Science.gov

Sample records for action remains obscure

  1. Hierarchical human action recognition around sleeping using obscured posture information

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudo, Yuta; Sashida, Takehiko; Aoki, Yoshimitsu

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a new approach for human action recognition around sleeping with the human body parts locations and the positional relationship between human and sleeping environment. Body parts are estimated from the depth image obtained by a time-of-flight (TOF) sensor using oriented 3D normal vector. Issues in action recognition of sleeping situation are the demand of availability in darkness, and hiding of the human body by duvets. Therefore, the extraction of image features is difficult since color and edge features are obscured by covers. Thus, first in our method, positions of four parts of the body (head, torso, thigh, and lower leg) are estimated by using the shape model of bodily surface constructed by oriented 3D normal vector. This shape model can represent the surface shape of rough body, and is effective in robust posture estimation of the body hidden with duvets. Then, action descriptor is extracted from the position of each body part. The descriptor includes temporal variation of each part of the body and spatial vector of position of the parts and the bed. Furthermore, this paper proposes hierarchical action classes and classifiers to improve the indistinct action classification. Classifiers are composed of two layers, and recognize human action by using the action descriptor. First layer focuses on spatial descriptor and classifies action roughly. Second layer focuses on temporal descriptor and classifies action finely. This approach achieves a robust recognition of obscured human by using the posture information and the hierarchical action recognition.

  2. Mechanisms of Action of Brief Alcohol Interventions Remain Largely Unknown – A Narrative Review

    PubMed Central

    Gaume, Jacques; McCambridge, Jim; Bertholet, Nicolas; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard

    2014-01-01

    A growing body of evidence has shown the efficacy of brief intervention (BI) for hazardous and harmful alcohol use in primary health care settings. Evidence for efficacy in other settings and effectiveness when implemented at larger scale are disappointing. Indeed, BI comprises varying content; exploring BI content and mechanisms of action may be a promising way to enhance efficacy and effectiveness. Medline and PsychInfo, as well as references of retrieved publications were searched for original research or review on active ingredients (components or mechanisms) of face-to-face BIs [and its subtypes, including brief advice and brief motivational interviewing (BMI)] for alcohol. Overall, BI active ingredients have been scarcely investigated, almost only within BMI, and mostly among patients in the emergency room, young adults, and US college students. This body of research has shown that personalized feedback may be an effective component; specific MI techniques showed mixed findings; decisional balance findings tended to suggest a potential detrimental effect; while change plan exercises, advice to reduce or stop drinking, presenting alternative change options, and moderation strategies are promising but need further study. Client change talk is a potential mediator of BMI effects; change in norm perceptions and enhanced discrepancy between current behavior and broader life goals and values have received preliminary support; readiness to change was only partially supported as a mediator; while enhanced awareness of drinking, perceived risks/benefits of alcohol use, alcohol treatment seeking, and self-efficacy were seldom studied and have as yet found no significant support as such. Research is obviously limited and has provided no clear and consistent evidence on the mechanisms of alcohol BI. How BI achieves the effects seen in randomized trials remains mostly unknown and should be investigated to inform the development of more effective interventions. PMID

  3. Maritime Security: Varied Actions Taken to Enhance Cruise Ship Security, but Some Concerns Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-04-01

    targets. GAO was asked to review cruise ship security, and this report addresses the following: (1) the extent to which the Coast Guard, the lead...federal agencies, cruise ship and facility operators, and law enforcement entities have taken actions to protect cruise ships and their facilities. GAO

  4. Action on RRSPs remains at top of CMA's priority list in 1995, board decides

    PubMed Central

    Sullivan, Patrick

    1995-01-01

    Potential changes to registered retirement savings plan (RRSP) regulations “continue to generate a huge amount of concern” among physicians, the Board of Directors was told at its December meeting. That anxiety explains why the RRSP issue and related lobbying will remain at the top of the CMA's priority list in 1995. The other major topic of concern during the 3-day meeting was the federal government's proposed gun-control legislation. If doctors are going to have a responsibility to report patients whose ownership of firearms may make them a danger to themselves or others, the CMA wants to ensure that physicians who make such reports are protected under the law. Imagesp254-ap255-a

  5. Anesthetic actions of thiopental remain largely unaffected during cholinergic overstimulation in cultured cortical networks.

    PubMed

    Weimer, Isabel; Worek, Franz; Seeger, Thomas; Thiermann, Horst; Grasshoff, Christian; Antkowiak, Bernd; Balk, Monika

    2016-02-26

    In case of military or terrorist use of organophosphorus (OP) compounds victims are likely to suffer from not only intoxication but physical trauma as well. Appropriate emergency care may therefore include general anesthesia to allow life-saving surgical intervention. Since there is evidence that drug potency and efficacy of several anesthetics are attenuated by high concentrations of acetylcholine in the CNS, this study was designed to evaluate the anesthetic actions of thiopental during cholinergic overstimulation. Making use of organotypic slice cultures derived from the mouse neocortex, drug effects were assessed by extracellular voltage recordings of network activity at basal cholinergic tone and during simulated cholinergic crisis (high cholinergic tone). The latter was achieved by inhibition of acetylcholinesterases via soman and an ambient acetylcholine concentration of 10μM. The induction of cholinergic crisis in vitro increased the network activity of cortical neurons significantly. Surprisingly, differences in network activity between basal and high cholinergic tone became less pronounced with rising concentrations of thiopental and drug potency and efficacy were almost equivalent. These results clearly distinguish thiopental from previously tested general anesthetics and make it a promising candidate for in vivo studies to identify suitable anesthetics for victims of OP intoxication.

  6. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  7. Real time obscuration monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agricola, Koos

    2016-09-01

    Recently a real time particle deposition monitoring system is developed. After discussions with optical system engineers a new feature has been added. This enables the real time monitoring of obscuration of exposed optical components by counting the deposited particles and sizing the obscuration area of each particle. This way the Particle Obscuration Rate (POR) can be determined. The POR can be used to determine the risk of product contamination during exposure. The particle size distribution gives information on the type of potential particle sources. The deposition moments will indicate when these sources were present.

  8. Hexachloroethane Obscurant Replacement

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    suggest that neither the alkali metal hydroxides nor chlorides are extremely toxic (11). Oral rat LD50 values are indeed lower for hydroxide salts...analyze for toxicity of combustion gases and particulates. Compositions containing boron potassium nitrate igniter blended with halide salts...variants were identified which should have improved performance. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Non- toxic obscurant, hexachloroethane smoke replacement 16

  9. Fenestration obscuration techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smalley, Michael

    2007-10-01

    There are situations where it is advantageous to visually obscure through glass, to an external observer, the movement of people within a well lit room. It may be that the building use has changed or existing measures which had provided obscuration such as 'Bomb-blast' curtains have been discontinued. Recognising that implemented solutions must create the minimum disruption to outward visibility and involve the least procedural effort (be simple to use), the Centre for Protection of National Infrastructure, CPNI, commissioned this study, defining key requirements including: (a) Automatic or simple manual operation (b) Obscuration of movement within the building from outside (c) Varying levels of obscuration depending on the difference in internal and external light levels. (d) Minimum disruption to outward visibility (e) Acceptable for use on heritage and iconic sites (f) Easy to retrofit (g) Low cost This report reviews earlier work carried out into the protection of Guardrooms by the use of lighting techniques coupled with the use of reflective and screen printed films. Other innovative solutions including Electrochromatic controllable glazing which may prove more appropriate to office and commercial buildings are also considered. It is seen that some measures, (window films or blinds), are cost effective and unsophisticated while more complex automatic systems using reactive glazing can offer critical design advantages. It must be noted however that some of the key requirements are mutually exclusive and any solution chosen will always be a compromise based on client needs and circumstances.

  10. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics.

  11. The evolution of obscured AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brightman, Murray

    2012-09-01

    We present results on the evolution of Compton thick AGN with redshift, and the nature of this obscuration, important for understanding the accretion history of the universe and for AGN unification schemes. We use lessons learned from spectral complexity of local AGN (Brightman & Nandra 2012) and up to date spectral models of heavily absorbed AGN, which take into account Compton scattering, self consistent Fe Ka modeling and the geometry of the circumnuclear material (Brightman & Nandra 2011), to optimise our identification of Compton thick AGN and understanding of the obscuring material. Results from the Chandra Deep Field South are presented (Brightman & Ueda, 2012), which show an increasing fraction of CTAGN with redshift and that most heavily obscured AGN are geometrically deeply buried in material, as well as new results from and extension of this study to AEGIS-XD and Chandra-COSMOS survey, which aim to fully characterise the dependence of heavy AGN obscuration on redshift and luminosity.

  12. Obscured accretion from AGN surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vignali, Cristian

    2014-07-01

    Recent models of super-massive black hole (SMBH) and host galaxy joint evolution predict the presence of a key phase where accretion, traced by obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) emission, is coupled with powerful star formation. Then feedback processes likely self-regulate the SMBH growth and quench the star-formation activity. AGN in this important evolutionary phase have been revealed in the last decade via surveys at different wavelengths. On the one hand, moderate-to-deep X-ray surveys have allowed a systematic search for heavily obscured AGN, up to very high redshifts (z~5). On the other hand, infrared/optical surveys have been invaluable in offering complementary methods to select obscured AGN also in cases where the nuclear X-ray emission below 10 keV is largely hidden to our view. In this review I will present my personal perspective of the field of obscured accretion from AGN surveys.

  13. Galaxy gas as obscurer - II. Separating the galaxy-scale and nuclear obscurers of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-03-01

    The 'torus' obscurer of active galactic nuclei (AGN) is poorly understood in terms of its density, sub-structure and physical mechanisms. Large X-ray surveys provide model boundary constraints, for both Compton-thin and Compton-thick levels of obscuration, as obscured fractions are mean covering factors fcov. However, a major remaining uncertainty is host-galaxy obscuration. In Paper I, we discovered a relation of {NH} ∝ M_{star }^{1/3} for the obscuration of galaxy-scale gas. Here, we apply this observational relation to the AGN population, and find that galaxy-scale gas is responsible for a luminosity-independent fraction of Compton-thin AGN, but does not produce Compton-thick columns. With the host-galaxy obscuration understood, we present a model of the remaining nuclear obscurer, which is consistent with a range of observations. Our radiation-lifted torus model consists of a Compton-thick component (fcov ∼ 35 per cent) and a Compton-thin component (fcov ∼ 40 per cent), which depends on both black hole mass and luminosity. This provides a useful summary of observational constraints for torus modellers who attempt to reproduce this behaviour. It can also be employed as a sub-grid recipe in cosmological simulations that do not resolve the torus. We also investigate host-galaxy X-ray obscuration inside cosmological, hydrodynamic simulations (Evolution and Assembly of Galaxies and their Environment; Illustris). The obscuration from ray-traced galaxy gas can agree with observations, but is highly sensitive to the chosen feedback assumptions.

  14. 27 CFR 19.346 - Determining obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... water may be added to a lot of spirits to be bottled for which the determination of proof obscuration is... chapter, the proof obscuration of spirits to be bottled on the basis of a representative sample taken...

  15. 27 CFR 19.346 - Determining obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... water may be added to a lot of spirits to be bottled for which the determination of proof obscuration is... chapter, the proof obscuration of spirits to be bottled on the basis of a representative sample taken...

  16. 27 CFR 19.346 - Determining obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... water may be added to a lot of spirits to be bottled for which the determination of proof obscuration is... chapter, the proof obscuration of spirits to be bottled on the basis of a representative sample taken...

  17. 27 CFR 19.346 - Determining obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... water may be added to a lot of spirits to be bottled for which the determination of proof obscuration is... chapter, the proof obscuration of spirits to be bottled on the basis of a representative sample taken...

  18. THE INVESTIGATION OF OBSCURE DEATHS.

    PubMed

    SIMPSON, K

    1964-10-17

    Unexpected death from obscure causes places a responsibility on the coroner which is delegated to the police, the pathologist and the laboratory. Important insurance and civil litigation issues may be at stake and crime must not be overlooked. This article stresses the importance of (a) powers of observation, (b) awareness of possibilities, (c) a flexible mind and (d) competence in forensic pathology. Cases quoted and illustrated show mistakes which have caused error-and injustice.The importance of discussion with clinical colleagues is emphasized; painstaking autopsy and meticulous laboratory examinations are vital. Poisoning is particularly easily overlooked.

  19. Handling target obscuration through Markov chain observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kouritzin, Michael A.; Wu, Biao

    2008-04-01

    Target Obscuration, including foliage or building obscuration of ground targets and landscape or horizon obscuration of airborne targets, plagues many real world filtering problems. In particular, ground moving target identification Doppler radar, mounted on a surveillance aircraft or unattended airborne vehicle, is used to detect motion consistent with targets of interest. However, these targets try to obscure themselves (at least partially) by, for example, traveling along the edge of a forest or around buildings. This has the effect of creating random blockages in the Doppler radar image that move dynamically and somewhat randomly through this image. Herein, we address tracking problems with target obscuration by building memory into the observations, eschewing the usual corrupted, distorted partial measurement assumptions of filtering in favor of dynamic Markov chain assumptions. In particular, we assume the observations are a Markov chain whose transition probabilities depend upon the signal. The state of the observation Markov chain attempts to depict the current obscuration and the Markov chain dynamics are used to handle the evolution of the partially obscured radar image. Modifications of the classical filtering equations that allow observation memory (in the form of a Markov chain) are given. We use particle filters to estimate the position of the moving targets. Moreover, positive proof-of-concept simulations are included.

  20. HIV-1 Reverse Transcriptase Still Remains a New Drug Target: Structure, Function, Classical Inhibitors, and New Inhibitors with Innovative Mechanisms of Actions

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Francesca; Corona, Angela; Tramontano, Enzo

    2012-01-01

    During the retrotranscription process, characteristic of all retroviruses, the viral ssRNA genome is converted into integration-competent dsDNA. This process is accomplished by the virus-coded reverse transcriptase (RT) protein, which is a primary target in the current treatments for HIV-1 infection. In particular, in the approved therapeutic regimens two classes of drugs target RT, namely, nucleoside RT inhibitors (NRTIs) and nonnucleoside RT inhibitors (NNRTIs). Both classes inhibit the RT-associated polymerase activity: the NRTIs compete with the natural dNTP substrate and act as chain terminators, while the NNRTIs bind to an allosteric pocket and inhibit polymerization noncompetitively. In addition to these two classes, other RT inhibitors (RTIs) that target RT by distinct mechanisms have been identified and are currently under development. These include translocation-defective RTIs, delayed chain terminators RTIs, lethal mutagenesis RTIs, dinucleotide tetraphosphates, nucleotide-competing RTIs, pyrophosphate analogs, RT-associated RNase H function inhibitors, and dual activities inhibitors. This paper describes the HIV-1 RT function and molecular structure, illustrates the currently approved RTIs, and focuses on the mechanisms of action of the newer classes of RTIs. PMID:22778958

  1. The Evolution of Obscuration in AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Treister, Ezequiel; Urry, M.; Virani, S.

    2006-09-01

    One fundamental ingredient in our understanding of the AGN population is the ratio of obscured to unobscured AGN and whether this ratio depends on other parameters like intrinsic luminosity or redshift. Observationally, deep X-ray surveys found that the obscured AGN fraction depends on luminosity. However, the dependence on redshift is less clear. In this work, we constructed the largest sample to date of AGN selected in hard X-rays, containing a total of 1229 sources, 631 of them obscured, with a high spectroscopic completeness in order to study the possible dependence of the fraction of obscured sources with redshift and/or luminosity. We confirm that this fraction decreases with increasing luminosity as previously reported and found that at the same time it increases with increasing redshift. This is the first time that this evolution is significantly detected using only optical spectroscopy to separate obscured and unobscured AGN. Additionally, we use the spectral shape and intensity of the X-ray background as a separate constraint on the evolution of the obscured AGN fraction finding consistent results. This result can be interpreted as an evolution in the location of the obscuration, from the central parsec-scale region (the torus) at low redshift to kiloparsec scales (the host galaxy) at high redshift, as it is known that most galaxies contained more dust in the past. Using these results, we calculate the integrated bolometric AGN emission finding it to be at most 5% of the total extragalactic light. Hence, while AGN contribute most of the light at X-ray wavelengths, they constitute only a small fraction of the integrated extragalactic light. We thank the support of the Centro de Astrof\\'{\\i}sica FONDAP and from NASA/{\\it INTEGRAL} grant NNG05GM79G.

  2. Agricultural Bioterrorism What Challenges and Actions Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-03-10

    Midwest annually produces more than 80 million cattle, hogs, sheep, goats and bison and is more economically exposed to the threat of agroterrorism...pestis (plaque), Francisella tularensis (tularemia), Coxiella burnetii (Q fever), Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus, Brucella suis ( brucellosis ), and

  3. Dust obscuration by an evolving galaxy population

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Najita, Joan; Silk, Joseph; Wachter, Kenneth W.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of an evolving luminosity function (LF) on the ability of foreground galaxies to obscure background sources is discussed, using the Press-Schechter/CDM standard evolving LF model. Galaxies are modeled as simplified versions of local spirals and Poisson statistics are used to estimate the fraction of sky covered by intervening dusty galaxies and the mean optical depths due to these galaxies. The results are compared to those obtained in the case of nonevolving luminosity function in a low-density universe. It is found that evolution of the galaxy LF does not allow the quasar dust obscuration hypothesis to be sustained for dust disks with plausible sizes. Even in a low-density universe, where evolution at z = less than 10 is unimportant, large disk radii are needed to achieve the desired obscuring effect. The mean fraction of sky covered is presented as a function of the redshift z along with adequate diagram illustrations.

  4. Large scale obscuration and related climate effects open literature bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Russell, N.A.; Geitgey, J.; Behl, Y.K.; Zak, B.D.

    1994-05-01

    Large scale obscuration and related climate effects of nuclear detonations first became a matter of concern in connection with the so-called ``Nuclear Winter Controversy`` in the early 1980`s. Since then, the world has changed. Nevertheless, concern remains about the atmospheric effects of nuclear detonations, but the source of concern has shifted. Now it focuses less on global, and more on regional effects and their resulting impacts on the performance of electro-optical and other defense-related systems. This bibliography reflects the modified interest.

  5. Calculating Obscuration Ratios Of Contaminated Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barengoltz, Jack B.

    1989-01-01

    Equations derived to estimate obscuration ratios of surfaces contaminated by particles. Ratio is fraction of surface area covered by particles. Useful as index of cleanliness in clean-room operations in manufacturing of semiconductor devices, magnetic recording media, optical devices, and pharmaceutical and biotechnological products.

  6. 27 CFR 19.376 - Determining obscuration.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... degree of the proof at which the spirits will be bottled. Only water may be added to a lot of spirits to be bottled for which the determination of proof obscuration is made from a sample under this section... obsecuration as prescribed in 27 CFR § 30.32 of spirits to be bottled on the basis of a representative...

  7. Light Obscuration Particle Counter Fuel Contamination Limits

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-08

    The 3 UNCLASSIFIED Energy Institute (EI) has published guidance documents and test methods relating to fuel quality measurement using... Energy (11) have conducted laboratory and field evaluations of particle counter technologies for fuel contamination monitoring. Testing has concluded...AND USE OF LIQUID FUELS Charleston, South Carolina USA 4-8 October 2015 LIGHT OBSCURATION PARTICLE COUNTER FUEL CONTAMINATION LIMITS Joel

  8. Speech masking and cancelling and voice obscuration

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.

    2013-09-10

    A non-acoustic sensor is used to measure a user's speech and then broadcasts an obscuring acoustic signal diminishing the user's vocal acoustic output intensity and/or distorting the voice sounds making them unintelligible to persons nearby. The non-acoustic sensor is positioned proximate or contacting a user's neck or head skin tissue for sensing speech production information.

  9. Obscured AGN Accretion Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coil, Alison

    We propose to combine data from XMM-Newton, the Chandra X-ray Observatory, and the Spitzer Space Telescope with ground-based optical spectroscopy from Keck and Magellan to measure the relationship between AGN obscuration and accretion activity over the bulk of cosmic history. This work will establish the prominence of both obscured and unobscured growth phases of black holes and shed light on the processes that trigger and fuel AGN as a function of time. We will complete three complementary projects that focus on a) understanding the completeness and biases of AGN selection at mid-IR versus X-ray wavelengths, b) tracing optical obscuration as a function of luminosity and redshift, and c) measuring the distribution and evolution of X-ray absorption of AGN. We will undertake a study of AGN demographics comparing selection techniques at three different wavelengths: mid-IR selection using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, X- ray selection using data from the XMM-Newton and Chandra satellites, and broad-line optical selection using PRIMUS spectroscopy. We will determine the overlap and uniqueness of samples created using each method, to quantify the completeness and biases inherent in AGN selection at each wavelength. This will lead to a constraint on the fraction of heavily obscured, Compton-thick AGN to z~1. To study the optical obscuration of AGN, we will use three recently-completed spectroscopic surveys -- PRIMUS, DEEP2, and our own Keck program -- to robustly determine the ratio of unobscured (broad-line) to obscured (non--broad-line) X-ray selected AGN as a function of luminosity from z~0.2 to z~3. We will utilize the well- understood selection functions and characterize the AGN completeness of each survey as a function of redshift, magnitude, and obscuration properties. This will allow us to correct for a variety of observational effects to measure the underlying joint redshift- and luminosity-dependence of optical obscuration, which has direct implications

  10. Clostridium difficile: from obscurity to superbug.

    PubMed

    Brazier, J S

    2008-01-01

    According to the UK media and popular press, Clostridium difficile is now a fully fledged member of that notorious but ill-defined group of microorganisms portrayed to the general public as superbugs. Following the trail blazed by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), C. difficile has made the transition from being an obscure anaerobic bacterium, mainly of interest to specialist anaerobic microbiologists, to that of an infamous superbug responsible for outbreaks of hospital-acquired infection that commonly result in serious disease and death. This review tracks the rise in scientific knowledge and public awareness of this organism.

  11. Obscured AGN With NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinucci, Andrea; Bianchi, S.; Matt, G.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Brandt W. N.; Gandhi, P.; Guainazzi, M.; Harrison, F.; Iwasawa, K.; Nicastro, F.; Puccetti, S.; Ricci, C.; Walton, D. J.; Stern, D.

    2016-10-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) is the first orbiting telescope to focus high energy X-ray light above 10 keV. Compared to the previous generation of coded mask observatories, this change in technology provides NuSTAR with 10x sharper images and 100x improved sensitivityThe unprecedented spectral quality in the 3-80 keV band has provided unique information about the circumnuclear reflecting environment of AGNI will present and discuss results from the NuSTAR observations of nearby Obscured AGN in its first four years of science.

  12. Obscuring surface anatomy in volumetric imaging data.

    PubMed

    Milchenko, Mikhail; Marcus, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    The identifying or sensitive anatomical features in MR and CT images used in research raise patient privacy concerns when such data are shared. In order to protect human subject privacy, we developed a method of anatomical surface modification and investigated the effects of such modification on image statistics and common neuroimaging processing tools. Common approaches to obscuring facial features typically remove large portions of the voxels. The approach described here focuses on blurring the anatomical surface instead, to avoid impinging on areas of interest and hard edges that can confuse processing tools. The algorithm proceeds by extracting a thin boundary layer containing surface anatomy from a region of interest. This layer is then "stretched" and "flattened" to fit into a thin "box" volume. After smoothing along a plane roughly parallel to anatomy surface, this volume is transformed back onto the boundary layer of the original data. The above method, named normalized anterior filtering, was coded in MATLAB and applied on a number of high resolution MR and CT scans. To test its effect on automated tools, we compared the output of selected common skull stripping and MR gain field correction methods used on unmodified and obscured data. With this paper, we hope to improve the understanding of the effect of surface deformation approaches on the quality of de-identified data and to provide a useful de-identification tool for MR and CT acquisitions.

  13. Radio constraints on heavily obscured star formation within dark gamma-ray burst host galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Perley, D. A.; Perley, R. A.

    2013-12-01

    Highly dust-obscured starbursting galaxies (submillimeter galaxies and their ilk) represent the most extreme sites of star formation in the distant universe and contribute significantly to overall cosmic star formation beyond z > 1.5. Some stars formed in these environments may also explode as gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and contribute to the population of 'dark' bursts. Here we present Very Large Array wideband radio-continuum observations of 15 heavily dust-obscured Swift GRBs to search for radio synchrotron emission associated with intense star formation in their host galaxies. Most of these targets (11) are not detected. Of the remaining four objects, one detection is marginal, and for two others we cannot yet rule out the contribution of a long-lived radio afterglow. The final detection is secure, but indicates a star formation rate (SFR) roughly consistent with the dust-corrected UV-inferred value. Most galaxies hosting obscured GRBs are therefore not forming stars at extreme rates, and the amount of optical extinction seen along a GRB afterglow sightline does not clearly correlate with the likelihood that the host has a sufficiently high SFR to be radio-detectable. While some submillimeter galaxies do readily produce GRBs, these GRBs are often not heavily obscured—suggesting that the outer (modestly obscured) parts of these galaxies overproduce GRBs and the inner (heavily obscured) parts underproduce GRBs relative to their respective contributions to star formation, hinting at strong chemical or initial mass function gradients within these systems.

  14. Sensitive radio survey of obscured quasar candidates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael M.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; van Velzen, Sjoert; Greene, Jenny E.; Strauss, Michael A.

    2016-12-01

    We study the radio properties of moderately obscured quasars in samples at both low (z ˜ 0.5) and high (z ˜ 2.5) redshift to understand the role of radio activity in accretion, using the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA) at 6.0 GHz and 1.4 GHz. Our z ˜ 2.5 sample consists of optically selected obscured quasar candidates, all of which are radio-quiet, with typical radio luminosities of νLν[1.4 GHz] ≲ 1040 erg s-1. Only a single source is individually detected in our deep (rms˜10 μJy) exposures. This population would not be identified by radio-based selection methods used for distinguishing dusty star-forming galaxies and obscured active nuclei. In our pilot A-array study of z ˜ 0.5 radio-quiet quasars, we spatially resolve four of five objects on scales ˜5 kpc and find they have steep spectral indices with an average value of α = -0.75. Therefore, radio emission in these sources could be due to jet-driven or radiatively driven bubbles interacting with interstellar material on the scale of the host galaxy. Finally, we also study the additional population of ˜200 faint ( ˜ 40 μJy-40 mJy) field radio sources observed over ˜120 arcmin2 of our data. 60 per cent of these detections (excluding our original targets) are matched in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and/or Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and are, in roughly equal shares, active galactic nuclei (AGN) at a broad range of redshifts, passive galaxies with no other signs of nuclear activity and infrared-bright but optically faint sources. Spectroscopically or photometrically confirmed star-forming galaxies constitute only a small minority of the matches. Such sensitive radio surveys allow us to address important questions of AGN evolution and evaluate the AGN contribution to the radio-quiet sky.

  15. Optically Modulated Fluorescence Bioimaging: Visualizing Obscured Fluorophores in High Background

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Fluorescence microscopy and detection have become indispensible for understanding organization and dynamics in biological systems. Novel fluorophores with improved brightness, photostability, and biocompatibility continue to fuel further advances but often rely on having minimal background. The visualization of interactions in very high biological background, especially for proteins or bound complexes at very low copy numbers, remains a primary challenge. Instead of focusing on molecular brightness of fluorophores, we have adapted the principles of high-sensitivity absorption spectroscopy to improve the sensitivity and signal discrimination in fluorescence bioimaging. Utilizing very long wavelength transient absorptions of kinetically trapped dark states, we employ molecular modulation schemes that do not simultaneously modulate the background fluorescence. This improves the sensitivity and ease of implementation over high-energy photoswitch-based recovery schemes, as no internal dye reference or nanoparticle-based fluorophores are needed to separate the desired signals from background. In this Account, we describe the selection process for and identification of fluorophores that enable optically modulated fluorescence to decrease obscuring background. Differing from thermally stable photoswitches using higher-energy secondary lasers, coillumination at very low energies depopulates transient dark states, dynamically altering the fluorescence and giving characteristic modulation time scales for each modulatable emitter. This process is termed synchronously amplified fluorescence image recovery (SAFIRe) microscopy. By understanding and optically controlling the dye photophysics, we selectively modulate desired fluorophore signals independent of all autofluorescent background. This shifts the fluorescence of interest to unique detection frequencies with nearly shot-noise-limited detection, as no background signals are collected. Although the fluorescence

  16. [PALEOPATHOLOGY OF HUMAN REMAINS].

    PubMed

    Minozzi, Simona; Fornaciari, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Many diseases induce alterations in the human skeleton, leaving traces of their presence in ancient remains. Paleopathological examination of human remains not only allows the study of the history and evolution of the disease, but also the reconstruction of health conditions in the past populations. This paper describes the most interesting diseases observed in skeletal samples from the Roman Imperial Age necropoles found in urban and suburban areas of Rome during archaeological excavations in the last decades. The diseases observed were grouped into the following categories: articular diseases, traumas, infections, metabolic or nutritional diseases, congenital diseases and tumours, and some examples are reported for each group. Although extensive epidemiological investigation in ancient skeletal records is impossible, the palaeopathological study allowed to highlight the spread of numerous illnesses, many of which can be related to the life and health conditions of the Roman population.

  17. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  18. [What remains of arthrography?].

    PubMed

    Morvan, G

    1994-06-15

    At the time of RMI, arthrography appears sometimes old-fashioned. However this exam, which knows a second youth in relation with the supply of CT-scan (arthro-CT) remains the gold-standard in the exploration of many pathologic situations: intra-articular foreign bodies, tears of glenoid or acetabular labrum, precise assessment of chondral or ligamentous lesions (especially of the ankle), sub-scapularis tendon tears, adhesive capsulitis, complications of prosthesis, appreciation of intra-articular position of the needle's tip before injection of a therapeutic drug. Arthrography, completed or not by CT-slices gives, in this indications, excellent spatial resolution images, easy to perform, to read, to understand and to transmit at the clinicians, with a reasonable cost and a minor risk. RMI is a more and more used alternative, especially for the study of meniscus and ligaments of the knee, and rotator's cuff of the shoulder. It's sure that, with the increase of the RMI image's quality, other common indications will slip towards this technique, but nevertheless at this time (and it seams to me, for a long time) arthrography and arthro-CT will remain an excellent diagnostic tool with a very competitive advantages/inconvenience ratio.

  19. A SPECTACULAR OUTFLOW IN AN OBSCURED QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Smith, Paul S.

    2012-02-10

    SDSS J1356+1026 is a pair of interacting galaxies at redshift z = 0.123 that hosts a luminous obscured quasar in its northern nucleus. Here we present two long-slit Magellan LDSS-3 spectra that reveal a pair of symmetric {approx}10 kpc size outflows emerging from this nucleus, with observed expansion velocities of {approx}250 km s{sup -1} in projection. We present a kinematic model of these outflows and argue that the deprojected physical velocities of expansion are likely {approx}1000 km s{sup -1} and that the kinetic energy of the expanding shells is likely 10{sup 44-45} erg s{sup -1}, with an absolute minimum of >10{sup 42} erg s{sup -1}. Although a radio counterpart is detected at 1.4 GHz, it is faint enough that the quasar is considered to be radio quiet by all standard criteria, and there is no evidence of extended emission due to radio lobes, whether aged or continuously powered by an ongoing jet. We argue that the likely level of star formation is insufficient to power the observed energetic outflow and that SDSS J1356+1026 is a good case for radio-quiet quasar feedback. In further support of this hypothesis, polarimetric observations show that the direction of quasar illumination is coincident with the direction of the outflow.

  20. Does the obscured AGN fraction really depend on luminosity?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sazonov, S.; Churazov, E.; Krivonos, R.

    2015-12-01

    We use a sample of 151 local non-blazar active galactic nuclei (AGN) selected from the INTEGRAL all-sky hard X-ray survey to investigate if the observed declining trend of the fraction of obscured (i.e. showing X-ray absorption) AGN with increasing luminosity is mostly an intrinsic or selection effect. Using a torus-obscuration model, we demonstrate that in addition to negative bias, due to absorption in the torus, in finding obscured AGN in hard X-ray flux-limited surveys, there is also positive bias in finding unobscured AGN, due to Compton reflection in the torus. These biases can be even stronger taking into account plausible intrinsic collimation of hard X-ray emission along the axis of the obscuring torus. Given the AGN luminosity function, which steepens at high luminosities, these observational biases lead to a decreasing observed fraction of obscured AGN with increasing luminosity even if this fraction has no intrinsic luminosity dependence. We find that if the central hard X-ray source in AGN is isotropic, the intrinsic (i.e. corrected for biases) obscured AGN fraction still shows a declining trend with luminosity, although the intrinsic obscured fraction is significantly larger than the observed one: the actual fraction is larger than ˜85 per cent at L ≲ 1042.5 erg s-1 (17-60 keV), and decreases to ≲60 per cent at L ≳ 1044 erg s-1. In terms of the half-opening angle θ of an obscuring torus, this implies that θ ≲ 30° in lower luminosity AGN, and θ ≳ 45° in higher luminosity ones. If, however, the emission from the central supermassive black hole is collimated as dL/dΩ ∝ cos α, the intrinsic dependence of the obscured AGN fraction is consistent with a luminosity-independent torus half-opening angle θ ˜ 30°.

  1. 3. ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHWEST. SAME VIEW AS HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH, BUREAU OF MINES BULLETIN 222. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  2. ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    ELLIS WORKS PARTIALLY OBSCURED BY SUBSEQUENT MARISCAL ERA TAILINGS, LOOKING SOUTH, SOUTHWEST. SAME VIEW AS HISTORICAL PHOTOGRAPH, BUREAU OF MINES BULLETIN 222. - Mariscal Quicksilver Mine & Reduction Works, Terlingua, Brewster County, TX

  3. 38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. INTERIOR VIEW OF TANK. Suspended wooden platform obscures bottom of tank No date - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  4. Study of the mid-infrared properties of obscured AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Severgnini, P.; Caccianiga, A.; della Ceca, R.

    2008-10-01

    The comprehension of the physical properties of obscured AGNs is one of the main goals of the high energy astronomy given their key role in tracing the accretion history of the Universe. Although X-ray and infrared data of AGN with a different level of absorption could provide a direct tool to test the predictions of the AGN models, only few sparse SED of obscured AGN are available so far. We present here the results obtained from Spitzer observations of a statistically complete sample of obscured AGN drawn from the XMM-Newton Hard Bright Sample. This is the largest hard X-ray sample with a complete spectroscopic identification. The Spitzer data, combined with good X-ray and optical spectroscopic data, has allowed us to define powerful diagnostic plots to select heavily obscured AGNs and to build up their spectral energy distributions.

  5. DUST-OBSCURED STAR FORMATION IN INTERMEDIATE REDSHIFT GALAXY CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Finn, Rose A.; Desai, Vandana; Rudnick, Gregory; Poggianti, Bianca; Bell, Eric F.; Hinz, Joannah; Zaritsky, Dennis; Jablonka, Pascale; Milvang-Jensen, Bo; Moustakas, John; Rines, Kenneth E-mail: jmoustakas@ucsd.ed

    2010-09-01

    We present Spitzer MIPS 24 {mu}m observations of sixteen 0.4 < z < 0.8 galaxy clusters drawn from the ESO Distant Cluster Survey. This is the first large 24 {mu}m survey of clusters at intermediate redshift. The depth of our imaging corresponds to a total IR luminosity of 8 x 10{sup 10} L{sub sun}, just below the luminosity of luminous infrared galaxies (LIRGs), and 6{sup +1}{sub -1}% of M{sub V} < -19 cluster members show 24 {mu}m emission at or above this level. We compare with a large sample of coeval field galaxies and find that while the fraction of cluster LIRGs lies significantly below that of the field, the IR luminosities of the field and cluster galaxies are consistent. However, the stellar masses of the EDisCS LIRGs are systematically higher than those of the field LIRGs. A comparison with optical data reveals that {approx}80% of cluster LIRGs are blue and the remaining 20% lie on the red sequence. Of LIRGs with optical spectra, 88{sup +4} {sub -5}% show [O II] emission with EW([O II]) > 5 A, and {approx}75% exhibit optical signatures of dusty starbursts. On average, the fraction of cluster LIRGs increases with projected clustercentric radius but remains systematically lower than the field fraction over the area probed (<1.5x R {sub 200}). The amount of obscured star formation declines significantly over the 2.4 Gyr interval spanned by the EDisCS sample, and the rate of decline is the same for the cluster and field populations. Our results are consistent with an exponentially declining LIRG fraction, with the decline in the field delayed by {approx}1 Gyr relative to the clusters.

  6. Application of System Capabilities Analytic Process (SCAP) to Battlefield Obscurants

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    given of how SCAP’s transient effects can map into Mission and Means Framework ( MMF ) analysis, to allow application in simulations or system evaluation...at higher levels. 15. SUBJECT TERMS SCAP, MMF , MBTE, functional skeleton, smoke, obscurant, modeling 16. SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION...Subsystem 15 5.2.3 Blue Obscurant Subsystem 16 5.3 FS Relations for Red and Blue 17 5.4 SCAP Relation to MMF Process Sequence 17 6. Conclusions

  7. Lingular pneumonia obscured by implanted cardioverter-defibrillator: Lateral thinking.

    PubMed

    Sewell, Laura; Harries, Ivan; Chandrasekaran, Barinathan

    2015-01-01

    A 56-year-old female with an implanted cardioverter-defibrillator was admitted with a short history suggestive of a diagnosis of pneumonia. An AP radiograph did not identify an area of consolidation. A subsequent lateral radiograph highlighted an extensive left-lingular-lobe consolidation that had been obscured by the cardiac device. This case highlights the fact that large devices can obscure significant pathology, and that lateral or cross-sectional imaging may be helpful in reaching a diagnosis.

  8. Heavily Obscured Star-Forming Regions in the LVL Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dale, Daniel A.; Aller, K.; Staudaher, S.

    2009-01-01

    We use data from the Spitzer Local Volume Legacy to study the infrared and optical properties of star forming regions in galaxies on 300pc scales. Our main goal is to determine the fraction of heavily-obscured star-forming regions. Here we study 908 regions within 55 galaxies. The median attenuation in Hα is 0.69 mag, and only a small fraction is highly obscured (Aα> 2). There is very little variation in the median attenuation over scales of 200pc to 1000pc.

  9. Obscurity and Gender Resistance in Patricia Duncker's James Miranda Barry

    PubMed Central

    Funke, Jana

    2012-01-01

    Since his death in 1865, military surgeon James Barry has alternately been classified as a cross-dressing woman or as an intersexed individual. Patricia Duncker's novel James Miranda Barry (1999) poses an important challenge to such readings, as it does not reveal any foundational truth about Barry's sex. Resting on obscurity rather than revelation, the text frustrates the desire to know the past in terms of gender binaries and stable sexual identity categories. Drawing on feminist and queer theorisations of the relation between gender and time, this essay demonstrates that Duncker's use of obscurity opens up alternative strategies of gender resistance. PMID:25400502

  10. Obscurity and Gender Resistance in Patricia Duncker's James Miranda Barry.

    PubMed

    Funke, Jana

    2012-12-01

    Since his death in 1865, military surgeon James Barry has alternately been classified as a cross-dressing woman or as an intersexed individual. Patricia Duncker's novel James Miranda Barry (1999) poses an important challenge to such readings, as it does not reveal any foundational truth about Barry's sex. Resting on obscurity rather than revelation, the text frustrates the desire to know the past in terms of gender binaries and stable sexual identity categories. Drawing on feminist and queer theorisations of the relation between gender and time, this essay demonstrates that Duncker's use of obscurity opens up alternative strategies of gender resistance.

  11. Smoke and Obscurant Operations in a Joint Environment

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-04-01

    In Macbeth , Shakespeare described the most basic obscurant, “taking advantage of natural cover or darkness to surprise the enemy or to conceal the...practice long regarded as one that could potentially provide the attacker with an element of surprise. In Macbeth , we also see an example of the use of

  12. The Language of Medicine: The Ethics of Obscurity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jolly, Peggy

    Because physicians are perceived as powerful and knowledgeable professionals, the language they use to address patients has a tremendous effect on a patient's mental and physical well-being. Physicians often speak to patients in "med-speak," obscure, highly technical terms that cloak the reality of the patient's condition and serve to reinforce…

  13. The Landmark Decision that Faded into Historical Obscurity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nance, Molly

    2007-01-01

    This article takes a look at the Mendez v. Westminster School District, a landmark case that faded into historical obscurity. In the 1940s, Gonzalo and Felicita Mendez wanted their three children to attend the school nearest their farm, which was the 17th Street Elementary School in Westminster. But in the Westminster, Orange County, El Medina,…

  14. Flamingos 2 Spectroscopy of Obscured and Unobscured Quasars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridgway, Susan; Lacy, Mark; Urrutia, Tanya; Petric, Andreea

    2013-08-01

    We will use Flamingos-2 to obtain spectra of luminous AGN and quasars selected in the mid-infrared. Mid-infrared selection is much less biased with respect to obscuration than optical and X-ray techniques, and hence allows for finding obscured (Type-2) quasars as well as Type-1 quasars. Our survey so far has been very successful and has provided an unique opportunity to construct luminosity functions for both Type-1 and Type-2 quasars selected in the same way and covering similar redshifts and luminosities. We have quantifed the change in the obscured fraction with luminosity and redshift for the first time, and find interesting indications that at high redshift the obscured fraction rises, consistent with models for the joint formation of the galaxy and black hole populations. Our samples are, however, still quite incomplete at low fluxes (and therefore lower luminosities at a given redshift), particularly in the southern hemisphere. Near-infrared spectroscopy, such as that we have previously obtained with NIRI at Gemini N, offers us the best possibility of bringing these southern samples to a reasonable completeness level, and will greatly increase the number of high z quasars in our sample. This will allow us to better judge our tantalizing initial results on the redshift evolution of the obscured fraction. In addition, these southern targets can be followed up with ALMA and GEMS/GSAOI to study the morphologies and star-formation properties of the hosts, allowing further exploration of the relationship between the formation of massive bulges and supermassive blackholes in the early universe.

  15. Parasite remains in archaeological sites.

    PubMed

    Bouchet, Françoise; Guidon, Niéde; Dittmar, Katharina; Harter, Stephanie; Ferreira, Luiz Fernando; Chaves, Sergio Miranda; Reinhard, Karl; Araújo, Adauto

    2003-01-01

    Organic remains can be found in many different environments. They are the most significant source for paleoparasitological studies as well as for other paleoecological reconstruction. Preserved paleoparasitological remains are found from the driest to the moistest conditions. They help us to understand past and present diseases and therefore contribute to understanding the evolution of present human sociality, biology, and behavior. In this paper, the scope of the surviving evidence will be briefy surveyed, and the great variety of ways it has been preserved in different environments will be discussed. This is done to develop to the most appropriated techniques to recover remaining parasites. Different techniques applied to the study of paleoparasitological remains, preserved in different environments, are presented. The most common materials used to analyze prehistoric human groups are reviewed, and their potential for reconstructing ancient environment and disease are emphasized. This paper also urges increased cooperation among archaeologists, paleontologists, and paleoparasitologists.

  16. Announcment: Conference on Obscured AGN Across Cosmic Time

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-12-01

    Current deep surveys, notably in X-rays and the mid-IR, are making it possible to carry out a census of essentially all the luminous AGN in the Universe. By pene-trating the obscuration that, in Type 2 sources, hides the nuclear regions in the UV to the near-IR spectrum, these new surveys are finding the radio quiet coun-terparts of the powerful radio galaxies.

  17. Qualitative Description of Obscuration Factors in Central Europe

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-09-01

    obscuration is produced by smoke munitions or equipment. Screening smokes produced with inventory munitions are emphasized. he environmental factors which...is the coldest part of the atmosphere, about -901C. Ionization and molecular dissociation processes and various chemical reactions caused by the sun’s...interrupted only by frequent early morning fog. The main pressure centers gradually intensify, and by mid -November the four main pressure fields of

  18. Modeling Fog Oil Obscurant Smoke Penetration into Simulated Tortoise Burrows

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-11-01

    requested by a petition in January 2006 (Save Our Big Scrub, Inc. and Wild South 2006 ). At least 18 military bases are known to have gopher tortoises...Wilson et al . 1997). Among the training activities that occur in or near the gopher tortoise habitat is troop preparedness training and the field...dispersion characteristics, and safety (Eberhard et al . 1989). SGF-2 fog oil (FO) is the obscurant used most frequently for military training

  19. OBSCURATION BY GAS AND DUST IN LUMINOUS QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Usman, S. M.; Murray, S. S.; Hickox, R. C.; Brodwin, M.

    2014-06-10

    We explore the connection between absorption by neutral gas and extinction by dust in mid-infrared (IR) selected luminous quasars. We use a sample of 33 quasars at redshifts 0.7 < z ≲ 3 in the 9 deg{sup 2} Boötes multiwavelength survey field that are selected using Spitzer Space Telescope Infrared Array Camera colors and are well-detected as luminous X-ray sources (with >150 counts) in Chandra observations. We divide the quasars into dust-obscured and unobscured samples based on their optical to mid-IR color, and measure the neutral hydrogen column density N {sub H} through fitting of the X-ray spectra. We find that all subsets of quasars have consistent power law photon indices Γ ≈ 1.9 that are uncorrelated with N {sub H}. We classify the quasars as gas-absorbed or gas-unabsorbed if N {sub H} > 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2} or N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}, respectively. Of 24 dust-unobscured quasars in the sample, only one shows clear evidence for significant intrinsic N {sub H}, while 22 have column densities consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. In contrast, of the nine dust-obscured quasars, six show evidence for intrinsic gas absorption, and three are consistent with N {sub H} < 10{sup 22} cm{sup –2}. We conclude that dust extinction in IR-selected quasars is strongly correlated with significant gas absorption as determined through X-ray spectral fitting. These results suggest that obscuring gas and dust in quasars are generally co-spatial, and confirm the reliability of simple mid-IR and optical photometric techniques for separating quasars based on obscuration.

  20. The most obscured AGN in the COSMOS field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzuisi, G.; Perna, M.; Delvecchio, I.; Berta, S.; Brusa, M.; Cappelluti, N.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Gruppioni, C.; Mignoli, M.; Pozzi, F.; Vietri, G.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.

    2015-06-01

    Highly obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) are common in nearby galaxies, but are difficult to observe beyond the local Universe, where they are expected to significantly contribute to the black hole accretion rate density. Furthermore, Compton-thick (CT) absorbers (NH ≳ 1024 cm-2) suppress even the hard X-ray (2-10 keV) AGN nuclear emission, and therefore the column density distribution above 1024 cm-2 is largely unknown. We present the identification and multi-wavelength properties of a heavily obscured (NH ≳ 1025 cm-2), intrinsically luminous (L2-10 > 1044 erg s-1) AGN at z = 0.353 in the COSMOS field. Several independent indicators, such as the shape of the X-ray spectrum, the decomposition of the spectral energy distribution and X-ray/[NeV] and X-ray/6 μm luminosity ratios, agree on the fact that the nuclear emission must be suppressed by a ≳1025 cm-2 column density. The host galaxy properties show that this highly obscured AGN is hosted in a massive star-forming galaxy, showing a barred morphology, which is known to correlate with the presence of CT absorbers. Finally, asymmetric and blueshifted components in several optical high-ionization emission lines indicate the presence of a galactic outflow, possibly driven by the intense AGN activity (LBol/LEdd = 0.3-0.5). Such highly obscured, highly accreting AGN are intrinsically very rare at low redshift, whereas they are expected to be much more common at the peak of the star formation and BH accretion history, at z ~ 2-3. We demonstrate that a fully multi-wavelength approach can recover a sizable sample of such peculiar sources in large and deep surveys such as COSMOS.

  1. MODELING MID-INFRARED DIAGNOSTICS OF OBSCURED QUASARS AND STARBURSTS

    SciTech Connect

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Jonsson, Patrik; Hernquist, Lars; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Cox, Thomas J.; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan Lin

    2013-05-10

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z {approx} 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z {approx} 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a {approx}10{sup 9} yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 {mu}m absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 {mu}m, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  2. Modeling Mid-infrared Diagnostics of Obscured Quasars and Starbursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Snyder, Gregory F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Sajina, Anna; Jonsson, Patrik; Cox, Thomas J.; Hernquist, Lars; Hopkins, Philip F.; Yan, Lin

    2013-05-01

    We analyze the link between active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and mid-infrared flux using dust radiative transfer calculations of starbursts realized in hydrodynamical simulations. Focusing on the effects of galaxy dust, we evaluate diagnostics commonly used to disentangle AGN and star formation in ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs). We examine these quantities as a function of time, viewing angle, dust model, AGN spectrum, and AGN strength in merger simulations representing two possible extremes of the ULIRG population: one is a typical gas-rich merger at z ~ 0, and the other is characteristic of extremely obscured starbursts at z ~ 2-4. This highly obscured burst begins star-formation-dominated with significant polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) emission, and ends with a ~109 yr period of red near-IR colors. At coalescence, when the AGN is most luminous, dust obscures the near-infrared AGN signature, reduces the relative emission from PAHs, and enhances the 9.7 μm absorption by silicate grains. Although generally consistent with previous interpretations, our results imply none of these indicators can unambiguously estimate the AGN luminosity fraction in all cases. Motivated by the simulations, we show that a combination of the extinction feature at 9.7 μm, the PAH strength, and a near-infrared slope can simultaneously constrain the AGN fraction and dust grain distribution for a wide range of obscuration. We find that this indicator, accessible to the James Webb Space Telescope, may estimate the AGN power as tightly as the hard X-ray flux alone, thereby providing a valuable future cross-check and constraint for large samples of distant ULIRGs.

  3. Dust Obscured Blazars as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; de Vries, K. D.; van Eijndhoven, N.

    2016-08-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are believed to be among the most promising sources of the ultra-high-energy cosmic ray flux. A hadronic component which is accelerated in the high energy environment of an AGN immediately implies the production of high-energy neutrinos. Nevertheless, no clear correlation between AGN and the high-energy cosmic-neutrino flux obtained by IceCube has been found so-far, putting strong limits on the neutrino production at AGN. We discuss a specific type of AGN for which an enhanced neutrino production is expected. This specific sub-set is given by AGN with their high-energy jet directed toward Earth, which is obscured by surrounding dust or gas, defining Dust Obscured Blazars. This type of AGN is predicted to have an enhanced neutrino emission due to the interaction of a possible hadronic component inside the AGN-jet with the surrounding matter. From two different galaxy catalogs, we have selected a sample of nearby sources with the characteristics of Dust Obscured Blazars. This selection is based on observations in the X-ray and radio bands. The data is consequently used to investigate the column density of the surrounding matter, providing an estimate for the neutrino production enhancement due to the nucleon-matter interactions in a beam dump scenario for various dust or gas compositions.

  4. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  5. X-ray selected Type-2 QSOs: ongoing star formation and obscured accretion.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainieri, Vincenzo; Cosmos Collaboration

    2009-09-01

    Although the fraction of obscured AGN is found to decrease with luminosity from several studies, a non-negligible population of obscured QSOs is still required by the X-ray background synthesis models. We present a large sample (121 objects) of X-ray selected Type-2 QSOs from the XMM-COSMOS survey: sources with high X-ray luminosity (LX>10^{44} erg s^{-1}) and heavy obscuration (NH>10^{22} cm^{-2}), as derived from a detailed X-ray spectral analysis (see Mainieri et al.,2007, ApJS, 172, 368) of the 1800 X-ray point-like sources in this survey. Few (˜5%) of the Type-2 QSOs are best fitted with a pure reflection model. We have performed optical spectroscopy for ˜ 30% of the sample and for the remaining sources we have derived accurate photometric redshifts. The redshift range covered is wide, 0.30.8).We compare the general properties of the host galaxies with the ongoing accretion in their nuclei. Morphology: using five non-parametric diagnostics (asymmetry, concentration, Gini coefficient, M20, ellipticity) we found that ˜10% of the Type-2 QSOs are in elliptical galaxies, ˜55% in disk galaxies and ˜35% in irregular galaxies. The majority of the irregular hosts can be described as undergoing merger activity or show tidal debris. Stellar masses have been derived from SED fitting to the observed photometry(from 0.3 to 4.5 micron) and star formation rates from the [OII] or Hα line fluxes. The majority (˜75%) of QSO-2 host galaxies have stellar masses above log(Mstar)˜10.5 MSun and have ongoing star formation (˜100 MSun/yr). The value of 10.5 MSun is similar to the characteristic mass for obscured AGN (Kauffmann et al. 2003) and radio-loud AGN (Best et al. 2005) in the SDSS. It is also consistent with the more general result that the fraction of galaxies hosting AGN increases with the stellar mass.

  6. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  7. An Emerging Class of Extragalactic Self-Obscured Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Rubab M.

    2015-01-01

    The evolution of the most massive stars such as η Carinae is controlled by the effects of mass-loss. Understanding these stars is challenging because no true analogs of η Car have been clearly identified in the Milky Way or other galaxies. Copious mass-loss leads to circumstellar dust formation, obscuring the star in the optical. But as the light is re-emitted by the dust, these objects become very luminous in the mid-IR. We have carried out a systematic search for η Car analogs in 7 galaxies, utilizing data from Spitzer, Herschel, HST and other sources. Our search detected no true analogs of η Car, however, we do identify a significant population of 18 lower luminosity (log(L/L_⊙)≃5.5-6.0) dusty stars. Stars enter this phase at a rate that is a fraction 0.09 ≲ F ≲ 0.55 of the ccSN rate, and this is consistent with all 25 < M_{ZAMS} < 60M_⊙ stars undergoing an obscured phase at most lasting a few thousand years once or twice. These phases constitute a negligible fraction of post-main sequence lifetimes of massive stars, which implies that these events are likely to be associated with special periods in the evolution of the stars. The mass of the obscuring material is of order ˜ M_⊙, and we simply do not find enough heavily obscured stars for these phases to represent more than a modest fraction (˜ 10% not ˜ 50%) of the total mass lost by these stars. While this search has been feasible using archival Spitzer data, JWST will be a far more powerful probe of these stars. The HST-like resolution of JWST will either greatly reduce the problem of confusion or greatly expand the possible survey volume. Far more important will be the ability to carry out the survey at 24μm, which will increase the time over which dusty shells can be identified from hundreds of years to thousands of years, greatly improving the statistics and our ability to survey the long term evolution of these systems and the relationship between stellar eruptions and supernovae.

  8. Large Scale Obscuration and Related Climate Effects Workshop: Proceedings

    SciTech Connect

    Zak, B.D.; Russell, N.A.; Church, H.W.; Einfeld, W.; Yoon, D.; Behl, Y.K.

    1994-05-01

    A Workshop on Large Scale Obsurcation and Related Climate Effects was held 29--31 January, 1992, in Albuquerque, New Mexico. The objectives of the workshop were: to determine through the use of expert judgement the current state of understanding of regional and global obscuration and related climate effects associated with nuclear weapons detonations; to estimate how large the uncertainties are in the parameters associated with these phenomena (given specific scenarios); to evaluate the impact of these uncertainties on obscuration predictions; and to develop an approach for the prioritization of further work on newly-available data sets to reduce the uncertainties. The workshop consisted of formal presentations by the 35 participants, and subsequent topical working sessions on: the source term; aerosol optical properties; atmospheric processes; and electro-optical systems performance and climatic impacts. Summaries of the conclusions reached in the working sessions are presented in the body of the report. Copies of the transparencies shown as part of each formal presentation are contained in the appendices (microfiche).

  9. A Submillimeter Continuum Survey of Local Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Jong Chul; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Gwang-Ho

    2016-12-01

    We conduct a 350 μm dust continuum emission survey of 17 dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) at z = 0.05-0.08 with the Caltech Submillimeter Observatory (CSO). We detect 14 DOGs with S 350 μm = 114-650 mJy and signal-to-noise > 3. By including two additional DOGs with submillimeter data in the literature, we are able to study dust content for a sample of 16 local DOGs, which consist of 12 bump and four power-law types. We determine their physical parameters with a two-component modified blackbody function model. The derived dust temperatures are in the range 57-122 K and 22-35 K for the warm and cold dust components, respectively. The total dust mass and the mass fraction of the warm dust component are 3-34 × 107 M ⊙ and 0.03%-2.52%, respectively. We compare these results with those of other submillimeter-detected infrared luminous galaxies. The bump DOGs, the majority of the DOG sample, show similar distributions of dust temperatures and total dust mass to the comparison sample. The power-law DOGs show a hint of smaller dust masses than other samples, but need to be tested with a larger sample. These findings support that the reason DOGs show heavy dust obscuration is not an overall amount of dust content, but probably the spatial distribution of dust therein.

