action Control

    PubMed Central

    Sjoerds, Zsuzsika; Dietrich, Anja; Deserno, Lorenz; de Wit, Sanne; Villringer, Arno; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Schlagenhauf, Florian; Horstmann, Annette

    2016-01-01

    Instrumental learning and decision-making rely on two parallel systems: a goal-directed and a habitual system. In the past decade, several paradigms have been developed to study these systems in animals and humans by means of e.g., overtraining, devaluation procedures and sequential decision-making. These different paradigms are thought to measure the same constructs, but cross-validation has rarely been investigated. In this study we compared two widely used paradigms that assess aspects of goal-directed and habitual behavior. We correlated parameters from a two-step sequential decision-making task that assesses model-based (MB) and model-free (MF) learning with a slips-of-action paradigm that assesses the ability to suppress cue-triggered, learnt responses when the outcome has been devalued and is therefore no longer desirable. MB control during the two-step task showed a very moderately positive correlation with goal-directed devaluation sensitivity, whereas MF control did not show any associations. Interestingly, parameter estimates of MB and goal-directed behavior in the two tasks were positively correlated with higher-order cognitive measures (e.g., visual short-term memory). These cognitive measures seemed to (at least partly) mediate the association between MB control during sequential decision-making and goal-directed behavior after instructed devaluation. This study provides moderate support for a common framework to describe the propensity towards goal-directed behavior as measured with two frequently used tasks. However, we have to caution that the amount of shared variance between the goal-directed and MB system in both tasks was rather low, suggesting that each task does also pick up distinct aspects of goal-directed behavior. Further investigation of the commonalities and differences between the MF and habit systems as measured with these, and other, tasks is needed. Also, a follow-up cross-validation on the neural systems driving these constructs

  14. Characterization of ambient aerosols in Mexico City during the MCMA-2003 campaign with Aerosol Mass Spectrometry Part II: overview of the results at the CENICA supersite and comparison to previous studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salcedo, D.; Dzepina, K.; Onasch, T. B.; Canagaratna, M. R.; Jayne, J. T.; Worsnop, D. R.; Gaffney, J. S.; Marley, N. A.; Johnson, K. S.; Zuberi, B.; Molina, L. T.; Molina, M. J.; Shutthanandan, V.; Xie, Y.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2005-06-01

    An Aerodyne Aerosol Mass Spectrometer (AMS) was deployed at the CENICA Supersite during the Mexico City Metropolitan Area field study from 31 March-4 May 2003. The AMS provides real time information on mass concentration and composition of the non-refractory species in particulate matter less than 1 µm (NR-PM1) with high time and size-resolution. Measurements of Black Carbon (BC) using an aethalometer, and estimated soil concentrations from Proton-Induced X-Ray Emission (PIXE) analysis of impactor substrates are also presented and combined with the AMS in order to include refractory material and estimate the total PM2.5 mass concentration at CENICA during this campaign. In Mexico City, the organic fraction of the estimated PM2.5 at CENICA represents 54.6% of the mass, with the rest consisting of inorganic compounds (mainly ammonium nitrate and sulfate/ammonium salts), BC, and soil. Inorganic compounds represent 27.5% of PM2.5; BC mass concentration is about 11%; while soil represents about 6.9%. The NR species and BC have diurnal cycles that can be qualitatively interpreted as the interplay of direct emissions, photochemical production in the atmosphere followed by condensation and gas-to-particle partitioning, boundary layer dynamics, and/or advection. Bi- and trimodal size distributions are observed for the AMS species, with a small combustion (likely traffic) organic particle mode and an accumulation mode that contains mainly organic and secondary inorganic compounds. The AMS and BC mass concentrations, size distributions, and diurnal cycles are found to be qualitatively similar to those from most previous field measurements in Mexico City.

