Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey
This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…
... Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity to contest findings of research misconduct and administrative actions. (a) Opportunity to contest. A respondent may contest ORI findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions, including...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. When the final HHS action does not result in a settlement or finding of... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. When a final HHS action results in a settlement or research misconduct... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding...
... administrative actions. After completing its review, ORI either closes the case without a finding of research... administrative actions based on the record of the research misconduct proceedings and any other information... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or finding... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final HHS action with settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...
... misconduct and administrative actions. 93.501 Section 93.501 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Opportunity To Contest ORI Findings of Research Misconduct and HHS Administrative Actions General Information § 93.501 Opportunity...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...
... Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement or... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Final HHS action with no settlement or finding of research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH...
... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...
... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...
... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed administrative actions. 93.404 Section 93.404 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES HEALTH ASSESSMENTS AND HEALTH EFFECTS STUDIES OF HAZARDOUS SUBSTANCES RELEASES AND...
... findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. (a) When the ORI makes a finding of research misconduct or seeks to impose or enforce HHS administrative actions, other than debarment or... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of...
Through case studies, this paper explores problems teachers face when doing action research: for instance, teachers may misunderstand the research, mistrust university researchers, lack the time or adequate library resources to conduct research, lack theoretical guidance or knowledge of research methodology, and feel pressure or frustration during…
... research misconduct. 93.411 Section 93.411 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.411 Final HHS action with settlement or...
... research misconduct. 93.410 Section 93.410 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND... FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.410 Final HHS action with no settlement...
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Findings of research misconduct and proposed... PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.404 Findings of research misconduct and...
Cuellar-Padilla, Mamen; Calle-Collado, Angel
This paper reports on an experiment linking science with people. Taking as a paradigm the holistic scientific approach fostered by agroecology, we present a methodological proposal for the implementation of participatory action research in rural areas. Our aims were various: to solve a specific problem, i.e. the exclusion of small- and…
.... Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...
.... Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...
.... Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent of... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Notifying the respondent of findings of research misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH...
Preston, Lou; Griffiths, Amma
Improving human-nature relationships is often a stated aim of outdoor education, yet this aim is not always made explicit in practice. This paper reflects on a pedagogical intervention which aims to find ways to explicitly develop students' connections with natural places through a tertiary outdoor and environmental education program. It describes…
Coetzee, Minette; Britton, Margretta; Clow, Sheila E
The voice of clinical nurses is important to find and hear in the design of curricula. A participative action research project proposed to add this voice to the design of a new Critical Care Child Nursing programme at the University of Cape Town (UCT). Nurses' experiences of nursing critically ill children and their perceived learning needs in this context, were the central focus of the study. Participants were registered nurses working in the paediatric intensive care unit at the Red Cross Children's Hospital (a specialist hospital), which offers secondary and tertiary care in the Cape Town region and beyond. Data were gathered in five focussed group discussions. Findings indicate that the Critical Care Child Nurse needs not only a specialised knowledge base and acutely developed assessment skills, but also astute interpersonal skills. The nurse's professional identity and integration into the multidisciplinary team need exploring. Together with the development of interpersonal skills, the nurse needs to engage the child and family.
... misconduct and HHS administrative actions. 93.405 Section 93.405 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE... RELEASES AND FACILITIES PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT Responsibilities of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services Research Misconduct Issues § 93.405 Notifying the respondent...
Walker, Martha Lentz
Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…
Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen
Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)
Kurt Lewin, the originator of action research, proposed that it was valuable not only for innovating change, but also the process of change could lead to new insights into the nature of the problem that was being tackled. This action research project developed and evaluated a teaching model that aimed to help RGN (registered general nurse) students to bridge the theory-practice gap. During the course of this work, the possible reasons for a theory-practice gap started to become clear. This paper provides a discussion of these factors. The viewpoint for this discussion is that of the student nurse. The student is assumed to 'own' the problem and it is from her perspective that the theory-practice gap is analysed. The paper includes a critical examination of books, lectures, the school curriculum and ward nursing practice. Finally, possible solutions to the theory-practice problem are discussed and it is hoped that these will provide a rational basis for tackling the problem.
de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly
Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…
Blai, Boris, Jr.
Although many agree that institutional research in higher education has come of age and is accepted as a part of institutional management, great variations exist in the extent to which institutional research findings are synthesized and utilized in management decision-making. A number of reasons can be identified as accounting for this phenomenon,…
Shah, Ashvin; Gurney, Kevin N.
Animals are able to discover the minimal number of actions that achieves an outcome (the minimal action sequence). In most accounts of this, actions are associated with a measure of behavior that is higher for actions that lead to the outcome with a shorter action sequence, and learning mechanisms find the actions associated with the highest measure. In this sense, previous accounts focus on more than the simple binary signal of “was the outcome achieved?”; they focus on “how well was the outcome achieved?” However, such mechanisms may not govern all types of behavioral development. In particular, in the process of action discovery (Redgrave and Gurney, 2006), actions are reinforced if they simply lead to a salient outcome because biological reinforcement signals occur too quickly to evaluate the consequences of an action beyond an indication of the outcome's occurrence. Thus, action discovery mechanisms focus on the simple evaluation of “was the outcome achieved?” and not “how well was the outcome achieved?” Notwithstanding this impoverishment of information, can the process of action discovery find the minimal action sequence? We address this question by implementing computational mechanisms, referred to in this paper as no-cost learning rules, in which each action that leads to the outcome is associated with the same measure of behavior. No-cost rules focus on “was the outcome achieved?” and are consistent with action discovery. No-cost rules discover the minimal action sequence in simulated tasks and execute it for a substantial amount of time. Extensive training, however, results in extraneous actions, suggesting that a separate process (which has been proposed in action discovery) must attenuate learning if no-cost rules participate in behavioral development. We describe how no-cost rules develop behavior, what happens when attenuation is disrupted, and relate the new mechanisms to wider computational and biological context. PMID:25506326
Rogers, Jennifer; Convery, Ian; Simmons, Eunice; Weatherall, Andrew
This paper is a reflective account exploring the value of using action research in a relatively new context in the United Kingdom; the development of community renewable-energy projects. There is a strong rationale for using action research in this setting due to the synergies between the principles and practice of action research and localised…
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given that the Office of Research Integrity (ORI) has... former Assistant Scientist, UW, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National...
Helskog, Guro Hansen
In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…
Beaulieu, Rodney J.
Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…
This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…
Conway, Colleen M.; Borst, James
Provides background information on using action research in music education. Offers guidelines for teachers to help them do action research. Includes an example of how a music teacher conducted action research in which the teacher asked, "Why did [the students] continue vocal music from middle school to high school?" (CMK)
Hansen, Janet S.; Podgursky, Michael J.; Costrell, Robert M.
This policy brief summarizes findings presented at a February 2009 research conference on teacher retirement systems hosted by the National Center on Performance Incentives (NCPI) at Vanderbilt University's Peabody College. The 2009 conference was the second in a series of NCPI events focusing on findings from recent research on issues related to…
Hingson, Ralph; White, Aaron
Objective: In 2007, the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issued The Surgeon General’s Call To Action To Prevent And Reduce Underage Drinking, a publication documenting a problem linked to nearly 5,000 injury deaths annually and poor academic performance, potential cognitive deficits, risky sexual behavior, physical and sexual assaults, and other substance use. This report reviews subsequent underage drinking and related traffic fatality trends and research on determinants, consequences, and prevention interventions. Method: New research reports, meta-analyses, and systematic literature reviews were examined. Results: Since the Call to Action, reductions in underage frequency of drinking, heavy drinking occasions, and alcohol-related traffic deaths that began in the 1980s when the drinking age nationally became 21 have continued. Knowledge regarding determinants and consequences, particularly the effects of early-onset drinking, parental alcohol provision, and cognitive effects, has expanded. Additional studies support associations between the legal drinking age of 21, zero tolerance laws, higher alcohol prices, and reduced drinking and related problems. New research suggests that use/lose laws, social host liability, internal possession laws, graduated licensing, and night driving restrictions reduce traffic deaths involving underage drinking drivers. Additional studies support the positive effects of individually oriented interventions, especially screening and brief motivational interventions, web and face-to-face social norms interventions, college web-based interventions, parental interventions, and multicomponent community interventions. Conclusions: Despite reductions in underage alcohol consumption and related traffic deaths, underage drinking remains an enduring problem. Continued research is warranted in minimally studied areas, such as prospective studies of alcohol and brain development, policy studies of use/lose laws, internal possession
Davidoff, Sue, Ed.; And Others
This book is the result of a seminar on emancipatory education and the action research projects in the Department of Didactics at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The book starts with questions regarding the nature of action research. This first chapter discusses the meaning of some crucial organizing concepts, asks questions…
Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…
Jefferson, Renée N.
Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…
The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…
Meyers, Ellen; Rust, Frances O'Connell
This collection of papers presents examples of teacher research in action. Each study grew out of teachers' questions regarding the implementation of some aspect of education policy in their schools and classrooms. After "Introduction" (Frances O'Connell Rust and Ellen Meyers), the eight papers focus on: (1) "How We Do Action Research" (Frances…
Background Priority-setting decisions are based on an important, but not sufficient set of values and thus lead to disagreement on priorities. Accountability for Reasonableness (AFR) is an ethics-based approach to a legitimate and fair priority-setting process that builds upon four conditions: relevance, publicity, appeals, and enforcement, which facilitate agreement on priority-setting decisions and gain support for their implementation. This paper focuses on the assessment of AFR within the project REsponse to ACcountable priority setting for Trust in health systems (REACT). Methods This intervention study applied an action research methodology to assess implementation of AFR in one district in Kenya, Tanzania, and Zambia, respectively. The assessments focused on selected disease, program, and managerial areas. An implementing action research team of core health team members and supporting researchers was formed to implement, and continually assess and improve the application of the four conditions. Researchers evaluated the intervention using qualitative and quantitative data collection and analysis methods. Results The values underlying the AFR approach were in all three districts well-aligned with general values expressed by both service providers and community representatives. There was some variation in the interpretations and actual use of the AFR in the decision-making processes in the three districts, and its effect ranged from an increase in awareness of the importance of fairness to a broadened engagement of health team members and other stakeholders in priority setting and other decision-making processes. Conclusions District stakeholders were able to take greater charge of closing the gap between nationally set planning and the local realities and demands of the served communities within the limited resources at hand. This study thus indicates that the operationalization of the four broadly defined and linked conditions is both possible and seems to
Background One of the most consistent findings from clinical and health services research is the failure to translate research into practice and policy. As a result of these evidence-practice and policy gaps, patients fail to benefit optimally from advances in healthcare and are exposed to unnecessary risks of iatrogenic harms, and healthcare systems are exposed to unnecessary expenditure resulting in significant opportunity costs. Over the last decade, there has been increasing international policy and research attention on how to reduce the evidence-practice and policy gap. In this paper, we summarise the current concepts and evidence to guide knowledge translation activities, defined as T2 research (the translation of new clinical knowledge into improved health). We structure the article around five key questions: what should be transferred; to whom should research knowledge be transferred; by whom should research knowledge be transferred; how should research knowledge be transferred; and, with what effect should research knowledge be transferred? Discussion We suggest that the basic unit of knowledge translation should usually be up-to-date systematic reviews or other syntheses of research findings. Knowledge translators need to identify the key messages for different target audiences and to fashion these in language and knowledge translation products that are easily assimilated by different audiences. The relative importance of knowledge translation to different target audiences will vary by the type of research and appropriate endpoints of knowledge translation may vary across different stakeholder groups. There are a large number of planned knowledge translation models, derived from different disciplinary, contextual (i.e., setting), and target audience viewpoints. Most of these suggest that planned knowledge translation for healthcare professionals and consumers is more likely to be successful if the choice of knowledge translation strategy is informed by
Altrichter, Herbert; Kemmis, Stephen; McTaggart, Robin; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun
Explains why definition of action research is problematic and presents working definitions developed internationally that indicate its nature, philosophy, and methodology. Suggests that pragmatic approaches to definition serve communication purposes without narrowly confining the concept. (SK)
Patra, Phani B.; Patra, Sayani
Several physiopathologic conditions lead to the manifestation of overactive bladder (OAB). These conditions include ageing, diabetes mellitus, bladder outlet obstruction, spinal cord injury, stroke and brain injury, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, interstitial cystitis, stress and depression. This review has discussed research findings in human and animal studies conducted on the above conditions. Several structural and functional changes under these conditions have not only been observed in the lower urinary tract, but also in the brain and spinal cord. Significant changes were observed in the following areas: neurotransmitters, prostaglandins, nerve growth factor, Rho-kinase, interstitial cells of Cajal, and ion and transient receptor potential channels. Interestingly, alterations in these areas showed great variation in each of the conditions of the OAB, suggesting that the pathophysiology of the OAB might be different in each condition of the disease. It is anticipated that this review will be helpful for further research on new and specific drug development against OAB. PMID:26195957
Introduction: Action Research is a formative study of progress commonly practiced by teachers in schools. Basically an action research is a spiral process that includes problem investigation, taking action & fact-finding about the result of action. It enables a teacher to adopt/craft most appropriate strategy within its own teaching…
Introduction: Action Research is a formative study of progress commonly practiced by teachers in schools. Basically an action research is a spiral process that includes problem investigation, taking action & fact-finding about the result of action. It enables a teacher to adopt/craft most appropriate strategy within its own teaching environment.…
Glaveanu, Vlad; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie; Botella, Marion; de Biaisi, Pierre-Marc; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam; Georgsdottir, Asta; Guillou, Katell; Kurtag, Gyorgy; Mouchiroud, Christophe; Storme, Martin; Wojtczuk, Alicja; Zenasni, Franck
The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not "inside" individual creators but "in between" actors and their environment. Implications for the field of educational psychology are discussed.
Glaveanu, Vlad; Lubart, Todd; Bonnardel, Nathalie; Botella, Marion; de Biaisi, Pierre-Marc; Desainte-Catherine, Myriam; Georgsdottir, Asta; Guillou, Katell; Kurtag, Gyorgy; Mouchiroud, Christophe; Storme, Martin; Wojtczuk, Alicja; Zenasni, Franck
The present paper outlines an action theory of creativity and substantiates this approach by investigating creative expression in five different domains. We propose an action framework for the analysis of creative acts built on the assumption that creativity is a relational, inter-subjective phenomenon. This framework, drawing extensively from the work of Dewey (1934) on art as experience, is used to derive a coding frame for the analysis of interview material. The article reports findings from the analysis of 60 interviews with recognized French creators in five creative domains: art, design, science, scriptwriting, and music. Results point to complex models of action and inter-action specific for each domain and also to interesting patterns of similarity and differences between domains. These findings highlight the fact that creative action takes place not “inside” individual creators but “in between” actors and their environment. Implications for the field of educational psychology are discussed. PMID:23596431
Otto, Alice; Nkanga, S.
An American teaching anesthesiology in Tanzania sought help from a member of the host culture in order to grasp cultural meanings underpinning medical education practices, using action research to develop and refine research methods and solve problems related to the need to accommodate culturally diverse students' learning needs. (SM)
Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne
Action research (AR) is becoming increasingly popular in ELT contexts as a means of continuous professional development. The positive impacts of AR on language teacher development are well documented, but the important question of how those impacts can be sustained over time is virtually unexplored. Drawing on findings from a study of teachers in…
Hadfield, Mark; Bennett, Steve
Describes a project that trained institutional policymakers in action research regarding problems in developing training policies about young people's needs, examining attempts to collaborate and dialog with stakeholders and discussing how project members became enmeshed in complex sets of relationships calling for construction of dialog in…
Kiener, Michael S.; Koch, Lynn; Gitchel, Dent
This paper examines applications of action research to rehabilitation education. An overview of action research is provided, and specific examples of action research in rehabilitation and other professions are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on utilizing action research to evaluate teaching and student learning and develop scientist practitioners…
Action researchers frequently find themselves caught in a tension between the need to generate actionable, useful knowledge as an outcome of publicly funded research and the necessity to recognize that knowledge can only be actionable, and useful in that sense, if it is locally and culturally specific. This paper directly addresses this tension…
Alerts science teachers to ethical and social issues as well as research findings associated with recent developments in biomedicine. Also provides a brief list of suggested readings on bioethical issues. (PEB)
Fawcett, Stephen B.
The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759
Eight educational practices for improving classroom learning taken from the Department of Education's report "What Works--Research about Teaching and Learning" are reviewed. Reading comprehension, teaching writing, direct instruction, and homework are among the topics covered. (MT)
... Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary, HHS. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given... Immunity, HSDM, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Arthritis and... the Respondent engaged in research misconduct involving one (1) laboratory presentation and two...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Cancer Institute (NCI), National...''). Specifically, Respondent committed research misconduct by knowingly and intentionally: Falsifying...
Hariri, Ahmad R; Holmes, Andrew
In our ongoing efforts to advance understanding of human diseases, translational research across rodents and humans on stress-related mental disorders stands out as a field that is producing discoveries that illuminate mechanisms of risk and pathophysiology at a brisk rate. Here we offer a Perspective on how a productive translational research dialog between preclinical models and clinical studies of these disorders is being powered by an ever-developing appreciation of the shared neural circuits and genetic architecture that moderate the response to stress across species. Working from these deep foundations, we discuss the approaches, both traditional and innovative, that have the potential to deliver a new generation of risk biomarkers and therapeutic strategies for stress-related disorders.
Klein, Sheri R., Ed.
Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…
This paper outlines the potential benefits of using computers to enhance the action research process for classroom teachers. An argument is made for classifying action research as a type of qualitative methodology. This argument is then used to apply the literature on computer use in qualitative research to its use in action research; advantages…
Song, Liyan; Kenton, Jeffrey M.
This paper presents a study on the effectiveness of an action research model from the perspectives of school educators as action researchers. The study design followed seven action researchers--inservice teachers and school library media specialists--as they completed research projects in their schools. Data came from three different sources:…
This article explores the process of an action research project undertaken by a PDS partnership. Participants in a one day professional development seminar shared their perspectives on action research within a PDS network, and findings indicate that participants valued the collaborative effort and opportunities to share their research efforts.…
McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Jose Miguel Baptista
Presents the Educational Management Action Research model, which is intended to support action research into issues relating to the management of distance learning programs. Describes its successful use in a particular information technology course. (EV)
The purpose of this paper is to address the gap that exists in the knowledge base for understanding the repertoire of images that preservice teachers gain as they engage in action research. Data were collected using a variety of qualitative methods: journals, metaphors, narratives, action research reports, and focus group interviews. Data were…
Cook, Stuart W.