  10. Exploring the Obscured Milky Way with Multi-Object Spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negueruela, I.; Clark, J. S.; Dorda, R.; González-Fernández, C.; Marco, A.; Monguió, M.

    2016-10-01

    Most of the Milky Way is hidden by dust clouds. Along many sightlines extinction grows to several magnitudes within just 2 or 3 kpc. High-mass stars on the other hand are so luminous that they can be seen, at least in the infrared, out to very large distances. They are short-lived and thus trace recent star formation and Galactic structure. If we were able to identify them in the middle of crowded Galactic Plane fields, we could probe a range of distances and extinctions that most spectroscopic surveys (and even Gaia) will fail to cover. Is it possible to tell a highly-reddened distant high-mass star from a nearby intrinsically faint and red star? We have been developing selection criteria that allow the identification of candidate obscured high-mass stars in different Galactic environments. Here we present a selection of results from several test observations carried out with AF2, AAOmega and FLAMES along different sightlines. The results are extremely encouraging. With the advent of large-scale photometric surveys, such as VVV, IPHAS or VPHAS+, we can refine search criteria to the point that next-generation instruments, such as WEAVE or MOONS, can be used to explore most of the obscured Milky Way.

  11. NO EVIDENCE OF OBSCURED, ACCRETING BLACK HOLES IN MOST z = 6 STAR-FORMING GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Willott, Chris J.

    2011-11-20

    It has been claimed that there is a large population of obscured, accreting black holes at high redshift and that the integrated black hole density at z = 6 as inferred from X-ray observations is {approx}100 times greater than that inferred from optical quasars. I have performed a stacking analysis of very deep Chandra X-ray data at the positions of photometrically selected z = 6 galaxy candidates. It is found that there is no evidence for a stacked X-ray signal in either the soft (0.5-2 keV) or hard (2-8 keV) X-ray bands. Previous work which reported a significant signal is affected by an incorrect method of background subtraction which underestimates the true background within the target aperture. The puzzle remains as to why the z = 6 black hole mass function has such a flat slope and a low normalization compared to the stellar mass function.

  12. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  13. Learning From Nature: Biomimetic Polarimetry for Imaging in Obscuring Environments

    SciTech Connect

    VanderLaan, John; Scrymgeour, David; Kemme, Shanalyn A.

    2014-09-01

    We find for infrared wavelengths there are broad ranges of particle sizes and refractive indices that represent fog and rain where the use of circular polarization can persist to longer ranges than linear polarization. Using polarization tracking Monte Carlo simulations for varying particle size, wavelength, and refractive index systematically, we show that for specific scene parameters circular polarization outperforms linear polarization in maintaining the intended polarization state for large optical depths. This enhancement in circular polarization can be exploited to improve range and target detection in obscurant environments that are important in many critical sensing applications. Specifically, circular polarization persists better than linear for radiation fog in the short-wave infrared, for advection fog in the short-wave infrared and the long-wave infrared, and large particle sizes of Sahara dust around the 4 micron wavelength.

  14. A black hole nova obscured by an inner disk torus.

    PubMed

    Corral-Santana, J M; Casares, J; Muñoz-Darias, T; Rodríguez-Gil, P; Shahbaz, T; Torres, M A P; Zurita, C; Tyndall, A A

    2013-03-01

    Stellar-mass black holes (BHs) are mostly found in x-ray transients, a subclass of x-ray binaries that exhibit violent outbursts. None of the 50 galactic BHs known show eclipses, which is surprising for a random distribution of inclinations. Swift J1357.2-093313 is a very faint x-ray transient detected in 2011. On the basis of spectroscopic evidence, we show that it contains a BH in a 2.8-hour orbital period. Further, high-time-resolution optical light curves display profound dips without x-ray counterparts. The observed properties are best explained by the presence of an obscuring toroidal structure moving outward in the inner disk, seen at very high inclination. This observational feature should play a key role in models of inner accretion flows and jet collimation mechanisms in stellar-mass BHs.

  15. Compact dual-view endoscope without field obscuration.

    PubMed

    Katkam, Rajender; Banerjee, Bhaskar; Huang, Chih Yu; Zhu, Xiaoyin; Ocampo, Luis; Kincade, Jerri-Lynn; Liang, Rongguang

    2015-07-01

    We have developed a compact dual-view endoscopic probe without field obscuration to address the need of simultaneously observing forward and backward fields of view (FOVs) in the colon. The objective is compact with the forward-view and rear-view optical paths sharing the same optical elements. The compact objective is new in that no FOV is blocked. The illumination for forward-view imaging is provided by the cylindrical light guide and backward illumination is achieved with a reflector. We have designed, prototyped, and tested the endoscope by comparing it to a standard clinical colonoscope. We will discuss the system concept, objective design, fabrication of the freeform lens, and test results.

  16. Obscuring ecosystem function with application of the ecosystem services concept.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Markus J; Hall, Damon M; Feldpausch-Parker, Andrea M; Peterson, Tarla Rai

    2010-02-01

    Conservationists commonly have framed ecological concerns in economic terms to garner political support for conservation and to increase public interest in preserving global biodiversity. Beginning in the early 1980s, conservation biologists adapted neoliberal economics to reframe ecosystem functions and related biodiversity as ecosystem services to humanity. Despite the economic success of programs such as the Catskill/Delaware watershed management plan in the United States and the creation of global carbon exchanges, today's marketplace often fails to adequately protect biodiversity. We used a Marxist critique to explain one reason for this failure and to suggest a possible, if partial, response. Reframing ecosystem functions as economic services does not address the political problem of commodification. Just as it obscures the labor of human workers, commodification obscures the importance of the biota (ecosystem workers) and related abiotic factors that contribute to ecosystem functions. This erasure of work done by ecosystems impedes public understanding of biodiversity. Odum and Odum's radical suggestion to use the language of ecosystems (i.e., emergy or energy memory) to describe economies, rather than using the language of economics (i.e., services) to describe ecosystems, reverses this erasure of the ecosystem worker. Considering the current dominance of economic forces, however, implementing such solutions would require social changes similar in magnitude to those that occurred during the 1960s. Niklas Luhmann argues that such substantive, yet rapid, social change requires synergy among multiple societal function systems (i.e., economy, education, law, politics, religion, science), rather than reliance on a single social sphere, such as the economy. Explicitly presenting ecosystem services as discreet and incomplete aspects of ecosystem functions not only allows potential economic and environmental benefits associated with ecosystem services, but also

  17. Unusual presentation of obscure Meckel diverticulum treated with robot-assisted diverticulectomy

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Sagar; Fan, Miao; Xu, Zhe; Yan, Chaogui; Zhu, Junfeng; Li, Xiuhong

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Meckel diverticulum (MD) is the most common congenital abnormality of gastrointestinal tract. Tough believed to occur in 2% of population, most of them remain veiled because majority are clinically asymptomatic and remain obscure in radiological examination. Clinical Findings and Diagnosis: A 26-year-old male with episodic black colored stool since last 10 years. Tough symptomatic, diagnosis of pathological lesion, and the bleeding site could not be established with any of the sophisticated diagnostic technique. After 10 years, it was finally diagnosed as MD with careful observation of bowel loops on computed tomography enterography (CTE) where remnant of vitelline vessel and hyper-enhancing nodule are seen along the wall of diverticular loop. Interventions and outcomes: The patient underwent robot assisted laparoscopic surgery with excision of diverticular loop. To the best of our knowledge, this robot-assistant Meckel diverculectomy is probably the first reported surgical procedure in PubMed. Follow-up for 3 month showed no complication or recurrence. Conclusion: Every case is unique and we must be aware and remain alert in tracing the possible morphological variation of the case. Here, we present one unique but rare feature of MD, which helped us in making diagnosis. PMID:27741148

  18. Fraunhofer diffraction patterns from uniformly illuminated square output apertures with noncentered square obscurations.

    PubMed

    Sutton, G W; Weiner, M M; Mani, S A

    1976-09-01

    Theoretical Fraunhofer diffraction patterns are presented for uniformly illuminated square apertures with noncentered square obscurations. The energy within a given subtended solid angle in the far field is calculated. It is shown that the cornered-off-axis obscuration provides much more far-field energy in a given spot size than the centered obscuration for the same clear aperture area and total energy, for example, 82% more far-field energy in the first Airy square for 50% obscuration, thus providing superior performance for practical systems.

  19. Smokes and Obscurants: A Health and Environmental Effects Data Base Assessment. A First-Order, Environmental Screening and Ranking of Army Smokes and Obscurants. Phase 1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-03-01

    Data,Models U.S. Department of the Army. 1982. "Smoke and Obscurants Program. "Keep on Smokin "." Army Research, Development, & Acquisition. 23(3):1-3...the Army. 1982. "Smoke and Obscurants Program. ’Keep on Smokin ’." Army Research, Development, & Acquisition. 23(3):1-3 (S1110). U.S. Dept of the Army

  20. Dust-obscured galaxies in the local universe

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Geller, Margaret J. E-mail: mgeller@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-06-01

    We use Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), AKARI, and Galaxy Evolution Explorer (GALEX) data to select local analogs of high-redshift (z ∼ 2) dust obscured galaxies (DOGs). We identify 47 local DOGs with S {sub 12μm}/S {sub 0.22μm} ≥ 892 and S {sub 12μm} > 20 mJy at 0.05 < z < 0.08 in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7. The infrared (IR) luminosities of these DOGs are in the range 3.4 × 10{sup 10} (L {sub ☉}) ≲ L {sub IR} ≲ 7.0 × 10{sup 11} (L {sub ☉}) with a median L {sub IR} of 2.1 × 10{sup 11} (L {sub ☉}). We compare the physical properties of local DOGs with a control sample of galaxies that have lower S {sub 12μm}/S {sub 0.22μm} but have similar redshift, IR luminosity, and stellar mass distributions. Both WISE 12 μm and GALEX near-ultraviolet (NUV) flux densities of DOGs differ from the control sample of galaxies, but the difference is much larger in the NUV. Among the 47 DOGs, 36% ± 7% have small axis ratios in the optical (i.e., b/a < 0.6), larger than the fraction among the control sample (17% ± 3%). There is no obvious sign of interaction for many local DOGs. No local DOGs have companions with comparable optical magnitudes closer than ∼50 kpc. The large- and small-scale environments of DOGs are similar to the control sample. Many physical properties of local DOGs are similar to those of high-z DOGs, even though the IR luminosities of local objects are an order of magnitude lower than for the high-z objects: the presence of two classes (active galactic nuclei- and star formation-dominated) of DOGs, abnormal faintness in the UV rather than extreme brightness in the mid-IR, and diverse optical morphology. These results suggest a common underlying physical origin of local and high-z DOGs. Both seem to represent the high-end tail of the dust obscuration distribution resulting from various physical mechanisms rather than a unique phase of galaxy evolution.

  1. The COSPIX Mission: Focusing on the Energetic and Obscured Universe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferrando, P.; Goldwurm, A.; Laurent, P.; Limousin, O.; Beckmann, V; Arnaud, M.; Barcons, X.; Bomans, D.; Caballero, I.; Carrera, F.; Chaty, S.; Chenevez, J.; Claret, A.; Corbel, S.; Croston, J.; Daddi, E.; De Becker, M.; Decourchelle, A.; Elbaz, D.; Falanga, M.; Ferrari, C.; Feruglio, C.; Gotz, D.; Gouiffes, C.; Hailey, C.

    2010-01-01

    Tracing the formation and evolution of all supermassive black holes, including the obscured ones, understanding how black holes influence their surroundings and how matter behaves under extreme conditions, are recognized as key science objectives to be addressed by the next generation of instruments. These are the main goals of the COSPIX proposal, made to ESA in December 2010 in the context of its call for selection of the M3 mission. In addition, COSPIX, will also provide key measurements on the non thermal Universe, particularly in relation to the question of the acceleration of particles, as well as on many other fundamental questions as for example the energetic particle content of clusters of galaxies. COSPIX is proposed as an observatory operating from 0.3 to more than 100 keV. The payload features a single long focal length focusing telescope offering an effective area close to ten times larger than any scheduled focusing mission at 30 keV, an angular resolution better than 20 arcseconds in hard X-rays, and polarimetric capabilities within the same focal plane instrumentation. In this paper, we describe the science objectives of the mission, its baseline design, and its performances, as proposed to ESA.

  2. Chaotic component obscured by strong periodicity in voice production system

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Chao; Jiang, Jack J.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of glottal aerodynamics in producing the nonlinear characteristics of voice is investigated by comparing the outputs of the asymmetric composite model and the two-mass model. The two-mass model assumes the glottal airflow to be laminar, nonviscous, and incompressible. In this model, when the asymmetric factor is decreased from 0.65 to 0.35, only 1:1 and 1:2 modes are detectable. However, with the same parameters, four vibratory modes (1:1, 1:2, 2:4, 2:6) are found in the asymmetric composite model using the Navier-Stokes equations to describe the complex aerodynamics in the glottis. Moreover, the amplitude of the waveform is modulated by a small-amplitude noiselike series. The nonlinear detection method reveals that this noiselike modulation is not random, but rather it is deterministic chaos. This result agrees with the phenomenon often seen in voice, in which the voice signal is strongly periodic but modulated by a small-amplitude chaotic component. The only difference between the two-mass model and the composite model is in their descriptions of glottal airflow. Therefore, the complex aerodynamic characteristics of glottal airflow could be important in generating the nonlinear dynamic behavior of voice production, including bifurcation and a small-amplitude chaotic component obscured by strong periodicity. PMID:18643315

  3. Indocyanine Green Angiographic Findings of Obscure Choroidal Abnormalities in Neurofibromatosis

    PubMed Central

    Byun, Yong Soo

    2012-01-01

    We report two cases of choroidal neurofibromatosis, detected with the aid of indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in patients with neurofibromatosis (NF)-1, otherwise having obscure findings based on ophthalmoscopy and fluoresceine angiography (FA). In case 1, the ophthalmoscopic exam showed diffuse bright or yellowish patched areas with irregular and blunt borders at the posterior pole. The FA showed multiple hyperfluorescent areas at the posterior pole in the early phase, which then showed more hyperfluorescence without leakage or extent in the late phase. The ICGA showed diffuse hypofluorescent areas in both the early and late phases, and the deep choroidal vessels were also visible. In case 2, the fundus showed no abnormal findings, and the FA showed weakly hypofluorescent areas with indefinite borders in both eyes. With the ICGA, these areas were more hypofluorescent and had clear borders. Choroidal involvement in NF-1 seems to occur more than expected. In selected cases, ICGA is a useful tool to be utilized when an ocular examination is conducted in a patient that has no definite findings based on the ophthalmoscope, B-scan, or FA tests. PMID:22670083

  4. DUST OBSCURATION IN LYMAN BREAK GALAXIES AT z {approx} 4

    SciTech Connect

    Ho, I-Ting; Wang, Wei-Hao; Morrison, Glenn E.; Miller, Neal A. E-mail: itho@asiaa.sinica.edu.t

    2010-10-20

    Measuring star formation rates (SFRs) in high-z galaxies with their rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) continuum can be uncertain because of dust obscuration. Prior studies had used the submillimeter emission at 850 {mu}m to determine the intrinsic SFRs of rest-frame UV-selected galaxies, but the results suffered from the low sensitivity and poor resolution ({approx}15''). Here, we use ultradeep Very Large Array 1.4 GHz images with {approx}1''-2'' resolutions to measure the intrinsic SFRs. We perform stacking analyses in the radio images centered on {approx}3500 Lyman break galaxies (LBGs) at z {approx} 4 in the Great Observatories Origins Deep Survey-North and South fields selected with Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys data. The stacked radio flux is very low, 0.08 {+-} 0.15 {mu}Jy, implying a mean SFR of 6 {+-} 11 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This is comparable to the uncorrected mean UV SFRs of {approx}5 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, implying that the z {approx} 4 LBGs have little dust extinction. The low SFR and dust extinction support the previous results that z {approx} 4 LBGs are in general not submillimeter galaxies. We further show that there is no statistically significant excess of dust-hidden star-forming components within {approx}22 kpc from the LBGs.

  5. Manual for obscuration code with space station applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marhefka, R. J.; Takacs, L.

    1986-01-01

    The Obscuration Code, referred to as SHADOW, is a user-oriented computer code to determine the case shadow of an antenna in a complex environment onto the far zone sphere. The surrounding structure can be composed of multiple composite cone frustums and multiply sided flat plates. These structural pieces are ideal for modeling space station configurations. The means of describing the geometry input is compatible with the NEC-BASIC Scattering Code. In addition, an interactive mode of operation has been provided for DEC VAX computers. The first part of this document is a user's manual designed to give a description of the method used to obtain the shadow map, to provide an overall view of the operation of the computer code, to instruct a user in how to model structures, and to give examples of inputs and outputs. The second part is a code manual that details how to set up the interactive and non-interactive modes of the code and provides a listing and brief description of each of the subroutines.

  6. Reflection in obscured Seyfert galaxies and the CXB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walter, Roland; Esposito, Valentino

    2015-08-01

    We present a study of the average hard X-ray spectra of Seyfert galaxies of different types obtained accumulating one billion seconds of Swift/BAT data and reaching a sensitivity of 20 micro-Crab in the hard X-rays. The resulting spectra are representative of the average emission of these objects (in the local Universe) and can be used as a template for the synthesis of the Cosmic X-ray Background.The ratio of the average spectra obtained for Compton-thin obscured and unobscured sources, derived with high accuracy, is characteristic of a reflection hump and confirms that midly obsured and Compton thin Seyfert 2 galaxies feature much more reflection than unabsorbed sources.This large reflection cannot be explained easily by the unified model and points towards the clumpy torus model. It also provides a natural explanation for the peak, intensity and spectral shape of the Cosmic X-ray Background without requiring a large population of Compton thick sources.

  7. Obscured by administrative data? Racial disparities in occupational injury.

    PubMed

    Sabbath, Erika L; Boden, Leslie I; Williams, Jessica Ar; Hashimoto, Dean; Hopcia, Karen; Sorensen, Glorian

    2017-03-01

    Objectives Underreporting of occupational injuries is well documented, but underreporting patterns may vary by worker characteristics, obscuring disparities. We tested for racial and ethnic differences in injury reporting patterns by comparing injuries reported via research survey and administrative injury database in the same group of healthcare workers in the US. Methods We used data from a cohort of 1568 hospital patient-care workers who were asked via survey whether they had been injured at work during the year prior (self-reported injury; N=244). Using the hospital's injury database, we determined whether the same workers had reported injuries to the hospital's occupational health service during that year (administratively reported injury; N=126). We compared data sources to test for racial and ethnic differences in injury reporting practices. Results In logistic regression models adjusted for demographic and occupational characteristics, black workers' odds of injury as measured by self-report data were 1.91 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.04-3.49] compared with white workers. The same black workers' odds of injury as measured by administrative data were 1.22 (95% CI 0.54-2.77) compared with white workers. Conclusions The undercount of occupational injuries in administrative versus self-report data may be greater among black compared to white workers, leading to underestimates of racial disparities in workplace injury.

  8. Infrared decoy and obscurant modelling and simulation for ship protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, Brian; Nicholls, Edgar; Walmsley, Roy; Ayling, Richard

    2011-11-01

    Imaging seekers used in modern Anti Ship Missiles (ASMs) use a variety of counter countermeasure (CCM) techniques including guard gates and aspect ratio assessment in order to counter the use of IR decoys. In order to improve the performance of EO/IR countermeasures it is necessary to accurately configure and place the decoys using a launcher that is trainable in azimuth and elevation. Control of the launcher, decoy firing times and burst sequences requires the development of algorithms based on multi-dimensional solvers. The modelling and simulation used to derive the launcher algorithms is described including the countermeasure, threat, launcher and ship models. The launcher model incorporates realistic azimuth and elevation rates with limits on azimuth and elevation arcs of fire. A Navier Stokes based model of the IR decoy includes thermal buoyancy, cooling of the IR smoke and its extinction properties. All of these factors affect the developing size, shape and radiance of the decoy. The hot smoke also influences the performance of any co-located chaff or other obscurant material. Typical simulations are described against generic imaging ASM seekers using shape discrimination or a guard gate.

  9. Assessment of multi-modality evaluations of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Law, Ryan; Varayil, Jithinraj E; WongKeeSong, Louis M; Fidler, Jeff; Fletcher, Joel G; Barlow, John; Alexander, Jeffrey; Rajan, Elizabeth; Hansel, Stephanie; Becker, Brenda; Larson, Joseph J; Enders, Felicity T; Bruining, David H; Coelho-Prabhu, Nayantara

    2017-01-01

    AIM To determine the frequency of bleeding source detection in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) who underwent double balloon enteroscopy (DBE) after pre-procedure imaging [multiphase computed tomography enterography (MPCTE), video capsule endoscopy (VCE), or both] and assess the impact of imaging on DBE diagnostic yield. METHODS Retrospective cohort study using a prospectively maintained database of all adult patients presenting with OGIB who underwent DBE from September 1st, 2002 to June 30th, 2013 at a single tertiary center. RESULTS Four hundred and ninety five patients (52% females; median age 68 years) underwent DBE for OGIB. AVCE and/or MPCTE performed within 1 year prior to DBE (in 441 patients) increased the diagnostic yield of DBE (67.1% with preceding imaging vs 59.5% without). Using DBE as the gold standard, VCE and MPCTE had a diagnostic yield of 72.7% and 32.5% respectively. There were no increased odds of finding a bleeding site at DBE compared to VCE (OR = 1.3, P = 0.150). There were increased odds of finding a bleeding site at DBE compared to MPCTE (OR = 5.9, P < 0.001). In inpatients with overt OGIB, diagnostic yield of DBE was not affected by preceding imaging. CONCLUSION DBE is a safe and well-tolerated procedure for the diagnosis and treatment of OGIB, with a diagnostic yield that may be increased after obtaining a preceding VCE or MPCTE. However, inpatients with active ongoing bleeding may benefit from proceeding directly to antegrade DBE. PMID:28216967

  10. Characterization of the OPAL LiDAR under controlled obscurant conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Xiaoying; Church, Philip; Matheson, Justin

    2016-05-01

    Neptec Technologies' OPAL-120 3D LiDAR is optimized for obscurant penetration. The OPAL-120 uses a scanning mechanism based on the Risley prism pair. The scan patterns are created by rotating two prisms under independent motor control. The geometry and material properties of the prisms define the conical field-of-view of the sensor, which can be built to between 60 to 120 degrees. The OPAL-120 was recently evaluated using a controlled obscurant chamber capable of generating clouds of obscurants over a depth of 22m. Obscurants used in this investigation include: Arizona road dust, water fog, and fog-oil. The obscurant cloud optical densities were monitored with a transmissometer. Optical depths values ranged from an upper value of 6 and progressively decreased to 0. Targets were positioned at the back of the obscurant chamber at a distance of 60m from the LiDAR. The targets are made of a foreground array of equally spaced painted wood stripes in front of a solid background. Reflectivity contrasts were achieved with foreground/background combinations of white/white, white/black and black/white. Data analysis will be presented on the effect of optical densities on range and cross-range resolution, and accuracy. The analysis includes the combinations of all obscurant types and target reflectivity contrasts.

  11. Remaining True to the Vision: Promoting Research in FCS

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blackwell, Ann P.; Burgess, Anne M.

    2006-01-01

    There is an ongoing need for family and consumer sciences professionals to generate new knowledge through research and then share findings with diverse groups. Specific Action Steps describe methods to incorporate research into university curricula to promote this role. The ultimate goal is to inspire new professionals to remain true to the…

  12. Relic DNA is abundant in soil and obscures estimates of soil microbial diversity.

    PubMed

    Carini, Paul; Marsden, Patrick J; Leff, Jonathan W; Morgan, Emily E; Strickland, Michael S; Fierer, Noah

    2016-12-19

    Extracellular DNA from dead microorganisms can persist in soil for weeks to years(1-3). Although it is implicitly assumed that the microbial DNA recovered from soil predominantly represents intact cells, it is unclear how extracellular DNA affects molecular analyses of microbial diversity. We examined a wide range of soils using viability PCR based on the photoreactive DNA-intercalating dye propidium monoazide(4). We found that, on average, 40% of both prokaryotic and fungal DNA was extracellular or from cells that were no longer intact. Extracellular DNA inflated the observed prokaryotic and fungal richness by up to 55% and caused significant misestimation of taxon relative abundances, including the relative abundances of taxa integral to key ecosystem processes. Extracellular DNA was not found in measurable amounts in all soils; it was more likely to be present in soils with low exchangeable base cation concentrations, and the effect of its removal on microbial community structure was more profound in high-pH soils. Together, these findings imply that this 'relic DNA' remaining in soil after cell death can obscure treatment effects, spatiotemporal patterns and relationships between microbial taxa and environmental conditions.

  13. Duodenal plexiform fibromyxoma as a cause of obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Moris, Demetrios; Spanou, Evangelia; Sougioultzis, Stavros; Dimitrokallis, Nikolaos; Kalisperati, Polyxeni; Delladetsima, Ioanna; Felekouras, Evangelos

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Rationale: We are reporting the first-to our knowledge-case of duodenal Plexiform Fibromyxoma causing obscure upper gastrointestinal bleeding. Patient concerns: Plexiform fibromyxoma triggered recurrent upper gastrointestinal bleeding episodes in a 63-year-old man who remained undiagnosed, despite multiple hospitalizations, extensive diagnostic workups and surgical interventions (including gastrectomies), for almost 17 years. Diagnoses-Interventions: During hospitalization for the last bleeding episode, an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed an intestinal hemorrhagic nodule. The lesion was deemed unresectable by endoscopic means. An abdominal computerized tomography disclosed no further lesions and surgery was decided. The lesion at operation was found near the edge of the duodenal stump and treated with pancreas-preserving duodenectomy (1st and 2nd portion). Outcomes: Postoperative recovery was mainly uneventful and a 20-month follow-up finds the patient in good health with no need for blood transfusions. Plexiform fibromyxomas stand for a rare and widely unknown mesenchymal entity. Despite the fact that they closely resemble other gastrointestinal tumors, they distinctly vary in clinical management as well as the histopathology. Clinical awareness and further research are compulsory to elucidate its clinical course and prognosis. PMID:28072751

  14. Smokes and obscurants: A health and environmental effects data base assessment: A first-order, environmental screening and ranking of Army smokes and obscurants: Phase 1 report

    SciTech Connect

    Shinn, J.H.; Martins, S.A.; Cederwall, P.L.; Gratt, L.B.

    1985-03-01

    An initial environmental screening and ranking is provided for each Army smoke and obscurant (S and O) depending on smoke type and smoke-generating device. This was done according to the magnitude of the impact area, the characteristic environmental concentration, the relative inhalation toxicity, the relative toxicity when ingested by animals, the aquatic toxicity, the environmental mobility when freshly deposited, and the ultimate mobility and fate in the environment. The major smoke types considered were various forms of white phosphorus (WP), red phosphorus (RP), hexachloroethane-derived smokes (HC), fog oil (SGF-2), diesel fuel smokes (DF), and some infrared obscuring agents (IR).

  15. Perceived Punishment and Reward Values Assigned to Supervisor Actions.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-04-01

    dimension generally received the most negative ratings. the third factor--" Negative Reinforcement " reflected a general withholding of recognition or...obscured. Especially actions which involve negative reinforcement convey primarily information that the employee’s actions have not produced a reward or

  16. Characterizing the redshifts and luminosities of WISE selected obscured AGN using SALT optical spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hviding, Raphael E.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Hainline, Kevin N.; Carroll, Christopher M.; DiPompeo, Mike A.; Jones, Mackenzie L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the results of several optical spectroscopic surveys covering over 100 candidate luminous obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) identified by their mid-infrared emission detected with the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). These galaxies were selected based on red WISE colors and galaxy-like optical emission, and were studied using long-slit optical spectroscopy with the Robert Stobie Spectrograph (RSS) on the Southern African Large Telescope (SALT). Our spectra were analyzed to obtain redshifts and emission line flux ratios for each galaxy. These results verify that WISE is an effective section method for luminous obscured AGN, allow for the characterization of redshifts and luminosities of the WISE color selected obscured AGN population, and could potentially contribute to large statistical studies of obscured AGN distributions in the future.

  17. Surface Modified TiO2 Obscurants for Increased Safety and Performance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-11-01

    unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT Numerical modeling predicts that titanium dioxide (TiO2) based obscurants could produce MECs that...PFPTMS Pentafluorophenyltrimethoxy silane PTFE Polytetrafluoroethylene RCL-9 Titanium Dioxide material from Cristal Global RH Relative Humidity RPM...and is currently used for visible obscurant applications . The MEC of M106 devices tested in a 190 m3 chamber at the Edgewood Chemical Biological

  18. Technical Feasibility Study of an Effective Low-Toxicity Obscurant Material

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    sea-salt is not 100% sodium chloride , and since it is desirable for a pyrotechnic formulator to have some room for optimization, TNO also identified...obscurant smoke, pyrotechnic composition, new pyrotechnic composition formulation , safety study, transmission measurements, effectiveness, in vitro...TPA) smoke composition p. 7 Table 4.3 Test results of friction sensitivity for the sodium chloride based obscurant compositions p. 9

  19. Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel December 2015 UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Joel Schmitigal 27480 Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI-Std...To) 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Laboratory Evaluation of Light Obscuration Particle Counters used to Establish use Limits for Aviation Fuel 5a. CONTRACT...laboratory evaluations of automatic light obscuration particle counters to develop limits for aviation fuel cleanliness. The laboratory evaluations

  20. Whole Sky Imager Characterization of Sky Obscuration by Clouds for the Starfire Optical Range

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-11

    good. Figure 27 shows a typical time series for scattered opaque clouds , and Figure 28 shows an example of contrails forming into cirrus . It...ATMOSPHERIC OPTICS GROUP January 2010 Scientific Report on Whole Sky Imager Characterization Of Sky Obscuration by Clouds For...08-10/1/09 Scientific Report on the Whole Sky Imager Characterization of Sky Obscuration by Clouds for the Starfire Optical Range FA9451-008-C-0226

  1. Exploiting map plans as resources for action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Payton, David

    1989-01-01

    When plans are used as programs for controlling the action of autonomous or teleoperated robots, their abstract representation can easily obscure a great deal of the critical knowledge that originally led to the planned course of action. An autonomous vehicle experiment is highlighted which illustrates how the information barriers created by abstraction can result in undesirable action. It is then shown how the same task can be performed correctly using plans as a resource for action. As a result of this simple change in outlook, problems requiring opportunistic reaction to unexpected changes in the environment can be solved.

  2. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery.

  3. The Angular Clustering of WISE-Selected AGN: Different Haloes for Obscured and Unobscured AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Lin

    2015-08-01

    We calculate the angular correlation function for a sample of 170,000 AGN extracted from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) catalog, selected to have red mid-IR colors (W1 - W2 > 0.8) and 4.6 micron flux densities brighter than 0.14 mJy). The sample is expected to be >90% reliable at identifying AGN, and to have a mean redshift of z=1.1. In total, the angular clustering of WISE-AGN is roughly similar to that of optical AGN. We cross-match these objects with the photometric SDSS catalog and distinguish obscured sources with (r - W2) > 6 from bluer, unobscured AGN. Obscured sources present a higher clustering signal than unobscured sources. Since the host galaxy morphologies of obscured AGN are not typical red sequence elliptical galaxies and show disks in many cases, it is unlikely that the increased clustering strength of the obscured population is driven by a host galaxy segregation bias. By using relatively complete redshift distributions from the COSMOS survey, we find obscured sources at mean redshift z=0.9 have a bias of b = 2.9 \\pm 0.6 and are hosted in dark matter halos with a typical mass of log(M/M_odot)~13.5. In contrast, unobscured AGN at z~1.1 have a bias of b = 1.6 \\pm 0.6 and inhabit halos of log(M/M_odot)~12.4. These findings suggest that obscured AGN inhabit denser environments than unobscured AGN, and are difficult to reconcile with the simplest AGN unification models, where obscuration is driven solely by orientation.

  4. Role of computed tomography angiography on the management of overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Tseng, Chao-Ming; Lin, I-Chang; Chang, Chi-Yang; Wang, Hsiu-Po; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Mo, Lein-Ray; Lin, Jaw-Town; Tai, Chi-Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background and aim The role of computed tomography angiography (CTA) on the management of acute overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) remains unclear. We designed a study to evaluate the impact of CTA before enteroscopy for acute overt OGIB. Methods All patients undergoing CTA followed by enteroscopy for acute overt OGIB were enrolled in this retrospective study. Clinical characteristics and diagnosis were compared between patients with positive and negative CTA findings. We evaluated the impact of CTA on subsequent enteroscopy. Results From February 2008 to March 2015, 71 patients including 25 patients with positive CTA findings and 46 patients with negative CTA findings, were enrolled. All 25 patients with positive CTA findings were confirmed to have mid GI lesions, a significantly higher proportion than among patients with negative CTA findings (100% vs. 52.2%, respectively; P <0.001). CTA had a higher diagnostic yield for bleeding from tumor origin than from non-tumor origin (80.0% vs. 23.7%, respectively; P <0.001). The diagnostic yield of CTA and enteroscopy was 35.2% and 73.2%, respectively. The lesions could be identified by the initial route of enteroscopy in more patients with positive CTA findings than in those with negative CTA findings (92.0% vs. 47.8%, respectively; P <0.001). Lesions could be identified in seven of the 25 patients (28.0%) with positive CTA findings by using only push enteroscopy instead of single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE), but all 46 patients with negative CTA findings needed SBE for deep small-bowel examination. Conclusions CTA is useful in the diagnosis of acute overt OGIB, especially in patients with bleeding from tumors. In addition, it also can show the precise location of bleeding, and guide subsequent enteroscopic management. PMID:28248993

  5. Performance of an electro-optical solar compass in partially obscured Sun conditions.

    PubMed

    Bollanti, S; De Meis, D; Di Lazzaro, P; Flora, F; Gallerano, G P; Mezi, L; Murra, D; Vicca, D

    2016-04-20

    Solar compasses are designed to accurately find true North on sunny days. However, no data on their performance are available when sunlight is partially blocked, e.g., by a cloud. We have measured, for the first time to the best of our knowledge, the performance of one of the most accurate electro-optical solar compasses (accuracy better than 0.01  deg) as a function of the solar disk obscuration during the Sun's eclipse on 20 March 2015. The measurements show that the accuracy level is mainly dependent on the asymmetry of the obscuration with respect to the main axis of the optical detection system and, to a lesser extent, on the percentage of the solar disk covered. In particular, azimuth measurement suffered a maximum deviation of 0.08 deg when 35% of the solar disk was asymmetrically obscured. The deviation was smaller when 46% of the solar disk was more symmetrically obscured. This experiment demonstrates that, even in the case of a partially obscured Sun, the electro-optical solar compass maintains an accuracy better than magnetic and electronic compasses.

  6. A unifying evolutionary framework for infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasar host haloes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Myers, A. D.; Geach, J. E.

    2017-01-01

    Recent measurements of the dark matter halo masses of infrared-selected obscured quasars are in tension - some indicate that obscured quasars have a higher halo mass compared to their unobscured counterparts, while others find no difference. The former result is inconsistent with the simplest models of quasar unification which rely solely on the viewing angle, while the latter may support such models. Here, using empirical relationships between dark matter halo and supermassive black hole (BH) masses, we provide a simple evolutionary picture which naturally explains these findings and is motivated by more sophisticated merger-driven quasar-fuelling models. The model tracks the growth rate of haloes, with the BH growing in spurts of quasar activity in order to `catch up' with the Mbh-Mstellar-Mhalo relationship. The first part of the quasar phase is obscured and is followed by an unobscured phase. Depending on the luminosity limit of the sample, driven by observational selection effects, a difference in halo masses may or may not be significant. For high-luminosity samples, the difference can be large (a few to 10 times higher masses in obscured quasars), while for lower luminosity samples, the halo mass difference is very small, much smaller than current observational constraints. Such a simple model provides a qualitative explanation for the higher mass haloes of obscured quasars, as well as a rough quantitative agreement with seemingly disparate results.

  7. Discovering highly obscured AGN with the Swift-BAT 100-month survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, Stefano; Ajello, Marco; Comastri, Andrea; Cusumano, Giancarlo; La Parola, Valentina; Segreto, Alberto

    2017-01-01

    In this talk, I present a new technique to find highly obscured AGN using the 100-month Swift-BAT survey. I will show the results of the combined Chandra and BAT spectral analysis in the 0.3-150 keV band of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from the 100-month BAT catalog. We selected nearby (z<0.03) sources lacking of a ROSAT counterpart and never previously observed in the 0.3-10 keV energy range. All the objects are significantly obscured, having NH>1E23 cm-2 at a >99% confidence level, and one to three sources are candidate Compton thick Active Galactic Nuclei (CT-AGN), i.e., have NH>1E24 cm-2.Since the selection criteria we adopted have been extremely effective in detecting highly obscured AGN, further observations of these and other Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from the BAT 100-month catalog will allow us to create a statistically significant sample of highly obscured AGN, therefore better understanding the physics of the obscuration processes.

  8. Small bowel capsule endoscopy for the investigation of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: When we should do it and what should we expect.

    PubMed

    Viazis, N; Anastasiou, J; Karamanolis, D G

    2016-01-01

    Obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is defined as bleeding of unknown origin that persists or recurs (i.e. recurrent or persistent iron deficiency anemia, fecal occult blood test positivity or visible bleeding) after a negative initial workout that necessarily includes gastroscopy and colonoscopy. In clinical practice, small bowel capsule endoscopy is recommended as a third stage examination in these patients, since it is a simple, safe, non-invasive and reliable test. To date there are three available small bowel capsule systems that have gained FDA approval and their diagnostic yield has shown to be superior to other diagnostic modalities for the investigation of the small bowel in patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding. The test should be performed as close to the bleeding episode as possible and the administration of a purgative bowel preparation before the administration of capsule endoscopy is recommended by the European Society of Gastrointestinal Endoscopy (ESGE). Issues that still remain to be solved are the definition of bleeding lesions and what really represents a positive finding, as well as the question of whether the outcome of patients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding is altered after the test, i.e. to better define subgroups of patients that will mostly benefit from capsule endoscopy. In the future small bowel capsule endoscopy might be able to get guided, while tissue samples might be available as well. (Acta gastro-enterol. belg., 2016, 79, 355-362).

  9. The Most Luminous Heavily Obscured Quasars Have a High Merger Fraction: Morphological Study of WISE-selected Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Fang, Guanwen; Gao, Ying; Zhang, Dandan; Jiang, Xiaoming; Wu, Qiaoqian; Yang, Jun; Li, Zhao

    2016-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer-selected hyperluminous, hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are powered by highly dust-obscured, possibly Compton-thick active galactic nuclei (AGNs). High obscuration provides us a good chance to study the host morphology of the most luminous AGNs directly. We analyze the host morphology of 18 Hot DOGs at z ˜ 3 using Hubble Space Telescope/WFC3 imaging. We find that Hot DOGs have a high merger fraction (62 ± 14%). By fitting the surface brightness profiles, we find that the distribution of Sérsic indices in our Hot DOG sample peaks around 2, which suggests that most Hot DOGs have transforming morphologies. We also derive the AGN bolometric luminosity (˜1014 L ⊙) of our Hot DOG sample by using IR spectral energy distributions decomposition. The derived merger fraction and AGN bolometric luminosity relation is well consistent with the variability-based model prediction. Both the high merger fraction in an IR-luminous AGN sample and relatively low merger fraction in a UV/optical-selected, unobscured AGN sample can be expected in the merger-driven evolutionary model. Finally, we conclude that Hot DOGs are merger-driven and may represent a transit phase during the evolution of massive galaxies, transforming from the dusty starburst-dominated phase to the unobscured QSO phase.

  10. Weighing obscured and unobscured quasar hosts with the cosmic microwave background

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DiPompeo, M. A.; Myers, A. D.; Hickox, R. C.; Geach, J. E.; Holder, G.; Hainline, K. N.; Hall, S. W.

    2015-02-01

    We cross-correlate a cosmic microwave background (CMB) lensing map with the projected space densities of quasars to measure the bias and halo masses of a quasar sample split into obscured and unobscured populations, the first application of this method to distinct quasar subclasses. Several recent studies of the angular clustering of obscured quasars have shown that these objects likely reside in higher mass haloes compared to their unobscured counterparts. This has important implications for models of the structure and geometry of quasars, their role in growing supermassive black holes, and mutual quasar/host galaxy evolution. However, the magnitude and significance of this difference has varied from study to study. Using data from Planck, WISE, and Sloan Digital Sky Survey, we follow up on these results using the independent method of CMB lensing cross-correlations. The region and sample are identical to that used for recent angular clustering measurements, allowing for a direct comparison of the CMB-lensing and angular clustering methods. At z ˜ 1, we find that the bias of obscured quasars is bq = 2.57 ± 0.24, while that of unobscured quasars is bq = 1.89 ± 0.19. This corresponds to halo masses of log (M_h / M_{{⊙}} h^{-1}) = 13.24_{-0.15}^{+0.14} (obscured) and log (M_h / M_{{⊙}} h^{-1}) = 12.71_{-0.13}^{+0.15} (unobscured). These results agree well with those from angular clustering (well within 1σ), and confirm that obscured quasars reside in host haloes ˜3 times as massive as haloes hosting unobscured quasars. This implies that quasars spend a significant portion of their lifetime in an obscured state, possibly more than one-half of the entire active phase.

  11. HEAVILY OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN HIGH-REDSHIFT LUMINOUS INFRARED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, Ezequiel; Sanders, David B.; Urry, C. Megan; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin

    2010-10-20

    We take advantage of the rich multiwavelength data available in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDF-S), including the 4 Ms Chandra observations (the deepest X-ray data to date), in order to search for heavily obscured low-luminosity active galactic nuclei (AGNs) among infrared-luminous galaxies. In particular, we obtained a stacked rest-frame X-ray spectrum for samples of galaxies binned in terms of their IR luminosity or stellar mass. We detect a significant signal at E {approx} 1-8 keV, which we interpret as originating from a combination of emission associated with star formation processes at low energies combined with a heavily obscured AGN at E > 5 keV. We further find that the relative strength of this AGN signal decays with decreasing IR luminosity, indicating a higher AGN fraction for more luminous IR sources. Together, these results strongly suggest the presence of a large number of obscured AGNs in IR-luminous galaxies. Using samples binned in terms of stellar mass in the host galaxy, we find a significant excess at E = 6-7 keV for sources with M > 10{sup 11} M {sub sun}, consistent with a large obscured AGN population in high mass galaxies. In contrast, no strong evidence of AGN activity was found for less-massive galaxies. The integrated intensity at high energies indicates that a significant fraction of the total black hole growth, {approx}22%, occurs in heavily obscured systems that are not individually detected in even the deepest X-ray observations. There are also indications that the number of low-luminosity, heavily obscured AGNs does not evolve significantly with redshift, in contrast to the strong evolution seen in higher luminosity sources.

  12. Obscuring Fraction of Active Galactic Nuclei: Implications from Radiation-driven Fountain Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wada, Keiichi

    2015-10-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are believed to be obscured by an optical thick “torus” that covers a large fraction of solid angles for the nuclei. However, the physical origin of the tori and the differences in the tori among AGNs are not clear. In a previous paper based on three-dimensional radiation-hydorodynamic calculations, we proposed a physics-based mechanism for the obscuration, called “radiation-driven fountains,” in which the circulation of the gas driven by central radiation naturally forms a thick disk that partially obscures the nuclear emission. Here, we expand this mechanism and conduct a series of simulations to explore how obscuration depends on the properties of AGNs. We found that the obscuring fraction fobs for a given column density toward the AGNs changes depending on both the AGN luminosity and the black hole mass. In particular, fobs for NH ≥ 1022 cm-2 increases from ˜0.2 to ˜0.6 as a function of the X-ray luminosity LX in the LX = 1042-44 erg s-1 range, but fobs becomes small (˜0.4) above a luminosity (˜1045 erg s-1). The behaviors of fobs can be understood by a simple analytic model and provide insight into the redshift evolution of the obscuration. The simulations also show that for a given LAGN, fobs is always smaller (˜0.2-0.3) for a larger column density (NH ≥ 1023 cm-2). We also found cases that more than 70% of the solid angles can be covered by the fountain flows.

  13. Luminescence of thermally altered human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Krap, Tristan; Nota, Kevin; Wilk, Leah S; van de Goot, Franklin R W; Ruijter, Jan M; Duijst, Wilma; Oostra, Roelof-Jan

    2017-02-23

    Literature on luminescent properties of thermally altered human remains is scarce and contradictory. Therefore, the luminescence of heated bone was systemically reinvestigated. A heating experiment was conducted on fresh human bone, in two different media, and cremated human remains were recovered from a modern crematory. Luminescence was excited with light sources within the range of 350 to 560 nm. The excitation light was filtered out by using different long pass filters, and the luminescence was analysed by means of a scoring method. The results show that temperature, duration and surrounding medium determine the observed emission intensity and bandwidth. It is concluded that the luminescent characteristic of bone can be useful for identifying thermally altered human remains in a difficult context as well as yield information on the perimortem and postmortem events.

  14. Crystal structures of four indole derivatives with a phenyl substituent at the 2-position and a carbonyl group at the 3-position: the C(6) N—H⋯O chain remains the same, but the weak reinforcing inter­actions are different

    PubMed Central

    Kerr, Jamie R.; Trembleau, Laurent; Storey, John M. D.; Wardell, James L.; Harrison, William T. A.

    2016-01-01

    We describe the crystal structures of four indole derivatives with a phenyl ring at the 2-position and different carbonyl-linked substituents at the 3-position, namely 1-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone, C16H13NO, (I), 2-cyclo­hexyl-1-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)ethanone, C22H23NO, (II), 3,3-dimethyl-1-(2-phenyl-1H-indol-3-yl)butan-1-one, C20H21NO, (III), and 3-benzoyl-2-phenyl-1H-indole, C21H15NO, (IV). In each case, the carbonyl-group O atom lies close to the indole-ring plane and points towards the benzene ring. The dihedral angles between the indole ring system and 2-phenyl ring for these structures are clustered in a narrow range around 65°. The dominant inter­molecular inter­action in each case is an N—H⋯O hydrogen bond, which generates a C(6) chain, although each structure possesses a different crystal symmetry. The C(6) chains are consolidated by different (C—H⋯O, C—H⋯π and π–π stacking) weak inter­actions, with little consistency between the structures. PMID:27006809

  15. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, Arpad Alexander; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-01-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the 'odor signatures' unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  16. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  17. Identification of ancient remains through genomic sequencing

    PubMed Central

    Blow, Matthew J.; Zhang, Tao; Woyke, Tanja; Speller, Camilla F.; Krivoshapkin, Andrei; Yang, Dongya Y.; Derevianko, Anatoly; Rubin, Edward M.

    2008-01-01

    Studies of ancient DNA have been hindered by the preciousness of remains, the small quantities of undamaged DNA accessible, and the limitations associated with conventional PCR amplification. In these studies, we developed and applied a genomewide adapter-mediated emulsion PCR amplification protocol for ancient mammalian samples estimated to be between 45,000 and 69,000 yr old. Using 454 Life Sciences (Roche) and Illumina sequencing (formerly Solexa sequencing) technologies, we examined over 100 megabases of DNA from amplified extracts, revealing unbiased sequence coverage with substantial amounts of nonredundant nuclear sequences from the sample sources and negligible levels of human contamination. We consistently recorded over 500-fold increases, such that nanogram quantities of starting material could be amplified to microgram quantities. Application of our protocol to a 50,000-yr-old uncharacterized bone sample that was unsuccessful in mitochondrial PCR provided sufficient nuclear sequences for comparison with extant mammals and subsequent phylogenetic classification of the remains. The combined use of emulsion PCR amplification and high-throughput sequencing allows for the generation of large quantities of DNA sequence data from ancient remains. Using such techniques, even small amounts of ancient remains with low levels of endogenous DNA preservation may yield substantial quantities of nuclear DNA, enabling novel applications of ancient DNA genomics to the investigation of extinct phyla. PMID:18426903

  18. The case for fencing remains intact.

    PubMed

    Packer, C; Swanson, A; Canney, S; Loveridge, A; Garnett, S; Pfeifer, M; Burton, A C; Bauer, H; MacNulty, D

    2013-11-01

    Creel et al. argue against the conservation effectiveness of fencing based on a population measure that ignores the importance of top predators to ecosystem processes. Their statistical analyses consider, first, only a subset of fenced reserves and, second, an incomplete examination of 'costs per lion.' Our original conclusions remain unaltered.

  19. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  20. Odor analysis of decomposing buried human remains.

    PubMed

    Vass, Arpad A; Smith, Rob R; Thompson, Cyril V; Burnett, Michael N; Dulgerian, Nishan; Eckenrode, Brian A

    2008-03-01

    This study, conducted at the University of Tennessee's Anthropological Research Facility (ARF), lists and ranks the primary chemical constituents which define the odor of decomposition of human remains as detected at the soil surface of shallow burial sites. Triple sorbent traps were used to collect air samples in the field and revealed eight major classes of chemicals which now contain 478 specific volatile compounds associated with burial decomposition. Samples were analyzed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and were collected below and above the body, and at the soil surface of 1.5-3.5 ft. (0.46-1.07 m) deep burial sites of four individuals over a 4-year time span. New data were incorporated into the previously established Decompositional Odor Analysis (DOA) Database providing identification, chemical trends, and semi-quantitation of chemicals for evaluation. This research identifies the "odor signatures" unique to the decomposition of buried human remains with projected ramifications on human remains detection canine training procedures and in the development of field portable analytical instruments which can be used to locate human remains in shallow burial sites.

  1. Why Agricultural Educators Remain in the Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crutchfield, Nina; Ritz, Rudy; Burris, Scott

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and describe factors that are related to agricultural educator career retention and to explore the relationships between work engagement, work-life balance, occupational commitment, and personal and career factors as related to the decision to remain in the teaching profession. The target population for…

  2. Edgar Allan Poe: a case description of the Marfan syndrome in an obscure short story.

    PubMed

    Battle, Robert W

    2011-07-01

    In the obscure short story “A Tale of the Ragged Mountains,” Edgar Allen Poe meticulously described a character with features remarkably consistent with the Marfan syndrome. This description appeared in fiction >50 years before the celebrated index description in the published medical research by Professor Antoine Marfan in Paris in 1896.

  3. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. 1; Radiation-Hydrodynamics Solution for the Wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Bisnovatyi-Kogan. G. S.; Kallman, T.

    2011-01-01

    We construct a radiation-hydrodynamics model for the obscuring toroidal structure in active galactic nuclei. In this model the obscuration is produced at parsec scale by a dense, dusty wind which is supported by infrared radiation pressure on dust grains. To find the distribution of radiation pressure, we numerically solve the 2D radiation transfer problem in a flux limited diffusion approximation. We iteratively couple the solution with calculations of stationary 1D models for the wind, and obtain the z-component of the velocity. Our results demonstrate that for AGN luminosities greater than 0.1 L(sub edd) external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via outflows driven by infrared radiation pressure. The terminal velocity of marginally Compton-thin models (0.2 < tau(sub T) < 0.6), is comparable to or greater than the escape velocity. In Compton thick models the maximum value of the vertical component of the velocity is lower than the escape velocity, suggesting that a significant part of our torus is in the form of failed wind. The results demonstrate that obscuration via normal or failed infrared-driven winds is a viable option for the AGN torus problem and AGN unification models. Such winds can also provide an important channel for AGN feedback.

  4. Mid-IR Selected z ∼ 2 Type-2 QSOs: Obscured Star-Forming Young Quasars?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Violino, Giulio; Stevens, J.; Coppin, K.

    2016-10-01

    Star formation and obscuration in AGN: A sub-mm study of high-redshift mid-IR selected type-2 QSOs. The AGN unification model describes unobscured and obscured AGN (AGN1 and AGN2) as identical sources, with their different observed properties explained solely by orientation effects; as a result, it predicts no difference in the host galaxies. As an alternative, a second scenario has been proposed in which type-2 AGN represent an earlier stage in the life of AGN characterized by dust- enshrouded host galaxies which contribute to the obscuration and higher star formation activity, at least at earlier epochs. To test this scenario we employ Herschel data at three different wavelengths (250, 350, 500 um) to study the far-IR-to-submm properties of a sample of mid-IR selected type 2 QSOs at high redshift (1.5obscuration of the nucleus (perhaps via a merger) since our AGN1 have systematically lower radio luminosities than our AGN2.

  5. X-Ray Spectral Properties of Seven Heavily Obscured Seyfert 2 Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marchesi, S.; Ajello, M.; Comastri, A.; Cusumano, G.; La Parola, V.; Segreto, A.

    2017-02-01

    We present the combined Chandra and Swift-BAT spectral analysis of seven Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from the Swift-BAT 100 month catalog. We selected nearby (z ≤ 0.03) sources lacking a ROSAT counterpart that never previously been observed with Chandra in the 0.3–10 keV energy range, and targeted these objects with 10 ks Chandra ACIS-S observations. The X-ray spectral fitting over the 0.3–150 keV energy range allows us to determine that all the objects are significantly obscured, with N H ≥ 1023 cm‑2 at a >99% confidence level. Moreover, one to three sources are candidate Compton-thick Active Galactic Nuclei (CT-AGNs; i.e., N H ≥ 1024 cm‑2). We also test the recent spectral curvature method developed by Koss et al. to find candidate CT-AGNs, finding a good agreement between our results and their predictions. Because the selection criteria we adopted were effective in detecting highly obscured AGNs, further observations of these and other Seyfert 2 galaxies selected from the Swift-BAT 100 month catalog will allow us to create a statistically significant sample of highly obscured AGNs, therefore providing a better understanding of the physics of the obscuration processes.

  6. Hard X-ray Spectroscopy of Obscured AGN with NuSTAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balokovic, Mislav; Harrison, Fiona; NuSTAR Extragalactic Surveys Team

    2017-01-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) has enabled studies of the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) to extend into the hard X-ray band, up to 79 keV, with unprecedented spatial resolution and sensitivity. As a part of its extragalactic program, NuSTAR is surveying the nearby population of AGN detected at hard X-ray energies by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT), selecting even the most obscured local AGN. I will highlight some of the results based on broadband X-ray spectroscopy of individual targets and present my work on the large representative sample of more than a hundred nearby obscured AGN, which constitutes the largest available atlas of hard X-ray spectra of obscured AGN to date. The high quality of the data allows us to probe the details of AGN structures such as the X-ray-emitting corona and the toroidal obscurer in the under-explored spectral window above 10 keV. I will present both phenomenological results important for synthesis models of the cosmic X-ray background, and a novel approach for constraining the geometry of the gas surrounding the supermassive black hole (including the accretion disk, the broad-line region, and the torus) from the hard X-ray band. Finally, I will discuss how what we learned from this survey of local AGN relates to deeper high-redshift X-ray surveys and AGN structure probes at other wavelengths.

  7. Pharmaceutical feasibility of sub-visible particle analysis in parenterals with reduced volume light obscuration methods.

    PubMed

    Hawe, Andrea; Schaubhut, Frank; Geidobler, Raimund; Wiggenhorn, Michael; Friess, Wolfgang; Rast, Markus; de Muynck, Christian; Winter, Gerhard

    2013-11-01

    The draft for a new United States Pharmacopoeia (USP) monograph {787} "Sub-visible Particulate Matter in Therapeutic Protein Injections" describes the analysis of sub-visible particles by light obscuration at much lower sample volumes as so far required by the European Pharmacopoeia (Ph. Eur.) and the USP for parenterals in general. Our aim was to show the feasibility of minimizing the sample expenditure required for light obscuration similar to the new USP settings for standards and pharmaceutically relevant samples (both proteins and small molecules), without compromising the data quality. The light obscuration method was downscaled from >20 ml volume as so far specified in Ph. Eur./USP to 1 ml total sample volume. Comparable results for the particle concentration in all tested size classes were obtained with both methods for polystyrene standards, stressed BSA solutions, recombinant human IgG1 formulations, and pantoprazol i.v. solution. An additional advantage of the low volume method is the possibility to detect vial-to-vial variations, which are leveled out when pooling several vials to achieve sufficient volume for the Ph. Eur./USP method. This is in particular important for biotech products where not only the general quality aspect, but also aggregate formation of the drug substance is monitored by light obscuration.

  8. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  9. HUBBLE SPACE TELESCOPE MORPHOLOGIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES. II. BUMP SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Lotz, J.; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Eisenhardt, P.; Higdon, J.; Higdon, S.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.; Weedman, D.