  15. Overview and comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines - COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian; Benedetto, Andrea; Tosti, Fabio

    2016-04-01

    and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil engineering applications of Ground Penetrating Radar." The Authors thank COST (www.cost.eu) for funding the Action TU1208 (www.GPRadar.eu). Part of this work was carried out during the Short-Term Scientific Mission STSM-TU1208-24656 "Comparative study of GPR international standards and guidelines" (Dr Lara Pajewski, Italy, visiting Prof Marian Marciniak, Poland).

  16. Finite-temperature behavior of lattice QCD with Wilson fermion action and its implication on spectroscopic studies

    SciTech Connect

    Fukugita, M.; Ohta, S.; Ukawa, A.

    1986-10-20

    Finite-temperature behavior of lattice QCD is studied with the Wilson fermion action and use of the Langevin technique for treating quarks dynamically. It is found that the transition zone from low- to high-temperature behavior does not cross the line of critical hopping parameter, but rather continues down to the strong-coupling limit. Practical implications for spectroscopic simulations at small quark masses are discussed.

  17. An Ontology for Requesting Distant Robotic Action: A Case Study in Naming and Action Identification for Planning on the Mars Exploration Rover Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wales, Roxana C.; Shalin, Valerie L.; Bass, Deborah S.

    2004-01-01

    This paper focuses on the development and use of the abbreviated names as well as an emergent ontology associated with making requests for action of a distant robotic rover during the 2003-2004 NASA Mars Exploration Rover (MER) mission, run by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The infancy of the domain of Martian telerobotic science, in which specialists request work from a rover moving through the landscape, as well as the need to consider the interdisciplinary teams involved in the work required an empirical approach. The formulation of this ontology is grounded in human behavior and work practice. The purpose of this paper is to identify general issues for an ontology of action (specifically for requests for action), while maintaining sensitivity to the users, tools and the work system within a specific technical domain. We found that this ontology of action must take into account a dynamic environment, changing in response to the movement of the rover, changes on the rover itself, as well as be responsive to the purposeful intent of the science requestors. Analysis of MER mission events demonstrates that the work practice and even robotic tool usage changes over time. Therefore, an ontology must adapt and represent both incremental change and revolutionary change, and the ontology can never be more than a partial agreement on the conceptualizations involved. Although examined in a rather unique technical domain, the general issues pertain to the control of any complex, distributed work system as well as the archival record of its accomplishments.

  18. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  19. Randomized Phase II Study of Cabazitaxel Versus Methotrexate in Patients With Recurrent and/or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck Previously Treated With Platinum-Based Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Van Maanen, Aline; Vandenbulcke, Jean-Marie; Filleul, Bertrand; Seront, Emmanuel; D’Hondt, Lionel; Lonchay, Christophe; Holbrechts, Stéphane; Boegner, Petra; Brohee, Dany; Dequanter, Didier; Louviaux, Ingrid; Sautois, Brieuc; Whenham, Nicolas; Berchem, Guy; Vanderschueren, Brigitte; Fontaine, Christel; Schmitz, Sandra; Gillain, Aline; Schoonjans, Joelle; Rottey, Sylvie

    2016-01-01

    Lessons Learned Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. For the first time, cabazitaxel was investigated in incurable patients with recurrent SCCHN. Patients were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks or weekly methotrexate. This phase II study did not meet its primary endpoint. Cabazitaxel has low activity in SCCHN. The toxicity profile in this population also was not favorable owing to the high rate of febrile neutropenia observed (17%). Background. Cabazitaxel is a second-generation taxane that improves the survival of patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer following docetaxel therapy. Cabazitaxel has activity in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) and taxane-resistant cell lines. In this randomized phase II trial, we investigated cabazitaxel in patients with recurrent SCCHN. Methods. Patients with incurable SCCHN with progression after platinum-based therapy were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel every 3 weeks (cycle 1, 20 mg/m2, increased to 25 mg/m2 for subsequent cycles in the absence of nonhematological adverse events [AEs] greater than grade 2 and hematological AEs greater than grade 3) or methotrexate (40 mg/m2/week). The patients were stratified according to their performance status and previous platinum-based chemotherapy for palliation versus curative intent. The primary endpoint was the progression-free survival rate (PFSR) at 18 weeks. Results. Of the 101 patients, 53 and 48, with a median age of 58.0 years (range, 41–80), were randomly assigned to cabazitaxel or methotrexate, respectively. The PFSR at 18 weeks was 13.2% (95% confidence interval [CI], 5%–25%) for cabazitaxel and 8.3% (95% CI, 2%–20%) for methotrexate. The median progression-free survival was 1.9 months in both arms. The median overall survival was 5.0 and 3.6 months for cabazitaxel and methotrexate, respectively. More patients experienced serious adverse

