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Sample records for action remains unknown

  1. Chemical plants remain vulnerable to terrorists: a call to action.

    PubMed

    Lippin, Tobi Mae; McQuiston, Thomas H; Bradley-Bull, Kristin; Burns-Johnson, Toshiba; Cook, Linda; Gill, Michael L; Howard, Donna; Seymour, Thomas A; Stephens, Doug; Williams, Brian K

    2006-09-01

    U.S. chemical plants currently have potentially catastrophic vulnerabilities as terrorist targets. The possible consequences of these vulnerabilities echo from the tragedies of the Bhopal incident in 1984 to the terrorist attacks on 11 September 2001 and, most recently, Hurricanes Katrina and Rita. Findings from a 2004 nationwide participatory research study of 125 local union leaders at sites with very large volumes of highly hazardous chemicals suggest that voluntary efforts to achieve chemical plant security are not succeeding. Study respondents reported that companies had only infrequently taken actions that are most effective in preventing or in preparing to respond to a terrorist threat. In addition, companies reportedly often failed to involve key stakeholders, including workers, local unions, and the surrounding communities, in these efforts. The environmental health community thus has an opportunity to play a key role in advocating for and supporting improvements in prevention of and preparation for terrorist attacks. Policy-level recommendations to redress chemical site vulnerabilities and the related ongoing threats to the nation's security are as follows: a) specify detailed requirements for chemical site assessment and security ; b) mandate audit inspections supported by significant penalties for cases of noncompliance ; c) require progress toward achieving inherently safer processes, including the minimizing of storage of highly hazardous chemicals ; d) examine and require additional effective actions in prevention, emergency preparedness, and response and remediation ; e) mandate and fund the upgrading of emergency communication systems ; and f) involve workers and community members in plan creation and equip and prepare them to prevent and respond effectively to an incident.

  2. Anticipatory synergy adjustments: preparing a quick action in an unknown direction.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Bartsch, Angelo; Cuadra, Cristian; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M; Latash, Mark L

    2013-05-01

    We studied a mechanism of feed-forward control of a multi-finger action, namely anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs), prior to a quick force correction in response to a change in the gain of the visual feedback. Synergies were defined as co-varied across trials adjustments of commands to fingers that stabilized (decreased variance of) the total force. We hypothesized that ASAs would be highly sensitive to prior information about the timing of the action but not to information on its direction, i.e., on whether the gain would go up or down. The subjects produced accurate constant total force by pressing with four fingers on individual force sensors. The feedback signal could change from veridical (the sum of finger forces) to modified, with the middle finger force multiplied by 0.2 or by 1.8. The timing of the gain change and its direction could be known or unknown to the subject in advance. When the timing of the gain change was known, ASA was seen as a drop in the synergy index starting about 250-300 ms prior to the first visible correction of the total force. When the gain change timing was unknown, ASAs started much later, less than 100 ms prior to the total force correction. The magnitude of synergy index changes was significantly larger under the "time known" conditions. Information on the direction of the visual gain change had no effect on the ASA timing, while the ASA magnitude was somewhat larger when this information was not available to the subject. After the total force correction, the synergy index was significantly larger for the force signal computed using the modified gain values as compared to the synergy index value for the actual total force. We conclude that ASAs represent an important feed-forward motor control mechanism that allows preparing for a quick action even when the direction of the action is not known in advance. The results emphasize the subtle control of multi-finger synergies that are specific to the exact contributions of

  3. Anticipatory synergy adjustments: Preparing a quick action in an unknown direction

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Tao; Wu, Yen-Hsun; Bartsch, Angelo; Cuadra, Cristian; Zatsiorsky, Vladimir M.; Latash, Mark L.

    2013-01-01

    We studied a mechanism of feed-forward control of a multi-finger action, namely anticipatory synergy adjustments (ASAs) prior to a quick force correction in response to a change in the gain of the visual feedback. Synergies were defined as co-varied across trials adjustments of commands to fingers that stabilized (decreased variance of) the total force. We hypothesized that ASAs would be highly sensitive to prior information about the timing of the action but not to information on its direction, i.e., on whether the gain would go up or down. The subjects produced accurate constant total force by pressing with four fingers on individual force sensors. The feedback signal could change from veridical (the sum of finger forces) to modified, with the middle finger force multiplied by 0.2 or by 1.8. The timing of the gain change and its direction could be known or unknown to the subject in advance. When the timing of the gain change was known, ASA was seen as a drop in the synergy index starting about 250–300 ms prior to the first visible correction of the total force. When the gain change timing was unknown, ASAs started much later, less than 100 ms prior to the total force correction. The magnitude of synergy index changes was significantly larger under the “time known” conditions. Information on the direction of the visual gain change had no effect on the ASA timing, while the ASA magnitude was somewhat larger when this information was not available to the subject. After the total force correction, the synergy index was significantly larger for the force signal computed using the modified gain values as compared to the synergy index value for the actual total force. We conclude that ASAs represent an important feed-forward motor control mechanism that allows preparing for a quick action even when the direction of the action is not known in advance. The results emphasize the subtle control of multi-finger synergies that are specific to the exact contributions of

  4. Lonely GPFUTV----the movement of water under the action of an unknown vacuum energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Weiyi

    2010-11-01

    In this paper, firstly, the experiment on the flow resistance of the aerated pipe flow is introduced. And some experimental research on comparison between different volumes of air entrained is presented. Secondly, the technical characteristics of GPFUTV are dissertated, including creative and functional design, fundamental principle, etc. Under the joint action of an unknown vacuum energy and the formation of non-aerated flow the water flow is full-pipe and continuous, colorless and non-aerated, high-speed and non-rotational as distinguished from laminar flow. Thirdly, an appeal in relation to the experimental research, the applied studies and basic theory research is given. For instance, the well-known Reynolds' experiment under GPFUTV condition, the study of the removal of entrained air in hydraulic fluids, the potential for GPFUTV to be developed for deep seawater suction technology, seawater intake pipe of OTEC and lifting technology for deep ocean mining in Fe-Mn concretions, flow stability and flow resistance under GPFUTV condition, etc.

  5. Identification and site of action of the remaining four putative pseudouridine synthases in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed Central

    Del Campo, M; Kaya, Y; Ofengand, J

    2001-01-01

    There are 10 known putative pseudouridine synthase genes in Escherichia coli. The products of six have been previously assigned, one to formation of the single pseudouridine in 16S RNA, three to the formation of seven pseudouridines in 23S RNA, and three to the formation of three pseudouridines in tRNA (one synthase makes pseudouridine in 23S RNA and tRNA). Here we show that the remaining four putative synthase genes make bona fide pseudouridine synthases and identify which pseudouridines they make. RluB (formerly YciL) and RluE (formerly YmfC) make pseudouridine2605 and pseudouridine2457, respectively, in 23S RNA. RluF (formerly YjbC) makes the newly discovered pseudouridine2604 in 23S RNA, and TruC (formerly YqcB) makes pseudouridine65 in tRNA(Ile1) and tRNA(Asp). Deletion of each of these synthase genes individually had no effect on exponential growth in rich media at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C, or 42 degrees C. A strain lacking RluB and RluF also showed no growth defect under these conditions. Mutation of a conserved aspartate in a common sequence motif, previously shown to be essential for the other six E. coli pseudouridine synthases and several yeast pseudouridine synthases, also caused a loss of in vivo activity in all four of the synthases studied in this work. PMID:11720289

  6. Identification and site of action of the remaining four putative pseudouridine synthases in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Del Campo, M; Kaya, Y; Ofengand, J

    2001-11-01

    There are 10 known putative pseudouridine synthase genes in Escherichia coli. The products of six have been previously assigned, one to formation of the single pseudouridine in 16S RNA, three to the formation of seven pseudouridines in 23S RNA, and three to the formation of three pseudouridines in tRNA (one synthase makes pseudouridine in 23S RNA and tRNA). Here we show that the remaining four putative synthase genes make bona fide pseudouridine synthases and identify which pseudouridines they make. RluB (formerly YciL) and RluE (formerly YmfC) make pseudouridine2605 and pseudouridine2457, respectively, in 23S RNA. RluF (formerly YjbC) makes the newly discovered pseudouridine2604 in 23S RNA, and TruC (formerly YqcB) makes pseudouridine65 in tRNA(Ile1) and tRNA(Asp). Deletion of each of these synthase genes individually had no effect on exponential growth in rich media at 25 degrees C, 37 degrees C, or 42 degrees C. A strain lacking RluB and RluF also showed no growth defect under these conditions. Mutation of a conserved aspartate in a common sequence motif, previously shown to be essential for the other six E. coli pseudouridine synthases and several yeast pseudouridine synthases, also caused a loss of in vivo activity in all four of the synthases studied in this work.

  7. Analysis of long-term impacts of TRU waste remaining at generator/storage sites for No Action Alternative 2

    SciTech Connect

    Buck, J.W.; Bagaasen, L.M.; Bergeron, M.P.; Streile, G.P.

    1997-09-01

    This report is a supplement to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal-Phase Final Supplemental Environmental Impact Statement (SEIS-II). Described herein are the underlying information, data, and assumptions used to estimate the long-term human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in transuranic (TRU) waste remaining at major generator/storage sites after loss of institutional control under No Action Alternative 2. Under No Action Alternative 2, TRU wastes would not be emplaced at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) but would remain at generator/storage sites in surface or near-surface storage. Waste generated at smaller sites would be consolidated at the major generator/storage sites. Current TRU waste management practices would continue, but newly generated waste would be treated to meet the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. For this alternative, institutional control was assumed to be lost 100 years after the end of the waste generation period, with exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in the TRU waste possible from direct intrusion and release to the surrounding environment. The potential human-health impacts from exposure to radionuclides and hazardous chemicals in TRU waste were analyzed for two different types of scenarios. Both analyses estimated site-specific, human-health impacts at seven major generator/storage sites: the Hanford Site (Hanford), Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL), Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site (RFETS), and Savannah River Site (SRS). The analysis focused on these seven sites because 99 % of the estimated TRU waste volume and inventory would remain there under the assumptions of No Action Alternative 2.

  8. Searching for 'Unknown Unknowns'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parsons, Vickie S.

    2005-01-01

    The NASA Engineering and Safety Center (NESC) was established to improve safety through engineering excellence within NASA programs and projects. As part of this goal, methods are being investigated to enable the NESC to become proactive in identifying areas that may be precursors to future problems. The goal is to find unknown indicators of future problems, not to duplicate the program-specific trending efforts. The data that is critical for detecting these indicators exist in a plethora of dissimilar non-conformance and other databases (without a common format or taxonomy). In fact, much of the data is unstructured text. However, one common database is not required if the right standards and electronic tools are employed. Electronic data mining is a particularly promising tool for this effort into unsupervised learning of common factors. This work in progress began with a systematic evaluation of available data mining software packages, based on documented decision techniques using weighted criteria. The four packages, which were perceived to have the most promise for NASA applications, are being benchmarked and evaluated by independent contractors. Preliminary recommendations for "best practices" in data mining and trending are provided. Final results and recommendations should be available in the Fall 2005. This critical first step in identifying "unknown unknowns" before they become problems is applicable to any set of engineering or programmatic data.

  9. Specificity of high-intensity intermittent action remains important to MMA athletes' physical conditioning: response to Paillard (2011).

    PubMed

    Del Vecchio, Fabrício Boscolo; Franchini, Emerson

    2013-02-01

    This response to Paillard (2011) focuses on the intermittent nature of mixed martial arts (MMA). It also emphasizes that the main goal of MMA athletes is to win by knockout or submission and that these actions normally are high-intensity actions or preceded by high-intensity actions. Additionally, there is evidence that high-intensity intermittent exercise protocols are able to improve aerobic fitness. It is important only to adjust physical training to the athletes' techniques and tactics. PMID:23829149

  10. [5 years of "concerted action dose reduction in CT" -- what has been achieved and what remains to be done?].

    PubMed

    Nagel, H D; Blobel, J; Brix, G; Ewen, K; Galanski, M; Höfs, P; Loose, R; Prokop, M; Schneider, K; Stamm, G; Stender, H-S; Süss, C; Türkay, S; Vogel, H; Wucherer, M

    2004-11-01

    In May 1998, the German "Concerted Action Dose Reduction in CT" was founded by all parties involved in CT. Its intention was to achieve a significant reduction of the radiation exposure caused by CT, a matter that has increasingly been considered a major challenge since the early nineties. As a result of a number of joint efforts, the essential preconditions have been established by now. The fifth anniversary of the Concerted Action gave rise for both retrospection and outlook on the tasks that have already been accomplished and those that still need to be done. For this purpose, a one-day symposium took place in Berlin on November 4, 2003. The contents of a total of 18 contributions will be outlined here in brief. PMID:15497088

  11. [Typing of STR locus in biological objects with pronounced degeneration: analysis of DNA in exhumed remains of victims of war actions].

    PubMed

    Isaenko, M V; Ivanov, P L

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe some specific features of enzymatic amplification typing of DNA preparations obtained from degraded tissues of remains of humans, which were brought from regions of war actions in the Chechen Republic. Special attention is paid to the specific artefact of polymerase chain reaction, for the first time detected by the authors in examinations of the above-mentioned objects. This so-called "ladder" effect manifesting by simultaneous nonspecific amplification of many variants of allele fragments of the STR locus on the individual DNA matrix, which can be erroneously interpreted as an evidence of mixed DNA preparation, is apparently characteristic of individual objects with pronounced degradation of biological material. Such phenomena were observed in typing of STR locuses in biological tissues subjected to biological, thermal, and physicohemical degradation. The phenomenon was studied in detail.

  12. 21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown Photographer unknown, Date unknown TWO RUSSIAN CANNONS OUTSIDE OF FORT ENTRANCE - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  13. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown EXTERIOR CORNER WALLS SHOWING RAMPART AND CANNONS - Sutter's Fort, L & Twenty-Seventh Streets, Sacramento, Sacramento County, CA

  14. [Results of applying molecular-and-genetic markers of chromosomal DNA in identification of unrecognizable remains of servicemen lost in military actions in the Northern Caucasus].

    PubMed

    Kornienko, I V; Iakushev, V V; Frolova, S A; Zemskova, E Iu; Kabanova, N P; Ivanov, P L

    2003-01-01

    The results of applying molecular-and-genetic markers of chromosomal DNA in identifying unrecognizable remains of servicemen lost as dead in 1994-1996 and 1999-2001 military campaigns in the Northern Caucuses are summarized in the paper. Some of the specific features related with enzymatic amplification typing of DNA preparations sampled from degraded biological tissues of strongly deformed or decayed cadavers were analyzed. The typing results were analyzed by the AB0 system of degraded expertise samples in order to check the reliability of routine forensic-biological examinations as applicable to cadaver tissues with pronounced putrefactive changes. It was established that group-specific antigens of the AB0 system were correctly determined only in 67.5% of cases. False results were obtained in the other 32.5% of cases. Most of them were related with determination of groups 0(I) and A(II).

  15. Action!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Senese, Joseph

    1998-01-01

    A small group of teachers at one Illinois high school is helping to effect and promote change. Through the Action Research Laboratory (ARL), teams of teachers conduct collaborative action research to improve classroom practices. Data from the first two years of the ARL indicate that teachers are eager to participate in, and have thrived in, their…

  16. Fever of unknown origin: a clinical approach.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Burke A; Lortholary, Olivier; Cunha, Cheston B

    2015-10-01

    Fevers of unknown origin remain one of the most difficult diagnostic challenges in medicine. Because fever of unknown origin may be caused by over 200 malignant/neoplastic, infectious, rheumatic/inflammatory, and miscellaneous disorders, clinicians often order non-clue-based imaging and specific testing early in the fever of unknown origin work-up, which may be inefficient/misleading. Unlike most other fever-of-unknown-origin reviews, this article presents a clinical approach. Characteristic history and physical examination findings together with key nonspecific test abnormalities are the basis for a focused clue-directed fever of unknown origin work-up.

  17. Exploring the Unknown

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pallant, Amy; Pryputniewicz, Sarah; Lee, Hee-Sun

    2012-01-01

    Scientists, and science in general, move from the unknown to increasing levels of certainty. Teaching students about science means encouraging them to embrace and investigate the unknown, make reliable scientific claims, justify those claims with evidence, and evaluate the quality of the evidence. In all areas of science--and especially in…

  18. Propellant-remaining modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Torgovitsky, S.

    1991-01-01

    A successful satellite mission is predicted upon the proper maintenance of the spacecraft's orbit and attitude. One requirement for planning and predicting the orbit and attitude is the accurate estimation of the propellant remaining onboard the spacecraft. Focuss is on the three methods that were developed for calculating the propellant budget: the errors associated with each method and the uncertainties in the variables required to determine the propellant remaining that contribute to these errors. Based on these findings, a strategy is developed for improved propellant-remaining estimation. The first method is based on Boyle's law, which related the values of pressure, volume, and temperature (PVT) of an ideal gas. The PVT method is used for the monopropellant and the bipropellant engines. The second method is based on the engine performance tests, which provide data that relate thrust and specific impulse associated with a propellant tank to that tank's pressure. Two curves representing thrust and specific impulse as functions of pressure are then generated using a polynomial fit on the engine performance data. The third method involves a computer simulation of the propellant system. The propellant flow is modeled by creating a conceptual model of the propulsion system configuration, taking into account such factors as the propellant and pressurant tank characteristics, thruster functionality, and piping layout. Finally, a thrust calibration technique is presented that uses differential correction with the computer simulation method of propellant-remaining modeling. Thrust calibration provides a better assessment of thruster performance and therefore enables a more accurate estimation of propellant consumed during a given maneuver.

  19. 32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Photocopy of drawing (Location of original unknown) Architect unknown, Date unknown STEEL WORK DETAILS, WEST END OF BANKING ROOM, STAIR LANDINGS - Anglo & London Paris National Bank, One Sansome Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  20. 7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (Location of original unknown) Photographer unknown, Date unknown VIEW FROM RAILROAD TRACKS LOOKING NORTHWEST - Omaha Quartermaster Depot Historic District, Twenty-second & Woolworth Streets, Omaha, Douglas County, NE

  1. The examination of skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Knight, B

    1985-01-01

    In summary, unless the more sophisticated methods listed in the references are repeated and more success obtained with a series of bone samples of known date, no physico-chemical or morphological techniques have yet been devised that will determine date independently of environmental deterioration. The only exception is the radiocarbon estimation in bones of greater antiquity than those of medico-legal interest. The best mentor in the examination of skeletal remains is experience. Unfortunately, the majority of samples brought to the medical examiner remain of unknown provenance, and this prevents the doctor from checking his expertise against the true facts of identity and dating. The main point to bear in mind is that the tendency toward overinterpretation and dogmatic opinion should be avoided where the available data do not merit such a degree of certainty. There is no advantage in offering unfounded opinions to the investigators, since this might merely mislead them and perhaps cause them to exclude a class of possible identities because the doctor has unwisely told them to look only within a certain bracket of date and identifiable factors. As in any branch of forensic medicine, it is dangerous to speculate where the facts cannot firmly support the opinion.

  2. Fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    Shah, Nayan; Johnson, Karlon; Ghaly, Sabry

    2003-11-01

    This is a case study of a 26-year-old Hispanic male who presented with an initial complaint of fevers, chills and generalized weakness for three weeks. Patient reported a classical history of diurnal fever with temperature spikes as high as 105.8F after returning from a trip to Guatemala. His symptoms had waxed and waned for 3 weeks. This case study will focus on the initial presentation, value of complete history and physical exam, use of laboratory data and use of specialized diagnostic procedures in the outpatient setting. This case proves to be highly relevant to primary care in the context of treating patients with fevers of unknown etiology. Primary care physicians should be alert for unusual diseases in patients who are returning from foreign travel. Malaria is a potentially fatal disease that can be acquired by travelers to certain areas of the world, primarily developing nations. Transmitted through the bite of the Anopheles mosquito, malaria usually presents with fever and a vague systemic illness. The disease is diagnosed by demonstration of Plasmodium organisms on a specially prepared blood film. This case study speaks to the importance of prompt work up and treatment of fever of unknown origin that presents in an unusual clinical picture or that is not readily explainable.

  3. Pregnancy of unknown location.

    PubMed

    Schuneman, Margaret; Von Wald, Tiffany; Hansen, Keith

    2015-04-01

    The development of highly sensitive and accurate human chorionic gonadotropin assays as well as the improvement of vaginal ultrasound have allowed for the early detection of pregnancy and have reduced the morbidity and mortality associated with ectopic gestations. One of the byproducts of this increased sensitivity is pregnancy of unknown location (PUL), a term which is used to describe pregnancy in a woman with a positive pregnancy test but no signs of intrauterine or extrauterine pregnancy. A PUL can include an early intrauterine pregnancy, a failing intrauterine/extrauterine pregnancy or ectopic pregnancy. Modern medical management has improved the diagnosis and treatment of early pregnancy and pregnancy loss. In the hemodynamically stable patient with PUL, expectant management has been shown to be safe and allows for confirmatory studies before proceeding with therapy.

  4. 44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photographer unknown Date unknown MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-I #9, MOVING CAMP. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  5. 66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    66. Buckwheat Launder, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre, PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  6. 22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photocopy of photograph (photographer unknown, date unknown, original print in possession of National Park Service, Petrified Forest National Park), EROSION CONTROL IN RIVER NEAR BRIDGE. - Rio Puerco Bridge, Mainline Road, spanning Rio Puerco, Holbrook, Navajo County, AZ

  7. 6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, date unknown DETAIL OF BOTTOM OF DRUM, SHOWING DECORATIVE MOLDING OF DRUM AND ARCHES: NOTE EFFECT OF BOX BEAMS CREATED BY MOLDING - University of Kentucky, Carnegie Library, Lexington, Fayette County, KY

  8. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Original source unknown, date unknown) EXTERIOR, SOUTH FRONT OF ADOBE INCLUDING ENVIRONS - Gaspar Orena House, East de la Guerra Street, Santa Barbara, Santa Barbara County, CA

  9. 1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Building a brush dam. Location unknown. Photographer: Unknown, no date. Source: Salt River Project Archives (SRPA) - Tempe Canal, South Side Salt River in Tempe, Mesa & Phoenix, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. 7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of painting (Source unknown, Date unknown) EXTERIOR SOUTH FRONT VIEW OF MISSION AND CONVENTO AFTER 1913 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  11. Quantum circuits cannot control unknown operations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Araújo, Mateus; Feix, Adrien; Costa, Fabio; Brukner, Časlav

    2014-09-01

    One of the essential building blocks of classical computer programs is the ‘if’ clause, which executes a subroutine depending on the value of a control variable. Similarly, several quantum algorithms rely on applying a unitary operation conditioned on the state of a control system. Here we show that this control cannot be performed by a quantum circuit if the unitary is completely unknown. The task remains impossible even if we allow the control to be done modulo a global phase. However, this no-go theorem does not prevent implementing quantum control of unknown unitaries in practice, as any physical implementation of an unknown unitary provides additional information that makes the control possible. We then argue that one should extend the quantum circuit formalism to capture this possibility in a straightforward way. This is done by allowing unknown unitaries to be applied to subspaces and not only to subsystems.

  12. 6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE DURING MOVE SHOWING HOUSE RAISED - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  13. 4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW OF SOUTH (FRONT) AND EAST SIDE BEFORE HOUSE MOVED SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES IN FOREGROUND - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  14. Previously unknown species of Aspergillus.

    PubMed

    Gautier, M; Normand, A-C; Ranque, S

    2016-08-01

    The use of multi-locus DNA sequence analysis has led to the description of previously unknown 'cryptic' Aspergillus species, whereas classical morphology-based identification of Aspergillus remains limited to the section or species-complex level. The current literature highlights two main features concerning these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species. First, the prevalence of such species in clinical samples is relatively high compared with emergent filamentous fungal taxa such as Mucorales, Scedosporium or Fusarium. Second, it is clearly important to identify these species in the clinical laboratory because of the high frequency of antifungal drug-resistant isolates of such Aspergillus species. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) has recently been shown to enable the identification of filamentous fungi with an accuracy similar to that of DNA sequence-based methods. As MALDI-TOF MS is well suited to the routine clinical laboratory workflow, it facilitates the identification of these 'cryptic' Aspergillus species at the routine mycology bench. The rapid establishment of enhanced filamentous fungi identification facilities will lead to a better understanding of the epidemiology and clinical importance of these emerging Aspergillus species. Based on routine MALDI-TOF MS-based identification results, we provide original insights into the key interpretation issues of a positive Aspergillus culture from a clinical sample. Which ubiquitous species that are frequently isolated from air samples are rarely involved in human invasive disease? Can both the species and the type of biological sample indicate Aspergillus carriage, colonization or infection in a patient? Highly accurate routine filamentous fungi identification is central to enhance the understanding of these previously unknown Aspergillus species, with a vital impact on further improved patient care. PMID:27263029

  15. Pachydermodactyly: An Unknown Entity.

    PubMed

    Tolis, Konstantinos; Stavropoulos, Nikolaos; Mavrogenis, Andreas; Spyridonos, Sarantis

    2016-08-01

    Pachydermodactyly is a rare benign disease that usually affects the dorsal skin and subcutaneous tissue of the proximal interphalangeal joints of the index, middle, ring, and little fingers; the thumb is usually spared. Hyperkeratosis on the dorsal side of the affected areas is common. We present a case of a 19-year-old man who was diagnosed with pachydermodactyly after evaluation of a painless, progressive swelling and hyperkeratosis at the proximal interphalangeal and distal interphalangeal joints of all fingers, bilaterally, for 6 years before presentation. Conservative treatment was prescribed and the patient remains asymptomatic. Given the benign and nonprogressive course of the disease, symptomatic treatment alone is all that is usually required. PMID:27325556

  16. Learning for an Unknown Future

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, Ronald

    2012-01-01

    What is it to learn for an unknown future? It might be said that the future has always been unknown but this question surely takes on a new pedagogical challenge in the contemporary age. Generic skills may seem to offer the basis of just such a learning for an unknown future. Generic skills, by definition, are those that surely hold across…

  17. Exploring the Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Logsdon, John M. (Editor); Garber, Stephen J. (Editor); Launius, Roger D. (Editor)

    2004-01-01

    One of the most important developments of the twentieth century has been the movement of humanity into space with machines and people. The extension of human activity into outer space has been accompanied by a high degree of self-awareness of its historical significance. Because most of the activity in outer space was carried out under government sponsorship, it was accompanied by the documentary record required of public institutions, and there has been a spate of official and privately written histories of most major aspects of space achievement to date. When top leaders considered what course of action to pursue in space, their deliberations and decisions often were carefully put on the record. There is, accordingly, no lack of material for those who aspire to understand the origins and evolution of U.S. space policies and programs.This reality forms the rationale for this series. Precisely because there is so much historical material available on space matters, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) decided in 1988 that it would be extremely useful to have easily available to scholars and the interested public a selective collection of many of the seminal documents related to the evolution of the U.S. civilian space program. While recognizing that much space activity has taken place under the sponsorship of the Department of Defense and other national security organizations, the U.S. private sector, and in other countries around the world, NASA felt that there would be lasting value in a collection of documentary material primarily focused on the evolution of the U.S. government s civilian space program, most of which has been carried out since 1958 under the Agency s auspices. As a result, the NASA History Office contracted with the Space Policy Institute of George Washington University's Elliott School of International Affairs to prepare such a collection. This is the sixth volume in the documentary history series; two additional ones

  18. 7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph (location of original negative unknown) Unknown, Photographer, Date Unknown PERSPECTIVE VIEW (SOUTHEAST) FROM ORIGINAL SITE SHOWING THIRTEEN LIQUIDAMBAR TREES (FOREGROUND) AND NORTH AND WEST SIDES OF HOUSE AS LOCATED AND ALTERED AT PRESENT SITE (ENTRANCE STAIRS FROM ORIGINAL SOUTH FRONT MOVED TO PRESENT WEST FRONT) - Hamilton Grange, (Moved From) 237 West 141 Street to 141st Street & Amsterdam, New York County, NY

  19. Classification system of frontal sinus patterns by radiography. Its application to identification of unknown skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Seta, S

    1987-08-01

    Frontal sinuses of Japanese skulls were radiographically examined from the view point of identifying individuals. The system of classification of sinus was proposed, basing on the area size, the bilateral asymmetry, the superiority of side, the outline of upper borders, the partial septa and the supraorbital cells. Frontal sinus patterns could be divided into above 20,000 possible combinations by combining the class numbers in each classification item described above. The frontal sinus pattern of a given person was formulated as a code number which was determined by arranging the class numbers in each classification item as serial numbers. This identification system by the frontal sinus pattern should allow one to characterize each person. The application of this identification system to an actual criminal case was also described.