    2011-05-20

    We present Hubble Space Telescope imaging of 22 ultra-luminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 with extremely red R - [24] colors (called dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) which have a local maximum in their spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest-frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission. These sources, which we call 'bump DOGs', have star formation rates (SFRs) of 400-4000 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1} and have redshifts derived from mid-IR spectra which show strong polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon emission-a sign of vigorous ongoing star formation. Using a uniform morphological analysis, we look for quantifiable differences between bump DOGs, power-law DOGs (Spitzer-selected ULIRGs with mid-IR SEDs dominated by a power law and spectral features that are more typical of obscured active galactic nuclei than starbursts), submillimeter-selected galaxies, and other less-reddened ULIRGs from the Spitzer Extragalactic First Look Survey. Bump DOGs are larger than power-law DOGs (median Petrosian radius of 8.4 {+-} 2.7 kpc versus 5.5 {+-} 2.3 kpc) and exhibit more diffuse and irregular morphologies (median M{sub 20} of -1.08 {+-} 0.05 versus -1.48 {+-} 0.05). These trends are qualitatively consistent with expectations from simulations of major mergers in which merging systems during the peak SFR period evolve from M{sub 20} = -1.0 to M{sub 20} = -1.7. Less-obscured ULIRGs (i.e., non-DOGs) tend to have more regular, centrally peaked, single-object morphologies rather than diffuse and irregular morphologies. This distinction in morphologies may imply that less-obscured ULIRGs sample the merger near the end of the peak SFR period. Alternatively, it may indicate that the intense star formation in these less-obscured ULIRGs is not the result of a recent major merger.

  10. HerMES: THE FAR-INFRARED EMISSION FROM DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Calanog, J. A.; Wardlow, J.; Fu, Hai; Cooray, A.; Assef, R. J.; Bock, J.; Riechers, D.; Schulz, B.; Casey, C. M.; Conley, A.; Farrah, D.; Oliver, S. J.; Roseboom, I. G.; Ibar, E.; Kartaltepe, J.; Magdis, G.; Rigopoulou, D.; Marchetti, L.; Pérez-Fournon, I.; Scott, Douglas; and others

    2013-09-20

    Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) are an ultraviolet-faint, infrared-bright galaxy population that reside at z ∼ 2 and are believed to be in a phase of dusty star-forming and active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. We present far-infrared (far-IR) observations of a complete sample of DOGs in the 2 deg{sup 2} of the Cosmic Evolution Survey. The 3077 DOGs have (z) = 1.9 ± 0.3 and are selected from 24 μm and r {sup +} observations using a color cut of r {sup +} – [24] ≥ 7.5 (AB mag) and S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. Based on the near-IR spectral energy distributions, 47% are bump DOGs (star formation dominated) and 10% are power-law DOGs (AGN-dominated). We use SPIRE far-IR photometry from the Herschel Multi-tiered Extragalactic Survey to calculate the IR luminosity and characteristic dust temperature for the 1572 (51%) DOGs that are detected at 250 μm (≥3σ). For the remaining 1505 (49%) that are undetected, we perform a median stacking analysis to probe fainter luminosities. Herschel-detected and undetected DOGs have average luminosities of (2.8 ± 0.4) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉} and (0.77 ± 0.08) × 10{sup 12} L{sub ☉}, and dust temperatures of (33 ± 7) K and (37 ± 5) K, respectively. The IR luminosity function for DOGs with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy is calculated, using far-IR observations and stacking. DOGs contribute 10%-30% to the total star formation rate (SFR) density of the universe at z = 1.5-2.5, dominated by 250 μm detected and bump DOGs. For comparison, DOGs contribute 30% to the SFR density for all z = 1.5-2.5 galaxies with S{sub 24} ≥ 100 μJy. DOGs have a large scatter about the star formation main sequence and their specific SFRs show that the observed phase of star formation could be responsible for their total observed stellar mass at z ∼ 2.

  11. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  12. Becoming and remaining homeless: a qualitative investigation.

    PubMed

    Morrell-Bellai, T; Goering, P N; Boydell, K M

    2000-09-01

    This article reports the qualitative findings of a multimethod study of the homeless population in Toronto, Canada. The qualitative component sought to identify how people become homeless and why some individuals remain homeless for an extended period of time or cycle in and out of homelessness (the chronically homeless). In-depth, semistructured interviews were conducted with 29 homeless adults. The findings suggest that people both become and remain homeless due to a combination of macro level factors (poverty, lack of employment, low welfare wages, lack of affordable housing) and personal vulnerability (childhood abuse or neglect, mental health symptoms, impoverished support networks, substance abuse). Chronically homeless individuals often reported experiences of severe childhood trauma and tended to attribute their continued homelessness to a substance abuse problem. It is concluded that both macro and individual level factors must be considered in planning programs and services to address the issue of homelessness in Canada.

  13. [Professional confidentiality: speak out or remain silent? ].

    PubMed

    Daubigney, Jean-claude

    2014-01-01

    People who work with children, in their daily tasks, must choose whether to disclose information entrusted to them. However, they are subject to the law, which authorises or imposes speaking out or remaining silent. In terms of ethics, they can seek the best possible response while respecting professional secrecy when meeting an individual, in a situation, in a place or at a particular time. They must then take responsibility for that decision.

  14. 13 percent remain AIDS-free.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    Researchers predict that approximately thirteen percent of homosexual/bisexual men infected with HIV at an early age will be long-term survivors, remaining free of disease for more than twenty years. Researchers with the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study based their predictions on data from the ongoing study of 1,809 HIV-positive men. Stable immune markers and no use of antiretrovirals were the criteria used to define long-term.

  15. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  16. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses.

  17. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  18. 51-L Challenger Crew Remains Transferred

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1988-01-01

    The Challenger crewmember remains are being transferred from 7 hearse vehicles to a MAC C-141 transport plane at the Kennedy Space Center's Shuttle Landing Facility for transport to Dover Air Force Base, Delaware. The STS-51L crew consisted of: Mission Specialist, Ellison S. Onizuka, Teacher in Space Participant Sharon Christa McAuliffe, Payload Specialist, Greg Jarvis and Mission Specialist, Judy Resnik. In the front row from left to right: Pilot Mike Smith, Commander, Dick Scobee and Mission Specialist, Ron McNair.

  19. HEAVILY OBSCURED AGN IN STAR-FORMING GALAXIES AT z approx = 2

    SciTech Connect

    Treister, E.; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Cardamone, Carolin N.; Schawinski, Kevin; Urry, C. Megan; Virani, Shanil; Gawiser, Eric; Lira, Paulina; Damen, Maaike; Taylor, Edward N.; Justham, Stephen; Koekemoer, Anton M.

    2009-11-20

    We study the properties of a sample of 211 heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) candidates in the extended Chandra Deep Field-South selecting objects with f {sub 24m}u{sub m}/f{sub R} > 1000 and R - K>4.5. Of these, 18 were detected in X-rays and found to be obscured AGNs with neutral hydrogen column densities of approx10{sup 23} cm{sup -2}. In the X-ray-undetected sample, the following evidence suggests a large fraction of heavily obscured (Compton-thick) AGN: (1) The stacked X-ray signal of the sample is strong, with an observed ratio of soft to hard X-ray counts consistent with a population of approx90% heavily obscured AGNs combined with 10% star-forming galaxies. (2) The X-ray-to-mid-IR ratios for these sources are significantly larger than that of star-forming galaxies and approx2 orders of magnitude smaller than for the general AGN population, suggesting column densities of N {sub H} approx> 5 x 10{sup 24} cm{sup -2}. (3) The Spitzer near- and mid-IR colors of these sources are consistent with those of the X-ray-detected samples if the effects of dust self-absorption are considered. Spectral fitting to the rest-frame UV/optical light (dominated by the host galaxy) returns stellar masses of approx10{sup 11} M{sub sun} and (E(B - V)) = 0.5, and reveals evidence for a significant young stellar population, indicating that these sources are experiencing considerable star formation. This sample of heavily obscured AGN candidates implies a space density at z approx 2 of approx10{sup -5} Mpc{sup -3}, finding a strong evolution in the number of L{sub X} >10{sup 44} erg s{sup -1} sources from z = 1.5 to 2.5, possibly consistent with a short-lived heavily obscured phase before an unobscured quasar is visible.

  20. Anatomy of the AGN in NGC 5548. VII. Swift study of obscuration and broadband continuum variability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehdipour, M.; Kaastra, J. S.; Kriss, G. A.; Cappi, M.; Petrucci, P.-O.; De Marco, B.; Ponti, G.; Steenbrugge, K. C.; Behar, E.; Bianchi, S.; Branduardi-Raymont, G.; Costantini, E.; Ebrero, J.; Di Gesu, L.; Matt, G.; Paltani, S.; Peterson, B. M.; Ursini, F.; Whewell, M.

    2016-04-01

    We present our investigation into the long-term variability of the X-ray obscuration and optical-UV-X-ray continuum in the Seyfert 1 galaxy NGC 5548. In 2013 and 2014, the Swift observatory monitored NGC 5548 on average every day or two, with archival observations reaching back to 2005, totalling about 670 ks of observing time. Both broadband spectral modelling and temporal rms variability analysis are applied to the Swift data. We disentangle the variability caused by absorption, due to an obscuring weakly-ionised outflow near the disk, from variability of the intrinsic continuum components (the soft X-ray excess and the power law) originating in the disk and its associated coronae. The spectral model that we apply to this extensive Swift data is the global model that we derived for NGC 5548 from analysis of the stacked spectra from our multi-satellite campaign of 2013 (including XMM-Newton, NuSTAR, and HST). The results of our Swift study show that changes in the covering fraction of the obscurer is the primary and dominant cause of variability in the soft X-ray band on timescales of 10 days to ~5 months. The obscuring covering fraction of the X-ray source is found to range between 0.7 and nearly 1.0. The contribution of the soft excess component to the X-ray variability is often much less than that of the obscurer, but it becomes comparable when the optical-UV continuum flares up. We find that the soft excess is consistent with being the high-energy tail of the optical-UV continuum and can be explained by warm Comptonisation: up-scattering of the disk seed photons in a warm, optically thick corona as part of the inner disk. To this date, the Swift monitoring of NGC 5548 shows that the obscurer has been continuously present in our line of sight for at least 4 years (since at least February 2012).

  1. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-03-14

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  2. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  3. Shotgun microbial profiling of fossil remains.

    PubMed

    Der Sarkissian, C; Ermini, L; Jónsson, H; Alekseev, A N; Crubezy, E; Shapiro, B; Orlando, L

    2014-04-01

    Millions to billions of DNA sequences can now be generated from ancient skeletal remains thanks to the massive throughput of next-generation sequencing platforms. Except in cases of exceptional endogenous DNA preservation, most of the sequences isolated from fossil material do not originate from the specimen of interest, but instead reflect environmental organisms that colonized the specimen after death. Here, we characterize the microbial diversity recovered from seven c. 200- to 13 000-year-old horse bones collected from northern Siberia. We use a robust, taxonomy-based assignment approach to identify the microorganisms present in ancient DNA extracts and quantify their relative abundance. Our results suggest that molecular preservation niches exist within ancient samples that can potentially be used to characterize the environments from which the remains are recovered. In addition, microbial community profiling of the seven specimens revealed site-specific environmental signatures. These microbial communities appear to comprise mainly organisms that colonized the fossils recently. Our approach significantly extends the amount of useful data that can be recovered from ancient specimens using a shotgun sequencing approach. In future, it may be possible to correlate, for example, the accumulation of postmortem DNA damage with the presence and/or abundance of particular microbes.

  4. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  5. Does hypertension remain after kidney transplantation?

    PubMed

    Pourmand, Gholamreza; Dehghani, Sanaz; Rahmati, Mohamad Reza; Mehrsai, Abdolrasoul; Gooran, Shahram; Alizadeh, Farimah; Khaki, Siavash; Mortazavi, Seyede Hamideh; Pourmand, Naghmeh

    2015-01-01

    Hypertension is a common complication of kidney transplantation with the prevalence of 80%. Studies in adults have shown a high prevalence of hypertension (HTN) in the first three months of transplantation while this rate is reduced to 50- 60% at the end of the first year. HTN remains as a major risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, lower graft survival rates and poor function of transplanted kidney in adults and children. In this retrospective study, medical records of 400 kidney transplantation patients of Sina Hospital were evaluated. Patients were followed monthly for the 1st year, every two months in the 2nd year and every three months after that. In this study 244 (61%) patients were male. Mean ± SD age of recipients was 39.3 ± 13.8 years. In most patients (40.8%) the cause of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) was unknown followed by HTN (26.3%). A total of 166 (41.5%) patients had been hypertensive before transplantation and 234 (58.5%) had normal blood pressure. Among these 234 individuals, 94 (40.2%) developed post-transplantation HTN. On the other hand, among 166 pre-transplant hypertensive patients, 86 patients (56.8%) remained hypertensive after transplantation. Totally 180 (45%) patients had post-transplantation HTN and 220 patients (55%) didn't develop HTN. Based on the findings, the incidence of post-transplantation hypertension is high, and kidney transplantation does not lead to remission of hypertension. On the other hand, hypertension is one of the main causes of ESRD. Thus, early screening of hypertension can prevent kidney damage and reduce further problems in renal transplant recipients.

  6. AGN Obscuration Through Dusty Infrared Dominated Flows. II. Multidimensional, Radiation-Hydrodynamics Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, Anton; Kallman, Tim; Bisno\\vatyiI-Kogan, Gennadyi

    2011-01-01

    We explore a detailed model in which the active galactic nucleus (AGN) obscuration results from the extinction of AGN radiation in a global ow driven by the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains. We assume that external illumination by UV and soft X-rays of the dusty gas located at approximately 1pc away from the supermassive black hole is followed by a conversion of such radiation into IR. Using 2.5D, time-dependent radiation hydrodynamics simulations in a ux-limited di usion approximation we nd that the external illumination can support a geometrically thick obscuration via out ows driven by infrared radiation pressure in AGN with luminosities greater than 0:05 L(sub edd) and Compton optical depth, Tau(sub T) approx > & 1.

  7. Detection of foliage-obscured vehicle using a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Tan, S.; Stoker, J.; Greenlee, S.

    2008-01-01

    Foliage obscured man-made targets detection and identification is of great interest to many applications. In this paper, the backscattered laser signals from a multiwavelength polarimetric lidar were used to detect a vehicle hidden inside a vegetated area. The Polarimetric reflectance data from the lidar at two separate laser wavelengths at 1064 nm and 532 nm revealed distinct target characteristics from both the vehicle and the vegetation. The results from this case study demonstrated the validity of the proposed lidar detection technique. Furthermore, the results could potentially lead to a lidar detection and identification technique for a wide variety of foliage-obscured man-made targets under various application scenarios. ?? 2007 IEEE.

  8. Wide-Spectrum Microscope with a Long Working Distance Aspherical Objective Based on Obscuration Constraint

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Weibo; Wang, Chao; Liu, Jian; Tan, Jiubin

    2016-01-01

    We present an approach for an initial configuration design based on obscuration constraint and on-axis Taylor series expansion to realize the design of long working distance microscope (numerical aperture (NA) = 0.13 and working distance (WD) = 525 mm) with a low obscuration aspherical Schwarzschild objective in wide-spectrum imaging (λ = 400–900 nm). Experiments of the testing on the resolution target and inspection on United States Air Force (USAF) resolution chart and a line charge-coupled device (CCD) (pixel size of 14 μm × 56 μm) with different wavelength light sources (λ = 480 nm, 550 nm, 660 nm, 850 nm) were implemented to verify the validity of the proposed method. PMID:27834874

  9. COMBIC, Combined Obscuration Model for Battlefield Induced Contaminants: Volume 2 - Appendices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-08-01

    predicts time and spatial variations in transmission through dust and debris raised by high-energy explosives and by vehicular movement; smoke from...1 + 0.0422x.4548 ]−1 , (A-80) and for distances greater than 5000 m, it is f2(x) = 0.33 [ 5000 x ] 1 2 . (A-81) We can make reliable estimates for...These conditions warrant further research. At present, under these conditions, the COMBIC model can, on occasion, predict obscurant behavior poorly. The

  10. Incidence of WISE-Selected Obscured AGNs in Major Mergers and Interactions from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Madalyn; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Brodwin, Mark; Mann, Justin; Cooper, Andrew; McConnell, Adam; Nielson, Jennifer L.

    2017-01-01

    We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to confirm a connection between dust-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxy merging. Using a new, volume-limited (z≤0.08) catalog of visually-selected major mergers and galaxy-galaxy interactions from the SDSS, with stellar masses above 2×10^10 M⊙, we find that major mergers (interactions) are 5--17 (3--5) times more likely to have red [3.4]-[4.6] colors associated with dust-obscured or `dusty' AGNs, compared to non-merging galaxies with similar masses. Using published fiber spectral diagnostics, we map the [3.4]-[4.6] versus [4.6]-[12] colors of different emission-line galaxies and find one-quarter of Seyferts have colors indicative of a dusty AGN. We find that AGNs are five times more likely to be obscured when hosted by a merging galaxy, half of AGNs hosted by a merger are dusty, and we find no enhanced frequency of optical AGNs in merging over non-merging galaxies. We conclude that undetected AGNs missed at shorter wavelengths are at the heart of the ongoing AGN-merger connection debate. The vast majority of mergers hosting dusty AGNs are star-forming and located at the centers of Mhalo<10^13 M⊙ groups. Assuming plausibly short duration dusty-AGN phases, we speculate that a large fraction of gas-rich mergers experience a brief obscured AGN phase, in agreement with the strong connection between central star formation and black hole growth seen in merger simulations. We will use the WISE-selected AGNs (and AGNs selected by other methods) to perform SED analysis of mergers and interactions and dissect the SEDs to disentangle AGN and SF activity.

  11. Incidence of WISE -selected obscured AGNs in major mergers and interactions from the SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weston, Madalyn E.; McIntosh, Daniel H.; Brodwin, Mark; Mann, Justin; Cooper, Andrew; McConnell, Adam; Nielsen, Jennifer L.

    2017-02-01

    We use the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) and the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) to confirm a connection between dust-obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and galaxy merging. Using a new, volume-limited (z ≤ 0.08) catalogue of visually selected major mergers and galaxy-galaxy interactions from the SDSS, with stellar masses above 2 × 1010 M⊙, we find that major mergers (interactions) are 5-17 (3-5) times more likely to have red [3.4] - [4.6] colours associated with dust-obscured or `dusty' AGNs, compared to non-merging galaxies with similar masses. Using published fibre spectral diagnostics, we map the [3.4] - [4.6] versus [4.6] - [12] colours of different emission-line galaxies and find that one-quarter of Seyferts have colours indicative of a dusty AGN. We find that AGNs are five times more likely to be obscured when hosted by a merging galaxy, half of AGNs hosted by a merger are dusty, and we find no enhanced frequency of optical AGNs in merging over non-merging galaxies. We conclude that undetected AGNs missed at shorter wavelengths are at the heart of the ongoing AGN-merger connection debate. The vast majority of mergers hosting dusty AGNs are star forming and located at the centres of Mhalo < 1013 M⊙ groups. Assuming plausibly short-duration dusty-AGN phases, we speculate that a large fraction of gas-rich mergers experience a brief obscured AGN phase, in agreement with the strong connection between central star formation and black hole growth seen in merger simulations.

  12. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-11-01

    5000 DISTRIBUTION A. Approved for public release: distribution unlimited. Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light...April 2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Evaluation of Additives to Eliminate Free Water from Aviation Fuel Light Obscuration Particle Counts 5a. CONTRACT...13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT This technical report details the evaluation fuel additives used to eliminate the effects of free water

  13. GAMA/H-ATLAS: the ultraviolet spectral slope and obscuration in galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijesinghe, D. B.; da Cunha, E.; Hopkins, A. M.; Dunne, L.; Sharp, R.; Gunawardhana, M.; Brough, S.; Sadler, E. M.; Driver, S.; Baldry, I.; Bamford, S.; Liske, J.; Loveday, J.; Norberg, P.; Peacock, J.; Popescu, C. C.; Tuffs, R.; Andrae, E.; Auld, R.; Baes, M.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Buttiglione, S.; Cava, A.; Cameron, E.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Croom, S.; Dariush, A.; Dezotti, G.; Dye, S.; Eales, S.; Frenk, C.; Fritz, J.; Hill, D.; Hopwood, R.; Ibar, E.; Ivison, R.; Jarvis, M.; Jones, D. H.; van Kampen, E.; Kelvin, L.; Kuijken, K.; Maddox, S. J.; Madore, B.; Michałowski, M. J.; Nichol, B.; Parkinson, H.; Pascale, E.; Pimbblet, K. A.; Pohlen, M.; Prescott, M.; Rhodighiero, G.; Robotham, A. S. G.; Rigby, E. E.; Seibert, M.; Sergeant, S.; Smith, D. J. B.; Temi, P.; Sutherland, W.; Taylor, E.; Thomas, D.; van der Werf, P.

    2011-08-01

    We use multiwavelength data from the Galaxy And Mass Assembly (GAMA) and Herschel-ATLAS (H-ATLAS) surveys to compare the relationship between various dust obscuration measures in galaxies. We explore the connections between the ultraviolet (UV) spectral slope, β, the Balmer decrement and the far-infrared (FIR) to 150 nm far-ultraviolet (FUV) luminosity ratio. We explore trends with galaxy mass, star formation rate (SFR) and redshift in order to identify possible systematics in these various measures. We reiterate the finding of other authors that there is a large scatter between the Balmer decrement and the β parameter, and that β may be poorly constrained when derived from only two broad passbands in the UV. We also emphasize that FUV-derived SFRs, corrected for dust obscuration using β, will be overestimated unless a modified relation between β and the attenuation factor is used. Even in the optimum case, the resulting SFRs have a significant scatter, well over an order of magnitude. While there is a stronger correlation between the IR-to-FUV luminosity ratio and β parameter than with the Balmer decrement, neither of these correlations are particularly tight, and dust corrections based on β for high-redshift galaxy SFRs must be treated with caution. We conclude with a description of the extent to which the different obscuration measures are consistent with each other as well as the effects of including other galactic properties on these correlations.

  14. Effects Of Atmospheric And Man-Made Obscurants On Visual Contrast

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkey, Richard C.

    1981-12-01

    The development of simulation models to assess the ability of modern day sensors operating under adverse weather conditions and in the presence of man-made obscurants, to detect, recognize, and identify objects of interest is an ambitious goal made difficult by the large number of independent variables involved. A first step toward the achievement of this goal is the development of the Electro-Optical Systems Atmospheric Effects Library (EOSAEL). With this concept (library of models) the effects of stratus, stratocumulus, cumulus congestus cloud types; fog/haze and rain; atmospheric gases; vehicular dust; chemical and artillery smoke/dust can be examined separately or in conjunction to determine their effects (degradation) on the , propagation of radiation through the aforementioned media. The atmospheric constituents can be varied to determine their effects on contrast and transmission. The change in transmission due to the effects of windspeed on the man-made obscurants as a function of time can also be examined. Using EOSAEL a sensitivity study investigating the effects of obscurants on the contrast transmission has been performed for the specific scenario of a sensor (human eye) looking at an object over a fixed geometry under daytime illumination conditions.

  15. The Benefit of Neuromuscular Blockade in Patients with Postanoxic Myoclonus Otherwise Obscuring Continuous Electroencephalography (CEEG)

    PubMed Central

    Hornik, Alejandro; Guerch, Meziane; Veripuram, Anantha; Yerram, Sushma; Ardelt, Agnieszka

    2017-01-01

    Introduction. Myoclonus status epilepticus is independently associated with poor outcome in coma patients after cardiac arrest. Determining if myoclonus is of cortical origin on continuous electroencephalography (CEEG) can be difficult secondary to the muscle artifact obscuring the underlying CEEG. The use of a neuromuscular blocker can be useful in these cases. Methods. Retrospective review of CEEG in patients with postanoxic myoclonus who received cisatracurium while being monitored. Results. Twelve patients (mean age: 53.3 years; 58.3% male) met inclusion criteria of clinical postanoxic myoclonus. The initial CEEG patterns immediately prior to neuromuscular blockade showed myoclonic artifact with continuous slowing (50%), burst suppression with myoclonic artifact (41.7%), and continuous myogenic artifact obscuring CEEG (8.3%). After intravenous administration of cisatracurium (0.1 mg–2 mg), reduction in artifact improved quality of CEEG recordings in 9/12 (75%), revealing previously unrecognized patterns: continuous EEG seizures (33.3%), lateralizing slowing (16.7%), burst suppression (16.7%), generalized periodic discharges (8.3%), and, in the patient who had an initially uninterpretable CEEG from myogenic artifact, continuous slowing. Conclusion. Short-acting neuromuscular blockade is useful in determining background cerebral activity on CEEG otherwise partially or completely obscured by muscle artifact in patients with postanoxic myoclonus. Fully understanding background cerebral activity is important in prognostication and treatment, particularly when there are underlying EEG seizures. PMID:28265468

  16. RING-APODIZED VORTEX CORONAGRAPHS FOR OBSCURED TELESCOPES. I. TRANSMISSIVE RING APODIZERS

    SciTech Connect

    Mawet, D.; Pueyo, L.; Carlotti, A.; Mennesson, B.; Serabyn, E.; Wallace, J. K.

    2013-11-01

    The vortex coronagraph (VC) is a new generation small inner working angle (IWA) coronagraph currently offered on various 8 m class ground-based telescopes. On these observing platforms, the current level of performance is not limited by the intrinsic properties of actual vortex devices, but by wavefront control residuals and incoherent background (e.g., thermal emission of the sky), or the light diffracted by the imprint of the secondary mirror and support structures on the telescope pupil. In the particular case of unfriendly apertures (mainly large central obscuration) when very high contrast is needed (e.g., direct imaging of older exoplanets with extremely large telescopes or space-based coronagraphs), a simple VC, like most coronagraphs, cannot deliver its nominal performance because of the contamination due to the diffraction from the obscured part of the pupil. Here, we propose a novel yet simple concept that circumvents this problem. We combine a vortex phase mask in the image plane of a high-contrast instrument with a single pupil-based amplitude ring apodizer, tailor-made to exploit the unique convolution properties of the VC at the Lyot-stop plane. We show that such a ring-apodized vortex coronagraph (RAVC) restores the perfect attenuation property of the VC regardless of the size of the central obscuration, and for any (even) topological charge of the vortex. More importantly, the RAVC maintains the IWA and conserves a fairly high throughput, which are signature properties of the VC.

  17. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  18. Organic Remains in Finnish Subglacial Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Punkari, Mikko; Forsström, Lars

    1995-05-01

    Many sites in Fennoscandia contain pre-Late Weichselian beds of organic matter, located mostly in the flanks of eskers. It is a matter of debate whether these fragmentary beds were deposited in situ, or whether they were deposited elsewhere and then picked up and moved by glacial ice. The till-mantled esker of Harrinkangas includes a shallow depression filled with sand and silt containing, for example, several tightly packed laminar sheets of brown moss ( Bryales) remains. It is argued that these thin peat sheets were transported at the base of the ice sheet, or englacially, and were deposited together with the silt and sand on the side of a subglacial meltwater tunnel. Subglacial meltout till subsequently covered the flanks of the esker near the receding ice margin. Information about the depositional and climatic environments was obtained from biostratigraphic analysis of the organic matter. Pollen spectra for the peat represent an open birch forest close to the tundra zone. A thin diamicton beneath the peat contains charred pine wood, recording the former presence of pine forests in western Finland. The unhumified, extremely well-preserved peat evidently originated during the final phase of an ice-free period, most probably the end of the Eemian Interglaciation. It was redeposited in the esker by the last ice sheet. Reconstructions of the Pleistocene chronology and stratigraphy of central Fennoscandia that rely on such redeposited organic matter should be viewed with caution.

  19. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  20. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  1. High-z X-ray Obscured Quasars in Galaxies with Extreme Mid-IR/Optical Colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Lanzuisi, G.; Fiore, F.; Feruglio, C.; Vignali, C.; Salvato, M.; Grappioni, C.

    2009-05-01

    Extreme Optical/Mid-IR color cuts have been used to uncover a population of dust-enshrouded, mid-IR luminous galaxies at high redshifts. Several lines of evidence point towards the presence of an heavily absorbed, possibly Compton-thick quasar at the heart of these systems. Nonetheless, the X-ray spectral properties of these intriguing sources still remain largely unexplored. Here we present an X-ray spectroscopic study of a large sample of 44 extreme dust-obscured galaxies (EDOGs) with F24 μm/FR>2000 and F24 μm>1.3 mJy selected from a 6 deg2 region in the SWIRE fields. The application of our selection criteria to a wide area survey has been capable of unveiling a population of X-ray luminous, absorbed z>1 quasars which is mostly missed in the traditional optical/X-ray surveys performed so far. Advances in the understanding of the X-ray properties of these recently-discovered sources by Simbol-X observations will be also discussed.

  2. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  3. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  4. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  5. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  6. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  7. Growing supermassive black holes in the late stages of galaxy mergers are heavily obscured

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Privon, G. C.; Blecha, L.; Arevalo, P.; Armus, L.; Harrison, F.; Ho, L. C.; Iwasawa, K.; Sanders, D. B.; Stern, D.

    2017-01-01

    Mergers of galaxies are thought to cause significant gas inflows to the inner parsecs, which can activate rapid accretion onto supermassive black holes (SMBHs), giving rise to Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN). During a significant fraction of this process, SMBHs are predicted to be enshrouded by gas and dust. Studying 52 galactic nuclei in infrared-selected local Luminous and Ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages in the hard X-ray band, where radiation is less affected by absorption, we find that the amount of material around SMBHs increases during the last phases of the merger. We find that the fraction of Compton-thick (CT, N_ H≥ 10^{24} cm^{-2}) AGN in late merger galaxies is higher (f_ CT=65^{+12}_{-13}%) than in local hard X-ray selected AGN (f CT = 27 ± 4%), and that obscuration reaches its maximum when the nuclei of the two merging galaxies are at a projected distance of D12 ≃ 0.4 - 10.8 kiloparsecs (f_ CT=77_{-17}^{+13}%). We also find that all AGN of our sample in late merger galaxies have N_ H> 10^{23} cm^{-2}, which implies that the obscuring material covers 95^{+4}_{-8}% of the X-ray source. These observations show that the material is most effectively funnelled from the galactic scale to the inner tens of parsecs during the late stages of galaxy mergers, and that the close environment of SMBHs in advanced mergers is richer in gas and dust with respect to that of SMBHs in isolated galaxies, and cannot be explained by the classical AGN unification model in which the torus is responsible for the obscuration.

  8. A spectroscopic survey of WISE-selected obscured quasars with the southern african large telescope

    SciTech Connect

    Hainline, Kevin N.; Hickox, Ryan C.; Carroll, Christopher M.; Myers, Adam D.; DiPompeo, Michael A.; Trouille, Laura

    2014-11-10

    We present the results of an optical spectroscopic survey of a sample of 40 candidate obscured quasars identified on the basis of their mid-infrared emission detected by the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE). Optical spectra for this survey were obtained using the Robert Stobie Spectrograph on the Southern African Large Telescope. Our sample was selected with WISE colors characteristic of active galactic nuclei (AGNs), as well as red optical to mid-IR colors indicating that the optical/UV AGN continuum is obscured by dust. We obtain secure redshifts for the majority of the objects that comprise our sample (35/40), and find that sources that are bright in the WISE W4 (22 μm) band are typically at moderate redshift ((z) = 0.35) while sources fainter in W4 are at higher redshifts ((z) = 0.73). The majority of the sources have narrow emission lines with optical colors and emission line ratios of our WISE-selected sources that are consistent with the locus of AGN on the rest-frame g – z color versus [Ne III] λ3869/[O II] λλ3726+3729 line ratio diagnostic diagram. We also use empirical AGN and galaxy templates to model the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for the objects in our sample, and find that while there is significant variation in the observed SEDs for these objects, the majority require a strong AGN component. Finally, we use the results from our analysis of the optical spectra and the SEDs to compare our selection criteria to alternate criteria presented in the literature. These results verify the efficacy of selecting luminous obscured AGNs based on their WISE colors.

  9. Hot Dust Obscured Galaxies with Excess Blue Light: Dual AGN or Single AGN Under Extreme Conditions?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Assef, R. J.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Tsai, C.-W.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-03-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13-050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M⊙ yr-1. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  10. HOT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH EXCESS BLUE LIGHT: DUAL AGN OR SINGLE AGN UNDER EXTREME CONDITIONS?

    SciTech Connect

    Assef, R. J.; Diaz-Santos, T.; Walton, D. J.; Brightman, M.; Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Tsai, C.-W.; Alexander, D.; Bauer, F.; Blain, A. W.; Finkelstein, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Wu, J. W.

    2016-03-10

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs) are a population of hyper-luminous infrared galaxies identified by the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission from their very red mid-IR colors, and characterized by hot dust temperatures (T > 60 K). Several studies have shown clear evidence that the IR emission in these objects is powered by a highly dust-obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) that shows close to Compton-thick absorption at X-ray wavelengths. Thanks to the high AGN obscuration, the host galaxy is easily observable, and has UV/optical colors usually consistent with those of a normal galaxy. Here we discuss a sub-population of eight Hot DOGs that show enhanced rest-frame UV/optical emission. We discuss three scenarios that might explain the excess UV emission: (i) unobscured light leaked from the AGN by reflection over the dust or by partial coverage of the accretion disk; (ii) a second unobscured AGN in the system; or (iii) a luminous young starburst. X-ray observations can help discriminate between these scenarios. We study in detail the blue excess Hot DOG WISE J020446.13–050640.8, which was serendipitously observed by Chandra/ACIS-I for 174.5 ks. The X-ray spectrum is consistent with a single, hyper-luminous, highly absorbed AGN, and is strongly inconsistent with the presence of a secondary unobscured AGN. Based on this, we argue that the excess blue emission in this object is most likely either due to reflection or a co-eval starburst. We favor the reflection scenario as the unobscured star formation rate needed to power the UV/optical emission would be ≳1000 M{sub ⊙} yr{sup −1}. Deep polarimetry observations could confirm the reflection hypothesis.

  11. Chandra Reveals Heavy Obscuration and Circumnuclear Star Formation in Seyfert 2 Galaxy NGC 4968

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Levenson, N. A.; Boorman, Peter; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Rigby, Jane R.; Urry, C. Megan; Ptak, Andrew F.

    2017-01-01

    We present the Chandra imaging and spectral analysis of NGC 4968, a nearby (z = 0.00986) Seyfert 2 galaxy. We discover extended (∼1 kpc) X-ray emission in the soft band (0.5–2 keV) that is neither coincident with the narrow line region nor the extended radio emission. Based on spectral modeling, it is linked to on-going star formation (∼2.6–4 M⊙ yr‑1). The soft emission at circumnuclear scales (inner ∼400 pc) originates from hot gas, with kT ∼ 0.7 keV, while the most extended thermal emission is cooler (kT ∼ 0.3 keV). We refine previous measurements of the extreme Fe Kα equivalent width in this source ({EW}={2.5}-1.0+2.6 {keV}), which suggests the central engine is completely embedded within Compton-thick levels of obscuration. Using physically motivated models fit to the Chandra spectrum, we derive a Compton-thick column density (NH > 1.25 × 1024 cm‑2) and an intrinsic hard (2–10 keV) X-ray luminosity of ∼3–8 × 1042 erg s‑1 (depending on the presumed geometry of the obscurer), which is over two orders of magnitude larger than that observed. The large Fe Kα EW suggests a spherical covering geometry, which could be confirmed with X-ray measurements above 10 keV. NGC 4968 is similar to other active galaxies that exhibit extreme Fe Kα EWs (i.e., >2 keV) in that they also contain on-going star formation. This work supports the idea that gas associated with nuclear star formation may increase the covering factor of the enshrouding gas and play a role in obscuring active galactic nuclei.

  12. On the relation of optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, L.; Davies, R. I.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Koss, M. J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Lutz, D.; Nandra, P.; Netzer, H.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Ricci, C.; Rosario, D. J.; Veilleux, S.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L. J.

    2016-02-01

    The optical classification of a Seyfert galaxy and whether it is considered X-ray absorbed are often used interchangeably. There are many borderline cases, however, and also numerous examples where the optical and X-ray classifications appear to be in disagreement. In this article we revisit the relation between optical obscuration and X-ray absorption in active galactic nuclei (AGNs). We make use of our "dust colour" method to derive the optical obscuration AV, and consistently estimated X-ray absorbing columns using 0.3-150 keV spectral energy distributions. We also take into account the variable nature of the neutral gas column NH and derive the Seyfert subclasses of all our objects in a consistent way. We show in a sample of 25 local, hard-X-ray detected Seyfert galaxies (log LX/ (erg / s) ≈ 41.5-43.5) that there can actually be a good agreement between optical and X-ray classification. If Seyfert types 1.8 and 1.9 are considered unobscured, the threshold between X-ray unabsorbed and absorbed should be chosen at a column NH = 1022.3 cm-2 to be consistent with the optical classification. We find that NH is related to AV and that the NH/AV ratio is approximately Galactic or higher in all sources, as indicated previously. However, in several objects we also see that deviations from the Galactic ratio are only due to a variable X-ray column, showing that (1) deviations from the Galactic NH/AV can be simply explained by dust-free neutral gas within the broad-line region in some sources; that (2) the dust properties in AGNs can be similar to Galactic dust and that (3) the dust colour method is a robust way to estimate the optical extinction towards the sublimation radius in all but the most obscured AGNs.

  13. The origins of active galactic nuclei obscuration: the 'torus' as a dynamical, unstable driver of accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopkins, Philip F.; Hayward, Christopher C.; Narayanan, Desika; Hernquist, Lars

    2012-02-01

    Recent multiscale simulations have made it possible to follow gas inflows responsible for high-Eddington ratio accretion on to massive black holes (BHs) from galactic scales to the BH accretion disc. When sufficient gas is driven towards a BH, gravitational instabilities generically form lopsided, eccentric discs that propagate inwards from larger radii. The lopsided stellar disc exerts a strong torque on the gas, driving inflows that fuel the growth of the BH. Here, we investigate the possibility that the same disc, in its gas-rich phase, is the putative 'torus' invoked to explain obscured active galactic nuclei (AGN) and the cosmic X-ray background. The disc is generically thick and has characteristic ˜1-10 pc sizes and masses resembling those required of the torus. Interestingly, the scale heights and obscured fractions of the predicted torii are substantial even in the absence of strong stellar feedback providing the vertical support. Rather, they can be maintained by strong bending modes and warps/twists excited by the inflow-generating instabilities. A number of other observed properties commonly attributed to 'feedback' processes may in fact be explained entirely by dynamical, gravitational effects: the lack of alignment between torus and host galaxy, correlations between local star formation rate (SFR) and turbulent gas velocities and the dependence of obscured fractions on AGN luminosity or SFR. We compare the predicted torus properties with observations of gas surface density profiles, kinematics, scale heights and SFR densities in AGN, and find that they are consistent in all cases. We argue that it is not possible to reproduce these observations and the observed column density distribution without a clumpy gas distribution, but allowing for simple clumping on small scales the predicted column density distribution is in good agreement with observations from NH˜ 1020-1027 cm-2. We examine how the NH distribution scales with galaxy and AGN properties

  14. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence.

    PubMed

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I; Mervis, Joshua E; Ashinoff, Brandon K

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects.

  15. Cognitive enhancement through action video game training: great expectations require greater evidence

    PubMed Central

    Bisoglio, Joseph; Michaels, Timothy I.; Mervis, Joshua E.; Ashinoff, Brandon K.

    2014-01-01

    Action video game training may hold promise as a cognitive intervention with the potential to enhance daily functioning and remediate impairments, but this must be more thoroughly evaluated through evidence-based practices. We review current research on the effect of action video game training on visual attention and visuospatial processing, executive functions, and learning and memory. Focusing on studies that utilize strict experimental controls and synthesize behavioral and neurophysiological data, we examine whether there is sufficient evidence to support a causal relationship between action video game training and beneficial changes in cognition. Convergent lines of behavioral and neurophysiological evidence tentatively support the efficacy of training, but the magnitude and specificity of these effects remain obscure. Causal inference is thus far limited by a lack of standardized and well-controlled methodology. Considering future directions, we suggest stringent adherence to evidence-based practices and collaboration modeled after clinical trial networks. Finally, we recommend the exploration of more complex causal models, such as indirect causal relationships and interactions that may be masking true effects. PMID:24600427

  16. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  17. AGN Obscuration from Winds: From Dusty Infrared-Driven to Warm and X-Ray Photoionized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.

    2012-01-01

    We present calculations of AGN winds at approximate parsec scales, along with the associated obscuration. We take into account the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains and the interaction of X-rays from a central black hole with hot and cold plasma. Infrared radiation (IR) is incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations adopting the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We find that in the range of X-ray luminosities L=0.05 - 0.6L(sub Edd) the Compton-thick part of the flow (aka torus) has an opening angle of approximately 72? -75? regardless of the luminosity. At L 0.1 the outflowing dusty wind provides the obscuration with IR pressure playing a major role. The global flow consists of two phases: the cold flow at inclinations (theta) greater than or approximately 70? and a hot, ionized wind of lower density at lower inclinations. The dynamical pressure of the hot wind is important in shaping the denser IR supported flow. At luminosities less than or equal to 0.1L(sub Edd) episodes of outflow are followed by extended periods when the wind switches to slow accretion.

  18. Delving into X-Ray Obscuration of Type 2 AGN, Near and Far

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lamassa, Stephanie M.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Ptak, Andrew F.; Jia, Jianjun; Heckman, Timothy M.; Gandhi, Poshak; Urry, C. Meg

    2014-01-01

    Using self-consistent, physically motivated models, we investigate the X-ray obscuration in 19 Type 2 [O iii] 5007Å selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 9 of which are local Seyfert 2 galaxies and 10 of which are Type 2 quasar candidates. We derive reliable line-of-sight and global column densities for these objects, which is the first time this has been reported for an AGN sample; four AGNs have significantly different global and line-of-sight column densities. Five sources are heavily obscured to Compton-thick. We comment on interesting sources revealed by our spectral modeling, including a candidate "naked" Sy2. After correcting for absorption, we find that the ratio of the rest-frame, 2-10 keV luminosity (L2-10 keV,in) to L[O iii] is 1.54 +/- 0.49 dex which is essentially identical to the mean Type 1 AGN value. The Fe K(alpha) luminosity is significantly correlated with L[O iii] but with substantial scatter. Finally, we do not find a trend between L2-10 keV,in and global or line-of-sight column density, between column density and redshift, between column density and scattering fraction, or between scattering fraction and redshift. Key words: galaxies: active - galaxies: Seyfert - X-rays: general

  19. Obscured active galactic nuclei triggered in compact star-forming galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yu-Yen; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Juneau, Stéphanie; da Cunha, Elisabete; Salvato, Mara; Civano, Francesca; Marchesi, Stefano; Gabor, J. M.; Ilbert, Olivier; Laigle, Clotilde; McCracken, H. J.; Hsieh, Bau-Ching; Capak, Peter

    2017-03-01

    We present a structural study of 182 obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ≤ 1.5, selected in the Cosmic Evolution Survey field from their extreme infrared to X-ray luminosity ratio and their negligible emission at optical wavelengths. We fit optical to far-infrared spectral energy distributions and analyse deep Hubble Space Telescope imaging to derive the physical and morphological properties of their host galaxies. We find that such galaxies are more compact than normal star-forming sources at similar redshift and stellar mass, and we show that it is not an observational bias related to the emission of the AGN. Based on the distribution of their UVJ colours, we also argue that this increased compactness is not due to the additional contribution of a passive bulge. We thus postulate that a vast majority of obscured AGNs reside in galaxies undergoing dynamical compaction, similar to processes recently invoked to explain the formation of compact star-forming sources at high redshift.

  20. Using R-W1 to Uncover Obscured AGN in X-ray Surveys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamassa, Stephanie

    2016-08-01

    X-ray surveys provide perhaps the most efficient method for discovering AGN across the Universe, though a major challenge is the time investment involved in following-up X-ray sources to identify them. To make the best use of limited resources, we explored the efficacy of m_r (optical) - m_3.4-micron (mid-infrared), hereafter R-W1, as a color diagnostic to hone in on signatures of obscured black hole growth in wide-area X-ray surveys which would otherwise be missed in optical and infrared surveys. We calibrated this color on the 16.5 deg^2 release of the Stripe 82X survey, finding that most X-ray emitting stars lie along a well-defined locus in R-W1 v. R-K color space and most AGN hosted in optically normal galaxies beyond z>0.5 have red R-W1 colors (R-W1 > 4 Vega). Our results will be useful for crafting target lists for current and future wide-area X-ray surveys to follow-up the most promising obscured AGN candidates.

  1. DUST PROPERTIES OF LOCAL DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES WITH THE SUBMILLIMETER ARRAY

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Ho Seong; Andrews, Sean M.; Geller, Margaret J. E-mail: sandrews@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-11-01

    We report Submillimeter Array observations of the 880 μm dust continuum emission for four dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the local universe. Two DOGs are clearly detected with S{sub ν}(880 μm) =10-13 mJy and S/N > 5, but the other two are not detected with 3σ upper limits of S{sub ν}(880 μm) =5-9 mJy. Including an additional two local DOGs with submillimeter data from the literature, we determine the dust masses and temperatures for six local DOGs. The infrared luminosities and dust masses for these DOGs are in the ranges of 1.2-4.9 × 10{sup 11}(L{sub ☉}) and 4-14 × 10{sup 7}(M{sub ☉}), respectively. The dust temperatures derived from a two-component modified blackbody function are 23-26 K and 60-124 K for the cold and warm dust components, respectively. Comparison of local DOGs with other infrared luminous galaxies with submillimeter detections shows that the dust temperatures and masses do not differ significantly among these objects. Thus, as argued previously, local DOGs are not a distinctive population among dusty galaxies, but simply represent the high-end tail of the dust obscuration distribution.

  2. Role of feedback in AGN-host coevolution: A study from partially obscured active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, J.

    2015-05-01

    Partially obscured AGNs within a redshift range z = 0.011 ∼ 0.256 are used to re-study the role of feedback in the AGN-host coevolution issue in terms of their [OIII] λ 5007 emission line profile. The spectra of these objects enable us to determine the AGN's accretion properties directly from their broad H α emission. This is essential for getting rid of the "circular reasoning" in our previous study of narrow emission-line galaxies, in which the [OIII] emission line was used not only as a proxy of AGN's bolometric luminosity, but also as a diagnostic of outflow. In addition, the measurement of Dn (4000) index is improved by removing an underlying AGN's continuum according to the corresponding broad H α emission. With these improvements, we confirm and reinforce the correlation between L /LEdd and stellar population age. More important is that this correlation is found to be related to both [OIII] line blue asymmetry and bulk blueshift velocity, which suggests a linkage between SMBH growth and host star formation through the feedback process. The current sample of partially obscured AGNs shows that the composite galaxies have younger host stellar population, higher Eddington ratio, less significant [OIII] blue wing and smaller bulk [OIII] line shift than do the Seyfert galaxies.

  3. Obscured flat spectrum radio active galactic nuclei as sources of high-energy neutrinos

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maggi, G.; Buitink, S.; Correa, P.; de Vries, K. D.; Gentile, G.; Tavares, J. León; Scholten, O.; van Eijndhoven, N.; Vereecken, M.; Winchen, T.

    2016-11-01

    Active galactic nuclei (AGN) are believed to be one of the main source candidates for the high-energy (TeV-PeV) cosmic neutrino flux recently discovered by the IceCube neutrino observatory. Nevertheless, several correlation studies between AGN and the cosmic neutrinos detected by IceCube show no significance. Therefore, in this article we consider a specific subclass of AGN for which an increased neutrino production is expected. This subclass contains AGN for which their high-energy jet is pointing toward Earth. Furthermore, we impose the condition that the jet is obscured by gas or dust surrounding the AGN. A method is presented to determine the total column density of the obscuring medium, which is probed by determining the relative x-ray attenuation with respect to the radio flux as obtained from the AGN spectrum. The total column density allows us to probe the interaction of the jet with the surrounding matter, which leads to additional neutrino production. Finally, starting from two different source catalogs, this method is applied to specify a sample of low redshift radio galaxies for which an increased neutrino production is expected.

  4. The obscuration by dust of most of the growth of supermassive black holes.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Sansigre, Alejo; Rawlings, Steve; Lacy, Mark; Fadda, Dario; Marleau, Francine R; Simpson, Chris; Willott, Chris J; Jarvis, Matt J

    2005-08-04

    Supermassive black holes underwent periods of exponential growth during which we see them as quasars in the distant Universe. The summed emission from these quasars generates the cosmic X-ray background, the spectrum of which has been used to argue that most black-hole growth is obscured. There are clear examples of obscured black-hole growth in the form of 'type-2' quasars, but their numbers are fewer than expected from modelling of the X-ray background. Here we report the direct detection of a population of distant type-2 quasars, which is at least comparable in size to the well-known unobscured type-1 population. We selected objects that have mid-infrared and radio emissions characteristic of quasars, but which are faint at near-infrared and optical wavelengths. We conclude that this population is responsible for most of the black-hole growth in the young Universe and that, throughout cosmic history, black-hole growth occurs in the dusty, gas-rich centres of active galaxies.

  5. Delving into X-ray obscuration of type 2 AGN, near and far

    SciTech Connect

    LaMassa, Stephanie M.; Meg Urry, C.; Yaqoob, Tahir; Ptak, Andrew F.; Gandhi, Poshak

    2014-05-20

    Using self-consistent, physically motivated models, we investigate the X-ray obscuration in 19 Type 2 [O III] 5007 Å selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 9 of which are local Seyfert 2 galaxies and 10 of which are Type 2 quasar candidates. We derive reliable line-of-sight and global column densities for these objects, which is the first time this has been reported for an AGN sample; four AGNs have significantly different global and line-of-sight column densities. Five sources are heavily obscured to Compton-thick. We comment on interesting sources revealed by our spectral modeling, including a candidate 'naked' Sy2. After correcting for absorption, we find that the ratio of the rest-frame, 2-10 keV luminosity (L{sub 2-10} {sub keV,} {sub in}) to L{sub [O} {sub III]} is 1.54 ± 0.49 dex which is essentially identical to the mean Type 1 AGN value. The Fe Kα luminosity is significantly correlated with L{sub [O} {sub III]} but with substantial scatter. Finally, we do not find a trend between L {sub 2-10keV,} {sub in} and global or line-of-sight column density, between column density and redshift, between column density and scattering fraction, or between scattering fraction and redshift.

  6. Imaging of buried and foliage-obscured objects with an ultrawide-bandwidth polarimetric SAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheen, Dan R.; Lewis, Terry B.; Wei, Susan C.; Kletzli, D. W., Jr.

    1993-11-01

    The Environmental Research Institute of Michigan (ERIM) has developed a unique ground- based, portable, synthetic aperture radar (SAR). This SAR images targets in their natural backgrounds without the expense of an airborne sensor and with higher performance (bandwidth, resolution) than existing airborne systems. A horizontal 36-foot long aluminum truss supports a rail and an antenna cartridge, which is moved along the rail to allow synthetic aperture focusing. The system is fully-polarimetric and has collected data over the frequency band of 400 - 1300 MHz resulting in a nominal resolution of 0.17 m in range and 0.5 m in cross-range. The low frequency range of the system allows for penetration of soil (to shallow depths) as well as foliage and the system has been used to collect images of buried and foliage- obscured targets. The ground imagery collected to date includes steel oil drums buried at depths of up to one-meter. Both the drums as well as the disturbances due to digging the holes are visible in the imagery. Foliage imagery includes portions of a Lear jet under a mature hardwood forest. Due to the low frequency and wide bandwidth of the sensor (400 - 1300 MHz), obscured objects are clearly visible in the SAR imagery. Other responses in the foliage imagery are due to the dihedral-like ground-trunk reflections.

  7. Complementary actions.

    PubMed

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person's movements, (ii) to predict another person's future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one's own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception-action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions.

  8. Complementary actions

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Betti, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Complementary colors are color pairs which, when combined in the right proportions, produce white or black. Complementary actions refer here to forms of social interaction wherein individuals adapt their joint actions according to a common aim. Notably, complementary actions are incongruent actions. But being incongruent is not sufficient to be complementary (i.e., to complete the action of another person). Successful complementary interactions are founded on the abilities: (i) to simulate another person’s movements, (ii) to predict another person’s future action/s, (iii) to produce an appropriate incongruent response which differ, while interacting, with observed ones, and (iv) to complete the social interaction by integrating the predicted effects of one’s own action with those of another person. This definition clearly alludes to the functional importance of complementary actions in the perception–action cycle and prompts us to scrutinize what is taking place behind the scenes. Preliminary data on this topic have been provided by recent cutting-edge studies utilizing different research methods. This mini-review aims to provide an up-to-date overview of the processes and the specific activations underlying complementary actions. PMID:25983717

  9. THE OBSCURED FRACTION OF ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI IN THE XMM-COSMOS SURVEY: A SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION PERSPECTIVE

    SciTech Connect

    Lusso, E.; Hennawi, J. F.; Richards, G. T.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Treister, E.; Schawinski, K.; Salvato, M.

    2013-11-10

    The fraction of active galactic nucleus (AGN) luminosity obscured by dust and re-emitted in the mid-IR is critical for understanding AGN evolution, unification, and parsec-scale AGN physics. For unobscured (Type 1) AGNs, where we have a direct view of the accretion disk, the dust covering factor can be measured by computing the ratio of re-processed mid-IR emission to intrinsic nuclear bolometric luminosity. We use this technique to estimate the obscured AGN fraction as a function of luminosity and redshift for 513 Type 1 AGNs from the XMM-COSMOS survey. The re-processed and intrinsic luminosities are computed by fitting the 18 band COSMOS photometry with a custom spectral energy distribution fitting code, which jointly models emission from hot dust in the AGN torus, from the accretion disk, and from the host galaxy. We find a relatively shallow decrease of the luminosity ratio as a function of L{sub bol}, which we interpret as a corresponding decrease in the obscured fraction. In the context of the receding torus model, where dust sublimation reduces the covering factor of more luminous AGNs, our measurements require a torus height that increases with luminosity as h ∝ L{sub bol}{sup 0.3-0.4}. Our obscured-fraction-luminosity relation agrees with determinations from Sloan Digital Sky Survey censuses of Type 1 and Type 2 quasars and favors a torus optically thin to mid-IR radiation. We find a much weaker dependence of the obscured fraction on 2-10 keV luminosity than previous determinations from X-ray surveys and argue that X-ray surveys miss a significant population of highly obscured Compton-thick AGNs. Our analysis shows no clear evidence for evolution of the obscured fraction with redshift.

  10. Quick action clamp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Calco, Frank S. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A quick release toggle clamp that utilizes a spring that requires a deliberate positive action for disengagement is presented. The clamp has a sliding bolt that provides a latching mechanism. The bolt is moved by a handle that tends to remain in an engaged position while under tension.

  11. A COMPARISON OF X-RAY AND MID-INFRARED SELECTION OF OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Eckart, Megan E.; Harrison, Fiona A.; McGreer, Ian D.; Helfand, David J.; Stern, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    We compare the relative merits of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selection at X-ray and mid-infrared wavelengths using data from moderately deep fields observed by both Chandra and Spitzer. The X-ray-selected AGN sample and associated photometric and spectroscopic optical follow-up are drawn from a subset of fields studied as part of the Serendipitous Extragalactic X-ray Source Identification (SEXSI) program. Mid-infrared data in these fields are derived from targeted and archival Spitzer imaging, and mid-infrared AGN selection is accomplished primarily through application of the Infrared Array Camera (IRAC) color-color AGN 'wedge' selection technique. Nearly all X-ray sources in these fields which exhibit clear spectroscopic signatures of AGN activity have mid-infrared colors consistent with IRAC AGN selection. These are predominantly the most luminous X-ray sources. X-ray sources that lack high-ionization and/or broad lines in their optical spectra are far less likely to be selected as AGNs by mid-infrared color selection techniques. The fraction of X-ray sources identified as AGNs in the mid-infrared increases monotonically as the X-ray luminosity increases. Conversely, only 22% of mid-infrared-selected AGNs are detected at X-ray energies in the moderately deep ((t{sub exp}) approx 100 ks) SEXSI Chandra data. We hypothesize that IRAC sources with AGN colors that lack X-ray detections are predominantly high-luminosity AGNs that are obscured and/or lie at high redshift. A stacking analysis of X-ray-undetected sources shows that objects in the mid-infrared AGN selection wedge have average X-ray fluxes in the 2-8 keV band 3 times higher than sources that fall outside the wedge. Their X-ray spectra are also harder. The hardness ratio of the wedge-selected stack is consistent with moderate intrinsic obscuration, but is not suggestive of a highly obscured, Compton-thick source population. It is evident from this comparative study that in order to create a complete

  12. Action principles for extended magnetohydrodynamic models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keramidas Charidakos, I.; Lingam, M.; Morrison, P. J.; White, R. L.; Wurm, A.