  20. Action feedback affects the perception of action-related objects beyond actual action success.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Wladimir; Königstein, Elisabeth; Kunde, Wilfried

    2014-01-01

    Successful object-oriented action typically increases the perceived size of aimed target objects. This phenomenon has been assumed to reflect an impact of an actor's current action ability on visual perception. The actual action ability and the explicit knowledge of action outcome, however, were confounded in previous studies. The present experiments aimed at disentangling these two factors. Participants repeatedly tried to hit a circular target varying in size with a stylus movement under restricted feedback conditions. After each movement they were explicitly informed about the success in hitting the target and were then asked to judge target size. The explicit feedback regarding movement success was manipulated orthogonally to actual movement success. The results of three experiments indicated the participants' bias to judge relatively small targets as larger and relatively large targets as smaller after explicit feedback of failure than after explicit feedback of success. This pattern was independent of the actual motor performance, suggesting that the actors' evaluations of motor actions may bias perception of target objects in itself.

  1. Effects of heading exposure and previous concussions on neuropsychological performance among Norwegian elite footballers

    PubMed Central

    Straume-Naesheim, T; Andersen, T; Dvorak, J; Bahr, R

    2005-01-01

    Background: Cross-sectional studies have indicated that neurocognitive performance may be impaired among football players. Heading the ball has been suggested as the cause, but recent reviews state that the reported deficits are more likely to be the result of head injuries. Objective: To examine the association between previous concussions and heading exposure with performance on computer based neuropsychological tests among professional Norwegian football players. Methods: Players in the Norwegian professional football league (Tippeligaen) performed two consecutive baseline neuropsychological tests (Cogsport) before the 2004 season (90.3% participation, n = 271) and completed a questionnaire assessing previous concussions, match heading exposure (self-reported number of heading actions per match), player career, etc. Heading actions for 18 players observed in two to four matches were counted and correlated with their self-reported values. Results: Neither match nor lifetime heading exposure was associated with neuropsychological test performance. Nineteen players scored below the 95% confidence interval for one or more subtasks, but they did not differ from the rest regarding the number of previous concussions or lifetime or match heading exposure. The number of previous concussions was positively associated with lifetime heading exposure (exponent (B) = 1.97(1.03–3.75), p = 0.039), but there was no relation between previous concussions and test performance. Self-reported number of headings correlated well with the observed values (Spearman's ρ = 0.77, p<0.001). Conclusion: Computerised neuropsychological testing revealed no evidence of neuropsychological impairment due to heading exposure or previous concussions in a cohort of Norwegian professional football players. PMID:16046359

  2. Enactment versus observation: item-specific and relational processing in goal-directed action sequences (and lists of single actions).

    PubMed

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as "apply the patch") by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2-3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing.

  3. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  4. Whole-Genome Sequences of Mycobacterium tuberculosis TB282 and TB284, a Widespread and a Unique Strain, Respectively, Identified in a Previous Study of Tuberculosis Transmission in Central Los Angeles, California, USA

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Zhenhua

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT We report here the genome sequences of two Mycobacterium tuberculosis clinical isolates previously identified in central Los Angeles, CA, in the 1990s using a PacBio platform. Isolate TB282 represents a large-cluster strain that caused 27% of the tuberculosis cases, while TB284 represents a strain that caused disease in only one patient. PMID:28082486