  20. 53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown Date unknown VAN DUZEN BRIDGE, HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION F, HIGHWAY 1. 1. 1-HUM-1-F #24, VAN DUZEN BR. APPRAOCH/ST. 167+50. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  1. 414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    414. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; TYPICAL SECTIONS; SHEET NO. 5; DRAWING NO. C-4028-5R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  2. 396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    396. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS I; DRG. NO. 68 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. 413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    413. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; CONTINUOUS SPANS - LONGITUDINAL GIRDERS; SHEET NO. 18; DRAWING NO. C-4028-18R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  4. 397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    397. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; CANTILEVER STRUCTURE; DETAILS II; DRG. NO. 69 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    400. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER E-6 TO E-23; TYPICAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 52 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    393. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; PIER-E3; GENERAL DETAILS; DRG. NO. 47 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  7. 398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    398. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; EAST BAY CROSSING; GENERAL PLAN; TOWER E-9; DRG. NO. 59 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  8. 415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    415. Delineator Unknown Date Unknown STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; DIVISION OF SAN FRANCISCO BAY TOLL CROSSINGS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE RECONSTRUCTION; STEEL WORK - WEST BAY; Y.B. ANCHORAGE - FLOOR BEAMS YA-5 AND BENT 3; SHEET NO. 22; DRAWING NO. C-4028-22R - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  9. 34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, October 10, 1944. VIEW SHOWING HORSESHOE DAM UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. ONLY THE BRIDGE TOWERS REMAIN. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  10. Noma: an "infectious" disease of unknown aetiology.

    PubMed

    Baratti-Mayer, Denise; Pittet, Brigitte; Montandon, Denys; Bolivar, Ignacio; Bornand, Jacques-Etienne; Hugonnet, Stéphane; Jaquinet, Alexandre; Schrenzel, Jacques; Pittet, Didier

    2003-07-01

    Noma (cancrum oris) is a devastating gangrenous disease that leads to severe tissue destruction in the face and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. It is seen almost exclusively in young children living in remote areas of less developed countries, particularly in Africa. The exact prevalence of the disease is unknown, but a conservative estimate is that 770000 people are currently affected by noma sequelae. The cause remains unknown, but a combination of several elements of a plausible aetiology has been identified: malnutrition, a compromised immune system, poor oral hygiene and a lesion of the gingival mucosal barrier, and an unidentified bacterial factor acting as a trigger for the disease. This review discusses the epidemiology, clinical features, current understanding of the pathophysiology, and treatment of the acute phase and sequelae requiring reconstructive surgery. Noma may be preventable if recognised at an early stage. Further research is needed to identify more exactly the causative agents.

  11. Fever of unknown origin in cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Loizidou, A; Aoun, M; Klastersky, J

    2016-05-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains a challenging clinical problem, namely in patients with cancer. In cancer patients, FUO may be due to the cancer itself, as it is the case of hematological malignancies; digestive tumors (colon cancer, liver metastases) are significantly associated with FUO and infection can be demonstrated in some cases. Prevention with G-CSF and empirical antimicrobial therapy are essential approaches for the management of FUO in cancer patients. New diagnostic approaches, such as PET imaging, should be further evaluated in cancer patients with FUO. PMID:26995082

  12. Learning from the Unknown Student

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barlow, Angela T.; Gerstenschlager, Natasha E.; Harmon, Shannon E.

    2016-01-01

    In this article, three instructional situations demonstrate the value of using an "unknown" student's work to allow the advancement of students' mathematical thinking as well as their engagement in the mathematical practice of critiquing the reasoning of others: (1) introducing alternative solution strategies; (2) critiquing inaccuracies…

  13. Allocating monitoring effort in the face of unknown unknowns

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wintle, B.A.; Runge, M.C.; Bekessy, S.A.

    2010-01-01

    There is a growing view that to make efficient use of resources, ecological monitoring should be hypothesis-driven and targeted to address specific management questions. 'Targeted' monitoring has been contrasted with other approaches in which a range of quantities are monitored in case they exhibit an alarming trend or provide ad hoc ecological insights. The second form of monitoring, described as surveillance, has been criticized because it does not usually aim to discern between competing hypotheses, and its benefits are harder to identify a priori. The alternative view is that the existence of surveillance data may enable rapid corroboration of emerging hypotheses or help to detect important 'unknown unknowns' that, if undetected, could lead to catastrophic outcomes or missed opportunities. We derive a model to evaluate and compare the efficiency of investments in surveillance and targeted monitoring. We find that a decision to invest in surveillance monitoring may be defensible if: (1) the surveillance design is more likely to discover or corroborate previously unknown phenomena than a targeted design and (2) the expected benefits (or avoided costs) arising from discovery are substantially higher than those arising from a well-planned targeted design. Our examination highlights the importance of being explicit about the objectives, costs and expected benefits of monitoring in a decision analytic framework. ?? 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd/CNRS.

  14. Content and Access Remain Key

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Linda B.

    2007-01-01

    It is impossible to review the year's outstanding government publication landscape without acknowledging that change remains paramount. Just as striking, however, is that these changes go hand in hand with some familiar constants. Within this shifting environment, there are the consistency and dependability of government information itself,…

  15. Mill and the right to remain uninformed.

    PubMed

    Strasser, M

    1986-08-01

    In a recent article in the Journal of Medicine and Philosophy, David Ost (1984) claims that patients do not have a right to waive their right to information. He argues that patients cannot make informed rational decisions without full information and thus, a right to waive information would involve a right to avoid one's responsibility to act as an autonomous moral agent. In support of his position, Ost cites a passage from Mill. Yet, a correct interpretation of the passage in question would support one's right to remain uninformed in certain situations. If the information would hurt one's chances for survival or hurt one's ability to make calm, rational decisions, then one not only does not have a duty to find out the information, but one's exercising one's right to remain uninformed may be the only rational course of action to take.

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 1607-B1 Septic System, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2007-015

    SciTech Connect

    L. M. Dittmer

    2007-08-30

    The 1607-B1 Septic System includes a septic tank, drain field, and associated connecting pipelines and influent sanitary sewer lines. This septic system serviced the former 1701-B Badgehouse, 1720-B Patrol Building/Change Room, and the 1709-B Fire Headquarters. The 1607-B1 waste site received unknown amounts of nonhazardous, nonradioactive sanitary sewage from these facilities during its operational history from 1944 to approximately 1970. In accordance with this evaluation, the confirmatory sampling results support a reclassification of this site to No Action. The current site conditions achieve the remedial action objectives and the corresponding remedial action goals established in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of confirmatory sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. Metastases of unknown primary site.

    PubMed

    Lembersky, B C; Thomas, L C

    1996-01-01

    Despite the fact that effective therapy does not currently exist for the majority of patients presenting with metastases of unknown primary site, the last decade has witnessed significant advances in the approach to this heterogeneous disease. The use of modern pathologic techniques that frequently provide better diagnostic precision and the recognition of specific subgroups with a favorable prognosis and responsiveness to treatment has improved the outcome for some patients. Currently the diagnostic strategy should emphasize the rapid identification of patients likely to benefit from available therapy, whereas clinical research should focus on the development of more effective treatments for those patients with unresponsive tumors. In the future, continued improvements in the molecular characterization of these tumors will likely enhance understanding of the metastatic process, allow for more specific definitions of cell lineage, and provide insights for better therapy. PMID:8569295

  18. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin.

    PubMed

    Din, Sana; Anwer, Farrukh; Beg, Mirza

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  19. Carcinomatous Meningitis from Unknown Primary Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Favier, L.; Ladoire, L.; Guiu, B.; Arnould, L.; Guiu, S.; Boichot, C.; Isambert, N.; Besancenot, J.F.; Muller, M.; Ghiringhelli, F.

    2009-01-01

    Carcinomatous meningitis (CM) occurs in 3 to 8% of cancer patients. Patients present with a focal symptom, and multifocal signs are often found following neurological examination. The gold standard for diagnosis remains the demonstration of carcinomatous cells in the cerebrospinal fluid on cytopathological examination. Despite the poor prognosis, palliative treatment could improve quality of life and, in some cases, overall survival. We report on a patient who presented with vertigo, tinnitus and left-sided hearing loss followed by progressive diffuse facial nerve paralysis. Lumbar cerebrospinal fluid confirmed the diagnosis of CM. However, no primary tumor was discovered, even after multiple invasive investigations. This is the first reported case in the English-language medical literature of CM resulting from a carcinoma of unknown primary origin. PMID:20737034

  20. A Physician's Nightmare: Fever of Unknown Origin

    PubMed Central

    Anwer, Farrukh

    2016-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin (FUO) remains to be a challenge despite advancement in diagnostic technologies and procedures. FUO is considered when fever presents intermittently without an explanation. It has been linked to various etiologies, which makes it difficult to diagnose. We present the case of 18-month-old female with recurrent fever, splenomegaly, abdominal pain, and constipation. The workup for her symptoms revealed wandering spleen. Wandering spleen is a result from excessive laxity or absence of splenic ligaments. The patient underwent splenectomy and was advised to continue on Senna, Miralax, and high fiber diet. Her mother reported that the fever is no longer present and there is marked improvement in her constipation and abdominal pain after splenectomy. PMID:27433363

  1. Silicon photonics: some remaining challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reed, G. T.; Topley, R.; Khokhar, A. Z.; Thompson, D. J.; Stanković, S.; Reynolds, S.; Chen, X.; Soper, N.; Mitchell, C. J.; Hu, Y.; Shen, L.; Martinez-Jimenez, G.; Healy, N.; Mailis, S.; Peacock, A. C.; Nedeljkovic, M.; Gardes, F. Y.; Soler Penades, J.; Alonso-Ramos, C.; Ortega-Monux, A.; Wanguemert-Perez, G.; Molina-Fernandez, I.; Cheben, P.; Mashanovich, G. Z.

    2016-03-01

    This paper discusses some of the remaining challenges for silicon photonics, and how we at Southampton University have approached some of them. Despite phenomenal advances in the field of Silicon Photonics, there are a number of areas that still require development. For short to medium reach applications, there is a need to improve the power consumption of photonic circuits such that inter-chip, and perhaps intra-chip applications are viable. This means that yet smaller devices are required as well as thermally stable devices, and multiple wavelength channels. In turn this demands smaller, more efficient modulators, athermal circuits, and improved wavelength division multiplexers. The debate continues as to whether on-chip lasers are necessary for all applications, but an efficient low cost laser would benefit many applications. Multi-layer photonics offers the possibility of increasing the complexity and effectiveness of a given area of chip real estate, but it is a demanding challenge. Low cost packaging (in particular, passive alignment of fibre to waveguide), and effective wafer scale testing strategies, are also essential for mass market applications. Whilst solutions to these challenges would enhance most applications, a derivative technology is emerging, that of Mid Infra-Red (MIR) silicon photonics. This field will build on existing developments, but will require key enhancements to facilitate functionality at longer wavelengths. In common with mainstream silicon photonics, significant developments have been made, but there is still much left to do. Here we summarise some of our recent work towards wafer scale testing, passive alignment, multiplexing, and MIR silicon photonics technology.

  2. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E

    2016-01-29

    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions. PMID:26752450

  3. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

    PubMed

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E

    2016-01-29

    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor's intention and the meanings of the actions.

  4. [Diagnostic approach of recurrent fevers of unknown origin in adults].

    PubMed

    Zenone, T

    2015-07-01

    Recurrent fever of unknown origin is probably the most difficult to diagnose subtype of fever of unknown origin. It represents between 18 and 42% of the cases in large series of patients with fever of unknown origin. The limited literature data do not allow one to construct a diagnostic algorithm. However, the diagnostic strategy is different from classic fever of unknown origin. The spectrum of causative disorders is different from continuous fever with less infections and tumors. Among systemic inflammatory diseases, adult-onset Still's disease is the most common cause. More than 50% of the cases remain unexplained. Hereditary recurrent fevers, the prototype of autoinflammatory diseases, are now more easily discuss in a young adult.

  5. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Rüdiger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ``the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki et al., Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state ρ(N) of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for ρ(N). By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  6. Entanglement purification of unknown quantum states

    SciTech Connect

    Brun, Todd A.; Caves, Carlton M.; Schack, Ru''diger

    2001-04-01

    A concern has been expressed that ''the Jaynes principle can produce fake entanglement'' [R. Horodecki , Phys. Rev. A 59, 1799 (1999)]. In this paper we discuss the general problem of distilling maximally entangled states from N copies of a bipartite quantum system about which only partial information is known, for instance, in the form of a given expectation value. We point out that there is indeed a problem with applying the Jaynes principle of maximum entropy to more than one copy of a system, but the nature of this problem is classical and was discussed extensively by Jaynes. Under the additional assumption that the state {rho}{sup (N)} of the N copies of the quantum system is exchangeable, one can write down a simple general expression for {rho}{sup (N)}. By measuring one or more of the subsystems, one can gain information and update the state estimate for the remaining subsystems with the quantum version of the Bayes rule. Using this rule, we show how to modify two standard entanglement purification protocols, one-way hashing and recurrence, so that they can be applied to exchangeable states. We thus give an explicit algorithm for distilling entanglement from an unknown or partially known quantum state.

  7. Action adaptation during natural unfolding social scenes influences action recognition and inferences made about actor beliefs.

    PubMed

    Keefe, Bruce D; Wincenciak, Joanna; Jellema, Tjeerd; Ward, James W; Barraclough, Nick E

    2016-07-01

    When observing another individual's actions, we can both recognize their actions and infer their beliefs concerning the physical and social environment. The extent to which visual adaptation influences action recognition and conceptually later stages of processing involved in deriving the belief state of the actor remains unknown. To explore this we used virtual reality (life-size photorealistic actors presented in stereoscopic three dimensions) to see how visual adaptation influences the perception of individuals in naturally unfolding social scenes at increasingly higher levels of action understanding. We presented scenes in which one actor picked up boxes (of varying number and weight), after which a second actor picked up a single box. Adaptation to the first actor's behavior systematically changed perception of the second actor. Aftereffects increased with the duration of the first actor's behavior, declined exponentially over time, and were independent of view direction. Inferences about the second actor's expectation of box weight were also distorted by adaptation to the first actor. Distortions in action recognition and actor expectations did not, however, extend across different actions, indicating that adaptation is not acting at an action-independent abstract level but rather at an action-dependent level. We conclude that although adaptation influences more complex inferences about belief states of individuals, this is likely to be a result of adaptation at an earlier action recognition stage rather than adaptation operating at a higher, more abstract level in mentalizing or simulation systems. PMID:27472496

  8. Decoding actions at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Lingnau, Angelika

    2015-05-20

    Brain regions that mediate action understanding must contain representations that are action specific and at the same time tolerate a wide range of perceptual variance. Whereas progress has been made in understanding such generalization mechanisms in the object domain, the neural mechanisms to conceptualize actions remain unknown. In particular, there is ongoing dissent between motor-centric and cognitive accounts whether premotor cortex or brain regions in closer relation to perceptual systems, i.e., lateral occipitotemporal cortex, contain neural populations with such mapping properties. To date, it is unclear to which degree action-specific representations in these brain regions generalize from concrete action instantiations to abstract action concepts. However, such information would be crucial to differentiate between motor and cognitive theories. Using ROI-based and searchlight-based fMRI multivoxel pattern decoding, we sought brain regions in human cortex that manage the balancing act between specificity and generality. We investigated a concrete level that distinguishes actions based on perceptual features (e.g., opening vs closing a specific bottle), an intermediate level that generalizes across movement kinematics and specific objects involved in the action (e.g., opening different bottles with cork or screw cap), and an abstract level that additionally generalizes across object category (e.g., opening bottles or boxes). We demonstrate that the inferior parietal and occipitotemporal cortex code actions at abstract levels whereas the premotor cortex codes actions at the concrete level only. Hence, occipitotemporal, but not premotor, regions fulfill the necessary criteria for action understanding. This result is compatible with cognitive theories but strongly undermines motor theories of action understanding. PMID:25995462

  9. Ciguatera: recent advances but the risk remains.

    PubMed

    Lehane, L; Lewis, R J

    2000-11-01

    Ciguatera is an important form of human poisoning caused by the consumption of seafood. The disease is characterised by gastrointestinal, neurological and cardiovascular disturbances. In cases of severe toxicity, paralysis, coma and death may occur. There is no immunity, and the toxins are cumulative. Symptoms may persist for months or years, or recur periodically. The epidemiology of ciguatera is complex and of central importance to the management and future use of marine resources. Ciguatera is an important medical entity in tropical and subtropical Pacific and Indian Ocean regions, and in the tropical Caribbean. As reef fish are increasingly exported to other areas, it has become a world health problem. The disease is under-reported and often misdiagnosed. Lipid-soluble, polyether toxins known as ciguatoxins accumulated in the muscles of certain subtropical and tropical marine finfish cause ciguatera. Ciguatoxins arise from biotransformation in the fish of less polar ciguatoxins (gambiertoxins) produced by Gambierdiscus toxicus, a marine dinoflagellate that lives on macroalgae, usually attached to dead coral. The toxins and their metabolites are concentrated in the food chain when carnivorous fish prey on smaller herbivorous fish. Humans are exposed at the end of the food chain. More than 400 species of fish can be vectors of ciguatoxins, but generally only a relatively small number of species are regularly incriminated in ciguatera. Ciguateric fish look, taste and smell normal, and detection of toxins in fish remains a problem. More than 20 precursor gambiertoxins and ciguatoxins have been identified in G. toxicus and in herbivorous and carnivorous fish. The toxins become more polar as they undergo oxidative metabolism and pass up the food chain. The main Pacific ciguatoxin (P-CTX-1) causes ciguatera at levels=0.1 microg/kg in the flesh of carnivorous fish. The main Caribbean ciguatoxin (C-CTX-1) is less polar and 10-fold less toxic than P-CTX-1. Ciguatoxins

  10. Male pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin.

    PubMed

    Chiec, Lauren; Verma, Sadhna; Kendler, Ady; Abdel Karim, Nagla

    2014-01-01

    Pelvic squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin has been described in several case reports of female patients. However, there have been no published reports describing male patients with pelvic squamous cell cancer of unknown primary origin. Our case describes a 52-year-old man who presented with right buttock pain, rectal urgency, and constipation. His physical examination demonstrated tenderness to palpation around his gluteal folds. Computed tomography scan of his abdomen and pelvis demonstrated a large mass in his retroperitoneum. The mass was determined to be squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin. Additionally, the patient had small nodules in his right lower lung lobe and right hepatic lobe. The patient was treated with concomitant chemoradiation, including cisplatin and intensity-modulated radiation therapy, followed by carboplatin and paclitaxel. The patient achieved partial remission, in which he remained one year after his presentation. Our case is consistent with the literature which suggests that squamous cell carcinoma of unknown primary origin occurring outside of the head and neck region may have a more favorable prognosis than other carcinomas of unknown primary origin. Further studies are necessary to determine the most appropriate work-up, diagnosis, and optimal treatment strategies. PMID:25478265

  11. Neural basis of understanding communicative actions: Changes associated with knowing the actor’s intention and the meanings of the actions

    PubMed Central

    Möttönen, Riikka; Farmer, Harry; Watkins, Kate E.

    2016-01-01

    People can communicate by using hand actions, e.g., signs. Understanding communicative actions requires that the observer knows that the actor has an intention to communicate and the meanings of the actions. Here, we investigated how this prior knowledge affects processing of observed actions. We used functional MRI to determine changes in action processing when non-signers were told that the observed actions are communicative (i.e., signs) and learned the meanings of half of the actions. Processing of hand actions activated the left and right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG, BA 44 and 45) when the communicative intention of the actor was known, even when the meanings of the actions remained unknown. These regions were not active when the observers did not know about the communicative nature of the hand actions. These findings suggest that the left and right IFG play a role in understanding the intention of the actor, but do not process visuospatial features of the communicative actions. Knowing the meanings of the hand actions further enhanced activity in the anterior part of the IFG (BA 45), the inferior parietal lobule and posterior inferior and middle temporal gyri in the left hemisphere. These left-hemisphere language regions could provide a link between meanings and observed actions. In sum, the findings provide evidence for the segregation of the networks involved in the neural processing of visuospatial features of communicative hand actions and those involved in understanding the actor’s intention and the meanings of the actions. PMID:26752450

  12. Unknown, Placeholder, or Variable: What Is "X"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ely, Robert; Adams, Anne E.

    2012-01-01

    One of the most significant steps in learning algebra is understanding the change in the role of letters in mathematical expressions from unknowns to variables. We describe the historical development of this change in usage, starting with the ancient use of mathematical unknowns, detailing several important changes in practice that allowed for the…

  13. Deaths due to Unknown Foodborne Agents

    PubMed Central

    2004-01-01

    This study reviews the available evidence on unknown pathogenic agents transmitted in food and examines the methods that have been used to estimate that such agents cause 3,400 deaths per year in the United States. The estimate of deaths was derived from hospital discharge and death certificate data on deaths attributed to gastroenteritis of unknown cause. Fatal illnesses due to unknown foodborne agents do not always involve gastroenteritis, and gastroenteritis may not be accurately diagnosed or reported on hospital charts or death certificates. The death estimate consequently omitted deaths from unknown foodborne agents that do not cause gastroenteritis and likely overstated the number of deaths from agents that cause gastroenteritis. Although the number of deaths from unknown foodborne agents is uncertain, the possible economic cost of these deaths is so large that increased efforts to identify the causal agents are warranted. PMID:15498153

  14. A non-destructive method for dating human remains

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lail, Warren K.; Sammeth, David; Mahan, Shannon; Nevins, Jason

    2013-01-01

    The skeletal remains of several Native Americans were recovered in an eroded state from a creek bank in northeastern New Mexico. Subsequently stored in a nearby museum, the remains became lost for almost 36 years. In a recent effort to repatriate the remains, it was necessary to fit them into a cultural chronology in order to determine the appropriate tribe(s) for consultation pursuant to the Native American Grave Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA). Because the remains were found in an eroded context with no artifacts or funerary objects, their age was unknown. Having been asked to avoid destructive dating methods such as radiocarbon dating, the authors used Optically Stimulated Luminescence (OSL) to date the sediments embedded in the cranium. The OSL analyses yielded reliable dates between A.D. 1415 and A.D. 1495. Accordingly, we conclude that the remains were interred somewhat earlier than A.D. 1415, but no later than A.D. 1495. We believe the remains are from individuals ancestral to the Ute Mouache Band, which is now being contacted for repatriation efforts. Not only do our methods contribute to the immediate repatriation efforts, they provide archaeologists with a versatile, non-destructive, numerical dating method that can be used in many burial contexts.

  15. 53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photographer unknown, date unknown. E.C. COLLIER under sail, dredging oysters. Please credit Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, St. Michaels, Maryland. - Two-Sail Bateau E. C. COLLIER, Chesapeake Bay Maritime Museum, Mills Street, Saint Michaels, Talbot County, MD

  16. Remaining Sites Verification Package for the 600-233 Waste Site, Vertical Pipe Near 100-B Electrical Laydown Area, Waste Site Reclassification Form 2005-041

    SciTech Connect

    R. A. Carlson

    2005-12-08

    The 600-233 waste site consisted of three small-diameter pipelines within the 600-232 waste site, including previously unknown diesel fuel supply lines discovered during site remediation. The 600-233 waste site has been remediated to achieve the remedial action objectives specified in the Remaining Sites ROD. The results of verification sampling show that residual contaminant concentrations do not preclude any future uses and allow for unrestricted use of shallow zone soils. The results also demonstrate that residual contaminant concentrations are protective of groundwater and the Columbia River.

  17. 1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, 1886 (?) ) Photographer unknown, Date unknown GENERAL VIEW LOOKING UP POWELL STREET FROM MARKET STREET - Powell Street, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances. PMID:25935054

  19. Off-Policy Actor-Critic Structure for Optimal Control of Unknown Systems With Disturbances.

    PubMed

    Song, Ruizhuo; Lewis, Frank L; Wei, Qinglai; Zhang, Huaguang

    2016-05-01

    An optimal control method is developed for unknown continuous-time systems with unknown disturbances in this paper. The integral reinforcement learning (IRL) algorithm is presented to obtain the iterative control. Off-policy learning is used to allow the dynamics to be completely unknown. Neural networks are used to construct critic and action networks. It is shown that if there are unknown disturbances, off-policy IRL may not converge or may be biased. For reducing the influence of unknown disturbances, a disturbances compensation controller is added. It is proven that the weight errors are uniformly ultimately bounded based on Lyapunov techniques. Convergence of the Hamiltonian function is also proven. The simulation study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed optimal control method for unknown systems with disturbances.

  20. Where do those remains come from?

    PubMed

    Nociarová, Dominika; Adserias, M Jose; Malgosa, Assumpció; Galtés, Ignasi

    2014-12-01

    Part of the study of skeletal remains or corpses in advance decay located in the field involves determining their origin. They may be the result of criminal activity, accident, unearthed because of erosion, or they may also have originated from a cemetery. The discovery site, condition of the remains, and the associated artifacts, are factors that could be helpful for the forensic anthropologist to identify the origin of the remains. In order to contribute to this recognition, an analysis was made of the exhumations of 168 unclaimed human remains from the cemetery of Terrassa (Catalonia, Spain). This investigation presents a description of artifacts and conditions of remains that could indicate that the human remains may have originated from a cemetery. PMID:25459276

  1. Markov sequential pattern recognition : dependency and the unknown class.

    SciTech Connect

    Malone, Kevin Thomas; Haschke, Greg Benjamin; Koch, Mark William

    2004-10-01

    The sequential probability ratio test (SPRT) minimizes the expected number of observations to a decision and can solve problems in sequential pattern recognition. Some problems have dependencies between the observations, and Markov chains can model dependencies where the state occupancy probability is geometric. For a non-geometric process we show how to use the effective amount of independent information to modify the decision process, so that we can account for the remaining dependencies. Along with dependencies between observations, a successful system needs to handle the unknown class in unconstrained environments. For example, in an acoustic pattern recognition problem any sound source not belonging to the target set is in the unknown class. We show how to incorporate goodness of fit (GOF) classifiers into the Markov SPRT, and determine the worse case nontarget model. We also develop a multiclass Markov SPRT using the GOF concept.

  2. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-01

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  3. Creating a Superposition of Unknown Quantum States.

    PubMed

    Oszmaniec, Michał; Grudka, Andrzej; Horodecki, Michał; Wójcik, Antoni

    2016-03-18

    The superposition principle is one of the landmarks of quantum mechanics. The importance of quantum superpositions provokes questions about the limitations that quantum mechanics itself imposes on the possibility of their generation. In this work, we systematically study the problem of the creation of superpositions of unknown quantum states. First, we prove a no-go theorem that forbids the existence of a universal probabilistic quantum protocol producing a superposition of two unknown quantum states. Second, we provide an explicit probabilistic protocol generating a superposition of two unknown states, each having a fixed overlap with the known referential pure state. The protocol can be applied to generate coherent superposition of results of independent runs of subroutines in a quantum computer. Moreover, in the context of quantum optics it can be used to efficiently generate highly nonclassical states or non-Gaussian states.

  4. Implementing quantum control for unknown subroutines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friis, Nicolai; Dunjko, Vedran; Dür, Wolfgang; Briegel, Hans J.

    2014-03-01

    We present setups for the practical realization of adding control to unknown subroutines, supplementing the existing quantum optical scheme for black-box control with a counterpart for the quantum control of the ordering of sequences of operations. We also provide schemes to realize either task using trapped ions. These practical circumventions of recent no-go theorems are based on existing technologies. We argue that the possibility to add control to unknown operations in practice is a common feature of many physical systems. Based on the proposed implementations we discuss the apparent contradictions between theory and practice.