    2014-09-01

    The general, non-dissipative, two-fluid model in plasma physics is Hamiltonian, but this property is sometimes lost or obscured in the process of deriving simplified (or reduced) two-fluid or one-fluid models from the two-fluid equations of motion. To ensure that the reduced models are Hamiltonian, we start with the general two-fluid action functional, and make all the approximations, changes of variables, and expansions directly within the action context. The resulting equations are then mapped to the Eulerian fluid variables using a novel nonlocal Lagrange-Euler map. Using this method, we recover Lüst's general two-fluid model, extended magnetohydrodynamic (MHD), Hall MHD, and electron MHD from a unified framework. The variational formulation allows us to use Noether's theorem to derive conserved quantities for each symmetry of the action.

  13. "Lansania Journal of Arachnology and Zoology" - a rare and obscure Japanese natural history journal.

    PubMed

    Tennent, W John; Yasuda, Masatoshi; Morimoto, Katsura

    2008-01-01

    Publication data relating to a rare and obscure Japanese journal "Lansania Journal of Arachnology and Zoology" (1929-1941) are examined. Available facts, together with a substantial body of circumstantial and anecdotal evidence suggest that many planned issues, including several cited by independent sources as having been published, were not published. Some biographical data relating to the editor, Kyukichi Kishida (1888-1968), are provided. Titles of all papers known to have been published in "Lansania," with page numbers and claimed publication dates are presented, together with a list of 113 new zoological names proposed in the journal. Known library holdings of the journal worldwide are indicated. Details are provided of unpublished manuscripts in proof obtained from Kishida in the 1960s. The strong probability that some printed publication dates are inaccurate is discussed in detail.

  14. Random Noise Polarimetry Technique for Covert Detection of Targets Obscured by Foliage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narayanan, Ram M.; Xu, Xiaojian; Henning, Joseph A.; Kumru, Cihan

    2002-07-01

    The University of Nebraska has been investigating a novel technique called random noise polarimetry for foliage penetration (FOPEN) imaging applications, under support from the US Air Force Office of Scientific Research (AFOSR). In this final report, we summarize the main activities and results of the research during the past three years (1999-2002). These include: (a) Development of an experimental UHF band ultra wideband (UWB) FOPEN noise radar system; (b) Development of a down range sidelobe suppression; (c) Study of the foliage transmission model and the impact of foliage obscuration; (d) Development of FOPEN SAR imaging model and image formation algorithms; (e) Study of the impact of frequency and aspect angle dependent target signatures on UWB SAR images; (f) Three-dimensional interferometric SAR and ISAR imaging techniques; (g) Development of SAR image enhancement techniques; and (h) Field tests, data acquisition and image processing using the experimental random noise radar system. Suggestions for future work are also presented.

  15. Postoperative interstitial hernia as a cause of obscure incisional wound site pain.

    PubMed

    Modrzejewski, Andrzej; Smietański, Maciej

    2012-03-01

    An interstitial hernia is one in which the hernia sac is located between the layers of the abdominal wall. The analysis of contemporary literature shows that interstitial hernias are most often seen in children as a type of inguinal hernia and often accompany undescended testis. The hernia sac is usually located between the external-oblique and internal-oblique muscles in a lateral-cephalic direction. The authors present 3 cases of interstitial hernia found during laparoscopic exploration of the front abdominal wall done due to incisional wound site pain. No previous diagnosis of hernia was considered in all the cases. Hernias were found as complications of appendectomy and wound healing after radiotherapy of uterine and cervical cancer. In conclusion, in obscure wound site pain, the presence of an interstitial postoperative hernia should be considered as a possible reason for the complaint. Laparoscopic examination of the anterior abdominal wall during adhesiolysis in patients with abdominal pain enables proper diagnosis and treatment.

  16. Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding Due to a Small Intestinal Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumor in a Young Adult

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Mami; Yamamoto, Kentaroh; Taketomi, Hirotaka; Yamamoto, Fumio; Yamamoto, Hiroshi

    2016-01-01

    The source of most cases of gastrointestinal bleeding is the upper gastrointestinal tract. Since bleeding from the small intestine is very rare and difficult to diagnose, time is required to identify the source. Among small intestine bleeds, vascular abnormalities account for 70–80%, followed by small intestine tumors that account for 5–10%. The reported peak age of the onset of small intestinal tumors is about 50 years. Furthermore, rare small bowel tumors account for only 1–2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. We describe a 29-year-old man who presented with obscure anemia due to gastrointestinal bleeding and underwent laparotomy. Surgical findings revealed a well-circumscribed lesion measuring 45 × 40 mm in the jejunum that initially appeared similar to diverticulosis with an abscess. However, the postoperative pathological diagnosis was a gastrointestinal stromal tumor with extramural growth. PMID:27920659

  17. Arteriojejunal Fistula Presenting with Recurrent Obscure GI Hemorrhage in a Patient with a Failed Pancreas Allograft

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Nirmit; Patel, Sagar; Nwosu, Chinyere; Sung, Lok; Buscaglia, Jonathan M.; Nord, Edward P.; Wadhwa, Nand K.

    2013-01-01

    We present a case of a patient with a failed pancreaticoduodenal allograft with exocrine enteric-drainage who developed catastrophic gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage. Over the course of a week, she presented with recurrent GI bleeds of obscure etiology. Multiple esophago-gastro-duodenoscopic (EGD) and colonoscopic evaluations failed to reveal the source of the hemorrhage. A capsule endoscopy and a technetium-labeled red blood cells (RBC) imaging study were similarly unrevealing for source of bleeding. She subsequently developed hemorrhagic shock requiring emergent superior mesenteric arteriography. Run off images revealed an external iliac artery aneurysm with fistulization into the jejunum. Coiled embolization was attempted but abandoned because of hemodynamic instability. Deployment of a covered endovascular stent into the right external iliac artery over the fistula site resulted in immediate hemodynamic stabilization. A high index of suspicion for arterioenteric fistulae is needed for diagnosis of this uncommon but eminently treatable form of GI hemorrhage in this patient population. PMID:24455393

  18. Multiple-return laser radar for three-dimensional imaging through obscurations.

    PubMed

    Schilling, Bradley W; Barr, Dallas N; Templeton, Glen C; Mizerka, Lawrence J; Trussell, C Ward

    2002-05-20

    A compact imaging laser radar was constructed and tested to investigate phenomenological issues in targeting, especially cases involving imaging through obscurations such as foliage and camouflage netting. The laser radar employs a Nd:YAG microchip laser that operates at a wavelength of 1.06 microm and produces pulses of 1.2-ns duration at a 3-kHz rate. The detector is a commercial indium gallium arsenide avalanche photodiode. A single computer controls the scanning mirrors and performs the digitization of the returning signal at 2 giga samples/s. A detailed description of the laser radar is presented as well as results from field experiments that examined its range accuracy capability and its ability to image a target through camouflage. Results of data collected from deciduous tree lines are also discussed to characterize the presence and quantity of multiple returns.

  19. Experimental conditions can obscure the second high-affinity site in LeuT.

    PubMed

    Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Zehnpfennig, Britta; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A

    2012-01-15

    Neurotransmitter:Na(+) symporters (NSSs), the targets of antidepressants and psychostimulants, recapture neurotransmitters from the synapse in a Na(+)-dependent symport mechanism. The crystal structure of the NSS homolog LeuT from Aquifex aeolicus revealed one leucine substrate in an occluded, centrally located (S1) binding site next to two Na(+) ions. Computational studies combined with binding and flux experiments identified a second substrate (S2) site and a molecular mechanism of Na(+)-substrate symport that depends upon the allosteric interaction of substrate molecules in the two high-affinity sites. Here we show that the S2 site, which has not yet been identified by crystallographic approaches, can be blocked during preparation of detergent-solubilized LeuT, thereby obscuring its crucial role in Na(+)-coupled symport. This finding points to the need for caution in selecting experimental environments in which the properties and mechanistic features of membrane proteins can be delineated.

  20. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  1. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  2. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  4. Estimating How Inflated or Obscured Effects of Climate Affect Forecasted Species Distribution

    PubMed Central

    Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L.

    2013-01-01

    Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (ρ), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario. PMID:23349726

  5. Obscuration in active galactic nuclei: near-infrared luminosity relations and dust colors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtscher, L.; Orban de Xivry, G.; Davies, R. I.; Janssen, A.; Lutz, D.; Rosario, D.; Contursi, A.; Genzel, R.; Graciá-Carpio, J.; Lin, M.-Y.; Schnorr-Müller, A.; Sternberg, A.; Sturm, E.; Tacconi, L.

    2015-06-01

    We combine two approaches to isolate the AGN luminosity at near-IR wavelengths and relate the near-IR pure AGN luminosity to other tracers of the AGN. Using integral-field spectroscopic data of an archival sample of 51 local AGNs, we estimate the fraction of non-stellar light by comparing the nuclear equivalent width of the stellar 2.3 μm CO absorption feature with the intrinsic value for each galaxy. We compare this fraction to that derived from a spectral decomposition of the integrated light in the central arcsecond and find them to be consistent with each other. Using our estimates of the near-IR AGN light, we find a strong correlation with presumably isotropic AGN tracers. We show that a significant offset exists between type 1 and type 2 sources in the sense that type 1 sources are 7 (10) times brighter in the near-IR at log lmir{} = 42.5 (log lx{} = 42.5). These offsets only become clear when treating infrared type 1 sources as type 1 AGNs. All AGNs have very red near- to mid-IR dust colors. This, as well as the range of observed near-IR temperatures, can be explained with a simple model with only two free parameters: the obscuration to the hot dust and the ratio between the warm and hot dust areas. We find obscurations of AV^hot = 5 ldots 15 mag for infrared type 1 sources and AV^hot = 15 ldots 35 mag for type 2 sources. The ratio of hot dust to warm dust areas of about 1000 is nicely consistent with the ratio of radii of the respective regions as found by infrared interferometry.

  6. A multi-wavelength survey of obscured and reddened quasars at the peak of galaxy formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alexandroff, Rachael

    2017-01-01

    While in the nearby universe the unification model seems firmly established, we are now seeing hints that at the peak of quasar activity and black hole growth (z~2.5) both obscured and reddened quasars may represent not just a specific quasar orientation but instead a unique stage of quasar evolution. Our group has developed several observational techniques to identify obscured and highly reddened quasars at z~2.5 using a combination of the SDSS spectroscopy and WISE photometry. Our sample contains objects with some of the most extreme ionized gas velocities observed (> 5000 km/s), indicating wind speeds too large to be contained by the galaxy potential though they are radio quiet. I will present both our sample selection and initial results from multi-wavelength follow-up of this sample using near-infrared spectroscopy, Keck spectropolarimentry and the VLA to test the AGN unification model and search for evidence of galaxy-wide quasar winds. High levels of polarized light (reaching ~20% of the total continuum emission in some cases) and changes in the polarization fraction and position angle across emission lines may argue for the presence of dusty outflows in our objects. This is supported by evidence from stacking analysis in the radio that presents a correlation between the observed outflow speeds in ionized gas (as measured by [OIII]) and the radio luminosity—arguing for a wind origin for the radio emission in these objects as well. The most extreme of these objects may thus represent the “blowout phase” of AGN evolution that proceeds or accompanies the cessation of star formation in the host galaxy due to the effects of radiatively-driven quasar driven winds.

  7. Estimating how inflated or obscured effects of climate affect forecasted species distribution.

    PubMed

    Real, Raimundo; Romero, David; Olivero, Jesús; Estrada, Alba; Márquez, Ana L

    2013-01-01

    Climate is one of the main drivers of species distribution. However, as different environmental factors tend to co-vary, the effect of climate cannot be taken at face value, as it may be either inflated or obscured by other correlated factors. We used the favourability models of four species (Alytes dickhilleni, Vipera latasti, Aquila fasciata and Capra pyrenaica) inhabiting Spanish mountains as case studies to evaluate the relative contribution of climate in their forecasted favourability by using variation partitioning and weighting the effect of climate in relation to non-climatic factors. By calculating the pure effect of the climatic factor, the pure effects of non-climatic factors, the shared climatic effect and the proportion of the pure effect of the climatic factor in relation to its apparent effect (ρ), we assessed the apparent effect and the pure independent effect of climate. We then projected both types of effects when modelling the future favourability for each species and combination of AOGCM-SRES (two Atmosphere-Ocean General Circulation Models: CGCM2 and ECHAM4, and two Special Reports on Emission Scenarios (SRES): A2 and B2). The results show that the apparent effect of climate can be either inflated (overrated) or obscured (underrated) by other correlated factors. These differences were species-specific; the sum of favourable areas forecasted according to the pure climatic effect differed from that forecasted according to the apparent climatic effect by about 61% on average for one of the species analyzed, and by about 20% on average for each of the other species. The pure effect of future climate on species distributions can only be estimated by combining climate with other factors. Transferring the pure climatic effect and the apparent climatic effect to the future delimits the maximum and minimum favourable areas forecasted for each species in each climate change scenario.

  8. On the nature of the most obscured C-rich AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ventura, P.; Karakas, A. I.; Dell'Agli, F.; García-Hernández, D. A.; Boyer, M. L.; Di Criscienzo, M.

    2016-04-01

    The stars in the Magellanic Clouds with the largest degree of obscuration are used to probe the highly uncertain physics of stars in the asymptotic giant branch (AGB) phase of evolution. Carbon stars in particular provide key information on the amount of third dredge-up and mass-loss. We use two independent stellar evolution codes to test how a different treatment of the physics affects the evolution on the AGB. The output from the two codes is used to determine the rates of dust formation in the circumstellar envelope, where the method used to determine the dust is the same for each case. The stars with the largest degree of obscuration in the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) are identified as the progeny of objects of initial mass 2.5-3 M⊙ and ˜1.5 M⊙, respectively. This difference in mass is motivated by the difference in the star formation histories of the two galaxies, and offers a simple explanation of the redder infrared colours of C-stars in the LMC compared to their counterparts in the SMC. The comparison with the Spitzer colours of C-rich AGB stars in the SMC shows that a minimum surface carbon mass fraction X(C) ˜ 5 × 10-3 must have been reached by stars of initial mass around 1.5 M⊙. Our results confirm the necessity of adopting low-temperature opacities in stellar evolutionary models of AGB stars. These opacities allow the stars to obtain mass-loss rates high enough (≳10-4 M⊙ yr-1) to produce the amount of dust needed to reproduce the Spitzer colours.

  9. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings…

  10. 76 FR 795 - Notice of Inventory Completion for Native American Human Remains and Associated Funerary Objects...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-06

    ... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS; Correction AGENCY: National Park Service, Interior. ACTION: Notice... Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. The human remains and cultural items were removed from Claiborne County, MS... Superintendent, Natchez Trace Parkway, Tupelo, MS. This notice corrects the total number and types of...

  11. The Kiloparsec-scale Star Formation Law at Redshift 4: Widespread, Highly Efficient Star Formation in the Dust-obscured Starburst Galaxy GN20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hodge, J. A.; Riechers, D.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C. L.; Daddi, E.; Dannerbauer, H.

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (~2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M ⊙ yr-1 kpc-2) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc2. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of ΣSFR ~ Σ _H_2^2.1+/- 1.0, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ~kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago. The National Radio Astronomy Observatory is a facility of the National Science Foundation operated under cooperative agreement by Associated Universities, Inc.

  12. ALMA observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23: deep limits on obscured star formation 630 million years after the big bang

    SciTech Connect

    Berger, E.; Zauderer, B. A.; Chary, R.-R.; Laskar, T.; Chornock, R.; Davies, J. E.; Tanvir, N. R.; Stanway, E. R.; Levan, A. J.; Levesque, E. M.

    2014-12-01

    We present rest-frame far-infrared (FIR) and optical observations of the host galaxy of GRB 090423 at z = 8.23 from the Atacama Large Millimeter Array (ALMA) and the Spitzer Space Telescope, respectively. The host remains undetected to 3σ limits of F {sub ν}(222 GHz) ≲ 33 μJy and F {sub ν}(3.6 μm) ≲ 81 nJy. The FIR limit is about 20 times fainter than the luminosity of the local ULIRG Arp 220 and comparable to the local starburst M 82. Comparing this with model spectral energy distributions, we place a limit on the infrared (IR) luminosity of L {sub IR}(8-1000 μm) ≲ 3 × 10{sup 10} L {sub ☉}, corresponding to a limit on the obscured star formation rate of SFR{sub IR}≲5 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. For comparison, the limit on the unobscured star formation rate from Hubble Space Telescope rest-frame ultraviolet (UV) observations is SFR{sub UV} ≲ 1 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}. We also place a limit on the host galaxy stellar mass of M {sub *} ≲ 5 × 10{sup 7} M {sub ☉} (for a stellar population age of 100 Myr and constant star formation rate). Finally, we compare our millimeter observations to those of field galaxies at z ≳ 4 (Lyman break galaxies, Lyα emitters, and submillimeter galaxies) and find that our limit on the FIR luminosity is the most constraining to date, although the field galaxies have much larger rest-frame UV/optical luminosities than the host of GRB 090423 by virtue of their selection techniques. We conclude that GRB host galaxies at z ≳ 4, especially those with measured interstellar medium metallicities from afterglow spectroscopy, are an attractive sample for future ALMA studies of high redshift obscured star formation.

  13. A systems pharmacology perspective to decipher the mechanism of action of Parangichakkai chooranam, a Siddha formulation for the treatment of psoriasis.

    PubMed

    Sundarrajan, Sudharsana; Arumugam, Mohanapriya

    2017-04-01

    Psoriasis is a chronic relapsing immune mediated disorder of the skin. The disease presents itself with well featured clinical and histological characteristics however the aetiology of the disease still remains obscure. The current systemic therapies aim to eliminate the symptoms of disease rather than offering a complete cure. Parangichakkai chooranam (PC), a Siddha oral herbal formulation has been widely prescribed for the treatment of psoriasis. Though the medication is highly prescribed by the Siddha healers the mechanism of PC for the treatment of psoriasis remains to be elucidated. The current study utilizes an integrated systems pharmacology approach to decipher the mechanism of action of PC. The comprehensive network pharmacological approach resulted in the construction of a Compound-Target network which encloses 155 compounds and 583 protein targets. A Disease-Target network was constructed by assembling disease proteins and their partners. When the compound targets were mapped to the network their involvement as controllers of the disease and triggers of disease associated comorbidities were identified. A Target-Pathway network raised from the pathway enrichment analysis not only identified disease specific pathways but also the pathways mediating secondary complications such as skin hemostasis, wound healing, desquamation and itch. The present work sheds light on the mechanism of action of PC in treating psoriasis. This work not only highlights the pharmacological action of the formulation but also emphasis on safe herbal remedies offered by the Siddha medicinal system.

  14. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  15. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  16. X-ray bumps, iron K-alpha lines, and X-ray suppression by obscuring tori in Seyfert galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krolik, Julian H.; Madau, Piero; Zycki, Piotr T.

    1994-01-01

    We investigate the X-ray spectral properties of unobscured type 1 and obscured type 2 Seyferts as predicted by the unified Seyfert scheme. We consider the reprocessing of X-ray photons by photoelectric absorption, iron fluorescence, and Compton downscattering in the obscuring tori surrounding these active nuclei, and compute by Monte Carlo methods the reprocessed spectra as a function of the viewing angle. Depending on the optical depth and shape of the torus, and on the viewing angle, the X-ray flux can be suppressed by substantial factors when our line of sight is obscured. We show that an immediate consequence of the existence of an obscuring thick torus is the production in the spectra of type 1 Seyfert galaxies of a bump in the continuum above 10-20 keV and an Fe K-alpha line with significant equivalent width. In those type 2 Seyferts for which the hard X-ray spectrum has been substantially suppressed, the equivalent width of the Fe K-alpha line in the transmitted spectrum can be very large.

  17. At-Sea Evaluation of the Obscuration Characteristics of a Hygroscopic Aerosol Smoke Produced by the CY85A Pyrotechnic

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    and IiWIU* by block nmber) Salty Dog Obscuration .2Hygroscopic aerosol Extinction ISmoke Pyrotechnically Generated ’For the past six years, Calapan, in...Extinction Characteristics for Salty Dog , NWC 29 and NWC 78 Pyrotechnics,", Calspan Report No. 6663-M-l, 40 pp, Calspan Corporation, Buffalo, NY 14225. 4

  18. Atmospheric propagation effects through natural and man-made obscurants for visible to MM-wave radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-11-01

    Modern, precision-guided weapons require that guidance and target acquisition/recognition systems take into account the effects of the propagation environment. Successful performance must be obtained under adverse weather conditions such as haze, clouds, fog, rain, and snow and under adverse battlefield conditions such as dust, smoke, and man-made obscurants. Sensors operate at wavelengths ranging across the millimeter, IR, and the visible regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Propagation effects vary drastically over this wavelength span and systems may employ a combination of sensors to mitigate adverse environmental conditions. The effectiveness of countermeasures such as multispectral obscurants and multispectral camouflage also depends on atmospheric properties. System performance is measured in terms of probability of detection, probability of recognition, and, ultimately, in terms of probability of a kill. A partial listing of the processes that affect theses probabilities and, in turn, are affected by the propagation environment includes extinction, angles and amplitude scintillation, target to background contrast, contrast transmission, and clutter characteristics. The symposium addresses the following topics: natural obscurants, multispectral camouflage, man-made obscurants and battlefield-induced phenomena, and target and background signatures.

  19. Remembering Dr. George J. Apel, Jr: A Posthumous Tribute to an Innovative, Obscure Pioneer in Christian Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lumadue, Richard T.

    2007-01-01

    This paper is a belated tribute to George J. Apel, Jr., an innovative and obscure Christian higher educator. Peruse the name and subject indices of any and all books about Christian higher education, and nowhere will there appear even a reference to George J. Apel, Jr. Although Apel never finished high school or college, he was awarded an honorary…

  20. Use of a transmissometer model for infrared smoke model validation and assessment of obscuration and detection times

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butters, Brian; Walmsley, Roy

    2008-10-01

    CounterSim is a countermeasures modelling and simulation application developed by Chemring engineers to study the use of expendable countermeasures in air, land and naval scenarios. The CounterSim transmissometer model was originally developed in order to validate an obscurant model using measurement data from trials. In principle, it can also be used to assess line of sight transmission and detection times in military scenarios such as vehicle self protection, projected smoke to cover battlefields and littoral operations by ships supporting land operations. Ships could be facing land based threats in littoral operations. Smokes can be regarded as a nuisance rather than an asset and users will want to minimise self obscuration of their EO/IR systems. The transmissometer model offers a means of monitoring obscuration in simulations for blue on red and red on blue effectors. The paper describes a simple littoral scenario and some of the issues that arise with the transmissometer model used to monitor lies of sight to and from platforms through ambient temperature obscurants and hot smoke. Requirements for the future development of a tracking transmissometer are outlined.

  1. Disentangling Dominance: Obscured AGN Activity versus Star Formation in BPT-Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trouille, Laura

    2011-11-01

    Approximately 20% of SDSS emission-line galaxies (ELG) lie in the BPT-comp regime, between the Kauffmann et al. (2003) empirically determined SF-dominated regime and the Kewley et al. (2001) theoretically predicted AGN-dominated regime. BPT-AGN, on the other hand, make up only 11% of the ELG population. Whether to include the significant number of BPT-comp in samples of AGN or samples of star-forming galaxies is an open question and has important implications for galaxy evolution studies, metallicity studies, etc. Using a large pectroscopic sample of GOODS-N and LH galaxies with deep Chandra imaging, we perform an X-ray stacking analysis of BPT-comp. We find the stacked signal to be X-ray hard. This X-ray hardness can be indicative of obscured AGN activity or the presence of HMXBs associated with ongoing star formation. In order to distinguish between these scenarios, we perform an IR stacking analysis using Spitzer 24 micron data. The stacked BPT-comp lies well above the expected value for L_x/L_IR for pure star-forming galaxies; similarly for the X-ray detected BPT-comp. We also find that the BPT-comp lie in the AGN-dominated regime of our new TBT diagnostic, which uses [NeIII]/[OII] versus rest-frame g-z colour to identify AGN and star forming galaxies out to z=1.4. [NeIII], which has a higher ionisation potential than other commonly used forbidden emission lines, appears to foster a more reliable selection of AGN-dominated galaxies. These findings suggest that both the X-ray and optical signal in BPT-comp are dominated by obscured or low accretion rate AGN activity rather than star formation. This is in contrast to claims by previous optical emission-line studies that the signal in BPT-comp is dominated by star-formation activity. Therefore, we recommend that groups carefully consider the impact of excluding or including BPT-comp on the interpretation of their results. For example, for studies involving determining the bolometric contribution from AGN activity

  2. Obscuration, orientation, and the infrared properties of radio-loud active galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heckman, Timothy M.; O'Dea, Christopher P.; Baum, Stefi A.; Laurikainen, Eija

    1994-01-01

    We report on a study of the mid- and far-infrared (MFIR) properties of several different classes of radio-loud active galactic nuclei (AGNs) using the IRAS database. Our goal is to try to improve the understanding of the possible relationships between the diverse classes of AGNs. The MFIR and radio properties of radio-loud AGNs are especially useful in this regard, since (excluding the blazar class, which we do not study here) the radio emission is thought to be emitted isotropically, and the radio and MFIR radiation should be much less affected by dust obscuration than radiation at shorter wavelengths. We have first compared samples of 3CR broad-line radio galaxies (BLRGs) and narrow-line radio galaxies (NLRGs) matched in radio flux and mean redshift. We find that the BLRGs are stronger than the NLRGs by a factor of 4-5 in their mid-IR emission but are similar to the NLRGs in the far-IR. This is qualitatively consistent with recent 'unification' models for NLRGs and BLRGs which invoke thermal MFIR emission from dusty 'obscuring tori,' but there may be an additional source of far-IR emission present in the more luminous broad-line objects (the radio-loud quasars) studied previously by Heckman, Chambers & Postman (1992). We have also compared samples of Fanaroff-Riley class I (FRI) and Fanaroff-Riley class II (FRII) radio galaxies matched in radio flux and redshift. The FRII galaxies are stronger MFIR emitters than the FRI galaxies by a factor of about 4. This is consistent with suggestions that the central engine in FRI galaxies produces relatively little radiant energy per unit jet power (expecially since we find that the weak MFIR emission from the FRI galaxies may not be powered by the AGN). Comparing samples of gigahertz-peaked spectrum (GPS) and compact steep spectrum (CSS) sources versus non-GPS-CSS sources, we find that the GPS-CSS and non-GPS-CSS sources have similar MFIR strengths. This suggests that the efficiency of the conversion of jet kinetic energy

  3. STAR FORMATION AND DUST OBSCURATION IN THE TIDALLY DISTORTED GALAXY NGC 2442

    SciTech Connect

    Pancoast, Anna; Sajina, Anna; Lacy, Mark; Noriega-Crespo, Alberto; Rho, Jeonghee

    2010-11-01

    We present a detailed investigation of the morphological distribution and level of star formation and dust obscuration in the nearby tidally distorted galaxy NGC 2442. Spitzer images in the IR at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, 8.0, and 24 {mu}m and GALEX images at 1500 A and 2300 A allow us to resolve the galaxy on scales between {approx}240 and 600 pc. We supplement these with archival data in the B, J, H, and K bands. We use the 8 {mu}m, 24 {mu}m, and FUV (1500 A) emission to study the star formation rate (SFR). We find that, globally, these tracers of star formation give a range of results of {approx}6-11 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}, with the dust-corrected FUV giving the highest value of SFR. We can reconcile the UV- and IR-based estimates by adopting a steeper UV extinction curve that lies in between the starburst (Calzetti) and Small Magellanic Cloud extinction curves. However, the regions of the highest SFR intensity along the spiral arms are consistent with a starburst-like extinction. Overall, the level of star formation we find is higher than previously published for this galaxy, by about a factor of 2, which, contrary to previous conclusions, implies that the interaction that caused the distorted morphology of NGC 2442 likely also triggered increased levels of star formation activity. We also find marked asymmetry in that the north spiral arm has a noticeably higher SFR than the southern arm. The tip of the southern spiral arm shows a likely tidally distorted peculiar morphology. It is UV bright and shows unusual IRAC colors, consistent with other published tidal features IRAC data. Outside of the spiral arms, we discover what appears to be a superbubble, {approx}1.7 kpc across, which is seen most clearly in the IRAC images. Significant H{alpha}, UV, and IR emission in the area also suggest vigorous ongoing star formation. A known, recent supernova (SN 1999ga) is located at the edge of this superbubble. Although speculative at this stage, this area suggests a large star

  4. Black hole accretion and host galaxies of obscured quasars in XMM-COSMOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainieri, V.; Bongiorno, A.; Merloni, A.; Aller, M.; Carollo, M.; Iwasawa, K.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Mignoli, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Bolzonella, M.; Brusa, M.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Halliday, C.; Ilbert, O.; Lusso, E.; Salvato, M.; Vignali, C.; Zamorani, G.; Contini, T.; Kneib, J.-P.; Le Fèvre, O.; Lilly, S.; Renzini, A.; Scodeggio, M.; Balestra, I.; Bardelli, S.; Caputi, K.; Coppa, G.; Cucciati, O.; de la Torre, S.; de Ravel, L.; Franzetti, P.; Garilli, B.; Iovino, A.; Kampczyk, P.; Knobel, C.; Kovač, K.; Lamareille, F.; Le Borgne, J.-F.; Le Brun, V.; Maier, C.; Nair, P.; Pello, R.; Peng, Y.; Perez Montero, E.; Pozzetti, L.; Ricciardelli, E.; Tanaka, M.; Tasca, L.; Tresse, L.; Vergani, D.; Zucca, E.; Aussel, H.; Capak, P.; Cappelluti, N.; Elvis, M.; Fiore, F.; Hasinger, G.; Impey, C.; Le Floc'h, E.; Scoville, N.; Taniguchi, Y.; Trump, J.

    2011-11-01

    Aims: We explore the connection between black hole growth at the center of obscured quasars selected from the XMM-COSMOS survey and the physical properties of their host galaxies. We study a bolometric regime ( ⟨ Lbol ⟩ = 8 × 1045 erg s-1) where several theoretical models invoke major galaxy mergers as the main fueling channel for black hole accretion. Methods: To derive robust estimates of the host galaxy properties, we use an SED fitting technique to distinguish the AGN and host galaxy emission. We evaluate the effect on galaxy properties estimates of being unable to remove the nuclear emission from the SED. The superb multi-wavelength coverage of the COSMOS field allows us to obtain reliable estimates of the total stellar masses and star formation rates (SFRs) of the hosts. We supplement this information with a morphological analysis of the ACS/HST images, optical spectroscopy, and an X-ray spectral analysis. Results: We confirm that obscured quasars mainly reside in massive galaxies (M ⋆ > 1010M⊙) and that the fraction of galaxies hosting such powerful quasars monotonically increases with the stellar mass. We stress the limitation of the use of rest-frame color - magnitude diagrams as a diagnostic tool for studying galaxy evolution and inferring the influence that AGN activity can have on such a process. We instead use the correlation between SFR and stellar mass found for star-forming galaxies to discuss the physical properties of the hosts. We find that at z ~ 1, ≈62% of Type-2 QSOs hosts are actively forming stars and that their rates are comparable to those measured for normal star-forming galaxies. The fraction of star-forming hosts increases with redshift: ≈ 71% at z ~ 2, and 100% at z ~ 3. We also find that the evolution from z ~ 1 to z ~ 3 of the specific SFR of the Type-2 QSO hosts is in excellent agreement with that measured for star-forming galaxies. From the morphological analysis, we conclude that most of the objects are bulge

  5. Early Developments in Joint Action

    PubMed Central

    Brownell, Celia A.

    2012-01-01

    Joint action, critical to human social interaction and communication, has garnered increasing scholarly attention in many areas of inquiry, yet its development remains little explored. This paper reviews research on the growth of joint action over the first 2 years of life to show how children become progressively more able to engage deliberately, autonomously, and flexibly in joint action with adults and peers. It is suggested that a key mechanism underlying the dramatic changes in joint action over the second year of life is the ability to reflect consciously on oneself and one’s behavior and volition and correspondingly, on the behavior, goals, and intentions of others. PMID:23087769

  6. EVIDENCE FOR A WIDE RANGE OF ULTRAVIOLET OBSCURATION IN z {approx} 2 DUSTY GALAXIES FROM THE GOODS-HERSCHEL SURVEY

    SciTech Connect

    Penner, Kyle; Dickinson, Mark; Dey, Arjun; Kartaltepe, Jeyhan; Pope, Alexandra; Magnelli, Benjamin; Pannella, Maurilio; Aussel, Herve; Daddi, Emanuele; Elbaz, David; Buat, Veronique; Bussmann, Shane; Hwang, Ho Seong; Charmandaris, Vassilis; Dannerbauer, Helmut; Lin Lihwai; Magdis, Georgios; Morrison, Glenn; and others

    2012-11-01

    Dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 span a wide range of relative brightness between rest-frame mid-infrared (8 {mu}m) and ultraviolet wavelengths. We attempt to determine the physical mechanism responsible for this diversity. Dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs), which have rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios {approx}> 1000, might be abnormally bright in the mid-IR, perhaps due to prominent emission from active galactic nuclei and/or polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, or abnormally faint in the UV. We use far-infrared data from the GOODS-Herschel survey to show that most DOGs with 10{sup 12} L {sub Sun} {approx}< L {sub IR} {approx}< 10{sup 13} L {sub Sun} are not abnormally bright in the mid-IR when compared to other dusty galaxies with similar IR (8-1000 {mu}m) luminosities. We observe a relation between the median IR to UV luminosity ratios and the median UV continuum power-law indices for these galaxies, and we find that only 24% have specific star formation rates that indicate the dominance of compact star-forming regions. This circumstantial evidence supports the idea that the UV- and IR-emitting regions in these galaxies are spatially coincident, which implies a connection between the abnormal UV faintness of DOGs and dust obscuration. We conclude that the range in rest-frame mid-IR to UV flux density ratios spanned by dusty galaxies at z {approx} 2 is due to differing amounts of UV obscuration. Of galaxies with these IR luminosities, DOGs are the most obscured. We attribute differences in UV obscuration to either (1) differences in the degree of alignment between the spatial distributions of dust and massive stars or (2) differences in the total dust content.

  7. Outside scene obscuration by a millimeter-wave radar image presented on a HUD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huntoon, Richard B.; Rand, Timothy W.; Lapis, Mary Beth

    1995-06-01

    We investigated whether a raster image on a Head-Up Display (HUD) might interfere with runway recognition during a low-visibility (CAT II and IIIa) approach. The primary reason for incorporating a HUD into the flight deck is to allow the pilot to observe instrument information while maintaining a view of the outside scene. The raster image could, however, obscure the outside scene, leaving the pilot unaware that the approach or runway lights are visible. In our HUD lab, twenty-one subjects were asked to observe a simulated outside scene through a HUD and indicate when they first saw runway approach lights. Each subject was presented 12 data runs with a simulated 35-GHz raster radar image and stroke symbology simultaneously presented on the HUD, and 12 data runs with only stroke symbology on the HUD. Each run was conducted under simulated fog conditions of either 700-ft Runway Visual Range (RVR) or 1200-ft RVR. We found that the presence of the radar image decreased the recognition range by 24 percent (z equals 5.71, p < 0.001). Subjective comments by the study participants show that the radar serves as a valuable aid in confirming flight path alignment with the runway under low-visibility conditions.

  8. MILLIMETER OBSERVATIONS OF A SAMPLE OF HIGH-REDSHIFT OBSCURED QUASARS

    SciTech Connect

    Martinez-Sansigre, Alejo; Karim, Alexander; Schinnerer, Eva E-mail: karim@mpia.d

    2009-11-20

    We present observations at 1.2 mm with Max-Planck Millimetre Bolometer Array (MAMBO-II) of a sample of z approx> 2 radio-intermediate obscured quasars, as well as CO observations of two sources with the Plateau de Bure Interferometer. The typical rms noise achieved by the MAMBO observations is 0.55 mJy beam{sup -1} and five out of 21 sources (24%) are detected at a significance of >=3sigma. Stacking all sources leads to a statistical detection of (S{sub 1.2mm}) = 0.96 +- 0.11 mJy and stacking only the non-detections also yields a statistical detection, with (S{sub 1.2mm}) = 0.51 +- 0.13 mJy. At the typical redshift of the sample, z = 2, 1 mJy corresponds to a far-infrared luminosity L{sub FIR}approx4 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun}. If the far-infrared luminosity is powered entirely by star formation, and not by active galactic nucleus heated dust, then the characteristic inferred star formation rate is approx700 M{sub sun} yr{sup -1}. This far-infrared luminosity implies a dust mass of M{sub d}approx3 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}, which is expected to be distributed on approxkpc scales. We estimate that such large dust masses on kpc scales can plausibly cause the obscuration of the quasars. Combining our observations at 1.2 mm with mid- and far-infrared data, and additional observations for two objects at 350 mum using SHARC-II, we present dust spectral energy distributions (SEDs) for our sample and derive a mean SED for our sample. This mean SED is not well fitted by clumpy torus models, unless additional extinction and far-infrared re-emission due to cool dust are included. This additional extinction can be consistently achieved by the mass of cool dust responsible for the far-infrared emission, provided the bulk of the dust is within a radius approx2-3 kpc. Comparison of our sample to other samples of z approx 2 quasars suggests that obscured quasars have, on average, higher far-infrared luminosities than unobscured quasars. There is a hint that the host galaxies of obscured

  9. From wine to pepper: rotundone, an obscure sesquiterpene, is a potent spicy aroma compound.

    PubMed

    Wood, Claudia; Siebert, Tracey E; Parker, Mango; Capone, Dimitra L; Elsey, Gordon M; Pollnitz, Alan P; Eggers, Marcus; Meier, Manfred; Vössing, Tobias; Widder, Sabine; Krammer, Gerhard; Sefton, Mark A; Herderich, Markus J

    2008-05-28

    An obscure sesquiterpene, rotundone, has been identified as a hitherto unrecognized important aroma impact compound with a strong spicy, peppercorn aroma. Excellent correlations were observed between the concentration of rotundone and the mean 'black pepper' aroma intensity rated by sensory panels for both grape and wine samples, indicating that rotundone is a major contributor to peppery characters in Shiraz grapes and wine (and to a lesser extent in wine of other varieties). Approximately 80% of a sensory panel were very sensitive to the aroma of rotundone (aroma detection threshold levels of 16 ng/L in red wine and 8 ng/L in water). Above these concentrations, these panelists described the spiked samples as more 'peppery' and 'spicy'. However, approximately 20% of panelists could not detect this compound at the highest concentration tested (4000 ng/L), even in water. Thus, the sensory experiences of two consumers enjoying the same glass of Shiraz wine might be very different. Rotundone was found in much higher amounts in other common herbs and spices, especially black and white peppercorns, where it was present at approximately 10000 times the level found in very 'peppery' wine. Rotundone is the first compound found in black or white peppercorns that has a distinctive peppery aroma. Rotundone has an odor activity value in pepper on the order of 50000-250000 and is, on this criterion, by far the most powerful aroma compound yet found in that most important spice.

  10. The Vector Vortex Coronagraph: sensitivity to central obscuration, low-order aberrations, chromaticism, and polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Pueyo, Laurent; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Serabyn, Eugene

    2010-07-01

    The Vector Vortex Coronagraph is a phase-based coronagraph, one of the most efficient in terms of inner working angle, throughput, discovery space, contrast, and simplicity. Using liquid-crystal polymer technology, this new coronagraph has recently been the subject of lab demonstrations in the near-infrared, visible and was also used on sky at the Palomar observatory in the H and K bands (1.65 and 2.2 μm, respectively) to image the brown dwarf companion to HR 7672, and the three extra-solar planets around HR 8799. However, despite these recent successes, the Vector Vortex Coronagraph is, as are most coronagraphs, sensitive to the central obscuration and secondary support structures, low-order aberrations (tip-tilt, focus, etc), bandwidth (chromaticism), and polarization when image-plane wavefront sensing is performed. Here, we consider in detail these sensitivities as a function of the topological charge of the vortex and design features inherent to the manufacturing technology, and show that in practice all of them can be mitigated to meet specific needs.

  11. The Host Galaxies of High-Luminosity Obscured Quasars at 2.5

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Nicholas; Strauss, M. A.; Greene, J. E.; Zakamska, N. L.; Brandt, W. N.; Alexandroff, R.; Liu, G.; Smith, P. S.; The SDSS-III BOSS Quasar Working Group

    2014-01-01

    Active Galactic Nuclei play a key role in the evolution of galaxies. However, very little is known about the host galaxies of the most luminous quasars at redshift 2.5, the epoch when massive black hole growth peaked. The brightness of the quasar itself, which can easily outshine a galaxy by a large factor, makes it very difficult to study emission from extended gas or stars in the host galaxy. However, we have imaged the extended emission from the host galaxies of a unique sample of six optically extinguished (Type II) luminous quasars with 2.5, with the Hubble Space Telescope (Cycle 20, GO 13014) using ACS/F814W to access the rest-frame near-ultraviolet, and WFC3/F160W for the rest-frame optical longward of 4000A. These objects are selected from the spectroscopic database of the SDSS/Baryon Oscillation Spectroscopic Survey to have strong, narrow emission lines and weak continua. With these images, we have quantified the luminosity, morphology, and dynamical state of the host galaxies, and searched for extended scattered light from the obscured central engine. These observations are the first comprehensive study of both host galaxy light and scattered light in high-luminosity quasars at the epoch of maximum black hole growth, and give insights into the relationship between host galaxies and black holes during this important, and yet largely unexplored period.

  12. HEAVY DUST OBSCURATION OF z = 7 GALAXIES IN A COSMOLOGICAL HYDRODYNAMIC SIMULATION

    SciTech Connect

    Kimm, Taysun; Cen, Renyue

    2013-10-10

    Hubble Space Telescope observations with the Wide Field Camera 3/Infrared reveal that galaxies at z ∼ 7 have very blue ultraviolet (UV) colors, consistent with these systems being dominated by young stellar populations with moderate or little attenuation by dust. We investigate UV and optical properties of the high-z galaxies in the standard cold dark matter model using a high-resolution adaptive mesh refinement cosmological hydrodynamic simulation. For this purpose, we perform panchromatic three-dimensional dust radiative transfer calculations on 198 galaxies of stellar mass 5 × 10{sup 8}-3 × 10{sup 10} M{sub ☉} with three parameters: the dust-to-metal ratio, the extinction curve, and the fraction of directly escaped light from stars (f{sub esc}). Our stellar mass function is found to be in broad agreement with Gonzalez et al., independent of these parameters. We find that our heavily dust-attenuated galaxies (A{sub V} ∼ 1.8) can also reasonably match modest UV-optical colors, blue UV slopes, as well as UV luminosity functions, provided that a significant fraction (∼10%) of light directly escapes from them. The observed UV slope and scatter are better explained with a Small-Magellanic-Cloud-type extinction curve, whereas a Milky-Way-type curve also predicts blue UV colors due to the 2175 Å bump. We expect that upcoming observations by the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array will be able to test this heavily obscured model.

  13. Line formation in Be star circumstellar disks Shear broadening, shell absorption, stellar obscuration and rotational parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hummel, W.; Vrancken, M.

    2000-07-01

    We improve the theory of Horne & Marsh on shear broadening in accretion disks of CVs and adapt it to Be star circumstellar disks. Stellar obscuration and shell absorption are taken into account in detail. It is shown that shell absorption is already present in those emission lines where the central depression does not drop below the stellar continuum. The model profiles are fitted to observed symmetric Hα net emission lines with low equivalent width. The derived disk radii range from Rd = 5.3 R_* to Rd = 18 R_* and the surface emissivity varies as ~ R-m with 1.6 < m < 3.5. The comparison between model profiles of rotational parameter j>(1)/(2) with the optically thick Hα profile of HR 5440 rules out the range of j>(1)/(2). This can be understood by the lack of velocity shear in the outer disk regions. We conclude that Keplerian rotation (j=(1)/(2)) is a valid approximation. Based on observations collected at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center (DSAZ), Calar Alto, operated by the Max-Plank-Institut für Astronomie Heidelberg jointly with the Spanish National Commission for Astronomy. Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (OHP), CNRS, France.

  14. THE STELLAR CONTENT OF OBSCURED GALACTIC GIANT H II REGIONS. VII. W3

    SciTech Connect

    Navarete, F.; Figueredo, E.; Damineli, A.; Moises, A. P.; Blum, R. D.; Conti, P. S.

    2011-09-15

    Spectrophotometric distances in the K band have been reported by different authors for a number of obscured Galactic H II regions. Almost 50% of them show large discrepancies compared to the classical method using radial velocities measured in the radio spectral region. In order to provide a crucial test of both methods, we selected a target that does not present particular difficulty for any method and which has been measured by as many techniques as possible. The W3 star-forming complex, located in the Perseus arm, offers a splendid opportunity for such a task. We used the Near-Infrared Integral Field Spectrograph on the Frederick C. Gillett Gemini North telescope to classify candidate 'naked photosphere' OB stars based on Two Micron All Sky Survey photometry. Two of the targets are revealed to be mid-O-type main-sequence stars leading to a distance of d = 2.20 kpc. This is in excellent agreement with the spectrophotometric distance derived in the optical band (d = 2.18 pc) and with a measurement of the W3 trigonometric parallax (d = 1.95 kpc). Such results confirm that the spectrophotometric distances in the K band are reliable. The radio-derived kinematic distance, on the contrary, gives a distance twice as large (d = 4.2 kpc). This indicates that this region of the Perseus arm does not follow the Galactic rotation curve, and this may also be the case for other H II regions for which discrepancies have been found.

  15. A typical presentation of a rare cause of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Reuter, Stefan; Bettenworth, Dominik; Mees, Sören Torge; Neumann, Jörg; Beyna, Torsten; Domschke, Wolfram; Wessling, Johannes; Ullerich, Hansjörg

    2011-01-01

    A 52-year-old white woman had suffered from intermittent gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding for one year. Upper GI endoscopy, colonoscopy and peroral double-balloon enteroscopy (DBE) did not detect any bleeding source, suggesting obscure GI bleeding. However, in videocapsule endoscopy a jejunal ulceration without bleeding signs was suspected and this was endoscopically confirmed by another peroral DBE. After transfusion of packed red blood cells, the patient was discharged from our hospital in good general condition. Two weeks later she was readmitted because of another episode of acute bleeding. Multi-detector row computed tomography with 3D reconstruction was performed revealing a jejunal tumor causing lower gastrointestinal bleeding. The patient underwent exploratory laparotomy with partial jejunal resection and end-to-end jejunostomy for reconstruction. Histological examination of the specimen confirmed the diagnosis of a low risk gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST). Nine days after surgery the patient was discharged in good health. No signs of gastrointestinal rebleeding occurred in a follow-up of eight months. We herein describe the complex presentation and course of this patient with GIST and also review the current approach to treatment. PMID:21403816

  16. Gradients in the Abundance of SiS in Obscured Carbon Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyle, R. J.; Jennings, D. E.; Keady, J. J.; Hirsch, K. L.; Wiedemann, G. R.

    1993-12-01

    We report observations of the 13.5 microns fundamental band of SiS in the spectrum of the heavily obscured carbon stars IRC +10216 and CIT 6. We have carried out a detailed model of the observed line profiles in IRC +10216, the brighter of the two sources. The lines in this source are formed in the inner region of the circumstellar envelope where the gas is accelerating and where the temperature ranges from 500-800degK. Our observations of IRC +10216 are best fit by a gradient in the abundance of SiS; we derive an abundance relative to molecular hydrogen of x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(-6) at a distance of twelve stellar radii from the central star rising to x(SiS) = 4.3 x 10(-5) a few stellar radii from the star's surface. We interpret this gradient in terms of a depletion of Si onto grains in the acceleration region of the circumstellar envelope. The relative line strengths in CIT 6 are quite similar to those in IRC +10216. Although the data on this source are of lesser quality, they are consistent with an abundance level and distribution similar to that found in IRC +10216.

  17. Strangers in Our Midst: Massive, Evolved, Highly-obscured Galaxies at z > 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brammer, Gabriel; 3D-HST Survey Team

    2015-01-01

    Among the most massive galaxies at z > 1, we have uncovered a significant population of galaxies with unique SEDs that are best fit with highly-obscured evolved stellar populations (log M > 11, Av > 2, age > 1 Gyr). These are not galaxies at the detection limit or galaxies with the most extreme optical-IR colors: they have always been lurking in IR-selected photometric surveys but with their redshifts significantly overestimated and subsequently-biased derived stellar population properties. Characterizing this population has previously been impossible even with medium-band near-IR photometry due to strong degeneracies between photometric redshifts and SED shapes, which we can now critically break with robust emission-line redshifts obtained from the 3D-HST grism survey (H-alpha and [OIII] at 1 < z < 2). Understanding this population is imperative for interpreting the evolution of the high-mass end of the galaxy stellar mass function. Intriguingly, these galaxies could represent an evolutionary bridge between dusty starbursts and relatively unobscured quiescent galaxies, both of which are found among massive galaxies at z > 1 but with the latter dominating at lower redshifts.

  18. Environmental and health effects review for obscurant graphite flakes. Final report, 1991 July--1993 May

    SciTech Connect

    Driver, C.J.; Ligotke, M.W.; Landis, W.G.; Downs, J.L.; Tiller, B.L.; Moore, E.B. Jr.; Cataldo, D.A.

    1993-07-01

    The health and environmental effects of obscurant graphite flakes were reviewed and compared to predicted levels of graphite flake material in the field during typical testing and training scenarios. Graphite flake dispersion and deposition for simulated mechanical and pyrotechnic releases were determined using a modified Gaussian atmospheric plume-dispersion model. The potential for wind resuspension of graphite flakes is controlled by weathering processes and incorporation rates in soil. Chemically, graphite flakes pose little risk to aquatic or terrestrial systems. Mechanical damage to plants and invertebrate and vertebrate organisms from the flakes is also minimal. In humans, the pathological and physiological response to inhaled graphite flake is similar to that induced by nuisance dusts and cause only transient pulmonary changes. Repeated exposure to very high concentrations (such as those near the source generator) may overwhelm the clearance mechanisms of the lung and result in pulmonary damage from the retained particles in unprotected individuals. However, these lesions either resolve with time or are of limited severity. Health effects of mixed aerosols of mixed aerosols of graphite and fog oil are similar to those produced by graphite flakes alone. Environmental impacts of fog oil-coated graphite flakes are not well known.

  19. The Vector Vortex Coronagraph: Sensitivity to Low-Order Aberrations, Central Obscuration, Chromaticism, and Polarization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mawet, Dimitri; Pueyo, Laurent; Moody, Dwight; Krist, John; Serabyn, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    The Vector Vortex Coronagraph is a phase-based coronagraph, one of the most efficient in terms of inner working angle, throughput, discovery space, contrast, and simplicity. Using liquid-crystal polymer technology, this new coronagraph has recently been the subject of lab demonstrations in the near-infrared, visible and was also used on sky at the Palomar observatory in the H and K bands (1.65 and 2.2 micrometers, respectively) to image the brown dwarf companion to HR 7672, and the three extasolar planets around HR 8799. However, despite these recent successes, the Vector Vortex Coronagraph is, as are most coronagraphs, sensitive to the central obscuration and secondary support structures, low-order aberrations (tip-tilt, focus, etc), bandwidth (chromaticism), and polarization when image-plane wavefront sensing is performed. Here, we consider in detail these sensitivities as a function of the topological charge of the vortex and design properties inherent to the manufacturing technology, and show that in practice all of them can be mitigated to meet specific needs.

  20. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  1. Actionability and Simulation: No Representation without Communication

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable controversy about how the brain operates. This review focuses on brain activity rather than just structure and on concepts of action and actionability rather than truth conditions. Neural Communication is reviewed as a crucial aspect of neural encoding. Consequently, logical inference is superseded by neural simulation. Some remaining mysteries are discussed. PMID:27725807

  2. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  3. NuSTAR observations of heavily obscured quasars at z ∼ 0.5

    SciTech Connect

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Moro, A. Del; Gandhi, P.; Aird, J.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Harrison, F. A.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Hailey, C. J.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; and others

    2014-04-10

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z ≈ 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O III] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N {sub H}) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at >10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N {sub H}. (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at >8 keV with a no-source probability of <0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N {sub H} ≳ 5 × 10{sup 23} cm{sup –2}. The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}). We find that for quasars at z ∼ 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (<10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  4. Seafood substitutions obscure patterns of mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides) or "Chilean sea bass".

    PubMed

    Marko, Peter B; Nance, Holly A; van den Hurk, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Seafood mislabeling distorts the true abundance of fish in the sea, defrauds consumers, and can also cause unwanted exposure to harmful pollutants. By combining genetic data with analyses of total mercury content, we have investigated how species substitutions and fishery-stock substitutions obscure mercury contamination in Patagonian toothfish (Dissostichus eleginoides), also known as "Chilean sea bass". Patagonian toothfish show wide variation in mercury concentrations such that consumers may be exposed to either acceptable or unacceptable levels of mercury depending on the geographic origins of the fish and the allowable limits of different countries. Most notably, stocks of Patagonian toothfish in Chile accumulate significantly more mercury than stocks closer to the South Pole, including the South Georgia/Shag Rocks stock, a fishery certified by the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) as sustainably fished. Consistent with the documented geography of mercury contamination, our analysis showed that, on average, retail fish labeled as MSC-certified Patagonian toothfish had only half the mercury of uncertified fish. However, consideration of genetic data that were informative about seafood substitutions revealed a complex pattern of contamination hidden from consumers: species substitutions artificially inflated the expected difference in mercury levels between MSC-certified and uncertified fish whereas fishery stock substitutions artificially reduced the expected difference in mercury content between MSC-certified and uncertified fish that were actually D. eleginoides. Among MSC-certified fish that were actually D. eleginoides, several with exogenous mtDNA haplotypes (i.e., not known from the certified fishery) had mercury concentrations on par with uncertified fish from Chile. Overall, our analysis of mercury was consistent with inferences from the genetic data about the geographic origins of the fish, demonstrated the potential negative impact of seafood

  5. Search for Hyperluminous Infrared Dust-obscured Galaxies Selected with WISE and SDSS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toba, Y.; Nagao, T.

    2016-03-01

    We aim to search for hyperluminous infrared (IR) galaxies (HyLIRGs) with IR luminosity {L}{{IR}} > 1013 L⊙ by applying the selection method of dust-obscured galaxies (DOGs). They are spatially rare but could correspond to a maximum phase of cosmic star formation (SF) and/or active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity hence, they are a crucial population for understanding the SF and mass assembly history of galaxies. Combining the optical and IR catalogs obtained from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE), we performed the extensive HyLIRGs survey; we selected 5311 IR-bright DOGs with i - [22] > 7.0 and flux at 22 μm > 3.8 mJy in 14,555 deg2, where i and [22] are i-band and 22 μm AB magnitudes, respectively. Among them, 67 DOGs have reliable spectroscopic redshifts that enable us to estimate their total IR luminosity based on the spectral energy distribution fitting. Consequently, we successfully discovered 24 HyLIRGs among the 67 spectroscopically confirmed DOGs. We found that (i) i - [22] color of IR-bright DOGs correlates with the total IR luminosity and (ii) the surface number density of HyLIRGs is >0.17 deg-2. A large fraction (˜73%) of IR-bright DOGs with i - [22] > 7.5 show {L}{{IR}} > 1013 L⊙, and the DOG criterion we adopted could be independently effective against the “W1W2-dropout method,” based on four WISE bands, for searching hyperluminous IR populations of galaxies.

  6. NuSTAR Observations of Heavily Obscured Quasars at z Is Approximately 0.5

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Aird, J.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Balokovic, M.; Bauer, F. E.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Elvis, M.; Grefenstette, B. W.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Hickox, R. C.; Koss, M.; LaMassa, S. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Teng, S. H.; Urry, C. M.; Zhang, W. W.