  5. Photoleucine Survives Backbone Cleavage by Electron Transfer Dissociation. A Near-UV Photodissociation and Infrared Multiphoton Dissociation Action Spectroscopy Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shaffer, Christopher J.; Martens, Jonathan; Marek, Aleš; Oomens, Jos; Tureček, František

    2016-07-01

    We report a combined experimental and computational study aimed at elucidating the structure of N-terminal fragment ions of the c type produced by electron transfer dissociation of photo-leucine (L*) peptide ions GL*GGKX. The c 4 ion from GL*GGK is found to retain an intact diazirine ring that undergoes selective photodissociation at 355 nm, followed by backbone cleavage. Infrared multiphoton dissociation action spectra point to the absence in the c 4 ion of a diazoalkane group that could be produced by thermal isomerization of vibrationally hot ions. The c 4 ion from ETD of GL*GGK is assigned an amide structure by a close match of the IRMPD action spectrum and calculated IR absorption. The energetics and kinetics of c 4 ion dissociations are discussed.

  6. Tropical forests: a call for action. Part 1: the plan. Part 2: case studies. Part 3: country investment profiles

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-10-01

    The World Resources Institute (WRI), in cooperation with multi- and bi-lateral organizations, has launched a major initiative to conserve forests in the humid and semiarid/arid areas of developing countries. The 3-part WRI report is a call to political action on this subject. Part 1 describes the high costs exacted by deforestation, but asserts that the process can be arrested and reversed by a partnership of governments, local participants, and development-assistance agencies. Proposals are presented for a 5-year action plan in farm, community, and arid-zone forestry. Parts 2 and 3 include case studies of the successful projects listed in Part 1 and 5-year investment profiles of 56 developing countries affected by deforestation.

  7. Economic impact study of the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project in Colorado: Colorado State fiscal year 1994. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-12-01

    The Colorado economic impact study summarizes employment and economic benefits to the state from activities associated with the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project during Colorado state fiscal year 1994 (1 July 1993 through 30 June 1994). To capture employment information, a questionnaire was distributed to subcontractor employees at the active UMTRA Project sites of Grand Junction, Naturita, Gunnison, and Rifle, Colorado. Economic data were requested from each site prime subcontractor, as well as from the Remedial Action Contractor. Information on wages, taxes, and subcontract expenditures in combination with estimates and economic multipliers is used to estimate the dollar economic benefits to Colorado during the state fiscal year. Finally, the fiscal year 1994 estimates are compared to fiscal year 1993 employment and economic information.

  8. The influence of anthropic actions on the evolution of an urban beach: Case study of Marineta Cassiana beach, Spain.

    PubMed

    Pagán, J I; Aragonés, L; Tenza-Abril, A J; Pallarés, P

    2016-07-15

    Coastal areas have been historically characterized as being a source of wealth. Nowadays, beaches have become more relevant as a place for rest and leisure. This had led to a very high population pressure due to rapid urbanisation processes. The impacts associated with coastal tourism, demand the development of anthropic actions to protect the shoreline. This paper has studied the impacts of these actions on the Marineta Cassiana beach, in Denia, Spain. This particular Mediterranean beach has traditionally suffered a major shoreline regression, and the beach nourishments carried out in the 1980s would not have achieved the reliability desired. This research has analysed the historic evolution of the beach and its environment for a period of 65years (1950-2015). A Geographic Information System (GIS) has been used to integrate and perform a spatial analysis of urban development, soil erosion, stream flow, swell, longshore transport, submerged vegetation species and shoreline evolution. The results show how the anthropic actions have affected the shoreline. After the excessive urban development of the catchments, there is no natural sediment supply to the beach. The change in the typology of the sediment, from pebbles to sand, during the beach nourishments has led to a crucial imbalance in the studied area. Moreover, the beach area gained has disappeared, affecting the Posidonia oceanica meadow, and incrementing the erosion rates. The findings obtained are relevant, not only in the management and maintenance of the beaches, but also, in the decision-making for future nourishments.