  5. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown. PMID:24919796

  6. Neanderthal infant and adult infracranial remains from Marillac (Charente, France).

    PubMed

    Dolores Garralda, María; Maureille, Bruno; Vandermeersch, Bernard

    2014-09-01

    At the site of Marillac, near the Ligonne River in Marillac-le-Franc (Charente, France), a remarkable stratigraphic sequence has yielded a wealth of archaeological information, palaeoenvironmental data, as well as faunal and human remains. Marillac must have been a sinkhole used by Neanderthal groups as a hunting camp during MIS 4 (TL date 57,600 ± 4,600BP), where Quina Mousterian lithics and fragmented bones of reindeer predominate. This article describes three infracranial skeleton fragments. Two of them are from adults and consist of the incomplete shafts of a right radius (Marillac 24) and a left fibula (Marillac 26). The third fragment is the diaphysis of the right femur of an immature individual (Marillac 25), the size and shape of which resembles those from Teshik-Tash and could be assigned to a child of a similar age. The three fossils have been compared with the remains of other Neanderthals or anatomically Modern Humans (AMH). Furthermore, the comparison of the infantile femora, Marillac 25 and Teshik-Tash, with the remains of several European children from the early Middle Ages clearly demonstrates the robustness and rounded shape of both Neanderthal diaphyses. Evidence of peri-mortem manipulations have been identified on all three bones, with spiral fractures, percussion pits and, in the case of the radius and femur, unquestionable cutmarks made with flint implements, probably during defleshing. Traces of periostosis appear on the fibula fragment and on the immature femoral diaphysis, although their aetiology remains unknown.

  7. Toys Remain Viral Playground for 24 Hours

    MedlinePlus

    ... a toy's surface at typical indoor temperatures and humidity levels. Specifically, they tested the ability of so- ... East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS). At 60 percent relative humidity, 1 percent of the virus remained infectious on ...

  8. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  9. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  10. 39 CFR 775.5 - Classes of actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 CFR 1508.27. (b) Actions requiring an environmental assessment. Classes of actions that will... scientifically highly controversial; (6) Any action that may have highly uncertain or unknown risks on the...

  11. Unknown Word Processing Method for the Common Sense Judgement System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuchiya, Seiji; Kojima, Kazuhide; Watabe, Hirokazu; Kawaoka, Tsukasa

    When we humans receive uncertain information, we interpret it properly, so we can expand the conversation, and take the proper actions. This is possible because we have “common sense” concerning the basic word concept, which is built up from long time experience storing knowledge of our language. Of the common sense we use in our every day lives we think that there are; common sense concerning quantity such as size, weight, speed, time, or place; common sense concerning sense or feeling such as hot, beautiful, or loud; and moreover common sense concerning emotion such as happy or sad. In order to make computers closer to human beings, we think that the construction of a “Common Sense Judgment System” which deals with these kinds of common sense is necessary. When aiming to realize this “Common Sense Judgment System” and trying to make a computer have the same common sense knowledge and judgment ability as human beings, a very important factor is the handling of unknown words. Judgment concerning words which were given to the computer as knowledge before hand, it can refer to that knowledge, and the process will have no problem at all. But when an unknown word, which is not registered as knowledge, is inputted, how to process that word is a very difficult problem. In this paper, by using a concept base, which is made from several electric dictionaries; the degree of association, which is done based on the concept base; neural network, putting the closeness of meaning in consideration, we propose a method of unknown word processing, which connects an inputted unknown word to a representing word that is registered in the judgment knowledge base, and we will verify its effectiveness by experiment applied to the emotional judgment subsystem.

  12. Unknown Vocabulary Density and Reading Comprehension.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hsueh-Chao, Marcella Hu; Nation, Paul

    2000-01-01

    Examines what percentage of coverage of text is needed for unassisted reading for pleasure, where learners are able to read without the interruption of looking up words. Looks at the effect of three densities of unknown vocabulary on two measures of reading comprehension, a multiple-choice test and a cued written recall test. (Author/VWL)

  13. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov.

  14. Method for genetic identification of unknown organisms

    DOEpatents

    Colston, Jr., Billy W.; Fitch, Joseph P.; Hindson, Benjamin J.; Carter, Chance J.; Beer, Neil Reginald

    2016-08-23

    A method of rapid, genome and proteome based identification of unknown pathogenic or non-pathogenic organisms in a complex sample. The entire sample is analyzed by creating millions of emulsion encapsulated microdroplets, each containing a single pathogenic or non-pathogenic organism sized particle and appropriate reagents for amplification. Following amplification, the amplified product is analyzed.

  15. Conquering the Unknown: Exploring the Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Lynne M.

    2012-01-01

    There are many challenges that lie ahead for families of children with special needs. It is indeed a time for conquering the unknown and diligently exploring the options in an effort to locate, understand, and ultimately embrace the as yet undiscovered beauties of the new setting. This paper will consider some of the issues relevant for parents,…

  16. [Pavlov's unknown letter to L. A. Orbely].

    PubMed

    Budko, A A; Nazartsev, B I

    2012-07-01

    The text of Ivan P. Pavlov's unknown letter addressed to Leon A. Orbely is published for the first time. The document is kept in the Fund of the Military Medical Museum of the Military Medical Academy named after Sergey M. Kirov. PMID:23074838

  17. Problems Dealing with Unknown Quantities and Two Different Levels of Representing Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Filloy, Eugenio; Rojano, Teresa; Solares, Armando

    2010-01-01

    This article centers on studying the progress of algebraic syntax once students have surmounted initial obstacles found in the transition toward symbolic algebra. It specifically analyzes students' progress concerning the operation on the unknown, when the latter is represented by an expression that involves a 2nd unknown. In curricular terms,…

  18. 14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre1885 NORTH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photocopy of photograph (source unknown) photographer unknown pre-1885 NORTH SIDE AND WEST FRONT (NOTE ABSENCE OF DORMER ON GAMBREL ROOF OF ELL) (Illustration #6 of Data Report included in Field Records) - Narbonne House, 71 Essex Street, Salem, Essex County, MA

  19. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  20. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  1. 25 CFR 161.705 - How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect... NAVAJO PARTITIONED LANDS GRAZING PERMITS Trespass Notification § 161.705 How long will a written trespass notice remain in effect? A written trespass notice will remain in effect for the same action...

  2. Identification of infant skeletal remains: case report.

    PubMed

    Yoshino, M; Miyasaka, S; Sato, H; Miyake, B; Seta, S

    1989-12-01

    Three cases of infant skeletal remains were described from the view point of personal identification. The age was exactly estimated from union of ossification centers, dental calcification and eruption. While, the sex estimation was not highly reliable, because sex differences had not clearly appeared in infant skeletons, and it was rather difficult in some cases. In infant skeletal remains, age estimation is especially important to help personal identification. The most recent photograph of a presumed person should be used for personal identification by superimposition technique since the size and proportion of infant skull constantly change as a result of its development.

  3. Statins and diabetes: the good, the bad, and the unknown.

    PubMed

    Axsom, Kelly; Berger, Jeffrey S; Schwartzbard, Arthur Z

    2013-02-01

    The ability for statins to reduce major cardiovascular events and mortality has lead to this drug class being the most commonly prescribed in the world. In particular, the benefit of these drugs in type 2 diabetes (T2D) is well established. In February 2012, the Food and Drug Administration released changes to statin safety label to include that statins have been associated with increases in hemoglobin A1C and fasting serum glucose levels. This has stirred much debate in the medical community. Estimate for new onset diabetes from statin treatment is approximately one in 255 patients over four years. The number needed to treat for statin benefit is estimated at one in 40 depending on the population. The mechanism of this link remains unknown. Statins may accelerate progression to diabetes via molecular mechanisms that impact insulin resistance and cellular metabolism of carbohydrates. It remains clear that the benefit of statin therapy outweighs the risk of developing diabetes. PMID:23299640

  4. Juveniles' Motivations for Remaining in Prostitution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hwang, Shu-Ling; Bedford, Olwen

    2004-01-01

    Qualitative data from in-depth interviews were collected in 1990-1991, 1992, and 2000 with 49 prostituted juveniles remanded to two rehabilitation centers in Taiwan. These data are analyzed to explore Taiwanese prostituted juveniles' feelings about themselves and their work, their motivations for remaining in prostitution, and their difficulties…

  5. Predicting the remaining service life of concrete

    SciTech Connect

    Clifton, J.F.

    1991-11-01

    Nuclear power plants are providing, currently, about 17 percent of the U.S. electricity and many of these plants are approaching their licensed life of 40 years. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission and the Department of Energy`s Oak Ridge National Laboratory are carrying out a program to develop a methodology for assessing the remaining safe-life of the concrete components and structures in nuclear power plants. This program has the overall objective of identifying potential structural safety issues, as well as acceptance criteria, for use in evaluations of nuclear power plants for continued service. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is contributing to this program by identifying and analyzing methods for predicting the remaining life of in-service concrete materials. This report examines the basis for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials of nuclear power facilities. Methods for predicting the service life of new and in-service concrete materials are analyzed. These methods include (1) estimates based on experience, (2) comparison of performance, (3) accelerated testing, (4) stochastic methods, and (5) mathematical modeling. New approaches for predicting the remaining service lives of concrete materials are proposed and recommendations for their further development given. Degradation processes are discussed based on considerations of their mechanisms, likelihood of occurrence, manifestations, and detection. They include corrosion, sulfate attack, alkali-aggregate reactions, frost attack, leaching, radiation, salt crystallization, and microbiological attack.

  6. Carcinoma of unknown primary and paraneoplastic dermatomyositis

    PubMed Central

    Sonnenblick, Amir

    2015-01-01

    Dermatomyositis is known to be associated with neoplastic disorders, however the presentation of carcinoma of unknown primary as dermatomyositis is rare. We describe a case index of 50-year-old female who presented with enlarged inguinal lymph nodes accompanied with symmetric proximal muscle weakness and erythematous plaques. Conventional basic work-up did not reveal the diagnosis, however, positron emission tomography-computed tomography and re-staining of the pathology specimen suggested the ovaries as the primary site. Chemotherapy including carboplatin paclitaxel and bevacizumab led to complete response of disease and improvement in the dermatomyositis. The present case emphasizes the importance of a thorough directed evaluation for the underlying cancer in patients with carcinoma of unknown primary presenting as dermatomyositis. We further provide an up-to-date detailed review of published data describing these clinical entities. PMID:26677443

  7. Unified sensor management in unknown dynamic clutter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahler, Ronald; El-Fallah, Adel

    2010-04-01

    In recent years the first author has developed a unified, computationally tractable approach to multisensor-multitarget sensor management. This approach consists of closed-loop recursion of a PHD or CPHD filter with maximization of a "natural" sensor management objective function called PENT (posterior expected number of targets). In this paper we extend this approach so that it can be used in unknown, dynamic clutter backgrounds.

  8. Infectious causes of fever of unknown origin.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Alastair C; Moore, David A

    2015-06-01

    The causes of fever of unknown origin (FUO) are changing because advances in clinical practice and diagnostics have facilitated the identification of some infections. A variety of bacterial infections can cause FUO, and these can be divided into those that are easy to identify using culture and those that require serological or molecular tests for identification. A number of viral, parasitic and fungal infections can also cause prolonged fever. This article summarises the clinical features and diagnostic strategy of these infections.

  9. Oldest directly dated remains of sheep in China.

    PubMed

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-01-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ(13)C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ(13)C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices.

  10. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual.

  11. Oldest Directly Dated Remains of Sheep in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dodson, John; Dodson, Eoin; Banati, Richard; Li, Xiaoqiang; Atahan, Pia; Hu, Songmei; Middleton, Ryan J.; Zhou, Xinying; Nan, Sun

    2014-11-01

    The origins of domesticated sheep (Ovis sp.) in China remain unknown. Previous workers have speculated that sheep may have been present in China up to 7000 years ago, however many claims are based on associations with archaeological material rather than independent dates on sheep material. Here we present 7 radiocarbon dates on sheep bone from Inner Mongolia, Ningxia and Shaanxi provinces. DNA analysis on one of the bones confirms it is Ovis sp. The oldest ages are about 4700 to 4400 BCE and are thus the oldest objectively dated Ovis material in eastern Asia. The graphitisised bone collagen had δ13C values indicating some millet was represented in the diet. This probably indicates sheep were in a domestic setting where millet was grown. The younger samples had δ13C values indicating that even more millet was in the diet, and this was likely related to changes in foddering practices

  12. Weight references for burned human skeletal remains from Portuguese samples.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, David; Cunha, Eugénia; Thompson, Tim J U

    2013-09-01

    Weight is often one of the few recoverable data when analyzing human cremains but references are still rare, especially for European populations. Mean weights for skeletal remains were thus documented for Portuguese modern cremations of both recently deceased individuals and dry skeletons, and the effect of age, sex, and the intensity of combustion was investigated using both multivariate and univariate statistics. The cremains from fresh cadavers were significantly heavier than the ones from dry skeletons regardless of sex and age cohort (p < 0.001 to p = 0.003). As expected, males were heavier than females and age had a powerful effect in female skeletal weight. The effect of the intensity of combustion in cremains weight was unclear. These weight references may, in some cases, help estimating the minimum number of individuals, the completeness of the skeletal assemblage, and the sex of an unknown individual. PMID:23822840

  13. Tuberculosis remains a challenge despite economic growth in Panama.

    PubMed

    Tarajia, M; Goodridge, A

    2014-03-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) is a disease associated with inequality, and wise investment of economic resources is considered critical to its control. Panama has recently secured its status as an upper-middle-income country with robust economic growth. However, the prioritisation of resources for TB control remains a major challenge. In this article, we highlight areas that urgently require action to effectively reduce TB burden to minimal levels. Our conclusions suggest the need for fund allocation and a multidisciplinary approach to ensure prompt laboratory diagnosis, treatment assurance and workforce reinforcement, complemented by applied and operational research, development and innovation.

  14. Explosives remain preferred methods for platform abandonment

    SciTech Connect

    Pulsipher, A.; Daniel, W. IV; Kiesler, J.E.; Mackey, V. III

    1996-05-06

    Economics and safety concerns indicate that methods involving explosives remain the most practical and cost-effective means for abandoning oil and gas structures in the Gulf of Mexico. A decade has passed since 51 dead sea turtles, many endangered Kemp`s Ridleys, washed ashore on the Texas coast shortly after explosives helped remove several offshore platforms. Although no relationship between the explosions and the dead turtles was ever established, in response to widespread public concern, the US Minerals Management Service (MMS) and National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS) implemented regulations limiting the size and timing of explosive charges. Also, more importantly, they required that operators pay for observers to survey waters surrounding platforms scheduled for removal for 48 hr before any detonations. If observers spot sea turtles or marine mammals within the danger zone, the platform abandonment is delayed until the turtles leave or are removed. However, concern about the effects of explosives on marine life remains.

  15. Direct Dating of Hominids Remains In Eurasia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yokoyama, Y.; Falguères, C.

    When archaeological sites are associated with human remains, it is relevant to be able to date those valuable remains for different reasons. The main one is that it avoids the stratigraphical problems which can be due to intrusive burials in the sequence. The other reason consists in the fact that human bones may be encountered out of established stratigraphical context. On the other hand, the majority of dating methods currently used are destructive and can not be applied on these precious samples particularly when they are older than 40,000 years and can not be dated by radiocarbon. Since several years, we have developped a completely non-destructive method which consists in the measurement of human remains using the gamma -ray spectrometry. This technique has been used recently by other laboratories. We present here two important cases for the knowledge of human evolution in Eurasia. The first example is Qafzeh site in Israel where many human skeletons have been unearthed from burials associated with fauna and lithic artefacts. This site has been dated by several independent radiometric methods. So, it was possible to compare our gamma results with the other results yielded by the different methods. The second case concerns the most evolved Homo erectus found in Java, Indonesia, at Ngandong site, close to the Solo river. A recent debate has been focused on the age of these fossils and their direct dating is of outmost importance for the knowledge of settlement of Modern Humans in South-East Asia.

  16. Distribution of albatross remains in the Far East regions during the Holocene, based on zooarchaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Eda, Masaki; Higuchi, Hiroyoshi

    2004-07-01

    Many albatross remains have been found in the Japanese Islands and the surrounding areas, such as Sakhalin and South Korea. These remains are interesting for two reasons: numerous sites from which albatross remains have been found are located in coastal regions of the Far East where no albatrosses have been distributed recently, and there are some sites in which albatross remains represent a large portion of avian remains, although albatrosses are not easily preyed upon by human beings. We collected data on albatross remains from archaeological sites in the Far East regions during the Holocene and arranged the remains geographically, temporally and in terms of quantity. Based on these results, we showed that coastal areas along the Seas of Okhotsk and Japan have rarely been used by albatrosses in Modern times, though formerly there were many albatrosses. We proposed two explanations for the shrinkage of their distributional range: excessive hunting in the breeding areas, and distributional changes of prey for albatrosses. PMID:15277721

  17. Why Do Some Cores Remain Starless?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anathpindika, S.

    2016-08-01

    Prestellar cores, by definition, are gravitationally bound but starless pockets of dense gas. Physical conditions that could render a core starless (in the local Universe) is the subject of investigation in this work. To this end, we studied the evolution of four starless cores, B68, L694-2, L1517B, L1689, and L1521F, a VeLLO. We demonstrate: (i) cores contracted in quasistatic manner over a timescale on the order of ~ 105 yr. Those that remained starless briefly acquired a centrally concentrated density configuration that mimicked the profile of a unstable BonnorEbert sphere before rebounding, (ii) three cores viz. L694-2, L1689-SMM16, and L1521F remained starless despite becoming thermally super-critical. By contrast, B68 and L1517B remained sub-critical; L1521F collapsed to become a VeLLO only when gas-cooling was enhanced by increasing the size of dust-grains. This result is robust, for other starless cores viz. B68, L694-2, L1517B, and L1689 could also be similarly induced to collapse. The temperature-profile of starless cores and those that collapsed was found to be radically different. While in the former type, only very close to the centre of a core was there any evidence of decline in gas temperature, by contrast, a core of the latter type developed a more uniformly cold interior. Our principle conclusions are: (a) thermal super-criticality of a core is insufficient to ensure it will become protostellar, (b) potential star-forming cores (the VeLLO L1521F here), could be experiencing dust-coagulation that must enhance gasdust coupling and in turn lower gas temperature, thereby assisting collapse. This also suggests, mere gravitational/virial boundedness of a core is insufficient to ensure it will form stars.

  18. Lactic acid bacterial symbionts in honeybees - an unknown key to honey's antimicrobial and therapeutic activities.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Butler, Èile; Markowicz, Pawel; Lindholm, Christina; Larsson, Lennart; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2016-10-01

    Could honeybees' most valuable contribution to mankind besides pollination services be alternative tools against infections? Today, due to the emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens, we are facing a new era of searching for alternative tools against infections. Natural products such as honey have been applied against human's infections for millennia without sufficient scientific evidence. A unique lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota was discovered by us, which is in symbiosis with honeybees and present in large amounts in fresh honey across the world. This work investigates if the LAB symbionts are the source to the unknown factors contributing to honey's properties. Hence, we tested the LAB against severe wound pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) among others. We demonstrate a strong antimicrobial activity from each symbiont and a synergistic effect, which counteracted all the tested pathogens. The mechanisms of action are partly shown by elucidating the production of active compounds such as proteins, fatty acids, anaesthetics, organic acids, volatiles and hydrogen peroxide. We show that the symbionts produce a myriad of active compounds that remain in variable amounts in mature honey. Further studies are now required to investigate if these symbionts have a potential in clinical applications as alternative tools against topical human and animal infections.

  19. So close: remaining challenges to eradicating polio.

    PubMed

    Toole, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative, launched in 1988, is close to achieving its goal. In 2015, reported cases of wild poliovirus were limited to just two countries - Afghanistan and Pakistan. Africa has been polio-free for more than 18 months. Remaining barriers to global eradication include insecurity in areas such as Northwest Pakistan and Eastern and Southern Afghanistan, where polio cases continue to be reported. Hostility to vaccination is either based on extreme ideologies, such as in Pakistan, vaccination fatigue by parents whose children have received more than 15 doses, and misunderstandings about the vaccine's safety and effectiveness such as in Ukraine. A further challenge is continued circulation of vaccine-derived poliovirus in populations with low immunity, with 28 cases reported in 2015 in countries as diverse as Madagascar, Ukraine, Laos, and Myanmar. This paper summarizes the current epidemiology of wild and vaccine-derived poliovirus, and describes the remaining challenges to eradication and innovative approaches being taken to overcome them.

  20. Decomposition Technique for Remaining Useful Life Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saha, Bhaskar (Inventor); Goebel, Kai F. (Inventor); Saxena, Abhinav (Inventor); Celaya, Jose R. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The prognostic tool disclosed here decomposes the problem of estimating the remaining useful life (RUL) of a component or sub-system into two separate regression problems: the feature-to-damage mapping and the operational conditions-to-damage-rate mapping. These maps are initially generated in off-line mode. One or more regression algorithms are used to generate each of these maps from measurements (and features derived from these), operational conditions, and ground truth information. This decomposition technique allows for the explicit quantification and management of different sources of uncertainty present in the process. Next, the maps are used in an on-line mode where run-time data (sensor measurements and operational conditions) are used in conjunction with the maps generated in off-line mode to estimate both current damage state as well as future damage accumulation. Remaining life is computed by subtracting the instance when the extrapolated damage reaches the failure threshold from the instance when the prediction is made.

  1. Points of regulation for auxin action.

    PubMed

    Zazimalova, E; Napier, R M

    2003-03-01

    There have been few examples of the application of our growing knowledge of hormone action to crop improvement. In this review we discuss what is known about the critical points regulating auxin action. We examine auxin metabolism, transport, perception and signalling and identify genes and proteins that might be keys to regulation, particularly the rate-limiting steps in various pathways. Certain mutants show that substrate flow in biosynthesis can be limiting. To date there is little information available on the genes and proteins of catabolism. There have been several auxin transport proteins and some elegant transport physiology described recently, and the potential for using transport proteins to manage free indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) concentrations is discussed. Free IAA is very mobile, and so while it may be more practical to control auxin action through managing the receptor and signalling pathways, the candidate genes and proteins through which this can be done remain largely unknown. From the available evidence, it is clear that the reason for so few commercial applications arising from the control of auxin action is that knowledge is still limited. PMID:12789411

  2. Some remaining problems in HCDA analysis. [LMFBR

    SciTech Connect

    Chang, Y.W.

    1981-01-01

    The safety assessment and licensing of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) requires an analysis on the capability of the reactor primary system to sustain the consequences of a hypothetical core-disruptive accident (HCDA). Although computational methods and computer programs developed for HCDA analyses can predict reasonably well the response of the primary containment system, and follow up the phenomena of HCDA from the start of excursion to the time of dynamic equilibrium in the system, there remain areas in the HCDA analysis that merit further analytical and experimental studies. These are the analysis of fluid impact on reactor cover, three-dimensional analysis, the treatment of the perforated plates, material properties under high strain rates and under high temperatures, the treatment of multifield flows, and the treatment of prestressed concrete reactor vessels. The purpose of this paper is to discuss the structural mechanics of HCDA analysis in these areas where improvements are needed.

  3. Environmental threats to buried archaeological remains.

    PubMed

    Nord, Anders G; Tronner, Kate; Mattsson, Einar; Borg, Gunnar Ch; Ullén, Inga

    2005-05-01

    The last century's environmental pollution has created health problems, acidification of ground and lakes, and serious damage to our cultural heritage. Outdoor monuments suffer from this pollution, but so do buried archaeological remains. However, research on the deterioration of archaeological artifacts underground has so far been limited, and it is important to draw attention to this neglected field. This article presents results obtained at the Swedish National Heritage Board on the degradation of archaeological objects of bronze and iron and of bones from prehistoric graves, materials of which seem to be most affected by pollutants. The investigation methods, which were employed, are described. Other relevant studies are briefly reviewed. It is obvious that the deterioration rate of archaeological artifacts, especially of inorganic materials, has accelerated in recent years, and that this increased deterioration to a large part can be attributed to anthropogenic pollution. Regions that might be endangered are exemplified.

  4. Visual Working Memory for Observed Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Justin N.

    2007-01-01

    Human society depends on the ability to remember the actions of other individuals, which is information that must be stored in a temporary buffer to guide behavior after actions have been observed. To date, however, the storage capacity, contents, and architecture of working memory for observed actions are unknown. In this article, the author…

  5. Fever of unknown origin in returning travellers.

    PubMed

    Korzeniewski, Krzysztof; Gaweł, Bartłomiej; Krankowska, Dagny; Wasilczuk, Katarzyna

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the article is to discuss issues associated with the occurrence of febrile illnesses in leisure and business travellers, with a particular emphasis on fevers of unknown origin (FUO). FUO, apart from diarrhoeas, respiratory tract infections and skin lesions, are one of the most common health problems in travellers to tropical and subtropical countries. FUO are manifestations of various diseases, typically of infectious or invasive aetiology. In one out of 3 cases, the cause of a fever in travellers returning from the hot climate zone is malaria, and therefore diagnostic tests should first aim at ruling out this specific disease entity. Other illnesses with persistent fever include dengue, enteric fever, viral hepatitis A, bacterial diarrhoeas and rickettsioses. Fever may also occur in travellers suffering from diseases of non-tropical origin, e.g. cosmopolitan respiratory tract or urinary tract infections, also, fever may coexist with other illnesses or injuries (skin rashes, bites, burns).

  6. Unknown components of the plastidial permeome

    PubMed Central

    Pick, Thea R.; Weber, Andreas P. M.

    2014-01-01

    Beyond their role in photosynthesis plastids provide a plethora of additional metabolic functions to plant cells. For example, they harbor complete biosynthetic pathways for the de novo synthesis of carotenoids, fatty acids, and amino acids. Furthermore plastids contribute important reactions to multi-compartmentalized pathways, such as photorespiration or plant hormone syntheses, and they depend on the import of essential molecules that they cannot synthesize themselves, such as ascorbic acid. This causes a high traffic of metabolites across the plastid envelope. Although it was recently shown that non-polar substrates could be exchanged between the plastid and the ER without involving transporters, various essential transport processes are mediated by highly selective but still unknown metabolite transporters. This review focuses on selected components of the plastidial permeome that are predicted to exist but that have not yet been identified as molecular entities, such as the transporters for isopentenyl diphosphate (IPP) or ascorbic acid. PMID:25191333

  7. Autonomous exploration and mapping of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owens, Jason; Osteen, Phil; Fields, MaryAnne

    2012-06-01

    Autonomous exploration and mapping is a vital capability for future robotic systems expected to function in arbitrary complex environments. In this paper, we describe an end-to-end robotic solution for remotely mapping buildings. For a typical mapping system, an unmanned system is directed to enter an unknown building at a distance, sense the internal structure, and, barring additional tasks, while in situ, create a 2-D map of the building. This map provides a useful and intuitive representation of the environment for the remote operator. We have integrated a robust mapping and exploration system utilizing laser range scanners and RGB-D cameras, and we demonstrate an exploration and metacognition algorithm on a robotic platform. The algorithm allows the robot to safely navigate the building, explore the interior, report significant features to the operator, and generate a consistent map - all while maintaining localization.

  8. Education Through Exploration: Evaluating the Unknown

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anbar, A. D.