This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…
Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.
This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and…
Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E
Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.
Haswell, Richard H.
Notes discrepancies between findings from textual studies and classroom practices and textbooks. Reviews research on cohesion and writing development. Argues that teachers must critically examine writing research and apply it in the classroom. (JAD/RAE)
What is "action research" and how is it relevant to urban youth activists? Action research is a systematic process of inquiry, which involves gathering information about an issue or problem, analyzing the findings, and developing practical plans for affecting positive change. It is motivated by the desire to investigate in order to better…
Bocci, Melissa Cochrane
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…
Dorschner, Michael O.; Amendola, Laura M.; Turner, Emily H.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Shirts, Brian H.; Gallego, Carlos J.; Bennett, Robin L.; Jones, Kelly L.; Tokita, Mari J.; Bennett, James T.; Kim, Jerry H.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Kim, Daniel S.; Tabor, Holly K.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Motulsky, Arno G.; Scott, C. Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C.; Walsh, Tom; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H.; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M.; Nickerson, Deborah A.; Jarvik, Gail P.
The incorporation of genomics into medicine is stimulating interest on the return of incidental findings (IFs) from exome and genome sequencing. However, no large-scale study has yet estimated the number of expected actionable findings per individual; therefore, we classified actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants in 500 European- and 500 African-descent participants randomly selected from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Exome Sequencing Project. The 1,000 individuals were screened for variants in 114 genes selected by an expert panel for their association with medically actionable genetic conditions possibly undiagnosed in adults. Among the 1,000 participants, 585 instances of 239 unique variants were identified as disease causing in the Human Gene Mutation Database (HGMD). The primary literature supporting the variants’ pathogenicity was reviewed. Of the identified IFs, only 16 unique autosomal-dominant variants in 17 individuals were assessed to be pathogenic or likely pathogenic, and one participant had two pathogenic variants for an autosomal-recessive disease. Furthermore, one pathogenic and four likely pathogenic variants not listed as disease causing in HGMD were identified. These data can provide an estimate of the frequency (∼3.4% for European descent and ∼1.2% for African descent) of the high-penetrance actionable pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants in adults. The 23 participants with pathogenic or likely pathogenic variants were disproportionately of European (17) versus African (6) descent. The process of classifying these variants underscores the need for a more comprehensive and diverse centralized resource to provide curated information on pathogenicity for clinical use to minimize health disparities in genomic medicine. PMID:24055113
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Physiology, Department of Pediatrics and Physiology, UK, engaged in research misconduct in research supported... (NCRR), NIH, grant P20 RR105592. ] ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... and Data Base Manager, CU, engaged in research misconduct in research funded by National Institute of... Respondent's knowing and intentional falsification of data constitutes research misconduct as defined by...
Moch, Susan D; Vandenbark, R Todd; Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Stombaugh, Angela
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended.
Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Stombaugh, Angela
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended. PMID:28078138
Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Alder, Rob; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cook, Amanda; Maddalena, Victor
The evaluation of the Research to Action project was conducted using an Outcome Mapping (OM) methodology (Earl et al. 2001) with a mixed-methods, repeat survey (before/after) study design. This design uses concurrent measurement of process and outcome indicators at baseline and follow-up. The RTA project proved effective at improving work environments and thereby promoting the retention and recruitment of nurses. Nurses involved in the RTA initiatives had a higher perception of leadership and support in their units, improved job satisfaction, increased empowerment and occupational commitment, and a greater intention to stay on the job.The pilot projects were most successful when there were clearly stated objectives, buy-in from nurses, support from the steering committee and management, and adequate communication among stakeholders. Committed coordination and leadership, both locally and nationally, were central to success.Considerable evidence has documented the challenges facing Canada's nursing human resources and their workplaces, such as high levels of turnover, excessive use of overtime and persistent shortages. There is a growing imperative to translate this research into action, and much of the available evidence presents viable policy alternatives for consideration. For example, a recent national synthesis report (Maddalena and Crupi 2008) recommended that, in consultation with stakeholders, processes should be put in place to share knowledge and best practices in nursing management, practice, staffing models and innovations in workplace health and well-being.Nurses across the country report a desire to be more involved in decisions affecting them and their patients (Wortsman and Janowitz 2006). A recent study on the shortage of registered nurses in Canada (Tomblin Murphy et al. 2009) highlighted the need for collaboration among governments, employers, unions and other stakeholders to improve working conditions for nurses. Another report notes the
Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.; Lynch, Martin F.; Mackie, Karen L.
The increased use of action research in counseling training and professional publications provides an opportunity to bridge the research-practitioner gap that has plagued the profession for decades. In this article, action research is defined, and special considerations that counselor researchers need to address when designing, conducting, and…
Hine, Gregory S. C.; Lavery, Shane D.
This research paper explores the experiences of three teacher-researchers, "Simone", "Damian" and "Michael", who undertook an action research project in their respective schools as part of their postgraduate studies. The paper initially outlines the construct of action research in the light of its applicability to…
Larson, Paul A; Berland, Lincoln L; Griffith, Brent; Kahn, Charles E; Liebscher, Lawrence A
The ACR formed the Actionable Reporting Work Group to address the potential role of IT in the communication of imaging findings, especially in cases that require nonroutine communication because of the urgency of the findings or their unexpected nature. These findings that require special communication with referring clinicians are classified as "actionable findings." The work group defines 3 categories of actionable findings that require, respectively, communication and clinical decision within minutes (category 1), hours (category 2), or days (category 3). Although the work group does not believe that there can be definitive lists of such findings, it developed lists in each category that would apply in most general hospital settings. For each category, the work group discusses ways in which IT can assist interpreting radiologists in successfully communicating to the relevant clinicians to ensure optimal patient care. IT systems can also help document the communication and facilitate auditing of the documentation. The work group recommends that vendors develop platforms that can be customized on the basis of local preferences and needs. Whatever system is used, it should be highly reliable and fit seamlessly into radiologists' workflow.
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., former Director of the Laboratory of Glycoimmunotheraphy, JWCI, engaged in research misconduct in... CA107316 and R03 CA107831. ORI found that the Respondent engaged in research misconduct by...
Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S
The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health.
Eriksson, Kimmo; Simpson, Brent
Social psychology and related disciplines are seeing a resurgence of interest in replication, as well as actual replication efforts. But prior work suggests that even a clear demonstration that a finding is invalid often fails to shake acceptance of the finding. This threatens the full impact of these replication efforts. Here we show that the actions of two key players – journal editors and the authors of original (invalidated) research findings – are critical to the broader public’s continued belief in an invalidated research conclusion. Across three experiments, we show that belief in an invalidated finding falls sharply when a critical failed replication is published in the same – versus different – journal as the original finding, and when the authors of the original finding acknowledge that the new findings invalidate their conclusions. We conclude by discussing policy implications of our key findings. PMID:24023863
McTaggart, Robin, Ed.
The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…
In this paper the use value of qualitative research findings to nurses in practice is questioned. More precisely it is argued that, insofar as action follows belief then, in all but the rarest of cases, the beliefs that nurses in practice can justifiably derive from or form on the basis of qualitative research findings do not sanction action in the world and the assumption, apparently widely held, that qualitative research can as evidence productively inform practice collapses. If qualitative research does not have a substantive action guiding potential then, in consequence, three conclusions are permitted. First, regarding the requirement that nurses ground actions on evidence, regulators should redraft methodologically neutral or permissive guidelines to specify the sorts of research evidence that can serve this function. Second, qualitative methodologies should receive less prominence in nurse education programmes. Third, qualitative researchers should make it clear that their work cannot inform practice. Alternatively, if this claim is advanced the process by which this is to be achieved should be explicitly stated.
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary..., Duke, engaged in research misconduct by falsifying data in a grant application submitted to...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... intentionally tampered with research materials related to five (5) immunoprecipitation/Western blot experiments and switched the labels on four (4) cell culture dishes for cells used in the same type of...
The distance between educational researchers and classroom teachers benefits disinterested observation, but dispossesses the researchers of participatory modes of understanding. In attempting to resolve this problem, some researchers have developed the theory and practice of teachers as researchers, similar to Kurt Lewin's action research. Lewin…
Eilertsen, Tor-Vidar; Gustafson, Niklas; Salo, Petri
This paper is based on the assumption that action research always affects the micropolitical balance characteristic of a certain school setting. The authors claim that micropolitics, that is the patterns of formal power and informal influence, has largely been neglected in the literature on action research in schools. This means that action…
Teachers' classroom-based action research is sometimes misunderstood by those who undertake it and support it, in three respects. First, it is wrongly assumed to fall into either positivist or interpretive paradigms (or perhaps a mixture of both) or to be critical. Second, there is little understanding as to why action research is necessarily…
In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…
Somekh, Bridget; Zeichner, Ken
This paper explores how action research theories and practices are remodelled in local contexts and used to support educational reform. From an analysis of 46 publications from the period 2000-2008, five "variations" in the globalized theory and practice of action research are identified: action research in times of political upheaval and…
I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…
This article reports on research funded as a "Best Practice" project by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) designed to use action research to progress the government agenda for healthy schools. The project involved teachers working with university researcher. The outcome is five small research reports consisting of two…
This article summarizes the work and the main findings of an action research project that was conducted in an early childhood education and care setting in the city of Malmö, Sweden in the autumn of 2013 and spring 2014. Rönnerman's model (Aktionsforskning i praktiken: förskola och skola på vetenskaplig grund [Action research in practice:…
Cone, W. Henry
Administrators cannot afford to remain ignorant of the work of neuroscientists over the last 30 years. The findings of brain research can help administrators gain a better understanding of decision making. The author lists four benefits to education that administrators can provide through greater knowledge of the brain. (WD)
... (1) Yang, C.-S., Chuang, L.-Y., Ke, C.-H., Yang, C.-H., International Journal of Computer Science...., Baumgartner, C., Sittampalam, S., Lushington, G., International Journal of Computational Biology and Drug... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... misconduct in grant applications 1 R01 DK072026-01 and 1 R01 DK072026-01A2 submitted to the National... Respondent engaged in misconduct in science, 42 CFR 50.102, in NIDDK, NIH, grant application 1 R01...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... experiments done in 2005 that were falsely labeled as if from different experiments to construct Figure 4A in... data provided are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived and that the...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... results of a pilot experiment in which he claimed to have injected retinal pigment epithelial (RPE) cells... and no adverse effects. Respondent admitted that this experiment had not been conducted either by...
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... reporting the results from previous experiments as the actual results, when the experiments had not been... of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) viral loads in whole blood patient samples by falsely...
... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary... Respondent are based on actual experiments or are otherwise legitimately derived, and that the...
The project will implement novel field and laboratory-based studies, state-of-the-art modeling, and other research syntheses toward these goals and toward decreasing scientific uncertainty related to nutrient management. The key research areas involve improved nutrient indicator ...
Amorim, Antonio Carlos; Ryan, Charly
Deleuze and his colleagues, particularly Guattari, have had a profound impact on a number of fields of study. The authors argue that their work offers a range of images to help think about and write action research, a way that acknowledges and celebrates the complexities of the sites of action. The article has a divided structure, coherent with…
Morales, Marie Paz E.
This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…
Raman, D. Raj; Geisinger, Brandi N.; Kemis, Mari R.; de la Mora, Arlene
Summer research opportunities for undergraduates, such as those supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, can be critical experiences that help persuade students to pursue research through graduate studies. Studies analyzing the key actions of successful mentors are scarce. The goal of…
Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…
The Strategic Research Action Plan for EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability research program presents the purpose, design and themes of the Agency’s research efforts to ensure safety in the design, manufacture and use of existing and future chemicals.
Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.
This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct AGENCY: Office of the Secretary.... Specifically, ORI found that Respondent: Fabricated RT-PCR and ChIP experiments represented in Figures 1b, 2b, 3a,b, 4b,c, 6a,b, 7c in Mol. Endocrinol. 23(12):2075- 85, 2009; RT-PCR and/or ChIP experiments...
Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa
We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…
Hui, Ming-Fai, Ed.; Grossman, David L., Ed.
There has been a dearth of studies on teacher educators using action research to improve their own practice. This book is the first systematic study of a group of teachers examining and enhancing their own practice through the inquiry process of action research. This book presents a broad overview of a variety of methodologies that can be used to…
This paper discusses how major breakthroughs in generating, analysing and disseminating action research about problem-based learning were made through the medium of poetry. I used poetry in three ways: as data, as an interpretive device and as a reflective medium. Poetry helped me to disseminate my research in provocative, memorable and…
Queer theory and action research together offer possibilities for exposing the deep injustice of both homophobia and heterosexism. Underpinning identity categories of sexuality and gender, these forms of social injustice lurk in schools, families, religions, communities, and nation-states. For educators and educational researchers, addressing…
Since the introduction of the action research into China in the 1980s, especially since the start of the twenty-first century, Chinese education researchers have been trying to localize it in relation to the backdrop of the national curriculum reform in basic education. This article presents three cases in which educators aimed for a conscious…
Discusses participatory action research, a methodology incorporating subjects in the research and indexing results to transformation in the lives of those involved. The approach is gaining momentum and recognition in academic circles but is often limited to specialized training centers. Two years of experience teaching this approach in social work…
Tomal, Daniel R.
This book is a straightforward, no-nonsense guide to a research method that can be used by educators to increase student learning, student self-esteem, and quality of school life in the classroom. This user-friendly book covers the principles and history of action research, ethical and legal considerations, methods for conducting both formal and…
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…
Teachers enrolled in the master of natural science program for high school science teachers at a large research university must complete a year-long action research study. This account, by the program’s action research coordinator, describes both process and outcomes of this research experience from the perspectives of the research coordinator and the teacher-researchers, shedding light on the organizational learning that takes place, and the ways in which the research experience affected individual teacher-researchers. Teachers reported that their action research experience changed them in fundamental ways, providing them with a framework for deepening their understanding of student thinking, challenging their folk wisdom about teaching and learning, building confidence in their abilities and renewing their commitment to teaching as a vocation.
Brugge, Doug; Buchner, Virginia
Recent plans for a nuclear renaissance in both established and emerging economies have prompted increased interest in uranium mining. With the potential for more uranium mining worldwide and a growth in the literature on the toxicology and epidemiology of uranium and uranium mining, we found it timely to review the current state of knowledge. Here, we present a review of the health effects of uranium mining, with an emphasis on newer findings (2005-2011). Uranium mining can contaminate air, water, and soil. The chemical toxicity of the metal constitutes the primary environmental health hazard, with the radioactivity of uranium a secondary concern. The update of the toxicologic evidence on uranium adds to the established findings regarding nephrotoxicity, genotoxicity, and developmental defects. Additional novel toxicologic findings, including some at the molecular level, are now emerging that raise the biological plausibility of adverse effects on the brain, on reproduction, including estrogenic effects, on gene expression, and on uranium metabolism. Historically, most epidemiology on uranium mining has focused on mine workers and radon exposure. Although that situation is still overwhelmingly true, a smaller emerging literature has begun to form around environmental exposure in residential areas near uranium mining and processing facilities. We present and critique such studies. Clearly, more epidemiologic research is needed to contribute to causal inference. As much damage is irreversible, and possibly cumulative, present efforts must be vigorous to limit environmental uranium contamination and exposure.
Pine, Gerald J.
As a collaborative process, action research begins when educational researchers, university faculty, and teachers assist each other in developing the skills to identify and conceptualize problems. The fundamental principle of collaborative research is that the research process is based on a system of discussion, investigation, and analysis in…
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an…
Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele
In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…
Watt, Daniel Lynn; Watt, Molly Lynn
The Logo Action Research Collaborative is creating a professional development program in the Newton (Massachusetts) schools which is based on action research and designed to support teachers and improve the use of Logo computer-assisted instruction in their classrooms. During the 1 year workshop, teachers work collaboratively on Logo programming…
Khanlou, N; Peter, E
This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards.
Windle, Sheila; Sefton, Terry
This paper and its appended multi-media production describe the rationale and process of creating and presenting a "digitally saturated" (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003), multi-layered, synchronous "montage" (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003) of educational Action Research findings. The authors contend that this type of presentation, arising from the fusion of…
Wang, Chien-hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua
This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies,…
Lyons, Wanda E.
This participatory action research study engaged classroom teachers, special education teachers, teacher assistants, and a principal in examining and resolving role issues within inclusive classrooms. Analysis of data from multiple sources revealed three predominant findings: (a) when teachers were confronted with role problems, they identified an…
Hens, Kristien; Nys, Herman; Cassiman, Jean-Jacques; Dierickx, Kris
The combination of the issue of return of individual genetic results/incidental findings and paediatric biobanks is not much discussed in ethical literature. The traditional arguments pro and con return of such findings focus on principles such as respect for persons, autonomy and solidarity. Two dimensions have been distilled from the discussion on return of individual results in a genetic research context: the respect for a participant's autonomy and the duty of the researcher. Concepts such as autonomy and solidarity do not fit easily in the discussion when paediatric biobanks are concerned. Although parents may be allowed to enrol children in minimal risk genetic research on stored tissue samples, they should not be given the option to opt out of receiving important health information. Also, children have a right to an open future: parents do not have the right to access any genetic data that a biobank holds on their children. In this respect, the guidelines on genetic testing of minors are applicable. With regard to the duty of the researcher the question of whether researchers have a more stringent duty to return important health information when their research subjects are children is more difficult to answer. A researcher's primary duty is to perform useful research, a policy to return individual results must not hamper this task. The fact that vulnerable children are concerned, is an additional factor that should be considered when a policy of returning results is laid down for a specific collection or research project.