    2014-01-01

    We present NuSTAR hard X-ray observations of three Type 2 quasars at z approx. = 0.4-0.5, optically selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Although the quasars show evidence for being heavily obscured, Compton-thick systems on the basis of the 2-10 keV to [O(sub III)] luminosity ratio and multiwavelength diagnostics, their X-ray absorbing column densities (N(sub H)) are poorly known. In this analysis, (1) we study X-ray emission at greater than 10 keV, where X-rays from the central black hole are relatively unabsorbed, in order to better constrain N(sub H). (2) We further characterize the physical properties of the sources through broad-band near-UV to mid-IR spectral energy distribution analyses. One of the quasars is detected with NuSTAR at greater than 8 keV with a no-source probability of less than 0.1%, and its X-ray band ratio suggests near Compton-thick absorption with N(sub H) is approximately greater than 5 × 10(exp 23) cm(exp -2). The other two quasars are undetected, and have low X-ray to mid-IR luminosity ratios in both the low-energy (2-10 keV) and high-energy (10-40 keV) X-ray regimes that are consistent with extreme, Compton-thick absorption (N(sub H) is approximately greater than 10(exp 24) cm(exp -2)). We find that for quasars at z is approximately 0.5, NuSTAR provides a significant improvement compared to lower energy (less than 10 keV) Chandra and XMM-Newton observations alone, as higher column densities can now be directly constrained.

  7. EMI obscuration of buried UXO by geophysical magnetic permeability, anthropogenic clutter, and by magnitude disparities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Neill, K.; Shubitidze, F.; Sun, K.; Shamatava, I.; Paulsen, K.

    2005-05-01

    For UWB (30 Hz - 100 kHz) electromagnetic induction (EMI) sensor discrimination of unexploded ordnance (UXO), we evaluate first the effects of significant magnetic permeability in the surrounding soil. Measured data and theoretical arguments suggest that ground effects can often be accounted for by using a simple halfspace analytical solution. Thus, when target responses are strong enough, free-space target signature shapes can still be used for discrimination if properly compensated. At the same time, even in artificially well-mixed, physically smoothed settings, local variations in soil permeability can be a significant source of signal clutter. Cases with multiple UXO"s beneath dispersed small metallic clutter are also considered as instances in which clutter may dominate. In simulations of two comparably sized UXO"s at comparable depths with a signal to clutter ratio (SCR) of ~ 20, UWB data distinguishes the two objects reliably over a ground surface measurement grid. For similar cases but with the objects at significantly different depths relative to one another, one cannot distinguish the deeper target, even with the same noise level and with UWB data. Measurements illustrate the level of EMI SCR to be expected from dispersed small metallic items collected from a firing range. For cases with a single piece of clutter and a much more massive UXO immediately below, simulations show almost complete obscuration of the UXO, in both frequency and time domains. This is not caused by signal blockage but results from different degrees of proximity to the sensor, i.e. from the consequent signal magnitude disparity.

  8. Emergency single-balloon enteroscopy in overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding: Efficacy and safety

    PubMed Central

    Pinho, Rolando; Rodrigues, Adélia; Fernandes, Carlos; Ribeiro, Iolanda; Fraga, José; Carvalho, João

    2014-01-01

    We aimed to evaluate the impact of emergency single-balloon enteroscopy (SBE) on the diagnosis and treatment for active overt obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Methods SBE procedures for OGIB were retrospectively reviewed and sub-divided according to the bleeding types: active-overt and inactive-overt bleeding. The patient’s history, laboratory results, endoscopic findings and therapeutic interventions were registered. Emergency SBE was defined as an endoscopy that was performed for active-overt OGIB, within 24 hours of clinical presentation. Results Between January 2010 and February 2013, 53 SBEs were performed in 43 patients with overt OGIB. Seventeen emergency SBEs were performed in 15 patients with active overt-OGIB procedures (group A), which diagnosed the bleeding source in 14: angiodysplasia (n = 5), ulcers/erosions (n = 3), bleeding tumors (gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST), n = 3; neuroendocrine tumor, n = 1), and erosioned polyps (n = 2). Endoscopic treatment was performed in nine patients, with one or multiple hemostatic therapies: argon plasma coagulation (n = 5), epinephrine submucosal injection (n = 5), hemostatic clips (n = 3), and polypectomy (n = 2). Twenty-eight patients with inactive bleeding (group B) were submitted to 36 elective SBEs, which successfully diagnosed 18 cases. The diagnostic yield in group A (93.3%) was significantly higher than in group B (64.3%)—Fisher’s exact test, p = 0.038. Conclusion This study revealed an important role of emergency SBE in the diagnosis of bleeding etiology in active overt OGIB. PMID:25452844

  9. Video capsule endoscopy in left ventricular assist device recipients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Amornsawadwattana, Surachai; Nassif, Michael; Raymer, David; LaRue, Shane; Chen, Chien-Huan

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To assess whether video capsule endoscopy (VCE) affects the outcomes of left ventricular assist devices (LVADs) recipients with gastrointestinal bleeding. METHODS: This is a retrospective study of LVAD recipients with obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB) who underwent VCE at a tertiary medical center between 2005 and 2013. All patients were admitted and monitored with telemetry and all VCE and subsequent endoscopic procedures were performed as inpatients. A VCE study was considered positive only when P2 lesions were found and was regarded as negative if P1 or P0 were identified. All patients were followed until heart transplant, death, or the end of the study. RESULTS: Between 2005 and 2013, 30 patients with LVAD underwent VCE. Completion rate of VCE was 93.3% and there was no capsule retention. No interference of VCE recording or the function of LVAD was found. VCE was positive in 40% of patients (n = 12). The most common finding was active small intestinal bleeding (50%) and small intestinal angiodysplasia (33.3%). There was no difference in the rate of recurrent bleeding between patients with positive and negative VCE study (50.0% vs 55.6%, P = 1.00) during an average of 11.6 ± 9.6 mo follow up. Among patients with positive VCE, the recurrent bleeding rate did not differ whether subsequent endoscopy was performed (50% vs 50%, P = 1.00). CONCLUSION: VCE can be safely performed in LVAD recipients with a diagnostic yield of 40%. VCE does not affect recurrent bleeding in LVAD patients regardless of findings. PMID:27182165

  10. BLOWIN' IN THE WIND: BOTH ''NEGATIVE'' AND ''POSITIVE'' FEEDBACK IN AN OBSCURED HIGH-z QUASAR

    SciTech Connect

    Cresci, G.; Mannucci, F.; Mainieri, V.; Brusa, M.; Perna, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Piconcelli, E.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Bongiorno, A.; Maiolino, R.; Merloni, A; Schramm, M.; Silverman, J. D.; Civano, F.

    2015-01-20

    Quasar feedback in the form of powerful outflows is invoked as a key mechanism to quench star formation in galaxies, preventing massive galaxies to overgrow and producing the red colors of ellipticals. On the other hand, some models are also requiring ''positive'' active galactic nucleus feedback, inducing star formation in the host galaxy through enhanced gas pressure in the interstellar medium. However, finding observational evidence of the effects of both types of feedback is still one of the main challenges of extragalactic astronomy, as few observations of energetic and extended radiatively driven winds are available. Here we present SINFONI near infrared integral field spectroscopy of XID2028, an obscured, radio-quiet z = 1.59 QSO detected in the XMM-COSMOS survey, in which we clearly resolve a fast (1500 km s{sup –1}) and extended (up to 13 kpc from the black hole) outflow in the [O III] lines emitting gas, whose large velocity and outflow rate are not sustainable by star formation only. The narrow component of Hα emission and the rest frame U-band flux from Hubble Space Telescope/Advanced Camera for Surveys imaging enable to map the current star formation in the host galaxy: both tracers independently show that the outflow position lies in the center of an empty cavity surrounded by star forming regions on its edge. The outflow is therefore removing the gas from the host galaxy (''negative feedback''), but also triggering star formation by outflow induced pressure at the edges (''positive feedback''). XID2028 represents the first example of a host galaxy showing both types of feedback simultaneously at work.

  11. Transitory O-rich chemistry in heavily obscured C-rich post-AGB stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    García-Hernández, D. A.; García-Lario, P.; Cernicharo, J.; Engels, D.; Perea-Calderón, J. V.

    2016-07-01

    Spitzer/IRS spectra of eleven heavily obscured C-rich sources rapidly evolving from asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars to Planetary Nebulae are presented. IRAM 30m observations for three of these post-AGBs are also reported. A few (3) of these sources are known to exhibit strongly variable maser emission of O-bearing molecules such as OH and H2 O, suggesting a transitory O-rich chemistry because of the quickly changing physical and chemical conditions in this short evolutionary phase. Interestingly, the Spitzer/IRS spectra show a rich circumstellar carbon chemistry, as revealed by the detection of small hydrocarbon molecules such as C2H2, C4H2, C6H2, C6H6, and HCN. Benzene is detected towards two sources, bringing up to three the total number of Galactic post-AGBs where this molecule has been detected. In addition, we report evidence for the possible detection of other hydrocarbon molecules like HC3N, CH3C2H, and CH3 in several of these sources. The available IRAM 30m data confirm that the central stars are C-rich - in despite of the presence of O-rich masers - and the presence of high velocity molecular outflows together with extreme AGB mass-loss rates (∼⃒10-4 Mʘ /yr). Our observations confirm the polymerization model of Cernicharo [1] that predicts a rich photochemistry in the neutral regions of these objects on timescales shorter than the dynamical evolution of the central HII region, leading to the formation of small C-rich molecules and a transitory O-rich chemistry.

  12. Obscuring Torus Geometry from the NuSTAR Survey of Swift/BAT AGN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balokovic, Mislav; Harrison, Fiona; NuSTAR

    2016-06-01

    The Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array (NuSTAR) has enabled studies of the local active galactic nuclei (AGN) to extend into the spectral window above 10 keV with unprecedented spatial resolution and two orders of magnitude better sensitivity than any other instrument operating in that energy range. As a part of its long-term extragalactic program NuSTAR is surveying the nearby population of AGN detected at hard X-ray energies by the Swift Burst Alert Telescope (Swift/BAT). I will present spectroscopic results based on NuSTAR and Swift observations of ~150 Swift/BAT AGN surveyed in the first three years of NuSTAR operation. This sample forms an atlas of the highest quality hard X-ray spectra available to date for a large number of AGN, providing unprecedented insight into the variety AGN spectra in the hard X-ray band. In addition to phenomenology, which is an essential ingredient of Cosmic X-ray Background studies, it is possible to use new fitting models to directly probe the geometry of the toroidal obscurer (torus). Its main spectral features lie within the NuSTAR bandpass, making it possible to test the common assumption that a similar Compton-thick torus exists around essentially every Seyfert-type AGN. I will discuss torus geometry constraints based on the X-ray spectra in relation to those from other wavelengths, the effects on interpretation of high-redshift AGN observations, and the limitations of the current results.

  13. Imaging through obscurations for sluicing operations in the waste storage tanks

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.J.; McMakin, D.L.; Sheen, D.M.; Chieda, M.A.

    1994-08-01

    Waste remediators have identified that surveillance of waste remediation operations and periodic inspections of stored waste are required under very demanding and difficult viewing environments. In many cases, obscurants such as dust or water vapor are generated as part of the remediation activity. Methods are required for viewing or imaging beyond the normal visual spectrum. Work space images guide the movement of remediation equipment, creating a need for rapidly updated, near real-time imaging capability. In addition, there is a need for three-dimensional topographical data to determine the contours of the wastes, to plan retrieval campaigns, and to provide a three-dimensional map of a robot`s work space as basis for collision avoidance. Three basic imaging techniques were evaluated: optical, acoustic and radar. The optical imaging methods that were examined used cameras which operated in the visible region and near-infrared region and infrared cameras which operated in the 3--5 micron and 8--12 micron wavelength regions. Various passive and active lighting schemes were tested, as well as the use of filters to eliminate reflection in the visible region. Image enhancement software was used to extend the range where visual techniques could be used. In addition, the operation of a laser range finder, which operated at 0.835 microns, was tested when fog/water droplets were suspended in the air. The acoustic technique involved using commercial acoustic sensors, operating at approximately 50 kHz and 215 kHz, to determine the attenuation of the acoustic beam in a high-humidity environment. The radar imaging methods involved performing millimeter wave (94 GHz) attenuation measurement sin the various simulated sluicing environments and performing preliminary experimental imaging studies using a W-Band (75--110 GHz) linearly scanned transceiver in a laboratory environment. The results of the tests are discussed.

  14. Deep X-ray spectroscopy of high-z obscured AGN in the Chandra Deep Field South

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Comastri, Andrea; Vignali, Cristian; Gilli, Roberto; Iwasawa, Kazushi; Georgantopoulos, Ioannis

    2012-07-01

    According to the recent models for the joint evolution of Super Massive Black Holes and their Host Galaxies, heavy obscuration represents an important phase and is expected to play a key role in the feedback mechanisms self regulating the SMBH growth. The smoking gun signature of heavy absorption is the presence of a heavily absorbed or reflected X-ray spectrum plus a strong Iron line. X-ray spectroscopy thus represents the most efficient method to uncover the most obscured sources. I will present the results of a systematic search for strong iron lines in the ultra-deep (3 Ms) XMM survey in the Chandra Deep Field South (CDFS). I will also highlight the power of deep spectroscopy to obtain redshift estimates more accurate and reliable than available photo-z. Some notable examples of synergies between ultra-deep Chandra (4 Ms) and XMM observations will be also reported.

  15. AGN - Dust-Obscured Galaxies at z~1-3 revealed by near-to-far infrared SED-fitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riguccini, Laurie

    Dust-Obscured galaxies (DOGs, Dey et al. 2008) are bright 24μm-selected sources with extreme obscuration at optical wavelengths (F24μ m /F R > 982). Recent studies (Dey et al. 2008, Bussmann et al. 2009) describe an evolutionary scenario in which the starbursting nature of submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) evolves into the composite nature of DOGs as an underlying AGN grows; this is followed by a quasar phase that terminates star formation (SF), leading to the formation of a passive, massive elliptical galaxy. Within this context, DOGs could provide a key insight to an extremely dusty stage in the evolution of galaxies at z ~ 2, where both AGN and SF activity coexist.

  16. Programmatic Life Cycle Environmental Assessment for Smoke/Obscurants. Volume 2. Red, White, and Plasticized White Phosphorus

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-07-01

    it was concluded that this portion of the smoke pro- -gram will not. significantly affect the quality of the enviro ~nment, 00 •" W3 sO EUNCLASSIFIED...general Enviromental Assessment (EA) of the smoke/obscuration program. This volume provides pertinent information on red, white, and plasticized white...63 C4 Acute Toxicity of Elemental Phosphorus to Fishes and Aquatic Invertebrates During Dynamic oassys

  17. Galaxy gas as obscurer - I. GRBs x-ray galaxies and find an NH3∝ M_{star} relation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buchner, Johannes; Schulze, Steve; Bauer, Franz E.

    2017-02-01

    An important constraint for galaxy evolution models is how much gas resides in galaxies, in particular, at the peak of star formation z = 1-3. We attempt a novel approach by letting long-duration gamma ray bursts (LGRBs) x-ray their host galaxies and deliver column densities to us. This requires a good understanding of the obscurer and biases introduced by incomplete follow-up observations. We analyse the X-ray afterglow of all 844 Swift LGRBs to date for their column density NH. To derive the population properties, we propagate all uncertainties in a consistent Bayesian methodology. The NH distribution covers the 1020-23 cm-2 range and shows no evolutionary effect. Higher obscurations, e.g. Compton-thick columns, could have been detected but are not observed. The NH distribution is consistent with sources randomly populating a ellipsoidal gas cloud of major axis {N^{major}H }=10^{23}cm^{-2} with 0.22 dex intrinsic scatter between objects. The unbiased SHOALS survey of afterglows and hosts allows us to constrain the relation between Spitzer-derived stellar masses and X-ray derived column densities NH. We find a well-constrained power-law relation of NH = 1021.7 cm-2 × (M⋆/109.5 M⊙)1/3, with 0.5 dex intrinsic scatter between objects. The Milky Way and the Magellanic clouds also follow this relation. From the geometry of the obscurer, its stellar mass dependence and comparison with local galaxies, we conclude that LGRBs are primarily obscured by galaxy-scale gas. Ray tracing of simulated Illustris galaxies reveals a relation of the same normalization, but a steeper stellar-mass dependence and mild redshift evolution. Our new approach provides valuable insight into the gas residing in high-redshift galaxies.

  18. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  19. NUSTAR Unveils a Heavily Obscured Low-luminosity Active Galactic Nucleus in the Luminous Infrared Galaxy NGC 6286

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Treister, E.; Romero-Cañizales, C.; Arevalo, P.; Iwasawa, K.; Privon, G. C.; Sanders, D. B.; Schawinski, K.; Stern, D.; Imanishi, M.

    2016-03-01

    We report the detection of a heavily obscured active galactic nucleus (AGN) in the luminous infrared galaxy (LIRG) NGC 6286 identified in a 17.5 ks Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array observation. The source is in an early merging stage and was targeted as part of our ongoing NuSTAR campaign observing local luminous and ultra-luminous infrared galaxies in different merger stages. NGC 6286 is clearly detected above 10 keV and by including the quasi-simultaneous Swift/XRT and archival XMM-Newton and Chandra data, we find that the source is heavily obscured (NH ≃(0.95-1.32) × 1024 cm-2) with a column density consistent with being Compton-thick (CT, {log}({N}{{H}}/{{cm}}-2)≥slant 24). The AGN in NGC 6286 has a low absorption-corrected luminosity (L2-10 keV ˜ 3-20 × 1041 erg s-1) and contributes ≲1% to the energetics of the system. Because of its low luminosity, previous observations carried out in the soft X-ray band (<10 keV) and in the infrared did not notice the presence of a buried AGN. NGC 6286 has multiwavelength characteristics typical of objects with the same infrared luminosity and in the same merger stage, which might imply that there is a significant population of obscured low-luminosity AGNs in LIRGs that can only be detected by sensitive hard X-ray observations.

  20. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  1. Conscious Action/Zombie Action.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2016-06-01

    I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co-conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  2. A REDSHIFT SURVEY OF HERSCHEL FAR-INFRARED SELECTED STARBURSTS AND IMPLICATIONS FOR OBSCURED STAR FORMATION

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, C. M.; Budynkiewicz, J.; Berta, S.; Lutz, D.; Magnelli, B.; Bethermin, M.; Le Floc'h, E.; Magdis, G.; Burgarella, D.; Chapin, E.; Chapman, S. C.; Clements, D. L.; Conley, A.; Conselice, C. J.; Cooray, A.; Farrah, D.; Hatziminaoglou, E.; Ivison, R. J.; and others

    2012-12-20

    We present Keck spectroscopic observations and redshifts for a sample of 767 Herschel-SPIRE selected galaxies (HSGs) at 250, 350, and 500 {mu}m, taken with the Keck I Low Resolution Imaging Spectrometer and the Keck II DEep Imaging Multi-Object Spectrograph. The redshift distribution of these SPIRE sources from the Herschel Multitiered Extragalactic Survey peaks at z = 0.85, with 731 sources at z < 2 and a tail of sources out to z {approx} 5. We measure more significant disagreement between photometric and spectroscopic redshifts (({Delta}z/(1 + z{sub spec})) = 0.29) than is seen in non-infrared selected samples, likely due to enhanced star formation rates and dust obscuration in infrared-selected galaxies. The infrared data are used to directly measure integrated infrared luminosities and dust temperatures independent of radio or 24 {mu}m flux densities. By probing the dust spectral energy distribution (SED) at its peak, we estimate that the vast majority (72%-83%) of z < 2 Herschel-selected galaxies would drop out of traditional submillimeter surveys at 0.85-1 mm. We find that dust temperature traces infrared luminosity, due in part to the SPIRE wavelength selection biases, and partially from physical effects. As a result, we measure no significant trend in SPIRE color with redshift; if dust temperature were independent of luminosity or redshift, a trend in SPIRE color would be expected. Composite infrared SEDs are constructed as a function of infrared luminosity, showing the increase in dust temperature with luminosity, and subtle change in near-infrared and mid-infrared spectral properties. Moderate evolution in the far-infrared (FIR)/radio correlation is measured for this partially radio-selected sample, with q{sub IR}{proportional_to}(1 + z){sup -0.30{+-}0.02} at z < 2. We estimate the luminosity function and implied star formation rate density contribution of HSGs at z < 1.6 and find overall agreement with work based on 24 {mu}m extrapolations of the LIRG

  3. Remote Optical Imagery of Obscured Objects in Low-Visibility Environments Using Parametric Amplification

    SciTech Connect

    Asher, R.B.; Bliss, D.E.; Cameron, S.M.; Hamil, R.A.

    1998-10-14

    The development of unconventional active optical sensors to remotely detect and spatially resolve suspected threats obscured by low-visibility observation conditions (adverse weather, clouds, dust, smoke, precipitation, etc.) is fundamental to maintaining tactical supremacy in the battlespace. In this report, the authors describe an innovative frequency-agile image intensifier technology based on time-gated optical parametic amplification (OPA) for enhanced light-based remote sensing through pervasive scattering and/or turbulent environments. Improved dynamic range characteristics derived from the amplified passband of the OPA receiver combined with temporal discrimination in the image capture process will offset radiant power extinction losses, while defeating the deugradative effects & multipath dispersion and ,diffuse backscatter noise along the line-of-sight on resultant image contrast and range resolution. Our approach extends the operational utility of the detection channel in existing laser radar systems by increasing sensitivity to low-level target reffectivities, adding ballistic rejection of scatter and clutter in the range coordinate, and introducing multispectral and polarization discrimination capability in a wavelen~h-tunable, high gain nonlinear optical component with strong potential for source miniaturization. A key advantage of integrating amplification and tlequency up-conversion functions within a phasematched three-wave mixing parametric device is the ability to petiorm background-free imaging with eye-safe or longer inilared illumination wavelengths (idler) less susceptible to scatter without sacrificing quantum efficiency in the detection process at the corresponding signal wavelength. We report benchmark laboratory experiments in which the OPA gating process has been successfidly demonstrated in both transillumination and reflection test geometries with extended pathlengths representative of realistic coastal sea water and cumulus cloud

  4. Infrared Spectral Energy Distribution Decomposition of WISE-selected, Hyperluminous Hot Dust-obscured Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Lulu; Han, Yunkun; Nikutta, Robert; Drouart, Guillaume; Knudsen, Kirsten K.

    2016-06-01

    We utilize a Bayesian approach to fit the observed mid-IR-to-submillimeter/millimeter spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of 22 WISE-selected and submillimeter-detected, hyperluminous hot dust-obscured galaxies (Hot DOGs), with spectroscopic redshift ranging from 1.7 to 4.6. We compare the Bayesian evidence of a torus plusgraybody (Torus+GB) model with that of a torus-only (Torus) model and find that the Torus+GB model has higher Bayesian evidence for all 22 Hot DOGs than the torus-only model, which presents strong evidence in favor of the Torus+GB model. By adopting the Torus+GB model, we decompose the observed IR SEDs of Hot DOGs into torus and cold dust components. The main results are as follows. (1) Hot DOGs in our submillimeter-detected sample are hyperluminous ({L}{IR}≥slant {10}13{L}⊙ ), with torus emission dominating the IR energy output. However, cold dust emission is non-negligible, contributing on average ˜ 24% of total IR luminosity. (2) Compared to QSO and starburst SED templates, the median SED of Hot DOGs shows the highest luminosity ratio between mid-IR and submillimeter at rest frame, while it is very similar to that of QSOs at ˜ 10{--}50 μ {{m}}, suggesting that the heating sources of Hot DOGs should be buried AGNs. (3) Hot DOGs have high dust temperatures ({T}{dust}˜ 72 K) and high IR luminosity of cold dust. The {T}{dust}{--}{L}{IR} relation of Hot DOGs suggests that the increase in IR luminosity for Hot DOGs is mostly due to the increase of the dust temperature, rather than dust mass. Hot DOGs have lower dust masses than submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and QSOs within a similar redshift range. Both high IR luminosity of cold dust and relatively low dust mass in Hot DOGs can be expected by their relatively high dust temperatures. (4) Hot DOGs have high dust-covering factors (CFs), which deviate from the previously proposed trend of the dust CF decreasing with increasing bolometric luminosity. Finally, we can reproduce the observed

  5. INFRARED LUMINOSITIES AND DUST PROPERTIES OF z approx 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Borys, C.; Desai, V.; Sheth, K.; Soifer, B. T.; Le Floc'h, E.; Melbourne, J.

    2009-11-01

    We present SHARC-II 350 mum imaging of twelve 24 mum bright (F{sub 24m}u{sub m} > 0.8 mJy) Dust-Obscured Galaxies (DOGs) and Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy (CARMA) 1 mm imaging of a subset of two DOGs. These objects are selected from the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. Detections of four DOGs at 350 mum imply infrared (IR) luminosities which are consistent to within a factor of 2 of expectations based on a warm-dust spectral energy distribution (SED) scaled to the observed 24 mum flux density. The 350 mum upper limits for the 8 non-detected DOGs are consistent with both Mrk 231 and M82 (warm-dust SEDs), but exclude cold dust (Arp 220) SEDs. The two DOGs targeted at 1 mm were not detected in our CARMA observations, placing strong constraints on the dust temperature: T{sub dust} > 35-60 K. Assuming these dust properties apply to the entire sample, we find dust masses of approx3 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun}. In comparison to other dusty z approx 2 galaxy populations such as submillimeter galaxies (SMGs) and other Spitzer-selected high-redshift sources, this sample of DOGs has higher IR luminosities (2 x 10{sup 13} L{sub sun} versus 6 x 10{sup 12} L{sub sun} for the other galaxy populations) that are driven by warmer dust temperatures (>35-60 K versus approx30 K) and lower inferred dust masses (3 x 10{sup 8} M{sub sun} versus 3 x 10{sup 9} M{sub sun}). Wide-field Herschel and Submillimeter Common-User Bolometer Array-2 surveys should be able to detect hundreds of these power-law-dominated DOGs. We use the existing Hubble Space Telescope and Spitzer/InfraRed Array Camera data to estimate stellar masses of these sources and find that the stellar to gas mass ratio may be higher in our 24 mum bright sample of DOGs than in SMGs and other Spitzer-selected sources. Although much larger sample sizes are needed to provide a definitive conclusion, the data are consistent with an evolutionary trend in which the formation of massive galaxies

  6. Interferometric follow-up of WISE hyper-luminous hot, dust-obscured galaxies

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Jingwen; Wright, Edward L.; Bussmann, R. Shane; Tsai, Chao-Wei; Eisenhardt, Peter R. M.; Stern, Daniel; Moustakas, Leonidas; Petric, Andreea; Blain, Andrew; Bridge, Carrie R.; Benford, Dominic J.; Assef, Roberto J.; Gelino, Christopher R.

    2014-09-20

    The Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) has discovered an extraordinary population of hyper-luminous dusty galaxies that are faint in the two bluer passbands (3.4 μm and 4.6 μm) but are bright in the two redder passbands of WISE (12 μm and 22 μm). We report on initial follow-up observations of three of these hot, dust-obscured galaxies, or Hot DOGs, using the Combined Array for Research in Millimeter-wave Astronomy and the Submillimeter Array interferometer arrays at submillimeter/millimeter wavelengths. We report continuum detections at ∼1.3 mm of two sources (WISE J014946.17+235014.5 and WISE J223810.20+265319.7, hereafter W0149+2350 and W2238+2653, respectively), and upper limits to CO line emission at 3 mm in the observed frame for two sources (W0149+2350 and WISE J181417.29+341224.8, hereafter W1814+3412). The 1.3 mm continuum images have a resolution of 1''-2'' and are consistent with single point sources. We estimate the masses of cold dust are 2.0 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and 3.9 × 10{sup 8} M {sub ☉} for W2238+2653, comparable to cold dust masses of luminous quasars. We obtain 2σ upper limits to the molecular gas masses traced by CO, which are 3.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} and 2.3 × 10{sup 10} M {sub ☉} for W0149+2350 and W1814+3412, respectively. We also present high-resolution, near-IR imaging with the WFC3 on the Hubble Space Telescope for W0149+2653 and with NIRC2 on Keck for W2238+2653. The near-IR images show morphological structure dominated by a single, centrally condensed source with effective radius less than 4 kpc. No signs of gravitational lensing are evident.

  7. Experimental demonstration of binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs for telescopes with obscured pupils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haze, Kanae; Enya, Keigo; Abe, Lyu; Takahashi, Aoi; Kotani, Takayuki; Yamamuro, Tomoyasu

    2015-04-01

    We present the fabrication and experimental demonstration of three free-standing binary shaped pupil mask coronagraphs, which are applicable for telescopes with partially obscured pupils. Three masks, designed to be complementary (labeled Mask-A, Mask-B, and Mask-C), were formed in 5 μm thick nickel. The design of Mask-A is based on a one-dimensional barcode mask. The design principle of Mask-B is similar, but has a smaller inner working angle and a lower contrast than Mask-A. Mask-C is based on a concentric ring mask and provides the widest dark region and a symmetric point spread function. Mask-A and Mask-C were both designed to produce a flexibly tailored dark region (i.e., non-uniform contrast). The contrast was evaluated using a light source comprising a broadband super-luminescent light-emitting diode with a center wavelength of 650 nm, and the measurements were carried out in a large vacuum chamber. Active wavefront control was not applied in this work. The coronagraphic images obtained by experiment were mostly consistent with the designs. The contrast of Mask-A within the ranges 3.3-8 λ/D and 8-12 λ/D was ˜ 10-4-10-7 and ˜ 10-7, respectively, where λ is the wavelength and D is the pupil diameter. The contrast of Mask-B was ˜ 10-4 and that of Mask-C over an extended field of view (5-25 λ/D) was ˜ 10-5-10-6. The effect of tilting the masks was investigated, and found to be irrelevant at the ˜ 10-7 contrast level. Therefore the masks can be tilted to avoid ghosting. These high-contrast free-standing masks have the potential to enable coronagraphic imaging over a wide wavelength range using both ground-based and space-borne general-purpose telescopes with pupil structures not specifically designed for coronagraphy.

  8. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Peiris, Hiranya V.; Jaffe, Andrew H.

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)~1.3×10-4, σ(nt)~0.03, σ( ns )~1.8×10

  9. Robust forecasts on fundamental physics from the foreground-obscured, gravitationally-lensed CMB polarization

    SciTech Connect

    Errard, Josquin; Feeney, Stephen M.; Jaffe, Andrew H.; Peiris, Hiranya V. E-mail: s.feeney@imperial.ac.uk E-mail: a.jaffe@imperial.ac.uk

    2016-03-01

    Recent results from the BICEP, Keck Array and Planck Collaborations demonstrate that Galactic foregrounds are an unavoidable obstacle in the search for evidence of inflationary gravitational waves in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) polarization. Beyond the foregrounds, the effect of lensing by intervening large-scale structure further obscures all but the strongest inflationary signals permitted by current data. With a plethora of ongoing and upcoming experiments aiming to measure these signatures, careful and self-consistent consideration of experiments' foreground- and lensing-removal capabilities is critical in obtaining credible forecasts of their performance. We investigate the capabilities of instruments such as Advanced ACTPol, BICEP3 and Keck Array, CLASS, EBEX10K, PIPER, Simons Array, SPT-3G and SPIDER, and projects as COrE+, LiteBIRD-ext, PIXIE and Stage IV, to clean contamination due to polarized synchrotron and dust from raw multi-frequency data, and remove lensing from the resulting co-added CMB maps (either using iterative CMB-only techniques or through cross-correlation with external data). Incorporating these effects, we present forecasts for the constraining power of these experiments in terms of inflationary physics, the neutrino sector, and dark energy parameters. Made publicly available through an online interface, this tool enables the next generation of CMB experiments to foreground-proof their designs, optimize their frequency coverage to maximize scientific output, and determine where cross-experimental collaboration would be most beneficial. We find that analyzing data from ground, balloon and space instruments in complementary combinations can significantly improve component separation performance, delensing, and cosmological constraints over individual datasets. In particular, we find that a combination of post-2020 ground- and space-based experiments could achieve constraints such as σ(r)∼1.3×10{sup −4}, σ(n{sub t})∼0

  10. New methods for reducing cloud obscuration based on combination products of MODIS and AMSR2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Muyi; Pan, Yaozhong; Zhu, Xiufang; Yin, Heyang

    2016-04-01

    As one of the main sources for water availability in semi-arid mountain regions, snow melt provides runoff and water supply for the downstream population and is of great importance for both human and environmental systems. For this reason, snow data such as snow cover (SCA) and snow depth (SD) is especially important. Snow cover has been mapped using many remote sensors in the visible, near-infrared, thermal, and microwave wavelengths. Since 1966, optical remote sensors such as AVHRR, Landsat and MODIS have obtained critically important data for observing the earth's snow cover. The Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) employed by Terra and Aqua satellites provides spatially snow covered data with 500 m and daily temporal resolution. However the utility of the MODIS snow-cover products is limited by cloud cover which causes gaps in the daily snow-cover map products. In this paper, we developed a new method in order to reduce cloud obscuration. This method includes four parts: A) Combining various MODIS Terra and Aqua products; B) Temporal and spatial filtering; C) Zonal snowline approach and D) Combining the product deriving from the above three parts and the AMSR2 passive microwave snow depth product (with a spatial resolution of 10 km). In part D, the consistency of two different data (optical remote sensing data with spatial resolution of 500 m and passive microwave remote sensing data with a spatial resolution of 10 km) was evaluated. This study was carried out for Qinghai Province located in northwestern part of China during 1st, October, 2013 to 31st, March, 2015. In order to evaluate the performance of the proposed methodology, 14 MODIS snow cover product tiles (with cloud coverage less than 10%) were selected as possible "ground truth" data and cloud mask was generated for each tile randomly. The results show successful performances arising from the methods applied, which resulted in all cloud coverage being removed. The overall accuracy of

  11. Tracing the sites of obscured star formation in the Antennae galaxies with Herschel-PACS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaas, U.; Nielbock, M.; Haas, M.; Krause, O.; Schreiber, J.

    2010-07-01

    Aims: FIR imaging of interacting galaxies allows locating even hidden sites of star formation and measuring of the relative strength of nuclear and extra-nuclear star formation. We want to resolve the star-forming sites in the nearby system of the Antennae. Methods: Thanks to the unprecedented sharpness and depth of the PACS camera onboard ESA's Herschel Space Observatory, it is possible for the first time to achieve a complete assessment of individual star-forming knots in the FIR with scan maps at 70, 100, and 160 μm. We used clump extraction photometry and SED diagnostics to derive the properties related to star-forming activity. Results: The PACS 70, 100, and 160 μm maps trace the knotty structure of the most recent star formation along an arc between the two nuclei in the overlap area. The resolution of the starburst knots and additional multi-wavelength data allow their individual star formation history and state to be analysed. In particular, the brightest knot in the mid-infrared (K1), east of the southern nucleus, exhibits the highest activity by far in terms of dust heating and star formation rate, efficiency, and density. With only 2 kpc in diameter, this area has a 10-1000 μm luminosity, which is as high as that of our Milky Way. It shows the highest deficiency in radio emission in the radio-to-FIR luminosity ratio and a lack of X-ray emission, classifying it as a very young complex. The brightest 100 and 160 μm emission region (K2), which is close to the collision front and consists of 3 knots, also shows a high star formation density and efficiency and lack of X-ray emission in its most obscured part, but an excess in the radio-to-FIR luminosity ratio. This suggests a young stage, too, but different conditions in its interstellar medium. Our results provide important checkpoints for numerical simulations of interacting galaxies when modelling the star formation and stellar feedback. Herschel is an ESA space observatory with science instruments

  12. GEMINI/GeMS Observations Unveil the Structure of the Heavily Obscured Globular Cluster Liller 1.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saracino, S.; Dalessandro, E.; Ferraro, F. R.; Lanzoni, B.; Geisler, D.; Mauro, F.; Villanova, S.; Moni Bidin, C.; Miocchi, P.; Massari, D.

    2015-06-01

    By exploiting the exceptional high-resolution capabilities of the near-IR camera GSAOI combined with the Gemini Multi-Conjugate Adaptive System at the GEMINI South Telescope, we investigated the structural and physical properties of the heavily obscured globular cluster Liller 1 in the Galactic bulge. We have obtained the deepest and most accurate color-magnitude diagram published so far for this cluster, reaching {{K}s}˜ 19 (below the main-sequence turnoff level). We used these data to redetermine the center of gravity of the system, finding that it is located about 2.″2 southeast from the literature value. We also built new star density and surface brightness profiles for the cluster and rederived its main structural and physical parameters (scale radii, concentration parameter, central mass density, total mass). We find that Liller 1 is significantly less concentrated (concentration parameter c=1.74) and less extended (tidal radius {{r}t}=298\\prime\\prime and core radius {{r}c}=5\\buildrel{\\prime\\prime}\\over{.} 39) than previously thought. By using these newly determined structural parameters, we estimated the mass of Liller 1 to be {{M}tot}=2.3+0.3-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } ({{M}tot}=1.5+0.2-0.1× {{10}6} {{M}⊙ } for a Kroupa initial mass function), which is comparable to that of the most massive clusters in the Galaxy (ω Centari and Terzan 5). Also, Liller 1 has the second-highest collision rate (after Terzan 5) among all star clusters in the Galaxy, thus confirming that it is an ideal environment for the formation of collisional objects (such as millisecond pulsars). Based on observations obtained at the Gemini Observatory, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under a cooperative agreement with the NSF on behalf of the Gemini partnership: the National Science Foundation (United States), the National Research Council (Canada), CONICYT (Chile), the Australian Research Council (Australia), Ministério da

  13. Capsule Endoscopy in the Assessment of Obscure Gastrointestinal Bleeding: An Economic Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Palimaka, S; Blackhouse, Gord; Goeree, Ron

    2015-01-01

    Background Small-bowel capsule endoscopy is a tool used to visualize the small bowel to identify the location of bleeds in obscure gastrointestinal bleeding (OGIB). Capsule endoscopy is currently funded in Ontario in cases where there has been a failure to identify a source of bleeding via conventional diagnostic procedures. In Ontario, capsule endoscopy is a diagnostic option for patients whose findings on esophagogastroduodenoscopy, colonoscopy, and push enteroscopy have been negative (i.e., the source of bleeding was not found). Objectives This economic analysis aims to estimate the budget impact of different rates of capsule endoscopy use as a complement to push enteroscopy procedures in patients aged 18 years and older. Data Sources Population-based administrative databases for Ontario were used to identify patients receiving push enteroscopy and small-bowel capsule endoscopy in the fiscal years 2008 to 2012. Review Methods A systematic literature search was performed to identify economic evaluations of capsule endoscopy for the investigation of OGIB. Studies were assessed for their methodological quality and their applicability to the Ontarian setting. An original budget impact analysis was performed using data from Ontarian administrative sources and published literature. The budget impact was estimated for different levels of use of capsule endoscopy as a complement to push enteroscopy due to the uncertain clinical utility of the capsule based on current clinical evidence. The analysis was conducted from the provincial public payer perspective. Results With varying rates of capsule endoscopy use, the budgetary impact spans from savings of $510,000,1 when no (0%) push enteroscopy procedures are complemented with capsule endoscopy, to $2,036,000, when all (100%) push enteroscopy procedures are complemented with capsule endoscopy. A scenario where 50% of push enteroscopy procedures are complemented with capsule endoscopy (expected use based on expert opinion

  14. ALMA observations of a candidate molecular outflow in an obscured quasar

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Ai-Lei; Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.; Nesvadba, Nicole P. H.

    2014-08-01

    We present Atacama Large Millimeter/Submillimeter Array CO (1-0) and CO (3-2) observations of SDSS J135646.10+102609.0, an obscured quasar and ultra-luminous infrared galaxy with two merging nuclei and a known 20 kpc scale ionized outflow. The total molecular gas mass is M{sub mol}≈9{sub −6}{sup +19}×10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}, mostly distributed in a compact rotating disk at the primary nucleus (M{sub mol} ≈ 3 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}) and an extended tidal arm (M{sub mol} ≈ 5 × 10{sup 8} M{sub ☉}). The tidal arm is one of the most massive molecular tidal features known; we suggest that it is due to the lower chance of shock dissociation in this elliptical/disk galaxy merger. In the spatially resolved CO (3-2) data, we find a compact (r ≈ 0.3 kpc) high-velocity (v ≈ 500 km s{sup –1}) redshifted feature in addition to the rotation at the N nucleus. We propose a molecular outflow as the most likely explanation for the high-velocity gas. The outflowing mass of M{sub mol} ≈ 7 × 10{sup 7} M{sub ☉} and the short dynamical time of t{sub dyn} ≈ 0.6 Myr yield a very high outflow rate of M-dot{sub mol}≈350 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} and can deplete the gas in a million years. We find a low star formation rate (<16 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} from the molecular content and <21 M{sub ☉} yr{sup –1} from the far-infrared spectral energy distribution decomposition) that is inadequate to supply the kinetic luminosity of the outflow ( E-dot ≈3×10{sup 43} erg s{sup –1}). Therefore, the active galactic nucleus (AGN), with a bolometric luminosity of 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1}, likely powers the outflow. The momentum boost rate of the outflow ( p-dot /(L{sub bol}/c)≈3) is lower than typical molecular outflows associated with AGNs, which may be related to its compactness. The molecular and ionized outflows are likely two distinct bursts induced by episodic AGN activity which varies on a timescale of 10{sup 7} yr.

  15. Antihyperglycemiac action of Diosmin, a citrus flavonoid, is induced through endogenous β-endorphin in type I-like diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chia-Chen; Lin, Mang Hung; Cheng, Juei Tang; Wu, Ming Chang

    2017-02-20

    Diosmin is one of the flavonoids contained in citrus and has been demonstrated to improve glucose metabolism in diabetic disorders. However, the mechanism(s) of diosmin in glucose regulation remain obscure. Therefore, we investigated the potential mechanism(s) for the antihyperglycemic action of diosmin in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats). Diosmin lowered hyperglycemia in a dose-dependent manner in STZ-diabetic rats. This action was inhibited by naloxone at a dose sufficient to block opioid receptors. Additionally, we determined the changes in plasma β-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER) using ELISA. Diosmin also increased BER dose-dependently in the same manner. Repeated treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with diosmin for one week resulted in an increase in the expression of the glucose transporter subtype 4 (GLUT 4) in the soleus muscle and a reduction in the expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase (PEPCK) in the liver. These effects were also inhibited by naloxone at a dose sufficient to block opioid receptors. Bilateral adrenalectomy in STZ-diabetic rats eliminated the actions of diosmin, including both the reduction in hyperglycemia and the elevation of plasma BER. In conclusion, our results suggest that diosmin may act on the adrenal glands to enhance the secretion of β-endorphin, which can stimulate the opioid receptors to attenuate hepatic gluconeogenesis and increase glucose uptake in soleus muscle, resulting in reduced hyperglycemia in STZ-diabetic rats. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  16. Adipokines and insulin action

    PubMed Central

    Knights, Alexander J; Funnell, Alister PW; Pearson, Richard CM; Crossley, Merlin; Bell-Anderson, Kim S

    2014-01-01

    Obesity is a major public health concern and a strong risk factor for insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), and cardiovascular disease. The last two decades have seen a reconsideration of the role of white adipose tissue (WAT) in whole body metabolism and insulin action. Adipose tissue-derived cytokines and hormones, or adipokines, are likely mediators of metabolic function and dysfunction. While several adipokines have been associated with obese and insulin-resistant phenotypes, a select group has been linked with insulin sensitivity, namely leptin, adiponectin, and more recently, adipolin. What is known about these insulin-sensitizing molecules and their effects in healthy and insulin resistant states is the subject of this review. There remains a significant amount of research to do to fully elucidate the mechanisms of action of these adipokines for development of therapeutics in metabolic disease. PMID:24719781

  17. NuSTAR and XMM-Newton observations of luminous, heavily obscured, WISE-selected quasars at z ∼ 2

    SciTech Connect

    Stern, D.; Eisenhardt, P. R. M.; Lansbury, G. B.; Alexander, D. M.; Del Moro, A.; Gandhi, P.; Assef, R. J.; Brandt, W. N.; Griffith, R. L.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Baloković, M.; Bridge, C.; Bauer, F. E.; Benford, D.; Blain, A.; Boggs, S. E.; Craig, W. W.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; and others

    2014-10-20

    We report on a NuSTAR and XMM-Newton program that has observed a sample of three extremely luminous, heavily obscured WISE-selected active galactic nuclei (AGNs) at z ∼ 2 across a broad X-ray band (0.1 – 79 keV). The parent sample, selected to be faint or undetected in the WISE 3.4 μm (W1) and 4.6 μm (W2) bands but bright at 12 μm (W3) and 22 μm (W4), are extremely rare, with only ∼1000 so-called 'W1W2-dropouts' across the extragalactic sky. Optical spectroscopy reveals typical redshifts of z ∼ 2 for this population, implying rest-frame mid-IR luminosities of νL {sub ν}(6 μm) ∼ 6 × 10{sup 46} erg s{sup –1} and bolometric luminosities that can exceed L {sub bol} ∼ 10{sup 14} L {sub ☉}. The corresponding intrinsic, unobscured hard X-ray luminosities are L(2-10 keV) ∼ 4 × 10{sup 45} erg s{sup –1} for typical quasar templates. These are among the most AGNs known, though the optical spectra rarely show evidence of a broad-line region and the selection criteria imply heavy obscuration even at rest-frame 1.5 μm. We designed our X-ray observations to obtain robust detections for gas column densities N {sub H} ≤ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. In fact, the sources prove to be fainter than these predictions. Two of the sources were observed by both NuSTAR and XMM-Newton, with neither being detected by NuSTAR (f {sub 3-24} {sub keV} ≲ 10{sup –13} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}), and one being faintly detected by XMM-Newton (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 5 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). A third source was observed only with XMM-Newton, yielding a faint detection (f {sub 0.5-10} {sub keV} ∼ 7 × 10{sup –15} erg cm{sup –2} s{sup –1}). The X-ray data imply these sources are either X-ray weak, or are heavily obscured by column densities N {sub H} ≳ 10{sup 24} cm{sup –2}. The combined X-ray and mid-IR analysis seems to favor this second possibility, implying the sources are extremely obscured, consistent with Compton

  18. THE KILOPARSEC-SCALE STAR FORMATION LAW AT REDSHIFT 4: WIDESPREAD, HIGHLY EFFICIENT STAR FORMATION IN THE DUST-OBSCURED STARBURST GALAXY GN20

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, J. A.; Riechers, D.; Decarli, R.; Walter, F.; Carilli, C. L.; Daddi, E.

    2015-01-01

    We present high-resolution observations of the 880 μm (rest-frame FIR) continuum emission in the z = 4.05 submillimeter galaxy GN20 from the IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer (PdBI). These data resolve the obscured star formation (SF) in this unlensed galaxy on scales of 0.''3 × 0.''2 (∼2.1 × 1.3 kpc). The observations reveal a bright (16 ± 1 mJy) dusty starburst centered on the cold molecular gas reservoir and showing a bar-like extension along the major axis. The striking anti-correlation with the Hubble Space Telescope/Wide Field Camera 3 imaging suggests that the copious dust surrounding the starburst heavily obscures the rest-frame UV/optical emission. A comparison with 1.2 mm PdBI continuum data reveals no evidence for variations in the dust properties across the source within the uncertainties, consistent with extended SF, and the peak star formation rate surface density (119 ± 8 M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} kpc{sup –2}) implies that the SF in GN20 remains sub-Eddington on scales down to 3 kpc{sup 2}. We find that the SF efficiency (SFE) is highest in the central regions of GN20, leading to a resolved SF law with a power-law slope of Σ{sub SFR} ∼ Σ{sub H{sub 2}{sup 2.1±1.0}}, and that GN20 lies above the sequence of normal star-forming disks, implying that the dispersion in the SF law is not due solely to morphology or choice of conversion factor. These data extend previous evidence for a fixed SFE per free-fall time to include the star-forming medium on ∼kiloparsec scales in a galaxy 12 Gyr ago.

  19. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  20. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents.

  1. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  2. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  3. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  4. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  5. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  6. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  7. [The craniofacial identification of the remains from the Yekaterinburg burial].

    PubMed

    Abramov, S S

    1998-01-01

    Based on expert evaluation of remains of 7 members of Imperial Romanov family and 4 persons in their attendance, the author demonstrates methodological approaches to identification craniocephalic studies in cases with group burials.

  8. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  9. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  10. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  11. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  12. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  13. 21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON SECOND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE GROUND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  14. 20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. REMAINS OF HOP BAILING CHUTE ON GROUND FLOOR; THIS CHUTE EXTENDS TO THE SECOND FLOOR. - James W. Seavey Hop Driers, 0.6 mile East from junction of Highway 99 & Alexander Avenue, Corvallis, Benton County, OR

  15. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. Attempted Suicide Rates in U.S. Remain Unchanged

    MedlinePlus

    ... U.S. Remain Unchanged Men more often resorted to violent means, while women turned to poisoning, drowning, study ... likely to attempt suicide, but males used more violent methods. And all attempts were most common in ...

  17. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  18. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  19. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  20. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  1. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  2. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  3. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  4. 15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAIL VIEW, AT STREET LEVEL, OF REMAINING STONE POST ON NORTH SIDE, STONE WALL AND METAL RAILING ON SOUTH SIDE, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Lake Street Bridge, Spanning Ruddiman Creek at Lake Shore Drive, Muskegon, Muskegon County, MI

  5. The Slopes Remain the Same: Reply to Wolfe (2016)

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Wolfe (2016) responds to my article (Kristjánsson, 2015), arguing among other things, that the differences in slope by response method in my data reflect speed accuracy trade-offs. But when reaction times and errors are combined in one score (inverse efficiency) to sidestep speed accuracy trade-offs, slope differences still remain. The problem that slopes, which are thought to measure search speed, differ by response type therefore remains. PMID:27872743

  6. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  7. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  8. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 132-DR-1, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-035

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-09-22

    Radiological characterization, decommissioning and demolition of the 132-DR-1 site, 1608-DR Effluent Pumping Station was performed in 1987. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. Residual concentrations support future land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario and pose no threat to groundwater or the Columbia River based on RESRAD modeling.

  9. X-ray observations of dust obscured galaxies in the Chandra deep field south

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Corral, A.; Georgantopoulos, I.; Comastri, A.; Ranalli, P.; Akylas, A.; Salvato, M.; Lanzuisi, G.; Vignali, C.; Koutoulidis, L.

    2016-08-01

    We present the properties of X-ray detected dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) in the Chandra deep field south. In recent years, it has been proposed that a significant percentage of the elusive Compton-thick (CT) active galactic nuclei (AGN) could be hidden among DOGs. This type of galaxy is characterized by a very high infrared (IR) to optical flux ratio (f24 μm/fR > 1000), which in the case of CT AGN could be due to the suppression of AGN emission by absorption and its subsequent re-emission in the IR. The most reliable way of confirming the CT nature of an AGN is by X-ray spectroscopy. In a previous work, we presented the properties of X-ray detected DOGs by making use of the deepest X-ray observations available at that time, the 2Ms observations of the Chandra deep fields, the Chandra deep field north (CDF-N), and the Chandra deep field south (CDF-S). In that work, we only found a moderate percentage (<50%) of CT AGN among the DOGs sample. However, we pointed out that the limited photon statistics for most of the sources in the sample did not allow us to strongly constrain this number. In this paper, we further explore the properties of the sample of DOGs in the CDF-S presented in that work by using not only a deeper 6Ms Chandra survey of the CDF-S, but also by combining these data with the 3Ms XMM-Newton survey of the CDF-S. We also take advantage of the great coverage of the CDF-S region from the UV to the far-IR to fit the spectral energy distributions (SEDs) of our sources. Out of the 14 AGN composing our sample, 9 are highly absorbed (NH > 1023 cm-2), whereas 2 look unabsorbed, and the other 3 are only moderately absorbed. Among the highly absorbed AGN, we find that only three could be considered CT AGN. In only one of these three cases, we detect a strong Fe Kα emission line; the source is already classified as a CT AGN with Chandra data in a previous work. Here we confirm its CT nature by combining Chandra and XMM-Newton data. For the other two CT

  10. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  11. Identification of the remains of King Richard III

    PubMed Central

    King, Turi E.; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G.; Balding, David; Delser, Pierpaolo Maisano; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard’s appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming. PMID:25463651

  12. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach.

  13. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  14. Spitzer Analysis of H II Region Complexes in the Magellanic Clouds: Determining a Suitable Monochromatic Obscured Star Formation Indicator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawton, B.; Gordon, K. D.; Babler, B.; Block, M.; Bolatto, A. D.; Bracker, S.; Carlson, L. R.; Engelbracht, C. W.; Hora, J. L.; Indebetouw, R.; Madden, S. C.; Meade, M.; Meixner, M.; Misselt, K.; Oey, M. S.; Oliveira, J. M.; Robitaille, T.; Sewilo, M.; Shiao, B.; Vijh, U. P.; Whitney, B.

    2010-06-01

    H II regions are the birth places of stars, and as such they provide the best measure of current star formation rates (SFRs) in galaxies. The close proximity of the Magellanic Clouds allows us to probe the nature of these star forming regions at small spatial scales. To study the H II regions, we compute the bolometric infrared flux, or total infrared (TIR), by integrating the flux from 8 to 500 μm. The TIR provides a measure of the obscured star formation because the UV photons from hot young stars are absorbed by dust and re-emitted across the mid-to-far-infrared (IR) spectrum. We aim to determine the monochromatic IR band that most accurately traces the TIR and produces an accurate obscured SFR over large spatial scales. We present the spatial analysis, via aperture/annulus photometry, of 16 Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC) and 16 Small Magellanic Cloud (SMC) H II region complexes using the Spitzer Space Telescope's IRAC (3.6, 4.5, 8 μm) and MIPS (24, 70, 160 μm) bands. Ultraviolet rocket data (1500 and 1900 Å) and SHASSA Hα data are also included. All data are convolved to the MIPS 160 μm resolution (40 arcsec full width at half-maximum), and apertures have a minimum radius of 35''. The IRAC, MIPS, UV, and Hα spatial analysis are compared with the spatial analysis of the TIR. We find that nearly all of the LMC and SMC H II region spectral energy distributions (SEDs) peak around 70 μm at all radii, from ~10 to ~400 pc from the central ionizing sources. As a result, we find the following: the sizes of H II regions as probed by 70 μm are approximately equal to the sizes as probed by TIR (≈70 pc in radius); the radial profile of the 70 μm flux, normalized by TIR, is constant at all radii (70 μm ~ 0.45TIR); the 1σ standard deviation of the 70 μm fluxes, normalized by TIR, is a lower fraction of the mean (0.05-0.12 out to ~220 pc) than the normalized 8, 24, and 160 μm normalized fluxes (0.12-0.52); and these results are the same for the LMC and the SMC

  15. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  16. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  17. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents.

  18. Evidence for the Automatic Evaluation of Self-Generated Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aarts, Kristien; De Houwer, Jan; Pourtois, Gilles

    2012-01-01

    The accuracy of simple actions is swiftly determined through specific monitoring brain systems. However, it remains unclear whether this evaluation is accompanied by a rapid and compatible emotional appraisal of the action that allows to mark incorrect actions as negative/bad and conversely correct actions as positive/good. In this study, we used…

  19. Exploring the Vertical Structure of Nuclear Starburst Disks: A Possible Source of AGN Obscuration at Redshift ~ 1

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gohil, Raj; Ballantyne, David R.

    2017-01-01

    Nuclear starburst disks (NSDs) are star-forming regions that could be present at high redshift (z~1) in the vicinity of active galactic nuclei (AGNs). One dimensional analytical models by Thompson et al. (2005) show that, under certain conditions, these disks can be geometrically thick on parsec scales which make them a possible source for AGN obscuration. We construct a 2D model of NSDs where an iterative method is used to obtain vertical solutions for a given annulus. These solutions coherently satisfy the equations of energy balance, hydrostatic, radiative transfer, and the Toomre stability criteria. In comparison to 1D model, a more robust 2D calculation shows the higher scale-height at the outer part of a NSD, but predicts a lower expansion of an atmosphere at the parsec/sub-parsec scale. A total of 96 NSD models are computed under various physical conditions (black hole mass, size of a disk, and a gas fraction) in order to predict the column density distribution along a line of sight. Assuming a random distribution of input parameters, the statistics yield 59% of Type 1, 24% of Compton-thin (CTN), and 17% of Compton-thick (CTK) AGNs. The distribution of obscured AGNs fraction peaks near NH = 1023.5 cm-2. Depending on a viewing angle (θ) of a given NSD, the line of sight NH can vary from 1022 to 1028 cm-2. This supports the unification theory of AGNs as our results show an AGN can appear to be obscured by a CTK (NH > 1024 cm-2) or CTN (1022 cm-2< NH < 1024 cm-2) gas depending on a viewing angle. Using 2D structure, we show any θ is possible for CTN AGNs; however, the maximum allowed θ for CTK AGN is restricted to approximately 60 degrees.