    2015-12-01

    Mastery of the peculiar and powerful practices of science is increasingly important for the average citizen. With the rise of the Internet, most of human knowledge is at our fingertips. As content becomes a commodity, success and survival aren't about who knows the most, but who is better able to explore the unknown, actively applying and extending knowledge through critical thinking and hypothesis-driven problem-solving. This applies to the economic livelihoods of individuals and to society at large as we grapple with climate change and other science-infused challenges. Unfortunately, science is too often taught as an encyclopedic collection of settled facts to be mastered rather than as a process of exploration that embraces curiosity, inquiry, testing, and communication to reduce uncertainty about the unknown. This problem is exacerbated by the continued prevalence of teacher-centric pedagogy, which promotes learning-from-authority and passive learning. The initial wave of massively open online courses (MOOCs) generally mimic this teaching style in virtual form. It is hypothesized that emerging digital teaching technologies can help address this challenge at Internet scale in "next generation" MOOCs and flipped classroom experiences. Interactive simulations, immersive virtual field trips, gamified elements, rapid adaptive feedback, intelligent tutoring systems, and personalized pathways, should motivate and enhance learning. Through lab-like projects and tutorials, students should be able to construct knowledge from interactive experiences, modeling the authentic practice of science while mastering complex concepts. Freed from lecturing, teaching staff should be available for direct and intense student-teacher interactions. These claims are difficult to evaluate with traditional assessment instruments, but digital technologies provide powerful new ways to evaluate student learning and learn from student behaviors. We will describe ongoing experiences with such

  9. Drug leads for interactive protein targets with unknown structure.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Ariel; Scott, L Ridgway

    2016-04-01

    The disruption of protein-protein interfaces (PPIs) remains a challenge in drug discovery. The problem becomes daunting when the structure of the target protein is unknown and is even further complicated when the interface is susceptible to disruptive phosphorylation. Based solely on protein sequence and information about phosphorylation-susceptible sites within the PPI, a new technology has been developed to identify drug leads to inhibit protein associations. Here we reveal this technology and contrast it with current structure-based technologies for the generation of drug leads. The novel technology is illustrated by a patented invention to treat heart failure. The success of this technology shows that it is possible to generate drug leads in the absence of target structure. PMID:26484433

  10. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance.

  11. Spatial patterning of vulture scavenged human remains.

    PubMed

    Spradley, M Katherine; Hamilton, Michelle D; Giordano, Alberto

    2012-06-10

    This article presents the results of a pilot study on the effects of vulture modification to human remains. A donated body from the Willed Body Donation Program was placed at the Forensic Anthropology Research Facility (FARF), an outdoor human decomposition laboratory located at Texas State University-San Marcos. The effects of vulture scavenging on the timing and sequence, and the rate of skeletonization, disarticulation, and dispersal were observed via a motion sensing camera and direct observation. Using GIS (Geographic Information Systems) and GPS (Global Positioning System) technologies and spatial analytical methods, the transport of skeletal elements was mapped in order to analyze dispersal and terrain-influenced patterns of active vulture scavenging. Results showed that the initial scavenging took place 37 days after placement at FARF. This delay in scavenging differs from previous research. After the initial appearance of the vultures, the body was reduced from a fully-fleshed individual to a skeleton within only 5h. This underscores the potential for errors in postmortem interval estimations made at vulture scavenged scenes. Additionally, spatial analysis showed that skeletal elements were dispersed by vultures to lower elevations, and that the disarticulation and dispersal of the skeletal elements occurs early in the scavenging sequence.

  12. Smart Point Cloud: Definition and Remaining Challenges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poux, F.; Hallot, P.; Neuville, R.; Billen, R.

    2016-10-01

    Dealing with coloured point cloud acquired from terrestrial laser scanner, this paper identifies remaining challenges for a new data structure: the smart point cloud. This concept arises with the statement that massive and discretized spatial information from active remote sensing technology is often underused due to data mining limitations. The generalisation of point cloud data associated with the heterogeneity and temporality of such datasets is the main issue regarding structure, segmentation, classification, and interaction for an immediate understanding. We propose to use both point cloud properties and human knowledge through machine learning to rapidly extract pertinent information, using user-centered information (smart data) rather than raw data. A review of feature detection, machine learning frameworks and database systems indexed both for mining queries and data visualisation is studied. Based on existing approaches, we propose a new 3-block flexible framework around device expertise, analytic expertise and domain base reflexion. This contribution serves as the first step for the realisation of a comprehensive smart point cloud data structure.

  13. Inhaler devices: what remains to be done?

    PubMed

    Smith, Ian J; Bell, John; Bowman, Nic; Everard, Mark; Stein, Stephen; Weers, Jeffry G

    2010-12-01

    The 1000 Years of Pharmaceutical Aerosols Conference convened posing the question; "what remains to be done?" When applying this question to the topic of inhaler devices, two hugely different perspectives could be taken. On the one hand, it could be argued that because there is an array of delivery systems available and the industry, prescribing physicians and patients alike have considerable choice, why would we believe it necessary to do anything further? On the other hand, as an industry, we are constantly reminded by our "customers" that the inhaler devices available are less than adequate, and in some cases woefully inadequate, that they are not "patient" friendly, not intuitive to use and importantly do nothing to encourage the patient to take the medication as intended and as prescribed. So, taking the second point of view as more reflective of reality--the Voice of the Customer--our starting point must be that there is still much to do in the field of inhaler devices. The purpose of this article is to outline some key basic requirements for inhaler design and perhaps to question some of the entrenched thinking that has pervaded inhaler product design for too many years.

  14. Vitamin C: the known and the unknown and Goldilocks.

    PubMed

    Padayatty, S J; Levine, M

    2016-09-01

    Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid), the antiscorbutic vitamin, cannot be synthesized by humans and other primates, and has to be obtained from diet. Ascorbic acid is an electron donor and acts as a cofactor for fifteen mammalian enzymes. Two sodium-dependent transporters are specific for ascorbic acid, and its oxidation product dehydroascorbic acid is transported by glucose transporters. Ascorbic acid is differentially accumulated by most tissues and body fluids. Plasma and tissue vitamin C concentrations are dependent on amount consumed, bioavailability, renal excretion, and utilization. To be biologically meaningful or to be clinically relevant, in vitro and in vivo studies of vitamin C actions have to take into account physiologic concentrations of the vitamin. In this paper, we review vitamin C physiology; the many phenomena involving vitamin C where new knowledge has accrued or where understanding remains limited; raise questions about the vitamin that remain to be answered; and explore lines of investigations that are likely to be fruitful. PMID:26808119

  15. Action Research: Trends and Variations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beaulieu, Rodney J.

    2013-01-01

    Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…

  16. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  17. Ghost Remains After Black Hole Eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has found a cosmic "ghost" lurking around a distant supermassive black hole. This is the first detection of such a high-energy apparition, and scientists think it is evidence of a huge eruption produced by the black hole. This discovery presents astronomers with a valuable opportunity to observe phenomena that occurred when the Universe was very young. The X-ray ghost, so-called because a diffuse X-ray source has remained after other radiation from the outburst has died away, is in the Chandra Deep Field-North, one of the deepest X-ray images ever taken. The source, a.k.a. HDF 130, is over 10 billion light years away and existed at a time 3 billion years after the Big Bang, when galaxies and black holes were forming at a high rate. "We'd seen this fuzzy object a few years ago, but didn't realize until now that we were seeing a ghost", said Andy Fabian of the Cambridge University in the United Kingdom. "It's not out there to haunt us, rather it's telling us something - in this case what was happening in this galaxy billions of year ago." Fabian and colleagues think the X-ray glow from HDF 130 is evidence for a powerful outburst from its central black hole in the form of jets of energetic particles traveling at almost the speed of light. When the eruption was ongoing, it produced prodigious amounts of radio and X-radiation, but after several million years, the radio signal faded from view as the electrons radiated away their energy. HDF 130 Chandra X-ray Image of HDF 130 However, less energetic electrons can still produce X-rays by interacting with the pervasive sea of photons remaining from the Big Bang - the cosmic background radiation. Collisions between these electrons and the background photons can impart enough energy to the photons to boost them into the X-ray energy band. This process produces an extended X-ray source that lasts for another 30 million years or so. "This ghost tells us about the black hole's eruption long after

  18. Multigrain indexing of unknown multiphase materials

    PubMed Central

    Wejdemann, Christian; Poulsen, Henning Friis

    2016-01-01

    A multigrain indexing algorithm for use with samples comprising an arbitrary number of known or unknown phases is presented. No a priori crystallographic knowledge is required. The algorithm applies to data acquired with a monochromatic beam and a conventional two-dimensional detector for diffraction. Initially, candidate grains are found by searching for crystallographic planes, using a Dirac comb convoluted with a box function as a filter. Next, candidate grains are validated and the unit cell is optimized. The algorithm is validated by simulations. Simulations of 500 cementite grains and ∼100 reflections per grain resulted in 99.2% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.5% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. Simulations with 200 grains associated with four mineral phases and 50–700 reflections per grain resulted in 99.9% of all grains being indexed correctly and 99.9% of the reflections becoming associated with the right grain. The main limitation is in terms of overlap of diffraction spots and computing time. Potential areas of use include three-dimensional grain mapping, structural solution and refinement studies of complex samples, and studies of dilute phases. PMID:27047308

  19. Dissociating modality-specific and supramodal neural systems for action understanding.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Lieberman, Matthew D

    2012-03-01

    The neural basis of action understanding in humans remains disputed, with some research implicating the putative mirror neuron system (MNS) and some a mentalizing system (MZS) for inferring mental states. The basis for this dispute may be that action understanding is a heterogeneous construct: actions can be understood from sensory information about body movements or from language about action, and with the goal of understanding the implementation ("how") or motive ("why") of an action. Although extant research implicates the MNS in understanding implementation and the MZS in understanding motive, it remains unknown to what extent these systems subserve modality-specific or supramodal functions in action understanding. While undergoing fMRI, 21 volunteers considered the implementation ("How is she doing it?") and motive ("Why is she doing it?") for actions presented in video or text. Bilateral parietal and right frontal areas of the MNS showed a modality-specific association with perceiving actions in videos, while left-hemisphere MNS showed a supramodal association with understanding implementation. Largely left-hemisphere MZS showed a supramodal association with understanding motive; however, connectivity among the MZS and MNS during the inference of motive was modality specific, being significantly stronger when motive was understood from actions in videos compared to text. These results support a tripartite model of MNS and MZS contributions to action understanding, where distinct areas of the MNS contribute to action perception ("perceiving what") and the representation of action implementation ("knowing how"), while the MZS supports an abstract, modality-independent representation of the mental states that explain action performance ("knowing why").

  20. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  1. Action semantics modulate action prediction.

    PubMed

    Springer, Anne; Prinz, Wolfgang

    2010-11-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that action prediction involves an internal action simulation that runs time-locked to the real action. The present study replicates and extends these findings by indicating a real-time simulation process (Graf et al., 2007), which can be differentiated from a similarity-based evaluation of internal action representations. Moreover, results showed that action semantics modulate action prediction accuracy. The semantic effect was specified by the processing of action verbs and concrete nouns (Experiment 1) and, more specifically, by the dynamics described by action verbs (Experiment 2) and the speed described by the verbs (e.g., "to catch" vs. "to grasp" vs. "to stretch"; Experiment 3). These results propose a linkage between action simulation and action semantics as two yet unrelated domains, a view that coincides with a recent notion of a close link between motor processes and the understanding of action language.

  2. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    PubMed

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages.

  3. [Arsine: an unknown industrial chemical toxic].

    PubMed

    Plantamura, J; Dorandeu, F; Burnat, P; Renard, C

    2011-07-01

    Arsines family includes many compounds with various toxicities. Arsenic trihydride or arsine is the most toxic form of arsenic. Powerful haemolytic gas, it has never been used as a chemical weapon because its toxicity is not immediate and it is non persistent. However, cases of industrial poisoning with arsine are still identified in spite of a strict regulation at work. It is also identified as a potential toxic of chemical terrorism. This agent, of which the mechanism of action is still not well defined, is badly recognized because of intoxications rarity. However, fast detection means are available. Health professionals and especially those who are involved in piratox plan need to learn to recognize arsine intoxication (hematuria, oliguria, haemolytic anemia) in order to provide early, specific treatment and avoid damages. PMID:21840437

  4. Carnivoran remains from the Malapa hominin site, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Kuhn, Brian F; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S; Berger, Lee R

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  5. Carnivoran Remains from the Malapa Hominin Site, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Kuhn, Brian F.; Werdelin, Lars; Hartstone-Rose, Adam; Lacruz, Rodrigo S.; Berger, Lee R.

    2011-01-01

    Recent discoveries at the new hominin-bearing deposits of Malapa, South Africa, have yielded a rich faunal assemblage associated with the newly described hominin taxon Australopithecus sediba. Dating of this deposit using U-Pb and palaeomagnetic methods has provided an age of 1.977 Ma, being one of the most accurately dated, time constrained deposits in the Plio-Pleistocene of southern Africa. To date, 81 carnivoran specimens have been identified at this site including members of the families Canidae, Viverridae, Herpestidae, Hyaenidae and Felidae. Of note is the presence of the extinct taxon Dinofelis cf. D. barlowi that may represent the last appearance date for this species. Extant large carnivores are represented by specimens of leopard (Panthera pardus) and brown hyaena (Parahyaena brunnea). Smaller carnivores are also represented, and include the genera Atilax and Genetta, as well as Vulpes cf. V. chama. Malapa may also represent the first appearance date for Felis nigripes (Black-footed cat). The geochronological age of Malapa and the associated hominin taxa and carnivoran remains provide a window of research into mammalian evolution during a relatively unknown period in South Africa and elsewhere. In particular, the fauna represented at Malapa has the potential to elucidate aspects of the evolution of Dinofelis and may help resolve competing hypotheses about faunal exchange between East and Southern Africa during the late Pliocene or early Pleistocene. PMID:22073222

  6. The Unknown Detective Career of Isaac Newton

    SciTech Connect

    Levenson, Thomas

    2010-03-17

    Isaac Newton's fame is such that it would seem that almost nothing remains to be discovered about his deeds or his methods. But very little attention has been paid to the three decades Newton spent in charge of the Royal Mint, and especially to the first of those years, in which he supervised the remaking of England's entire silver money supply, all the while investigating, prosecuting, and executing the nation's currency criminals. That story provides unique perspectives on both his own habits of mind and on how what has come to be called the scientific revolution played out, not just in the minds of the great, but on the mean streets of London.

  7. Knowns and unknowns of influenza B viruses.

    PubMed

    Koutsakos, Marios; Nguyen, Thi H O; Barclay, Wendy S; Kedzierska, Katherine

    2016-01-01

    Influenza B viruses (IBVs) circulate annually along with influenza A (IAV) strains during seasonal epidemics. IBV can dominate influenza seasons and cause severe disease, particularly in children and adolescents. Research has revealed interesting aspects of IBV and highlighted the importance of these viruses in clinical settings. Yet, many important questions remain unanswered. In this review, the clinical relevance of IBV is emphasized, unique features in epidemiology, host range and virology are highlighted and gaps in knowledge pinpointed. Multiple aspects of IBV epidemiology, evolution, virology and immunology are discussed. Future research into IBV is needed to understand how we can prevent severe disease in high-risk groups, especially children and elderly.

  8. Adding control to arbitrary unknown quantum operations

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Xiao-Qi; Ralph, Timothy C.; Kalasuwan, Pruet; Zhang, Mian; Peruzzo, Alberto; Lanyon, Benjamin P.; O'Brien, Jeremy L.

    2011-01-01

    Although quantum computers promise significant advantages, the complexity of quantum algorithms remains a major technological obstacle. We have developed and demonstrated an architecture-independent technique that simplifies adding control qubits to arbitrary quantum operations—a requirement in many quantum algorithms, simulations and metrology. The technique, which is independent of how the operation is done, does not require knowledge of what the operation is, and largely separates the problems of how to implement a quantum operation in the laboratory and how to add a control. Here, we demonstrate an entanglement-based version in a photonic system, realizing a range of different two-qubit gates with high fidelity. PMID:21811242

  9. Merkel Cell Carcinoma of Unknown Primary Origin

    PubMed Central

    Deneve, Jeremiah L.; Messina, Jane L.; Marzban, Suroosh S.; Gonzalez, Ricardo J.; Walls, Brooke M.; Fisher, Kate J.; Ann Chen, Y.; Wayne Cruse, C.; Sondak, Vernon K.; Zager, Jonathan S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare neuroendocrine tumor of the skin. MCC from an unknown primary origin (MCCUP) can present a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. We describe our single-institution experience with the diagnosis and management of MCCUP presenting as metastases to lymph nodes. Methods After institutional review board approval, our institutional database spanning the years 1998–2010 was queried for patients with MCCUP. Clinicopathologic variables and outcomes were assessed. Results From a database of 321 patients with MCC, 38 (12%) were identified as having nodal MCCUP. Median age was 67 years, and 79% were men. Nodal basins involved at presentation were cervical (58%), axillary/epitrochlear (21%), or inguinal/iliac (21%). CK20 staining was positive in 93% of tumors tested, and all were negative for thyroid transcription factor-1. Twenty-nine patients (76%) underwent complete regional lymph node dissection (LND): 3 had LND alone, ten had LND and adjuvant radiotherapy, and 16 underwent LND followed by chemoradiotherapy. Definitive chemoradiotherapy without surgery was provided to six patients (16%), while radiotherapy alone was provided to three (8%). Recurrence was observed in 34% of patients. Median recurrence-free survival was 35 months. Ten patients (26%) died, five of disease and five of other causes. The median overall survival was 104 months. Conclusions Nodal MCCUP is a rare disease affecting primarily elderly white men. Recurrence is observed in approximately one-third of patients, with a 104 month median overall survival after a multimodal treatment approach consisting of surgery along with adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy in the majority of patients. PMID:22271206

  10. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain.

  11. Fracture pain-Traveling unknown pathways.

    PubMed

    Alves, Cecília J; Neto, Estrela; Sousa, Daniela M; Leitão, Luís; Vasconcelos, Daniel M; Ribeiro-Silva, Manuel; Alencastre, Inês S; Lamghari, Meriem

    2016-04-01

    An increase of fracture incidence is expected for the next decades, mostly due to the undeniable increase of osteoporotic fractures, associated with the rapid population ageing. The rise in sports-related fractures affecting the young and active population also contributes to this increased fracture incidence, and further amplifies the economical burden of fractures. Fracture often results in severe pain, which is a primary symptom to be treated, not only to guarantee individual's wellbeing, but also because an efficient management of fracture pain is mandatory to ensure proper bone healing. Here, we review the available data on bone innervation and its response to fracture, and discuss putative mechanisms of fracture pain signaling. In addition, the common therapeutic approaches to treat fracture pain are discussed. Although there is still much to learn, research in fracture pain has allowed an initial insight into the mechanisms involved. During the inflammatory response to fracture, several mediators are released and will putatively activate and sensitize primary sensory neurons, in parallel, intense nerve sprouting that occurs in the fracture callus area is also suggested to be involved in pain signaling. The establishment of hyperalgesia and allodynia after fracture indicates the development of peripheral and central sensitization, still, the underlying mechanisms are largely unknown. A major concern during the treatment of fracture pain needs to be the preservation of proper bone healing. However, the most common therapeutic agents, NSAIDS and opiates, can cause significant side effects that include fracture repair impairment. The understanding of the mechanisms of fracture pain signaling will allow the development of mechanisms-based therapies to effectively and safely manage fracture pain. PMID:26851411

  12. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility. PMID:25929706

  13. Taphonomy of the Tianyuandong human skeleton and faunal remains.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Jalvo, Yolanda; Andrews, Peter; Tong, HaoWen

    2015-06-01

    Tianyuan Cave is an Upper Palaeolithic site, 6 km from the core area of the Zhoukoudian Site Complex. Tianyuandong (or Tianyuan Cave) yielded one ancient (though not the earliest) fossil skeleton of Homo sapiens in China (42-39 ka cal BP). Together with the human skeleton, abundant animal remains were found, but no stone tools were recovered. The animal fossil remains are extremely fragmentary, in contrast to human skeletal elements that are, for the most part, complete. We undertook a taphonomic study to investigate the circumstances of preservation of the human skeleton in Tianyuan Cave, and in course of this we considered four hypotheses: funerary ritual, cannibalism, carnivore activity or natural death. Taphonomic results characterize the role of human action in the site and how these agents acted in the past. Because of disturbance of the human skeleton during its initial excavation, it is not known if it was in a grave cut or if there was any funerary ritual. No evidence was found for cannibalism or carnivore activity in relation to the human skeleton, suggesting natural death as the most reasonable possibility.

  14. 51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown EXTERIOR, ELEVATION DETAILS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  15. 46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown NORTH ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  16. 49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    49. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING EAST - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  17. 53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF CORRIDORS ON SECOND - TWELFTH FLOORS - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  18. 50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    50. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown ENTRANCE AND TYPICAL BAY ON FLOWER STREET - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  19. 44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown FIRST FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  20. 52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown DETAILS OF MAIN FLOOR ELEVATOR LOBBY - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown SECOND FLOOR PLAN - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angeles, CA., Photographer, Date unknown SECTION THROUGH BUILDING, LOOKING NORTH - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of drawing (Source unknown, 1928) Rapid Blue Print Co., Los Angleles, CA, Photographer, Date unknown WEST ELEVATION - Richfield Oil Building, 555 South Flower Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  5. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey Photographer Unknown. Furnished by Mrs Mecia, Tombstone, Arizona. Date Unknown GENERAL VIEW MAIN CHURCH (SOUTHEAST ELEVATION). - San Xavier del Bac Mission, Mission Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....1009 Place of performance unknown....

  7. 16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of north approach to bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  8. 17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view of bridge - Coos Bay Bridge, Spanning Coos Bay on Oregon Coast Highway, North Bend, Coos County, OR

  9. 12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1936, photographer unknown Historic view from roadway - Siuslaw River Bridge, Spanning Siuslaw River at Oregon Coast Highway, Florence, Lane County, OR

  10. Human fMRI Reveals That Delayed Action Re-Recruits Visual Perception

    PubMed Central

    Kaufman, Liam D.; Culham, Jody C.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral and neuropsychological research suggests that delayed actions rely on different neural substrates than immediate actions; however, the specific brain areas implicated in the two types of actions remain unknown. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure human brain activation during delayed grasping and reaching. Specifically, we examined activation during visual stimulation and action execution separated by a 18-s delay interval in which subjects had to remember an intended action toward the remembered object. The long delay interval enabled us to unambiguously distinguish visual, memory-related, and action responses. Most strikingly, we observed reactivation of the lateral occipital complex (LOC), a ventral-stream area implicated in visual object recognition, and early visual cortex (EVC) at the time of action. Importantly this reactivation was observed even though participants remained in complete darkness with no visual stimulation at the time of the action. Moreover, within EVC, higher activation was observed for grasping than reaching during both vision and action execution. Areas in the dorsal visual stream were activated during action execution as expected and, for some, also during vision. Several areas, including the anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS), dorsal premotor cortex (PMd), primary motor cortex (M1) and the supplementary motor area (SMA), showed sustained activation during the delay phase. We propose that during delayed actions, dorsal-stream areas plan and maintain coarse action goals; however, at the time of execution, motor programming requires re-recruitment of detailed visual information about the object through reactivation of (1) ventral-stream areas involved in object perception and (2) early visual areas that contain richly detailed visual representations, particularly for grasping. PMID:24040007

  11. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids.

    PubMed

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M

    2016-01-01

    Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  12. Root-Shoot Signaling crosstalk involved in the shoot growth promoting action of rhizospheric humic acids

    PubMed Central

    Olaetxea, Maite; Mora, Verónica; García, Andrés Calderin; Santos, Leandro Azevedo; Baigorri, Roberto; Fuentes, Marta; Garnica, María; Berbara, Ricardo Luis Louro; Zamarreño, Angel Maria; Garcia-Mina, Jose M.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Numerous studies have shown the ability of humic substances to improve plant development. This action is normally reflected in an enhancement of crop yields and quality. However, the mechanisms responsible for this action of humic substances remain rather unknown. Our studies have shown that the shoot promoting action of sedimentary humic acids is dependent of its ability to increase root hydraulic conductivity through signaling pathways related to ABA, which in turn is affected in roots by humic acids in an IAA-NO dependent way. Furthermore, these studies also indicate that the primary action of humic acids in roots might also be physical, resulting from a transient mild stress caused by humic acids associated with a fouling-cleaning cycle of wall cell pores. Finally the role of alternative signal molecules, such as ROS, and corresponding signaling pathways are also discussed and modeled in the context of the above-mentioned framework. PMID:26966789

  13. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  15. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  16. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  17. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  18. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  19. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... unknown properties have credible values that will cause the maximum neutron multiplication....

  20. 48 CFR 52.247-62 - Specific Quantities Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Unknown. 52.247-62 Section 52.247-62 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION....247-62 Specific Quantities Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-16(d)(2), insert the following clause in... the contract. Specific Quantities Unknown (APR 1984) (a) For the purpose of evaluating...

  1. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  2. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  3. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destination unknown. 47... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When destinations are unknown, solicitations shall be f.o.b. origin only. (2) The contracting officer shall...

  4. Reinforcement learning for adaptive optimal control of unknown continuous-time nonlinear systems with input constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Xiong; Liu, Derong; Wang, Ding

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, an adaptive reinforcement learning-based solution is developed for the infinite-horizon optimal control problem of constrained-input continuous-time nonlinear systems in the presence of nonlinearities with unknown structures. Two different types of neural networks (NNs) are employed to approximate the Hamilton-Jacobi-Bellman equation. That is, an recurrent NN is constructed to identify the unknown dynamical system, and two feedforward NNs are used as the actor and the critic to approximate the optimal control and the optimal cost, respectively. Based on this framework, the action NN and the critic NN are tuned simultaneously, without the requirement for the knowledge of system drift dynamics. Moreover, by using Lyapunov's direct method, the weights of the action NN and the critic NN are guaranteed to be uniformly ultimately bounded, while keeping the closed-loop system stable. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the present approach, simulation results are illustrated.

  5. The Information Available to a Moving Observer on Shape with Unknown, Isotropic BRDFs.

    PubMed

    Chandraker, Manmohan

    2016-07-01

    Psychophysical studies show motion cues inform about shape even with unknown reflectance. Recent works in computer vision have considered shape recovery for an object of unknown BRDF using light source or object motions. This paper proposes a theory that addresses the remaining problem of determining shape from the (small or differential) motion of the camera, for unknown isotropic BRDFs. Our theory derives a differential stereo relation that relates camera motion to surface depth, which generalizes traditional Lambertian assumptions. Under orthographic projection, we show differential stereo may not determine shape for general BRDFs, but suffices to yield an invariant for several restricted (still unknown) BRDFs exhibited by common materials. For the perspective case, we show that differential stereo yields the surface depth for unknown isotropic BRDF and unknown directional lighting, while additional constraints are obtained with restrictions on the BRDF or lighting. The limits imposed by our theory are intrinsic to the shape recovery problem and independent of choice of reconstruction method. We also illustrate trends shared by theories on shape from differential motion of light source, object or camera, to relate the hardness of surface reconstruction to the complexity of imaging setup.

  6. Action physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGinness, Lachlan P.; Savage, C. M.

    2016-09-01

    More than a decade ago, Edwin Taylor issued a "call to action" that presented the case for basing introductory university mechanics teaching around the principle of stationary action [E. F. Taylor, Am. J. Phys. 71, 423-425 (2003)]. We report on our response to that call in the form of an investigation of the teaching and learning of the stationary action formulation of physics in a first-year university course. Our action physics instruction proceeded from the many-paths approach to quantum physics to ray optics, classical mechanics, and relativity. Despite the challenges presented by action physics, students reported it to be accessible, interesting, motivational, and valuable.

  7. Control design for the SISO system with the unknown order and the unknown relative degree.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Chunzhe; Li, Donghai

    2014-07-01

    For the uncertain system whose order, relative degree and parameters are unknown in the control design, new research is still in need on the parameter tuning and close-loop stability. During the last 10 years, much progress is made in the application and theory research of the active disturbance rejection control (ADRC) for the uncertain system. In this study, the necessary and sufficient conditions are established for building the ADRC for the minimum-phase system and the open-loop stable system when the plant parameters, orders and relative degrees are unknown, the corresponding ideal dynamics are analyzed, and the theoretical results are verified by the simulations. Considering the wide application and the long history of the PID/PI controller, a method is given to design ADRC quickly based on the existing (generalized or conventional) PID/PI controller. A plenty of simulations are made to illustrate this PID/PI-based design method and the corresponding close-loop performances. The simulation examples include the minimum/nonminimum-phase plants, the stable/integrating plants, the high/low-order plant, and the plants with time delays. Such plants are from a wider scope than the theoretical result, and representative of many kinds of the industrial processes. That leads to a new way to simplify the ADRC design via absorbing the engineering experience in designing the PID/PI controller.