Bhargava, Deepa; Al-Lawatia, Zainab; Al-Abri, Rashid; Bhargava, Kamlesh
Objectives: A perception exists that clinicians in Oman are reluctant to adopt evidence-based practice (EBP). This pilot study was undertaken to study the feasibility of using EBP pathways at the point of care in otorhinolaryngology head and neck surgery. The ultimate aim was to facilitate EBP with the probability of developing a new system for implementing research findings/translational research at the clinical point of care. Methods: A cross-sectional prospective questionnaire pilot survey of clinicians at Sultan Qaboos University Hospital (SQUH), Oman, a tertiary care medical centre, was undertaken. Respondents included 135 physicians and surgeons with between 3 months and 25 years of clinical experience and included personnel ranging from interns to senior consultants, in areas ranging from primary care to specialist care. Results: Of those polled, 90% (95% confidence interval (CI) 85–95%) either strongly agreed or agreed that evidence-based practice protocols (EBPP) could help in decision making. A total of 87.4% of participants (95% CI 81.8–93%) either strongly agreed or agreed that EBPPs can improve clinical outcomes; 91.8% of participants (95% CI 87.2–96.4%) would use and apply EBPP in day-to-day care if they were available at the point of care and embedded in the hospital information system. Conclusions: The perception that clinicians at SQUH are reluctant to adopt EBP is incorrect. The introduction of EBP pathways is very feasible at the primary care level. Institutional support for embedding EBP in hospital information systems is needed as well as further outcome research to assess the improvement in quality of care. PMID:22548137
This article relates the experiences of teachers from the Towson University/Prince George's County Public Schools, Maryland, Professional Development School (PDS) site. A Collaborative Action Research Study Group (ARSG) was formed to facilitate the professional development of inservice teachers involved in PDS partnerships. Setup of the ARSG was…
Lee, Vanessa; Coombe, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla
In Australia, graduates of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes are expected to achieve a set of core competencies, including a subset that is specifically related to Indigenous health. This paper reports on the methods utilised in a project which was designed using action research to strengthen Indigenous public health curricula within MPH…
Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg
This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…
Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.
Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…
Day, Nicole Kristine
This paper reviews data from 27 final reports of action research projects in the area of instructional coaching undertaken as part of Cycle 4 (2008-2010) of the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI). AISI was an Alberta government programme that provided funding to every school district to allow teachers to create site-based, action…
Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley
The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…
Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.
This booklet contains a synopsis of eight action research projects undertaken by educators from various Utah public schools presented at a series of workshops. Twenty-seven educators representing 19 schools, 9 school districts, and the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) attended the series of 4 full-day workshops held during October, February,…
Schnorr, Donna; Painter, Diane D.
This paper presents a collaborative action research partnership model that involved participation by graduate school of education preservice students, school and university teachers, and administrators. An elementary teacher-research group investigated what would happen when fourth graders worked in teams to research and produce a multimedia…
Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…
Löfman, Päivi; Pelkonen, Marjaana; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues arising out of participatory action research (PAR), on the basis of both an empirical study and the research literature, and to discuss how to deal with these issues. The data consist of the experiences and results of three phases of PAR relating to orthopaedic patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the analysis of 20 articles on the ethics of action research. As a result, the following ethical issues and the ways to treat them were discussed: informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, protecting an individual from harm, the role of the researcher, the location of 'power' in PAR, and the ownership of the research. The flexibility of PAR in use and its main features are also related to the decisions made and actions taken in response to ethical issues. It is particularly important in PAR to proceed according to the participants, and to involve them from the beginning of the process, in order to insure the equal balance of power between participants and researcher.
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy
This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…
Stark, Jody L.
In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…
Luttenberg, Johan; Meijer, Paulien; Oolbekkink-Marchand, Helma
Reflection in action research is a complex matter, as is action research itself. In recent years, complexity science has regularly been called upon in order to more thoroughly understand the complexity of action research. The present article investigates the benefits that complexity science may yield for reflection in action research. This article…
..., Department of Chemistry, UP, engaged in research misconduct in research supported by National Institute of... National Organic Symposium, and in a manuscript, ``Total Synthesis of 9-desmethylpleurotin,'' prepared...
In June 1993, a proposal was presented to the International Environmental Institute (IEI) in Kennewick, Washington, to establish cooperation and coordination to further pursue the interests of the United States of America and the Republic of Russia in the application and promotion of environmental technology; characterization, treatment, handling, isolation, and disposal of hazardous and radioactive materials; conversion of defense sites to other purposes; and technology transfer, cooperative programs, joint technology development and contractual research. In response to this proposal, IEI and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) jointly provided funding to send Dr. Dennis W. Wester on a fact-finding mission to Novosibirsk, Moscow, and St. Petersburg, Russia. The trip covered a period of eight weeks, six of which were spent in Novosibirsk and adjoining or related cities and one of which was spent in each of Moscow and St. Petersburg. The general objectives of the trip were to establish a basis for cooperation between IEI and the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS) for future coordination of mutual interests and objectives such as technology acquisition, development, demonstration, application, and commercialization; use of capabilities and assets developed by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the RAS; and expediting of cooperative agreements, personnel exchanges, joint ventures and other contractual relationships. The particular objectives of this trip were to evaluate the capabilities of the RAS to satisfy the technology needs associated with the cleanup of the Hanford Site and similar sites in the U.S. and to evaluate the expediency of establishing an IEI presence in Russia.
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
... phospholipase A2 IIA is Up-regulated by TNF- and IL-1 / after Transient Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Rat.'' Brain Research 1134:199- 205, 2007 (hereafter referred to as the ``Brain Research paper''), as the sPLA 2 -IIA... the JBC paper and Figure 2A and 2C of the Brain Research paper by rearranging the bands such that...
Clarkson, P M; Thompson, H S
Many types of drugs are used by athletes to improve performance. This paper reviews the literature on 3 categories of drugs: those that enhance performance as stimulants (amphetamines, ephedrine, and cocaine), those that are used to reduce tremor and heart rate (beta-blockers) and those involved in bodyweight gain or loss (anabolic-androgenic steroids, growth hormone, beta 2-agonists, and diuretics). Limitations of research on these drugs as they relate to performance enhancement are also discussed. The numerous studies that have assessed the effects of amphetamines on performance report equivocal results. This may be due to the large interindividual variability in the response to the drug and the small sample sizes used. Most studies, however, show that some individuals do improve exercise performance when taking amphetamines, which may be attributed to their role in masking fatigue. As a stimulant, ephedrine has not been found to improve performance in the few studies available. More recently, ephedrine has been purported to be effective as a fat burner and used by athletes to maintain or improve muscle mass. Although research on individuals with obesity supports the use of ephedrine for fat loss, no studies have been done on athletes. The few studies of cocaine and exercise suggest that little to no performance gains are incurred from cocaine use. Moreover, the sense of euphoria may provide the illusion of better performance when, in actuality, performance was not improved or was impaired. beta-Blockers have been found to reduce heart rate and tremor and to improve performance in sports that are not physiologically challenging but require accuracy (e.g. pistol shooting). However, there is evidence that some individuals may be high responders to beta-blockers to the extent that their heart rate response is so blunted as to impair performance. Although equivocal, several studies have reported that anabolic-androgenic steroids increase muscle size and strength
Bach, Peter B
Long-standing guidelines against screening high-risk individuals for lung cancer may change following the publication of the randomized National Lung Screening Trial (NLST), which shows a benefit of computed tomography compared with chest x-ray screening. Guideline panels will likely also seek additional information from nonrandomized studies of computed tomography screening, such as the Early Lung Cancer Action Project (ELCAP). However, for the ELCAP findings to be incorporated into new guidelines, some inconsistencies in the published data should first be resolved. Specifically, some of the reports from ELCAP appear to contradict others in terms of important endpoints, and several findings from ELCAP appear to be statistically improbable or outliers when compared with analyses and studies by other research groups. Clarification of both internal and external inconsistencies is a prerequisite for evaluation of the body of work published by ELCAP investigators.
Coghlan, David; Coughlan, Paul
The philosophical foundations of action learning research have not received a great deal of attention. In the context of action learning postgraduate and professional programmes in universities, articulation of a philosophy of action learning research seems timely and appropriate. This article explores a philosophy of action learning research,…
Based on a research project that sought to train instructors to conduct action research in a real-life context, this handbook was created to help literacy instructors to use action research in workplace education programs. The handbook is organized in three parts. The first part describes action research as a type of practice-based research. It…
This paper argues that action research finds a rationale in the pragmatic position that knowledge is provisional and generated through a transaction between agent and environment. Action research finds a further methodological rationale in the pragmatic view that knowledge is generated within indeterminate situations, requires habits of reflection…
... misconduct in research supported by National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID), National... falsely claimed long term survival, normal serum creatinine concentrations, and lack of adverse effects...
Curtis, Charlie M., Ed.
Fifty-five vocational educators participated in the 18th Annual Southern Research Conference in Agricultural Education at Louisiana State University. Presentations included in the document are: (1) "The Research Problem in Agricultural Education" by L. L. Pesson, (2) views on organizing a vocational agricultural education department for effective…
Amendola, Laura M; Dorschner, Michael O; Robertson, Peggy D; Salama, Joseph S; Hart, Ragan; Shirts, Brian H; Murray, Mitzi L; Tokita, Mari J; Gallego, Carlos J; Kim, Daniel Seung; Bennett, James T; Crosslin, David R; Ranchalis, Jane; Jones, Kelly L; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A; Jarvik, Ella R; Itsara, Andy; Turner, Emily H; Herman, Daniel S; Schleit, Jennifer; Burt, Amber; Jamal, Seema M; Abrudan, Jenica L; Johnson, Andrew D; Conlin, Laura K; Dulik, Matthew C; Santani, Avni; Metterville, Danielle R; Kelly, Melissa; Foreman, Ann Katherine M; Lee, Kristy; Taylor, Kent D; Guo, Xiuqing; Crooks, Kristy; Kiedrowski, Lesli A; Raffel, Leslie J; Gordon, Ora; Machini, Kalotina; Desnick, Robert J; Biesecker, Leslie G; Lubitz, Steven A; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Cooper, Greg M; Joffe, Steven; Richards, C Sue; Yang, Yaoping; Rotter, Jerome I; Rich, Stephen S; O'Donnell, Christopher J; Berg, Jonathan S; Spinner, Nancy B; Evans, James P; Fullerton, Stephanie M; Leppig, Kathleen A; Bennett, Robin L; Bird, Thomas; Sybert, Virginia P; Grady, William M; Tabor, Holly K; Kim, Jerry H; Bamshad, Michael J; Wilfond, Benjamin; Motulsky, Arno G; Scott, C Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C; Walsh, Tom D; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M; Rehm, Heidi; Nickerson, Debbie A; Jarvik, Gail P
Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base.
Amendola, Laura M.; Dorschner, Michael O.; Robertson, Peggy D.; Salama, Joseph S.; Hart, Ragan; Shirts, Brian H.; Murray, Mitzi L.; Tokita, Mari J.; Gallego, Carlos J.; Kim, Daniel Seung; Bennett, James T.; Crosslin, David R.; Ranchalis, Jane; Jones, Kelly L.; Rosenthal, Elisabeth A.; Jarvik, Ella R.; Itsara, Andy; Turner, Emily H.; Herman, Daniel S.; Schleit, Jennifer; Burt, Amber; Jamal, Seema M.; Abrudan, Jenica L.; Johnson, Andrew D.; Conlin, Laura K.; Dulik, Matthew C.; Santani, Avni; Metterville, Danielle R.; Kelly, Melissa; Foreman, Ann Katherine M.; Lee, Kristy; Taylor, Kent D.; Guo, Xiuqing; Crooks, Kristy; Kiedrowski, Lesli A.; Raffel, Leslie J.; Gordon, Ora; Machini, Kalotina; Desnick, Robert J.; Biesecker, Leslie G.; Lubitz, Steven A.; Mulchandani, Surabhi; Cooper, Greg M.; Joffe, Steven; Richards, C. Sue; Yang, Yaoping; Rotter, Jerome I.; Rich, Stephen S.; O’Donnell, Christopher J.; Berg, Jonathan S.; Spinner, Nancy B.; Evans, James P.; Fullerton, Stephanie M.; Leppig, Kathleen A.; Bennett, Robin L.; Bird, Thomas; Sybert, Virginia P.; Grady, William M.; Tabor, Holly K.; Kim, Jerry H.; Bamshad, Michael J.; Wilfond, Benjamin; Motulsky, Arno G.; Scott, C. Ronald; Pritchard, Colin C.; Walsh, Tom D.; Burke, Wylie; Raskind, Wendy H.; Byers, Peter; Hisama, Fuki M.; Rehm, Heidi; Nickerson, Debbie A.; Jarvik, Gail P.
Recommendations for laboratories to report incidental findings from genomic tests have stimulated interest in such results. In order to investigate the criteria and processes for assigning the pathogenicity of specific variants and to estimate the frequency of such incidental findings in patients of European and African ancestry, we classified potentially actionable pathogenic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in all 4300 European- and 2203 African-ancestry participants sequenced by the NHLBI Exome Sequencing Project (ESP). We considered 112 gene-disease pairs selected by an expert panel as associated with medically actionable genetic disorders that may be undiagnosed in adults. The resulting classifications were compared to classifications from other clinical and research genetic testing laboratories, as well as with in silico pathogenicity scores. Among European-ancestry participants, 30 of 4300 (0.7%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.1%) had a disruptive variant that was expected to be pathogenic, whereas 52 (1.2%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. For African-ancestry participants, six of 2203 (0.3%) had a pathogenic SNV and six (0.3%) had an expected pathogenic disruptive variant, whereas 13 (0.6%) had likely pathogenic SNVs. Genomic Evolutionary Rate Profiling mammalian conservation score and the Combined Annotation Dependent Depletion summary score of conservation, substitution, regulation, and other evidence were compared across pathogenicity assignments and appear to have utility in variant classification. This work provides a refined estimate of the burden of adult onset, medically actionable incidental findings expected from exome sequencing, highlights challenges in variant classification, and demonstrates the need for a better curated variant interpretation knowledge base. PMID:25637381
Wolf, Susan M.; Crock, Brittney N.; Van Ness, Brian; Lawrenz, Frances; Kahn, Jeffrey P.; Beskow, Laura M.; Cho, Mildred K.; Christman, Michael F.; Green, Robert C.; Hall, Ralph; Illes, Judy; Keane, Moira; Knoppers, Bartha M.; Koenig, Barbara A.; Kohane, Isaac S.; LeRoy, Bonnie; Maschke, Karen J.; McGeveran, William; Ossorio, Pilar; Parker, Lisa S.; Petersen, Gloria M.; Richardson, Henry S.; Scott, Joan A.; Terry, Sharon F.; Wilfond, Benjamin S.; Wolf, Wendy A.
Biobanks and archived datasets collecting samples and data have become crucial engines of genetic and genomic research. Unresolved, however, is what responsibilities biobanks should shoulder to manage incidental findings (IFs) and individual research results (IRRs) of potential health, reproductive, or personal importance to individual contributors (using “biobank” here to refer to both collections of samples and collections of data). This paper reports recommendations from a 2-year, NIH-funded project. The authors analyze responsibilities to manage return of IFs and IRRs in a biobank research system (primary research or collection sites, the biobank itself, and secondary research sites). They suggest that biobanks shoulder significant responsibility for seeing that the biobank research system addresses the return question explicitly. When re-identification of individual contributors is possible, the biobank should work to enable the biobank research system to discharge four core responsibilities: to (1) clarify the criteria for evaluating findings and roster of returnable findings, (2) analyze a particular finding in relation to this, (3) re-identify the individual contributor, and (4) recontact the contributor to offer the finding. The authors suggest that findings that are analytically valid, reveal an established and substantial risk of a serious health condition, and that are clinically actionable should generally be offered to consenting contributors. The paper specifies 10 concrete recommendations, addressing new biobanks and biobanks already in existence. PMID:22436882
There are marked similarities between Confucian ideas about the relationship between action, knowledge and learning, and contemporary educational thinking about action research. Examples can be seen in the relationship between action and research. First, Confucius emphasized the importance of "action" which was different from…
Schrank, Frederick A.; Engels, Dennis W.
Reviews research relating to various aspects of bibliotherapy, including academic achievement, assertiveness, attitude change, behavioral change, fear reduction, helper effectiveness, marital accord, self-development, and therapeutic gains. Discusses implications for using bibliotherapy as an adjunct to counseling. (RC)
Quinn, Charles T; Rush, A John
Writing clearly is critical to the success of your scientific career. Unfortunately, this skill is not taught in medical school or postgraduate training. This article summarizes our approach to the writing and publication of your research. Here we focus on empirical or experimental reports of translational and clinically oriented research. We review the process of choosing what to write, how to write it clearly, and how to navigate the process of submission and publication.
This book presents a fresh view of action research as a methodology uniquely suited to researching the processes of innovation and change. Drawing on twenty-five years' experience of leading or facilitating action research projects, Bridget Somekh argues that action research can be a powerful systematic intervention, which goes beyond describing,…
Zhou, Jun; Liu, Katrina Yan
Action research in China during late 1970s and 1980s was influenced by positivist scientific research, believing the purpose of doing action research is to explore the general law of education. It was carried out through educational experimentations emphasizing the control of the experimental conditions. Starting from 1990s, action research in…
Action research is conceived as a feet-on-the-ground process--a way of addressing and improving the everyday experiences and concerns of people who deliver real goods and services in an organisation, through the process of finding out new things--i.e. research in the broadest sense. This article explores the question of how action researchers do…
Graham, Garry G; Davies, Michael J; Day, Richard O; Mohamudally, Anthoulla; Scott, Kieran F
Paracetamol is used worldwide for its analgesic and antipyretic actions. It has a spectrum of action similar to that of NSAIDs and resembles particularly the COX-2 selective inhibitors. Paracetamol is, on average, a weaker analgesic than NSAIDs or COX-2 selective inhibitors but is often preferred because of its better tolerance. Despite the similarities to NSAIDs, the mode of action of paracetamol has been uncertain, but it is now generally accepted that it inhibits COX-1 and COX-2 through metabolism by the peroxidase function of these isoenzymes. This results in inhibition of phenoxyl radical formation from a critical tyrosine residue essential for the cyclooxygenase activity of COX-1 and COX-2 and prostaglandin (PG) synthesis. Paracetamol shows selectivity for inhibition of the synthesis of PGs and related factors when low levels of arachidonic acid and peroxides are available but conversely, it has little activity at substantial levels of arachidonic acid and peroxides. The result is that paracetamol does not suppress the severe inflammation of rheumatoid arthritis and acute gout but does inhibit the lesser inflammation resulting from extraction of teeth and is also active in a variety of inflammatory tests in experimental animals. Paracetamol often appears to have COX-2 selectivity. The apparent COX-2 selectivity of action of paracetamol is shown by its poor anti-platelet activity and good gastrointestinal tolerance. Unlike both non-selective NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors, paracetamol inhibits other peroxidase enzymes including myeloperoxidase. Inhibition of myeloperoxidase involves paracetamol oxidation and concomitant decreased formation of halogenating oxidants (e.g. hypochlorous acid, hypobromous acid) that may be associated with multiple inflammatory pathologies including atherosclerosis and rheumatic diseases. Paracetamol may, therefore, slow the development of these diseases. Paracetamol, NSAIDs and selective COX-2 inhibitors all have central and
... Mr. Adam C. Savine, former doctoral student, Department of Psychology, WUSTL, engaged in research... of motivation on cognitive control.'' Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 12(4):692-718, 2012 Dec. (hereafter... Psychol Gen. 2012). 3. Savine, A.C., & Braver, T.S. ``Motivated cognitive control: Reward...