  20. Heavily Obscured AGN: An Ideal Laboratory To Study The Early Co-Evolution of Galaxies And Black Holes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Circosta, Chiara; Vignali, C.; Gilli, R.; Feltre, A.; Vito, F.

    2016-10-01

    Obscured AGN are a crucial ingredient to understand the full growth history of super massive black holes and the coevolution with their host galaxies, since they constitute the bulk of the BH accretion. In the distant Universe, many of them are hosted by submillimeter galaxies (SMGs), characterized by a high production of stars and a very fast consumption of gas. Therefore, the analysis of this class of objects is fundamental to investigate the role of the ISM in the early coevolution of galaxies and black holesWe collected a sample of six obscured X-ray selected AGN at z>2.5 in the CDF-S, detected in the far-IR/submm bands. We performed a multiwavelength analysis in order to characterize their physical properties, as well as those of their host galaxies (e.g. column density, accretion luminosity, stellar mass, SFR, dust and gas mass). I will present the results of the X-ray spectral analysis of these sources based on the 7Ms Chandra data - the deepest X-ray observation ever carried out on any field - along with their broad-band spectral energy distributions (SEDs), built up using the public UV to far-IR photometry from the CANDELS and Herschel catalogs. By comparing the column density associated with the ISM (estimated measuring the size of the system) with that obtained from the X-ray data, it is possible to understand whether the ISM in the host galaxy may be able to produce a substantial part of the observed nuclear obscuration.

  1. Decay rates of human remains in an arid environment.

    PubMed

    Galloway, A; Birkby, W H; Jones, A M; Henry, T E; Parks, B O

    1989-05-01

    The environment of southern Arizona with mild winters and hot, dry summers produces great variability in decay rates of human remains. Summer temperatures, which range well over 38 degrees C (100 degrees F), induce rapid bloating as a result of the accumulation of decompositional gases. However, in certain circumstances, the aridity can lead to extensive mummification, allowing preservation of remains for hundreds of years. A retrospective study of 189 cases, concentrating on remains found on the desert floor or in the surrounding mountains and on remains found within closed structures, outlines the time frame and sequences of the decay process. Remains can retain a fresh appearance for a considerable time in the winter, but the onset of marked decomposition is rapid in the summer months. Bloating of the body usually is present two to seven days following death. Following this, within structures, there is frequently rapid decomposition and skeletonization. With outdoor exposure, remains are more likely to pass through a long period of dehydration of outer tissues, mummification, and reduction of desiccated tissue. Exposure of large portions of the skeleton usually does not occur until four to six months after death. Bleaching and exfoliation of bone--the beginning stages of destruction of the skeletal elements--begins at about nine months' exposure. Insect activity, including that of maggot and beetle varieties, may accelerate decomposition, but this process is greatly affected by location of the body, seasonal weather, and accessibility of the soft tissues. Carnivores and other scavengers also are contributing factors, as are clothing or covering of the body, substrate, elevation, and latitude.

  2. Intolerance of uncertainty in emotional disorders: What uncertainties remain?

    PubMed

    Shihata, Sarah; McEvoy, Peter M; Mullan, Barbara Ann; Carleton, R Nicholas

    2016-06-01

    The current paper presents a future research agenda for intolerance of uncertainty (IU), which is a transdiagnostic risk and maintaining factor for emotional disorders. In light of the accumulating interest and promising research on IU, it is timely to emphasize the theoretical and therapeutic significance of IU, as well as to highlight what remains unknown about IU across areas such as development, assessment, behavior, threat and risk, and relationships to cognitive vulnerability factors and emotional disorders. The present paper was designed to provide a synthesis of what is known and unknown about IU, and, in doing so, proposes broad and novel directions for future research to address the remaining uncertainties in the literature.

  3. OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF REMAINS OF DEWATERING BUILDING, LOOKING SOUTH TOWARD CYANIDE PROCESSING AREA. WATER USED IN PROCESSING AT THE STAMP MILL WAS CIRCULATED HERE FOR RECLAMATION. SANDS WERE SETTLED OUT AND DEPOSITED IN ONE OF TWO TAILINGS HOLDING AREAS. CLEARED WATER WAS PUMPED BACK TO THE MILL FOR REUSE. THIS PROCESS WAS ACCOMPLISHED BY THE USE OF SETTLING CONES, EIGHT FEET IN DIAMETER AND SIX FEET HIGH. THE REMAINS OF FOUR CONES ARE AT CENTER, BEHIND THE TANK IN THE FOREGROUND. TO THE LEFT IS THE MAIN ACCESS ROAD BETWEEN THE MILL AND THE PARKING LOT. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  4. Obscure Overt Gastrointestinal Bleeding Secondary to Ventral Hernioplasty Mesh Small Bowel Perforation Visualized With Video Capsule Endoscopy

    PubMed Central

    Mendez-Ishizaki, Yumi

    2016-01-01

    We report a case of a 79-year-old female presenting with hematemesis and melena 9 years after ventral hernioplasty with mesh. After initial normal endoscopy and colonoscopy, video capsule endoscopy revealed a metallic wire mesh perforating the jejunum. Abdominal computed tomography did not identify a perforation although metallic mesh was visualized close to the small bowel. We present the first ventral hernia mesh perforation diagnosed via video capsule endoscopy. Such a finding emphasizes the importance of a complete diagnostic workup when approaching a patient with obscure overt gastrointestinal bleeding. PMID:28008400

  5. The Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury. XVII. Examining Obscured Star Formation with Synthetic Ultraviolet Flux Maps in M31.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lewis, Alexia R.; Simones, Jacob E.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Dalcanton, Julianne J.; Skillman, Evan D.; Weisz, Daniel R.; Dolphin, Andrew E.; Williams, Benjamin F.; Bell, Eric F.; Fouesneau, Morgan; Kapala, Maria; Rosenfield, Philip; Schruba, Andreas

    2017-01-01

    We present synthetic far- and near-ultraviolet ({FUV} and {NUV}) maps of M31, both with and without dust reddening. These maps were constructed from spatially resolved star formation histories (SFHs) derived from optical Hubble Space Telescope imaging of resolved stars, taken as part of the Panchromatic Hubble Andromeda Treasury program. We use stellar population synthesis modeling to generate synthetic UV maps with a spatial resolution of ∼100 pc (∼24 arcsec), projected. When reddening is included, these maps reproduce all of the main morphological features in the GALEX imaging, including rings and large star-forming complexes. The predicted UV flux also agrees well with the observed flux, with median ratios between the modeled and observed flux of {{log}}10({f}{FUV}{syn}/{f}{FUV}{obs})=0.03+/- 0.24 and {{log}}10({f}{NUV}{syn}/{f}{NUV}{obs})=-0.03+/- 0.16 in the {FUV} and {NUV}, respectively. This agreement is particularly impressive given that we used only optical photometry to construct these UV maps. Having verified the synthetic reddened maps, we use the dust-free maps to examine properties of obscured flux and star formation. We compare our dust-free and reddened maps of {FUV} flux with the observed GALEX {FUV} flux and {FUV} + 24 μm flux to examine the fraction of obscured flux. We find that the maps of synthetic flux require that ∼90% of the {FUV} flux in M31 is obscured by dust, while the GALEX -based methods suggest that ∼70% of the {FUV} flux is absorbed by dust. This 30% increase in the estimate of the obscured flux is driven by significant differences between the dust-free synthetic {FUV} flux and that derived when correcting the observed {FUV} flux for dust absorption with 24 μm emission observations. The difference is further illustrated when we compare the SFRs derived from the {FUV} + 24 μm flux with the 100 Myr average SFR from the CMD-based SFHs. We find that the 24 μm corrected {FUV} flux underestimates the SFR by a factor of 2.3–2

  6. [Association between tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly].

    PubMed

    Martins, Aline Blaya; Dalberto, Charlene da Silveira; Hugo, Fernando Neves

    2015-12-01

    The presence of tooth root remains is a common clinical finding among elderly patients and may reflect a need for treatment. The scope of this study sought to explore the association between the presence of tooth root remains and self-reported oral health among the elderly. Secondary data from two sanitary districts of Porto Alegre, State of Rio Grande do Sul, were analyzed. A conceptual theoretical model was used in the analysis to assess factors related to self-perceived oral health: gender, age, education, marital status, smoking habit, alcohol consumption, demand for oral health care, participation in community groups, family economic self-sufficiency, oral health service accessed, number of teeth and the presence of tooth root remains. The statistical data were analyzed using Chi-square and Poisson Regression tests (95% CI analysis; α 5%). The sample consisted of 849 elderly individuals with a mean age of 69.7 years (± 7.2); 14.5% of the elderly had tooth root remains and 60.7% reported good self-perceived oral health. According to the hierarchical analysis, the absence of tooth root remains was associated with good oral health perception. The qualification and expansion of health care provided should be considered in order to allow planning actions to ensure the maintenance of good oral health for the elderly.

  7. Darknet and bitcoin, the obscure and anonymous side of the internet in healthcare.

    PubMed

    Masoni, Marco; Guelfi, Maria Renza; Gensini, Gian Franco

    2016-11-14

    Illegal activities prosecutable by law in the real life can be committed on the internet alike. In the healthcare domain, we refer mainly to selling of illegal and counterfeit drugs, exchange of pedo-pornographic material and marketing of stolen medical records. These illegal activities are made easier by recent developments of the Internet that medical community must be aware of: darknet and bitcoin. The first allows anonymous surfing and the last anonymous financial transactions. After discussing which healthcare areas are affected by these technological developments of the Internet and the deriving consequences, then the Authors express their opinion on what actions can be taken to protect internet community.

  8. Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain About SPR Drawdown and Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-11-01

    and to the ARCO ter- minal in Texas City , Texas. These terminals provide connections to two marine terminals and nine refineries in Texas. 0 Texoma...RCED-91-16 Oil Reserve: Some Concerns Remain Chater 2 DOE’s Egbleatis of Crient Drawdown Capabllity Appear Reamnable, but Tankeir MAmilability Col

  9. 18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. A view looking southeast at the remains of the director's office, his reception room and a portion of the elevator lobby. These two rooms were equipped with their own air conditioners. - John T. Beasley Building, 632 Cherry Street (between Sixth & Seventh Streets), Terre Haute, Vigo County, IN

  10. 17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. DETAIL OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 LOOKING EAST. THE BUSTLE PIPE IS VISIBLE ACROSS THE CENTER OF THE IMAGE. (Jet Lowe) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. NORTHERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF BLAST FURNACE No. 2 IN LOWER CENTER OF PHOTO AT THE BASE OF HOT BLAST STOVES. HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. NORTHWEST VIEW OF REMAINS OF CAST HOUSE No. 2. BLAST FURNACE No. 1 IS ON THE RIGHT, AND HOIST HOUSE No. 2 IS ON THE LEFT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. View from Roundhouse roof showing remains of gable (north) end and clerestory monitor of Machine Shop. - Central of Georgia Railway, Savannah Repair Shops & Terminal Facilities, Machine Shop, Bounded by West Broad, Jones, West Boundary & Hull Streets, Savannah, Chatham County, GA

  14. Ancient DNA in human bone remains from Pompeii archaeological site.

    PubMed

    Cipollaro, M; Di Bernardo, G; Galano, G; Galderisi, U; Guarino, F; Angelini, F; Cascino, A

    1998-06-29

    aDNA extraction and amplification procedures have been optimized for Pompeian human bone remains whose diagenesis has been determined by histological analysis. Single copy genes amplification (X and Y amelogenin loci and Y specific alphoid repeat sequences) have been performed and compared with anthropometric data on sexing.

  15. DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL VIEW OF FILTER PRESS REMAINS, BOILER, SECONDARY ORE BIN, TRAM TRESTLE AND WATER TANK, LOOKING NORTHWEST. HIS VIEW IS TAKEN FROM THE THIRD LEVEL OF THE MILL, NEARBY THE BLACKSMITH'S FORGE. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  16. Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Aftermath. The remains of the southwest end of the bridge lie next to the southwest pier. View is south-southeast from confluence of Trinity and South Fork Trinity Rivers - South Fork Trinity River Bridge, State Highway 299 spanning South Fork Trinity River, Salyer, Trinity County, CA

  17. REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    REAR DETAIL OF RIGHT ENGINE AND WING. THRUST REVERSER REMAINS OPEN. MECHANICS JONI BAINE (R) AND BILL THEODORE(L) OPEN FLAP CARRIAGE ACCESS WITH AN IMPACT GUN. THEY WILL CHECK TRANSMISSION FLUID AND OIL THE JACK SCREW. AT FAR LEFT UTILITY MECHANICS BEGIN BODY POLISHING. - Greater Buffalo International Airport, Maintenance Hangar, Buffalo, Erie County, NY

  18. Collegial Climate and Novice Teachers' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers across 99 schools, we estimated multilevel regressions to identify the association between novices' intent to remain teaching within their schools and their perceptions of the collegial climate. The results suggest that novice teachers who perceive a more positive collegial climate marked by higher degrees…

  19. Administrative Climate and Novices' Intent to Remain Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pogodzinski, Ben; Youngs, Peter; Frank, Kenneth A.; Belman, Dale

    2012-01-01

    Using survey data from novice teachers at the elementary and middle school level across 11 districts, multilevel logistic regressions were estimated to examine the association between novices' perceptions of the administrative climate and their desire to remain teaching within their schools. We find that the probability that a novice teacher…

  20. Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Remains of abutments for Bridge No. 1575 at MD Rt. 51 in Spring Gap, Maryland, looking northeast. (Compare with HAER MD-115 photos taken 1988). - Western Maryland Railway, Cumberland Extension, Pearre to North Branch, from WM milepost 125 to 160, Pearre, Washington County, MD

  1. 6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. DETAIL OF NORTH FRONT, SHOWING REMAINING WALL OF ORIGINAL BUILDING AND UTILITY BRIDGE TO BUILDING ACROSS NINTH STREET HABS No. IA-160-AR. VIEW TO SOUTH. - Commercial & Industrial Buildings, Klauer Manufacturing Company Factory, 301 Ninth Street, Dubuque, Dubuque County, IA

  2. 22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Detail of remnants of winch and motor on remains of machinery house platform east of drawspan; note cables (still connected to drawspan) coming off the winding drum; view to north. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  3. Robotics to Enable Older Adults to Remain Living at Home

    PubMed Central

    Pearce, Alan J.; Adair, Brooke; Ozanne, Elizabeth; Said, Catherine; Santamaria, Nick; Morris, Meg E.

    2012-01-01

    Given the rapidly ageing population, interest is growing in robots to enable older people to remain living at home. We conducted a systematic review and critical evaluation of the scientific literature, from 1990 to the present, on the use of robots in aged care. The key research questions were as follows: (1) what is the range of robotic devices available to enable older people to remain mobile, independent, and safe? and, (2) what is the evidence demonstrating that robotic devices are effective in enabling independent living in community dwelling older people? Following database searches for relevant literature an initial yield of 161 articles was obtained. Titles and abstracts of articles were then reviewed by 2 independent people to determine suitability for inclusion. Forty-two articles met the criteria for question 1. Of these, 4 articles met the criteria for question 2. Results showed that robotics is currently available to assist older healthy people and people with disabilities to remain independent and to monitor their safety and social connectedness. Most studies were conducted in laboratories and hospital clinics. Currently limited evidence demonstrates that robots can be used to enable people to remain living at home, although this is an emerging smart technology that is rapidly evolving. PMID:23304507

  4. 3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. GENERAL VIEW OF REMAINS OF 40" BLOOMING MILL; THE ENGINE ROOM CONTAINING THE MESTA-CORLISS STEAM ENGINE, IS LOCATED AT THE FAR END OF THE MILL AS SEEN TO THE FAR RIGHT (THE BUILDING WITH THE SHED ROOF). - Republic Iron & Steel Company, Youngstown Works, Blooming Mill & Blooming Mill Engines, North of Poland Avenue, Youngstown, Mahoning County, OH

  5. 4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. An interior view of remaining duct system and grain separating equipment is situated within the 'Landmark' (1940) in the section above the silo portion of the structure. - Quaker Oats Cereal Factory, Southeast corner of Broadway & Mill Streets, Akron, Summit County, OH

  6. Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Interior of control house showing remains of controller. Moving the handle rotated the vertical shaft and porcelain cams to engage various electrical switches and activate the lift mechanism. All electrical components have been removed. - Potomac Edison Company, Chesapeake & Ohio Canal Bridge, Spanning C & O Canal South of U.S. 11, Williamsport, Washington County, MD

  7. 8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. View of remains of ash bin at Armory Street Pump House. Ashes would be removed via a dump truck driven under the hopper above the garage door. - Lake Whitney Water Filtration Plant, Armory Street Pumphouse, North side of Armory Street between Edgehill Road & Whitney Avenue, Hamden, New Haven County, CT

  8. As Year Ends, Questions Remain for New Orleans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maxwell, Lesli A.

    2008-01-01

    In rebuilding public schooling in New Orleans after Hurricane Katrina, education reformers have managed to hire energetic teachers, break ground on a few new school buildings, raise public confidence, and show progress on test scores. But fundamental questions remain as the 2007-08 academic year draws to a close, including how the city's…

  9. 1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW OF CRUSHING PLANT (FEATURE 19). THE REMAINS OF THE FINE ORE MILL (FEATURE 20) ARE IN THE BACKGROUND ON LEFT. CONCRETE RESERVOIR (FEATURE 22) IS SHOWN AT THE RIGHT EDGE OF PHOTOGRAPH FACING SOUTHWEST. - Copper Canyon Camp of the International Smelting & Refining Company, Crushing Plant, Copper Canyon, Battle Mountain, Lander County, NV

  10. 19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. REMAINS OF FLYWHEEL OF No. 1 PRESS PUMPING ENGINE. GEARS ON EITHER SIDE OF THE FLYWHEEL WERE TURNED INTERMEDIATE GEARS WHICH POWERED THE PUMPS. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, Press Shop No. 1, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Remains Beneath Collapsed Engine House Roof, Showing Foundation Timbers and Automobile Engine Connected to Pulley Wheel, Looking Southwest - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  12. 5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. View of remaining rock ledge from construction of passage to enter mill (Riverdale Cotton Mill was built into the side of a hill). Partially subterranean area was popular with employees trying to escape the heat of the mill, now an unofficial smoking area. - Riverdale Cotton Mill, Corner of Middle & Lower Streets, Valley, Chambers County, AL

  13. 15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. CYLINDRICAL FISH SCALER Remnants of the wire screen remain, through which the fish tumbled as the cylinder revolved. Note geared ring around cylinder, and the small drive shaft by which it was driven. - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  14. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  15. Active Galactic Nucleus Obscuration from Winds: From Dusty Infrared-Driven to Warm and X-Ray Photoionized

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dorodnitsyn, Anton V.; Kallman, Timothy R.

    2012-01-01

    We present calculations of active galactic nucleus winds at approx.parsec scales along with the associated obscuration. We take into account the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains and the interaction of X-rays from a central black hole with hot and cold plasma. Infrared radiation (IR) is incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations adopting the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We find that in the range of X-ray luminosities L = 0.05-0.6 L(sub Edd), the Compton-thick part of the flow (aka torus) has an opening angle of approximately 72deg - 75deg regardless of the luminosity. At L > or approx. 0.1, the outflowing dusty wind provides the obscuration with IR pressure playing a major role. The global flow consists of two phases: the cold flow at inclinations (theta) > or approx.70deg and a hot, ionized wind of lower density at lower inclinations. The dynamical pressure of the hot wind is important in shaping the denser IR-supported flow. At luminosities < or = 0.1 L(sub Edd) episodes of outflow are followed by extended periods when the wind switches to slow accretion. Key words: acceleration of particles . galaxies: active . hydrodynamics . methods: numerical Online-only material: color figures

  16. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OBSCURATION FROM WINDS: FROM DUSTY INFRARED-DRIVEN TO WARM AND X-RAY PHOTOIONIZED

    PubMed Central

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.

    2016-01-01

    We present calculations of AGN winds at ~parsec scales, along with the associated obscuration. We take into account the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains and the interaction of X-rays from a central black hole with hot and cold plasma. Infrared radiation (IR) is incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations adopting the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We find that in the range of X-ray luminosities L=0.05 – 0.6Ledd, the Compton-thick part of the flow (aka torus) has an opening angle of approximately 72° – 75° regardless of the luminosity. At L ≳ 0.1 the outflowing dusty wind provides the obscuration with IR pressure playing a major role. The global flow consists of two phases: the cold flow at inclinations θ ≳ 70° and a hot, ionized wind of lower density at lower inclinations. The dynamical pressure of the hot wind is important in shaping the denser IR supported flow. At luminosities ≤0.1Ledd episodes of outflow are followed by extended periods when the wind switches to slow accretion. PMID:27642184

  17. The hidden quasar nucleus of a WISE-selected, hyperluminous, dust-obscured galaxy at z ~ 2.3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piconcelli, E.; Vignali, C.; Bianchi, S.; Zappacosta, L.; Fritz, J.; Lanzuisi, G.; Miniutti, G.; Bongiorno, A.; Feruglio, C.; Fiore, F.; Maiolino, R.

    2015-02-01

    We present the first X-ray spectrum of a hot dust-obscured galaxy (DOG), namely W1835+4355 at z ~ 2.3. Hot DOGs represent a very rare population of hyperluminous (≥1047 erg s-1), dust-enshrouded objects at z ≥ 2 recently discovered in the WISE All Sky Survey. The 40 ks XMM-Newton spectrum reveals a continuum as flat (Γ ~ 0.8) as typically seen in heavily obscured AGN. This, along with the presence of strong Fe Kα emission, clearly suggests a reflection-dominated spectrum due to Compton-thick absorption. In this scenario, the observed luminosity of L2-10~ 2 × 1044 erg s-1 is a fraction (<10%) of the intrinsic one, which is estimated to be ≳ 5 × 1045 erg s-1 by using several proxies. The Herschel data allow us to constrain the SED up to the sub-mm band, providing a reliable estimate of the quasar contribution (~75%) to the IR luminosity as well as the amount of star formation (~2100 M⊙ yr-1). Our results thus provide additional pieces of evidence that associate Hot DOGs with an exceptionally dusty phase during which luminous quasars and massive galaxies co-evolve and a very efficient and powerful AGN-driven feedback mechanism is predicted by models.

  18. Preliminary study of effects of military obscurant smokes on flora and fauna during field and laboratory exposures. Final technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Schaeffer, D.J.; Lower, W.R.; Kapila, S.; Yanders, A.F.; Wang, R.

    1986-12-01

    Since continued routine use of obscurant smokes could be detrimental to the native flora and fauna of training sites, a preliminary biological and chemical study of smokes was conducted to determine whether tests could be developed to demonstrate measurable changes in organisms exposed to smokes and to evaluate whether short exposures to smokes produced measurable changes in the organisms tested. Fog oil, hexachloroethane, and tank diesel smokes were tested. Tradescantia clones were examined for mutagenic effects indicated by micronuclei induction in developing pollen and pink somatic mutations in stamen hairs. Photosynthetic perturbations were measured in Tradescantia and Ambrosia dumosa using variable fluorescence induction. Animals were examined for sister chromatid exchanges and chromosome aberrations. It was found that all of the smokes tested exerted varying degrees of physiological and mutagenic effects in one or several of the assay systems at one or more of the exposure distances. These studies indicate that exposed ecological systems, or at least components of these systems, are at a higher risk than are control organisms for several types of damage attributed to obscurant smoke exposure.

  19. ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS OBSCURATION FROM WINDS: FROM DUSTY INFRARED-DRIVEN TO WARM AND X-RAY PHOTOIONIZED

    SciTech Connect

    Dorodnitsyn, A.; Kallman, T.

    2012-12-10

    We present calculations of active galactic nucleus winds at {approx}parsec scales along with the associated obscuration. We take into account the pressure of infrared radiation on dust grains and the interaction of X-rays from a central black hole with hot and cold plasma. Infrared radiation (IR) is incorporated in radiation-hydrodynamic simulations adopting the flux-limited diffusion approximation. We find that in the range of X-ray luminosities L = 0.05-0.6 L{sub Edd}, the Compton-thick part of the flow (aka torus) has an opening angle of approximately 72 Degree-Sign -75 Degree-Sign regardless of the luminosity. At L {approx}> 0.1, the outflowing dusty wind provides the obscuration with IR pressure playing a major role. The global flow consists of two phases: the cold flow at inclinations {theta} {approx}> 70 Degree-Sign and a hot, ionized wind of lower density at lower inclinations. The dynamical pressure of the hot wind is important in shaping the denser IR-supported flow. At luminosities {<=}0.1 L{sub Edd} episodes of outflow are followed by extended periods when the wind switches to slow accretion.

  20. Perennial Lakeshores as an Exploration Target for Microbial Remains on Mars Based on Earth Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blair, T. C.

    2013-12-01

    is needed. Although Martian river delta plain, delta front, and prodelta deposits may contain the remains of microbial life if it existed at the time of deposition, the studied western Basin and Range lakes show that such remains are most abundant and concentrated along former coarse gravelly or rocky shorelines away from the delta, where clear water and a stable substrate prevailed, and fossil dilution by detrital input was low. The elevations of the delta plains provide the target levels for shoreline exploration elsewhere along the lake. The extinct western Basin and Range lakes, such as Lake Manly in Death Valley, further teach that former shorelines readily apparent on satellite imagery may lack a biological or sedimentary record, whereas less obvious or unapparent shoreline segments at key levels may have a bounty of microbial remains. The latter scenario results from partial obscuration of the former shoreline by post-lake weathering, including through erosion or the partial cover by eolian or gravity-driven colluvial sediment.

  1. Diagnosis of aortic dextroposition on human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Charlier, Philippe; Costea, Georgică; Huynh-Charlier, Isabelle; Brun, Luc; de la Grandmaison, Geoffroy Lorin

    2012-03-01

    The fine macroscopic observation of a young adult female skeleton recovered from a Roman graveyard in Romania revealed distinctive flattening of the vertebra related to a right-sided aorta. Associated bone anomalies may be related to a Kartagener syndrome. This case highlights the fact that visceral anomalies may be diagnosed even on skeletal remains. Such lesions could be useful for osteo-archaeologists, of course, but also for forensic anthropologist investigators dealing with skeletonized remains (for example during the identification process of a dead body, through comparison with known medical data for missing people). More, hypotheses about cause and/or manner of death may be given, and a possibility of genetic confirmation exists.

  2. Mineral remains of early life on Earth? On Mars?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Iberall, Robbins E.; Iberall, A.S.

    1991-01-01

    The oldest sedimentary rocks on Earth, the 3.8-Ga Isua Iron-Formation in southwestern Greenland, are metamorphosed past the point where organic-walled fossils would remain. Acid residues and thin sections of these rocks reveal ferric microstructures that have filamentous, hollow rod, and spherical shapes not characteristic of crystalline minerals. Instead, they resemble ferric-coated remains of bacteria. Because there are no earlier sedimentary rocks to study on Earth, it may be necessary to expand the search elsewhere in the solar system for clues to any biotic precursors or other types of early life. A study of morphologies of iron oxide minerals collected in the southern highlands during a Mars sample return mission may therefore help to fill in important gaps in the history of Earth's earliest biosphere. -from Authors

  3. Radiocarbon analysis of human remains: a review of forensic applications.

    PubMed

    Ubelaker, Douglas H

    2014-11-01

    Radiocarbon analysis of organic materials, with the comparison of values with those of the post-1950 modern bomb curve, has proven useful in forensic science to help evaluate the antiquity of evidence. Applications are particularly helpful in the study of human remains, especially with those displaying advanced decomposition of soft tissues. Radiocarbon analysis can reveal if the remains relate to the modern, post-1950 era and if so, also provide information needed to evaluate the death and birth date. Sample selection and interpretation of results must be guided by knowledge of the formation and remodeling of different human tissues, as well as contextual information and the approximate age at death of the individual represented. Dental enamel does not remodel and thus captures dietary radiocarbon values at the time of juvenile formation. Most other human tissues do remodel but at differing rates and therefore collectively offer key information relative to the estimation of the death date.

  4. Dental DNA fingerprinting in identification of human remains.

    PubMed

    Girish, Kl; Rahman, Farzan S; Tippu, Shoaib R

    2010-07-01

    The recent advances in molecular biology have revolutionized all aspects of dentistry. DNA, the language of life yields information beyond our imagination, both in health or disease. DNA fingerprinting is a tool used to unravel all the mysteries associated with the oral cavity and its manifestations during diseased conditions. It is being increasingly used in analyzing various scenarios related to forensic science. The technical advances in molecular biology have propelled the analysis of the DNA into routine usage in crime laboratories for rapid and early diagnosis. DNA is an excellent means for identification of unidentified human remains. As dental pulp is surrounded by dentin and enamel, which forms dental armor, it offers the best source of DNA for reliable genetic type in forensic science. This paper summarizes the recent literature on use of this technique in identification of unidentified human remains.

  5. The impact of downsizing on remaining workers' sickness absence.

    PubMed

    Østhus, Ståle; Mastekaasa, Arne

    2010-10-01

    It is generally assumed that organizational downsizing has considerable negative consequences, not only for workers that are laid off, but also for those who remain employed. The empirical evidence with regard to effects on sickness absence is, however, inconsistent. This study employs register data covering a major part of the total workforce in Norway over the period 2000-2003. The number of sickness absence episodes and the number of sickness absence days are analysed by means of Poisson regression. To control for both observed and unobserved stable individual characteristics, we use conditional (fixed effects) estimation. The analyses provide some weak indications that downsizing may lead to slightly less sickness absence, but the overall impression is that downsizing has few if any effects on the sickness absence of the remaining employees.

  6. Remaining useful life prediction based on known usage data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiddy, Jason S.

    2003-08-01

    Systems Planning and Analysis, Inc. (SPA) has developed a novel statistical approach to estimating the remaining useful life of aircraft components based on known usage monitoring data. The analysis technique is known as the Remaining Useful Life Estimation (RULE) methodology. The basic premise of RULE is to determine conservative predictions for the component loads and fatigue life values from Monte Carlo simulations based on a desired component reliability. Then, as the aircraft's usage is monitored, the component life can be calculated with a known reliability based on the conservative predictions generated by the Monte Carlo simulation. The RULE methodology, which has been successfully tested on small-scale analytical problems, is ideally suited to be integrated into both rotorcraft and fixed-wing aircraft. Furthermore, modifications to the technology may prove to be applicable to wide variety of health and prognostic problems.

  7. Late Pleistocene human remains from Wezmeh Cave, western Iran.

    PubMed

    Trinkaus, Erik; Biglari, Fereidoun; Mashkour, Marjan; Monchot, Hervé; Reyss, Jean-Louis; Rougier, Hélène; Heydari, Saman; Abdi, Kamyar

    2008-04-01

    Paleontological analysis of remains from Wezmeh Cave in western Iran have yielded a Holocene Chalcolithic archeological assemblage, a rich Late Pleistocene carnivore faunal assemblage, and an isolated unerupted human maxillary premolar (P(3) or possibly P(4)). Species representation and U-series dating of faunal teeth place the carnivore assemblage during oxygen isotope stages (OIS) 3 and 2, and noninvasive gamma spectrometry dating of the human premolar places it at least as old as early OIS 2. The human premolar crown morphology is not diagnostic of late archaic versus early modern human affinities, but its buccolingual diameter places it at the upper limits of Late Pleistocene human P(3) and P(4) dimensions and separate from a terminal Pleistocene regional sample. Wezmeh Cave therefore provides additional Paleolithic human remains from the Zagros Mountains and further documents Late Pleistocene human association with otherwise carnivore-dominated cave assemblages.

  8. Mandibular remains support taxonomic validity of Australopithecus sediba.

    PubMed

    de Ruiter, Darryl J; DeWitt, Thomas J; Carlson, Keely B; Brophy, Juliet K; Schroeder, Lauren; Ackermann, Rebecca R; Churchill, Steven E; Berger, Lee R

    2013-04-12

    Since the announcement of the species Australopithecus sediba, questions have been raised over whether the Malapa fossils represent a valid taxon or whether inadequate allowance was made for intraspecific variation, in particular with reference to the temporally and geographically proximate species Au. africanus. The morphology of mandibular remains of Au. sediba, including newly recovered material discussed here, shows that it is not merely a late-surviving morph of Au. africanus. Rather-as is seen elsewhere in the cranium, dentition, and postcranial skeleton-these mandibular remains share similarities with other australopiths but can be differentiated from the hypodigm of Au. africanus in both size and shape as well as in their ontogenetic growth trajectory.

  9. Renewing the Fight against Affirmative Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roach, Ronald

    2009-01-01

    Some affirmative action and diversity program critics are cheering President Barack Obama's election because they believe his success dramatically undermines the argument that discrimination remains a significant barrier for minorities in American life. Ward Connerly Jr., arguably the most visible anti-affirmative action activist in the United…

  10. Remaining Pain in Early Rheumatoid Arthritis Patients Treated With Methotrexate

    PubMed Central

    Altawil, Reem; Saevarsdottir, Saedis; Wedrén, Sara; Alfredsson, Lars; Klareskog, Lars

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate the frequency of remaining pain in early rheumatoid arthritis (RA) after 3 months of treatment with methotrexate as the only disease modifying antirheumatic drug, with a special focus on patients with a good clinical response. Methods The study base was cases reported to a population‐based early RA cohort who had followup data from the Swedish Rheumatology Quality Register (n = 1,241). The Disease Activity Score in 28 joints European League Against Rheumatism (EULAR) response criteria were used to evaluate clinical response to treatment as good, moderate, and no response. The primary end point was remaining pain at the 3‐months followup visit, defined as pain >20 mm on a 100‐mm visual analog scale (VAS). Results Remaining pain in spite of a EULAR good response at followup was associated with higher baseline disability, using the Health Assessment Questionnaire (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 2.2 [95% confidence interval (95% CI) 1.4–3.4] per unit increase), and less baseline inflammation, using the erythrocyte sedimentation rate (adjusted OR 0.81 [95% CI 0.70–0.93] per 10‐mm increase). Similar associations were detected for remaining pain at followup in spite of low inflammatory activity, defined as a C‐reactive protein level <10. Increase in VAS pain during the treatment period was observed in 19% of the whole cohort, with frequencies in the EULAR response groups of 9% (good response), 15% (moderate response), and 45% (no response). Conclusion These results are in line with the hypothesis that a subgroup of early RA patients exhibits pain that is not inflammatory mediated, where alternative treatment strategies to traditional antiinflammatory medications need to be considered. PMID:26784398

  11. USING CONDITION MONITORING TO PREDICT REMAINING LIFE OF ELECTRIC CABLES.

    SciTech Connect

    LOFARO,R.; SOO,P.; VILLARAN,M.; GROVE,E.

    2001-03-29

    Electric cables are passive components used extensively throughout nuclear power stations to perform numerous safety and non-safety functions. It is known that the polymers commonly used to insulate the conductors on these cables can degrade with time; the rate of degradation being dependent on the severity of the conditions in which the cables operate. Cables do not receive routine maintenance and, since it can be very costly, they are not replaced on a regular basis. Therefore, to ensure their continued functional performance, it would be beneficial if condition monitoring techniques could be used to estimate the remaining useful life of these components. A great deal of research has been performed on various condition monitoring techniques for use on electric cables. In a research program sponsored by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, several promising techniques were evaluated and found to provide trendable information on the condition of low-voltage electric cables. These techniques may be useful for predicting remaining life if well defined limiting values for the aging properties being measured can be determined. However, each technique has advantages and limitations that must be addressed in order to use it effectively, and the necessary limiting values are not always easy to obtain. This paper discusses how condition monitoring measurements can be used to predict the remaining useful life of electric cables. The attributes of an appropriate condition monitoring technique are presented, and the process to be used in estimating the remaining useful life of a cable is discussed along with the difficulties that must be addressed.

  12. Hominid mandibular remains from Sangiran: 1952-1986 collection.

    PubMed

    Kaifu, Yousuke; Aziz, Fachroel; Baba, Hisao

    2005-11-01

    Eight hominid mandibular and associated dental remains discovered between 1952-1986 from the Early Pleistocene deposits of Sangiran, Central Java, are described. Although the specimens are surface finds, their original stratigraphic positions can be reasonably inferred on the basis of coincidental sources of information. These specimens significantly increase the dento-gnathic sample available for intensive morphological investigation of the earliest Javanese hominids [Kaifu et al., 2005].

  13. Skeletal preservation of children's remains in the archaeological record.

    PubMed

    Manifold, B M

    2015-12-01

    Taphonomy is an important consideration in the reconstruction of past environments and events. Taphonomic alterations and processes are commonly encountered on human skeletal remains in both archaeological and forensic contexts. It is these processes that can alter the appearance of bone after death and the properties of the bones influence their reaction to these processes thus leading to differential preservation within a skeletal sample, none more so than the remains of children. This study investigates the skeletal preservation of 790 child and adolescent skeletons from six contrasting early and late medieval cemeteries from Britain in an attempt to assess whether geographical location and geology had an effect on the overall preservation of the skeletons. Skeletons were examined from six cemeteries, namely; Auldhame in Scotland, Edix Hill and Great Chesterford from Cambridgeshire; St Oswald's Priory from Gloucester and Wharram Percy from Yorkshire, and finally, the site of Llandough in Wales. The state of preservation was assessed using the anatomical preservation index (AP1), qualitative bone index (QBI) and the bone representation index (BRI). Also the presence of natural and artificial taphonomic processes was recorded for each skeleton. The results show a specific pattern of preservation and representation for non-adult remains across all sites with some differences in the states of preservation from different geographical locations and geological influences. Children under two years of age were found to be less affected by taphonomic processes than their older counterparts.

  14. Microsatellites identify depredated waterfowl remains from glaucous gull stomachs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scribner, K.T.; Bowman, Timothy D.

    1998-01-01

    Prey remains can provide valuable sources of information regarding causes of predation and the species composition of a predator's diet. Unfortunately, the highly degraded state of many prey samples from gastrointestinal tracts often precludes unambiguous identification. We describe a procedure by which PCR amplification of taxonomically informative microsatellite loci were used to identify species of waterfowl predated by glaucous gulls (Larus hyperboreus). We found that one microsatellite locus unambiguously distinguished between species of the subfamily Anserinae (whistling ducks, geese and swans) and those of the subfamily Anatidae (all other ducks). An additional locus distinguished the remains of all geese and swan species known to nest on the Yukon-Kuskokwim delta in western Alaska. The study focused on two waterfowl species which have experienced precipitous declines in population numbers: emperor geese (Chen canagica) and spectacled eiders (Somateria fischeri). No evidence of predation on spectacled eiders was observed. Twenty-six percent of all glaucous gull stomachs examined contained the remains of juvenile emperor geese.

  15. Genetic analysis of modern and historical burned human remains.

    PubMed

    von Wurmb-Schwark, Nicole; Ringleb, Arne; Gebühr, Michael; Simeoni, Eva

    2005-03-01

    Burning of corpses is a well-known funeral procedure that has been performed for a long time in many cultures. Nowadays more and more corpses are burned in crematories and buried in urns, often for practical and financial reasons. In some scientific, criminal or civil cases even after cremation there is the need of genetic investigations for identification or paternity testing. Furthermore, burned remains are the only remains left in North Europe from 1200 BC to 500 AD. This makes genetic investigation of those materials interesting for anthropological reasons. We present on one hand a systematic investigation of 10 corpses before and after the cremation and on the other hand the analysis of seven historical remains representing the bronze age. We chose the ground bone powder and the less destroyed bone parts respectively and employed a slightly modified commercially available DNA extraction method. The presence of human nuclear and mitochondrial DNA was tested by a simple but highly sensitive Duplex-PCR. DNA quantification was done using real time PCR, and genetic typing was tried out using the AmpFISTR Identifiler Multiplex Kit, followed by an automatic analysis on an AbiPrism310.

  16. Prognostic modelling options for remaining useful life estimation by industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sikorska, J. Z.; Hodkiewicz, M.; Ma, L.

    2011-07-01

    Over recent years a significant amount of research has been undertaken to develop prognostic models that can be used to predict the remaining useful life of engineering assets. Implementations by industry have only had limited success. By design, models are subject to specific assumptions and approximations, some of which are mathematical, while others relate to practical implementation issues such as the amount of data required to validate and verify a proposed model. Therefore, appropriate model selection for successful practical implementation requires not only a mathematical understanding of each model type, but also an appreciation of how a particular business intends to utilise a model and its outputs. This paper discusses business issues that need to be considered when selecting an appropriate modelling approach for trial. It also presents classification tables and process flow diagrams to assist industry and research personnel select appropriate prognostic models for predicting the remaining useful life of engineering assets within their specific business environment. The paper then explores the strengths and weaknesses of the main prognostics model classes to establish what makes them better suited to certain applications than to others and summarises how each have been applied to engineering prognostics. Consequently, this paper should provide a starting point for young researchers first considering options for remaining useful life prediction. The models described in this paper are Knowledge-based (expert and fuzzy), Life expectancy (stochastic and statistical), Artificial Neural Networks, and Physical models.

  17. Hospital nurses' intentions to remain: exploring a northern context.

    PubMed

    Tallman, Rick; Bruning, Nealia S

    2005-01-01

    Retaining nurses is of significant concern to all hospitals but even more of a concern to northern and rural hospital managers. This study provides insights into factors related to nurses' intentions to remain. A sample of 122 nurses from 13 northern hospitals in Western Canada participated in the study. The nurses completed questionnaires and participated in structured interviews. A model was proposed which suggested that work experiences (job and decision latitude, feedback, perceptions of how viewed and treated by others, fairness of policies, and safety of the job environment) would be related to job satisfaction and then affective commitment. Age and tenure, and ties to the community were proposed as predictors of continuance commitment. Both affective and continuance commitments were expected to be related to intention to remain in the hospital. The model was partially supported by regression analyses. Work experiences predicted job satisfaction and affective commitment. Affective commitment, continuance commitment, and ties to the community are related to nurses' intentions to remain. Supplemental analyses indicated that the strongest relationships were found for management's views and treatment of nurses, knowledge and ability utilization, safe environment, and fairness of organizational policies.

  18. Compensating Losses in Bridge Employment? Examining Relations between Compensation Strategies, Health Problems, and Intention to Remain at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muller, Andreas; De Lange, Annet; Weigl, Matthias; Oxfart, Caroline; Van der Heijden, Beatrice

    2013-01-01

    In order to better understand the precursors of bridge employment, this study aimed to investigate whether individual action strategies in terms of selection, optimization, and compensation (SOC; Baltes & Baltes, 1990) are able to buffer the well-known negative impact of poor health on the intention to remain in the workforce. 784 employees (60-85…

  19. 77 FR 37862 - Open-Circuit Self-Contained Breathing Apparatus Remaining Service-Life Indicator Performance...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-25

    .... ACTION: Notice of proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: As a component of its ongoing update of respirator...) remaining service-life indicators (indicators), which are devices built into a respirator to alert the user that the breathing air provided by the respirator is close to depletion. HHS intends to revise...

  20. Symptomatic obstruction of the brachiocephalic and left subclavian arteries obscured by aortic stenosis.

    PubMed

    Hashim, Peter W; Assi, Roland; Grecu, Loreta; Dardik, Alan

    2014-04-01

    Stenosis or occlusion of the brachiocephalic artery represents an uncommon cause of cerebrovascular insufficiency. We report a patient with combined brachiocephalic and left subclavian obstruction with clinical manifestations of lightheadedness, syncope, and left-sided weakness who remained misdiagnosed essentially because of symmetrical pressures in the upper extremities. Aortic valve replacement for aortic stenosis failed to provide symptomatic relief. Eventual stenting of the brachiocephalic trunk resolved the patient's symptoms. Our report highlights the diagnostic challenges in this case of bilateral supraaortic vessel disease and shows that equal upper extremity pressures do not rule out brachiocephalic artery obstruction.

  1. Imaging through obscurants with a heterodyne detection-based ladar system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reibel, Randy R.; Roos, Peter A.; Kaylor, Brant M.; Berg, Trenton J.; Curry, James R.

    2014-06-01

    Bridger Photonics has been researching and developing a ladar system based on heterodyne detection for imaging through brownout and other DVEs. There are several advantages that an FMCW ladar system provides compared to direct detect pulsed time-of-flight systems including: 1) Higher average powers, 2) Single photon sensitive while remaining tolerant to strong return signals, 3) Doppler sensitivity for clutter removal, and 4) More flexible system for sensing during various stages of flight. In this paper, we provide a review of our sensor, discuss lessons learned during various DVE tests, and show our latest 3D imagery.

  2. Emerging from obscurity: biological, clinical, and diagnostic aspects of Dientamoeba fragilis.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Eugene H; Windsor, Jeffrey J; Clark, C Graham

    2004-07-01

    Ever since its first description in 1918, Dientamoeba fragilis has struggled to gain recognition as a significant pathogen. There is little justification for this neglect, however, since there exists a growing body of case reports from numerous countries around the world that have linked this protozoal parasite to clinical manifestations such as diarrhea, abdominal pain, flatulence, and anorexia. A number of studies have even incriminated D. fragilis as a cause of irritable bowel syndrome, allergic colitis, and diarrhea in human immunodeficiency virus patients. Although D. fragilis is most commonly identified using permanently stained fecal smears, recent advances in culturing techniques are simplifying as well as improving the ability of investigators to detect this organism. However, there are limitations in the use of cultures since they cannot be performed on fecal samples that have been fixed. Significant progress has been made in the biological classification of this organism, which originally was described as an ameba. Analyses of small-subunit rRNA gene sequences have clearly demonstrated its close relationship to Histomonas, and it is now known to be a trichomonad. How the organism is transmitted remains a mystery, although there is some evidence that D. fragilis might be transmitted via the ova of the pinworm, Enterobius vermicularis. Also, it remains to be answered whether the two distinct genotypes of D. fragilis recently identified represent organisms with differing virulence.

  3. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays*

    PubMed Central

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries - particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing. PMID:27579761

  4. Leprosy: ancient disease remains a public health problem nowadays.

    PubMed

    Noriega, Leandro Fonseca; Chiacchio, Nilton Di; Noriega, Angélica Fonseca; Pereira, Gilmayara Alves Abreu Maciel; Vieira, Marina Lino

    2016-01-01

    Despite being an ancient disease, leprosy remains a public health problem in several countries -particularly in India, Brazil and Indonesia. The current operational guidelines emphasize the evaluation of disability from the time of diagnosis and stipulate as fundamental principles for disease control: early detection and proper treatment. Continued efforts are needed to establish and improve quality leprosy services. A qualified primary care network that is integrated into specialized service and the development of educational activities are part of the arsenal in the fight against the disease, considered neglected and stigmatizing.

  5. Global health inequity: scientific challenges remain but can be solved

    PubMed Central

    Dahl, Carol A.; Yamada, Tadataka

    2008-01-01

    Advances in science and technology have transformed the health of the populations of the developed world, with substantial increases in life expectancy and reductions in morbidity. These advances have not, however, touched the lives of the poorest people of the world — the billions living in developing countries. This Review Series on global health highlights the key factors contributing to inequity in health across the globe and the scientific questions that remain unanswered but are critical to creating effective and appropriate health solutions. The gaps in knowledge identified in this series point the way for scientists to contribute to a changed world. PMID:18382736

  6. Research potential and limitations of trace analyses of cremated remains.

    PubMed

    Harbeck, Michaela; Schleuder, Ramona; Schneider, Julius; Wiechmann, Ingrid; Schmahl, Wolfgang W; Grupe, Gisela

    2011-01-30

    Human cremation is a common funeral practice all over the world and will presumably become an even more popular choice for interment in the future. Mainly for purposes of identification, there is presently a growing need to perform trace analyses such as DNA or stable isotope analyses on human remains after cremation in order to clarify pending questions in civil or criminal court cases. The aim of this study was to experimentally test the potential and limitations of DNA and stable isotope analyses when conducted on cremated remains. For this purpose, tibiae from modern cattle were experimentally cremated by incinerating the bones in increments of 100°C until a maximum of 1000°C was reached. In addition, cremated human remains were collected from a modern crematory. The samples were investigated to determine level of DNA preservation and stable isotope values (C and N in collagen, C and O in the structural carbonate, and Sr in apatite). Furthermore, we assessed the integrity of microstructural organization, appearance under UV-light, collagen content, as well as the mineral and crystalline organization. This was conducted in order to provide a general background with which to explain observed changes in the trace analyses data sets. The goal is to develop an efficacious screening method for determining at which degree of burning bone still retains its original biological signals. We found that stable isotope analysis of the tested light elements in bone is only possible up to a heat exposure of 300°C while the isotopic signal from strontium remains unaltered even in bones exposed to very high temperatures. DNA-analyses seem theoretically possible up to a heat exposure of 600°C but can not be advised in every case because of the increased risk of contamination. While the macroscopic colour and UV-fluorescence of cremated bone give hints to temperature exposure of the bone's outer surface, its histological appearance can be used as a reliable indicator for the

  7. [Identification of the cadaveric remains of Josef Mengele].

    PubMed

    Helmer, R

    1986-01-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined in order to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz Concentration Camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently in all details to the exhumed skull.

  8. Identification of the cadaver remains of Josef Mengele.

    PubMed

    Helmer, R P

    1987-11-01

    In 1985 at the cemetery in Embu near Sao Paulo, Brazil, parts of a skeleton were exhumed, and now these parts have been examined to determine whether they are the remains of the corpse of Dr. Josef Mengele, the camp doctor of the Auschwitz concentration camp. The osteometrical and osteological findings ascertained correspond completely and consistently without contradiction with all the available personal data of Josef Mengele. Through a method of electronic visual mixing for the identification of the skull, it was determined that all the authentic pictures available used for comparison correspond definitely and consistently to the exhumed skull.

  9. Encephalitozoon cuniculi in Raw Cow's Milk Remains Infectious After Pasteurization.

    PubMed

    Kváč, Martin; Tomanová, Vendula; Samková, Eva; Koubová, Jana; Kotková, Michaela; Hlásková, Lenka; McEvoy, John; Sak, Bohumil

    2016-02-01

    This study describes the prevalence of Encephalitozoon cuniculi in raw cow's milk and evaluates the effect of different milk pasteurization treatments on E. cuniculi infectivity for severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice. Using a nested polymerase chain reaction approach, 1 of 50 milking cows was found to repeatedly shed E. cuniculi in its feces and milk. Under experimental conditions, E. cuniculi spores in milk remained infective for SCID mice following pasteurization treatments at 72 °C for 15 s or 85 °C for 5 s. Based on these findings, pasteurized cow's milk should be considered a potential source of E. cuniculi infection in humans.

  10. Kidney disease in children: latest advances and remaining challenges.

    PubMed

    Bertram, John F; Goldstein, Stuart L; Pape, Lars; Schaefer, Franz; Shroff, Rukshana C; Warady, Bradley A

    2016-03-01

    To mark World Kidney Day 2016, Nature Reviews Nephrology invited six leading researchers to highlight the key advances and challenges within their specialist field of paediatric nephrology. Here, advances and remaining challenges in the fields of prenatal patterning, acute kidney injury, renal transplantation, genetics, cardiovascular health, and growth and nutrition, are all discussed within the context of paediatric and neonatal patients with kidney disease. Our global panel of researchers describe areas in which further studies and clinical advances are needed, and suggest ways in which research in these areas should progress to optimize renal care and long-term outcomes for affected patients.

  11. Remaining challenges in childhood cancer and newer targeted therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Smith, Malcolm A; Reaman, Gregory H

    2015-02-01

    Despite the enormously important and gratifying advances in cancer treatment outcomes for children with cancer, cancer remains the biggest cause of death from disease in children. Because the etiology and biology of cancers that occur in children differ dramatically from those that occur in adults, the immediate extrapolation of efficacy and safety of new cancer drugs to childhood cancer indications is not possible. We discuss factors that will play key roles in guiding pediatric oncologists as they select lines of research to pursue in their quest for more effective treatments for children with cancer.

  12. Studies on protozoa in ancient remains - A Review

    PubMed Central

    Frías, Liesbeth; Leles, Daniela; Araújo, Adauto

    2013-01-01

    Paleoparasitological research has made important contributions to the understanding of parasite evolution and ecology. Although parasitic protozoa exhibit a worldwide distribution, recovering these organisms from an archaeological context is still exceptional and relies on the availability and distribution of evidence, the ecology of infectious diseases and adequate detection techniques. Here, we present a review of the findings related to protozoa in ancient remains, with an emphasis on their geographical distribution in the past and the methodologies used for their retrieval. The development of more sensitive detection methods has increased the number of identified parasitic species, promising interesting insights from research in the future. PMID:23440107

  13. "Recent" macrofossil remains from the Lomonosov Ridge, central Arctic Ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Duc, Cynthia; de Vernal, Anne; Archambault, Philippe; Brice, Camille; Roberge, Philippe

    2016-04-01

    The examination of surface sediment samples collected from 17 sites along the Lomonosov Ridge at water depths ranging from 737 to 3339 meters during Polarstern Expedition PS87 in 2014 (Stein, 2015), indicates a rich biogenic content almost exclusively dominated by calcareous remains. Amongst biogenic remains, microfossils (planktic and benthic foraminifers, pteropods, ostracods, etc.) dominate but millimetric to centrimetric macrofossils occurred frequently at the surface of the sediment. The macrofossil remains consist of a large variety of taxa, including gastropods, bivalvia, polychaete tubes, scaphopods, echinoderm plates and spines, and fish otoliths. Among the Bivalvia, the most abundant taxa are Portlandia arctica, Hyalopecten frigidus, Cuspidaria glacilis, Policordia densicostata, Bathyarca spp., and Yoldiella spp. Whereas a few specimens are well preserved and apparently pristine, most mollusk shells displayed extensive alteration features. Moreover, most shells were covered by millimeter scale tubes of the serpulid polychaete Spirorbis sp. suggesting transport from low intertidal or subtidal zone. Both the ecological affinity and known geographic distribution of identified bivalvia as named above support the hypothesis of transportation rather than local development. In addition to mollusk shells, more than a hundred fish otoliths were recovered in surface sediments. The otoliths mostly belong to the Gadidae family. Most of them are well preserved and without serpulid tubes attached to their surface, suggesting a local/regional origin, unlike the shell remains. Although recovered at the surface, the macrofaunal assemblages of the Lomonosov Ridge do not necessarily represent the "modern" environments as they may result from reworking and because their occurrence at the surface of the sediment may also be due to winnowing of finer particles. Although the shells were not dated, we suspect that their actual ages may range from modern to several thousands of

  14. Direct Assistance: USAID Has Taken Positive Action to Assess Afghan Ministries’ Ability to Manage Donor Funds, but Concerns Remain

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-01-01

    public release; distribution unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT 15. SUBJECT TERMS 16 . SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF: 17. LIMITATION OF...Ernst & Young and KPMG in late 2010 and early 2011 to assess 16 Afghan ministries’ abilities to manage U.S. funds. In addition, to help ensure the...Young and KPMG completed public financial management assessments of 16 Afghan ministries. Both contractors, who met almost all contract requirements

  15. A Historical Analysis of United States Prisoner of War/Missing in Action Repatriation and Remains Recovery.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Fifth, the unfolding Watergate scandal , in effect, reversed the results of the 1972 election and made congressional approval of Nixon Administration...Congress.46 This lack of leverage was also affected by the increasing debilitating effects of the Watergate scandal on the Nixon Presidency. Support of...Asia had become. Politically, the Nixon 89 Administration was unraveling as the allegations of Watergate crept onto the scene and Congress

  16. Observing Joint Action: Coordination Creates Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Michael, John; Sebanz, Natalie; Knoblich, Günther

    2016-01-01

    Previous research has shown that interpersonal coordination enhances pro-social attitudes and behavior. Here, we extend this research by investigating whether the degree of coordination observed in a joint action enhances the perception of individuals’ commitment to the joint action. In four experiments, participants viewed videos of joint actions. In the low coordination condition, two agents made independent individual contributions to a joint action. In the high coordination condition, the individual contributions were tightly linked. Participants judged whether and for how long the observed agents would resist a tempting outside option and remain engaged in the joint action. The results showed that participants were more likely to expect agents to resist outside options when observing joint actions with a high degree of coordination. This indicates that observing interpersonal coordination is sufficient to enhance the perception of commitment to joint action. PMID:27610745

  17. Ambient aerosols remain highly acidic despite dramatic sulfate reductions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nenes, Athanasios; Weber, Rodney; Guo, Hongyu; Russell, Armistead

    2016-04-01

    The pH of fine particles has many vital environmental impacts. By affecting aerosol concentrations, chemical composition and toxicity, particle pH is linked to regional air quality and climate, and adverse effects on human health. Sulfate is often the main acid component that drives pH of fine particles (i.e., PM2.5) and is neutralized to varying degrees by gas phase ammonia. Sulfate levels have decreased by approximately 70% over the Southeastern United States in the last fifteen years, but measured ammonia levels have been fairly steady implying the aerosol may becoming more neutral. Using a chemically comprehensive data set, combined with a thermodynamic analysis, we show that PM2.5 in the Southeastern U.S. is highly acidic (pH between 0 and 2), and that pH has remained relatively unchanged throughout the past decade and a half of decreasing sulfate. Even with further sulfate reductions, pH buffering by gas-particle partitioning of ammonia is expected to continue until sulfate drops to near background levels, indicating that fine particle pH will remain near current levels into the future. These results are non-intuitive and reshape expectations of how sulfur emission reductions impact air quality in the Southeastern U.S. and possibly other regions across the globe.