  8. Characteristic Cytokine and Chemokine Profiles in Encephalitis of Infectious, Immune-Mediated, and Unknown Aetiology

    PubMed Central

    Michael, Benedict D.; Griffiths, Michael J.; Granerod, Julia; Brown, David; Davies, Nicholas W. S.; Borrow, Ray; Solomon, Tom

    2016-01-01

    Background Encephalitis is parenchymal brain inflammation due to infectious or immune-mediated processes. However, in 15–60% the cause remains unknown. This study aimed to determine if the cytokine/chemokine-mediated host response can distinguish infectious from immune-mediated cases, and whether this may give a clue to aetiology in those of unknown cause. Methods We measured 38 mediators in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients from the Health Protection Agency Encephalitis Study. Of serum from 78 patients, 38 had infectious, 20 immune-mediated, and 20 unknown aetiology. Of CSF from 37 patients, 20 had infectious, nine immune-mediated and eight unknown aetiology. Results Heat-map analysis of CSF mediator interactions was different for infectious and immune-mediated cases, and that of the unknown aetiology group was similar to the infectious pattern. Higher myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations were found in infectious than immune-mediated cases, in serum and CSF (p = 0.01 and p = 0.006). Serum MPO was also higher in unknown than immune-mediated cases (p = 0.03). Multivariate analysis selected serum MPO; classifying 31 (91%) as infectious (p = 0.008) and 17 (85%) as unknown (p = 0.009) as opposed to immune-mediated. CSF data also selected MPO classifying 11 (85%) as infectious as opposed to immune-mediated (p = 0.036). CSF neutrophils were detected in eight (62%) infective and one (14%) immune-mediated cases (p = 0.004); CSF MPO correlated with neutrophils (p<0.0001). Conclusions Mediator profiles of infectious aetiology differed from immune-mediated encephalitis; and those of unknown cause were similar to infectious cases, raising the hypothesis of a possible undiagnosed infectious cause. Particularly, neutrophils and MPO merit further investigation. PMID:26808276

  9. Viral Diseases in Zebrafish: What Is Known and Unknown

    PubMed Central

    Crim, Marcus J.; Riley, Lela K.

    2013-01-01

    Naturally occurring viral infections have the potential to introduce confounding variability that leads to invalid and misinterpreted data. Whereas the viral diseases of research rodents are well characterized and closely monitored, no naturally occurring viral infections have been characterized for the laboratory zebrafish (Danio rerio), an increasingly important biomedical research model. Despite the ignorance about naturally occurring zebrafish viruses, zebrafish models are rapidly expanding in areas of biomedical research where the confounding effects of unknown infectious agents present a serious concern. In addition, many zebrafish research colonies remain linked to the ornamental (pet) zebrafish trade, which can contribute to the introduction of new pathogens into research colonies, whereas mice used for research are purpose bred, with no introduction of new mice from the pet industry. Identification, characterization, and monitoring of naturally occurring viruses in zebrafish are crucial to the improvement of zebrafish health, the reduction of unwanted variability, and the continued development of the zebrafish as a model organism. This article addresses the importance of identifying and characterizing the viral diseases of zebrafish as the scope of zebrafish models expands into new research areas and also briefly addresses zebrafish susceptibility to experimental viral infection and the utility of the zebrafish as an infection and immunology model. PMID:23382345

  10. Anaerobic oxidation of methane: progress with an unknown process.

    PubMed

    Knittel, Katrin; Boetius, Antje

    2009-01-01

    Methane is the most abundant hydrocarbon in the atmosphere, and it is an important greenhouse gas, which has so far contributed an estimated 20% of postindustrial global warming. A great deal of biogeochemical research has focused on the causes and effects of the variation in global fluxes of methane throughout earth's history, but the underlying microbial processes and their key agents remain poorly understood. This is a disturbing knowledge gap because 85% of the annual global methane production and about 60% of its consumption are based on microbial processes. Only three key functional groups of microorganisms of limited diversity regulate the fluxes of methane on earth, namely the aerobic methanotrophic bacteria, the methanogenic archaea, and their close relatives, the anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME). The ANME represent special lines of descent within the Euryarchaeota and appear to gain energy exclusively from the anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM), with sulfate as the final electron acceptor according to the net reaction: CH(4) + SO(42-) ---> HCO(3-) + HS(-) + H(2)O. This review summarizes what is known and unknown about AOM on earth and its key catalysts, the ANME clades and their bacterial partners.

  11. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics.

    PubMed

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T; Misra, Raju V; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  12. Challenges of the Unknown: Clinical Application of Microbial Metagenomics

    PubMed Central

    Rose, Graham; Wooldridge, David J.; Anscombe, Catherine; Mee, Edward T.; Misra, Raju V.; Gharbia, Saheer

    2015-01-01

    Availability of fast, high throughput and low cost whole genome sequencing holds great promise within public health microbiology, with applications ranging from outbreak detection and tracking transmission events to understanding the role played by microbial communities in health and disease. Within clinical metagenomics, identifying microorganisms from a complex and host enriched background remains a central computational challenge. As proof of principle, we sequenced two metagenomic samples, a known viral mixture of 25 human pathogens and an unknown complex biological model using benchtop technology. The datasets were then analysed using a bioinformatic pipeline developed around recent fast classification methods. A targeted approach was able to detect 20 of the viruses against a background of host contamination from multiple sources and bacterial contamination. An alternative untargeted identification method was highly correlated with these classifications, and over 1,600 species were identified when applied to the complex biological model, including several species captured at over 50% genome coverage. In summary, this study demonstrates the great potential of applying metagenomics within the clinical laboratory setting and that this can be achieved using infrastructure available to nondedicated sequencing centres. PMID:26451363

  13. 34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. photographer unknown undated PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 9. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE UNDER CONSTRUCTION, LOOKING WEST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 57. photographer unknown 30 October 1935 PIERS RISING FROM CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    57. photographer unknown 30 October 1935 PIERS RISING FROM CONCRETE DECK. BAFFLES IN VARIOUS STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  16. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  17. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  18. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  19. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  20. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  1. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  2. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  3. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  4. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  5. 37 CFR 382.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 382.7 Section 382.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... SATELLITE DIGITAL AUDIO RADIO SERVICES Preexisting Subscription Services § 382.7 Unknown copyright...

  6. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  7. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  8. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  9. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... TRANSMISSIONS OF SOUND RECORDINGS AND MAKING OF EPHEMERAL PHONORECORDS § 260.7 Unknown copyright owners. If...

  10. 37 CFR 381.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 381.9 Section 381.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT ROYALTY BOARD, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS... EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 381.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and its stations,...

  11. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  12. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT... NONCOMMERCIAL EDUCATIONAL BROADCASTING § 253.9 Unknown copyright owners. If PBS and its stations, NPR and...

  13. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  14. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  15. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  16. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  17. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  18. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Place of performance unknown. 22.1009 Section 22.1009 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL ACQUISITION REGULATION... Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  19. 15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photo copy of photograph (location of original print unknown) c.1932, photographer unknown Historic view of cartouche detail at center of arch - Bridge at Mouth of Rogue River, Spanning Rogue River on Oregon Coast Highway, Gold Beach, Curry County, OR

  20. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  1. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  2. 48 CFR 52.247-49 - Destination Unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destination Unknown. 52....247-49 Destination Unknown. As prescribed in 47.305-5(b)(2), insert the following provision in solicitations when destinations are tentative and only for the purpose of evaluating offers: Destination...

  3. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  4. 5 CFR 1651.16 - Missing and unknown beneficiaries.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Missing and unknown beneficiaries. 1651.16 Section 1651.16 Administrative Personnel FEDERAL RETIREMENT THRIFT INVESTMENT BOARD DEATH BENEFITS § 1651.16 Missing and unknown beneficiaries. (a) Locate and identify beneficiaries. (1) The TSP...

  5. Students' Conscious Unknowns about Artefacts and Natural Objects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaz-Rebelo, Piedade; Fernandes, Paula; Morgado, Julia; Monteiro, António; Otero, José

    2016-01-01

    This study attempts to characterise what 7th- and 12th-grade students believe they do not know about artefacts and natural objects, as well as the dependence of what is unknown on a knowledge of these objects. The students were asked to make explicit through questioning what they did not know about a sample of objects. The unknowns generated were…

  6. 48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Northwest Side of Breaker, from Culm Bank, date unknown Historic Photograph, Photographer Unknown; Collection of William Everett, Jr. (Wilkes-Barre,PA), photocopy by Joseph E.B. Elliot - Huber Coal Breaker, 101 South Main Street, Ashley, Luzerne County, PA

  7. 10 CFR 71.83 - Assumptions as to unknown properties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assumptions as to unknown properties. 71.83 Section 71.83... Operating Controls and Procedures § 71.83 Assumptions as to unknown properties. When the isotopic abundance... fissile material in any package is not known, the licensee shall package the fissile material as if...

  8. Considering Unknown Unknowns: Reconstruction of Nonconfoundable Causal Relations in Biological Networks

    PubMed Central

    Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice. PMID:24195708

  9. Considering unknown unknowns: reconstruction of nonconfoundable causal relations in biological networks.

    PubMed

    Sadeh, Mohammad J; Moffa, Giusi; Spang, Rainer

    2013-11-01

    Our current understanding of cellular networks is rather incomplete. We over look important but so far unknown genes and mechanisms in the pathways. Moreover, we often only have a partial account of the molecular interactions and modifications of the known players. When analyzing the cell, we look through narrow windows leaving potentially important events in blind spots. Network reconstruction is naturally confined to what we have observed. Little is known on how the incompleteness of our observations confounds our interpretation of the available data. Here we ask which features of a network can be confounded by incomplete observations and which cannot. In the context of nested effects models, we show that in the presence of missing observations or hidden factors a reliable reconstruction of the full network is not feasible. Nevertheless, we can show that certain characteristics of signaling networks like the existence of cross-talk between certain branches of the network can be inferred in a nonconfoundable way. We derive a test for inferring such nonconfoundable characteristics of signaling networks. Next, we introduce a new data structure to represent partially reconstructed signaling networks. Finally, we evaluate our method both on simulated data and in the context of a study on early stem cell differentiation in mice.

  10. Lactic acid bacterial symbionts in honeybees - an unknown key to honey's antimicrobial and therapeutic activities.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, Tobias C; Butler, Eile; Markowicz, Pawel; Lindholm, Christina; Larsson, Lennart; Vásquez, Alejandra

    2014-09-01

    Could honeybees' most valuable contribution to mankind besides pollination services be alternative tools against infections? Today, due to the emerging antibiotic-resistant pathogens, we are facing a new era of searching for alternative tools against infections. Natural products such as honey have been applied against human's infections for millennia without sufficient scientific evidence. A unique lactic acid bacterial (LAB) microbiota was discovered by us, which is in symbiosis with honeybees and present in large amounts in fresh honey across the world. This work investigates if the LAB symbionts are the source to the unknown factors contributing to honey's properties. Hence, we tested the LAB against severe wound pathogens such as methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) among others. We demonstrate a strong antimicrobial activity from each symbiont and a synergistic effect, which counteracted all the tested pathogens. The mechanisms of action are partly shown by elucidating the production of active compounds such as proteins, fatty acids, anaesthetics, organic acids, volatiles and hydrogen peroxide. We show that the symbionts produce a myriad of active compounds that remain in variable amounts in mature honey. Further studies are now required to investigate if these symbionts have a potential in clinical applications as alternative tools against topical human and animal infections. PMID:25195876

  11. Bayesian methods for characterizing unknown parameters of material models

    DOE PAGES

    Emery, J. M.; Grigoriu, M. D.; Field Jr., R. V.

    2016-02-04

    A Bayesian framework is developed for characterizing the unknown parameters of probabilistic models for material properties. In this framework, the unknown parameters are viewed as random and described by their posterior distributions obtained from prior information and measurements of quantities of interest that are observable and depend on the unknown parameters. The proposed Bayesian method is applied to characterize an unknown spatial correlation of the conductivity field in the definition of a stochastic transport equation and to solve this equation by Monte Carlo simulation and stochastic reduced order models (SROMs). As a result, the Bayesian method is also employed tomore » characterize unknown parameters of material properties for laser welds from measurements of peak forces sustained by these welds.« less

  12. Known unknowns: indirect energy effects of information and communication technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horner, Nathaniel C.; Shehabi, Arman; Azevedo, Inês L.

    2016-10-01

    Background. There has been sustained and growing interest in characterizing the net energy impact of information and communication technology (ICT), which results from indirect effects offsetting (or amplifying) the energy directly consumed by ICT equipment. These indirect effects may be either positive or negative, and there is considerable disagreement as to the direction of this sign as well as the effect magnitude. Literature in this area ranges from studies focused on a single service (such as e-commerce versus traditional retail) to macroeconomic studies attempting to characterize the overall impact of ICT. Methods. We review the literature on the indirect energy effect of ICT found via Google Scholar, our own research, and input from other researchers in the field. The various studies are linked to an effect taxonomy, which is synthesized from several different hierarchies present in the literature. References are further grouped according to ICT service (e.g., e-commerce, telework) and summarized by scope, method, and quantitative and qualitative findings. Review results. Uncertainty persists in understanding the net energy effects of ICT. Results of indirect energy effect studies are highly sensitive to scoping decisions and assumptions made by the analyst. Uncertainty increases as the impact scope broadens, due to complex and interconnected effects. However, there is general agreement that ICT has large energy savings potential, but that the realization of this potential is highly dependent on deployment details and user behavior. Discussion. While the overall net effect of ICT is likely to remain unknown, this review suggests several guidelines for improving research quality in this area, including increased data collection, enhancing traditional modeling studies with sensitivity analysis, greater care in scoping, less confidence in characterizing aggregate impacts, more effort on understanding user behavior, and more contextual integration across the

  13. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  14. Sex Steroid Actions in Male Bone

    PubMed Central

    Laurent, Michaël R.; Claessens, Frank; Gielen, Evelien; Lagerquist, Marie K.; Vandenput, Liesbeth; Börjesson, Anna E.; Ohlsson, Claes

    2014-01-01

    Sex steroids are chief regulators of gender differences in the skeleton, and male gender is one of the strongest protective factors against osteoporotic fractures. This advantage in bone strength relies mainly on greater cortical bone expansion during pubertal peak bone mass acquisition and superior skeletal maintenance during aging. During both these phases, estrogens acting via estrogen receptor-α in osteoblast lineage cells are crucial for male cortical and trabecular bone, as evident from conditional genetic mouse models, epidemiological studies, rare genetic conditions, genome-wide meta-analyses, and recent interventional trials. Genetic mouse models have also demonstrated a direct role for androgens independent of aromatization on trabecular bone via the androgen receptor in osteoblasts and osteocytes, although the target cell for their key effects on periosteal bone formation remains elusive. Low serum estradiol predicts incident fractures, but the highest risk occurs in men with additionally low T and high SHBG. Still, the possible clinical utility of serum sex steroids for fracture prediction is unknown. It is likely that sex steroid actions on male bone metabolism rely also on extraskeletal mechanisms and cross talk with other signaling pathways. We propose that estrogens influence fracture risk in aging men via direct effects on bone, whereas androgens exert an additional antifracture effect mainly via extraskeletal parameters such as muscle mass and propensity to fall. Given the demographic trends of increased longevity and consequent rise of osteoporosis, an increased understanding of how sex steroids influence male bone health remains a high research priority. PMID:25202834

  15. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  16. Action perception predicts action performance.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Heather R; Kurby, Christopher A; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M

    2013-09-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system.

  17. Identifying mechanism-of-action targets for drugs and probes

    PubMed Central

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Setola, Vincent; Hert, Jérôme; Crews, Brenda A.; Irwin, John J.; Lounkine, Eugen; Marnett, Lawrence; Roth, Bryan L.; Shoichet, Brian K.

    2012-01-01

    Notwithstanding their key roles in therapy and as biological probes, 7% of approved drugs are purported to have no known primary target, and up to 18% lack a well-defined mechanism of action. Using a chemoinformatics approach, we sought to “de-orphanize” drugs that lack primary targets. Surprisingly, targets could be easily predicted for many: Whereas these targets were not known to us nor to the common databases, most could be confirmed by literature search, leaving only 13 Food and Drug Administration—approved drugs with unknown targets; the number of drugs without molecular targets likely is far fewer than reported. The number of worldwide drugs without reasonable molecular targets similarly dropped, from 352 (25%) to 44 (4%). Nevertheless, there remained at least seven drugs for which reasonable mechanism-of-action targets were unknown but could be predicted, including the antitussives clemastine, cloperastine, and nepinalone; the antiemetic benzquinamide; the muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine; the analgesic nefopam; and the immunomodulator lobenzarit. For each, predicted targets were confirmed experimentally, with affinities within their physiological concentration ranges. Turning this question on its head, we next asked which drugs were specific enough to act as chemical probes. Over 100 drugs met the standard criteria for probes, and 40 did so by more stringent criteria. A chemical information approach to drug-target association can guide therapeutic development and reveal applications to probe biology, a focus of much current interest. PMID:22711801

  18. Identifying mechanism-of-action targets for drugs and probes.

    PubMed

    Gregori-Puigjané, Elisabet; Setola, Vincent; Hert, Jérôme; Crews, Brenda A; Irwin, John J; Lounkine, Eugen; Marnett, Lawrence; Roth, Bryan L; Shoichet, Brian K

    2012-07-10

    Notwithstanding their key roles in therapy and as biological probes, 7% of approved drugs are purported to have no known primary target, and up to 18% lack a well-defined mechanism of action. Using a chemoinformatics approach, we sought to "de-orphanize" drugs that lack primary targets. Surprisingly, targets could be easily predicted for many: Whereas these targets were not known to us nor to the common databases, most could be confirmed by literature search, leaving only 13 Food and Drug Administration-approved drugs with unknown targets; the number of drugs without molecular targets likely is far fewer than reported. The number of worldwide drugs without reasonable molecular targets similarly dropped, from 352 (25%) to 44 (4%). Nevertheless, there remained at least seven drugs for which reasonable mechanism-of-action targets were unknown but could be predicted, including the antitussives clemastine, cloperastine, and nepinalone; the antiemetic benzquinamide; the muscle relaxant cyclobenzaprine; the analgesic nefopam; and the immunomodulator lobenzarit. For each, predicted targets were confirmed experimentally, with affinities within their physiological concentration ranges. Turning this question on its head, we next asked which drugs were specific enough to act as chemical probes. Over 100 drugs met the standard criteria for probes, and 40 did so by more stringent criteria. A chemical information approach to drug-target association can guide therapeutic development and reveal applications to probe biology, a focus of much current interest. PMID:22711801

  19. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks. PMID:26117505

  20. The neural basis of conceptualizing the same action at different levels of abstraction.

    PubMed

    Spunt, Robert P; Kemmerer, David; Adolphs, Ralph

    2016-07-01

    People can conceptualize the same action (e.g. 'riding a bike') at different levels of abstraction (LOA), where higher LOAs specify the abstract motives that explain why the action is performed (e.g. 'getting exercise'), while lower LOAs specify the concrete steps that indicate how the action is performed (e.g. 'gripping handlebars'). Prior neuroimaging studies have shown that why and how questions about actions differentially activate two cortical networks associated with mental-state reasoning and action representation, respectively; however, it remains unknown whether this is due to the differential demands of the questions per se or to the shifts in LOA those questions produce. We conducted functional magnetic resonance imaging while participants judged pairs of action phrases that varied in LOA and that could be framed either as a why question (Why ride a bike? Get exercise.) or a how question (How to get exercise? Ride a bike.). Question framing (why vs how) had no effect on activity in regions of the two networks. Instead, these regions uniquely tracked parametric variation in LOA, both across and within trials. This suggests that the human capacity to understand actions at different LOA is based in the relative activity of two cortical networks.

  1. Representation of others' action by neurons in monkey medial frontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Kyoko; Saito, Nobuhito; Iriki, Atsushi; Isoda, Masaki

    2011-02-01

    Successful social interaction depends on not only the ability to identify with others but also the ability to distinguish between aspects of self and others. Although there is considerable knowledge of a shared neural substrate between self-action and others' action, it remains unknown where and how in the brain the action of others is uniquely represented. Exploring such agent-specific neural codes is important because one's action and intention can differ between individuals. Moreover, the assignment of social agency breaks down in a range of mental disorders. Here, using two monkeys monitoring each other's action for adaptive behavioral planning, we show that the medial frontal cortex (MFC) contains a group of neurons that selectively encode others' action. These neurons, observed in both dominant and submissive monkeys, were significantly more prevalent in the dorsomedial convexity region of the MFC including the pre-supplementary motor area than in the cingulate sulcus region of the MFC including the rostral cingulate motor area. Further tests revealed that the difference in neuronal activity was not due to gaze direction or muscular activity. We suggest that the MFC is involved in self-other differentiation in the domain of motor action and provides a fundamental neural signal for social learning. PMID:21256015

  2. 7 CFR 160.29 - Containers to remain intact.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Containers to remain intact. 160.29 Section 160.29... STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES Analysis, Inspection, and Grading on Request § 160.29 Containers to remain intact... the containers holding such naval stores remain intact as sampled until the analysis,...

  3. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  4. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  5. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  6. 43 CFR 4730.2 - Disposal of remains.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RANGE MANAGEMENT (4000) PROTECTION, MANAGEMENT, AND CONTROL OF WILD FREE-ROAMING HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.2 Disposal of remains. Remains of wild horses or burros that die after capture shall be disposed of in accordance...

  7. A Method for Finding Unknown Signals Using Reinforcement FFT Differencing

    SciTech Connect

    Charles R. Tolle; John W. James

    2009-12-01

    This note addresses a simple yet powerful method of discovering the spectral character of an unknown but intermittent signal buried in a background made up of a distribution of other signals. Knowledge of when the unknown signal is present and when it is not, along with samples of the combined signal when the unknown signal is present and when it is not are all that is necessary for this method. The method is based on reinforcing Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) power spectra when the signal of interest occurs and subtracting spectra when it does not. Several examples are presented. This method could be used to discover spectral components of unknown chemical species within spectral analysis instruments such as Mass Spectroscopy, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Gas Chromatography. In addition, this method can be used to isolate device loading signatures on power transmission lines.

  8. 51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. Photographer unknown 1930 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION A, HIGHWAY 1. 1-HUM-1-A #101, MEASURING BETWEEN TREES, 1930. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  9. 21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. photographer unknown undated RECORDING CONTROL BOARD AND BATCHING TUBES OF CONCRETE PLANT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. photographer unknown undated AGGREGATE PLANT SHOWING MAIN BELT CONVEYOR UNITS AND STORAGE UNIT. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Upstream end of emergency spillway excavation. Photographer unknown, 1929. Source: Arizona Department of Water Resources (ADWR). - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. 44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Reinforcement construction to Pleasant Dam. Photographer unknown, 1935. Source: Huber Collection, University of California, Berkeley, Water Resources Library. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  13. 51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    51. BOILER ROOM. SMALL BOILER ON LEFT OF UNKNOWN MANUFACTURE, WITH INDUCTION MOTORS. HARTLEY BOILER, MONTGOMERY, ALABAMA, ON RIGHT. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  14. 43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown September 1967 VISITOR INFORMATION KIOSK, LOCATED NEAR THE POWDER MILL ROAD INTERCHANGE. (NPS/NCR (cn) 9995-C) - Baltimore-Washington Parkway, Greenbelt, Prince George's County, MD

  15. 13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) INTERIOR OF SACRISTY LOOKING NORTHEAST, SHOWING FURRING AND METAL LATH PUT IN DURING 1974 RESTORATION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  16. 1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC DRAWING OF SHIP SECTION, UNKNOWN DELINEATOR AND DATE, SOURCE: BISHOP MUSEUM, HONOLULU, HI. - Ship "Falls of Clyde", Hawaii Maritime Center,Pier 7, Honolulu, Honolulu County, HI

  17. 19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photocopy of photograph Photographer unknown, ca. 1895 GENERAL VIEW OF KEY WEST WITH FORT TAYLOR IN THE BACKGROUND LOOKING WEST SOUTHWEST - Fort Taylor, Whitehead Spit Vicinity, Key West, Monroe County, FL

  18. 27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    27. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original owned by Waterloo Community Development Board, Waterloo, Iowa; SPLITTING CATTLE CARCASSES WITH RECIPROCATING SAW - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  19. Optimal programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown latitudinal states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sunian, XiaoBing; Li, YuWei; Zhou, Tao

    2016-10-01

    Two unknown states can be unambiguously distinguished by a universal programmable discriminator, which has been widely discussed in previous works and the optimal solution has also been obtained. In this paper, we investigate the programmable unambiguous discriminator between two unknown "latitudinal" states, which lie in a subspace of the total state space. By equivalence of unknown pure states to known average mixed states, the optimal solution for this problem is systematically derived, and the analytical success probabilities for the optimal unambiguous discrimination are obtained. It is beyond one's expectation that the optimal setting for the programmable unambiguous discrimination between two unknown "latitudinal" states is the same as that for the universal ones. The results in this work can be used for the realization of the programmable discriminator in laboratory.

  20. 73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    73. photographer unknown 9 January 1936 TOP OF DRAFT TUBE LINER AND SPEED RING PIERS. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  1. View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of an unknown industrial building in the Dolphin Jute Mill Complex, looking southwest. Note Garret Mountain at upper left and historic Dexter-Lambert smokestack. - Dolphin Manufacturing Company, Spruce & Barbour Streets, Paterson, Passaic County, NJ

  2. 43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca January 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). COMPLETED BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  3. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When... shipping weights, the solicitation shall state that subsequent shipments shall be made in carloads...

  4. 48 CFR 47.305-5 - Destination unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MANAGEMENT TRANSPORTATION Transportation in Supply Contracts 47.305-5 Destination unknown. (a)(1) When... shipping weights, the solicitation shall state that subsequent shipments shall be made in carloads...

  5. 30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Upstream face of construction effort. Photographer unknown, January 29, 1927. Source: Fritz Seifritz. - Waddell Dam, On Agua Fria River, 35 miles northwest of Phoenix, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  6. 35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Photocopy of drawing (from Library of Congress) Artist unknown 1891 SOUTH FRONT FROM THE SOUTHWEST - Patent Office Building, Bounded by Seventh, Ninth, F & G Streets, Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  7. 1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Historic American Buildings Survey, Copy, Photographer unknown 1900 (a) Old Photo showing Kilns about 1900 (from original print found at site) - Charcoal Kilns, Valley Road, Pelham, Hampshire County, MA

  8. 4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown DETAIL, DECORATIVE SWAG OF EARS OF CORN - Thomas Asylum for Orphan & Destitute Indians, Dining Hall, Route 438, Cattaraugas Reservation, Irving, Chautauqua County, NY

  9. 26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 19 August 1935 SOUNDING BARGE USED TO DETERMINE RIVER-BOTTOM CONTOURS. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  10. 28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. photographer unknown undated SIDE VIEW OF PARTIALLY CONSTRUCTED CRIB NO. 13. NOTE CONTOURING TO FIT IRREGULARITIES OF RIVER BOTTOM. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph (date unknown, original print in the possession of the Wisconsin Veterans Museums). COTTAGES, INCLUDING 'J.P. McPHERSON POST NO. 27 CAFE GENEVA'. - Wisconsin Home for Veterans, King, Waupaca County, WI

  12. 410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    410. Delineator Unknown Revised November 2, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; "A" - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 20. photographer unknown undated EXCAVATION AND ROCK TRIMMING FOR LOCK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. photographer unknown undated EXCAVATION AND ROCK TRIMMING FOR LOCK AND GATE SILL COMPLETED. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  14. 22. photographer unknown 8 May 1935 EXCAVATION FOR MAIN CULVERT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. photographer unknown 8 May 1935 EXCAVATION FOR MAIN CULVERT AND LATERALS IN LOCK FLOOR. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  15. 17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographer unknown, March 1928 PARK ROAD BOOSTERS ATTEND A MEETING IN MARCH OF 1928, WHEN A $5 MILLION GIFT FOR THE LAURA SPELLMAN ROCKEFELLER MEMORIAL WAS ANNOUNCED. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  16. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey, Unknown Photographer, no date, VIEW OF GROUND FLOOR SALES COUNTER AND STAIRWAY, Private Collection, Photocopy by Jack Boucher, October 1972. - Powers Building, 16 Main Street West, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  17. Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims

    MedlinePlus

    ... Current Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Genetics Experts Unite to I.D. Unknown Katrina Victims ... in the recent Advances in molecular biology and genetics," says team member Stephen Sherry, Ph.D., of ...