Since the publication of the Dearing report (1997) there has been an increasing emphasis on the quality of teaching and learning provision within higher education institutions (HEIs). This focus on provision has in turn generated much educational research into "approaches" to both teaching practice and student learning within higher education…
Leech, Nancy L.; Kees, Nathalie L.
There is not a "typical" women's group, nor are there "typical" women's issues. Every women's group is diverse, with as many viewpoints and perspectives as there are members in the group. Using the group format for women is common practice with many counselors. It is interesting that there has been little empirical research reported on women's…
Action research concerns action, and transforming people's practices (as well as their understandings of their practices and the conditions under which they practise). Sometimes we may feel that action research works best when it contributes to our understandings. In this paper, by contrast, I want to explore the "happening-ness" of action and…
... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Action on audit and review findings. 201.13 Section 201.13 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare OFFICE OF FAMILY ASSISTANCE... GRANTS TO STATES FOR PUBLIC ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Review and Audits § 201.13 Action on audit and...
One of the practical problems facing industrial hygienists and safety managers in the lead industry is finding new ways to limit or reduce lead intake in order to protect workers from the deleterious effects of this metal. Exposure to lead generally takes place by inhalation of airborne particles and by ingestion. Airborne exposure is comparatively well understood and methods for the control of airborne lead have been developed and put into place in industrial facilities. Both for the general public and for workers, however, it is thought that a significant fraction of the total lead intake occurs by ingestion as opposed to inhalation. Furthermore, factors such as personal hygiene, hand washing, diet, cigarette smoking, alcohol consumption, use of medications, bone injury, existing disease, and others may also have positive or negative effects on lead absorption and blood lead levels. How these variables actually operate in practice for lead-exposed workers is unfortunately not very well understood. As scientific and medical knowledge increases, progress has been made in the understanding of some of the factors affecting blood lead levels. In this article, the author summarizes the findings of a few interesting recent reports that point the way toward future progress in this area.
Osterman, Karen; Furman, Gail; Sernak, Kathleen
This exploratory study gathered information about the use of action research within doctor of education programs in educational leadership and explored faculty understanding of and perspectives on action research. Survey data established that action research is used infrequently to meet dissertation requirements. Contributing factors include lack…
Herr, Kathryn; Anderson, Gary L.
Many students struggle with turning action research projects into a Master's thesis or doctoral dissertation: to address this need, the authors have distilled decades of action research experience into a reference for graduate students. This book is designed to provide a roadmap to show that action research is appropriate not only for a…
Sagor, Richard D.; Curley, Janet L.
The impact of action research on student academic and social performance is examined in this paper. Project LEARN (League of Educational Action Researchers in the Northwest), a cooperative initiative with school districts to train teams of educators in collaborative action research, was evaluated in five participating schools--two elementary, one…
This review article discusses the use of action research in music education and its potential for producing knowledge and improving practice. The discussion is situated in an analysis of action research studies in music education. The review demonstrates that action research in music education focuses on a wide variety of subject matter,…
Wang, Chien-Hsing; Ke, Yi-Ting; Wu, Jin-Tong; Hsu, Wen-Hua
This paper briefly reports the outcomes of an action research inquiry on the use of blogs, MS PowerPoint [PPT], and the Internet as learning tools with a science class of sixth graders for project-based learning. Multiple sources of data were essential to triangulate the key findings articulated in this paper. Corresponding to previous studies, the incorporation of technology and project-based learning could motivate students in self-directed exploration. The students were excited about the autonomy over what to learn and the use of PPT to express what they learned. Differing from previous studies, the findings pointed to the lack information literacy among students. The students lacked information evaluation skills, note-taking and information synthesis. All these findings imply the importance of teaching students about information literacy and visual literacy when introducing information technology into the classroom. The authors suggest that further research should focus on how to break the culture of "copy-and-paste" by teaching the skills of note-taking and synthesis through inquiry projects for science learning. Also, further research on teacher professional development should focus on using collaboration action research as a framework for re-designing graduate courses for science teachers in order to enhance classroom technology integration.
Reviews key ideas of action research in the past 15 years, particularly those of John Elliott. Describes and comments on the main characteristics of action research. Focuses on methodological and epistemological issues related to its practice. (CFR)
Caskey, Micki M.
Action research is one of the relevant methodologies for addressing research questions and issues in middle grades education. Accounting for nearly 20% of published middle grades research studies (Hough, 2003), action research has emerged as an important and appropriate research method. In addition to reviewing the historical context, this article…
Zehetmeier, Stefan; Andreitz, Irina; Erlacher, Willibald; Rauch, Franz
This paper deals with the topic of professional development programmes' impact. Concepts and ideas of action research, constructivism, and systems theory are used as a theoretical framework and are combined to describe and analyse an exemplary professional development programme in Austria. Empirical findings from both quantitative and qualitative…
The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…
In this study, the participants conceptualized and implemented an action research project that focused on the infusion of inquiry principles into a neglected science curriculum. Specific objectives were to find (a) What factors challenge and support the evolution of an action research community of practice? (b) How are teachers' beliefs about…
Young, Mark R.; Rapp, Eve; Murphy, James W.
Action Research is an applied scholarly paradigm resulting in action for continuous improvement in our teaching and learning techniques offering faculty immediate classroom payback and providing documentation of meeting our educational responsibilities as required by AACSB standards. This article reviews the iterative action research process of…
Irizarry, Jason G.
This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and…
Esserman, June F., Ed.
This volume consists of 10 papers dealing with issues, research and research findings regarding the effects of television advertising on children. The first paper critically examines recent research literature which bears on policy questions related to the effects of television advertising on children. Findings from a study designed to examine…
... HUMAN SERVICES Office of the Secretary Findings of Research Misconduct; Correction AGENCY: Office of the... notice published in the May 31, Federal Register entitled ``Findings of Research Misconduct.'' DATES... Research Misconduct notice published on May 31, 2012. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Karen Gorirossi...
Esposito, Jennifer; Evans-Winters, Venus
In this paper, we argue that teacher-researchers, especially those in politically contested school communities, should be encouraged to conduct critical action research that is contextually bound. Such a research methodology includes tenets of critical action research, postmodern and feminist theory, and attention to how oppression manifests in…
Eaker, Robert E.; Huffman, James O.
A program stressing teacher involvement and classroom implementation of educational research findings is described. The program was designed to familiarize teachers with current findings, have them apply the findings in their classrooms, analyze their own teaching behavior, and critically evaluate the findings in terms of their applicability to…
Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori
This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)
Rodriguez, Ana Maria
Recent research findings that have potential application or are already contributing to the refinement of educational practice in bilingual education include developments in language research, teacher effectiveness research, and ethnography. In language research, these contributions include work on the need for and types of language proficiency,…
Driskill, Linda; Shaw, Peggy
Describes important resources for discovering sites for communication research related to the North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA), to help identify appropriate companies and contact them. (SR)
Cuthbert, Colleen Ann; Moules, Nancy
The Oncology Nursing Society (ONS) has established an ambitious research agenda and professional priorities based on a survey by LoBiondo-Wood et al. (2014). With the overall goal to "improve cancer care and the lives of individuals with cancer" (Moore & Badger, 2014, p. 93) through research activities, translating those research findings to direct clinical practice can be overwhelming. As clinicians, understanding how to critique research for quality prior to incorporating research findings into practice is important. The ultimate goal in this critique is to ensure that decisions made about patient care are based on strong evidence. However, the process for appraisal of qualitative research can be ambiguous and often contradictory as a result of the elusive aspect of quality in qualitative research methods (Seale, 1999). In addition, with more than 100 tools available to evaluate qualitative research studies (Higgins & Green, 2011), a lack of consensus exists on how to critically appraise research findings.
Malenfant, Kara J.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Gilchrist, Debra
This introductory essay to this special issue demonstrates that action research has a vital role in evidence-informed practice in academic libraries. This special issue of "College and Research Libraries" ("C&RL") proudly features a selection of action research studies by participants of the Association of College and…
Robinson, Daniel B.
This article presents an action research project focused on improving physical education (PE) for adolescent female students. One university researcher, three male PE teachers, and 13 of their most disengaged female students participated in the one-year, two-cycle, action research project. The process and results are offered so that future PE…
Mazzei, Lisa A.
Action researchers often generate large amounts of textual material in the form of notes and transcripts, failing to account for those thoughts that we and our research participants silently voice. As such, action research that attempts to engage practitioners in self reflexivity and textual analysis is a fertile site for a consideration of how…
This article considers the value of collaborative forms of educational action research in higher education and the difficulties involved in implementing such forms of research. It is argued that educational action research represents an opportunity for improving teaching and learning and developing the knowledge and skills of those participating…
Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy; Davies, Judith; Preece, Vicky
Since April 2006, commissioning responsibility for healthcare services in public prisons has been fully devolved to NHS primary care trusts (PCTs), with the expectation that offenders will have access to the same range and quality of health services available to the wider population. In order to support prison nurses in meeting this goal, a PCT and university established a partnership, which used an action research approach to develop, instigate and evaluate a bespoke educational programme for nurses working in two local prisons. This article outlines the processes involved in the design and implementation of the programme. It also reports on findings from pre- and post-intervention questionnaires and focus groups with course participants, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, which suggest that the innovation had a positive impact on the nurses' confidence, assertiveness, clinical expertise and approach to change. The article concludes that the action research project should continue, but its scope should now broaden to address educational support for healthcare assistants, collaborative learning between prison officers and prison nurses, and the implementation of clinical supervision and action learning sets.
Dearn, Ceri; And Others
The works reported in this book represent a second phase to a 2-day summer conference that focused on assessment in mathematics and science classrooms. This book presents research and findings of a subset of the conference participants who investigated a self-selected aspect of assessment in their educational environments. Action research was the…
LANGE, CARL J.
THE EFFECT OF A LEADER'S ACTIONS ON HIS FOLLOWERS IN SMALL MILITARY UNITS WAS THE SUBJECT OF SEVERAL RESEARCH STUDIES CONDUCTED TO EXPLORE THE NATURE OF THE LEADERSHIP PROCESS, WITH THE ULTIMATE GOAL OF DEVELOPING TRAINING THAT WOULD USE IMPROVED PRESENTATIONAL MATERIALS AND WOULD BE BASED ON LEADERSHIP DOCTRINE WITH DEMONSTRATED VALIDITY. THE…
Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron
The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…
Fischer, Michael A; Avorn, Jerry
Comparative effectiveness research evaluates the relative effectiveness, safety, and value of competing treatment options in clinically realistic settings. Such evaluations can be methodologically complex and difficult to interpret. There will be a growing need for critical evaluation of comparative effectiveness studies to assess the adequacy of their design and to put new information into a broader context. Equally important, this knowledge will have to be communicated to clinicians in a way that will actually change practice. We identify three challenges to effective dissemination of comparative effectiveness research findings: the difficulty of interpreting comparative effectiveness research data, the need for trusted sources of information, and the challenge of turning research results into clinical action. We suggest that academic detailing-direct outreach education that gives clinicians an accurate and unbiased synthesis of the best evidence for practice in a given clinical area-can translate comparative effectiveness research findings into actions that improve health care decision making and patient outcomes.
Cwikel, J G
The underlying purpose of all epidemiological research is ultimately to use inferences in order to prevent disease and promote health and well-being. Effective skills in translating results into appropriate policy, programs, and interventions are inherently tricky, and often politically controversial. Generally they are not taught to epidemiologists formally, even though they are a traditionally part of public health practice. To move from findings to policy change requires that the informed and committed epidemiologist should known how to: (1) organize affected parties to negotiate successfully with government and industry; (2) activate populations at risk to protect their health (3) communicate responsibly with lay persons about their health risks so as to encourage effective activism; (4) collaborate with other professionals to achieve disease prevention and health promotion goals. The paper presents and discusses four case studies to illustrate these strategies: (1) the grass-roots social action that was the response of the community to the environmental contamination at Love Canal, New York; (2) mobilization of recognized leaders within the gay community to disseminate HIV risk reduction techniques; (3) collaboration with an existing voluntary organization interested in community empowerment through health promotion in a Chicago slum by using existing hospital, emergency room admissions, and local motor vehicle accident data; (4) a self-help group, MADD (mothers against drunk driving) which fought to change public policy to limit and decrease drunk driving. In addition, the importance of multidisciplinary collaboration and responsible communication with the public is emphasized. Factors that limit the ability of the epidemiologist to move into public health action are discussed, including who owns the research findings, what is the degree of scientific uncertainty, and the cost-benefit balance of taking affirmative public action. Putting epidemiological
This book discusses the current understanding on the primary mechanisms by which prolactin regulates cellular proliferation and other metabolic processes (including gene expression) in its target cells. Reviews and analyzes information relative to the molecular events involved in the actions of prolactin on cells to provide a basis for determining the sequence of molecular reactions by which prolactin expresses its biological responses. The contents discussed are Activation of Molecular Events by Prolactin. Prolactin Interaction with its Receptors and Relationship to Subsequent Regulation of Metabolic Processes. Actions of Prolactin in the Brain. Models of Prolactin Action in Nonmmalian Vertebraes. Prolactin Regulation of Membrane Fludity and Prostglandin Formation. Role of Calcium Ions and Phospholipids in Prolactin Regulation of its Traget Cells. Synergistic Actions of Glucocorticoid and Prolactin in Murine Milk-Protein Gene Expression. Role of Polyamines in Prolactin Actions. Prolactin and the Regulation of Secretion Including Membrane Flow: Potential Roles for Tubulin and Microtubules. Protein Phosphorylation of Prlactin Target Tissue: Mammary Gland, Prolactin, Growth Factors, and Cell Growth.
Action research, a term first used in the 1940's by Kurt Lewin, implies the application of tools and methods of social science to immediate, practical problems, with the goals of contributing to theory and knowledge in the field of education and improving practice in the schools. Collaborative action research suggests that each group represented…
A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "truth" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "truth" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…
Tobin, Jennifer Ann
This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…
Zidack, Astri Marie
This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…
Robinson, Daniel B.; Walters, William
This article summarizes an action research project undertaken at a teacher education institution in Canada. The action research was implemented in an effort to respond to initial observations related to some practicum limitations. In an effort to seek a "solution" to these limitations, a modified practicum model was piloted with a small…
Cain, Tim; Harris, Richard
In a culture of performativity, action research offers teachers an opportunity to step back and reflect on their practice. This paper reports on a collaborative project carried out between a university and a secondary school in England, in which the university staff supported an action research project within the school. Five school teachers…
Action research began as an ambitious epistemological and social intervention. As the concept has become reified, packaged for methodology textbooks and professional development workshops, it has degenerated into a cure that may be worse than the disease. The point is not the trivial one that action research, like any practice, sometimes shows up…
In this article I outline different elements of action research in an attempt to describe and define participatory action research (PAR). There is a lot more material available to readers these days, some of which I will refer you to in this article. I see my role here is to summarise enough of this material to help support your reading of the…
Furtado, Leena; Anderson, Dawnette
This study presents four teacher reflections from action research projects ranging from kindergarten to adult school improvements. A teacher leadership matrix guided participants to connect teaching and learning theory to best practices by exploring uncharted territory within an iterative cycle of research and action. Teachers developed the…
Rajaram, Shireen S.
This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…
Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin
Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…
In this short paper I examine whether obtaining the capability to change practice can be solely achieved through reflective action research, and how. I take as our framework of analysis that offered by Aristotelian thought, especially in the discussion of powers and potential. I conclude that action research as a way of changing practice cannot be…
Teaching teams can hold the promise of being an ideal vehicle in which collaborative action research is conducted. This case documents the mixed results of a team leader's efforts to improve teaching and introduce inquiry-based professional development through action research in a community college. This case paints a realistic and…
Warren, Susan; Doorn, Dan; Green, James
This investigation explored the effects of action research on teachers in a graduate education program. Mixed methods were utilized, combining a semantic differential study of student attitudes with qualitative analysis of students' perceptions of their experience as action researchers. Results indicate that participants perceived themselves as…
Garrett, Joyce Lynn
Action research is a systematic approach used by practitioners to conceive questions and control methodologies, and to explore classroom or school-based problems. Action research is the perfect marriage of theory and practice. Recent trends in education, such as professional development schools, data-driven decision making, and undergraduate…
This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…
Background This paper provides a brief overview of the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization "ParticipACTION"; introduces the "new" ParticipACTION; describes the research process leading to the collection of baseline data on the new ParticipACTION; and outlines the accompanying series of papers in the supplement presenting the detailed baseline data. Methods Information on ParticipACTION was gathered from close personal involvement with the organization, from interviews and meetings with key leaders of the organization, from published literature and from ParticipACTION archives. In 2001, after nearly 30 years of operation, ParticipACTION ceased operations because of inadequate funding. In February 2007 the organization was officially resurrected and the launch of the first mass media campaign of the "new" ParticipACTION occurred in October 2007. The six-year absence of ParticipACTION, or any equivalent substitute, provided a unique opportunity to examine the impact of a national physical activity social marketing organization on important individual and organizational level indicators of success. A rapid response research team was established in January 2007 to exploit this natural intervention research opportunity. Results The research team was successful in obtaining funding through the new Canadian Institutes of Health Research Intervention Research (Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention) Funding Program. Data were collected on individuals and organizations prior to the complete implementation of the first mass media campaign of the new ParticipACTION. Conclusion Rapid response research and funding mechanisms facilitated the collection of baseline information on the new ParticipACTION. These data will allow for comprehensive assessments of future initiatives of ParticipACTION. PMID:19995455
... 26, 2013 Researchers find essential brain circuit in visual development NIH-funded study could lead to new ... image shows the binocular zone of the mouse visual cortex. Amblyopia occurs when one eye is impaired ...