  9. Talk, Decisions, and Action in Curriculum-Making: Reflections on the "ILS" and "L97" Case Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westbury, Ian

    2016-01-01

    Previous papers in this issue of "JCS" have presented case studies of the state-based curriculum commissions that developed the "Illinois Learning Standards" of 1997 and Norway's "Laereplanverket 1997" ("L97") (1997). The studies were developed using as a framework a body of German research that sees…

  10. Cerebral Correlates of Emotional and Action Appraisals During Visual Processing of Emotional Scenes Depending on Spatial Frequency: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Campagne, Aurélie; Fradcourt, Benoit; Pichat, Cédric; Baciu, Monica; Kauffmann, Louise; Peyrin, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Visual processing of emotional stimuli critically depends on the type of cognitive appraisal involved. The present fMRI pilot study aimed to investigate the cerebral correlates involved in the visual processing of emotional scenes in two tasks, one emotional, based on the appraisal of personal emotional experience, and the other motivational, based on the appraisal of the tendency to action. Given that the use of spatial frequency information is relatively flexible during the visual processing of emotional stimuli depending on the task's demands, we also explored the effect of the type of spatial frequency in visual stimuli in each task by using emotional scenes filtered in low spatial frequency (LSF) and high spatial frequencies (HSF). Activation was observed in the visual areas of the fusiform gyrus for all emotional scenes in both tasks, and in the amygdala for unpleasant scenes only. The motivational task induced additional activation in frontal motor-related areas (e.g. premotor cortex, SMA) and parietal regions (e.g. superior and inferior parietal lobules). Parietal regions were recruited particularly during the motivational appraisal of approach in response to pleasant scenes. These frontal and parietal activations, respectively, suggest that motor and navigation processes play a specific role in the identification of the tendency to action in the motivational task. Furthermore, activity observed in the motivational task, in response to both pleasant and unpleasant scenes, was significantly greater for HSF than for LSF scenes, suggesting that the tendency to action is driven mainly by the detailed information contained in scenes. Results for the emotional task suggest that spatial frequencies play only a small role in the evaluation of unpleasant and pleasant emotions. Our preliminary study revealed a partial distinction between visual processing of emotional scenes during identification of the tendency to action, and during identification of personal

  11. Cerebral Correlates of Emotional and Action Appraisals During Visual Processing of Emotional Scenes Depending on Spatial Frequency: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Campagne, Aurélie; Fradcourt, Benoit; Pichat, Cédric; Baciu, Monica; Kauffmann, Louise; Peyrin, Carole

    2016-01-01

    Visual processing of emotional stimuli critically depends on the type of cognitive appraisal involved. The present fMRI pilot study aimed to investigate the cerebral correlates involved in the visual processing of emotional scenes in two tasks, one emotional, based on the appraisal of personal emotional experience, and the other motivational, based on the appraisal of the tendency to action. Given that the use of spatial frequency information is relatively flexible during the visual processing of emotional stimuli depending on the task’s demands, we also explored the effect of the type of spatial frequency in visual stimuli in each task by using emotional scenes filtered in low spatial frequency (LSF) and high spatial frequencies (HSF). Activation was observed in the visual areas of the fusiform gyrus for all emotional scenes in both tasks, and in the amygdala for unpleasant scenes only. The motivational task induced additional activation in frontal motor-related areas (e.g. premotor cortex, SMA) and parietal regions (e.g. superior and inferior parietal lobules). Parietal regions were recruited particularly during the motivational appraisal of approach in response to pleasant scenes. These frontal and parietal activations, respectively, suggest that motor and navigation processes play a specific role in the identification of the tendency to action in the motivational task. Furthermore, activity observed in the motivational task, in response to both pleasant and unpleasant scenes, was significantly greater for HSF than for LSF scenes, suggesting that the tendency to action is driven mainly by the detailed information contained in scenes. Results for the emotional task suggest that spatial frequencies play only a small role in the evaluation of unpleasant and pleasant emotions. Our preliminary study revealed a partial distinction between visual processing of emotional scenes during identification of the tendency to action, and during identification of personal

  12. A participatory action research pilot study of urban health disparities using rapid assessment response and evaluation.