  18. Floating Crane YD82 general view. Date taken unknown. Taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Floating Crane YD-82 - general view. Date taken unknown. Taken by Pearl Harbor photographer. Crane Division Collection - U.S. Naval Base, Pearl Harbor, Exterior Cranes, Waterfront Crane Track System, Pearl City, Honolulu County, HI

  19. 31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    31. PHOTOCOPY OF HISTORIC PHOTOGRAPH (date unknown) Original print in the possession of the Library of the Daughters of the Republic of Texas at the Alamo, San Antonio, Texas. - Fairmount Hotel, 857 East Commerce Street, San Antonio, Bexar County, TX

  20. 11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph (from St. Paul's Church) Photographer unknown 1886 'EPISCOPAL CHURCH, CORNER OF 1ST AND J ST. BENICIA' WEST AND SOUTH SIDES - St. Paul's Episcopal Church, 120 East J Street, Benicia, Solano County, CA

  1. 20. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1880, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    20. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1880, photographer unknown (original at Rochester Landmark Society, Rochester, New York) VIEW SOUTH, MILITIA ASSEMBLED IN FRONT OF ARSENAL - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  2. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, J.S.

    1999-07-20

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy. 37 figs.

  3. Method for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    2000-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  4. System for identifying known materials within a mixture of unknowns

    DOEpatents

    Wagner, John S.

    1999-01-01

    One or both of two methods and systems are used to determine concentration of a known material in an unknown mixture on the basis of the measured interaction of electromagnetic waves upon the mixture. One technique is to utilize a multivariate analysis patch technique to develop a library of optimized patches of spectral signatures of known materials containing only those pixels most descriptive of the known materials by an evolutionary algorithm. Identity and concentration of the known materials within the unknown mixture is then determined by minimizing the residuals between the measurements from the library of optimized patches and the measurements from the same pixels from the unknown mixture. Another technique is to train a neural network by the genetic algorithm to determine the identity and concentration of known materials in the unknown mixture. The two techniques may be combined into an expert system providing cross checks for accuracy.

  5. 48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION K, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-K #39, LOG GUARD RAIL, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  6. 22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. Photographic copy of photograph, circa 1928, photographer unknown (original in Rundell Library, Rochester, New York) AUDITORIUM AND STAGE DECORATED FOR POLITICAL CONVENTION, VIEW FROM BALCONY LOOKING SOUTHWEST - New York State Arsenal, 75 Woodbury Boulevard, Rochester, Monroe County, NY

  7. 47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of postcard (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Hampton's Old Point Comfort electric trolley in 1921. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  8. 7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Historic American Buildings Survey unknown illustrator, 1898 DRAWING OF PLYMOUTH PLACE, 1898 From the Collection of the Regional Transportation District - Plymouth Place, 1560-1572 Broadway, Denver, Denver County, CO

  9. Using the Wheatstone Bridge to Compute Unknown Resistances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlenker, Richard M.

    This document presents a secondary level physics unit which introduces students to the Wheatstone Bridge, its use in determining the value of unknown resistors, and the effects of wiring resistors in series or in parallel. (SL)

  10. The Unknown Computer Viruses Detection Based on Similarity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Zhongda; Nakaya, Naoshi; Koui, Yuuji

    New computer viruses are continually being generated and they cause damage all over the world. In general, current anti-virus software detects viruses by matching a pattern based on the signature; thus, unknown viruses without any signature cannot be detected. Although there are some static analysis technologies that do not depend on signatures, virus writers often use code obfuscation techniques, which make it difficult to execute a code analysis. As is generally known, unknown viruses and known viruses share a common feature. In this paper we propose a new static analysis technology that can circumvent code obfuscation to extract the common feature and detect unknown viruses based on similarity. The results of evaluation experiments demonstrated that this technique is able to detect unknown viruses without false positives.

  11. 25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 19231925) EXTERIOR, CLOSEUP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photocopy of photograph (Source unknown, c. 1923-1925) EXTERIOR, CLOSE-UP OF SOUTH FRONT OF MISSION AFTER RESTORATION, C. 1923-1925 - Mission San Francisco Solano de Sonoma, First & Spain Streets, Sonoma, Sonoma County, CA

  12. 356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    356. Delineator Unknown March 1946 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; GENERAL DATA; PLAT III - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF SHEARING SHEEP IN SHED NEAR WEST END OF THE BRIDGE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  14. 35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    35. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1941. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, SHOWING WALKWAY WITH CHARLES WILLIS (WITH HAT) AND FAMILY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST FROM CORRAL AT EAST APPROACH TO WALKWAY. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    29. Historic photographer, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST FROM TOP OF WEST TOWER. SHEEP CROSSING BRIDGE. NOTE SWAY CABLES. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1942. PHOTOGRAPH OF B. L. 'LES' SMITH, SON OF GEORGE W. SMITH, REPAIRING HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  18. 32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    32. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTH, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER BEFORE DAM WAS BUILT. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING EAST. EAST TOWER ON SKYLINE HAS NOT BEEN REINFORCED WITH CONCRETE. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  20. 38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1944. VIEW SHOWING BURROS (OR MULES) CROSSING BRIDGE, LOOKING NORTHEAST. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  1. 41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1954. VIEW OF LOADING SACKS OF FLEECES ONTO TRUCK AT JUNCTION OF SEVEN SPRINGS ROAD AND TANGLE CREEK ROAD. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  2. 54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Date unknown. "No. 38. View of stringers and middle pier, Wheeler Creek Bridge, Pinnacles Road, mile two. Taken from under bridge, looking up." - Crater Lake National Park Roads, Klamath Falls, Klamath County, OR

  3. 2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photocopy of photograph (from Reading Co. Archives) Photographer unknown ca. 1937 NORTHEAST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE - Philadelphia & Reading Railroad, Terminal Station, 1115-1141 Market Street, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  4. 26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. photographer unknown 29 December 1937 FLOATING MOORING BIT INSTALLED IN LOCK SIDEWALL. - Bonneville Project, Navigation Lock No. 1, Oregon shore of Columbia River near first Powerhouse, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  5. 63. photographer unknown 21 November 1935 BAFFLES AND PIERS FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    63. photographer unknown 21 November 1935 BAFFLES AND PIERS FOR SOUTH HALF OF MAIN DAM IN VARIOUS STAGES OF CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1908 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "CONSTRUCTION - BOISE RIVER DIVERSION DAM." - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  7. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 20 March 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "DIVERSION WORKS AND POWER HOUSE CONSTRUCTION" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  8. 33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. photographer unknown 15 October 1936 PANORAMA OF BONNEVILLE PROJECT WITH LOCK AND ORIGINAL POWERHOUSE NEARLY COMPLETE AND SPILLWAY UNDER CONSTRUCTION. - Bonneville Project, Columbia River, 1 mile Northeast of Exit 40, off Interstate 84, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  9. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 17 April 1912 (original print located at National Archives and Records Administration, Denver, Colorado). "POWER PLANT CONSTRUCTION AT DIVERSION DAM" - Boise Project, Boise River Diversion Dam, Across Boise River, Boise, Ada County, ID

  10. 81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    81. photographer unknown 11 June 1937 WORKMEN ON TURBINE BLADES BEFORE LOWERING INTO DRAFT TUBE LINER. - Bonneville Project, Powerhouse No.1, Spanning Bradford Slough, from Bradford Island, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  11. 8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. VIEW SHOWING THE DEMOSSING OF GRAND CANAL LOCATION UNKNOWN. AT TEAM OF HORSES ON OPPOSITE BANKS OF THE CANAL DRAG A CHAIN BETWEEN THEM ALONG THE BOTTOM OF THE CANAL, WHICH PULLS THE MOSS AND WEEDS LOOSE. THE PLANS THEN FLOAT DOWN THE CANAL AND ARE CAUGHT IN A SCREEN AND REMOVED. Photographer unknown, 1923 - Grand Canal, North side of Salt River, Tempe, Maricopa County, AZ

  12. Willed action and its impairments.

    PubMed

    Jahanshahi, M

    1998-09-01

    Actions are goal-directed behaviours that usually involve movem ent. There is evidence that intentional self-generated actions (willed actions) are controlled differently from routine, stereotyped actions that are externally triggered by environmental stimuli. We review evidence from investigations using positron emission tomography (PET), recordings of movement-related cortical potentials (MRCPs) or transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), and conclude that willed actions are controlled by a network of frontal cortical (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, supplementary motor area, anterior cingulate) and subcortical (thalamus and basal ganglia) areas. We also consider evidence suggesting that some of the cognitive and motor deficits of patients with frontal lesions, Parkinson's disease, or schizophrenia as well as apathy and abulia and rarer phenomena such as primary obsessional slowness can be considered as reflecting im pairment of willed actions. We propose that the concept of a willed action system based on the frontostriatal circuits provides a useful framework for integrating the cognitive, motor, and motivational deficits found in these disorders. Problems remaining to be resolved include: identification of the component processes of willed actions; the specific and differential role played by each of the frontal cortical and subcortical areas in the control of willed actions; the specific mechanisms of impairm ent of willed actions in Parkinson's disease, schizophrenia, and frontal damage; and the precise role of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the willed action system. PMID:22448836

  13. Actionability and Simulation: No Representation without Communication

    PubMed Central

    Feldman, Jerome A.

    2016-01-01

    There remains considerable controversy about how the brain operates. This review focuses on brain activity rather than just structure and on concepts of action and actionability rather than truth conditions. Neural Communication is reviewed as a crucial aspect of neural encoding. Consequently, logical inference is superseded by neural simulation. Some remaining mysteries are discussed. PMID:27725807

  14. Remaining Useful Life Estimation in Prognosis: An Uncertainty Propagation Problem

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sankararaman, Shankar; Goebel, Kai

    2013-01-01

    The estimation of remaining useful life is significant in the context of prognostics and health monitoring, and the prediction of remaining useful life is essential for online operations and decision-making. However, it is challenging to accurately predict the remaining useful life in practical aerospace applications due to the presence of various uncertainties that affect prognostic calculations, and in turn, render the remaining useful life prediction uncertain. It is challenging to identify and characterize the various sources of uncertainty in prognosis, understand how each of these sources of uncertainty affect the uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction, and thereby compute the overall uncertainty in the remaining useful life prediction. In order to achieve these goals, this paper proposes that the task of estimating the remaining useful life must be approached as an uncertainty propagation problem. In this context, uncertainty propagation methods which are available in the literature are reviewed, and their applicability to prognostics and health monitoring are discussed.

  15. A simple analysis of the changes during evaporation of a commercial emulsion of unknown composition.

    PubMed

    Bergamaschi, Mateus M; Santos, Orlando D H; Rocha-Filho, Pedro A; Friberg, Stig E

    2008-01-01

    Optical microscopy and centrifugation were used to observe the structural changes during evaporation of a commercial skin lotion of unknown composition. The degree of evaporation was determined from the changed weight of a microscope slide with the emulsion on a defined area and thickness, the evaporation loss versus time being measured by a balance under an infrared lamp. The results revealed not only which parts of the emulsion were most prone to evaporation without chemical analysis, but also gave surprising information as to which kind of structures would appear after extensive evaporation. The importance of these changes for the action of a skin lotion is briefly discussed.

  16. Host suppression and bioinformatics for sequence-based characterization of unknown pathogens.

    SciTech Connect

    Branda, Steven S.; Lane, Todd W.; Misra, Milind; Meagher, Robert J.; Patel, Kamlesh D.; Kaiser, Julia N.

    2009-11-01

    Bioweapons and emerging infectious diseases pose formidable and growing threats to our national security. Rapid advances in biotechnology and the increasing efficiency of global transportation networks virtually guarantee that the United States will face potentially devastating infectious disease outbreaks caused by novel ('unknown') pathogens either intentionally or accidentally introduced into the population. Unfortunately, our nation's biodefense and public health infrastructure is primarily designed to handle previously characterized ('known') pathogens. While modern DNA assays can identify known pathogens quickly, identifying unknown pathogens currently depends upon slow, classical microbiological methods of isolation and culture that can take weeks to produce actionable information. In many scenarios that delay would be costly, in terms of casualties and economic damage; indeed, it can mean the difference between a manageable public health incident and a full-blown epidemic. To close this gap in our nation's biodefense capability, we will develop, validate, and optimize a system to extract nucleic acids from unknown pathogens present in clinical samples drawn from infected patients. This system will extract nucleic acids from a clinical sample, amplify pathogen and specific host response nucleic acid sequences. These sequences will then be suitable for ultra-high-throughput sequencing (UHTS) carried out by a third party. The data generated from UHTS will then be processed through a new data assimilation and Bioinformatic analysis pipeline that will allow us to characterize an unknown pathogen in hours to days instead of weeks to months. Our methods will require no a priori knowledge of the pathogen, and no isolation or culturing; therefore it will circumvent many of the major roadblocks confronting a clinical microbiologist or virologist when presented with an unknown or engineered pathogen.

  17. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  18. Detection of the Remaining Files Copied from Removable Storage Medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishizawa, Chikako; Andoh, Yuu; Nishida, Makoto

    This paper proposes a method for detecting remaining files copied from removable storage medium. The proposed method logs events that the database of a file system, “Folder”, is changed. The remaining file can be detected by tracing the sequence of logs using path/file-name matching. Our experimental result suggests that the proposed method can accurately detect remaining files left on the computer.

  19. Erythropoietin Levels in Elderly Patients with Anemia of Unknown Etiology

    PubMed Central

    Sriram, Swetha; Martin, Alison; Xenocostas, Anargyros; Lazo-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-01-01

    Background In many elderly patients with anemia, a specific cause cannot be identified. This study investigates whether erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in these cases of “anemia of unknown etiology” and whether this trend persists after accounting for confounders. Methods This study includes all anemic patients over 60 years old who had erythropoietin measured between 2005 and 2013 at a single center. Three independent reviewers used defined criteria to assign each patient’s anemia to one of ten etiologies: chronic kidney disease, iron deficiency, chronic disease, confirmed myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), suspected MDS, vitamin B12 deficiency, folate deficiency, anemia of unknown etiology, other etiology, or multifactorial etiology. Iron deficiency anemia served as the comparison group in all analyses. We used linear regression to model the relationship between erythropoietin and the presence of each etiology, sequentially adding terms to the model to account for the hemoglobin concentration, estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and Charlson Comorbidity Index. Results A total of 570 patients met the inclusion criteria. Linear regression analysis showed that erythropoietin levels in chronic kidney disease, anemia of chronic disease and anemia of unknown etiology were lower by 48%, 46% and 27%, respectively, compared to iron deficiency anemia even after adjusting for hemoglobin, eGFR and comorbidities. Conclusions We have shown that erythropoietin levels are inappropriately low in anemia of unknown etiology, even after adjusting for confounders. This suggests that decreased erythropoietin production may play a key role in the pathogenesis of anemia of unknown etiology. PMID:27310832

  20. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license.

  1. MoCha: Molecular Characterization of Unknown Pathways.

    PubMed

    Lobo, Daniel; Hammelman, Jennifer; Levin, Michael

    2016-04-01

    Automated methods for the reverse-engineering of complex regulatory networks are paving the way for the inference of mechanistic comprehensive models directly from experimental data. These novel methods can infer not only the relations and parameters of the known molecules defined in their input datasets, but also unknown components and pathways identified as necessary by the automated algorithms. Identifying the molecular nature of these unknown components is a crucial step for making testable predictions and experimentally validating the models, yet no specific and efficient tools exist to aid in this process. To this end, we present here MoCha (Molecular Characterization), a tool optimized for the search of unknown proteins and their pathways from a given set of known interacting proteins. MoCha uses the comprehensive dataset of protein-protein interactions provided by the STRING database, which currently includes more than a billion interactions from over 2,000 organisms. MoCha is highly optimized, performing typical searches within seconds. We demonstrate the use of MoCha with the characterization of unknown components from reverse-engineered models from the literature. MoCha is useful for working on network models by hand or as a downstream step of a model inference engine workflow and represents a valuable and efficient tool for the characterization of unknown pathways using known data from thousands of organisms. MoCha and its source code are freely available online under the GPLv3 license. PMID:26950055

  2. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845.51 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) NATIONAL TRANSPORTATION... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are...

  3. 49 CFR 845.51 - Investigation to remain open.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Investigation to remain open. 845.51 Section 845... § 845.51 Investigation to remain open. Accident investigations are never officially closed but are kept open for the submission of new and pertinent evidence by any interested person. If the Board finds...

  4. Molecular toolbox for the identification of unknown genetically modified organisms.

    PubMed

    Ruttink, Tom; Demeyer, Rolinde; Van Gulck, Elke; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Querci, Maddalena; Taverniers, Isabel; De Loose, Marc

    2010-03-01

    Competent laboratories monitor genetically modified organisms (GMOs) and products derived thereof in the food and feed chain in the framework of labeling and traceability legislation. In addition, screening is performed to detect the unauthorized presence of GMOs including asynchronously authorized GMOs or GMOs that are not officially registered for commercialization (unknown GMOs). Currently, unauthorized or unknown events are detected by screening blind samples for commonly used transgenic elements, such as p35S or t-nos. If (1) positive detection of such screening elements shows the presence of transgenic material and (2) all known GMOs are tested by event-specific methods but are not detected, then the presence of an unknown GMO is inferred. However, such evidence is indirect because it is based on negative observations and inconclusive because the procedure does not identify the causative event per se. In addition, detection of unknown events is hampered in products that also contain known authorized events. Here, we outline alternative approaches for analytical detection and GMO identification and develop new methods to complement the existing routine screening procedure. We developed a fluorescent anchor-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method for the identification of the sequences flanking the p35S and t-nos screening elements. Thus, anchor-PCR fingerprinting allows the detection of unique discriminative signals per event. In addition, we established a collection of in silico calculated fingerprints of known events to support interpretation of experimentally generated anchor-PCR GM fingerprints of blind samples. Here, we first describe the molecular characterization of a novel GMO, which expresses recombinant human intrinsic factor in Arabidopsis thaliana. Next, we purposefully treated the novel GMO as a blind sample to simulate how the new methods lead to the molecular identification of a novel unknown event without prior knowledge of its transgene

  5. Genetic analysis of the skeletal remains attributed to Francesco Petrarca.

    PubMed

    Caramelli, David; Lalueza-Fox, Carles; Capelli, Cristian; Lari, Martina; Sampietro, María Lourdes; Gigli, Elena; Milani, Lucio; Pilli, Elena; Guimaraes, Silvia; Chiarelli, Brunetto; Marin, Vito Terribile Wien; Casoli, Antonella; Stanyon, Roscoe; Bertranpetit, Jaume; Barbujani, Guido

    2007-11-15

    We report on the mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) analysis of the supposed remains of Francesco Petrarca exhumed in November 2003, from the S. Maria Assunta church, in Arquà Padua (Italy) where he died in 1374. The optimal preservation of the remains allowed the retrieval of sufficient mtDNA for genetic analysis. DNA was extracted from a rib and a tooth and mtDNA sequences were determined in multiple clones using the strictest criteria currently available for validation of ancient DNA sequences, including independent replication. MtDNA sequences from the tooth and rib were not identical, suggesting that they belonged to different individuals. Indeed, molecular gender determination showed that the postcranial remains belonged to a male while the skull belonged to a female. Historical records indicated that the remains were violated in 1630, possibly by thieves. These results are consistent with morphological investigations and confirm the importance of integrating molecular and morphological approaches in investigating historical remains.

  6. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  7. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  8. 17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph. Location unknown but assumed to be uper end of canal. Features no longer extant. (Source: U.S. Department of Interior. Office of Indian Affairs. Indian Irrigation service. Annual Report, Fiscal Year 1925. Vol. I, Narrative and Photographs, Irrigation District #4, California and Southern Arizona, RG 75, Entry 655, Box 28, National Archives, Washington, DC.) Photographer unknown. MAIN (TITLED FLORENCE) CANAL, WASTEWAY, SLUICEWAY, & BRIDGE, 1/26/25. - San Carlos Irrigation Project, Marin Canal, Amhurst-Hayden Dam to Picacho Reservoir, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  9. Influence of multiple categories on the prediction of unknown properties

    PubMed Central

    Verde, Michael F.; Murphy, Gregory L.; Ross, Brian H.

    2006-01-01

    Knowing an item's category helps us predict its unknown properties. Previous studies suggest that when asked to evaluate the probability of an unknown property, people tend to consider only an item's most likely category, ignoring alternative categories. In the present study, property prediction took the form of either a probability rating or a speeded, binary-choice judgment. Consistent with past findings, subjects ignored alternative categories in their probability ratings. However, their binary-choice judgments were influenced by alternative categories. This novel finding suggests that the way category knowledge is used in prediction depends critically on the form of the prediction. PMID:16156183

  10. Effects of antidepressants on cytokine production and actions.

    PubMed

    Castanon, Nathalie; Leonard, Brian E; Neveu, Pierre J; Yirmiya, Raz

    2002-10-01

    There are intriguing analogies between many features of depression and physiological and behavioral responses to infection, which are mediated by the brain effects of cytokines. These observations suggest that depression can be considered as a psychoneuroimmunological disorder where a central increase of pro-inflammatory cytokines, may have adverse consequences on the functional activity of the neurochemical and neuroendocrine systems implicated in the symptoms of the disorder. According to this hypothesis, the therapeutic effects of antidepressants should be at least partly exerted by attenuating the brain expression and/or actions of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Despite their inherent limitations, animal models of depression that are based on behavioral and pharmacological analogies with the symptoms observed in humans, represent the best available tool to test this hypothesis and to investigate the action mechanisms of the immune effects of antidepressants. Treatment with different classes of antidepressants indeed conferred protection against cytokine-induced depressive-like biological and behavioral changes. This 'anti-inflammatory' profile may be due to alterations of the pro-/anti-inflammatory cytokine balance. The mechanisms underlying these effects of antidepressants are presently unknown, but the available literature suggests several possibilities, including actions on different molecules representing potential mediators of mood disorders induced by cytokines. The studies summarized in this review have opened up new vistas in both the pathophysiology of depression and the pharmacology of antidepressants. Whether their demonstrated immune effects are a side effect or a significant part of their clinical activity still remains to be elucidated.

  11. Larger right posterior parietal volume in action video game experts: a behavioral and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) study.

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Satoshi; Ikeda, Hanako; Kasahara, Kazumi; Kato, Ryo; Tsubomi, Hiroyuki; Sugawara, Sho K; Mori, Makoto; Hanakawa, Takashi; Sadato, Norihiro; Honda, Manabu; Watanabe, Katsumi

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies suggest that action video game players exhibit superior performance in visuospatial cognitive tasks compared with non-game players. However, the neural basis underlying this visuospatial cognitive performance advantage remains largely unknown. The present human behavioral and imaging study compared gray matter volume in action video game experts and non-experts using structural magnetic resonance imaging and voxel-based morphometry analysis. The results revealed significantly larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex in experts compared with non-experts. Furthermore, the larger gray matter volume in the right posterior parietal cortex significantly correlated with individual performance in a visual working memory task in experts. These results suggest that differences in brain structure may be linked to extensive video game play, leading to superior visuospatial cognitive performance in action video game experts.

  12. Melanoma of unknown primary origin presenting as a rapidly enlarging adrenal mass

    PubMed Central

    Ejaz, Shamim; Shawa, Hassan; Henderson, Samuel Alva; Habra, Mouhammed Amir

    2013-01-01

    Metastasis to the adrenal can be seen in the context of metastatic melanoma, but primary adrenal melanoma is very uncommon. We present a case of a rapidly enlarging adrenal mass that mimicked non-functioning primary adrenal malignancies but later proved to be part of a widely metastatic melanoma of unknown primary origin. Careful physical examination of the patient led to the discovery of a subcutaneous metastatic focus that was not seen on [18F]-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography/CT imaging. The presence of subcutaneous metastases raised the suspicion for metastatic melanoma; however, pathological confirmation remained the ultimate tool to reach the final diagnosis. PMID:23784764

  13. 43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photographer unknown February 1925 MENDOCINO COUNTY, SECTION, HIGHWAY 1. 1-MEN-1-1 #12, NEW HIGHWAY DISPLACING OLD COUNTY ROAD, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  14. A Size Exclusion Chromatography Laboratory with Unknowns for Introductory Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntee, Edward J.; Graham, Kate J.; Colosky, Edward C.; Jakubowski, Henry V.

    2015-01-01

    Size exclusion chromatography is an important technique in the separation of biological and polymeric samples by molecular weight. While a number of laboratory experiments have been published that use this technique for the purification of large molecules, this is the first report of an experiment that focuses on purifying an unknown small…

  15. 15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1929; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE LATE 1920S; LOOKING WEST FROM 18TH STREET; LARGE BUILDING AT CENTER IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40) - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  16. Pyrexia of Unknown Origin: An Approach to Diagnosis and Management

    PubMed Central

    Gibson, James C.

    1982-01-01

    Fever of unknown origin is one of the supreme diagnostic challenges in medicine. Most cases are caused by common problems presenting in unusual ways. Infections account for 40%, neoplasms 20% and collagen vascular diseases 15% of cases. Repeated clinical evaluation and individualization in planning investigative procedures are the keys to early diagnosis. Several possible causes of pyrexia are discussed. PMID:20469388

  17. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1912 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "LINING OF OUTLET TUNNEL BELOW THE DAM" - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  18. Severe scratcher-reaction: an unknown health hazard?

    PubMed

    Mikkelsen, Carsten Sauer; Holmgren, Helene Ringe; Arvesen, Kristian Bakke; Jarjis, Reem Dina; Gunnarsson, Gudjon Leifur

    2015-03-16

    Tattoos are well known to cause skin problems and the number of reported adverse reactions after tattooing has increased. Illegally imported tattoo ink is unrestrained and can contain unknown ingredients and contamination thereby posing a serious health hazard. We present a case illustrating the risk of pronounced phototoxic allergic reaction and other severe complications after using home kit tattoo ink. PMID:25918618

  19. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 29 July 1911 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "NEW SAND AND GRAVEL BIN AND CONCRETE MIXING PLANT" - Kachess Dam, Inlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph. Horgan, date unknown Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. INTERIOR VIEW OF MINERS CHANGING ROOM, SHOWING CLOTHING SUSPENDED FROM CEILING - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  1. 6. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. ca. 1922 Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. ca. 1922 Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder, archives of The Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. AERIAL VIEW OF ENTIRE COMPLEX, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST - Marvine Colliery, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  2. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 6 June 1914 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "CATERPILLAR TRACTOR USED TO HAUL LOGS TO THE LAKE AND WOOD AND TIE TIMBER TO THE MILL AT EASTON" - Kachess Dam, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  3. Unknown Gases: Student-Designed Experiments in the Introductory Laboratory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, John; Hoyt, Tim

    2002-01-01

    Introductory students design and carry-out experimental procedures to determine the identity of three unknown gases from a list of eight possibilities: air, nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, helium, methane, and hydrogen. Students are excited and motivated by the opportunity to come up with their own experimental approach to solving a…

  4. 374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    374. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; EYE BAR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 5; SUP. DRAWING NO. 12A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  5. 362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    362. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; EYE BAR ANCHOR CHAIN; CONTRACT NO. 3; SUP. DRAWING NO. 11-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  6. 8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown (original print on file at U.S. Army Intelligence Security Command, Fort Belvoir, Virginia). VIEW OF SULLINS COLLEGE, BRISTOL, VIRGINIA. SULLINS COLLEGE PRESIDENT WILLIAM MARTIN FOUNDED ARLINGTON HALL JUNIOR COLLEGE, AND APPEARS TO HAVE LOOSELY BASED THE DESIGN OF THE NEW SCHOOL'S BUILDINGS UPON THOSE AT SULLINS. - Arlington Hall Station, 4000 Arlington Boulevard, Arlington, Arlington County, VA

  7. 28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; WORKERS STACKING HIDES IN THE CELLAR OF BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  8. 26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    26. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; EVISCERATING CATTLE CARCASSES INSIDE BUILDING 149 - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Multiple analysis of an unknown optical multilayer coating

    SciTech Connect

    Dobrowolski, J.A.; Ho, F.C.; Waldorf, A.; Mitchell, D.F.; Costich, V.R.; Vincent, S.; Thoeni, W.; Casparis, E.; Pfefferkorn, R.; Bartella, J.