Galinsky, Ellen; Sakai, Kelly; Wigton, Tyler
Ellen Galinsky, Kelly Sakai, and Tyler Wigton explore the "time famine" among American workers-the continuing sense among employees of not having enough time to manage the multiple responsibilities of work and personal and family life. Noting that large shares of U.S. employees report feeling the need for greater workplace flexibility to enable them to take better care of family responsibilities, the authors examine a large-scale community-engagement initiative to increase workplace flexibility voluntarily. Using the 2008 National Study of the Changing Workforce as a primary source of data, the authors begin with an overview of the prevalence of flexibility in today's American workplace. They track which categories of employees have access to various flexibility options, as well as the extent to which employees with access to various types of flexibility use those options. Findings from the study indicate that the majority of employees want flexibility but that access to it varies, with more advantaged employees--those who are well educated, have high salaries, and work full time, for example--being doubly advantaged in having greater access to flexibility. A number of employers, say the authors, tend to be skeptical of the value of workplace flexibility and to fear that employees will abuse it if it is offered. But the study data reveal that most employees use flexibility quite conservatively. When the authors use their nationally representative data set to investigate correlations between access to workplace flexibility and a range of workplace outcomes especially valued by employers--employee engagement, job satisfaction, retention, and health--they find that employers as well as employees can benefit from flexibility. Finally, the authors discuss When Work Works, a large, national community-based initiative under way since 2003 to increase voluntary adoption of workplace flexibility. The authors detail the conceptual basis of the project's design, noting its
Messing, Jill Theresa; Campbell, Jacquelyn C; Brown, Sheryll; Patchell, Beverly; Androff, David K; Wilson, Janet Sullivan
This study focuses on the relationship between women's risk of homicide as measured by the Danger Assessment and 13 protective actions. Participants (N = 432) experienced an incident of police involved intimate partner violence (IPV) and subsequently completed a structured telephone interview. Most women in this sample experienced severe violence and were classified as being at high risk for homicide. Participants engaged in an average of 3.81 (SD = 2.73) protective actions. With the exception of the use of formal domestic violence services, women in the high-risk category were significantly more likely than women in the lower risk category to have used each of the protective actions examined. Implications for research and practice are discussed.
Horvath, Miranda Angel Helena; Kelly, Liz
Multiple perpetrator rape presents a significant problem nationally and internationally. However, previous research is limited and findings are often contradictory. The details of 101 rape allegations recorded in a six-month period in a large police force in England were analysed. Findings are presented about case classification, victim and…
Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.
We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649
An overview of research on elementary secondary classroom teaching presents a synthesis of findings from large-scale, classroom-based studies on teacher effectiveness. Three sets of major research efforts, dealing with classroom management and organization, systematic instruction, and effective instruction, were selected for review. Certain…
Bullock, Roger; And Others
Reviews research which has clarified the needs and problems of adolescents in secure units and has highlighted the relationship between provision offered in child care, penal, and health services. Discusses new research findings, particularly those arising out of studies of young people (n=104) in two youth treatment centers. (Author/ABL)
Objective: To consider the research design requirements needed to provide a rigorous test of environmental mediation hypotheses and to summarize the main findings from research using such designs. Method: Selective review of empirical evidence dealing with psychopathology. Results: There is robust evidence of environmentally mediated risks for…
Kile, Diane W.; And Others
Excerpts from an interview with teachers of a graduate program called the Classroom Research Study Group disclose details of the two-semester, four-course program focusing on the teacher as researcher. Program activities seek to develop teacher skills in identifying research questions, gathering data, and writing about the studies. (IAH)
Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John
This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…
Slapac, Alina; Navarro, Virginia
As two teacher educators teaching two sections of a master's action research capstone course, we analyze (1) course content and pedagogy, (2) evolving beliefs about research, and (3) transformations in question posing as students assume the role of researchers. Our theoretical frame draws on teacher research, social justice advocacy, and the…
Ramakrishna, C. Pushpa; Prasad, V. S.
This manual, prepared by the Distance Education Council (India) presents guidelines for action research in distance education, balancing practical research activities with a sound theoretical research base. Chapter 1, "Scope, Purpose and Design of the Manual," suggests several definitions of research; draws distinctions between academic…
Yegidis, B L
The purpose of this paper is to describe recent empirical research findings about family violence, and to explore selected social work treatment issues in the light of these findings. The last two decades has seen a proliferation of research about family violence. Most of the early research used small clinical samples and so generalizing findings to other groups has been difficult. However, the recent research has examined a number of important psychosocial correlates of family violence using more methodologically sound methods. As a result, we now know quite a bit about how and why family violence occurs. Also, within the last decade a number of studies have explicated the kinds of treatments and approaches that are most effective in dealing with abusive people. This paper summarizes these treatment strategies.
Powell, Gary C.
There are many avenues available to computer-assisted instruction (CAI) practitioners and developers in search of access to new ideas, research findings, and emerging technologies that will assist them in developing CAI products. Seven such avenues are described in detail: (1) graduate student interns, who bring unique insights, theory, and…
Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron
As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…
This article observes that participatory action research (PAR), by nature of being collaborative, necessitates making explicit theories of change that may have otherwise gone unseen or unexamined. The article explores the limits of the reform/revolution paradox on actions and theories of change in PAR. Citing examples from two recent youth PAR…
Kelly, Patricia J
Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.
EPA's six research priorities: Air, Climate, Energy; Chemical Safety for Sustainability, Homeland Security, Human Health Risk Assessment, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, Safe and Sustainable Water Resources.
Wolf, Susan M.
The debate over return of individual research results and incidental findings to research participants is a key frontier in research ethics and practice. Fundamentally, this is a problem of translational science, a question of when information about an individual that is generated in research should be communicated for clinical attention, as the technology itself is moving into clinical care. There is growing consensus that investigators should offer participants at least those individual findings of high clinical importance and actionability. Increasing attention to what information biobanks and secondary researchers owe people who provide data and samples offers an opportunity to treat these source individuals as research partners. Cutting-edge issues include return of results in pediatric populations and return to kin and family, including after death of the proband. Progress will require facing the continuum linking research and clinical care and developing standards and models for return. PMID:23875796
Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul
The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…
Fernández-Díaz, Elia; Fernández-Olaskoaga, Lorea; Gutiérrez-Esteban, Prudencia
The study presented in this article forms part of a wider project promoting collaboration between junior researchers from different universities with the objective of rethinking and improving teaching practice in relation to the use of technology. The article describes research carried out during the 2012/13 academic year aimed at developing…
Patterson, Leslie, Ed.; And Others
This book, which focuses on the language arts teacher/researcher, is offered as a testament to teachers' expanding participation in collecting data and building theories about teaching, learning, curriculum, and assessment. The book's 24 chapters are grouped into four parts. The first part addresses general issues about teacher research: its…
Pike, Elizabeth R.; Rothenberg, Karen H.; Berkman, Benjamin E.
The use of whole-genome sequencing in biomedical research is expected to produce dramatic advances in human health. The increasing use of this powerful, data-rich new technology in research, however, will inevitably give rise to incidental findings (IFs)—findings with individual health or reproductive significance that are beyond the aims of the particular research—and the related questions of whether and to what extent researchers have an ethical obligation to return IFs. Many have concluded that researchers have an ethical obligation to return some findings in some circumstances but have provided vague or context-dependent approaches to determining which IFs must be returned and when. As a result, researchers have started returning IFs inconsistently, giving rise to concerns about legal liability in circumstances in which notification could have potentially prevented injury. Although it is clear that ethical guidance should not be automatically codified as law and that crafting ethical obligations around legal duties can be inappropriate, the ethical debate should not proceed unaware of the potential legal ramifications of advancing and implementing an ethical obligation to return IFs. This Article assesses the legal claims that could be brought for a researcher’s failure to return IFs. The potential for researchers to be held liable in tort is still uncertain and turns largely on a number of factors—including customary practice and guidance documents—that are still in flux. Unlike medical care, which has a well-defined duty into which evolving scientific knowledge about genetics and genomics can readily be incorporated, a researcher’s duty to return IFs is less well defined, making it difficult to determine at the outset whether and when legal liability will attach. This Article advocates for a clearer, ethically sound standard of requiring that researchers disclose in the informed consent document which approach to offering IFs will be taken. This
Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra
The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…
This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…
In this study, the participants conceptualized and implemented an action research project that focused on the infusion of inquiry principles into a neglected science curriculum. Specific objectives were to find (a) What factors challenge and support the evolution of an action research community of practice? (b) How are teachers’ beliefs about science teaching and learning transformed? and (c) How does teachers’ knowledge of curriculum, instruction, assessment, and student learning change as a result of learning within a community of practice? In this instrumental case study (Stake 2000, In N. K. Denzin, & Y. S. Lincoln (Eds.), Handbook of qualitative research (pp. 435-454). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage), a range of data collection sources and methods were adopted. Outcomes focus on how the design principles for cultivating a community of practice emerged in the action research group, as well as the types of teacher learning that occurred by engaging in action research.
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Nasir, Laraib; Naqvi, Syeda Meenoo; Bhamani, Shelina
This research aimed to improve written expression (composition) skills of 5th grade students of an elite private school. The research was designed under the paradigm of action research. A total sample of 39 students' from the same grade was chosen for the study. The baseline assessment was carried out to explore the pre-intervention writing skill…
Longstreet, Wilma S.
Neither the scientific nor the humanistic research paradigm is completely appropriate for the education field. Human service situations yield research results that are tentative descriptions or generalizations due to continuous change. An action research paradigm should reflect the ongoing need of the subjects to act without waiting for research…
Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.
Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…
Gruppen, Larry D; Durning, Steven J
Medical education research suffers from a significant and persistent lack of funding. Although adequate funding has been shown to improve the quality of research, there are a number of factors that continue to limit it. The competitive environment for medical education research funding makes it essential to understand strategies for improving the search for funding sources and the preparation of proposals. This article offers a number of resources, strategies, and suggestions for finding funding. Investigators must be able to frame their research in the context of significant issues and principles in education. They must set their proposed work in the context of prior work and demonstrate its potential for significant new contributions. Because there are few funding sources earmarked for medical education research, researchers much also be creative, flexible, and adaptive as they seek to present their ideas in ways that are appealing and relevant to the goals of funders. Above all, the search for funding requires persistence and perseverance.
Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe
This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…
Davis, Jerry L.
The research was conducted to determine the attitudes, general aptitudes, and interest patterns of residents of a county prison and, on the basis of the test performances, to offer recommendations concerning prison reforms. The results of the assessment techniques were interpreted to residents and to prison administrators. Examples of new programs…
Wilkes, Lesley; Cert, Renal; Beale, Barbara
This study aimed to judge the appropriateness of a particular nurse researcher's actions in a vignette from the clinical field, and to explore frameworks used to determine the appropriateness of actions. Twelve experienced nurse researchers were interviewed by telephone. They were given four vignettes of actual research situations and asked to comment and explain their judgement on the appropriateness of the nurse researcher's actions. The findings confirmed blurring of boundaries between professional and research roles for nurses. Nurses appear to use a mixture of frameworks, including scientific/rigour method, ethics, nursing competencies and their own personal-moral values. Frameworks need to be discussed and debated so that neophyte researchers are well-prepared before they enter the field to conduct research.
Higham, Sue; Simons, Joan
IF YOU HAVE an idea for a research project, whether it is an investigation or a literature review, it can be difficult to know where to start looking for financial support. Finding colleagues to work with will provide you with a sounding board for your idea, as well as support and encouragement.
Giles, David L.
This paper reports on findings from a hermeneutic phenomenological research inquiry which explored the nature of relational experiences in teacher education. Stories of the lived experience of relationships in an educational context were hermeneutically interpreted against the philosophical writings of Heidegger, Gadamer, Levinas, and Buber. The…
Bissessar, Charmaine S.
An exponential body of extant research illustrates the symbiotic dyad action research, andragogy, reflective praxis, and transformative learning share. This paper contains a narrative review of 83 action research papers submitted to the researcher as part of the fulfilment of the Bachelor of Education degree from April 2011 to May 2013.…
Alexa, L.; Alexa, M.; Avasilcăi, S.
The current business environment is characterized by increased competition and highly innovative approach, in order to create products and services to better respond to the costumers’ needs and expectations. In this specific context, the research approaches need to be more flexible and business oriented and so, throughout the paper we have used a research method that combines design research and action research, named Action Design Research which is a research method used for generating prescriptive design knowledge through building and evaluating IT artifacts in an organizational setting . Following the Action Design Research stages and principles: problem identification, building, intervention and evaluation, reflection and learning and formalization of learning, the research team has developed an online instrument used to actively involve the consumer in the product development process, in order to generate a better consumers insight regarding their needs and desires and to design and/or adjust the product accordingly. The customer engagement IT tool created and tested by using Action Design Research, E-PICUS, has been developed within the framework of the research project „E-solutions for innovation through customer pro-active involvement in value creation to increase organisational competitiveness (E-PICUS)”, PN- II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1811, currently undergoing.
Akom, Antwi A. A.
The central purpose of this article is to introduce Black Emancipatory Action Research (BEAR) as a framework that will allow social scientists to explore the implications that "racing research and researching race" have for methodological practices and knowledge production in the field of education and beyond (Twine and Warren 2003). Drawing on…
Viadero, Debra; Coles, Adrienne D.
Studies on race-based admissions, sports and sex, and religion and drugs suggest that: affirmative action policies were successful regarding college admissions; boys who play sports are more likely to be sexually active than their peers, with the opposite true for girls; and religion is a major factor in whether teens use cigarettes, alcohol, and…
Appelbaum, Paul S.; Waldman, Cameron R.; Fyer, Abby; Klitzman, Robert; Parens, Erik; Martinez, Josue; Price, W. Nicholson; Chung, Wendy K.
Purpose Researchers face the dilemma of how to obtain consent for return of incidental findings (IFs) from genomic research. We surveyed and interviewed investigators and study participants, with the goal of providing suggestions for how to shape the consent process. Methods We performed an online survey of 254 US genetic researchers identified through the NIH RePORTER database and abstracts from the 2011 American Society of Human Genetics meeting; and qualitative semi-structured interviews with 28 genomic researchers and 20 research participants. Results Most researchers and participants endorsed disclosure of a wide range of information about return of IFs, including: risks, benefits, impact on family members, data security, and procedures for return of results in the event of death or incapacity and for recontact. However, most researchers were willing to devote 30 minutes or less to this process, and expressed concerns that disclosed information would overwhelm participants, a concern shared by many participants themselves. Conclusion There is a disjunction between the views of investigators and participants about the amount of information that should be disclosed and the practical realities of the research setting, including time available for consent discussions. This strongly suggests the need for innovative approaches to the informed consent process. PMID:24158054
Darnell, Andrew J.; Austin, Howard; Bluemke, David A.; Cannon, Richard O.; Fischbeck, Kenneth; Gahl, William; Goldman, David; Grady, Christine; Greene, Mark H.; Holland, Steven M.; Hull, Sara Chandros; Porter, Forbes D.; Resnik, David; Rubinstein, Wendy S.; Biesecker, Leslie G.
Human genome and exome sequencing are powerful research tools that can generate secondary findings beyond the scope of the research. Most secondary genomic findings are of low importance, but some (for a current estimate of 1%–3% of individuals) confer high risk of a serious disease that could be mitigated by timely medical intervention. The impact and scope of secondary findings in genome and exome sequencing will only increase in the future. There is considerable agreement that high-impact findings should be returned to participants, but many researchers performing genomic research studies do not have the background, skills, or resources to identify, verify, interpret, and return such variants. Here, we introduce a proposal for the formation of a secondary-genomic-findings service (SGFS) that would support researchers by enabling the return of clinically actionable sequencing results to research participants in a standardized manner. We describe a proposed structure for such a centralized service and evaluate the advantages and challenges of the approach. We suggest that such a service would be of greater benefit to all parties involved than present practice, which is highly variable. We encourage research centers to consider the adoption of a centralized SGFS. PMID:26942283
Chalfoun, Anna D.; Ibanez-Alamo, J. D.; Magrath, R. D.; Schmidt, Kenneth A.; Thomson, R. L.; Oteyza, Juan C.; Haff, T. M.; Martin, T.E.
Nest predation is a key source of selection for birds that has attracted increasing attention from ornithologists. The inclusion of new concepts applicable to nest predation that stem from social information, eavesdropping or physiology has expanded our knowledge considerably. Recent methodological advancements now allow focus on all three players within nest predation interactions: adults, offspring and predators. Indeed, the study of nest predation now forms a vital part of avian research in several fields, including animal behaviour, population ecology, evolution and conservation biology. However, within nest predation research there are important aspects that require further development, such as the comparison between ecological and evolutionary antipredator responses, and the role of anthropogenic change. We hope this review of recent findings and the presentation of new research avenues will encourage researchers to study this important and interesting selective pressure, and ultimately will help us to better understand the biology of birds.
"Using Action Research to Foster Positive Social Values" provides teachers with a unique framework in which to consider classroom violence. It uses actual case studies and working models done through classroom research to produce more effective classrooms that foster positive social values. The author lays out a theoretical framework for: (1)…
Teacher action research is in the emergent stages in Sudanese schools and needs to be well disseminated and actively supported from the Ministry of education. Although the teacher-as-researcher movement has been in existence for some twenty years, there is a reason to think that the majority if not all, of Sudanese class teachers remain…
Binnie, Lynne M.; Allen, Kristen; Beck, Elaine
This paper outlines the efforts of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) to develop its practice in the area of research. It will argue that the Action Enquiry model of service delivery can empower teaching staff and may allow an effective means of change and improvement to take place in schools. This model steers research towards providing…
The theme for the 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference was "Partnerships for Progress in Active Living: From Research to Action." The rationale for this theme was simple: no person is an island. The theme recognizes that partnerships are essential to identify and implement solutions for co...
This article reports a study on collaboration within an action research project that was conducted by university researchers and elementary school teachers in the Azores, Portugal. More specifically, it examines how different kinds of participants worked together in different phases of the project. The notion of mutuality (i.e., the relative…
This study was carried out with 44 students attending the Social Studies Education Department of Faculty of Education at Abant Izzet Baysal University, who chose the elective Media Literacy Course. In the study, that was planned as an action research, the assistant professor of the course acted as "researcher" and the students (teacher…
Gitlin, Andrew; Peck, Marcie
In this article, Gitlin and Peck argue that much of the development of action research has been based on a reconstructed view of science (i.e., a science that is more contextual, less law-like, less causal, but still accurately represents reality and is teacher centered as opposed to researcher centered). In contrast to this reconstructed view of…
Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith
Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…
The article describes a collaborative action research in a preschool in Reykjavik. The participants were two preschool teachers who collaborated with researchers at the University of Iceland. The project was set up as a professional development course for the teachers. Emphasis was placed on continuity in children's education, integration of play…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem
This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…
This study examined the technology integration practices of teachers involved in a statewide initiative via one cycle of action research. It differs from other studies of teacher technology integration practices because it simultaneously involved and provided direct benefits to teachers and researchers. The study used thematic analysis to provide…
Zambo, Debby; Isai, Shelley
This case study reveals the development and action research work of a student in a newly designed educational doctorate aimed at preparing scholarly and influential practitioners. Data were gathered from a research journal, field notes, email correspondence, observation, and dissertation work, and analyzed with a constant comparative approach.…
Useful as a classroom text and self-teaching tool, this book outlines the process of designing and reporting action research projects in schools. The underlying assumption of the book is that research is not a domain that belongs only to academics, but is a powerful approach that can be used by practitioners to contribute to school renewal and…
Martin, R A
All published research examining effects of humor and laughter on physical health is reviewed. Potential causal mechanisms and methodological issues are discussed. Laboratory experiments have shown some effects of exposure to comedy on several components of immunity, although the findings are inconsistent and most of the studies have methodological problems. There is also some evidence of analgesic effects of exposure to comedy, although similar findings are obtained with negative emotions. Few significant correlations have been found between trait measures of humor and immunity, pain tolerance, or self-reported illness symptoms. There is also little evidence of stress-moderating effects of humor on physical health variables and no evidence of increased longevity with greater humor. More rigorous and theoretically informed research is needed before firm conclusions can be drawn about possible health benefits of humor and laughter.