    PubMed

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G; Celestin, Michel J; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.

  13. Mouse Models for the Study of Synthesis, Secretion, and Action of Pituitary Gonadotropins.

    PubMed

    Kumar, T Rajendra

    2016-01-01

    Gonadotropins play fundamental roles in reproduction. More than 30years ago, Cga transgenic mice were generated, and more than 20years ago, the phenotypes of Cga null mice were reported. Since then, numerous mouse strains have been generated and characterized to address several questions in reproductive biology involving gonadotropin synthesis, secretion, and action. More recently, extragonadal expression, and in some cases, functions of gonadotropins in nongonadal tissues have been identified. Several genomic and proteomic approaches including novel mouse genome editing tools are available now. It is anticipated that these and other emerging technologies will be useful to build an integrated network of gonadotropin signaling pathways in various tissues. Undoubtedly, research on gonadotropins will continue to provide new knowledge and allow us transcend from benchside to the bedside.

  14. "Knowing the ledge": participatory action research as legal studies for urban high school youth.

    PubMed

    Stovall, David; Delgado, Natalia

    2009-01-01

    Zero-tolerance discipline policies, harsh sentencing laws, and the gentrification of communities of color have devastating effects for the lives of young people. Coupled with the fact that urban schools can devalue their views, values, and understandings of the world, this article examines an effort to challenge deficit theories that permeate discussions on urban youth. Through the setting of a street law class at a high school with a social justice focus, two facilitators (an African American male and a Latina of Puerto Rican descent, one a qualitative sociologist and the other a lawyer, both trained as qualitative researchers) and a group of high school freshmen analyze the processes of the judicial system to analyze their lives through the tenets of participatory action research.

  15. Ethical and epistemological insights: a case study of participatory action research with young people.

    PubMed

    Chabot, Cathy; Shoveller, Jean A; Spencer, Grace; Johnson, Joy L

    2012-04-01

    Debates over how to determine age of consent for youth to participate in research feature prominently in the practice of researchers, research ethics boards (REBs), and community decision makers working with youth. In particular, tensions can arise over how the ethical principles of beneficence, autonomy, and justice are interpreted and applied in research involving young people. We discuss our experiences obtaining ethical approval to conduct a participatory action research project involving youth and the differences of opinion we encountered regarding underage youth's capability to make informed consent. We suggest that researchers, REBs, and community decision makers all share a responsibility to conduct proactive outreach to youth participants, so that they are adequately informed of their rights related to research.

  16. A Participatory Action Research Pilot Study of Urban Health Disparities Using Rapid Assessment Response and Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G.; Celestin, Michel J.; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D.; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J. Bryan

    2008-01-01

    Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention. PMID:18048802

  17. Neuronal and immunological basis of action of antidepressants in chronic pain - clinical and experimental studies.

    PubMed

    Mika, Joanna; Zychowska, Magdalena; Makuch, Wioletta; Rojewska, Ewelina; Przewlocka, Barbara

    2013-01-01

    The current knowledge of the pharmacological actions of the tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) has slowly evolved through their over 40-year history. Chronic pain represents one of the most important public health problems, and antidepressants are an essential part of the therapeutic strategy in addition to classical analgesics. This article reviews the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of antidepressants in chronic pain conditions; namely, headaches, low back pain, fibromyalgia, cancer pain and especially neuropathic pain. TCAs are traditionally the main type of depression medication used to treat chronic pain. Recently, new antidepressants were introduced into clinical use, with a significant reduction in side effects and equivalent efficacy on mood disorders. These new drugs that are effective for chronic pain belong to the tetracyclic antidepressants (TeCAs) group (amoxapine, maprotiline), the serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) group (duloxetine, venlafaxine, milnacipran) and the atypical antidepressants group (bupropion, trazodone, mirtazapine, nefazodone). In this review, we present the available publications on TCAs (amitriptyline, doxepin, imipramine, desipramine, nortriptyline), TeCAs (amoxapine, maprotiline), selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) (citalopram, fluoxetine, paroxetine), SNRIs (duloxetine, venlafaxine, milnacipran) and atypical antidepressants (bupropion) for the treatment of neuropathic pain. We also review analgesics acting as both opioid receptor agonists and also acting as aminergic reuptake inhibitors. Existing data are insufficient to conclude which of these new classes of antidepressants has the best clinical profile and will be the most effective in the treatment of neuropathic pain; in addition, a lower incidence of side effects should be considered. Increased experimental and translational research is a key for further improvement of the treatment of chronic pain with antidepressants. However