    1985-08-15

    Results are given of the analysis at five different laboratories of an unknown optical multilayer coating. In all, eleven different analytical and laboratory techniques were applied to the problem. The multilayer nominally consisted of three dielectric and two metallic layers. It was demonstrated convincingly that with present day techniques it is possible to determine the basic structure of such a coating.

  10. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, 1988 view east of marine railway (Haer no. Pa-387-W). The railway was being dismantled at the time this photograph was taken. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1915 (original print located at Southern Ute Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). Overall view of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with main building (boy's dormitory) at right. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  12. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). East rear and north side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  13. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1942 (original print located at Southern UTE Agency, Bureau of Indian Affairs Office, Ignacio, Colorado). West front and south side of boy's dormitory. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  14. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall view of Southern UTE Agency Boarding School, with boys dormitory at center. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  15. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, ca. 1930 (original print located at Colorado Historical Society, Denver, Colorado). Overall views of Southern Ute Agency Boarding School, with boys' dormitory at left of lower view. - Southern Ute Boarding School, Boy's Dormitory, Ouray & Capote Drives, Ignacio, La Plata County, CO

  16. 7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of 7' x 9' photograph, photographer unknown, taken circa 1890 (original print in the possession of W.F. Rhinehart, Phoenixville, R.D.#1, Pennsylvania) NORTH ELEVATION - William Moore House, State Route 23 & Reading Railroad Tracks vicinity (Schuykill Township), Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  17. 17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photocopy of a photograph, source and date unknown GENERAL VIEW OF FRONT FACADE OF MT. CLARE STATION; PASSENGER CAR SHOP IN REAR - Baltimore & Ohio Railroad, Mount Clare Passenger Car Shop, Southwest corner of Pratt & Poppleton Streets, Baltimore, Independent City, MD

  18. 7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Photocopy of photograph, date unknown. VIEW OF WEST HIGH STREET BRIDGE OVER SOUTH BRANCH OF FRENCH CREEK, WITH PENN RAILROAD BRIDGE IN BACKGROUND. (Original in Union City Historical Museum.) 8'x10' enlargement from 4'x5' negative. - Bridge Street Bridge, Spanning Little French Creek at Bridge Street, Union City, Erie County, PA

  19. Photocopy of photograph (from NBPPNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph (from NBP-PNSY) photographer unknown, September 23, 1941 view northwest of caisson for drydock no. 2 (Haer no. Pa-387-B) in drydock no. 1 (Haer no. PA-387-A) for overhaul and repair of rubber gasket. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  20. 46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, CA. 1935 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE WITH NEW COMMEMORATIVE PLATE INSTALLED IN 1934. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  1. 45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). AIRPLANE STUNT DURING DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  2. 42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 12 September 1928 (original print located at Arizona Department of Transportation, Phoenix AZ). BRIDGE IMMEDIATELY AFTER INSERTION OF CENTER PIN. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  3. Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, date unknown (original print located at the History Office, U.S. Army South, Fort Clayton, Republic of Panama). Early view of Fort Sherman from boat dock with theater in background, facing southwest. - Fort Sherman, Toro Point on Limon Bay, Colon, Former Panama Canal Zone, CZ

  4. 4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. VIEW NORTHEAST, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, emergency power building, and height finder radar tower - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  5. 5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. VIEW EAST, height finder radar towers, radar tower (unknown function), prime search radar tower, operations building, and central heating plant - Fort Custer Military Reservation, P-67 Radar Station, .25 mile north of Dickman Road, east of Clark Road, Battle Creek, Calhoun County, MI

  6. 178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    178. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1927 (original print located at Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Commerce City, Colorado). MAURER CHILDREN. - Rocky Mountain Arsenal, Bounded by Ninety-sixth Avenue & Fifty-sixth Avenue, Buckley Road, Quebec Street & Colorado Highway 2, Commerce City, Adams County, CO

  7. 28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. Photographic copy of historic construction drawing (date unknown, original print in possession of St. Paul District, U.S. Army Corps of Engineers) sectional elevation thru typical bay, view east - Mississippi River 9-Foot Channel, Lock & Dam No. 1, In Mississippi River at Mississippi Boulevard, below Ford Parkway Bridge, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  8. 37 CFR 253.9 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 253.9 Section 253.9 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES USE OF CERTAIN COPYRIGHTED WORKS IN CONNECTION...

  9. 37 CFR 260.7 - Unknown copyright owners.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 37 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Unknown copyright owners. 260.7 Section 260.7 Patents, Trademarks, and Copyrights U.S. COPYRIGHT OFFICE, LIBRARY OF CONGRESS COPYRIGHT ARBITRATION ROYALTY PANEL RULES AND PROCEDURES RATES AND TERMS FOR PREEXISTING...

  10. Intervention Validity of Cognitive Assessment: Knowns, Unknowables, and Unknowns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braden, Jeffery P.; Shaw, Steven R.

    2009-01-01

    The intervention validity of cognitive assessment batteries is considered within an historical context to identify what the evidence supports (knowns), what cannot be known (unknowables), and what is not yet known (unknowns). Two ways cognitive batteries could inform intervention are identified: a disordinal (i.e., aptitude-treatment interaction)…

  11. Unknown input observer design and analysis for networked control systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taha, Ahmad F.; Elmahdi, Ahmed; Panchal, Jitesh H.; Sun, Dengfeng

    2015-05-01

    The insertion of communication networks in the feedback loops of control systems is a defining feature of modern control systems. These systems are often subject to unknown inputs in a form of disturbances, perturbations, or attacks. The objective of this paper is to design and analyse an observer for networked dynamical systems with unknown inputs. The network effect can be viewed as either a perturbation or time-delay to the exchanged signals. In this paper, we (1) review an unknown input observer (UIO) design for a non-networked system, (2) derive the networked unknown input observer (NetUIO) dynamics, (3) design a NetUIO such that the effect of higher delay order terms are nullified and (4) establish stability-guaranteeing bounds on the networked-induced time-delay and perturbation. The formulation and results derived in this paper can be generalised to scenarios and applications where the signals are perturbed due to a different source of perturbation or delay.

  12. 25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE SKINNING TABLE; CARCASSES IN HALF-HOIST POSITION; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  13. 24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of undated photo; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Printed Photographs, Symbol M, Box 2; REMOVING HIDES ON THE MOVING SKINNING TABLE; LOOKING NORTH - Rath Packing Company, Beef Killing Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1947, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW WHILE IN U.S. NAVY SERVICE AS YF 445. NOTE GRAY PAINT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  15. 48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 23, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. AERIAL VIEW OF STARBOARD SIDE WHILE UNDERWAY. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  16. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 19, 1959, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  17. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  18. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE VIEW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  19. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated March 26, 1969, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  20. 42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    42. Photocopy of photograph, ca. 1950, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  1. 45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph, dated September 14, 1964, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PILOT HOUSE SHOWING STARBOARD SIDE. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  2. 43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 13, 1953, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. LOADING OF LIGHTED BUOYS WITH MOORINGS OF HEAVY CHAIN. CONCRETE, AND CAST-IRON SINKERS. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE LUPINE, U.S. Coast Guard Station Rockland, east end of Tillson Avenue, Rockland, Knox County, ME

  3. 44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, dated February 19, 1948, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. STARBOARD SIDE OF BOW DURING UNDERWAY TRIAL. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  4. 47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    47. Photocopy of photograph, dated July 1, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. PORT SIDE VIEW IN HARBOR. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  5. 46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    46. Photocopy of photograph, dated June 24, 1960, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of the U.S. Coast Guard. VIEW FROM BOW SHOWING MAIN DECK AND PILOTHOUSE. NOTE BUOYS STORED ON PIER AT RIGHT. - U.S. Coast Guard Cutter WHITE HEATH, USGS Integrated Support Command Boston, 427 Commercial Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  6. 15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. UPSTREAM VIEW (PHOTOGRAPHER UNKNOWN) SHOWING BIG DALTON DAM NEAR FULL CAPACITY AFTER CONSTRUCTION. PICTURE WAS DEVELOPED FROM COPY NEGATIVES WHICH WERE TAKEN ON 2-15-1973 BY PHOTOGRAPHER D. MEIER OF L.A. COUNTY PUBLIC WORKS. - Big Dalton Dam, 2600 Big Dalton Canyon Road, Glendora, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. 45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    45. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer and date unknown (circa 1900). A single truck, solid mahagony car which ran between Hampton, Phoebus and Old Point Comfort. - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  8. 38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    38. Photocopy of photograph (Pentran file), photographer unknown. Bus garage to left now demolished. Trolley car drivers, maintenance personnel and management staff in 1915. VIEW SOUTH - Newport News & Old Point Railway & Electric Company, Trolley Barn & Administration Building, 3400 Victoria Boulevard, Hampton, Hampton, VA

  9. 44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 1415 June 1929 (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    44. Photocopy of photograph, photographer unknown, 14-15 June 1929 (original print located at Utah State Historical Society Photograph Collection, Salt Lake City UT). DEDICATION CEREMONY AT BRIDGE. - Navajo Bridge, Spanning Colorado River at U.S. Highway 89 Alternate, Page, Coconino County, AZ

  10. 408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    408. Delineator Unknown September 19, 1933 SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET NO. 26 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    407. Delineator Unknown July 11, 1933 PERSPECTIVE STUDY OF SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SHEET 12 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    404. Delineator Unknown June 1, 1933 STUDY FOR TOP OF SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 7-A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    406. Delineator Unknown April 19, 1933 ELEVATION STUDY FOR SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; SHEET 23 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    403. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 2 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  15. 402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    402. Delineator Unknown May 2, 1933 STUDY FOR SUSPENSION TOWERS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; SCHEME 1A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  16. 409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    409. Delineator Unknown October 25, 1933 (SAN FRANCISCO ANCHORAGE); SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BOARD OF CONSULTING ARCHITECTS; TIMOTHY L. PFLUEGER, ARTHUR BROWN JR., JOHN J. DONOVAN; DRAWING NO.33 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  17. 54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    54. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #34, SINKS ALONG HIGH. NEAR OCEAN, 2-25. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  18. 56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. Photographer unknown February 1925 HUMBOLDT COUNTY, SECTION J, HIGHWAY 1. HUM-1-J #36, SINKS ALONG OCEAN SHORE, 2-25. Stamped office copy. - Redwood National & State Parks Roads, California coast from Crescent City to Trinidad, Crescent City, Del Norte County, CA

  19. 40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    40. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca., 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - ELEVATION SHOWING FLOOR AND EQUIPMENT LAYOUT. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  20. 39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    39. Photocopy of building model photograph, ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY MODEL - SHOWING "A" AND "B" FACES. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  1. 41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    41. Photocopy of progress photograph ca. 1974, photographer unknown. Original photograph Property of United States Air Force, 21" Space Command. This is the source for views 41 to 47. CAPE COD AIR STATION PAVE PAWS FACILITY - SHOWING BUILDING "RED IRON" STEEL STRUCTURE NEARING COMPLETION. - Cape Cod Air Station, Technical Facility-Scanner Building & Power Plant, Massachusetts Military Reservation, Sandwich, Barnstable County, MA

  2. 15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Photocopy of color photograph (Photographer unknown, 1974) SACRISTY ATTIC, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE RAMMED EARTH WALL (NORTH WALL OF CHANCEL) AT LEFT; HOLES WERE LEFT BY WOODEN BRACES USED TO HOLD WALL FORMS DURING CONSTRUCTION - Church of the Holy Cross, State Route 261, Stateburg, Sumter County, SC

  3. 6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of photograph. No date. Photographer unknown. (Source: SCIP office, Coolidge, AZ) CHINA WASH FLUME UNDER CONSTRUCTION - San Carlos Irrigation Project, China Wash Flume, Main (Florence-Case Grande) Canal at Station 137+00, T4S, R10E, S14, Coolidge, Pinal County, AZ

  4. 17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1937; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Grout Museum, Waterloo, Iowa; Filed uner: Rath Packing Company, Box 4; POWER PLANT (BUILDING 27), LEFT; LARD REFINERY (BUILDING 93), CENTER; AND MANUFACTURING BUILDING (BUILDING 88), RIGHT - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  5. 79. photographer unknown 13 March 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. photographer unknown 13 March 1936 AERIAL VIEW OF THE SPILLWAY DAM JUST BEFORE FLOODING THE FIRST STEP COFFERDAM. TWO CRIBS IN PLACE ON WASHINGTON SHORE FOR EACH LEG OF THE SECOND STEP COFFERDAM. CRIBWAYS NEAR UPSTREAM LEG. - Bonneville Project, Bonneville Dam, Columbia River, Bonneville, Multnomah County, OR

  6. 48 CFR 22.1009 - Place of performance unknown.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Place of performance... SOCIOECONOMIC PROGRAMS APPLICATION OF LABOR LAWS TO GOVERNMENT ACQUISITIONS Service Contract Act of 1965, as Amended 22.1009 Place of performance unknown....

  7. 19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. Photographer unknown, circa 1950 'THE LOOP OVER' BRIDGE WAS CONSTRUCTED ON NEWFOUND GAP ROAD TO REPLACE A SERIES OF DANGEROUS SWITCHBACKS. THIS ENGINEERING FEATURE QUICKLY BECAME A POPULAR TOURIST ATTRACTION. - Great Smoky Mountains National Park Roads & Bridges, Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  8. 1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. Drop Structure on the Arizona Crosscut Canal. Photographer unknown, no date. Note that caption is incorrect: in relation to Camelback Mountain (rear), this can only be the Old Crosscut. Source: reprinted from the 13th Annual Report of the U.S. Geological Survey, 1893. - Old Crosscut Canal, North Side of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  9. 380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    380. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES & ATTACHMENTS WEST BAY CROSSING; CABLE BANDS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 3 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  10. 390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    390. Delineator Unknown October 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - EAST BAY CROSSING; SPANS YBI TO El - E9 TO El ; TYPICAL CROSSSECTION; CONTRACT NO. 7; SUP. DRAWING NO. 82 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  11. 379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    379. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; CABLES AND ATTACHMENTS - WEST BAY CROSSING; SPLAY CASTINGS; CONTRACT NO. 6A; DRAWING NO. 4 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  12. 375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    375. Delineator Unknown June 1933 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; YERBA BUENA CROSSING; ANCHORAGE TUNNELS; CONTRACT NO. 5; DRAWING NO. 10A - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  13. 385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    385. Delineator Unknown December 1932 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; SUPERSTRUCTURE - WEST BAY CROSSING; ROCKER POSTS AND BEARING; CONTRACT NO. 6; DRAWINGS NO. 42 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  14. 33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, February 13, 1944. VIEW OF HORSESHOE DAM SITE BRIDGE, LOOKING WEST, SHOWING BRIDGE SPANNING THE VERDE RIVER JUST AS WORK ON THE DAM IS BEGINNING. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  15. 36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    36. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, c. 1943. PHOTOGRAPH OF GEORGE E. SMITH (RIGHT), ONE OF THE PRINCIPAL BUILDERS OF THE VERDE RIVER SHEEP BRIDGE AND HIS SON, B. L. 'LES' SMITH. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  16. 17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    17. Historic photograph, photographer unknown, 1943. ENLARGEMENT OF PORTION OF PHOTOGRAPH AZ-10-16, SHOWING WOOD TOWER BEFORE CONCRETE WAS ADDED. NOTE GUY CABLE CONNECTED TO TOP RIGHT OF TOWER. - Verde River Sheep Bridge, Spanning Verde River (Tonto National Forest), Cave Creek, Maricopa County, AZ

  17. 359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    359. Delineator Unknown April 1935 STATE OF CALIFORNIA; DEPARTMENT OF PUBLIC WORKS; SAN FRANCISCO - OAKLAND BAY BRIDGE; BRIDGE RAILWAY SAN FRANCISCO LOOP; DETAILS OF VIADUCT; FINAL REPORT; DRG. NO. 92 - San Francisco Oakland Bay Bridge, Spanning San Francisco Bay, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  18. 6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. Photographic copy of historic photograph (date and photograph unknown) of upper dam showing retaining walls (original in possession of United States Department of Agriculture-Forest Service-Allegheny National Forest). VIEW WEST - Loleta Recreation Area, Upper Dam, 6 miles Southeast of interesection of State Route 24041 & State Route 66, Loleta, Elk County, PA

  19. 48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 5 September 1916 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Piling logs with Washington donkey." - Keechelus Dam, Yakima River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  20. 159. Photocopy of measured drawing (location of original document unknown) ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    159. Photocopy of measured drawing (location of original document unknown) C. H. Puls, delineator 12 January 1937 Last revised by Keister 23 September 1948 FIFTH FLOOR PLAN - U.S. Department of the Interior, Eighteenth & C Streets Northwest, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. 24. Photographic copy of historic photo of unknown date (original ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    24. Photographic copy of historic photo of unknown date (original filed in drawer 98, Bridge Division, Department of Public Works, St. Paul City Annex). 3/4 view of main spans of Selby Avenue Bridge similar to that shown in MN-61-4. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  2. 197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    197. Photocopy of drawing, Twin Falls, Canal Company, date unknown. GATE STEMS AND LIFTING DEVICES, NO COUNTY; BLUEPRINT SKETCHES. - Milner Dam & Main Canal: Twin Falls Canal Company, On Snake River, 11 miles West of city of Burley, Idaho, Twin Falls, Twin Falls County, ID

  3. PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6849, photographer unknown, now ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    PHOTOCOPY OF PHOTOGRAPH (Original photograph dated 6-8-49, photographer unknown, now in possession of Director, Los Angeles National Cemetery, Los Angeles, CA) MAIN ENTRANCE WITH GATEHOUSE AND WALLS, LOS ANGELES NATIONAL CEMETERY, LOOKING EAST-NORTHEAST ON CONSTITUTION AVENUE FROM SEPULVEDA BOULEVARD - Los Angeles National Cemetery, Gate, 950 South Sepulveda Boulevard, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do. PMID:27667859

  5. Conscious Action/Zombie Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Abstract I argue that the neural realizers of experiences of trying (that is, experiences of directing effort towards the satisfaction of an intention) are not distinct from the neural realizers of actual trying (that is, actual effort directed towards the satisfaction of an intention). I then ask how experiences of trying might relate to the perceptual experiences one has while acting. First, I assess recent zombie action arguments regarding conscious visual experience, and I argue that contrary to what some have claimed, conscious visual experience plays a causal role for action control in some circumstances. Second, I propose a multimodal account of the experience of acting. According to this account, the experience of acting is (at the very least) a temporally extended, co‐conscious collection of agentive and perceptual experiences, functionally integrated and structured both by multimodal perceptual processing as well as by what an agent is, at the time, trying to do.

  6. 6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL NAILED TO POSTS WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK. VIEW IS TO THE WEST. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  7. 7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. REMAINS OF PLANK WALL WITHIN CANAL CONSTRUCTED TO PROTECT OUTSIDE CANAL BANK, LOOKING SOUTHWEST. NOTE CROSS SUPPORT POLES EXTENDING TO HILLSIDE. - Snake River Ditch, Headgate on north bank of Snake River, Dillon, Summit County, CO

  8. 53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. INTERIOR VIEW LOOKING NORTH NORTHEAST SHOWING THE REMAINS OF A WOODEN SETTLING BOX IN THE BACKGROUND RIGHT. AMALGAMATING PANS IN THE FOREGROUND. - Standard Gold Mill, East of Bodie Creek, Northeast of Bodie, Bodie, Mono County, CA

  9. 11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. DOUBLE CURVED RACK. UPPER PORTION ROTATES; LOWER PORTION REMAINS STATIONARY. DISCARDED ROLLER NEAR CENTER OF FRAME. - Chicago, Milwaukee & St. Paul Railway, Bridge No. Z-6, Spanning North Branch of Chicago River, South of Cortland Street, Chicago, Cook County, IL

  10. Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking east inside of casthouse no. 6 at the remains of slag runner and slag notch of blast furnace no. 6. - U.S. Steel Edgar Thomson Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Braddock, Allegheny County, PA

  11. 60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    60. NORTHEASTERN VIEW OF THE REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    59. REMAINS OF THE DOROTHY SIX BLAST FURNACE COMPLEX LOOKING NORTHEAST. THE LADLE HOUSE IS ON THE RIGHT. (Martin Stupich) - U.S. Steel Duquesne Works, Blast Furnace Plant, Along Monongahela River, Duquesne, Allegheny County, PA

  13. 14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. VIEW LOOKING WEST, GRAIN LEG REMAINS AND CHUTE OPENING OVER RECEIVING HOPPER, ON TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  14. 13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. VIEW LOOKING EAST, REMAINS OF HATCH COVER AND CHUTE TO SMALL HOPPER, GRAIN LEGS, AND CONVEYOR DRIVE SHAFT FROM TRACK DECK - West Shore Railroad, Pier 7 Grain Elevator, Hudson River & Pershing Road vicinity, West New York, Hudson County, NJ

  15. 7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail view: east side of north end, showing remains of Fort San Antonio - Puente Guillermo Esteves, Spanning San Antonio Channel at PR-25 (Juan Ponce de Leon Avenue), San Juan, San Juan Municipio, PR

  16. 25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    25. CAFETERIA Note remains of tile floor in foreground. Food cooked on the stove was served to workers in the eating area to the left of the counter (off picture). - Hovden Cannery, 886 Cannery Row, Monterey, Monterey County, CA

  17. 4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Band Wheel and Walking Beam Mechanism, Including Remains of Frame Belt House, Looking Southeast - David Renfrew Oil Rig, East side of Connoquenessing Creek, 0.4 mile North of confluence with Thorn Creek, Renfrew, Butler County, PA

  18. 33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    33. VIEW SHOWING THE REMAINS OF THE ORIGINAL ARIZONA CANAL HEADING, ARIZONA DAM, LOOKING EAST Photographer: Mark Durben, December 1990 - Arizona Canal, North of Salt River, Phoenix, Maricopa County, AZ

  19. 7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW SOUTH, REMAINS OF ORIGINAL STONE ABUTMENTS ON HILLSIDE SOUTH OF BRIDGE, EAST END - Cincinnati, Jackson & Mackinaw Railroad Bridge, Abandonned Penn Central Route, spanning Tom's Run, Farmersville, Montgomery County, OH

  20. 12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. DETAIL VIEW NORTHWEST OF BOILER REMAINS, WITH FRAGMENTS OF SEVEN-PISTON UNDERFEED STOKER - Turners Falls Power & Electric Company, Hampden Station, East bank of Connecticut River, Chicopee, Hampden County, MA

  1. 7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. VIEW OF VESSEL FROM PORT BON, SHOWING REMAINS OF MAIN CABIN. AFT CABIN STILL STANDS ON STERN IN BACKGROUND - Motorized Sailing Vessel "Fox", Beached on East Bank ofBayou Lafourche, Larose, Lafourche Parish, LA

  2. 11. Remains of Douglasfir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Remains of Douglas-fir cordwood abandoned when kilns ceased operation, looking northeast. - Warren King Charcoal Kilns, 5 miles west of Idaho Highway 28, Targhee National Forest, Leadore, Lemhi County, ID

  3. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the southwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  4. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  5. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  6. View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of remains of Feature 17, a cottage, view to the northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  7. View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 1, the remains of and administration building, view to the north - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  8. View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of the remains of Feature 19, a cottage, view to the west-northwest - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  9. View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Feature 3, the remains of an administration building, view to the south - Orphan Lode Mine, North of West Rim Road between Powell Point and Maricopa Point, South Rim, Grand Canyon Village, Coconino County, AZ

  10. 13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. View South, showing the remaining pier footings for the steam engine water tower for the Chesapeake and Ohio Railroad. - Cotton Hill Station Bridge, Spanning New River at State Route 16, Cotton Hill, Fayette County, WV

  11. 6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. REMAINS OF 48' MILL SHIPPING BUILDING. THE END OF THE MILL TABLE IS VISIBLE IN THE MIDDLE OF THE PHOTOGRAPH. - U.S. Steel Homestead Works, 48" Plate Mill, Along Monongahela River, Homestead, Allegheny County, PA

  12. 21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    21. Detail of remains of machinery house viewed from below anchor-span deck, showing drawspan cable running back to the winding drum of the winch; view to northeast. - Summer Street Bridge, Spanning Reserved Channel, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  13. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, with floor boards removed, showing cross beams, foundation sill and mortises, and horizontal wall boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  14. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, wall boards, tenoned uprights and mortised sill beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  15. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill with most floorboards removed, showing cross beams with mortises, vertical wall boards, and horizontal floor boards. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  16. Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Cellar: Detail of paired relieving arch and remains of herringbone brick pattern from earlier cooking fireplace at back, southeast wall looking southeast - Kingston-Upon-Hill, Kitts Hummock Road, Dover, Kent County, DE

  17. Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view looking northeast at ramp 3. View shows remaining stone inlay to provide traction surface. - Naval Air Station North Island, Seaplane Ramps Nos. 2, 3 & 4, North Island, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  18. 11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. LOOKING SOUTH AT THE ONLY REMAINING PART OF THE NORTH SIDE OF ORIGINAL LAB, FROM COURTYARD. - U.S. Geological Survey, Rock Magnetics Laboratory, 345 Middlefield Road, Menlo Park, San Mateo County, CA

  19. View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of submerged remains of Read Sawmill, showing floor boards, cross beams and notches for wall post beams. - Silas C. Read Sawmill, Outlet of Maxwell Lake near North Range Road, Fort Gordon, Richmond County, GA

  20. The taphonomy of human remains in a glacial environment.

    PubMed

    Pilloud, Marin A; Megyesi, Mary S; Truffer, Martin; Congram, Derek

    2016-04-01

    A glacial environment is a unique setting that can alter human remains in characteristic ways. This study describes glacial dynamics and how glaciers can be understood as taphonomic agents. Using a case study of human remains recovered from Colony Glacier, Alaska, a glacial taphonomic signature is outlined that includes: (1) movement of remains, (2) dispersal of remains, (3) altered bone margins, (4) splitting of skeletal elements, and (5) extensive soft tissue preservation and adipocere formation. As global glacier area is declining in the current climate, there is the potential for more materials of archaeological and medicolegal significance to be exposed. It is therefore important for the forensic anthropologist to have an idea of the taphonomy in this setting and to be able to differentiate glacial effects from other taphonomic agents. PMID:26917542

  1. Looking northeast at the remains of the steam Jenny which ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Looking northeast at the remains of the steam Jenny which drove the boiler stokes. - Wheeling-Pittsburgh Steel Corporation, Allenport Works, Boiler House, Route 88 on West bank of Monongahela River, Allenport, Washington County, PA

  2. 3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    3. INTERIOR OF THE WATER FILTRATION PLANT SHOWING REMAINS OF THE FILTRATION APPARATUS. - Tower Hill No. 2 Mine, Approximately 0.47 mile Southwest of intersection of Stone Church Road & Township Route 561, Hibbs, Fayette County, PA

  3. 1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. VIEW SHOWING REMAINS OF CAMOUFLAGE COVERING CONCRETE FOOTING FOR A GENERATOR PAD - Fort Cronkhite, Anti-Aircraft Battery No. 1, Concrete Footing-Generator Pad, Wolf Road, Sausalito, Marin County, CA

  4. 1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    1. SOUTHWEST FRONT AND SOUTHEAST SIDE OF BLACKSMITH SHOP REMAINS, TENANT HOUSE IN BACKGROUND - Mount Etna Iron Works, Blacksmith Shop, East of U.S. Route 22 on T.R. 463, Williamsburg, Blair County, PA

  5. 52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    52. VIEW OF REMAINS OF ORIGINAL 1907 CONTROL PANEL, LOCATED ON NORTH WALL OF EAST END OF CONTROL ROOM. PORTIONS OF THIS PANEL REMAINED IN USE UNTIL THE PLANT CLOSED. THE METERS AND CONTROLS ARE MOUNTED ON SOAPSTONE PANELS. THE INSTRUMENT IN THE LEFT CENTER OF THE PHOTOGRAPH IS A TIRRILL VOLTAGE REGULATOR. - New York, New Haven & Hartford Railroad, Cos Cob Power Plant, Sound Shore Drive, Greenwich, Fairfield County, CT

  6. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  7. Corticospinal neurons in macaque ventral premotor cortex with mirror properties: a potential mechanism for action suppression?