Lutz, Robyn R.; Morgan, Scott; Do, Tuan; Mikulski, Carmen; Berg Strain, Martha; Rockwell, Steve; Wilkinson, Belinda
The 'Finding Defect Patterns in Reused Code' Research Infusion Collaboration was performed by Jet Propulsion Laboratory/Caltech under Contract 104-07-02.679 102 197 08.14.4. This final report describes the collaboration and documents the findings, including lessons learned.The research infusion collaboration characterized, using Orthogonal Defect Classification, defect reports for code that will be reused in mission-critical software on Deep Space Network Antenna controllers. Code reuse is estimated to be 90%, so it is important to identify systemic defects, or patterns, prior to reuse of this code. The work also identified ways to avoid certain types of defects and to test more efficiently.The primary objectives of the project were:to analyze defect patterns of the code to be reused based on the defects'Orthogonal Defect Classification (ODC)and to achieve a successful infusion of ODC to a project.
Ball, Elaine; Regan, Paul
This recent study broadly confirms earlier conclusions in which action research findings identified that annotated feedback on student assignments carried an unfavourable lecturer tone and, because of which, failed to motivate the student as a learner. It was important to take the action research process further to show how tone is so easily…
Oliveira, J B; Evêncio-Neto, J; Baratella-Evêncio, L
The treatment of sialorrhea is necessary for the constant risks posed by hypersalivation. A new therapeutic option comes up with the application of botulinum toxin in salivary glands. However, little is known about its mechanism of action in glandular tissue. Based on the above, this work had the objective to systematically review the literature about the action of botulinum toxin on submandibular and parotid salivary glands tissues. Electronic search was performed in databases of great relevance for this study (PubMed, SciELO, HighWire, Crossref, Scopus, Science Direct, MEDLINE, OLDMEDLINE, Serials Database, NLM Catalog, LILACS and IBECS). Inclusion and exclusion criteria for articles were established, and a total number of 14 articles were selected and used. There are few publications that clarify how the salivary gland acini behave with application of botulinum toxin. Although, the immunohistochemical findings were consistent among authors, showing weak immunoreactivity in glands treated with botulinum toxin. Histometric data are divergent, requiring more detailed studies to answer the questions about the efficacy and safety of botulinum toxin in salivary glands.
Holden, George W; Brown, Alan S; Baldwin, Austin S; Croft Caderao, Kathryn
Positive attitudes toward the use of corporal punishment (CP) predict subsequent spanking behavior. Given that CP has frequently been associated with behavior problems in children and child maltreatment, this prevention work was designed to test whether adults' attitudes could be changed by informing participants about the research findings on problematic behaviors associated with CP. Two random assignment studies are reported. In Study 1, we tested whether an active reading condition would result in more attitude change than a passive condition. With a sample of 118 non-parent adults, we found that after reading very brief research summaries on the problems associated with CP, there was a significant decrease in favorable attitudes toward CP. Contrary to expectations, the magnitude of the change was comparable for active and passive processing conditions. In Study 2, we extended our approach to a sample of 520 parents and included a control group. A significant decrease in positive attitudes toward spanking was observed in the intervention group, but no change for the control group. Parents who were unaware of the research showed more change after reading the summaries. Thus, these studies demonstrate that a brief and cost-effective approach to raise awareness of research findings can reduce positive attitudes toward CP. Implications for prevention and intervention are discussed.
Most action researchers agree that action research consists of cycles of planning, acting, reflecting, and taking further action. However, in action research literature, there is something missing. The nature of reflection in the action research process, including its relationship with the tensions that arise while discussing purposes, processes,…
Postholm, May Britt; Skrøvset, Siw
This article focuses on the challenges and opportunities a researcher may encounter in practice, and presents four narratives that take the reader into situations which may arise when the researcher steps into the practice field. Episodes that challenge the researcher both cognitively and emotionally are depicted in the narratives. The authors…
Cornelissen, Frank; van den Berg, Ellen
Today, many institutions of higher education support students in conducting practice-oriented research. This research refers to a broad array of approaches geared toward practitioners' practice. The supervision of such research is of crucial importance, but little is known about its nature and characteristics. This study examined what research…
... Issue All Issues Explore Findings by Topic Cell Biology Cellular Structures, Functions, Processes, Imaging, Stress Response Chemistry ... Glycobiology, Synthesis, Natural Products, Chemical Reactions Computers in Biology Bioinformatics, Modeling, Systems Biology, Data Visualization Diseases Cancer, ...
This paper explores the combination of storytelling and reflective action research as a means to effect change and learning within and across communities and organizations. Taking the complex challenge of "pro-environmental behaviour change" as an example, the paper reflects on the experiences of a pilot project run for the UK government…
This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…
This paper presents findings from action research in a conservatoire (the Guildhall School of Music & Drama) which focused on teaching and learning effective breathing in playing the oboe. A range of approaches and techniques emerged from a literature review. These were implemented in practice with oboe students at the Guildhall School, and…
This paper presents findings from an action research project that investigated the application of Multiple Intelligences (MI) theory in classrooms and schools. It shows how MI theory was used in the project as a basis for suggestions to generate classroom practices; how participating teachers evaluated the project; and how teachers responded to…
Haselden, Polly G.; Sanders, Marla; Sturkie, Lindsay
This action research project investigated the effects of self-efficacy training on low achieving high school freshman who were considered to be at risk for academic failure. Six students participated in psycho-educational group counseling sessions for forty-five minutes weekly over the course of a nine-week reporting period. Findings indicated…
Hungerford-Kresser, Holly; Wiggins, Joy L.; Amaro-Jimenez, Carla
The implementation of digital pedagogies (i.e. blogging) is one way to mediate large classroom discussions in culturally relevant ways. This 2.5-year longitudinal mixed-method action research study reflects on the ways blogging can further promote culturally relevant discussions explored in face-to-face classes. Findings include pre-service…
La Barbera, Francesco
The effect of communicating social psychology research findings on ingroup bias in a classroom setting has been investigated. Two hundred and twenty one high school students either read or did not read a brief report about three classical social psychological studies, then completed evaluation scales for the ingroup and the outgroup. Participants’ motivation was manipulated, and the messages were different as regards the congruency between the content and participants’ actual intergroup experience. Results showed that communication exerted a significant effect in reducing ingroup bias for participants in the high motivation/high congruency condition, that is, the communication effect was moderated by the individual’s level of motivation and the content of the arguments proposed in the report. Practical implications of results for education work and stereotype change, limitations of the study, as well as possible directions for future research are discussed. PMID:27247671
Berg, Jonathan S.; Foreman, Ann Katherine M.; O'Daniel, Julianne M.; Booker, Jessica K.; Boshe, Lacey; Carey, Timothy; Crooks, Kristy R.; Jensen, Brian C.; Juengst, Eric T.; Lee, Kristy; Nelson, Daniel K.; Powell, Bradford C.; Powell, Cynthia M.; Roche, Myra I.; Skrzynia, Cecile; Strande, Natasha T.; Weck, Karen E.; Wilhelmsen, Kirk C.; Evans, James P.
Purpose: As genome-scale sequencing is increasingly applied in clinical scenarios, a wide variety of genomic findings will be discovered as secondary or incidental findings, and there is debate about how they should be handled. The clinical actionability of such findings varies, necessitating standardized frameworks for a priori decision making about their analysis. Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. Methods: We established a semiquantitative metric to assess five elements of actionability: severity and likelihood of the disease outcome, efficacy and burden of intervention, and knowledge base, with a total score from 0 to 15. Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. Results: The semiquantitative metric was applied to a list of putative actionable conditions, the list of genes recommended by the American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics (ACMG) for return when deleterious variants are discovered as secondary/incidental findings, and a random sample of 1,000 genes. Scores from the list of putative actionable conditions (median = 12) and the ACMG list (median = 11) were both statistically different than the randomly selected genes (median = 7) (P < 0.0001, two-tailed Mann-Whitney test). Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. Conclusion: Gene–disease pairs having a score of 11 or higher represent the top quintile of actionability. The semiquantitative metric effectively assesses clinical actionability, promotes transparency, and may facilitate assessments of clinical actionability by various groups and in diverse contexts. Genet Med 18 5, 467–475. PMID:26270767
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…
This article looks at my reflection as a teacher during a master's degree practicum for a Second Language Studies Program. This particular practicum differs from the other common student teacher-training courses found in master's programs as it incorporated a teacher-training session on conducting action research (AR) in the classroom, a practice…
Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…
Richardson, Eileen M.
In a high-school reading class, the author used Reader's Theater as an instructional and motivational strategy for underachieving students. This action research focused on the extent to which implementing Reader's Theater motivated students to read and improve their reading skills. Consistent increases in scores for all students occurred over the…
Gregory, Sheila; Poland, Fiona; Spalding, Nicola J.; Sargen, Kevin; McCulloch, Jane; Vicary, Penny
This paper reflects on the challenges and benefits of multidimensional collaboration in an action research study to evaluate and improve preoperative education for patients awaiting colorectal surgery. Three cycles of planning, acting, observing and reflecting were designed to evaluate practice and implement change in this interactive setting,…
Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda
Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Fritch, Sarah C., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…
Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…
Endreny, Anna Henderson
In this paper, I describe the action research I conducted in my third-grade science classrooms over the course of two years. In order to gain an understanding of my third-grade students' ideas about animal adaptations and how the teaching of a unit on crayfish influenced these ideas, I used clinical interviews, observations, and written…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 5900 Culminating…
Bell, Edwin D.; Grant, Kathy; Fisk-Moody, Patricia
The authors implemented an action research project to help teacher education candidates to reflect upon, assess, and ultimately strengthen teacher candidate dispositions through the Reflective Dispositional Coaching Model. The teacher education faculty agreed that candidate dispositions should address four areas: (a) professionalism, (b)…
Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn
This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…
This article examines the effectiveness of action research as a continuous professional development (CPD) tool. The aim of the CPD programme was to support 14 community-based Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres in Ireland to improve quality in their settings through the implementation of the national quality and curriculum frameworks…
This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study that explored the experiences of one group of pre-service English language teachers in Hong Kong as they undertook an action research project as part of their undergraduate teacher training programme. Grounded in a theory of teacher identity construction as both practice and discourse, the…
Morales, Marie Paz E.; Abulon, Edna Luz R.; Soriano, Portia R.; David, Adonis P.; Hermosisima, Ma. Victoria C.; Gerundio, Maribel G.
Action research is viewed as a path towards better student achievement. This track may be attained through the reflective nature instilled in the teacher that sparks initiatives to promote better classroom practices in the aspects of pedagogy, assessment, and parental involvement. This descriptive survey explores Filipino teachers' conceptions of…
This study explores action research as a professional development strategy to improve interprofessional collaboration in a school division team focused on supporting students with a variety of learning and behavioural needs. Occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, a psychologist, and a social worker worked together to learn more…
This is a study on teachers' professional development through action research practice. The participants of the study were 23 English Language Teachers (ELT) who teach in high schools, preparatory schools and colleges in Debre Markos, in Dessie and around in 2014. The methods of data collection were teacher reflection, and in-depth interview. The…
This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…
Feldman, Allan; Bennett, Kory; Vernaza-Hernández, Vanessa
The pursuit of justice has concerned human beings for centuries and, despite its importance, often remains outside the boundaries of our educational systems. This article reports on a study of an action research seminar for a group of teacher leaders in a position to instigate positive change within their educational context, and make their…
Sellers, Daniel; Byrne, Tina
In 2014 the National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) published a research report titled "What Really Counts Next: Action Learning Project with Numeracy Tutors" (Sellers and Byrne, 2014). The report provided an in-depth insight into the way tutors made changes to their practice, and offered practical tips on how to teach numeracy to adult…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Moyer, Peggy S., Ed.
This document presents the course syllabus for Education 590 Culminating Experience at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga's teacher licensure program. It also includes action research projects from spring 2003: "'To Track or Untrack...That Is the Question'" (Sarah Armes); "Providing Urban Students with the Motivation to…
Deemer, Sandra A.
The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…
Action research changes people's practices, their understandings of their practices, and the conditions under which they practice. It changes people's patterns of "saying", "doing" and "relating" to form new patterns--new ways of life. It is a meta-practice: a practice that changes other practices. It transforms the…
Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron
There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…
Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth
Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…
Wilson, Brent G.; Linder VanBerschot, Jennifer
Two instructors report our experience co-teaching an action research (AR) required as part of an e-learning master's degree. Adopting a practice-centered stance we focus on the course activities of participants (instructors and students), with particular attention to the careful crafting of course elements with the goal of achieving an…
"Blogging across the curriculum: Integrating blogging in the elementary classroom" is an Action Research Project that sought to explore the level of engagement in the writing process by students in grades 3, 4 & 5 while blogging across the curriculum. Blogging took place in homeroom classrooms as well as in the school's math, science and…
Environmental education (EE) continues to focus on enhancing people's ecological knowledge to encourage sustainable actions. This deficit approach presumes that once informed about environmental harms, people will work towards sustainable solutions for healthy societies. Yet research overwhelmingly demonstrates that knowledge of environmental…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Deaver, Sharon R., Ed.
Edge, Julian, Ed.
Chapter titles in this book include the following: "Attitude and Access: Building a New Teaching/Learning Community in TESOL" (Julian Edge); "Here It Is, Rough Though It May Be: Basic Computer for ESL" (Alison Perkins); "An 'It's Not Action Research Yet, but I'm Getting There' Approach to Teaching Writing" (Neil Cowie); "Early Reflections:…
Students in Greece are required to study classical texts, a task often challenging both for them and for their teachers. In this article, a teacher action researcher describes how he explored ways to enhance student engagement in the required reading. By negotiating the task of indexing, a process where students go through the text collecting…
Maher, Michelle; Jacob, Evelyn
This study investigates whether and how peer interaction through scaffolded asynchronous computer-mediated communication (CMC) aided teachers as they conducted course-related individual action research projects. Specifically, the study investigates the extent to which teachers' use of CMC facilitated their reflective consideration and use of…
Yuan, Rui; Lee, Icy
While Action Research (AR) is promoted as a powerful route for teachers' professional development, different contextual challenges may arise during the process; teachers may be helped to overcome these challenges with the guidance of external facilitators. Drawing on data from interviews and the teachers' AR reports, this article explores how two…
Little, Mary E.
The purpose of this article is to define and clarify the process of instructional problem-solving using assessment data within action research (AR) and Response to Intervention (RtI). Similarities between AR and RtI are defined and compared. Lastly, specific resources and examples of the instructional problem-solving process of AR within…
Worrall, Lisa; Harris, Katy
This article outlines the first cycle of an Action Research (AR) investigation into why professional learners are not using the Social Networking Technologies (SNTs) of their bespoke website. It presents the rationale of how this study came about, the ontological and epistemological stance of the authors and how this led to the particular choice…
Bleicher, Robert E.
The field of professional development is moving towards the notion of professional learning, highlighting the active learning role that teachers play in changing their knowledge bases, beliefs and practice. This article builds on this idea and argues for creating professional learning that is guided by a collaborative action research (CAR)…
A significant challenge for all participants in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project, including the Ministry of Education, the local project teams (LPT) and mentors, was the lack of availability of a single ethics approval process for the project in its entirety and, in particular, one that could accommodate…
Dymond, Stacy K.
This article proposes a model for evaluating inclusive schools. Key elements of the model are inclusion of stakeholders in the evaluation process through a participatory action research approach, analysis of program processes and outcomes, use of multiple methods and measures, and obtaining perceptions from diverse stakeholder groups. (Contains…
Tugel, Joyce; Porter, Ingrid
Curriculum top study (CTS) action research is a specific type of inquiry that combines curriculum topic study (Keeley 2005) with an examination of students' thinking using formative assessment probes (Keeley, Eberle, and Farrin 2005; Keeley, Eberle, and Tugel 2007; Keeley, Eberle, and Dorsey 2008; Keeley and Tugel 2009) and a variety of…
Taking part in the autism spectrum disorder participatory action research (ASD PAR) project was a genuine team effort for the group of people supporting Rose, a primary school student with Asperger syndrome. The following excerpts are from interviews with some of Rose's team. This is a collaborative approach to telling the story of the team's…
Clayton, Courtney; Meadows, George
Classroom-centered Action Research Projects are an integral component of the M.S. in Elementary Education Program at the University's (pseudonym) College of Education. This article provides a summary and discussion of the projects completed by students in the Science, Technology, Literacy and English Language Learner Specializations of the…
The paper addresses contemporary relations between emotions, gender and feminist action research. Starting from analysis of the increasing emotionalisation of everyday life, it explores the quasi-feminist--or what the author calls "feminised"--forms of incitement to reflexive confession that are increasingly gaining favour within professional and…
Moore, Rita A.; Gilliard, Jennifer L.