  18. A comparative study of the action of tolperisone on seven different voltage dependent sodium channel isoforms.

    PubMed

    Hofer, Doris; Lohberger, Birgit; Steinecker, Bibiane; Schmidt, Kurt; Quasthoff, Stefan; Schreibmayer, Wolfgang

    2006-05-24

    The specific, acute interaction of tolperisone, an agent used as a muscle relaxant and for the treatment of chronic pain conditions, with the Na(v1.2), Na(v1.3), Na(v1.4), Na(v1.5), Na(v1.6), Na(v1.7), and Na(v1.8) isoforms of voltage dependent sodium channels was investigated and compared to that of lidocaine. Voltage dependent sodium channels were expressed in the Xenopus laevis oocyte expression system and sodium currents were recorded with the two electrode voltage clamp technique. Cumulative dose response relations revealed marked differences in IC(50) values between the two drugs on identical isoforms, as well as between isoforms. A detailed kinetic analysis uncovered that tolperisone as well as lidocaine exhibited their blocking action not only via state dependent association/dissociation with voltage dependent sodium channels, but a considerable fraction of inhibition is tonic, i.e. permanent and basic in nature. Voltage dependent activation was affected to a minor extent only. A shift in steady-state inactivation to more negative potentials could be observed for most drug/isoform combinations. The contribution of this shift to overall block was, however, small at drug concentrations resulting in considerable overall block. Recovery from inactivation was affected notably by both drugs. Lidocaine application led to a pronounced prolongation of the time constant of the fast recovery process for the Na(v1.3), Na(v1.5), and Na(v1.7) isoforms, indicating common structural properties in the local anesthetic receptor site of these three proteins. Interestingly, this characteristic drug action was not observed for tolperisone.

  19. Time will show: real time predictions during interpersonal action perception.

    PubMed

    Manera, Valeria; Schouten, Ben; Verfaillie, Karl; Becchio, Cristina

    2013-01-01

    Predictive processes are crucial not only for interpreting the actions of individual agents, but also to predict how, in the context of a social interaction between two agents, the actions of one agent relate to the actions of a second agent. In the present study we investigated whether, in the context of a communicative interaction between two agents, observers can use the actions of one agent to predict when the action of a second agent will take place. Participants observed point-light displays of two agents (A and B) performing separate actions. In the communicative condition, the action performed by agent B responded to a communicative gesture performed by agent A. In the individual condition, agent A's communicative action was substituted with a non-communicative action. For each condition, we manipulated the temporal coupling of the actions of the two agents, by varying the onset of agent A's action. Using a simultaneous masking detection task, we demonstrated that the timing manipulation had a critical effect on the communicative condition, with the visual discrimination of agent B increasing linearly while approaching the original interaction timing. No effect of the timing manipulation was found for the individual condition. Our finding complements and extends previous evidence for interpersonal predictive coding, suggesting that the communicative gestures of one agent can serve not only to predict what the second agent will do, but also when his/her action will take place.

  20. The Administrator as Action Researcher: A Case Study of Five Principals and Their Engagement in Systematic, Intentional Study of Their Own Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dana, Nancy Fichtman; Tricarico, Katie; Quinn, David M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this case study was to understand engagement in action research as a form of professional development for practicing principals and the subsequent knowledge constructed as a result. The research team followed five principals through 1 year of professional development, which focused on supporting each principal in the design and…