    PubMed

    Kraskov, Alexander; Dancause, Numa; Quallo, Marsha M; Shepherd, Samantha; Lemon, Roger N

    2009-12-24

    The discovery of "mirror neurons" in area F5 of the ventral premotor cortex has prompted many theories as to their possible function. However, the identity of mirror neurons remains unknown. Here, we investigated whether identified pyramidal tract neurons (PTNs) in area F5 of two adult macaques exhibited "mirror-like" activity. About half of the 64 PTNs tested showed significant modulation of their activity while monkeys observed precision grip of an object carried out by an experimenter, with somewhat fewer showing modulation during precision grip without an object or grasping concealed from the monkey. Therefore, mirror-like activity can be transmitted directly to the spinal cord via PTNs. A novel finding is that many PTNs (17/64) showed complete suppression of discharge during action observation, while firing actively when the monkey grasped food rewards. We speculate that this suppression of PTN discharge might be involved in the inhibition of self-movement during action observation.

  8. Fluvial transport of human remains in the lower Mississippi River.

    PubMed

    Bassett, Helen E; Manhein, Mary H

    2002-07-01

    The Mississippi River has claimed many lives over the last several decades. A better understanding of the universal dynamics of its fluvial system can help direct the production of a predictive model regarding the transportation of human remains in the river. The model may then be applied to situations where the location and the identification of water victims are necessarily part of the recovery process. Results from the preliminary phase of a longitudinal project involving the transport of human remains in the Mississippi River are presented and represent the analyses of 233 case files of river victims. A provisional model for fluvial transport of human remains in the Mississippi River is proposed and examined. This model indicates that time in the river and distance a body travels are related. Such a model may assist in pinpointing entry location for unidentified human remains found in the river or on its banks. Further, it has the potential to provide local and regional law enforcement agencies, the United States Coast Guard, and other search and rescue organizations with primary search areas when someone is missing in the river. Other results from this study indicate that a relationship exists between the side of the river where victims enter the water and the side of the river where the remains are recovered. Finally, relationships are established between the length of time before recovery of the remains and state of preservation exhibited by those remains. A secondary benefit from this study is a database of river victims that can be used by a variety of different agencies.

  9. Sequence Elucidation of an Unknown Cyclic Peptide of High Doping Potential by ETD and CID Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guan, Fuyu; Uboh, Cornelius E.; Soma, Lawrence R.; Rudy, Jeffrey

    2011-04-01

    Identification of an unknown substance without any information remains a daunting challenge despite advances in chemistry and mass spectrometry. However, an unknown cyclic peptide in a sample with very limited volume seized at a Pennsylvania racetrack has been successfully identified. The unknown sample was determined by accurate mass measurements to contain a small unknown peptide as the major component. Collision-induced dissociation (CID) of the unknown peptide revealed the presence of Lys (not Gln, by accurate mass), Phe, and Arg residues, and absence of any y-type product ion. The latter, together with the tryptic digestion results of the unusual deamidation and absence of any tryptic cleavage, suggests a cyclic structure for the peptide. Electron-transfer dissociation (ETD) of the unknown peptide indicated the presence of Gln (not Lys, by the unusual deamidation), Phe, and Arg residues and their connectivity. After all the results were pieced together, a cyclic tetrapeptide, cyclo[Arg-Lys-N(C6H9)Gln-Phe], is proposed for the unknown peptide. Observations of different amino acid residues from CID and ETD experiments for the peptide were interpreted by a fragmentation pathway proposed, as was preferential CID loss of a Lys residue from the peptide. ETD was used for the first time in sequencing of a cyclic peptide; product ions resulting from ETD of the peptide identified were categorized into two types and named pseudo-b and pseudo-z ions that are important for sequencing of cyclic peptides. The ETD product ions were interpreted by fragmentation pathways proposed. Additionally, multi-stage CID mass spectrometry cannot provide complete sequence information for cyclic peptides containing adjacent Arg and Lys residues. The identified cyclic peptide has not been documented in the literature, its pharmacological effects are unknown, but it might be a "designer" drug with athletic performance-enhancing effects.

  10. Correlating chemical sensitivity and basal gene expression reveals mechanism of action | Office of Cancer Genomics

    Cancer.gov

    Changes in cellular gene expression in response to small-molecule or genetic perturbations have yielded signatures that can connect unknown mechanisms of action (MoA) to ones previously established. We hypothesized that differential basal gene expression could be correlated with patterns of small-molecule sensitivity across many cell lines to illuminate the actions of compounds whose MoA are unknown.

  11. Developmental perception of the self and action.

    PubMed

    Saegusa, Ryo; Metta, Giorgio; Sandini, Giulio; Natale, Lorenzo

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes a developmental framework for action-driven perception in anthropomorphic robots. The key idea of the framework is that action generation develops the agent's perception of its own body and actions. Action-driven development is critical for identifying changing body parts and understanding the effects of actions in unknown or nonstationary environments. We embedded minimal knowledge into the robot's cognitive system in the form of motor synergies and actions to allow motor exploration. The robot voluntarily generates actions and develops the ability to perceive its own body and the effect that it generates on the environment. The robot, in addition, can compose this kind of learned primitives to perform complex actions and characterize them in terms of their sensory effects. After learning, the robot can recognize manipulative human behaviors with cross-modal anticipation for recovery of unavailable sensory modality, and reproduce the recognized actions afterward. We evaluated the proposed framework in the experiments with a real robot. In the experiments, we achieved autonomous body identification, learning of fixation, reaching and grasping actions, and developmental recognition of human actions as well as their reproduction.

  12. Forensic considerations when dealing with incinerated human dental remains.

    PubMed

    Reesu, Gowri Vijay; Augustine, Jeyaseelan; Urs, Aadithya B

    2015-01-01

    Establishing the human dental identification process relies upon sufficient post-mortem data being recovered to allow for a meaningful comparison with ante-mortem records of the deceased person. Teeth are the most indestructible components of the human body and are structurally unique in their composition. They possess the highest resistance to most environmental effects like fire, desiccation, decomposition and prolonged immersion. In most natural as well as man-made disasters, teeth may provide the only means of positive identification of an otherwise unrecognizable body. It is imperative that dental evidence should not be destroyed through erroneous handling until appropriate radiographs, photographs, or impressions can be fabricated. Proper methods of physical stabilization of incinerated human dental remains should be followed. The maintenance of integrity of extremely fragile structures is crucial to the successful confirmation of identity. In such situations, the forensic dentist must stabilise these teeth before the fragile remains are transported to the mortuary to ensure preservation of possibly vital identification evidence. Thus, while dealing with any incinerated dental remains, a systematic approach must be followed through each stage of evaluation of incinerated dental remains to prevent the loss of potential dental evidence. This paper presents a composite review of various studies on incinerated human dental remains and discusses their impact on the process of human identification and suggests a step by step approach. PMID:25572078

  13. Identification of the remains of King Richard III.

    PubMed

    King, Turi E; Fortes, Gloria Gonzalez; Balaresque, Patricia; Thomas, Mark G; Balding, David; Maisano Delser, Pierpaolo; Neumann, Rita; Parson, Walther; Knapp, Michael; Walsh, Susan; Tonasso, Laure; Holt, John; Kayser, Manfred; Appleby, Jo; Forster, Peter; Ekserdjian, David; Hofreiter, Michael; Schürer, Kevin

    2014-12-02

    In 2012, a skeleton was excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester, the last-known resting place of King Richard III. Archaeological, osteological and radiocarbon dating data were consistent with these being his remains. Here we report DNA analyses of both the skeletal remains and living relatives of Richard III. We find a perfect mitochondrial DNA match between the sequence obtained from the remains and one living relative, and a single-base substitution when compared with a second relative. Y-chromosome haplotypes from male-line relatives and the remains do not match, which could be attributed to a false-paternity event occurring in any of the intervening generations. DNA-predicted hair and eye colour are consistent with Richard's appearance in an early portrait. We calculate likelihood ratios for the non-genetic and genetic data separately, and combined, and conclude that the evidence for the remains being those of Richard III is overwhelming.

  14. Characterization of the volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of decomposing animal remains, and compared with human remains.

    PubMed

    Cablk, Mary E; Szelagowski, Erin E; Sagebiel, John C

    2012-07-10

    Human Remains Detection (HRD) dogs can be a useful tool to locate buried human remains because they rely on olfactory rather than visual cues. Trained specifically to locate deceased humans, it is widely believed that HRD dogs can differentiate animal remains from human remains. This study analyzed the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in the headspace above partially decomposed animal tissue samples and directly compared them with results published from human tissues using established solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) methods. Volatile organic compounds present in the headspace of four different animal tissue samples (bone, muscle, fat and skin) from each of cow, pig and chicken were identified and compared to published results from human samples. Although there were compounds common to both animal and human remains, the VOC signatures of each of the animal remains differed from those of humans. Of particular interest was the difference between pigs and humans, because in some countries HRD dogs are trained on pig remains rather than human remains. Pig VOC signatures were not found to be a subset of human; in addition to sharing only seven of thirty human-specific compounds, an additional nine unique VOCs were recorded from pig samples which were not present in human samples. The VOC signatures from chicken and human samples were most similar sharing the most compounds of the animals studied. Identifying VOCs that are unique to humans may be useful to develop human-specific training aids for HRD canines, and may eventually lead to an instrument that can detect clandestine human burial sites.

  15. Cutmarked human remains bearing Neandertal features and modern human remains associated with the Aurignacian at Les Rois.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Rozzi, Fernando V; d'Errico, Francesco; Vanhaeren, Marian; Grootes, Pieter M; Kerautret, Bertrand; Dujardin, Véronique

    2009-01-01

    The view that Aurignacian technologies and their associated symbolic manifestations represent the archaeologicalproxy for the spread of Anatomically Modern Humans into Europe, is supported by few diagnostic human remains, including those from the Aurignacian site of Les Rois in south-western France. Here we reassess the taxonomic attribution of the human remains, their cultural affiliation, and provide five new radiocarbon dates for the site. Patterns of tooth growth along with the morphological and morphometric analysis of the human remains indicate that a juvenile mandible showing cutmarks presents some Neandertal features, whereas another mandible is attributed to Anatomically Modern Humans. Reappraisal of the archaeological sequence demonstrates that human remains derive from two layers dated to 28-30 kyr BP attributed to the Aurignacian, the only cultural tradition detected at the site. Three possible explanations may account for this unexpected evidence. The first one is that the Aurignacian was exclusively produced by AMH and that the child mandible from unit A2 represents evidence for consumption or, more likely, symbolic use of a Neandertal child by Aurignacian AMH The second possible explanation is that Aurignacian technologies were produced at Les Rois by human groups bearing both AMH and Neandertal features. Human remains from Les Rois would be in this case the first evidence of a biological contact between the two human groups. The third possibility is that all human remains from Les Rois represent an AMH population with conserved plesiomorphic characters suggesting a larger variation in modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

  16. Central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine microinjected into ventrolateral medullary autonomic areas of the rat.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2016-09-01

    Elevated L-homocysteine concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are related to cardiovascular and neuronal diseases, and could contribute to disease development. However, the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine in two important autonomic regulating areas remain unknown: the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), including pre-sympathetic neurons, and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including interneurons projecting to pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of L-homocysteine microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM areas on changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats, as well as the influence of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors on the central actions of L-homocysteine. L-Homocysteine solutions were microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM, which were defined according to pressor and depressor responses to L-glutamate microinjections, respectively. ABP and HR increased in the RVLM and decreased in the CVLM after microinjection with L-homocysteine, similar to L-glutamate, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting mediation of EAA receptors. Prior microinjection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) iEAA receptor antagonist MK801, but not the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX, abolished the observed responses to L-homocysteine in both the RVLM and CVLM. These results indicate the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine via MK801-sensitive receptors of the medullary autonomic neurons in the rat RVLM and CVLM. It remains unknown if the central cardiovascular actions are related to cardiovascular diseases after endogenously and locally augmented L-homocysteine production by disordered metabolism. Further studies on functional significance of L-homocysteine may provide some clue to understand its toxic mechanism. PMID:27178024

  17. Central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine microinjected into ventrolateral medullary autonomic areas of the rat.

    PubMed

    Takemoto, Yumi

    2016-09-01

    Elevated L-homocysteine concentrations in the plasma and cerebrospinal fluid are related to cardiovascular and neuronal diseases, and could contribute to disease development. However, the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine in two important autonomic regulating areas remain unknown: the rostral ventrolateral medulla (RVLM), including pre-sympathetic neurons, and the caudal ventrolateral medulla (CVLM), including interneurons projecting to pre-sympathetic neurons in the RVLM. Therefore, the aim of the current study was to examine the influence of L-homocysteine microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM areas on changes in arterial blood pressure (ABP) and heart rate (HR) of anesthetized rats, as well as the influence of ionotropic excitatory amino acid (iEAA) receptors on the central actions of L-homocysteine. L-Homocysteine solutions were microinjected into the RVLM and CVLM, which were defined according to pressor and depressor responses to L-glutamate microinjections, respectively. ABP and HR increased in the RVLM and decreased in the CVLM after microinjection with L-homocysteine, similar to L-glutamate, in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting mediation of EAA receptors. Prior microinjection of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) iEAA receptor antagonist MK801, but not the non-NMDA receptor antagonist CNQX, abolished the observed responses to L-homocysteine in both the RVLM and CVLM. These results indicate the central cardiovascular actions of L-homocysteine via MK801-sensitive receptors of the medullary autonomic neurons in the rat RVLM and CVLM. It remains unknown if the central cardiovascular actions are related to cardiovascular diseases after endogenously and locally augmented L-homocysteine production by disordered metabolism. Further studies on functional significance of L-homocysteine may provide some clue to understand its toxic mechanism.

  18. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found.

  19. Classification of pelvic ring fractures in skeletonized human remains.

    PubMed

    Báez-Molgado, Socorro; Bartelink, Eric J; Jellema, Lyman M; Spurlock, Linda; Sholts, Sabrina B

    2015-01-01

    Pelvic ring fractures are associated with high rates of mortality and thus can provide key information about circumstances surrounding death. These injuries can be particularly informative in skeletonized remains, yet difficult to diagnose and interpret. This study adapted a clinical system of classifying pelvic ring fractures according to their resultant degree of pelvic stability for application to gross human skeletal remains. The modified Tile criteria were applied to the skeletal remains of 22 individuals from the Cleveland Museum of Natural History and Universidad Nacional Autónoma de México that displayed evidence of pelvic injury. Because these categories are tied directly to clinical assessments concerning the severity and treatment of injuries, this approach can aid in the identification of manner and cause of death, as well as interpretations of possible mechanisms of injury, such as those typical in car-to-pedestrian and motor vehicle accidents. PMID:25381919

  20. Microscopic residues of bone from dissolving human remains in acids.

    PubMed

    Vermeij, Erwin; Zoon, Peter; van Wijk, Mayonne; Gerretsen, Reza

    2015-05-01

    Dissolving bodies is a current method of disposing of human remains and has been practiced throughout the years. During the last decade in the Netherlands, two cases have emerged in which human remains were treated with acid. In the first case, the remains of a cremated body were treated with hydrofluoric acid. In the second case, two complete bodies were dissolved in a mixture of hydrochloric and sulfuric acid. In both cases, a great variety of evidence was collected at the scene of crime, part of which was embedded in resin, polished, and investigated using SEM/EDX. Apart from macroscopic findings like residual bone and artificial teeth, in both cases, distinct microscopic residues of bone were found as follows: (partly) digested bone, thin-walled structures, and recrystallized calcium phosphate. Although some may believe it is possible to dissolve a body in acid completely, at least some of these microscopic residues will always be found. PMID:25677640

  1. Osteometric sex determination of burned human skeletal remains.

    PubMed

    Gonçalves, D; Thompson, T J U; Cunha, E

    2013-10-01

    Sex determination of human burned skeletal remains is extremely hard to achieve because of heat-related fragmentation, warping and dimensional changes. In particular, the latter is impeditive of osteometric analyses that are based on references developed on unburned bones. New osteometric references were thus obtained which allow for more reliable sex determinations. The calcined remains of cremated Portuguese individuals were examined and specific standard measurements of the humerus, femur, talus and calcaneus were recorded. This allowed for the compilation of new sex discriminating osteometric references which were then tested on independent samples with good results. Both the use of simple section points and of logistic regression equations provided successful sex classification scores. These references may now be used for the sex determination of burned skeletons. Its reliability is highest for contemporary Portuguese remains but nonetheless these results have important repercussion for forensic research. More conservative use of these references may also prove valuable for other populations as well as for archaeological research.

  2. Dynamic Modeling from Flight Data with Unknown Time Skews

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    2016-01-01

    A method for estimating dynamic model parameters from flight data with unknown time skews is described and demonstrated. The method combines data reconstruction, nonlinear optimization, and equation-error parameter estimation in the frequency domain to accurately estimate both dynamic model parameters and the relative time skews in the data. Data from a nonlinear F-16 aircraft simulation with realistic noise, instrumentation errors, and arbitrary time skews were used to demonstrate the approach. The approach was further evaluated using flight data from a subscale jet transport aircraft, where the measured data were known to have relative time skews. Comparison of modeling results obtained from time-skewed and time-synchronized data showed that the method accurately estimates both dynamic model parameters and relative time skew parameters from flight data with unknown time skews.

  3. Child deaths of unknown cause: review of 7 years' experience.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Kathryn A; Marshall, William N

    2004-01-01

    Using data from the Pima County (Arizona) Child Fatality Review Team, we sought to describe the nature of unknown cause pediatric deaths. Of 1,150 total deaths (1995-2001), 22 were unknown cause and 3 had only a mode of death on the death certificate. There were 15 infants <6 months, 4 children 1-4 years, 2 children 5-9 years, 1 preteen (10-14 years), and 3 aged 15-17 years. Four patterns were seen: those resembling SIDS but with confounding history, autopsy, or scene investigation; sleeping toddlers with respiratory symptoms; children with underlying conditions not expected to cause death; and deaths without complete investigation. PMID:15583775

  4. Towards high-speed autonomous navigation of unknown environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richter, Charles; Roy, Nicholas

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, we summarize recent research enabling high-speed navigation in unknown environments for dynamic robots that perceive the world through onboard sensors. Many existing solutions to this problem guarantee safety by making the conservative assumption that any unknown portion of the map may contain an obstacle, and therefore constrain planned motions to lie entirely within known free space. In this work, we observe that safety constraints may significantly limit performance and that faster navigation is possible if the planner reasons about collision with unobserved obstacles probabilistically. Our overall approach is to use machine learning to approximate the expected costs of collision using the current state of the map and the planned trajectory. Our contribution is to demonstrate fast but safe planning using a learned function to predict future collision probabilities.

  5. Radiohalos: some unique lead isotope ratios and unknown alpha radioactivity.

    PubMed

    Gentry, R V

    1971-08-20

    Previously unreported lead isotope ratios, that is, values for the lead-206/lead-207 ratio ranging from about 20 to 60, primarily radiogenic in origin but unsupported by uranium decay, have been determined in the inclusions of certain polonium halos by means of ion microprobe techniques. Evidence for radiogenic lead-208 unsupported by thorium decay may also be inferred from the existence of a composite polonium halo type with rings from the radioactive precursors of lead-208. Several new dwarf halo sizes, seem to indicate the existence of unknown, very low-energy alpha-emitters. Furthermore, the three-ring "X halo" also provides evidence for an unknown series of genetically related alpha-emitters with energies in the range from 3 to 7 million electron volts.

  6. Experimental creation of superposition of unknown photonic quantum states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Xiao-Min; Hu, Meng-Jun; Chen, Jiang-Shan; Liu, Bi-Heng; Huang, Yun-Feng; Li, Chuan-Feng; Guo, Guang-Can; Zhang, Yong-Sheng

    2016-09-01

    As one of the most intriguing intrinsic properties of the quantum world, quantum superposition provokes great interest in its own generation. Though a universal quantum machine that creates superposition of two arbitrary unknown states has been shown to be physically impossible, a probabilistic protocol exists given that two input states have nonzero overlaps with the referential state. Here we report a probabilistic quantum machine realizing superposition of two arbitrary unknown photonic qubits as long as they have nonzero overlaps with the horizontal polarization state |H > . A total of 11 different qubit pairs are chosen to test this protocol and we obtain the average fidelity as high as 0.99, which shows the excellent reliability of our realization. This realization may have significant applications in quantum information and quantum computation, e.g., generating nonclassical states and realizing information compression in a quantum computation.

  7. NASA WHY FILES: The Case of the Unknown Stink

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    In this program, students are invited to actively join the tree house detectives as they investigate the 'Case of the Unknown Stink.' The tree house detectives accept the challenge of trying to find the source of an unpleasant odor that is invading the surrounding neighborhoods. To determine the source of the stink, our detectives learn about the sense of smell: what it is, how people and animals smell, and how wind speed and direction influence the movement of odor. They also learn about how NASA's Atmospheric Science research can help solve the case. While investigating the case, the tree house detectives learn that the source of the 'unknown stink' is 'right under their very noses.'

  8. 14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1925; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: THE RATH COMPLEX IN THE MID 1920; LARGE BUILDING TO LEFT OF SMOKESTACK IS HOG KILL (BUILDING 40); LOOKING NORTH FROM ACROSS CEDAR RIVER - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  9. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, October 1911 (original print located at National Archives and Records Center, Denver, Colorado). "OUTLET TUNNEL PRIOR TO BACKFILLING." SHOWS CONDUIT SECTION THAT WOULD PASS THROUGH THE NOT-YET-BUILT DAM EMBANKMENT. THE CORE WALL IS VISIBLE THROUGH THE CENTER OF THE VIEW - Kachess Dam, Outlet Channel, Kachess River, 1.5 miles north of Interstate 90, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  10. 13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1940. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1940. Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING SOUTH AND EAST FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH OVERHEAD PIPING IN FOREGROUND AND RETAIL SCALES OFFICE AT FAR RIGHT, LOOKING NORTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  11. 11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1955. Original photograph ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown, circa 1955. Original photograph can be found in Marvine Colliery folder in the archives of the Lackawanna Historical Society, Scranton, Pennsylvania. VIEW SHOWING EAST AND NORTH FACADES OF BREAKER, WITH BOILER HOUSE AT FAR LEFT AND RETAIL SCALES OFFICE DIRECTLY EAST OF BREAKER, LOOKING SOUTHWEST - Marvine Colliery, Breaker No. 2, West side Boulevard Avenue, between East Parker Street & Route 380, Scranton, Lackawanna County, PA

  12. Earth Limb and Clouds over Open Ocean, Location Unknown

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    A northern hemisphere tropical storm over open ocean - location unknown, can be seen forming by the loosly defined cyclonic spiral gyre within the cumulonimbus clouds. The storm can be readily identified as being in the northern hemisphere by the counter-clockwise rotation of the gyre. Because of the Earth's rotation induced coriolis effect, all northern hemisphere cyclonic circulations rotate in a counter-clockwise spiral and all those in the southern hemisphere rotate in a clockwise spiral.

  13. 2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    2. Photographic copy of undated photograph; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collections, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6; HOG KILLING OPERATIONS INSIDE BUILDING 40; WORKER AT RIGHT REAR IS USING BLOWTORCH TO REMOVE BRISTLES FROM CARCASSES - Rath Packing Company, Hog Killing & By-Products Building, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  14. Interferometric distillation and determination of unknown two-qubit entanglement

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S.-S. B.; Sim, H.-S.

    2009-05-15

    We propose a scheme for both distilling and quantifying entanglement, applicable to individual copies of an arbitrary unknown two-qubit state. It is realized in a usual two-qubit interferometry with local filtering. Proper filtering operation for the maximal distillation of the state is achieved by erasing single-qubit interference, and then the concurrence of the state is determined directly from the visibilities of two-qubit interference. We compare the scheme with full state tomography.

  15. Fever of unknown origin (FUO) due to Legionnaire's disease.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Gómez, Sigridh; Cunha, Burke A

    2015-01-01

    Fevers of unknown origin (FUOs) may be due to any of over 200 different disorders. We present a most unusual case of an FUO in a returning traveler from the Dominican Republic. Work-up for Q fever, Brucellosis, Bartonella, malaria and HIV were negative, but very highly elevated ESRs and ferritin levels suggested possible Legionnaire's disease. This is the third reported case of Legionnaire's disease presenting as an FUO.

  16. 11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    11. Photographic copy of photograph, photographer unknown, 2 July 1938 (original print located at U.S. Bureau of Reclamation Upper Columbia Area Office, Yakima, Washington). "Inspecting concrete on upstream face of Keechelus Dam spillway. Joseph Jacobs, consulting engineer; M.B. Lemon, Gatetender; Paul Taylor, assistant engineer; and C.H. Paul, consulting engineer." - Keechelus Dam, Spillway, Yakim River, 10 miles northwest of Easton, Easton, Kittitas County, WA

  17. Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Photocopy of photograph. Photographer unknown. Typical suggestion award photograph from the World War II period. Useful suggestions were awarded a $ 50 bond and usually a photo in the shipyard newspaper, the beacon. This photo shows an improved bilge block template layout table left to right: Stuart S. Sanders, Rosalie Moschella, Eddie Ormond, Lt. CDR. J.M. Ballinger, and A.A. Goldman. - Naval Base Philadelphia-Philadelphia Naval Shipyard, League Island, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  18. Component spectra extraction from terahertz measurements of unknown mixtures.

    PubMed

    Li, Xian; Hou, D B; Huang, P J; Cai, J H; Zhang, G X

    2015-10-20

    The aim of this work is to extract component spectra from unknown mixtures in the terahertz region. To that end, a method, hard modeling factor analysis (HMFA), was applied to resolve terahertz spectral matrices collected from the unknown mixtures. This method does not require any expertise of the user and allows the consideration of nonlinear effects such as peak variations or peak shifts. It describes the spectra using a peak-based nonlinear mathematic model and builds the component spectra automatically by recombination of the resolved peaks through correlation analysis. Meanwhile, modifications on the method were made to take the features of terahertz spectra into account and to deal with the artificial baseline problem that troubles the extraction process of some terahertz spectra. In order to validate the proposed method, simulated wideband terahertz spectra of binary and ternary systems and experimental terahertz absorption spectra of amino acids mixtures were tested. In each test, not only the number of pure components could be correctly predicted but also the identified pure spectra had a good similarity with the true spectra. Moreover, the proposed method associated the molecular motions with the component extraction, making the identification process more physically meaningful and interpretable compared to other methods. The results indicate that the HMFA method with the modifications can be a practical tool for identifying component terahertz spectra in completely unknown mixtures. This work reports the solution to this kind of problem in the terahertz region for the first time, to the best of the authors' knowledge, and represents a significant advance toward exploring physical or chemical mechanisms of unknown complex systems by terahertz spectroscopy.

  19. 13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1901; Photographer unknown; Original in collection of Waterloo Courier, Waterloo, Iowa; THE RATH COMPLEX AS IT APPEARED AT THE END OF THE COMPANY'S FIRST DECADE: ENGINE ROOM AT LEFT, KILLING BUILDING AT CENTER, WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS AT RIGHT; A PORTION OF THE ICEHOUSE IS VISIBLE AT EXTREME RIGHT; LOOKING SOUTH - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA

  20. 16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. Photographic copy of photograph dated ca. 1935; Photographer unknown; Original in Rath collection at Iowa State University Libraries, Department of Special Collection, Ames, Iowa; Filed under: Rath Packing Company, Public Relations, Symbol N, Box 106, File 6: COLD STORAGE AND WAREHOUSE BUILDINGS ON WEST END OF RATH COMPLEX; BUILDING WITH ELEVATOR TOWER NEAR CENTER OF PHOTO IS BUILDING 9: LOOKING SOUTHEAST - Rath Packing Company, Sycamore Street between Elm & Eighteenth Streets, Waterloo, Black Hawk County, IA