The purpose of this study was to investigate the use of action research by ten preservice teachers earning their associate's degree in early childhood education from a small university in the West. Their goal was to assess the impact of their teaching on student learning with children birth to 8 years of age. This study represents the use of…
Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Huttunen, Rauno; Syrjala, Leena; Pesonen, Jyri
The article continues the discussion of the five quality principles proposed by Heikkinen, Huttunen, and Syrjala, published in 2007 in "Educational Action Research". In the present article, the authors reconsider the five principles: historical continuity; reflexivity; dialectics; workability; and evocativeness. These five principles are…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Bothman, Susan M., Ed
Daack-Hirsch, Sandra; Driessnack, Martha; Downing, Nancy; Shinkunas, Laura; Brandt, Debra; Simon, Christian
Aims: Genomic research can produce findings unrelated to a study's aims. The purpose of this study was to examine researcher and Institutional Review Board (IRB) chair perspectives on genomic incidental findings (GIFs). Methods: Nineteen genomic researchers and 34 IRB chairs from 42 institutions participated in semi-structured telephone interviews. Researchers and chairs described GIFs within their respective roles. Few had direct experience with disclosure of GIFs. Researchers favored policies where a case by case determination regarding whether GIF disclosure would be offered after discovery, whereas IRB chairs preferred policies where procedures for disclosure would be determined prior to approval of the research. Conclusions: Researcher and IRB chair perspectives on management of GIFs overlap, but each group provides a unique perspective on decisions regarding disclosure of GIFs in research. Engagement of both groups is essential in efforts to provide guidance for researchers and IRBs regarding disclosure of GIFs in research. PMID:22352737
Stull, Donald D., Ed.; Schensul, Jean J., Ed.
Promoting social change is the goal of the seven community case studies reported in this book. Each study is a "natural experiment" that involved long-term research, close collaboration between researchers and the host community, and the application of research methods and findings to social change goals within the community. The following reports…
Burns, Theresa E; Stephen, Craig
The need to adequately predict, prevent and respond to infectious diseases emerging unexpectedly from human-animal-environmental systems has driven interest in multisectoral, socio-economic, systems-based, collaborative (MSC) research approaches such as EcoHealth and One Health. Our goals were to document how MSC research has been used to address EIDs in Asia, and to explore how MSC approaches align with current priorities for EID research in Asia. We gathered priorities for EID research from the peer-reviewed and grey literature, documented organizational descriptions of MCS research approaches, and analysed a series of EID MSC projects. We found that priority areas for EID research in Asia included (1) understanding host-pathogen-environment interactions; (2) improving tools and technologies; (3) changing people's behaviour; and (4) evaluating the effectiveness of interventions. We found that the unifying characteristics of MSC research were that it was action-oriented and sought to inspire change under real-world conditions at the complex interface of human and natural systems. We suggest that MSC research can be considered a type of 'pragmatic research' and might be most useful in describing change in complex human-animal-environmental systems, accelerating research-to-action, and evaluating effectiveness of interventions in 'real world' settings.
Souzeau, Emmanuelle; Burdon, Kathryn P.; Mackey, David A.; Hewitt, Alex W.; Savarirayan, Ravi; Otlowski, Margaret; Craig, Jamie E.
Whole genome and whole exome sequencing technologies are being increasingly used in research. However, they have the potential to identify incidental findings (IF), findings not related to the indication of the test, raising questions regarding researchers' responsibilities toward the return of this information to participants. In this study we discuss the ethical considerations related to the return of IF to research participants, emphasizing that the type of the study matters and describing the current practice standards. There are currently no legal obligations for researchers to return IF to participants, but some viewpoints consider that researchers might have an ethical one to return IF of clinical validity and clinical utility and that are actionable. The reality is that most IF are complex to interpret, especially since they were not the indication of the test. The clinical utility often depends on the participants' preferences, which can be challenging to conciliate and relies on participants' understanding. In summary, in the context of a lack of clear guidance, researchers need to have a clear plan for the disclosure or nondisclosure of IF from genomic research, balancing their research goals and resources with the participants' rights and their duty not to harm. PMID:26929883
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... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...
... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...
... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirement to publish finding of no significant impact; limitation on Commission action. 51.35 Section 51.35 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED... Environmental Policy Act-Regulations Implementing Section 102(2) Finding of No Significant Impact §...
This exploration of the racial power dynamics in a participatory action research project with women who had experienced intimate partner violence discusses the challenges inherent in doing participatory action with antiracist intent and offers suggestions for overcoming these challenges. To engage in this type of research, explicit commitment to the goals of an antiracist intent needs to be shared as widely as possible. Fostering such shared commitment demands that the social locations of all involved be interrogated continuously. Such interrogation, however, needs to be prefaced with understanding that individuals are not representative of particular power positions or social identities or locations and with critical attention to how language and social structures shape racism and other forms of dominance. Being inclusive must be understood as complex and the influence of diverse agendas and perspectives acknowledged and taken into account. In the face of such complexity, "success" in research may need redefinition.
Loughland, Tony; Bowen, Margo
This paper analyses the uncertain foundations of the use of action research in a graduate teaching degree. This analysis is conducted by the course coordinator in partnership with a recent graduate. The uncertainty is traced to the pedagogical incoherence of the course that is caused by philosophical infidelity. The philosophy and practice of the…
Despite the potential benefits of action research, teaching action research in a university setting can present challenges. Analyzing my own experiences of teaching a university-based course on action research, this self-study investigates what my students (all classroom teachers) did and did not understand about action research and what hindered…
Burnaford, Gail, Ed.; Fischer, Joseph, Ed.; Hobson, David, Ed.
This collection of papers describes the processes of doing teacher action research. There are nine chapters in three parts. Part 1, "Ways of Doing Teacher Action Research," includes (1) "Action and Reflection: Narrative and Journaling in Teacher Research" (David Hobson); (2) "Action Research Rationale and Planning:…
Rose, Linda P.
Many instructors teach courses that prepare students to do research individually or in teams. These instructors also supervise their students' research projects. Continuous and systematic use of action research principles can help instructors prepare for problems that may develop when students encounter unfamiliar issues at research sites due to…
Maushak, Nancy J. Ed.; Manternach-Wigans, Lynn, Ed.
"Action Research" and the "Encyclopedia of Distance Education Research" (1994) are designed as resources for distance education research in Iowa, including information on developing, implementing, and administering distance education systems. This addendum containing an additional seven research studies includes the following…
Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah
The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…
Hai, Ngo Van
This study aims to present research findings from the use of probiotics in tilapia aquaculture. In omnivorous species of tilapia aquaculture, intestines and gonads, rearing water and sediments or even commercial products, can be sources for acquiring appropriate probiotics. Administration of probiotics varies from direct oral/water routine to feed additives, of which the latter is most commonly used. Probiotic applications can be either mono or multiple strains. Dosage and duration of time are significant factors in providing desired results. As probiotics have been proven to be either immune enhancers and/or growth promoters in aquatic animals, several modes of actions of probiotics in enhancement of immune responses, and an improvement of growth and survival rates of tilapia are presented, while the effects of others are not yet understood to the same degree as for other fish species. Some points extracted from the research findings are emphasised for further investigation and development.
Only 0.1-0.5% of new therapy candidates gains marketing approval; just 10-20% of the approved ones ultimately recoup the ~0.6-0.9$USbn invested into their R&D until marketing authorisation. One reason is the high inherent risk of new therapeutic products development. Further reasons are suboptimal decisions during R&D and, too often, lack of adequate experience. To bridge the latter gap, this article succinctly reviews identification of new product opportunities and their patent protection, the resulting commercial opportunity and portfolio valuation, planning and conduct of the ensuing preclinical and clinical tests, as well as therapeutic product registration and price reimbursement, covering risk management as an aside. The article also clarifies the key terms, identifies the main pit falls, highlights the essential requirements for and the goals of different product development steps, to facilitate communication between researchers and developers. By combining public information with personal experience and recommendations the article aims at informing more broadly those who are familiar mainly with some of the (strictly regulated) activities involved in design, development and launch of new therapeutic products, be it that they are medicinal products or medical devices. Taken together, this should support initiation and evolution of new therapeutic products and assist researchers in finding-and better and more smoothly co-operating with-consultants or partners in development and marketing.
Krapp, Andreas; Prenzel, Manfred
This article presents an overview of interest research and describes the theoretical and methodological background for the assessment of interest in science in large-scale assessments like the 'Programme for International Student Assessment' (PISA). The paper starts with a short retrospective on the history of interest, bringing out theoretical roots that help to understand recent discussions on interest in science education. As interest is a widely used concept with manifold facets, it is essential to discuss different ways of modelling the relationship between a person and a comprehensive object like science with all of its different aspects, including wide ranges of content as well as contexts. Models that can be used for describing the content structure of science interest and the process of interest development are presented. Based on an overview of typical methods for assessing interests, exemplary findings on students' interest in science are presented, which play an important role in the current scientific debate. Finally, challenges for future research on interest in science education are discussed.
Wolf, Susan M; Paradise, Jordan; Caga-anan, Charlisse
Research technologies can now produce so much information that there is significant potential for incidental findings (IFs). These are findings generated in research that are beyond the aims of the study. Current law and federal regulations offer no direct guidance on how to deal with IFs in research, nor is there adequate professional or institutional guidance. We advocate a defined set of researcher duties based on law and ethics and recommend a pathway to be followed in handling IFs in research. This article traces the underlying ethical and legal theories supporting researcher duties to manage IFs, including duties to develop a plan for management in the research protocol, to discuss the possibility of and management plan for IFs in the informed consent process, and to address, evaluate, and ultimately offer to disclose IFs of potential clinical or reproductive significance to research participants when they arise.
Ambrose, Don; Lang, Kathy; Grothman, Marta
Busy educators find it difficult to work creatively in conditions imposed by ill-conceived, politically charged reform initiatives such as the No Child Left Behind Act. In order to keep up with research findings, emerging theories and practical recommendations in the creativity literature, they need accessible, highly condensed distillations of…
Attitudes to science develop early in life. In early childhood, the almost exclusively female staff members lack confidence in the area of science, and are therefore unable to develop an adequate science program for their children. In an action research project involving one third of the adults staffing a playcentre, during one term, the science programme in the centre was considerably improved, on measures of dialogues with the children, and of planning activities specifically for science. The staff members, mothers in the playcentre, reported increased confidence in talking with children about science topics, and a significant change in their interaction patterns both with their own families and with other children in the playcentre science programme. The action research method was found to be particularly helpful in supporting the group of parents in improving their centre's science program.
Fowler, Cathrine; Wu, Cynthia; Lam, Winsome
Competition for scarce clinical placements has increased requiring new and innovative models to be developed to meet the growing need. A participatory action research project was used to provide a community nursing clinical experience of involvement in parent education. Nine Hong Kong nursing students self-selected to participate in the project to implement a parenting program called Parenting Young Children in a Digital World. Three project cycles were used: needs identification, skills development and program implementation. Students were fully involved in each cycle's planning, action and reflection phase. Qualitative and quantitative data were collected to inform the project. The overall outcome of the project was the provision of a rich and viable clinical placement experience that created significant learning opportunities for the students and researchers. This paper will explore the student's participation in this PAR project as an innovative clinical practice opportunity.
Mauro, John B.; Bonney, Christopher F.
Twenty-six American Newspaper Publishers Association research reports published since 1978 are reviewed in this paper. The paper analyzes each of the reports in order to provide an overview of what their findings really say and what newspapers can do in their own market areas to use the findings to improve their product. Among the topics covered…
Orasanu, Judith; Hart, Sandra G. (Technical Monitor)
essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for training will be discussed.
Orasanu, Judith; Statler, Irving C. (Technical Monitor)
contributes to performance because it assures that all crew members have essential information, but it also regulates and coordinates crew actions and is the medium of collective thinking in response to a problem. This presentation will examine the relations between leadership, communication, decision making and overall crew performance. Implications of these findings for spaceflight and training for offshore installations will be discussed.
Xiao, Lily D; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan
The aim of this study was to develop quality clinical placements in residential aged care facilities for undergraduate nursing students undertaking their nursing practicum topics. The proportion of people aged over 65 years is expected to increase steadily from 13% in 2006 to 26% of the total population in Australia in 2051. However, when demand is increasing for a nursing workforce competent in the care of older people, studies have shown that nursing students generally lack interest in working with older people. The lack of exposure of nursing students to quality clinical placements is one of the key factors contributing to this situation. Critical action research built on a partnership between an Australian university and five aged care organisations was utilised. A theoretical framework informed by Habermas' communicative action theory was utilised to guide the action research. Multiple research activities were used to support collaborative critical reflection and inform actions throughout the action research. Clinical placements in eight residential aged care facilities were developed to support 179 nursing students across three year-levels to complete their practicum topics. Findings were presented in three categories described as structures developed to govern clinical placement, learning and teaching in residential aged care facilities.
Chesnay, Catherine T.
An emerging literature has been building bridges between poststructuralism and participatory action research, highlighting the latter's potential for transformative action. Using examples from participative action research projects with incarcerated or previously incarcerated women, this article discusses how participatory action research is a…
Vaughn, Sharon; Gersten, Russell; Chard, David J.
This article summarizes the critical findings of recent research syntheses concerning intervention with students who have learning disabilities. The syntheses examined research on higher-order processing and problem- solving, reading comprehension, written expression, and grouping practices associated with improved outcomes in reading. Principles…
Rubin, Beth C.; Jones, Makeba
Recent years have seen a proliferation of student action research both nationally and internationally. Going by various names--participatory research, action research, participatory evaluation--student action research is research that (a) is conducted by youth, within or outside of schools and classrooms, with the goal of informing and affecting…
Yang, K Wayne
This article examines mathematics education as both the site and object of transformation for a youth PAR project in which students researched and evaluated their urban high school in Oakland, California. These youth researchers were trained as part of a sociology course as well as a mathematics class designed to both remediate gaps in math preparation and accelerate students into higher-order math literacy. This study differs from and extends other studies that describe mathematics as a tool for social critique. It considers youth research in and through mathematics as a more ideologically open endeavor in that youth do not simply reproduce predetermined criticisms of social inequality. Thus, this project translates extensive work in critical literacy, new media literacy, and youth participatory action research to a mathematics context.
Ozer, Emily J
Youth-led participatory action research (YPAR) is an approach to scientific inquiry and social change grounded in principles of equity that engages young people in identifying problems relevant to their own lives, conducting research to understand the problems, and advocating for changes based on research evidence. This chapter provides an introduction to YPAR followed by consideration of the (a) developmental relevance of YPAR for marginalized youth, (b) implications of YPAR for developmental science research on inequities experienced by youth, and (c) potential opportunities and impact of YPAR for improving key developmental settings such as schools and youth-serving organizations. Resources for conducting YPAR projects are discussed, as well as the need for potential integration of YPAR and other participatory approaches to engaging youth and their expertise-at a significant enough scale to have a meaningful impact on policies and practices that affect youth development.
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
Purpose: The main aim of this paper is to develop guidelines on the critical issues to consider in research design in an action research (AR) environment for SME network capability development. Design/methodology/approach: The issues in research design for AR studies are developed from the authors' experience in running learning sets but, in…
Berlin, Donna F.; White, Arthur L.
The model presented in this document focuses on an action research project known as the Academic Challenge Program (ACP). The program is designed to facilitate the collaborative, systematic development of research-based, innovative educational practice and to bridge the gap between educational theory, research, and classroom practice. General…
Being involved with scientific research in high school is rewarding and fun. Research enables students to: (1) learn in depth about a particular area; (2) meet other students who are also enthusiastic about learning and who have done amazing research; and (3) earn scholarships for college if the research is entered in competitions. Completing a…
Lawrence, Sharmila; Smith, Sheila; Banerjee, Rashida
A recent policy statement issued by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) and U.S. Department of Education (DOE) on early childhood inclusion presents extensive recommendations for state and local actions that could improve young children's access to high quality inclusive early childhood programs (HHS/DOE, 2015). This brief…
Organic nitrates still are one of the most important drug classes used in the treatment of an acute coronary syndrome and stable coronary artery disease as well as acute and chronic congestive heart failure. The mechanism of vasodilatation comprises the release of nitric oxide, which in turn activates soluble guanylate cyclase and lowers the intracellular calcium content leading to relaxation of vascular smooth muscle. Recent research has demonstrated that highly reactive nitrates, such as nitroglycerin (or glyceryl trinitrate) and pentaerthrityl tetranitrate (PETN) are bioactivated by aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2), an enzyme located in mitochondria. The enzyme, which bioactivates mono- and dinitrates is not yet identified. Despite being effective in the acute treatment of patients, its long-term efficacy is limited by the development of tolerance to nitrates and of endothelial dysfunction. Both of these side effects of nitrate therapy are due to increased production of reactive oxygen species. This review focuses on new aspects of the process of bioactivation of organic nitrates, the conception of oxidative stress of endothelial dysfunction and of the development of tolerance and their therapeutic consequences. Also discussed are more recent findings on nitric oxide donors such as molsidomine, PETN and the combination treatment of isosorbide dinitrate and hydralazine of patients with coronary artery disease and chronic heart failure.
Isasi, Rosario; Knoppers, Bartha M; Andrews, Peter W; Bredenoord, Annelien; Colman, Alan; Hin, Lee Eng; Hull, Sara; Kim, Ock-Joo; Lomax, Geoffrey; Morris, Clive; Sipp, Douglas; Stacey, Glyn; Wahlstrom, Jan; Zeng, Fanyi
Prompted by an increased interest of both research participants and the patient advocacy community in obtaining information about research outcomes and on the use of their biological samples; the international community has begun to debate the emergence of an ethical 'duty' to return research results to participants. Furthermore, the use of new technologies (e.g., whole-genome and -exome sequencing) has revealed both genetic data and incidental findings with possible clinical significance. These technologies together with the proliferation of biorepositories, provide a compelling rationale for governments and scientific institutions to adopt prospective policies. Given the scarcity of policies in the context of stem cell research, a discussion on the scientific, ethical and legal implications of disclosing research results for research participants is needed. We present the International Stem Forum Ethics Working Party's Policy Statement and trust that it will stimulate debate and meet the concerns of researchers and research participants alike.
Munn, Zachary; Pearson, Alan; Jordan, Zoe; Murphy, Frederick; Pilkington, Diana
Action research is a form of research that investigates and describes a social or work situation with the aim of achieving a change which results in improvement. This article emphasizes the potential for action research to be a useful research method in radiography. A search was conducted to determine the extent to which action research has been utilized in radiography. Although action research has been used in a number of health-care settings, there are no published examples of action research being utilized in a clinical medical imaging department. Action research is discussed in detail, along with an example guide for an action research study. Action research has been identified as a useful way to affect change, to involve radiographers in the research process, and to introduce evidence-based practice to radiography. PMID:26229607
TEACHERS CONDUCT IN-CLASS ACTION research to solve classroom problems. Cases of K-12 classroom action research were examined to determine which of them require ethics review. A variety of action research projects were collected and transformed into fictitious examples that could be systematically examined to answer these questions pertinent to whether ethics review is required. The resulting analysis suggested that much classroom action research is a local curriculum development activity, which solves important problems but does not require ethics review for various reasons. If it is human research, as defined in the U.S. Common Rule, and is funded by an agency covered by the Common Rule, or if it is not funded but is human research conducted within an institution that has agreed to review all human research, ethics review is legally required unless the intervention is normal educational practice. However, since some action research may trigger other legal requirements, such as the U.S. Family Educational Rights and Privacy Act of 1979 (FERPA), it may be desirable to have some form of school-based review, but typically not human subjects ethics review.