  18. Prions and lymphoid organs: solved and remaining mysteries.

    PubMed

    O'Connor, Tracy; Aguzzi, Adriano

    2013-01-01

    Prion colonization of secondary lymphoid organs (SLOs) is a critical step preceding neuroinvasion in prion pathogenesis. Follicular dendritic cells (FDCs), which depend on both tumor necrosis factor receptor 1 (TNFR1) and lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR) signaling for maintenance, are thought to be the primary sites of prion accumulation in SLOs. However, prion titers in RML-infected TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes and rates of neuroinvasion in TNFR1 (-/-) mice remain high despite the absence of mature FDCs. Recently, we discovered that TNFR1-independent prion accumulation in lymph nodes relies on LTβR signaling. Loss of LTβR signaling in TNFR1 (-/-) lymph nodes coincided with the de-differentiation of high endothelial venules (HEVs)-the primary sites of lymphocyte entry into lymph nodes. These findings suggest that HEVs are the sites through which prions initially invade lymph nodes from the bloodstream. Identification of HEVs as entry portals for prions clarifies a number of previous observations concerning peripheral prion pathogenesis. However, a number of questions still remain: What is the mechanism by which prions are taken up by HEVs? Which cells are responsible for delivering prions to lymph nodes? Are HEVs the main entry site for prions into lymph nodes or do alternative routes also exist? These questions and others are considered in this article.

  19. Reconstructing fish populations using Chaoborus (Diptera: Chaoboridae) remains a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sweetman, Jon N.; Smol, John P.

    2006-08-01

    Fish are an important component of many lakes, and a valuable resource in many countries, yet knowledge of how fish populations have fluctuated in the past is very limited. One potential source of information on fisheries dynamics is paleolimnology. This paper reviews the use of the sedimentary remains of the dipteran insect Chaoborus (commonly referred to as the phantom midge) in reconstructing past presence or absence of fish populations. We provide a brief overview of the ecology of Chaoborus larvae, and review the factors believed to be important in determining their distribution and abundance. In particular, we outline the important role fish have in structuring chaoborid assemblages. We highlight several recent studies utilizing Chaoborus remains in reconstructing past fish dynamics, including their use in determining the effects of acidification and piscicide additions on fish populations, and to tracing fish introductions into previously fishless lakes. We conclude by discussing the potential applications of other aquatic invertebrates, such as the Cladocera and Chironomidae, to infer changes in fish populations, and suggest that by integrating the information provided by these different proxies, we may further improve our ability to infer changes in past fish populations.

  20. Double-shell tank remaining useful life estimates

    SciTech Connect

    Anantatmula, R.P., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    The existing 28 double-shell tanks (DSTS) at Hanford are currently planned to continue operation through the year 2028 when disposal schedules show removal of waste. This schedule will place the DSTs in a service life window of 4O to 60 years depending on tank construction date and actual retirement date. This paper examines corrosion- related life-limiting conditions of DSTs and reports the results of remaining useful life models developed for estimating remaining tank life. Three models based on controllable parameters such as temperature, chemistry, and relative humidity are presented for estimates to the year in which a particular DST may receive a breach in the primary tank due to pitting in the liquid or vapor region. Pitting is believed to be the life-limiting condition for DSTs,however, the region of the most aggressive pitting (vapor space or liquid) requires further investigation. The results of the models presented suggest none of the existing DSTs should fail by through-wall pitting until well beyond scheduled retrieval in 2028. The estimates of tank breach years (the year in which a tank may be expected to breach the primary tank wall) range from 2056 for pitting corrosion in the liquid region of tank 104-AW to beyond the next millennium for several tanks in the vapor region.

  1. Medulloblastoma subgroups remain stable across primary and metastatic compartments.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Dubuc, Adrian M; Ramaswamy, Vijay; Mack, Stephen; Gendoo, Deena M A; Remke, Marc; Wu, Xiaochong; Garzia, Livia; Luu, Betty; Cavalli, Florence; Peacock, John; López, Borja; Skowron, Patryk; Zagzag, David; Lyden, David; Hoffman, Caitlin; Cho, Yoon-Jae; Eberhart, Charles; MacDonald, Tobey; Li, Xiao-Nan; Van Meter, Timothy; Northcott, Paul A; Haibe-Kains, Benjamin; Hawkins, Cynthia; Rutka, James T; Bouffet, Eric; Pfister, Stefan M; Korshunov, Andrey; Taylor, Michael D

    2015-03-01

    Medulloblastoma comprises four distinct molecular variants with distinct genetics, transcriptomes, and outcomes. Subgroup affiliation has been previously shown to remain stable at the time of recurrence, which likely reflects their distinct cells of origin. However, a therapeutically relevant question that remains unanswered is subgroup stability in the metastatic compartment. We assembled a cohort of 12-paired primary-metastatic tumors collected in the MAGIC consortium, and established their molecular subgroup affiliation by performing integrative gene expression and DNA methylation analysis. Frozen tissues were collected and profiled using Affymetrix gene expression arrays and Illumina methylation arrays. Class prediction and hierarchical clustering were performed using existing published datasets. Our molecular analysis, using consensus integrative genomic data, establishes the unequivocal maintenance of molecular subgroup affiliation in metastatic medulloblastoma. We further validated these findings by interrogating a non-overlapping cohort of 19 pairs of primary-metastatic tumors from the Burdenko Neurosurgical Institute using an orthogonal technique of immunohistochemical staining. This investigation represents the largest reported primary-metastatic paired cohort profiled to date and provides a unique opportunity to evaluate subgroup-specific molecular aberrations within the metastatic compartment. Our findings further support the hypothesis that medulloblastoma subgroups arise from distinct cells of origin, which are carried forward from ontogeny to oncology.

  2. Detection of Buried Human Remains Using Bioreporter Fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Vass, A. Dr.; Singleton, G. B.

    2001-10-01

    The search for buried human remains is a difficult, laborious and time-consuming task for law enforcement agencies. This study was conducted as a proof of principle demonstration to test the concept of using bioreporter microorganisms as a means to cover large areas in such a search. These bioreporter microorganisms are affected by a particular component of decaying organic matter that is distinct from decaying vegetation. The diamino compounds cadaverine and putrescine were selected as target compounds for the proof-of-principle investigation, and a search for microorganisms and genes that are responsive to either of these compounds was conducted. One recombinant clone was singled out for characterization based on its response to putrescine. The study results show that small concentrations of putrescine increased expression from this bioreporter construct. Although the level of increase was small (making it difficult to distinguish the signal from background), the results demonstrate the principle that bioreporters can be used to detect compounds resulting from decaying human remains and suggest that a wider search for target compounds should be conducted.

  3. CO2 studies remain key to understanding a future world.

    PubMed

    Becklin, Katie M; Walker, S Michael; Way, Danielle A; Ward, Joy K

    2017-04-01

    Contents 34 I. 34 II. 36 III. 37 IV. 37 V. 38 38 References 38 SUMMARY: Characterizing plant responses to past, present and future changes in atmospheric carbon dioxide concentration ([CO2 ]) is critical for understanding and predicting the consequences of global change over evolutionary and ecological timescales. Previous CO2 studies have provided great insights into the effects of rising [CO2 ] on leaf-level gas exchange, carbohydrate dynamics and plant growth. However, scaling CO2 effects across biological levels, especially in field settings, has proved challenging. Moreover, many questions remain about the fundamental molecular mechanisms driving plant responses to [CO2 ] and other global change factors. Here we discuss three examples of topics in which significant questions in CO2 research remain unresolved: (1) mechanisms of CO2 effects on plant developmental transitions; (2) implications of rising [CO2 ] for integrated plant-water dynamics and drought tolerance; and (3) CO2 effects on symbiotic interactions and eco-evolutionary feedbacks. Addressing these and other key questions in CO2 research will require collaborations across scientific disciplines and new approaches that link molecular mechanisms to complex physiological and ecological interactions across spatiotemporal scales.

  4. OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    OVERVIEW OF CYANIDE PLANT REMAINS, TAILINGS PILES, PARKING LOT, AND MINE MANAGER'S HOME, LOOKING SOUTH SOUTHEAST. RIGHT, TAILINGS PILES ARE AT CENTER WITH CYANIDE PLANT FOUNDATIONS TO THE LEFT OF THE PILES. PARKING LOT IS AT UPPER LEFT. THE AREA BETWEEN THE COLLAPSED TANK AT CENTER LEFT AND THE REMAINS OF THE MANAGER'S HOUSE AT LOWER RIGHT IS A TAILINGS HOLDING AREA. TAILINGS FROM THE MILL WERE HELD HERE. THE LARGE SETTLING TANKS WERE CHARGED FROM THIS HOLDING AREA BY A TRAM ON RAILS AND BY A SLUICEWAY SEEN AS THE DARK SPOT ON THE CENTER LEFT EDGE OF THE FRAME. AFTER THE TAILINGS WERE LEACHED, THEY WERE DEPOSITED ON THE LARGE WASTE PILE AT CENTER RIGHT. THE TANK AT CENTER RIGHT EDGE IS WHERE THE WATER PIPELINE ENTERED THE WORKS. A STRAIGHT LINE OF POSTS IN THE GROUND GO ACROSS THE CENTER FROM LEFT TO RIGHT, WHICH ORIGINALLY SUSPENDED THE WATER PIPELINE GOING FROM THE WATER HOLDING TANK AT RIGHT UP TO THE SECONDARY WATER TANKS ABOVE THE MILL. - Keane Wonder Mine, Park Route 4 (Daylight Pass Cutoff), Death Valley Junction, Inyo County, CA

  5. The biomedicalisation of war and military remains: US nuclear worker compensation in the 'post-Cold War'.

    PubMed

    Krupar, Shiloh

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyses the recent legislation and administration of United States nuclear worker compensation--the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Programme Act (EEOICPA)--in order to show the domestic impacts of war and the social order that has been established to respond to the Cold War legacy of occupational exposures, illness, and death. Examining the epistemological politics and material effects of compensation, an insufficiently analysed aspect of the Cold War, I argue that the system designed to redress the occupational exposures of nuclear workers accomplishes something else: obscuring the ethical problem of misinformation and missing data from the Cold War era; mobilising an industry of knowledge and market-economic opportunities in the arena of biomedical exposure assessment and dose reconstruction for parts of the former US nuclear complex; and, lastly, dematerialising and depoliticising geographies of the Cold War and its differential impacts through an individualistic epidemiological reprocessing of radiation exposures. The paper shows how the general claims procedure, combined with two methods mandated by EEOICPA--dose reconstruction and the probability of causation--effectively de-link workers from each other, and worksites from homes, pin compensation to a cost-benefit logic, implicate genuine scientific complexity and uncertainty in an ongoing denial of the toxic legacies of war, and ethically undermine the social justice aims of the legislation. The article ends by considering some of the ways that US nuclear workers have responded to living as the remains of both US bomb production and the compensation system.

  6. Cranial Remain from Tunisia Provides New Clues for the Origin and Evolution of Sirenia (Mammalia, Afrotheria) in Africa

    PubMed Central

    Benoit, Julien; Adnet, Sylvain; El Mabrouk, Essid; Khayati, Hayet; Ben Haj Ali, Mustapha; Marivaux, Laurent; Merzeraud, Gilles; Merigeaud, Samuel; Vianey-Liaud, Monique; Tabuce, Rodolphe

    2013-01-01

    Sea cows (manatees, dugongs) are the only living marine mammals to feed solely on aquatic plants. Unlike whales or dolphins (Cetacea), the earliest evolutionary history of sirenians is poorly documented, and limited to a few fossils including skulls and skeletons of two genera composing the stem family of Prorastomidae (Prorastomus and Pezosiren). Surprisingly, these fossils come from the Eocene of Jamaica, while stem Hyracoidea and Proboscidea - the putative sister-groups to Sirenia - are recorded in Africa as early as the Late Paleocene. So far, the historical biogeography of early Sirenia has remained obscure given this paradox between phylogeny and fossil record. Here we use X-ray microtomography to investigate a newly discovered sirenian petrosal from the Eocene of Tunisia. This fossil represents the oldest occurrence of sirenians in Africa. The morphology of this petrosal is more primitive than the Jamaican prorastomids’ one, which emphasizes the basal position of this new African taxon within the Sirenia clade. This discovery testifies to the great antiquity of Sirenia in Africa, and therefore supports their African origin. While isotopic analyses previously suggested sirenians had adapted directly to the marine environment, new paleoenvironmental evidence suggests that basal-most sea cows were likely restricted to fresh waters. PMID:23342128

  7. Contingency blindness: location-identity binding mismatches obscure awareness of spatial contingencies and produce profound interference in visual working memory.

    PubMed

    Fiacconi, Chris M; Milliken, Bruce

    2012-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to highlight the role of location-identity binding mismatches in obscuring explicit awareness of a strong contingency. In a spatial-priming procedure, we introduced a high likelihood of location-repeat trials. Experiments 1, 2a, and 2b demonstrated that participants' explicit awareness of this contingency was heavily influenced by the local match in location-identity bindings. In Experiment 3, we sought to determine why location-identity binding mismatches produce such low levels of contingency awareness. Our results suggest that binding mismatches can interfere substantially with visual-memory performance. We attribute the low levels of contingency awareness to participants' inability to remember the critical location-identity binding in the prime on a trial-to-trial basis. These results imply a close interplay between object files and visual working memory.

  8. Single incision laparoscopic surgery approach for obscure small intestine bleeding localized by CT guided percutaneous injection of methylene blue

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Juan Carlos; Thomas, Jamie L.; Lukaszczyk, John J.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Traditionally, localization of small intestine sources of obscure gastrointestinal bleeding has been a challenge. Advances in the field of endoscopy with the introduction of capsule endoscopy and radiographic imaging with computed tomography angiography and visceral angiography have facilitated more accurate visualization of the small intestine. If a bleeding lesion is identified on angiography and surgery is indicated, the use of methylene blue for enteric mapping is very effective to aid intraoperative localization of the culprit. However, when this is not an option, more invasive surgical techniques are required. PRESENTATION OF CASE We present a new technique used in a patient with angiodysplasia of the small intestine, in where preoperative localization was done using percutaneous computed tomography (CT) guided injection of methylene blue dye. This allowed us to perform a single incision laparoscopic small intestine resection of the culprit. PMID:25460480

  9. Design of off-axis four-mirror optical system without obscuration based on free-form surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Chenxu; Liu, Xin

    2015-11-01

    With the development of modern military technology, the requirements of airborne electro-optical search and tracking system are increasing on target detection and recognition. However, traditional off-axis three-mirror system couldn't meet the requirements for reducing weight and compacting size in some circumstances. Based on Seidel aberration theory, by restricting the aberration functions, the optical system could achieve initial construction parameters. During the designing process, decenters and tilts of mirrors were adjusted continuously to eliminate the obscurations. To balance off-axis aberration and increase angle of view, the free-form mirror was introduced into the optical system. Then an unobstructed optical system with effective focal length of 100 mm, FOV of 16°×16°, and relative aperture as F/7 is designed. The results show that the system structure is compact, with imaging qualities approaching diffraction limit.

  10. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  11. Storm-Related Postmortem Damage to Skeletal Remains.

    PubMed

    Maijanen, Heli; Wilson-Taylor, Rebecca J; Jantz, Lee Meadows

    2016-05-01

    In April 2011, human skeletons were exposed to heavy storms at the outdoor Anthropology Research Facility (ARF) in Knoxville, Tennessee. Of the approximate 125 skeletons at the ARF in April 2011, 30 donations exhibited postmortem damage that could be attributed to the storms. At least 20 of the affected donations exhibit postmortem damage clearly associated with hailstones due to the oval shape and similar small size of the defects observed. The irregular shape and larger size of other defects may be a product of other falling objects (e.g., tree branches) associated with the storms. Storm-related damage was observed throughout the skeleton, with the most commonly damaged skeletal elements being the scapula and ilium, but more robust elements (i.e., femora and tibiae) also displayed characteristic features of hailstone damage. Thus, hailstone damage should be considered when forensic practitioners observe unusual postmortem damage in skeletal remains recovered from the outdoor context.

  12. Advances and remaining challenges in adult literacy research.

    PubMed

    Miller, Brett; McCardle, Peggy; Hernandez, Ricardo

    2010-01-01

    Low literacy levels in adult learners pose an educational and public health challenge to practitioners and the scientific community. Increasing demands placed on literacy can limit opportunities in the workplace and access to health-related resources, negatively affecting public health. Current estimates from the National Center for Education Statistics suggest that more than 40 million adults in the United States possess only the most basic and concrete literacy skills. Despite the estimated number of learners possessing minimal literacy skills in English in the United States, there remains a paucity of research focused on adult learners to inform remediation efforts. This special issue of the Journal of Learning Disabilities represents an important step in highlighting the current scientific knowledge base and the implications for future directions and lines of inquiry with adult learners.

  13. Activated chemoreceptor arrays remain intact and hexagonally packed

    PubMed Central

    Briegel, Ariane; Beeby, Morgan; Thanbichler, Martin; Jensen, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Bacterial chemoreceptors cluster into exquisitively sensitive, tunable, highly ordered, polar arrays. While these arrays serve as paradigms of cell signalling in general, it remains unclear what conformational changes transduce signals from the periplasmic tips, where attractants and repellents bind, to the cytoplasmic signalling domains. Conflicting reports support and contest the hypothesis that activation causes large changes in the packing arrangement of the arrays, up to and including their complete disassembly. Using electron cryotomography, here we show that in Caulobacter crescentus, chemoreceptor arrays in cells grown in different media and immediately after exposure to the attractant galactose all exhibit the same 12 nm hexagonal packing arrangement, array size and other structural parameters. ΔcheB and ΔcheR mutants mimicking attractant- or repellent-bound states prior to adaptation also show the same lattice structure. We conclude that signal transduction and amplification must be accomplished through only small, nanoscale conformational changes. PMID:21992450

  14. Hydrogen effect on remaining life of hydroprocessing reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Iwadate, T.; Nomura, T.; Watanabe, J.

    1988-02-01

    Old vintage 2.25Cr-1Mo steels used for high-temperature/pressure hydroprocessing reactors have a high potential for temper embrittlement. The cracks caused by hydrogen embrittlement (HE) have been experienced in a stainless steel overlay and base metal of hydroprocessing reactors. In this paper, the temper embrittlement behavior during long-term service is discussed using the results of isothermal temper embrittlement tests up to 30,000 h of exposure. HE susceptibility of base metals, i.e., the threshold stress intensity factor K/sub IH/ and hydrogen-assisted crack growth rate behavior are also discussed. Based on the experimental data obtained, the remaining life assessment of a 2.25Cr-1Mo steel hydroprocessing reactor is analyzed from knowledge of HE.

  15. Methodology in subliminal psychodynamic activation: basic questions remain unanswered.

    PubMed

    Fudin, Robert

    2002-04-01

    Birgegard and Sohlberg recently implied that the interchange between them and Fudin in 1999 to 2000 resolved methodological issues in subliminal psychodynamic activation research. There remain, however, unresolved problems, both logical and empirical, which impair interpretations of findings in this area. These issues include questions concerning the value of the presentation of partial vs complete messages and the parameters involved in the information processing of such stimuli. The pursuit of solutions to these problems would be most efficacious if such research were brought more in line with experimental principles and established procedures used in the presentation of subliminal stimuli. In the absence of these efforts, research in subliminal psychodynamic activation will probably continue to tend toward circular reasoning and the production of ambiguous results that will never reach a wide audience.

  16. Spinal diastematomyelia: a means of identification of charred remains.

    PubMed

    Beggan, Caitlin; Towers, Mark; Farrell, Michael; Jaber, Khalid

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of medico legal autopsy examination is the positive identification of the deceased in addition to the determination of the cause of death in most jurisdictions and additionally the manner of death in many jurisdictions. Notwithstanding the established and recognised value of DNA analysis in human identification, in the case of significant and extensive thermal injury in victims of fire, DNA analysis may prove difficult. Fire fatality identification can be assisted by alternative methods in this situation, including correlation between ante mortem and post mortem radiological investigations, identification of rare medical disease and or dental record examinations, where available. We describe a case where identification of charred human remains from a car fire was securely determined by demonstration of the presence of a rare congenital abnormality of the spinal cord, Diastematomyelia.

  17. Mining Cancer Transcriptomes: Bioinformatic Tools and the Remaining Challenges.

    PubMed

    Milan, Thomas; Wilhelm, Brian T

    2017-02-22

    The development of next-generation sequencing technologies has had a profound impact on the field of cancer genomics. With the enormous quantities of data being generated from tumor samples, researchers have had to rapidly adapt tools or develop new ones to analyse the raw data to maximize its value. While much of this effort has been focused on improving specific algorithms to get faster and more precise results, the accessibility of the final data for the research community remains a significant problem. Large amounts of data exist but are not easily available to researchers who lack the resources and experience to download and reanalyze them. In this article, we focus on RNA-seq analysis in the context of cancer genomics and discuss the bioinformatic tools available to explore these data. We also highlight the importance of developing new and more intuitive tools to provide easier access to public data and discuss the related issues of data sharing and patient privacy.

  18. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    PubMed Central

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices PMID:25417648

  19. Knowledge gaps in the epidemiology of Toxocara: the enigma remains.

    PubMed

    Holland, C V

    2017-01-01

    Toxocara species infect a wide range of companion, domestic and wild animals as definitive and paratenic hosts, via multiple routes of transmission, producing long-lived tissue-inhabiting larvae and resistant eggs that can survive in the external environment. Therefore Toxocara and the disease it causes in humans, toxocariasis, represents an ideal aetiological agent for the development of the one health approach. However, despite increasing awareness of the public health significance of toxocariasis, gaps in our understanding of certain key aspects of the parasite's biology and epidemiology remain. These gaps hinder our ability to integrate research effort within the veterinary, medical and environmental disciplines. This review will highlight key deficits in our understanding of nine dimensions of Toxocara epidemiology and discuss a potential scenario to develop a more integrated, one health approach to improve our understanding of the prevention and control of this complex and cryptic zoonosis.

  20. Lack of an energy policy remains a major barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, D.

    1991-03-01

    This paper reports that the war with Iraq provided a new dimension to the ongoing oil industry struggle to cope with oppressive government action and regulation. Coming as it did just before the administration was to announce guidelines for a long-awaited National Energy Strategy (NES), the war created a renewed and dramatic focus on the national energy security question. Now, numerous congressmen, senators and administration leaders are taking a fresh look at how the U.S. can extricate itself from excessive dependence on Middle East oil imports. For example, the planned free-trade agreement with Mexico could figure prominently in an alliance that would bring much more Mexican oil to the U.S. Meanwhile, the wild card is proposals to open up U.S. drilling offshore and in the Arctic National Wildlife Region (ANWR). Prior to hostilities, Middle East tensions brought on significant increases in the price of oil, and with it a large gain in oil company profits for fourth-quarter 1990. Result: talk in Congress of a new windfall profits tax.

  1. Reidentification of Avian Embryonic Remains from the Cretaceous of Mongolia

    PubMed Central

    Varricchio, David J.; Balanoff, Amy M.; Norell, Mark A.

    2015-01-01

    Embryonic remains within a small (4.75 by 2.23 cm) egg from the Late Cretaceous, Mongolia are here re-described. High-resolution X-ray computed tomography (HRCT) was used to digitally prepare and describe the enclosed embryonic bones. The egg, IGM (Mongolian Institute for Geology, Ulaanbaatar) 100/2010, with a three-part shell microstructure, was originally assigned to Neoceratopsia implying extensive homoplasy among eggshell characters across Dinosauria. Re-examination finds the forelimb significantly longer than the hindlimbs, proportions suggesting an avian identification. Additional, postcranial apomorphies (strut-like coracoid, cranially located humeral condyles, olecranon fossa, slender radius relative to the ulna, trochanteric crest on the femur, and ulna longer than the humerus) identify the embryo as avian. Presence of a dorsal coracoid fossa and a craniocaudally compressed distal humerus with a strongly angled distal margin support a diagnosis of IGM 100/2010 as an enantiornithine. Re-identification eliminates the implied homoplasy of this tri-laminate eggshell structure, and instead associates enantiornithine birds with eggshell microstructure composed of a mammillary, squamatic, and external zones. Posture of the embryo follows that of other theropods with fore- and hindlimbs folded parallel to the vertebral column and the elbow pointing caudally just dorsal to the knees. The size of the egg and embryo of IGM 100/2010 is similar to the two other Mongolian enantiornithine eggs. Well-ossified skeletons, as in this specimen, characterize all known enantiornithine embryos suggesting precocial hatchlings, comparing closely to late stage embryos of modern precocial birds that are both flight- and run-capable upon hatching. Extensive ossification in enantiornithine embryos may contribute to their relatively abundant representation in the fossil record. Neoceratopsian eggs remain unrecognized in the fossil record. PMID:26030147

  2. Treating to Protect: Current Cardiovascular Treatment Approaches and Remaining Needs

    PubMed Central

    Böhm, Michael; Werner, Christian

    2008-01-01

    Current best practice to reduce cardiovascular disease involves evaluating patients' global cardiovascular risk profiles and devising treatment strategies accordingly. Despite the proven efficacy of this approach, very few physicians are adequately assessing risk, and consequently patients are failing to achieve desired treatment targets. Modifying lifestyle factors, such as diet, exercise, and cessation of smoking, remains one of the simplest and most potent means of reducing risk. Newly emerging evidence suggests that moderate physical activity (such as brisk walking for 30 minutes a day), eg, by raising levels of circulating endothelial progenitor cells, improves endothelial function and enhances vascular repair. However, patients remain remarkably reluctant to lifestyle changes, even in the face of overt, life-threatening disease. Statin treatment reduces cardiovascular morbidity and death in both primary and secondary prevention studies. However, over 90% of adults at high risk for coronary heart disease fail to achieve target low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in spite of statin therapy. Similarly, only about 37% of patients with hypertension meet blood pressure targets. Antihypertensive drugs achieve different levels of cardioprotection. Mounting evidence links regimens containing beta-blockers or diuretics with higher incidence of type 2 diabetes. In contrast, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and angiotensin receptor blockers appear to confer extra protection on target organs on top of blood pressure reduction. The ONTARGET Trial Program is designed to clarify the importance of this effect. Educating patients, raising physicians' awareness, and implementing effective and safe treatment regimens are all necessary steps to bring about the much-needed improvements in cardiac health outcomes. PMID:18449384

  3. Influence of weeds on Argentine ant (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) and obscure mealybug (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in a central California vineyard.

    PubMed

    Costello, Michael J; Welch, Mark D

    2014-06-01

    Obscure mealybug is a pest of grapes in the cool climate regions of coastal California, is found on some vineyard weeds, and is tended by the Argentine ant. A study was conducted at a vineyard in Arroyo Grande, CA, to evaluate the impact of weeds on ant activity on grapevines, and the role that ants and weeds have on obscure mealybug infestation in grape clusters. The incidence of the fungus Botrytis cinerea was recorded as well. Treatments were weed exclusion versus the presence of weeds, and ant exclusion versus the presence of ants. Ant activity was evaluated weekly using sugar-based monitoring stations, and mealybug infestation and Botrytis incidence of clusters were evaluated at harvest. Ant exclusion reduced the overall number of ant visits by 82%, and ants increased mealybug infestation of clusters by 53%. Ant activity was 33% higher in the weeds treatment, but there was no impact of weeds on mealybug infestation. We suggest that the higher ant activity recorded in the weeds treatment may have been an artifact of the sugar-based sampling method. Botrytis incidence was three times higher with ants, but did not differ between weeds and weed exclusion treatments. The study supports other research showing a relationship between mealybug infestation and the presence of ants, as well as the lack of impact of floor vegetation on mealybug infestation of grape clusters. It is the first report of a relationship between ants and Botrytis, although it is more likely that the higher Botrytis incidence found here is a result of increased mealybug density than a direct effect by ants.

  4. The nature of the torus in the heavily obscured AGN Markarian 3: an X-ray study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guainazzi, M.; Risaliti, G.; Awaki, H.; Arevalo, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Bianchi, S.; Boggs, S. E.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Christensen, F. E.; Craig, W. W.; Forster, K.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F.; Koss, M.; Longinotti, A.; Markwardt, C.; Marinucci, A.; Matt, G.; Reynolds, C. S.; Ricci, C.; Stern, D.; Svoboda, J.; Walton, D.; Zhang, W.

    2016-08-01

    In this paper, we report the results of an X-ray monitoring campaign on the heavily obscured Seyfert galaxy, Markarian 3, carried out between the fall of 2014 and the spring of 2015 with NuSTAR, Suzaku and XMM-Newton. The hard X-ray spectrum of Markarian 3 is variable on all the time-scales probed by our campaign, down to a few days. The observed continuum variability is due to an intrinsically variable primary continuum seen in transmission through a large, but still Compton-thin column density (NH ˜ 0.8-1.1 × 1024 cm-2). If arranged in a spherical-toroidal geometry, the Compton scattering matter has an opening angle ≃66°, and is seen at a grazing angle through its upper rim (inclination angle ≃70°). We report a possible occultation event during the 2014 campaign. If the torus is constituted by a system of clouds sharing the same column density, this event allows us to constrain their number (17 ± 5) and individual column density, [≃ (4.9 ± 1.5) × 1022 cm-2]. The comparison of IR and X-ray spectroscopic results with state-of-the art `torus' models suggests that at least two-thirds of the X-ray obscuring gas volume might be located within the dust sublimation radius. We report also the discovery of an ionized absorber, characterized by variable resonant absorption lines due to He- and H-like iron. This discovery lends support to the idea that moderate column density absorbers could be due to clouds evaporated at the outer surface of the torus, possibly accelerated by the radiation pressure due to the central AGN emission leaking through the patchy absorber.

  5. Sizes and Kinematics of Extended Narrow-line Regions in Luminous Obscured AGN Selected by Broadband Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Ai-Lei; Greene, Jenny E.; Zakamska, Nadia L.

    2017-02-01

    To study the impact of active galactic nuclei (AGN) feedback on their galactic ISM, we present Magellan long-slit spectroscopy of 12 luminous nearby obscured AGN ({L}{bol}∼ {10}45.0-46.5 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, z ∼ 0.1). These objects are selected from a parent sample of spectroscopically identified AGN to have high [O iii]λ5007 and Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer mid-IR luminosities and extended emission in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey r-band images, suggesting the presence of extended [O iii]λ5007 emission. We find spatially resolved [O iii] emission (2–35 kpc) in 8 out of 12 of these objects. Combined with samples of higher luminosity obscured AGN, we confirm that the size of the narrow-line region (RNLR) scales with the mid-IR luminosity until the relation flattens at RNLR ∼ 10 kpc. Nine out of 12 objects in our sample have regions with broad [O iii] line widths (w80 > 600 km s‑1), indicating outflows. We define these regions as the kinematically disturbed region (KDR). The size of the KDR ({R}{KDR}) is typically smaller than RNLR by few kiloparsecs but also correlates strongly with the AGN mid-IR luminosity. Given the uncertain outflow mass, we derive a loose constraint on the outflow energy efficiency {η }{med}=\\dot{E}/{L}{bol}∼ 0.007 % {--}7 % . We find no evidence for an AGN luminosity threshold below which outflows are not launched. To explain the sizes, velocity profiles, and high occurrence rates of the outflows in the most luminous AGN, we propose a scenario in which energy-conserving outflows are driven by AGN episodes with ∼108 year durations. Within each episode, the AGN is unlikely to be constantly luminous but could flicker on shorter timescales (≲107 yr) with a moderate duty cycle (∼10%).

  6. A Family History of Substance Dependence Obscures the Group Differences in Brain Function Associated with HIV-1 and ART

    PubMed Central

    Bauer, L.O.

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Recently, the NIH called for additional research on the topic of viral and host factors contributing to impaired cognitive and neural function in HIV/AIDS patients and their response to antiretroviral treatment. This investigation responds to that call by examining a host factor, a family history of substance dependence, often overlooked in cognitive and neuroimaging studies of HIV/AIDS. METHODS We categorized 146 HIV-1 seropositive patients receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) and 92 seronegative volunteers by the presence or absence of alcohol, cocaine, or heroin dependence affecting a biological parent. Seropositive patients were further categorized by the estimated ability of their individual ART regimens to penetrate the CNS. The indicator of brain function was a 3–7 Hz oscillatory electroencephalographic response (theta ERO) evoked by target stimuli presented during a simple selective attention task. RESULTS The analysis revealed that the presence of a family history of substance dependence obscured the reduction in frontal theta ERO power accompanying the presence of HIV-1 as well as the improvement in frontal theta ERO power accompanying treatment with ART agents estimated to have greater (n=41) versus lesser (n=105) CNS penetrance. Secondary analyses employing sLORETA source localization techniques revealed that the source of the theta ERO response was similarly reduced by the presence of either HIV-1 or a family history of substance dependence. CONCLUSIONS We conclude that a family history of substance dependence complicates and obscures the subtle neurophysiological changes which typically accompany HIV/AIDS and ART. Studies of new therapeutic agents for HIV-1-associated cognitive and neurophysiological impairments must consider this complication and exclude or control it. PMID:22749564

  7. Cellular inclusion bodies of mutant huntingtin exon 1 obscure small fibrillar aggregate species.

    PubMed

    Sahl, Steffen J; Weiss, Lucien E; Duim, Whitney C; Frydman, Judith; Moerner, W E

    2012-01-01

    The identities of toxic aggregate species in Huntington's disease pathogenesis remain ambiguous. While polyQ-expanded huntingtin (Htt) is known to accumulate in compact inclusion bodies inside neurons, this is widely thought to be a protective coping response that sequesters misfolded conformations or aggregated states of the mutated protein. To define the spatial distributions of fluorescently-labeled Htt-exon1 species in the cell model PC12m, we employed highly sensitive single-molecule super-resolution fluorescence imaging. In addition to inclusion bodies and the diffuse pool of monomers and oligomers, fibrillar aggregates -100 nm in diameter and up to -1-2 µm in length were observed for pathogenic polyQ tracts (46 and 97 repeats) after targeted photo-bleaching of the inclusion bodies. These short structures bear a striking resemblance to fibers described in vitro. Definition of the diverse Htt structures in cells will provide an avenue to link the impact of therapeutic agents to aggregate populations and morphologies.

  8. Near-Infrared Spectroscopic Analysis of Galaxy Mergers: Revealing Obscured Accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferguson, Jason; Constantin, Anca; Satyapal, Shobita; Rothberg, Barry

    2017-01-01

    Galaxy interactions are ubiquitous and are believed to play a pivotal role in the formation and evolution of galaxies via facilitating gas inflows toward the central region of galaxies. These interactions are expected to trigger accretion of matter onto the central supermassive black holes, i.e., AGN activity. Nevertheless, despite decades of searching, observationally confirmed dual AGNs remain extremely rare. We present here a thorough near-infrared characterization of six examples of interacting galaxies with unambiguous confirmation of on-going mergers that are optically quiescent but have red mid-infrared colors that are associated with extragalactic sources with powerful AGN. We show Large Binocular Telescope spectra of nuclear regions that reveal a rich variety of emission and absorption features which allow us to explore several diagnostic tests for the AGN activity as well as for properties of the underlying stellar population. We find strong evidence for AGN emission in five out of these six interacting systems, which provides strong support for the efficiency with which the mid-infrared pre-selection technique finds dual AGN, and thus could exponentially increase the population of dual accretion systems in advanced mergers.

  9. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network

    PubMed Central

    Kirsch, Louise P.; Cross, Emily S.

    2015-01-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation. PMID:26209850

  10. Additive Routes to Action Learning: Layering Experience Shapes Engagement of the Action Observation Network.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Louise P; Cross, Emily S

    2015-12-01

    The way in which we perceive others in action is biased by one's prior experience with an observed action. For example, we can have auditory, visual, or motor experience with actions we observe others perform. How action experience via 1, 2, or all 3 of these modalities shapes action perception remains unclear. Here, we combine pre- and post-training functional magnetic resonance imaging measures with a dance training manipulation to address how building experience (from auditory to audiovisual to audiovisual plus motor) with a complex action shapes subsequent action perception. Results indicate that layering experience across these 3 modalities activates a number of sensorimotor cortical regions associated with the action observation network (AON) in such a way that the more modalities through which one experiences an action, the greater the response is within these AON regions during action perception. Moreover, a correlation between left premotor activity and participants' scores for reproducing an action suggests that the better an observer can perform an observed action, the stronger the neural response is. The findings suggest that the number of modalities through which an observer experiences an action impacts AON activity additively, and that premotor cortical activity might serve as an index of embodiment during action observation.

  11. Activity-dependent synaptic GRIP1 accumulation drives synaptic scaling up in response to action potential blockade.

    PubMed

    Gainey, Melanie A; Tatavarty, Vedakumar; Nahmani, Marc; Lin, Heather; Turrigiano, Gina G

    2015-07-07

    Synaptic scaling is a form of homeostatic plasticity that stabilizes neuronal firing in response to changes in synapse number and strength. Scaling up in response to action-potential blockade is accomplished through increased synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPA receptors (AMPAR), but the receptor trafficking steps that drive this process remain largely obscure. Here, we show that the AMPAR-binding protein glutamate receptor-interacting protein-1 (GRIP1) is essential for regulated synaptic AMPAR accumulation during scaling up. Synaptic abundance of GRIP1 was enhanced by activity deprivation, directly increasing synaptic GRIP1 abundance through overexpression increased the amplitude of AMPA miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents (mEPSCs), and shRNA-mediated GRIP1 knockdown prevented scaling up of AMPA mEPSCs. Furthermore, knockdown and replace experiments targeting either GRIP1 or GluA2 revealed that scaling up requires the interaction between GRIP1 and GluA2. Finally, GRIP1 synaptic accumulation during scaling up did not require GluA2 binding. Taken together, our data support a model in which activity-dependent trafficking of GRIP1 to synaptic sites drives the forward trafficking and enhanced synaptic accumulation of GluA2-containing AMPAR during synaptic scaling up.

  12. A code of ethics for evidence-based research with ancient human remains.

    PubMed

    Kreissl Lonfat, Bettina M; Kaufmann, Ina Maria; Rühli, Frank

    2015-06-01

    As clinical research constantly advances and the concept of evolution becomes a strong and influential part of basic medical research, the absence of a discourse that deals with the use of ancient human remains in evidence-based research is becoming unbearable. While topics such as exhibition and excavation of human remains are established ethical fields of discourse, when faced with instrumentalization of ancient human remains for research (i.e., ancient DNA extractions for disease marker analyses) the answers from traditional ethics or even more practical fields of bio-ethics or more specific biomedical ethics are rare to non-existent. The Centre for Evolutionary Medicine at the University of Zurich solved their needs for discursive action through the writing of a self-given code of ethics which was written in dialogue with the researchers at the Institute and was published online in Sept. 2011: http://evolutionäremedizin.ch/coe/. The philosophico-ethical basis for this a code of conduct and ethics and the methods are published in this article.

  13. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments.

    PubMed

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  14. Future Remains: Industrial Heritage at the Hanford Plutonium Works

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freer, Brian

    This dissertation argues that U.S. environmental and historic preservation regulations, industrial heritage projects, history, and art only provide partial frameworks for successfully transmitting an informed story into the long range future about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy. This argument is important because plutonium from nuclear weapons production is toxic to humans in very small amounts, threatens environmental health, has a half-life of 24, 110 years and because the industrial heritage project at Hanford is the first time an entire U.S. Department of Energy weapons production site has been designated a U.S. Historic District. This research is situated within anthropological interest in industrial heritage studies, environmental anthropology, applied visual anthropology, as well as wider discourses on nuclear studies. However, none of these disciplines is really designed or intended to be a completely satisfactory frame of reference for addressing this perplexing challenge of documenting and conveying an informed story about nuclear technology and its related environmental legacy into the long range future. Others have thought about this question and have made important contributions toward a potential solution. Examples here include: future generations movements concerning intergenerational equity as evidenced in scholarship, law, and amongst Native American groups; Nez Perce and Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation responses to the Hanford End State Vision and Hanford's Canyon Disposition Initiative; as well as the findings of organizational scholars on the advantages realized by organizations that have a long term future perspective. While these ideas inform the main line inquiry of this dissertation, the principal approach put forth by the researcher of how to convey an informed story about nuclear technology and waste into the long range future is implementation of the proposed Future Remains clause, as

  15. Mineralized Remains of Morphotypes of Filamentous Cyanobacteria in Carbonaceous Meteorites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoover, Richard B.

    2005-01-01

    ) investigations of freshly fractured interior surfaces of carbonaceous meteorites, terrestrial rocks, and recent microbial extremophiles and filamentous cyanobacteria. These studies have resulted in the detection in a several carbonaceous meteorites of the mineralized remains of a wide variety of complex filamentous trichomic microorganisms. These embedded forms are consistent in size and microstructure with well-preserved morphotypes of mat- forming filamentous trichomic cyanobacteria and the degraded remains of microfibrils of cyanobacterial sheaths. We present the results of comparative imaging studies and EDAX elemental analyses of recent cyanobacteria (e.g. Calothrix, Oscillatoria, and Lyngbya) that are similar in size, morphology and microstructure to morphotypes found embedded in meteorites. EDAX elemental studies reveal that forms found in carbonaceous meteorites often have highly carbonized sheaths in close association with permineralized filaments, trichomes and microbial cells. Ratios of critical bioelements (C:O, C:N, C:P, and C:S) reveal dramatic differences between microfossils in Earth rocks and meteorites and in filaments, trichomes, hormogonia, and cells of recent cyanobacteria.

  16. Photoferrotrophy: Remains of an Ancient Photosynthesis in Modern Environments

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, Antonio; Walter, Xavier A.; Picazo, Antonio; Zopfi, Jakob

    2017-01-01

    Photoferrotrophy, the process by which inorganic carbon is fixed into organic matter using light as an energy source and reduced iron [Fe(II)] as an electron donor, has been proposed as one of the oldest photoautotrophic metabolisms on Earth. Under the iron-rich (ferruginous) but sulfide poor conditions dominating the Archean ocean, this type of metabolism could have accounted for most of the primary production in the photic zone. Here we review the current knowledge of biogeochemical, microbial and phylogenetic aspects of photoferrotrophy, and evaluate the ecological significance of this process in ancient and modern environments. From the ferruginous conditions that prevailed during most of the Archean, the ancient ocean evolved toward euxinic (anoxic and sulfide rich) conditions and, finally, much after the advent of oxygenic photosynthesis, to a predominantly oxic environment. Under these new conditions photoferrotrophs lost importance as primary producers, and now photoferrotrophy remains as a vestige of a formerly relevant photosynthetic process. Apart from the geological record and other biogeochemical markers, modern environments resembling the redox conditions of these ancient oceans can offer insights into the past significance of photoferrotrophy and help to explain how this metabolism operated as an important source of organic carbon for the early biosphere. Iron-rich meromictic (permanently stratified) lakes can be considered as modern analogs of the ancient Archean ocean, as they present anoxic ferruginous water columns where light can still be available at the chemocline, thus offering suitable niches for photoferrotrophs. A few bacterial strains of purple bacteria as well as of green sulfur bacteria have been shown to possess photoferrotrophic capacities, and hence, could thrive in these modern Archean ocean analogs. Studies addressing the occurrence and the biogeochemical significance of photoferrotrophy in ferruginous environments have been

  17. Protective Action Guides (PAGs)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Protective Action Guide (PAG) manual contains radiation dose guidelines that would trigger public safety measures. EPA developed Protective Action Guides to help responders plan for radiation emergencies.

  18. Sustaining Community Participation: What Remains After the Money Ends?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nkansa, Grace Akukwe; Chapman, David W.

    2006-12-01

    SUSTAINING COMMUNITY PARTICIPATION: WHAT REMAINS AFTER THE MONEY ENDS? - A major concern confronting development specialists in the education sector is the sustainability of project activities and outcomes, that is, their ability to persist once external funding ends. The increased attention of international development-assistance organizations to sustainability reflects the greater recent focus on outcome-based funding. The present study investigates differences between six communities in Ghana that varied in their ability to sustain externally initiated community-participation activities beyond the life of the external development-assistance project that promoted those activities. It was hypothesized that high- and low-sustaining communities differ in eight managerial and socio-cultural dimensions suggested by earlier research to be important for sustainability of community-level activities: planning, transparency, leadership, and participation, on one hand, and, on the other, social cohesion, resources, community skills, and valuing of education. Findings indicate that leadership and social cohesion are the two most vital elements in the sustainability of organizational structures intended to promote community participation in the oversight of local schools. Other factors suggested by the model are largely subsumed under leadership, so that the model can be simplified.

  19. [New studies of COX-inhibitors, yet issues remain].

    PubMed

    Wollheim, Frank A

    2003-09-18

    Advantages and risks related to the use of selective COX-2 inhibitors when treating arthritis are currently being scrutinized by authorities and public. The discussion tends towards exaggerated claims for or against their usefulness. The issue of cardiovascular safety is still not finally settled. In an experimental study using patients with severe coronary disease, administration of celecoxib resulted in improved endothelial function together with reduced CRP levels. Gastrointestinal tolerance was studied in patients who had recently recovered from peptic ulcer bleeding. In this group of high risk patients, celecoxib was as safe as combined therapy using omeprazol and diclofenac when given for 6 months. However, both COX inhibitors caused hypertension and adverse renal effects. The second generation of selective inhibitors is being launched. Etoricoxib--related to rofecoxib--was shown to be as potent as indomethacin in the treatment of acute gout, but it caused fewer adverse reactions. In general, however, any advantage of second generation as compared to first generation COX-2 inhibitors remains to be proven. The Swedish Council on Technology Assessment in Health Care, in its "SBU Alert", has published an appraisal of celecoxib and rofecoxib, in which the need for further long-term safety studies is emphasized.

  20. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoyle, B. Gary; Fisher, Daniel C.; Borns, Harold W.; Churchill-Dickson, Lisa L.; Dorion, Christopher C.; Weddle, Thomas K.

    2004-05-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius) dated at 12,200 ± 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ± 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea.

  1. Head direction maps remain stable despite grid map fragmentation.

    PubMed

    Whitlock, Jonathan R; Derdikman, Dori

    2012-01-01

    Areas encoding space in the brain contain both representations of position (place cells and grid cells) and representations of azimuth (head direction cells). Previous studies have already suggested that although grid cells and head direction cells reside in the same brain areas, the calculation of head direction is not dependent on the calculation of position. Here we demonstrate that realignment of grid cells does not affect head direction tuning. We analyzed head direction cell data collected while rats performed a foraging task in a multi-compartment environment (the hairpin maze) vs. an open-field environment, demonstrating that the tuning of head direction cells did not change when the environment was divided into multiple sub-compartments, in the hairpin maze. On the other hand, as we have shown previously (Derdikman et al., 2009), the hexagonal firing pattern expressed by grid cells in the open-field broke down into repeating patterns in similar alleys when rats traversed the multi-compartment hairpin maze. The grid-like firing of conjunctive cells, which express both grid properties and head direction properties in the open-field, showed a selective fragmentation of grid-like firing properties in the hairpin maze, while the head directionality property of the same cells remained unaltered. These findings demonstrate that head direction is not affected during the restructuring of grid cell firing fields as a rat actively moves between compartments, thus strengthening the claim that the head direction system is upstream from or parallel to the grid-place system.

  2. Atomic data for stellar spectroscopy: recent successes and remaining needs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Lawler, James E.; Wood, Michael P.; Den Hartog, Elizabeth A.; Cowan, John J.

    2014-11-01

    Stellar chemical composition analyses provide vital insights into galactic nucleosynthesis. Atomic line data are critical inputs to stellar abundance computations. Recent lab studies have made significant progress in refining and extending knowledge of transition probabilities, isotopic wavelength shifts, and hyperfine substructure patterns for the absorption lines that are of most interest to stellar spectroscopists. The observable neutron-capture (n-capture) element species (Z \\gt 30) have been scrutinized in lab studies by several groups. For many species the uncertainties in experimental oscillator strengths are ≤slant 10%, which permits detailed assessment of rapid and slow n-capture nucleosynthesis contributions. In this review, extreme examples of r-process-enriched stars in the galactic halo will be shown, which suggest that the description of observable n-capture abundances in these stars is nearly complete. Unfortunately, there are serious remaining concerns about the reliability of observed abundances of lighter elements. In particular, it is not clear that line formation in real stellar atmospheres is being modeled correctly. But for many elements with Z \\lt 30 the atomic transition data are not yet settled. Highlights will be given of some recent large improvements, with suggestions for the most important needs for the near future.

  3. Identifying the crystal graveyards remaining after large silicic eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, Sarah E.; Deering, Chad D.; Bachmann, Olivier; Huber, Christian; Gutiérrez, Francisco J.

    2014-10-01

    The formation of crystal-poor high-silica rhyolite via extraction of interstitial melt from an upper crustal mush predicts the complementary formation of large amounts of (typically unerupted) silicic cumulates. However, identification of these cumulates remains controversial. One hindrance to our ability to identify them is a lack of clear predictions for complementary chemical signatures between extracted melts and their residues. To address this discrepancy, we present a generalized geochemical model tracking the evolution of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently experiencing crystallization and extraction of interstitial melt. Our method uses a numerical solution rather than analytical, thereby allowing for various dependencies between crystallinity, partition coefficients for variably compatible and/or incompatible elements, and melt extraction efficiency. Results reveal unambiguous fractionation signatures for the extracted melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. Our model is first applied to a well-constrained example (Searchlight pluton, USA), and provides a good fit to geochemical data. We then extrapolate our results to understanding the relationship between volcanic and plutonic silicic suites on a global scale. Utilizing the NAVDAT database to identify crystal accumulation or depletion signatures for each suite, we suggest that many large granitoids are indeed silicic cumulates, although their crystal accumulation signature is expected to be subtle.

  4. Identifying the Crystal Graveyards Remaining After Large Silicic Eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelman, S. E.; Deering, C. D.; Bachmann, O.; Huber, C.; Gutiérrez, F. J.

    2014-12-01

    The accumulation of voluminous crystal-poor rhyolites from an upper crustal mush environment inherently necessitates the complementary formation of unerupted silicic cumulates. However, identification of such frozen cumulates remains controversial. This has motivated us to develop of a new geochemical model aimed at better constraining the behavior of trace elements in a magma reservoir concurrently tracking crystallization and imperfect segregation of melt. We use a numerical method to solve our model equations rather than seek analytical solutions, thereby relieving overly simplistic assumptions for the dependencies between partition coefficient or melt segregation rate as functions of crystallinity. Our model allows partition coefficient to vary depending on the crystallinizing mineralogy at any particular stage in magma cooling, as well as the ability to test different rates and efficiencies of crystal-melt segregation. We apply our model first to the Searchlight Pluton as a well-constrained case study, which allows us to quantitatively test existing interpretations of that pluton. Building on this, we broaden our model to better understand the relationship between volcanic and plutonic rocks utilizing the NAVDAT database. Our results produce unambiguous fractionation signatures for segregated melts, while those signatures are muted for their cumulate counterparts. These models suggest that some large granitiods may represent accumulations of crystals, having lost melt in some cases to volcanic eruptions or to higher level evolved plutonic units, although the trace element signature of this process is expected to be subtle.

  5. Photorespiration in C4 grasses remains slow under drought conditions.

    PubMed

    Carmo-Silva, Ana E; Powers, Stephen J; Keys, Alfred J; Arrabaça, Maria Celeste; Parry, Martin A J

    2008-07-01

    The CO(2)-concentrating mechanism present in C(4) plants decreases the oxygenase activity of ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) and, consequently, photorespiratory rates in air. Under drought conditions, the intercellular CO(2) concentration may decrease and cause photorespiration to increase. The C(4) grasses Paspalum dilatatum Poiret, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. and Zoysia japonica Steudel were grown in soil and drought was imposed by ceasing to provide water. Net CO(2) assimilation (A) and stomatal conductance to water vapour decreased with leaf dehydration. Decreased carbon and increased oxygen isotope composition were also observed under drought. The response of A to CO(2) suggested that the compensation point was zero in all species irrespective of the extent of drought stress. A slight decrease of A as O(2) concentration increased above 10% provided evidence for slow photorespiratory gas exchanges. Analysis of amino acids contained in the leaves, particularly the decrease of glycine after 30 s in darkness, supported the presence of slow photorespiration rates, but these were slightly faster in Cynodon dactylon than in Paspalum dilatatum and Zoysia japonica. Although the contents of glycine and serine increased with dehydration and mechanistic modelling of C(4) photosynthesis suggested slightly increased photorespiration rates in proportion to photosynthesis, the results provide evidence that photorespiration remained slow under drought conditions.

  6. New Evidence Links Stellar Remains to Oldest Recorded Supernova

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2006-09-01

    Recent observations have uncovered evidence that helps to confirm the identification of the remains of one of the earliest stellar explosions recorded by humans. The new study shows that the supernova remnant RCW 86 is much younger than previously thought. As such, the formation of the remnant appears to coincide with a supernova observed by Chinese astronomers in 185 A.D. The study used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency's XMM-Newton Observatory, "There have been previous suggestions that RCW 86 is the remains of the supernova from 185 A.D.," said Jacco Vink of University of Utrecht, the Netherlands, and lead author of the study. "These new X-ray data greatly strengthen the case." When a massive star runs out of fuel, it collapses on itself, creating a supernova that can outshine an entire galaxy. The intense explosion hurls the outer layers of the star into space and produces powerful shock waves. The remains of the star and the material it encounters are heated to millions of degrees and can emit intense X-ray radiation for thousands of years. Animation of a Massive Star Explosion Animation of a Massive Star Explosion In their stellar forensic work, Vink and colleagues studied the debris in RCW 86 to estimate when its progenitor star originally exploded. They calculated how quickly the shocked, or energized, shell is moving in RCW 86, by studying one part of the remnant. They combined this expansion velocity with the size of the remnant and a basic understanding of how supernovas expand to estimate the age of RCW 86. "Our new calculations tell us the remnant is about 2,000 years old," said Aya Bamba, a coauthor from the Institute of Physical and Chemical Research (RIKEN), Japan. "Previously astronomers had estimated an age of 10,000 years." The younger age for RCW 86 may explain an astronomical event observed almost 2000 years ago. In 185 AD, Chinese astronomers (and possibly the Romans) recorded the appearance of a new

  7. Late Pleistocene mammoth remains from Coastal Maine, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hoyle, B.G.; Fisher, D.C.; Borns, H.W.; Churchill-Dickson, L. L.; Dorion, C.C.; Weddle, T.K.

    2004-01-01

    Remains identified as those of a woolly mammoth ( Mammuthus primigenius ) dated at 12,200 ?? 55 14C yr B.P. were recovered while excavating in a complex sequence of glaciomarine sediments in Scarborough, Maine, USA. The mammoth was found in the top meter of a fossiliferous unit of mud and sand laminites. These sediments were deposited during a marine regressive phase following the transgression that accompanied northward retreat of the margin of the Laurentide ice sheet. A Portlandia arctica valve from the underlying transgressive unit provides a minimum age of 14,820 ?? 105 14C yr B.P. for local deglaciation. The mammoth, an adult female, died in midwinter with no evidence of human involvement. Tusk growth rates and oxygen-isotope variation over the last few years of life record low seasonality. The mammoth was transported to the site as a partial carcass by the late-glacial proto-Saco River. It sank in a near-shore setting, was subjected to additional disarticulation and scattering of elements, and was finally buried in sediments reworked by the shallowing sea. ?? 2004 University of Washington. All rights reserved.

  8. Our Understanding of Ion Outflows from Earth and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yau, A. W.

    2015-12-01

    The discovery of energetic ion beams and conics by Shelley et al. and transversely accelerated ions by Klumpar in the 1970's heralded the extensive satellite, rocket, and radar observations of ion outflows over the past four decades. This body of observation has shaped our contemporary view on ion outflows and their important role in magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling. The variety of ion outflows may be categorized into thermal and suprathermal outflows. Both categories of outflows are strongly influenced by solar EUV irradiance and solar wind energy input, and the state of the magnetosphere, ionosphere, thermosphere, and (at times) plasmasphere. Several important challenges remain in our quest for a fully quantitative, multi-scale understanding of ion outflows. These include the detection of the lowest-energy ions in the tenuous sunlit magnetosphere; the influence of these hidden ions in the magnetosphere; ion transit between low and high altitudes at quiet times; the role of microscale processes; the simultaneous monitoring of different outflow populations and their circulation and redistributions in the magnetosphere; the influence of solar energy input, the thermosphere and the plasmasphere on outflow composition, characteristics, and variability; and the effects of this variability on the coupling between thermal and suprathermal outflows and on the overall magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling.

  9. Isotope Tales: Remaining Problems, Unsolvable Questions, and Gentle Successes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    fogel, marilyn; bradley, christina; newsome, seth; filipp, fabian

    2014-05-01

    Earth's biomes function and adapt today as climate changes and ecosystems and the organisms within them adapt. Stable isotope biogeochemistry has had a major influence in understanding climate perturbations and continues to be an active area of research on many fronts. Banking on the success of compound specific stable isotope analyses of amino acids, nitrogen, carbon, and hydrogen isotopes continue to reveal subtle shifts in oceanic food webs and metabolic changes in microbes, plants, and animals. A biochemical understanding of exactly how organisms process and partition stable isotopes during metabolism remains unsolved, but is required if this field is to move beyond description to quantitation. Although the patterns of carbon and nitrogen isotopes are fairly well established in the common amino acids, we need to consider specifics: How do shifting metabolic pathways (metabolomics) influence the outcome of stable isotope partitioning? What influence does the gut microflora in animals have on isotopic labeling? What are the intramolecular isotope patterns of common amino acids and what do they tell us? What can be learned with other isotope systems, such as hydrogen? Results and ideas of how to move forward in this field will be presented starting at the molecular level and ending with ecosystems.

  10. ABO blood typing of human skeletal remains in Hungary.

    PubMed

    Lengyel, I

    1984-03-01

    The author reports about the theoretical effects of his paleoserologic investigations on some historical population genetics problems. First he refers to the essence of the two modifications by the help of which the fluorescent antibody method can be made suitable for blood typing or archeological skeletal remains and determines his working units (sample, series, "population") used in the paleoserologic researches. The benefits of the projection of the ABO blood typing results on the map of the cemetaries are demonstrated. The distribution of the several phenotypes are collated to the character or richness of the grave goods and to the taxonomic features of the late individuals. The thorough examination of the serogenetic distances among the several samples of a given historical period may cast more light on the ethnic interrelations of the earlier populations living in the same geographic area. Following up the serogenetic changes of a population during subsequent historical periods, new ideas can be gained about the importance of the environmental, economic, and demographic factors shaping the serogenetic profile of the population.

  11. Are the alleged remains of Johann Sebastian Bach authentic?

    PubMed

    Zegers, Richard H C; Maas, Mario; Koopman, A Ton G; Maat, George J R

    2009-02-16

    A skeleton alleged to be that of Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750) was exhumed from a graveyard in Leipzig, Germany, in 1894, but its authenticity is not established. In 1895, anatomist Wilhelm His concluded from his examination of the skeleton and reconstruction of the face that it most likely belonged to Bach. In 1949, surgeon Wolfgang Rosenthal noticed exostoses on the skeleton and on x-rays of 11 living organists and proposed a condition, Organistenkrankheit, which he interpreted as evidence that the skeleton was Bach's. However, our critical assessment of the remains analysis raises doubts: the localisation of the grave was dubious, and the methods used by His to reconstruct the face are controversial. Also, our study of the pelvic x-rays of 12 living professional organists failed to find evidence for the existence of Organistenkrankheit. We believe it is unlikely that the skeleton is that of Bach; techniques such as DNA analysis might help resolve the question but, to date, church authorities have not approved their use on the skeleton.

  12. Completely open-foldable domes remaining cool in sunshine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammerschlag, Robert H.; Deelen, Sander; Hoogendoorn, Pieter W.; Kommers, Johannes N. M.; Sonner, Thomas; Simoes, Roberto; Grassin, Olivier; Fischer, Andreas; Visser, Simon; Thewissen, Kristof

    2016-07-01

    These open-foldable very light-weight domes, based on very strong textile membranes highly tensioned between steel bows, are designed for bad-weather protection and maintenance of instruments for astronomical, meteorological and civil-engineering measurements and have extremely high wind stability. The domes of the GREGOR telescope and the Dutch Open Telescope are the two existing prototypes. Improvements were developed with all parts light-colored to remain cool in solar light. The new specially made connection parts (eyes) between the textile parts are made from white-colored PETP, a very strong and UV-stable synthetic, and have a better geometrical shape giving higher stability. The rubber seal tubes on top of the dome were of black-colored chloride rubber CR (neoprene), strong and UV stable, but very warm in sunlight. New UV-stable EPDM rubber tubes were produced in natural light color. To get this rubber stiff enough to give good sealing, a black-colored stiff EPDM rubber is put inside the light-colored one. Tests were performed and the forces necessary for compression of the rubber tubes were measured. An inside black tube with a circa 1.3 times larger compression force than the original black tubes was applied. The assembling of the black tubes into the light-colored tubes was successfully applied at the DOT and GREGOR domes.

  13. National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program Remains Suboptimal in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Cha, Jae Myung; Moon, Jeong Seop; Chung, Il-Kwun; Kim, Jin-Oh; Im, Jong Pil; Cho, Yu Kyung; Kim, Hyun Gun; Lee, Sang Kil; Lee, Hang Lak; Jang, Jae Young; Kim, Eun Sun; Jung, Yunho; Moon, Chang Mo; Kim, Yeol; Park, Bo Young

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims We evaluated the characteristics of the National Cancer Screening Program (NCSP) and opinions regarding the National Endoscopy Quality Improvement Program (NEQIP). Methods We surveyed physicians performing esophagogastroduodenoscopy and/or colonoscopy screenings as part of the NCSP via e-mail between July and August in 2015. The 32-item survey instrument included endoscopic capacity, sedation, and reprocessing of endoscopes as well as opinions regarding the NEQIP. Results A total of 507 respondents were analyzed after the exclusion of 40 incomplete answers. Under the current capacity of the NCSP, the typical waiting time for screening endoscopy was less than 4 weeks in more than 90% of endoscopy units. Performance of endoscopy reprocessing was suboptimal, with 28% of respondents using unapproved disinfectants or not knowing the main ingredient of their disinfectants and 15% to 17% of respondents not following reprocessing protocols. Agreement with the NEQIP was optimal, because only 5.7% of respondents did not agree with NEQIP; however, familiarity with the NEQIP was suboptimal, because only 37.3% of respondents were familiar with the NEQIP criteria. Conclusions The NEQ-IP remains suboptimal in Korea. Given the suboptimal performance of endoscopy reprocessing and low familiarity with the NEQIP, improved quality in endoscopy reprocessing and better understanding of the NEQIP should be emphasized in Korea. PMID:27282270

  14. DNA Profiling Success Rates from Degraded Skeletal Remains in Guatemala.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Emma; Stephenson, Mishel

    2016-07-01

    No data are available regarding the success of DNA Short Tandem Repeat (STR) profiling from degraded skeletal remains in Guatemala. Therefore, DNA profiling success rates relating to 2595 skeletons from eleven cases at the Forensic Anthropology Foundation of Guatemala (FAFG) are presented. The typical postmortem interval was 30 years. DNA was extracted from bone powder and amplified using Identifiler and Minifler. DNA profiling success rates differed between cases, ranging from 50.8% to 7.0%, the overall success rate for samples was 36.3%. The best DNA profiling success rates were obtained from femur (36.2%) and tooth (33.7%) samples. DNA profiles were significantly better from lower body bones than upper body bones (p = <0.0001). Bone samples from males gave significantly better profiles than samples from females (p = <0.0001). These results are believed to be related to bone density. The findings are important for designing forensic DNA sampling strategies in future victim recovery investigations.

  15. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-B-26 Spillway, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2006-052

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2006-09-18

    The 100-B-26 Spillway waste site is a spillway that served as an emergency discharge point for the 132-C-2 outfall in the event that the 100-B-15 river effluent pipelines were blocked, damaged, or undergoing maintenance. The selected action involved demonstrating through confirmatory sampling that cleanup goals have been met and proposing a reclassification of this site to No Action. The results of the confirmatory sampling demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil beneath the riprap are more protective of groundwater and the Columbia River than the risk they would pose if the site was remediated.

  16. Remaining lifetime modeling using State-of-Health estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beganovic, Nejra; Söffker, Dirk

    2017-08-01

    Technical systems and system's components undergo gradual degradation over time. Continuous degradation occurred in system is reflected in decreased system's reliability and unavoidably lead to a system failure. Therefore, continuous evaluation of State-of-Health (SoH) is inevitable to provide at least predefined lifetime of the system defined by manufacturer, or even better, to extend the lifetime given by manufacturer. However, precondition for lifetime extension is accurate estimation of SoH as well as the estimation and prediction of Remaining Useful Lifetime (RUL). For this purpose, lifetime models describing the relation between system/component degradation and consumed lifetime have to be established. In this contribution modeling and selection of suitable lifetime models from database based on current SoH conditions are discussed. Main contribution of this paper is the development of new modeling strategies capable to describe complex relations between measurable system variables, related system degradation, and RUL. Two approaches with accompanying advantages and disadvantages are introduced and compared. Both approaches are capable to model stochastic aging processes of a system by simultaneous adaption of RUL models to current SoH. The first approach requires a priori knowledge about aging processes in the system and accurate estimation of SoH. An estimation of SoH here is conditioned by tracking actual accumulated damage into the system, so that particular model parameters are defined according to a priori known assumptions about system's aging. Prediction accuracy in this case is highly dependent on accurate estimation of SoH but includes high number of degrees of freedom. The second approach in this contribution does not require a priori knowledge about system's aging as particular model parameters are defined in accordance to multi-objective optimization procedure. Prediction accuracy of this model does not highly depend on estimated SoH. This model

  17. Skeletal manifestations of tuberculosis in modern human remains.

    PubMed

    Steyn, Maryna; Buskes, Jenifer

    2016-10-01

    Paleopathologists study the presence of diseases in the past and as such have a vast knowledge of skeletal changes associated with different conditions. Tuberculosis is one of the most studied diseases and still remains a major health problem today. Its manifestations in past populations have been extensively described, but less is known about its bony involvement in the post-antibiotic era. The aim of this study was to assess the frequency and manifestations of skeletal lesions in the post-antibiotic era in a South African sample and compare it to that found before the introduction of antibiotics. Skeletons of 205 individuals from modern skeletal collections and who are known to have died from TB were assessed. It was found that 39.2% of all individuals dying in the post-antibiotic era showed skeletal changes that could be associated with TB, while another 27.5% showed nonspecific changes. The highest incidences were found in individuals who died after 1985, when co-infection with HIV and drug resistance became common. While, as expected, vertebral and rib changes were the most common, the number of individuals who showed changes to the skull, and specifically intracranially, was surprising. These could most probably be associated with TB meningitis, although this specific cause of death was noted in only a few individuals. It seems that individuals may be living longer as a result of long-term antibiotic use, leaving more time for lesions to develop. Clin. Anat. 29:854-861, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Remaining Life Expectancy Measurement and PSA Screening of Older Men.

    PubMed

    Kotwal, Ashwin A; Mohile, Supriya G; Dale, William

    2012-07-01

    BACKGROUND: Guidelines recommend informed decision-making regarding prostate specific antigen (PSA) screening for men with at least 10 years of remaining life expectancy (RLE). Comorbidity measures have been used to judge RLE in previous studies, but assessments based on other common RLE measures are unknown. We assessed whether screening rates varied based on four clinically relevant RLE measures, including comorbidities, in a nationally-representative, community-based sample. METHODS: Using the National Social Life, Health and Aging Project (NSHAP), we selected men over 65 without prostate cancer (n=709). They were stratified into three RLE categories (0-7 years, 8-12 years, and 13+ years) based on validated measures of comorbidities, self-rated health status, functional status, and physical performance. The independent relationship of each RLE measure and a combined measure to screening was determined using multivariable logistic regressions. RESULTS: Self-rated health (OR = 6.82; p < 0.01) most closely correlated with RLE-based screening, while the comorbidity index correlated the least (OR = 1.50; p = 0.09). The relationship of RLE to PSA screening significantly strengthened when controlling for the number of doctor visits, particularly for comorbidities (OR= 43.6; p < 0.001). Men who had consistent estimates of less than 7 years RLE by all four measures had an adjusted PSA screening rate of 43.3%. CONCLUSIONS: Regardless of the RLE measure used, men who were estimated to have limited RLE had significant PSA screening rates. However, different RLE measures have different correlations with PSA screening. Specific estimates of over-screening should therefore carefully consider the RLE measure used.

  19. Affirmative Action in Higher Education: Three Approaches to the Issue.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Noel, Melvina

    Affirmative action remains one of the most controversial of social policies in complex democracies. Altman and Promise (1995), in their article entitled "Affirmative Action: The Law of Unintended Consequences," focuses on the phenomenon that almost every action of government, no matter how well intentioned, has unexpected results. They suggest…

  20. Efficient computation of optimal actions.

    PubMed

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-07-14

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress--as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant.

  1. Efficient computation of optimal actions

    PubMed Central

    Todorov, Emanuel

    2009-01-01

    Optimal choice of actions is a fundamental problem relevant to fields as diverse as neuroscience, psychology, economics, computer science, and control engineering. Despite this broad relevance the abstract setting is similar: we have an agent choosing actions over time, an uncertain dynamical system whose state is affected by those actions, and a performance criterion that the agent seeks to optimize. Solving problems of this kind remains hard, in part, because of overly generic formulations. Here, we propose a more structured formulation that greatly simplifies the construction of optimal control laws in both discrete and continuous domains. An exhaustive search over actions is avoided and the problem becomes linear. This yields algorithms that outperform Dynamic Programming and Reinforcement Learning, and thereby solve traditional problems more efficiently. Our framework also enables computations that were not possible before: composing optimal control laws by mixing primitives, applying deterministic methods to stochastic systems, quantifying the benefits of error tolerance, and inferring goals from behavioral data via convex optimization. Development of a general class of easily solvable problems tends to accelerate progress—as linear systems theory has done, for example. Our framework may have similar impact in fields where optimal choice of actions is relevant. PMID:19574462

  2. Sky-view factor visualization for detection of archaeological remains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kokalj, Žiga; Oštir, Krištof; Zakšek, Klemen

    2013-04-01

    Many archaeological remains are covered by sand or vegetation but it still possible to detect them by remote sensing techniques. One of them is airborne laser scanning that enables production of digital elevation models (DEM) of very high resolution (better than 1 m) with high relative elevation accuracy (centimetre level), even under forest. Thus, it has become well established in archaeological applications. However, effective interpretation of digital elevation models requires appropriate data visualization. Analytical relief shading is used in most cases. Although widely accepted, this method has two major drawbacks: identifying details in deep shades and inability to properly represent linear features lying parallel to the light beam. Several authors have tried to overcome these limitations by changing the position of the light source or by filtering. This contribution addresses the DEM visualization problem by sky-view factor, a visualization technique based on diffuse light that overcomes the directional problems of hill-shading. Sky-view factor is a parameter that describes the portion of visible sky limited by relief. It can be used as a general relief visualization technique to show relief characteristics. In particular, we show that this visualization is a very useful tool in archaeology. Applying the sky-view factor for visualization purposes gives advantages over other techniques because it reveals small (or large, depending on the scale of the observed phenomenon and consequential algorithm settings) relief features while preserving the perception of general topography. In the case study (DEM visualization of a fortified enclosure of Tonovcov grad in Slovenia) we show that for the archaeological purposes the sky-view factor is the optimal DEM visualization method. Its ability to consider the neighborhood context makes it an outstanding tool when compared to other visualization techniques. One can choose a large search radius and the most important

  3. X-ray View of Four High-Luminosity Swift-BAT AGN: Unveiling Obscuration and Reflection with Suzaku

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fiorettil, V.; Angelini, L.; Mushotzky, R. F.; Koss, M.; Malaguti, G.

    2013-01-01

    Aims. A complete census of obscured Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) is necessary to reveal the history of the super massive black hole (SMBH) growth and galaxy evolution in the Universe given the complex feedback processes and the fact that much of this growth occurs in an obscured phase. In this context, hard X-ray surveys and dedicated follow-up observations represent a unique tool for selecting highly absorbed AGN and for characterizing the obscuring matter surrounding the SMBH. Here we focus on the absorption and reflection occurring in highly luminous, quasar-like AGN, to study the relation between the geometry of the absorbing matter and the AGN nature (e.g. X-ray, optical, and radio properties), and to help to determine the column density dependency on the AGN luminosity. Methods. The Swift/BAT nine-month survey observed 153 AGN, all with ultra-hard X-ray BAT fluxes in excess of 10(exp -11) erg per square centimeter and an average redshift of 0.03. Among them, four of the most luminous BAT AGN (44.73 less than LogLBAT less than 45.31) were selected as targets of Suzaku follow-up observations: J2246.0+3941 (3C 452), J0407.4+0339 (3C 105), J0318.7+6828, and J0918.5+0425. The column density, scattered/reflected emission, the properties of the Fe K line, and a possible variability are fully analyzed. For the latter, the spectral properties from Chandra, XMM-Newton and Swift/XRT public observations were compared with the present Suzaku analysis, adding an original spectral analysis when non was available from the literature. Results. Of our sample, 3C 452 is the only certain Compton-thick AGN candidate because of i) the high absorption (N(sub H) approximately 4 × 10(exp 23) per square centimeter) and strong Compton reflection; ii) the lack of variability; iii) the "buried" nature, i.e. the low scattering fraction (less than 0.5%) and the extremely low relative [OIII] luminosity. In contrast 3C 105 is not reflection-dominated, despite the comparable column density

  4. Action Research: Rethinking Lewin.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen

    1999-01-01

    Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)

  5. Remaining Sites Verification Package for 100-F-38 Stained Soil Site, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2004-093

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2006-03-13

    The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site was an area of yellow stained soil that was discoverd while excavating a trench for the placement of electrical conduit. The 100-F-38 Stained Soil site meets the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations support future unrestricted land uses that can be represented by a rural-residential scenario. The results also show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils and the contaminant concentrations remaining in the soil are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  6. The Physicochemical Stability of Complex Intravenous Lipid Dispersions Supported by Light Obscuration and Dynamic Light Scattering Techniques.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driscoll, David Francis

    1994-01-01

    Procedures. The physicochemical stability of 45 clinically relevant intravenous nutritional emulsions were assessed employing a balanced fractional factorial design. Six factors were identified as influencing stability and included final concentrations of (1) Amino acids (%); (2) Glucose (%); (3) Lipids (%); (4) Monovalent Cations (mEq/L); (5) Divalent Cations (mEq/L); (6) Trivalent Cations (mg/L) Stability assessments included particle size analysis, pH changes and the visual development of cream layers and phase separation of free oil. Particle size analyses were accomplished employing laser techniques for particle counting and distribution. Particle sizing and counting was achieved using light obscuration and particle distributions were constructed with the aid of dynamic light scatter techniques. Results. Multiple stepwise regression analyses revealed that trivalent cation concentrations (as iron dextran) was the only variable to have any significant effect on the emulsions accounting for almost 60% of the adverse changes in the emulsions (increasing lipid particle sizes) during the course of the investigation. In addition, when the percent fat (PFAT) from time 0 comprised > 0.4% in the size range of >5 μm in diameter, it was associated with, highly unstable and potentially dangerous infusions. Importantly, these unstable emulsions were visually detectable only about 65% of the time. Assessment of the potential danger of these formulations with respect to pulmonary embolism was performed by infusing the admixture with the worst emulsion profile, yet was visually acceptable, in two groups of guinea pigs. Group 1 received the admixture which contained iron dextran and Group 2 received the identical admixture without iron dextran. The admixtures were prepared 24 hours prior to infusion and given to the animals over the last six hours of its expiration date. Prior to infusion, particle size analysis revealed a 100-fold increase in PFAT >5 μm in the iron dextran

  7. NuSTAR Observations of WISE J1036+0449, a Galaxy at z~1 Obscured by Hot Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ricci, C.; Assef, R. J.; Stern, D.; Nikutta, R.; Alexander, D. M.; Asmus, D.; Ballantyne, D. R.; Bauer, F. E.; Blain, A. W.; Boggs, S.; Boorman, P. G.; Brandt, W. N.; Brightman, M.; Chang, C. S.; Chen, C.-T. J.; Christensen, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Craig, W. W.; Díaz-Santos, T.; Eisenhardt, P. R.; Farrah, D.; Gandhi, P.; Hailey, C. J.; Harrison, F. A.; Jun, H. D.; Koss, M. J.; LaMassa, S.; Lansbury, G. B.; Markwardt, C. B.; Stalevski, M.; Stanley, F.; Treister, E.; Tsai, C.-W.; Walton, D. J.; Wu, J. W.; Zappacosta, L.; Zhang, W. W.

    2017-01-01

    Hot dust-obscured galaxies (hot DOGs), selected from Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer’s all-sky infrared survey, host some of the most powerful active galactic nuclei known and may represent an important stage in the evolution of galaxies. Most known hot DOGs are located at z> 1.5, due in part to a strong bias against identifying them at lower redshift related to the selection criteria. We present a new selection method that identifies 153 hot DOG candidates at z∼ 1, where they are significantly brighter and easier to study. We validate this approach by measuring a redshift z = 1.009 and finding a spectral energy distribution similar to that of higher-redshift hot DOGs for one of these objects, WISE J1036+0449 ({L}{Bol}≃ 8× {10}46 {erg} {{{s}}}-1). We find evidence of a broadened component in Mg ii, which would imply a black hole mass of {M}{BH}≃ 2× {10}8 {M}ȯ and an Eddington ratio of {λ }{Edd}≃ 2.7. WISE J1036+0449 is the first hot DOG detected by the Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope Array, and observations show that the source is heavily obscured, with a column density of {N}{{H}}≃ (2{--}15)× {10}23 {{cm}}-2. The source has an intrinsic 2–10 keV luminosity of ∼ 6× {10}44 {erg} {{{s}}}-1, a value significantly lower than that expected from the mid-infrared/X-ray correlation. We also find that other hot DOGs observed by X-ray facilities show a similar deficiency of X-ray flux. We discuss the origin of the X-ray weakness and the absorption properties of hot DOGs. Hot DOGs at z≲ 1 could be excellent laboratories to probe the characteristics of the accretion flow and of the X-ray emitting plasma at extreme values of the Eddington ratio.

  8. THE STAR FORMATION HISTORIES OF z {approx} 2 DUST-OBSCURED GALAXIES AND SUBMILLIMETER-SELECTED GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Bussmann, R. S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, B. T.; Armus, L.; Desai, V.; Soifer, B. T.; Brown, M. J. I.; Gonzalez, A. H.; Melbourne, J.

    2012-01-10

    The Spitzer Space Telescope has identified a population of ultraluminous infrared galaxies (ULIRGs) at z {approx} 2 that may play an important role in the evolution of massive galaxies. We measure the stellar masses (M{sub *}) of two populations of Spitzer-selected ULIRGs that have extremely red R - [24] colors (dust-obscured galaxies, or DOGs) and compare our results with submillimeter-selected galaxies (SMGs). One set of 39 DOGs has a local maximum in their mid-infrared (mid-IR) spectral energy distribution (SED) at rest frame 1.6 {mu}m associated with stellar emission ({sup b}ump DOGs{sup )}, while the other set of 51 DOGs have power-law mid-IR SEDs that are typical of obscured active galactic nuclei ({sup p}ower-law DOGs{sup )}. We measure M{sub *} by applying Charlot and Bruzual stellar population synthesis models to broadband photometry in the rest-frame ultraviolet, optical, and near-infrared of each of these populations. Assuming a simple stellar population and a Chabrier initial mass function, we find that power-law DOGs and bump DOGs are on average a factor of 2 and 1.5 more massive than SMGs, respectively (median and inter-quartile M{sub *} values for SMGs, bump DOGs, and power-law DOGs are log(M{sub *}/M{sub Sun }) = 10.42{sup +0.42}{sub -0.36}, 10.62{sup +0.36}{sub -0.32}, and 10.71{sup +0.40}{sub -0.34}, respectively). More realistic star formation histories drawn from two competing theories for the nature of ULIRGs at z {approx} 2 (major merger versus smooth accretion) can increase these mass estimates by up to 0.5 dex. A comparison of our stellar masses with the instantaneous star formation rate (SFR) in these z {approx} 2 ULIRGs provides a preliminary indication supporting high SFRs for a given M{sub *}, a situation that arises more naturally in major mergers than in smooth accretion-powered systems.

  9. The obscured hyper-energetic GRB 120624B hosted by a luminous compact galaxy at z = 2.20

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Campana, S.; Thöne, C. C.; D'Avanzo, P.; Sánchez-Ramírez, R.; Melandri, A.; Gorosabel, J.; Ghirlanda, G.; Veres, P.; Martín, S.; Petitpas, G.; Covino, S.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Levan, A. J.

    2013-09-01

    Context. Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are the most luminous explosions that we can witness in the Universe. Studying the most extreme cases of these phenomena allows us to constrain the limits for the progenitor models. Aims: In this Letter, we study the prompt emission, afterglow, and host galaxy of GRB 120624B, one of the brightest GRBs detected by Fermi, to derive the energetics of the event and characterise the host galaxy in which it was produced. Methods: Following the high-energy detection we conducted a multi-wavelength follow-up campaign, including near-infrared imaging from HAWKI/VLT, optical from OSIRIS/GTC, X-ray observations from the Chandra X-ray Observatory and at submillimetre/millimetre wavelengths from SMA. Optical/NIR spectroscopy was performed with X-shooter/VLT. Results: We detect the X-ray and NIR afterglow of the burst and determine a redshift of z = 2.1974 ± 0.0002 through identification of emission lines of [O ii], [O iii] and H-α from the host galaxy of the GRB. This implies an energy release of Eiso,γ = (3.0 ± 0.2) × 1054 erg, amongst the most luminous ever detected. The observations of the afterglow indicate high obscuration with AV > 1.5. The host galaxy is compact, with R1/2 < 1.6 kpc, but luminous, at L ~ 1.5 L∗ and has a star formation rate of 91 ± 6 M⊙/yr as derived from Hα. Conclusions: As for other highly obscured GRBs, GRB 120624B is hosted by a luminous galaxy, which we also prove to be compact, with very intense star formation. It is one of the most luminous host galaxies associated with a GRB, showing that the host galaxies of long GRBs are not always blue dwarf galaxies, as previously thought. Based on observations collected at the European Southern Observatory, Chile, with programmes 089.D-0256 and 090.D-0667, at the Gran Telescopio Canarias with programmes GTC49-12A and GTC58-12B, at the Submillimeter Array with programme 2012A-S001, at CAHA with programme F13-3.5-031, at Liverpool Telescope with programme CL13A03

  10. CONTRIBUTION OF THE ACCRETION DISK, HOT CORONA, AND OBSCURING TORUS TO THE LUMINOSITY OF SEYFERT GALAXIES: INTEGRAL AND SPITZER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Sazonov, S.; Churazov, E.; Krivonos, R.; Revnivtsev, M.; Sunyaev, R.; Vikhlinin, A.; Hickox, R. C.; Gorjian, V.; Werner, M. W.; Fabian, A. C.; Forman, W. R.

    2012-10-01

    We estimate the relative contributions of the supermassive black hole (SMBH) accretion disk, corona, and obscuring torus to the bolometric luminosity of Seyfert galaxies, using Spitzer mid-infrared (MIR) observations of a complete sample of 68 nearby active galactic nuclei (AGNs) from the INTEGRAL all-sky hard X-ray (HX) survey. This is the first HX-selected (above 15 keV) sample of AGNs with complementary high angular resolution, high signal-to-noise, MIR data. Correcting for the host galaxy contribution, we find a correlation between HX and MIR luminosities: L{sub 15{mu}m}{proportional_to}L{sup 0.74{+-}0.06}{sub HX}. Assuming that the observed MIR emission is radiation from an accretion disk reprocessed in a surrounding dusty torus that subtends a solid angle decreasing with increasing luminosity (as inferred from the declining fraction of obscured AGNs), the intrinsic disk luminosity, L{sub Disk}, is approximately proportional to the luminosity of the corona in the 2-300 keV energy band, L{sub Corona}, with the L{sub Disk}/L{sub Corona} ratio varying by a factor of 2.1 around a mean value of 1.6. This ratio is a factor of {approx}2 smaller than for typical quasars producing the cosmic X-ray background. Therefore, over three orders of magnitude in luminosity, HX radiation carries a large, and roughly comparable, fraction of the bolometric output of AGNs. We estimate the cumulative bolometric luminosity density of local AGNs at {approx}(1-3) Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 40} erg s{sup -1} Mpc{sup -3}. Finally, the Compton temperature ranges between kT{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 2 and Almost-Equal-To 6 keV for nearby AGNs, compared to kT{sub c} Almost-Equal-To 2 keV for typical quasars, confirming that radiative heating of interstellar gas can play an important role in regulating SMBH growth.

  11. Presumably bacterial remains in banded iron formations: beginning of investigations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Astafieva, M.

    2014-04-01

    Ancient Archaean and Protherozoic rocks are the model objects for investigation of rocks comprising astromaterials. Judging by their age these terrestrial rocks are the nearest to the rocks of meteorites. They are represented as a rule by deeply metamorphized layers of volcanogenic and volcanogenic-sedimentary rocks and bacterial-paleontological investigations of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. But paleontological studies of these rocks usually meet some difficulties. One of these difficulties is usual high metamorphization of rocks. That is why investigation of Archaean banded iron formations is of great importance. Banded iron formations are known everywhere. The oldest banded iron formations are met in Archaean. Their widest distribution was in Proterozoic. They are constituent part of metamorphic complexes of all ancient shields. Formation of these units ended in Phanerozoic. Peculiarity of their development in time, thin layering, rhythmyc repetitiveness are reasons of great interest to these formations. Banded iron formations are sedimentary rocks. Interbedding of ferrigenous (magnetite, hematite, siderite etc.) interlayers and siliceous layers are typical to these formations. Stratificatification is thin, thickness of interlayers is less than 1-2 mm. Iron content exceeds 15%. Potentially all minerals of ferrigenous interlayers could be of biogenic nature because both for oxygenized (hematite) and reduced (magnetite and siderite) minerals direct mechanism of bacterial production is established by microbiologists. Basic ore mineral of banded iron formations is magnetite. But magnetite origin is not clear till nowadays and this problem is very actual [2]. Nevertheless bacterial remains by themselves have not been found and it is not surprising. It is proved that finely dispersed non-completely formed magnetite compose basic mass of magnetite formed for example by thermophylic iron-reducing bacteria. Processes of structure arrangement and crystal

  12. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B1 Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-015

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-08-30

    The 1607-B1 Septic System includes a septic tank, drain field, and associated connecting pipelines and influent sanitary sewer lines. This septic system serviced the former 1701-B Badgehouse, 1720-B Patrol Building/Change Room, and the 1709-B Fire Headquarters. The 1607-B1 waste site received unknown amounts of nonhazardous, nonradioactive sanitary sewage from these facilities during its operational history from 1944 to approximately 1970. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  13. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 100-F-54 Animal Farm Pastures, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2008-015

    SciTech Connect

    J. M. Capron

    2008-04-17

    The 100-F-54 waste site, part of the 100-FR-2 Operable Unit, is the soil associated with the former pastures for holding domestic farm animals used in experimental toxicology studies. Evaluation of historical information resulted in identification of the experimental animal farm pastures as having potential residual soil contamination due to excrement from experimental animals. The 100-F-54 animal farm pastures confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  14. CLUSTERING OF OBSCURED AND UNOBSCURED QUASARS IN THE BOOeTES FIELD: PLACING RAPIDLY GROWING BLACK HOLES IN THE COSMIC WEB

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Alexander, David M.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Myers, Adam D.; Brodwin, Mark; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Caldwell, Nelson; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cool, Richard J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Stern, Daniel; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-04-20

    We present the first measurement of the spatial clustering of mid-infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using a sample in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.8 selected from the 9 deg{sup 2} Booetes multiwavelength survey. Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope and X-ray observations have revealed large populations of obscured quasars that have been inferred from models of the X-ray background and supermassive black hole evolution. To date, little is known about obscured quasar clustering, which allows us to measure the masses of their host dark matter halos and explore their role in the cosmic evolution of black holes and galaxies. In this study, we use a sample of 806 mid-infrared-selected quasars and {approx}250,000 galaxies to calculate the projected quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function w{sub p} (R). The observed clustering yields characteristic dark matter halo masses of log(M{sub halo} [h {sup -1} M{sub sun}]) = 12.7{sup +0.4}{sub -0.6} and 13.3{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} for unobscured quasars (QSO-1s) and obscured quasars (Obs-QSOs), respectively. The results for QSO-1s are in excellent agreement with previous measurements for optically selected quasars, while we conclude that the Obs-QSOs are at least as strongly clustered as the QSO-1s. We test for the effects of photometric redshift errors on the optically faint Obs-QSOs, and find that our method yields a robust lower limit on the clustering; photo-z errors may cause us to underestimate the clustering amplitude of the Obs-QSOs by at most {approx}20%. We compare our results to previous studies, and speculate on physical implications of stronger clustering for obscured quasars.

  15. Clustering of Obscured and Unobscured Quasars in the Boötes Field: Placing Rapidly Growing Black Holes in the Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Myers, Adam D.; Brodwin, Mark; Alexander, David M.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cool, Richard J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Stern, Daniel; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caldwell, Nelson; Goulding, Andrew D.; Mullaney, James R.

    2011-04-01

    We present the first measurement of the spatial clustering of mid-infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using a sample in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.8 selected from the 9 deg2 Boötes multiwavelength survey. Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope and X-ray observations have revealed large populations of obscured quasars that have been inferred from models of the X-ray background and supermassive black hole evolution. To date, little is known about obscured quasar clustering, which allows us to measure the masses of their host dark matter halos and explore their role in the cosmic evolution of black holes and galaxies. In this study, we use a sample of 806 mid-infrared-selected quasars and ≈250,000 galaxies to calculate the projected quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function wp (R). The observed clustering yields characteristic dark matter halo masses of log(M halo [h -1 M sun]) = 12.7+0.4 -0.6 and 13.3+0.3 -0.4 for unobscured quasars (QSO-1s) and obscured quasars (Obs-QSOs), respectively. The results for QSO-1s are in excellent agreement with previous measurements for optically selected quasars, while we conclude that the Obs-QSOs are at least as strongly clustered as the QSO-1s. We test for the effects of photometric redshift errors on the optically faint Obs-QSOs, and find that our method yields a robust lower limit on the clustering; photo-z errors may cause us to underestimate the clustering amplitude of the Obs-QSOs by at most ~20%. We compare our results to previous studies, and speculate on physical implications of stronger clustering for obscured quasars.

  16. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  17. Key findings and remaining questions in the areas of core-concrete interaction and debris coolability

    DOE PAGES

    Farmer, M. T.; Gerardi, C.; Bremer, N.; ...

    2016-10-31

    The reactor accidents at Fukushima-Dai-ichi have rekindled interest in late phase severe accident behavior involving reactor pressure vessel breach and discharge of molten core melt into the containment. Two technical issues of interest in this area include core-concrete interaction and the extent to which the core debris may be quenched and rendered coolable by top flooding. The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) programs at Argonne National Laboratory included the conduct of large scale reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensionalmore » molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. These tests provided a broad database to support accident management planning, as well as the development and validation of models and codes that can be used to extrapolate the experiment results to plant conditions. This paper provides a high level overview of the key experiment results obtained during the program. Finally, a discussion is also provided that describes technical gaps that remain in this area, several of which have arisen based on the sequence of events and operator actions during Fukushima.« less

  18. Key findings and remaining questions in the areas of core-concrete interaction and debris coolability

    SciTech Connect

    Farmer, M. T.; Gerardi, C.; Bremer, N.; Basu, S.

    2016-10-31

    The reactor accidents at Fukushima-Dai-ichi have rekindled interest in late phase severe accident behavior involving reactor pressure vessel breach and discharge of molten core melt into the containment. Two technical issues of interest in this area include core-concrete interaction and the extent to which the core debris may be quenched and rendered coolable by top flooding. The OECD-sponsored Melt Coolability and Concrete Interaction (MCCI) programs at Argonne National Laboratory included the conduct of large scale reactor material experiments and associated analysis with the objectives of resolving the ex-vessel debris coolability issue, and to address remaining uncertainties related to long-term two-dimensional molten core-concrete interactions under both wet and dry cavity conditions. These tests provided a broad database to support accident management planning, as well as the development and validation of models and codes that can be used to extrapolate the experiment results to plant conditions. This paper provides a high level overview of the key experiment results obtained during the program. Finally, a discussion is also provided that describes technical gaps that remain in this area, several of which have arisen based on the sequence of events and operator actions during Fukushima.

  19. Discovery of an obscured globular cluster associated with GX 354+0 /=4U/MXB 1728-34/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grindlay, J. E.; Hertz, P.

    1981-07-01

    A diffuse infrared source identified as the most heavily obscured globular cluster yet found, was observed using the NASA 3m infrared telescope facility and Einstein positions for the X-ray source GX 354+0 (=4U/MXB 1728-34). Color excesses were measured to 1.4 + or - 0.3 for E(J-H) and 0.63 + or - 0.07 for E(H-K), and the visual extinction was determined at 10.6 + or - 1.3. The magnitude of several giant branch stars imply the cluster to be at a distance of 10.0 + or - 3.9 kpc, if metal rich, or 5.2 + or - 1.4 kpc, if metal poor. A single burst from MXB 1728-34 was observed with a blackbody temperature and cluster distance that indicated the luminosity to be not less than 10 times the Eddington limit for a neutron star model. This identification brings to 11 the number of compact X-ray sources in globular clusters, and reinforces the connection between GX sources, bursters, and globular clusters.

  20. Toxicological effects of military fog oil obscurant on Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia in field and laboratory exposures.

    PubMed

    Cropek, Donald M; Esarey, Joan C; Conner, Cassie L; Goran, Jacob M; Smith, Thomas; Soucek, David J

    2008-08-01

    Our purpose was to determine if the acute and sub-lethal effects of fog oil, an obscurant used for military training, could be observed in realistic field exposures. To this end, we exposed Daphnia magna to oil fogs under actual release conditions at a U.S. Army training site. Guided by field investigations, acute toxicity experiments were conducted in the laboratory with the more sensitive species Ceriodaphnia dubia to test the hypothesis that dissolution of fog oil constituents into water is minimal and actual contact by organisms with the water surface is required to cause toxicity. We conducted further experiments to test the hypothesis that vaporization of fog oil alters its chemical composition and toxicity to freshwater invertebrates. In the field, daphnid mortality was minimal more than 5 m from the point of fog generation, but sub-lethal effects were more extensive. Both field and laboratory experiments suggested that physical contact with oils on the water surface was the most important factor driving toxicity. To our knowledge, this is the first attempt to evaluate toxicological endpoints with freshwater invertebrates in field exposures with fog oil.

  1. HIGH-REDSHIFT DUST OBSCURED GALAXIES: A MORPHOLOGY-SPECTRAL ENERGY DISTRIBUTION CONNECTION REVEALED BY KECK ADAPTIVE OPTICS

    SciTech Connect

    Melbourne, J.; Matthews, K.; Soifer, B. T. E-mail: bts@submm.caltech.edu

    2009-06-15

    A simple optical to mid-IR color selection, R - [24]>14, i.e., f {sub {nu}}(24 {mu}m)/f {sub {nu}}(R) {approx}> 1000, identifies highly dust obscured galaxies (DOGs) with typical redshifts of z {approx} 2 {+-} 0.5. Extreme mid-IR luminosities (L {sub IR} > 10{sup 12-14}) suggest that DOGs are powered by a combination of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and star formation, possibly driven by mergers. In an effort to compare their photometric properties with their rest-frame optical morphologies, we obtained high-spatial resolution (0.''05-0.''1) Keck Adaptive Optics K'-band images of 15 DOGs. The images reveal a wide range of morphologies, including small exponential disks (eight of 15), small ellipticals (four of 15), and unresolved sources (two of 15). One particularly diffuse source could not be classified because of low signal-to-noise ratio. We find a statistically significant correlation between galaxy concentration and mid-IR luminosity, with the most luminous DOGs exhibiting higher concentration and smaller physical size. DOGs with high concentration also tend to have spectral energy distributions (SEDs) suggestive of AGN activity. Thus, central AGN light may be biasing the morphologies of the more luminous DOGs to higher concentration. Conversely, more diffuse DOGs tend to show an SED shape suggestive of star formation. Two of 15 in the sample show multiple resolved components with separations of {approx}1 kpc, circumstantial evidence for ongoing mergers.

  2. SCATTERED X-RAYS IN OBSCURED ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI AND THEIR IMPLICATIONS FOR GEOMETRICAL STRUCTURE AND EVOLUTION

    SciTech Connect

    Noguchi, Kazuhisa; Terashima, Yuichi; Awaki, Hisamitsu; Ishino, Yukiko; Ueda, Yoshihiro; Hashimoto, Yasuhiro; Koss, Michael

    2010-03-01

    We construct a new sample of 32 obscured active galactic nuclei (AGNs) selected from the Second XMM-Newton Serendipitous Source Catalogue to investigate their multiwavelength properties in relation to the 'scattering fraction', the ratio of the soft X-ray flux to the absorption-corrected direct emission. The sample covers a broad range of the scattering fraction ({approx}0.1%-10%). A quarter of the 32 AGNs have a very low scattering fraction (<= 0.5%), which suggests that they are buried in a geometrically thick torus with a very small opening angle. We investigate correlations between the scattering fraction and multiwavelength properties. We find that AGNs with a small scattering fraction tend to have low [O III]lambda5007/X-ray luminosity ratios. This result agrees with the expectation that the extent of the narrow-line region is small because of the small opening angle of the torus. There is no significant correlation between scattering fraction and far-infrared luminosity. This implies that a scale height of the torus is not primarily determined by starburst activity. We also compare scattering fraction with black hole mass or Eddington ratio and find a weak anti-correlation between the Eddington ratio and scattering fraction. This implies that more rapidly growing supermassive black holes tend to have thicker tori.

  3. Action observation activates neurons of the monkey ventrolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Simone, Luciano; Bimbi, Marco; Rodà, Francesca; Fogassi, Leonardo; Rozzi, Stefano

    2017-01-01

    Prefrontal cortex is crucial for exploiting contextual information for the planning and guidance of behavioral responses. Among contextual cues, those provided by others’ behavior are particularly important, in primates, for selecting appropriate reactions and suppressing the inappropriate ones. These latter functions deeply rely on the ability to understand others’ actions. However, it is largely unknown whether prefrontal neurons are activated by action observation. To address this issue, we recorded the activity of ventrolateral prefrontal (VLPF) neurons of macaque monkeys during the observation of videos depicting biological movements performed by a monkey or a human agent, and object motion. Our results show that a population of VLPF neurons respond to the observation of biological movements, in particular those representing goal directed actions. Many of these neurons also show a preference for the agent performing the action. The neural response is present also when part of the observed movement is obscured, suggesting that these VLPF neurons code a high order representation of the observed action rather than a simple visual description of it. PMID:28290511

  4. Mechanisms of Bactericidal Action of Cinnamaldehyde against Listeria monocytogenes and of Eugenol against L. monocytogenes and Lactobacillus sakei

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Alexander O.; Holley, Richard A.

    2004-01-01

    The spice oil components eugenol and cinnamaldehyde possess activity against both gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria, but the mechanisms of action remain obscure. In broth media at 20°C, 5 mM eugenol or 30 mM cinnamaldehyde was bactericidal (>1-log reduction in the number of CFU per milliliter in 1 h) to Listeria monocytogenes. At a concentration of 6 mM eugenol was bactericidal to Lactobacillus sakei, but treatment with 0.5 M cinnamaldehyde had no significant effect. To investigate the role of interference with energy generation in the mechanism of action, the cellular and extracellular ATP levels of cells in HEPES buffer at 20°C were measured. Treatment of nonenergized L. monocytogenes with 5 mM eugenol, 40 mM cinnamaldehyde, or 10 μM carbonyl cyanide m-chlorophenylhydrazone (CCCP) for 5 min prevented an increase in the cellular ATP concentration upon addition of glucose. Treatment of energized L. monocytogenes with 40 mM cinnamaldehyde or 10 μM CCCP caused a rapid decline in cellular ATP levels, but 5 mM eugenol had no effect on cellular ATP. Treatment of L. sakei with 10 mM eugenol prevented ATP generation by nonenergized cells and had no effect on the cellular ATP of energized cells. CCCP at a concentration of 100 μM had no significant effect on the cellular ATP of L. sakei. No significant changes in extracellular ATP were observed. Due to their rapidity, effects on energy generation clearly play a major role in the activity of eugenol and cinnamaldehyde at bactericidal concentrations. The possible mechanisms of inhibition of energy generation are inhibition of glucose uptake or utilization of glucose and effects on membrane permeability. PMID:15466510

  5. Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. B.; Mitchard, E. T. A.

    2015-11-01

    Forests with high above-ground biomass (AGB), including those growing on peat swamps, have historically not been thought suitable for biomass mapping and change detection using synthetic aperture radar (SAR). However, by integrating L-band (λ = 0.23 m) SAR from the ALOS and lidar from the ICESat Earth-Observing satellites with 56 field plots, we were able to create a forest biomass and change map for a 10.7 Mha section of eastern Sumatra that still contains high AGB peat swamp forest. Using a time series of SAR data we estimated changes in both forest area and AGB. We estimate that there was 274 ± 68 Tg AGB remaining in natural forest (≥ 20 m height) in the study area in 2007, with this stock reducing by approximately 11.4 % over the subsequent 3 years. A total of 137.4 kha of the study area was deforested between 2007 and 2010, an average rate of 3.8 % yr-1. The ability to attribute forest loss to different initial biomass values allows for far more effective monitoring and baseline modelling for avoided deforestation projects than traditional, optical-based remote sensing. Furthermore, given SAR's ability to penetrate the smoke and cloud which normally obscure land cover change in this region, SAR-based forest monitoring can be relied on to provide frequent imagery. This study demonstrates that, even at L-band, which typically saturates at medium biomass levels (ca. 150 Mg ha-1), in conjunction with lidar data, it is possible to make reliable estimates of not just the area but also the carbon emissions resulting from land use change.

  6. Integrated radar and lidar analysis reveals extensive loss of remaining intact forest on Sumatra 2007-2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, M. B.; Mitchard, E. T. A.

    2015-06-01

    Forests with high above ground biomass (AGB), including those growing on peat swamps, have historically not been thought suitable for biomass mapping and change detection using Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR). However, by integrating L-band (λ = 0.23 m) SAR with lidar data from the ALOS and ICESat earth-observing satellites respectively, and 56 forest plots, we were able to create a forest biomass and change map for a 10.7 Mha section of eastern Sumatra that still contains high AGB peat swamp forest. Using a time series of SAR data we estimated changes in both forest area and AGB. We estimate that there were 274 ± 68 Tg AGB remaining in natural forest (≥ 20 m height) in the study area in 2007, with this stock reducing by approximately 11.4% over the subsequent 3 years. A total of 137.4 kha of the study area were deforested between 2007 and 2010; an average rate of 3.8% yr-1. The ability to attribute forest loss to different initial biomass values allows for far more effective monitoring and baseline modelling for avoided deforestation projects than traditional, optical-based remote sensing. Furthermore, given SAR's ability to penetrate the smoke and cloud which normally obscure land cover change in this region, SAR-based forest monitoring can be relied on to provide frequent imagery. This study demonstrates that even at L-band, which typically saturates at medium biomass levels (ca. 150 Mg ha-1), it is possible to make reliable estimates of not just the area but the carbon emissions resulting from land use change.

  7. Hot images from obscurations

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, J.T.; Manes, K.R.; Renard, P.A. )

    1993-10-20

    Certain damage observed on the optics in NOVA is consistent with a phenomenon akin to holographic imaging. (NOVA is the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's 10-beam Nd:glass laser used for inertial confinement fusion research.) The minimization of similar damage in next-generation laser systems is sought by first identifying the sources for these holographic images, specifying glass parameters appropriately, and staging the amplifier chain to circumvent the problem. The insight gained has lead to an explanation for a 20-year-old puzzle.

  8. Smog Obscures Chinese Coast

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Most of southeastern China has been covered by a thick greyish shroud of aerosol pollution over the last few weeks. The smog is so thick it is difficult to see the surface in some regions of this scene, acquired on January 7, 2002. The city of Hong Kong is the large brown cluster of pixels toward the lower lefthand corner of the image (indicated by the faint black box). The island of Taiwan, due east of mainland China, is also blanketed by the smog. This true-color image was captured by the Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) sensor, flying aboard NASA's Terra satellite. Image courtesy Jacques Descloitres, MODIS Land Rapid Response Team at NASA GSFC

  9. Dust Obscures Korea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The dust cloud over eastern Asia was so thick on March 21, 2002, that the Korean Peninsula completely disappeared from view in this Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) image of the region. Parts of South Korea report that visibility at the surface is less than 50 m (165 feet). Airports throughout the region canceled flights due to the poor visibility. Eyewitnesses in China report that the dust was so thick in Beijing at times that visibility was limited to 100 m (330 feet), while in parts of the Gansu Province visibility was reported at less than 10 m (33 feet). Chinese officials say this is the worst dust storm to hit in more than 10 years. Dust from an earlier event still colors the air to the east of Japan. (The island of Honshu is just peeking out from under the cloud cover in these images.) Image courtesy the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  10. An emerging action science of social settings.

    PubMed

    Seidman, Edward

    2012-09-01

    Seymour B. Sarason's innovative ideas have influenced much of my work. These same ideas-in particular, his concepts of social settings, behavioral and programmatic regularities, and the universe of alternatives-also serve as the foundation for an action science of social settings. Questions regarding theory, measurement, intervention, and research design and data analysis are central to the development of this action science, and there have been recent innovations in each of these areas. However, future challenges remain for the field. We must continue to move forward to advance an action science of social settings and make a real difference in people's lives.

  11. [Mechanism of action of antiepileptic drugs].

    PubMed

    Saidón, Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Antiepileptic drugs (DAEs) act through different mechanisms of action: increase in central inhibition, inhibition of excitatorios mechanisms and modification of the excitability through their action on the ionic channels. Epilepsy is characterized by an abnormal and hypersynchronic unloading of a neuronal population. The activity of numerous drugs is associated to increase in gabaergic activity. Another group of drugs decreases excitatory mechanisms, through the inhibition of ionic channels, or through a decrease in the activity of the excitatory neurotransmitters. There are some of antiepileptic drugs, especially within the group of drugs of recent appearance, for wich the mechanism of action remains unknown.

  12. Mid-infrared luminous quasars in the GOODS-Herschel fields: a large population of heavily obscured, Compton-thick quasars at z ≈ 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Moro, A.; Alexander, D. M.; Bauer, F. E.; Daddi, E.; Kocevski, D. D.; McIntosh, D. H.; Stanley, F.; Brandt, W. N.; Elbaz, D.; Harrison, C. M.; Luo, B.; Mullaney, J. R.; Xue, Y. Q.

    2016-02-01

    We present the infrared (IR) and X-ray properties of a sample of 33 mid-IR luminous quasars (νL6 μm ≥ 6 × 1044 erg s-1) at redshift z ≈ 1-3, identified through detailed spectral energy distribution analyses of distant star-forming galaxies, using the deepest IR data from Spitzer and Herschel in the GOODS-Herschel fields. The aim is to constrain the fraction of obscured, and Compton-thick (CT, NH > 1.5 × 1024 cm-2) quasars at the peak era of nuclear and star formation activities. Despite being very bright in the mid-IR band, ≈30 per cent of these quasars are not detected in the extremely deep 2 and 4 Ms Chandra X-ray data available in these fields. X-ray spectral analysis of the detected sources reveals that the majority (≈67 per cent) are obscured by column densities NH > 1022 cm-2; this fraction reaches ≈80 per cent when including the X-ray-undetected sources (9 out of 33), which are likely to be the most heavily obscured, CT quasars. We constrain the fraction of CT quasars in our sample to be ≈24-48 per cent, and their space density to be Φ = (6.7 ± 2.2) × 10-6 Mpc-3. From the investigation of the quasar host galaxies in terms of star formation rates (SFRs) and morphological distortions, as a sign of galaxy mergers/interactions, we do not find any direct relation between SFRs and quasar luminosity or X-ray obscuration. On the other hand, there is tentative evidence that the most heavily obscured quasars have, on average, more disturbed morphologies than the unobscured/moderately obscured quasar hosts, which preferentially live in undisturbed systems. However, the fraction of quasars with disturbed morphology amongst the whole sample is ≈40 per cent, suggesting that galaxy mergers are not the main fuelling mechanism of quasars at z ≈ 2.

  13. Set Goals & Select Actions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This phase of the Local Climate Action Framework will help users articulate the goals for their climate, energy, and sustainability programs, as well as to identify the actions that are most appropriate to help meet those goals.

  14. American Lead Action Memorandum

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    ACTION MEMORANDUM— Request for a Time-Critical Removal Action andExemption from the $2 Million and 12-Month Statutory Limits at the AmericanLead Site, Indianapolis, Marion County, Indiana (Site ID #B56J)

  15. Putting Actions in Context: Visual Action Adaptation Aftereffects Are Modulated by Social Contexts

    PubMed Central

    de la Rosa, Stephan; Streuber, Stephan; Giese, Martin; Bülthoff, Heinrich H.; Curio, Cristóbal

    2014-01-01

    The social context in which an action is embedded provides important information for the interpretation of an action. Is this social context integrated during the visual recognition of an action? We used a behavioural visual adaptation paradigm to address this question and measured participants’ perceptual bias of a test action after they were adapted to one of two adaptors (adaptation after-effect). The action adaptation after-effect was measured for the same set of adaptors in two different social contexts. Our results indicate that the size of the adaptation effect varied with social context (social context modulation) although the physical appearance of the adaptors remained unchanged. Three additional experiments provided evidence that the observed social context modulation of the adaptation effect are owed to the adaptation of visual action recognition processes. We found that adaptation is critical for the social context modulation (experiment 2). Moreover, the effect is not mediated by emotional content of the action alone (experiment 3) and visual information about the action seems to be critical for the emergence of action adaptation effects (experiment 4). Taken together these results suggest that processes underlying visual action recognition are sensitive to the social context of an action. PMID:24466123

  16. Obscured AGNs in Bulgeless Hosts discovered by WISE: The Case Study of SDSS J1224+5555

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satyapal, S.; Secrest, N. J.; Rothberg, B.; O'Connor, J. A.; Ellison, S. L.; Hickox, R. C.; Constantin, A.; Gliozzi, M.; Rosenberg, J. L.

    2016-08-01

    observations suggest the presence of an AGN, we caution that identifying obscured AGNs in the low-luminosity regime is challenging and often requires multiwavelength observations. These observations suggest that low-luminosity AGNs can be heavily obscured and reside in optically quiescent galaxies, adding to the growing body of evidence that the fraction of bulgeless galaxies with accreting black holes may be significantly underestimated based on optical studies.

  17. Reduced attentional capture in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Hickey, Clayton; Theeuwes, Jan; Kingstone, Alan

    2010-04-01

    Recent studies indicate that playing action video games improves performance on a number of attention-based tasks. However, it remains unclear whether action video game experience primarily affects endogenous or exogenous forms of spatial orienting. To examine this issue, action video game players and non-action video game players performed an attentional capture task. The results show that action video game players responded quicker than non-action video game players, both when a target appeared in isolation and when a salient, task-irrelevant distractor was present in the display. Action video game players additionally showed a smaller capture effect than did non-action video game players. When coupled with the findings of previous studies, the collective evidence indicates that extensive experience with action video games may enhance players' top-down attentional control, which, in turn, can modulate the negative effects of bottom-up attentional capture.

  18. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  19. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  20. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and…