Although action-research is a well-known research methodology in the field of education, in the case of Greece there are few actions-researches carried out by early childhood teachers. The absence of action-research in early childhood education settings is related to the way many early childhood teachers shape their professional role as well as…
... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Reporting negative actions or findings taken by peer review organizations or private accreditation entities. 60.10 Section 60.10 Public Welfare... INFORMATION ON PHYSICIANS AND OTHER HEALTH CARE PRACTITIONERS Reporting of Information § 60.10...
Mathieu, Ghislaine; Groisman, Iris Jaitovich; Godard, Beatrice
The use of next generation sequencing (NGS) technologies in psychiatric genetics research and its potential to generate individual research results will likely have far reaching implications for predictive and diagnostic practices. The extent of this impact may not be easily understood by psychiatric research participants during the consent process. The traditional consent process for studies involving human subjects does not address critical issues specific to NGS research, such as the return of results. We examined which type of research findings should be communicated, how this information should be conveyed during the consent process and what guidance is required by researchers and IRBs to help psychiatric research participants understand the peculiarities, the limits and the impact of NGS. Strong standards are needed to ensure appropriate use of data generated by NGS, to meet participants' expectations and needs, and to clarify researchers' duties regarding the disclosure of data and their subsequent management. In the short term, researchers and IRBs need to be proactive in revising current consent processes that deal with the disclosure of research findings.
Data Quality Campaign, 2014
Data are more than just test scores, and by effectively accessing and using different types of data--such as attendance, grades, and course-taking--teachers, parents, and school and district leaders can help ensure that every student is on a path for success every day, not just at the end of the school year. The 10 State Actions to Ensure…
Rydin, Claudia Alves de Jesus; Farina Busto, Luis; Penny, Martin
Women have historically been underrepresented in science. Much positive progress in attracting women to research careers has been achieved in recent years; however, the most influential and high profile positions in most countries are still predominantly occupied by men. The European Research Council (ERC), Europe's premiere funding agency for frontier research, views gender equality as an important challenge. The ERC monitors closely gender figures on every call and has taken actions to tackle gender imbalances and potential unconscious biases. The ERC talk is focused on efforts made to understand and ensure equal treatment of all candidates, with particular focus on gender balance and with specific attention to geosciences. Data and statistics collected from ERC's internationally recognised funding schemes are presented.
Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget
This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…
Anwaruddin, Sardar M.; Pervin, Nasrin
In this article, we report on a small-scale study in which we investigated English-language teachers' engagement with educational research. We conceptualized engagement with research as reading and systematically using research for professional development. Using questionnaires and in-depth interviews, we gathered empirical materials from 40…
In the past, neurobiology for reading was identical with neuropathology. Today, however, the advancement of modern neuroimaging techniques has contributed to the understanding of the reading processes of normal individuals. Neurobiology findings today have uncovered and illuminated the fundamental neural mechanism of reading. The findings have…
Zuber-Skerrit, Ortrun; Fletcher, Margaret
Purpose: The paper seeks to identify the quality characteristics of critical action research and action research theses compared to traditional research thesis writing. Design/methodology/approach: Drawing on the literature and the authors' experience with supervising and examining action research theses, the paper identifies key problem areas in…
O'Connor, Katherine A.; Greene, H. Carol; Anderson, Patricia J.
Background: Action research is a meaningful form of research because it is conducted by the teacher in his or her own classroom. Action research requires a teacher to design a study in an area of interest and conduct it in their own classroom. Action research is a requirement for some masters of education programs in the United States. Purpose: To…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem; Bartholomew, Mitchell
This article is an attempt to tell the story of action research as it has developed over the last half century. Action research has become an important part of a number of research programs, especially in the field of education. Action research is a powerful idea centering on humans' ability to break free from deleterious social habits…
Pennsylvania State Univ., McKeesport.
The Pennsylvania Action Research Network project was initiated in 1995-1996 to provide Pennsylvania literacy educators with the following: a better method for taking published research findings and testing and adapting them in their own classrooms; a way to study their own research ideas on a daily-action basis; and a systematic way to share and…
Kristjanson, Patti; Reid, Robin S.; Dickson, Nancy; Clark, William C.; Romney, Dannie; Puskur, Ranjitha; MacMillan, Susan; Grace, Delia
We applied an innovation framework to sustainable livestock development research projects in Africa and Asia. The focus of these projects ranged from pastoral systems to poverty and ecosystems services mapping to market access by the poor to fodder and natural resource management to livestock parasite drug resistance. We found that these projects closed gaps between knowledge and action by combining different kinds of knowledge, learning, and boundary spanning approaches; by providing all partners with the same opportunities; and by building the capacity of all partners to innovate and communicate. PMID:19289830
Kristjanson, Patti; Reid, Robin S; Dickson, Nancy; Clark, William C; Romney, Dannie; Puskur, Ranjitha; Macmillan, Susan; Grace, Delia
We applied an innovation framework to sustainable livestock development research projects in Africa and Asia. The focus of these projects ranged from pastoral systems to poverty and ecosystems services mapping to market access by the poor to fodder and natural resource management to livestock parasite drug resistance. We found that these projects closed gaps between knowledge and action by combining different kinds of knowledge, learning, and boundary spanning approaches; by providing all partners with the same opportunities; and by building the capacity of all partners to innovate and communicate.
Sigmon, C.F.; Levine, M.B.
This report presents the results of an environmental assessment conducted at Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) in St. Charles County, Missouri, in accordance with the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP) Environmental Compliance Assessment Checklists. The purpose of this assessment was to evaluate the compliance of the site with applicable federal and Missouri environment regulations. Assessments activities included the following: review of site records, reports ,and files; inspection of the WSSRAP storage building, other selected buildings, and the adjacent grounds; and interviews with project personnel. This assessment was conducted on August 28-30, 1989. The assessment covered five management areas as set forth in the Checklist: Hazardous Waste Management, Polychlorinated Biphenyls (PCBs) Management; Air Emissions; Wastewater Discharges and Petroleum Management. No samples were collected. 1 ref., 2 figs., 1 tab.
Research Laboratory Harold F. O’Neil, Jr., Director o-.--LI.J U-~% ELFCT A . .-III- A U. S. Army Research Institute for the Behavioral and Social ...BEHAVIORAL AND SOCIAL SCIENCES b.4 .IN A Field Operating Agency under the Jurisdiction of the Deputy Chief of Staff for Personnel L. NEALE COSBY EDGAR M...OFFICE NAME AND ADDRESS 12. REPORT DATE US Army Research Institute for the Behavioral January 1985 and Social Sciences, 5001 Eisenhower Ave., 13
Pulugurtha, Srinivas S; Self, Debbie R
This paper focuses on an analysis of pedestrian and motorists' actions at sites with pedestrian hybrid beacons and assesses their effectiveness in improving the safety of pedestrians. Descriptive and statistical analyses (one-tail two-sample T-test and two-proportion Z-test) were conducted using field data collected during morning and evening peak hours at three study sites in the city of Charlotte, NC, before and after the installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons. Further, an analysis was conducted to assess the change in pedestrian and motorists' actions over time (before the installation; 1 month, 3 months, 6 months, and 12 months after the installation). Results showed an increase in average traffic speed at one of the pedestrian hybrid beacon sites while no specific trends were observed at the other two pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. A decrease in the number of motorists not yielding to pedestrians, pedestrians trapped in the middle of the street, and pedestrian-vehicle conflicts were observed at all the three pedestrian hybrid beacon sites. The installation of pedestrian hybrid beacons did not have a negative effect on pedestrian actions at two out of the three sites. Improvements seem to be relatively more consistent 3 months after the installation of the pedestrian hybrid beacon.
Coleman, Elizabeth R.
This three-article dissertation presents complementary perspectives on Science Youth Action Research (Sci-YAR), a K-12 curriculum designed to emphasize relevance and agency to promote youth's science learning. In Sci-YAR, youth conduct action research projects to better understand science-related issues in their lives, schools, or communities, while they simultaneously document, analyze, and reflect upon their own practices as researchers. The first article defines Sci-YAR and argues for its potential to enhance youth's participation as citizens in a democratic society. The second article details findings from a case study of youth engaged in Sci-YAR, describing how the curriculum enabled and constrained youth's identity work in service of critical science agency. The third article provides guidance to science teachers in implementing student-driven curriculum and instruction by emphasizing Sci-YAR's key features as a way to promote student agency and relevance in school science.
Clagett, Craig A.
Environmental scanning, enrollment forecasting, budget analyses, and institutional effectiveness assessment are examples of the explicit contributions institutional research offices make to campus strategic planning.
Background Community-based organizations (CBOs) are important stakeholders in health systems and are increasingly called upon to use research evidence to inform their advocacy, program planning, and service delivery efforts. CBOs increasingly turn to community-based research (CBR) given its participatory focus and emphasis on linking research to action. In order to further facilitate the use of research evidence by CBOs, we have developed a strategy for community-based knowledge transfer and exchange (KTE) that helps CBOs more effectively link research evidence to action. We developed the strategy by: outlining the primary characteristics of CBOs and why they are important stakeholders in health systems; describing the concepts and methods for CBR and for KTE; comparing the efforts of CBR to link research evidence to action to those discussed in the KTE literature; and using the comparison to develop a framework for community-based KTE that builds on both the strengths of CBR and existing KTE frameworks. Discussion We find that CBR is particularly effective at fostering a climate for using research evidence and producing research evidence relevant to CBOs through community participation. However, CBOs are not always as engaged in activities to link research evidence to action on a larger scale or to evaluate these efforts. Therefore, our strategy for community-based KTE focuses on: an expanded model of 'linkage and exchange' (i.e., producers and users of researchers engaging in a process of asking and answering questions together); a greater emphasis on both producing and disseminating systematic reviews that address topics of interest to CBOs; developing a large-scale evidence service consisting of both 'push' efforts and efforts to facilitate 'pull' that highlight actionable messages from community relevant systematic reviews in a user-friendly way; and rigorous evaluations of efforts for linking research evidence to action. Summary Through this type of strategy
Discusses the Center for Advanced Study in Education (CASE) in Manhattan as a representative research and development center in a collaborative role with the New York City Schools. Presents its role as educational problem solver for immediate solutions rather than for interesting findings. Provides examples of three on-going problem solving…
ERIC Clearinghouse on Educational Management, Eugene, OR.
This brief summarizes the major findings of significant research studies dealing with different leadership behaviors and strategies for increasing leadership effectiveness. Fred Fiedler's Contingency Theory of Leadership Effectiveness emphasizes that a leader's effectiveness is determined by how well his leadership style fits the specific…
Torre, Maria Elena
Drawing on the intersections of a justice oriented participatory action research and critical race theory, this essay explores the possibilities for research embedded in the theoretical, ethical and methodological overlaps between the two. Using the Echoes project as a case study, a participatory collective of intentionally diverse youth from New…
Kayaoglu, M. Naci
Action research is characterized by a new paradigm of empowering teachers to monitor their own practices in a more autonomous manner with a vision of challenging and improving their own techniques of teaching through their own participatory research. Yet in spite of this apparently radical shift in the function of the teacher from the constant…
Zornes, Deborah; Ferkins, Lesley; Piggot-Irvine, Eileen
The focus of this paper is to share thinking about networks in action research (AR) and to consider their role, purpose, and how networks' outcomes and impacts might be evaluated. Networks are often a by-product of AR projects, yet research focused on the network itself as part of a project is rare. The paper is one of several associated with the…
Stone, Joseph B.
Indian country presents even the most seasoned and careful researcher with numerous methodological issues. Two of the most salient of these are appropriate understanding of postcolonial stress in tribal communities, and the use of participatory action research methods and models in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper explains postcolonial…
Robison, Dorothy; Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden
This paper describes development of a study that includes participatory action research, specifically the establishment of a family advisory committee. The study involved a survey of Massachusetts families of children with disabilities. Suggestions for establishing and integrating the committee into the research enterprise are offered, as are…
Laffey, Evelyn H.; Cook-Chennault, Kimberly; Hirsch, Linda S.
In addressing the nation's need for a more technologically-literate society, the Rutgers University Research Experience for Teachers in Engineering (RU RET-E) is designed to: (1) engage middle and high school math and science teachers in innovative "green" engineering research during the summer, and (2) support teachers in integrating…
Gormally, Sinéad; Coburn, Annette
Participation in educational and social research helps to develop understanding of how young people learn and to consider wider aspects of their lives to enable their voices to be heard and acted upon. Research also facilitates the articulation and sharing of methodologies across a range of professional practices. We assert that theory and…
Royal Air Force (England). Technical Training Command.
To report research on different instructional methods and variables, to indicate limitations of the research, and to suggest criteria for methods for particular learning goals, this review discusses and evaluates several major instructional methods: lectures, lesson-demonstration, programed instruction, case studies, tutorials, brainstorming,…
Coulter, Cathy A.
The author responds to comments by Barone (2009), Clandinin and Murphy (2009), and M. W. Smith (2009) on "The Construction Zone: Literary Elements in Narrative Research" (Coulter & M. L. Smith, 2009). She clarifies issues regarding point of view, authorial surplus, narrative coherence, and the relational qualities of narrative research. She…
This article, based on research findings, examines the effect of implementing a genre approach to develop writing competency of Year 5 and 6 L2 primary school students. Using action research, the genre approach was implemented over a 10-week term with two lessons per week in a culturally and linguistically diverse ESL class in a South Australian…
Hisrich, Robert; Langan-Fox, Janice; Grant, Sharon
Entrepreneurship is a major source of employment, economic growth, and innovation, promoting product and service quality, competition, and economic flexibility. It is also a mechanism by which many people enter the society's economic and social mainstream, aiding culture formation, population integration, and social mobility. This article aims to illuminate research opportunities for psychologists by exposing gaps in the entrepreneurship literature and describing how these gaps can be filled. A "call to action" is issued to psychologists to develop theory and undertake empirical research focusing on five key topic areas: the personality characteristics of entrepreneurs, the psychopathology of entrepreneurs, entrepreneurial cognition, entrepreneurship education, and international entrepreneurship. Methodological issues are discussed and recommendations provided. It is shown that psychologists can help identify the factors that influence new venture creation and success and inform the construction of public policy to facilitate entrepreneurship.
Westhues, Anne; Ochocka, Joanna; Jacobson, Nora; Simich, Laura; Maiter, Sarah; Janzen, Rich; Fleras, Augie
Research studies are increasingly complex: They draw on multiple methods to gather data, generate both qualitative and quantitative data, and frequently represent the perspectives of more than one stakeholder. The teams that generate them are increasingly multidisciplinary. A commitment to engaging community members in the research process often adds a further layer of complexity. How to approach a synthesizing analysis of these multiple and varied data sources with a large research team requires considerable reflection and dialogue. In this article, we outline the strategies used by one multidisciplinary team committed to a participatory action research (PAR) approach and engaged in a mixed method program of research to synthesize the findings from four subprojects into a conceptual framework that could guide practice in community mental health organizations. We also summarize factors that hold promise for increasing productivity when managing complex research projects.
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0976) of the proposed corrective action for the Northeast Site at the Pinellas Plant in Largo, Florida. The Northeast Site contains contaminated groundwater that would be removed, treated, and discharged to the Pinellas County Sewer System. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action is not a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment, within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 (NEPA), 42 U.S.C.4321 et.seq. Therefore, the preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (FONSI).
The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an environmental assessment (EA) (DOE/EA-0339) of the proposed remedial action at two uranium processing sites near Slick Rock in San Miguel County, Colorado. These sites contain radioactively contaminated materials that would be removed and stabilized at a remote location. Based on the information and analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major Federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969 (42 U.S.C. 4321 et seq.), as amended. Therefore, preparation of an environmental impact statement is not required, and the DOE is issuing this Finding of No Significant Impact (ONSI).
... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Requirements for findings of research misconduct... HEALTH SERVICE POLICIES ON RESEARCH MISCONDUCT General § 93.104 Requirements for findings of research misconduct. A finding of research misconduct made under this part requires that— (a) There be a...
Oh, Phil Seok
Collaborative action research was undertaken over two years between a Korean science teacher and science education researchers at the University of Iowa. For the purpose of realizing science learning as envisioned by constructivist principles, Group-Investigations were implemented three or five times per project year. In addition, the second year project enacted Peer Assessments among students. Student perceptions of their science classrooms, as measured by the Constructivist Learning Environment Survey (CLES), provided evidence that the collaborative action research was successful in creating constructivist learning environments. Student attitudes toward science lessons, as examined by the Enjoyment of Science Lessons Scale (ESLS), indicated that the action research also contributed to developing more positive attitudes of students about science learning. Discourse analysis was conducted on video-recordings of in-class presentations and discussions. The results indicated that students in science classrooms which were moving toward constructivist learning environments engaged in such discursive practices as: (1) Communicating their inquiries to others, (2) Seeking and providing information through dialogues, and (3) Negotiating conflicts in their knowledge and beliefs. Based on these practices, science learning was viewed as the process of constructing knowledge and understanding of science as well as the process of engaging in scientific inquiry and discourse. The teacher's discursive practices included: (1) Wrapping up student presentations, (2) Addressing misconceptions, (3) Answering student queries, (4) Coaching, (5) Assessing and advising, (6) Guiding students discursively into new knowledge, and (7) Scaffolding. Science teaching was defined as situated acts of the teacher to facilitate the learning process. In particular, when the classrooms became more constructivist, the teacher intervened more frequently and carefully in student activities to fulfill a
Kercher, Lydia; McClurg, Patricia
This paper explores the issue of how, when, and where to teach keyboarding at the elementary school level through a review of the keyboarding literature and descriptions of three studies conducted with fifth grade students in the laboratory school at the University of Wyoming. The literature review briefly summarizes findings on the following…
Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Center for Vocational and Technical Education.
AS A RESULT OF TWO CONFERENCES HELD IN 1963-64, INTERVIEW-TYPE SURVEYS OF EMPLOYMENT NEEDS IN OFF-FARM AGRICULTURAL BUSINESSES WERE CONDUCTED IN 26 STATES IN 1964. THE ANALYSIS OF THE FINDINGS RESULTED IN THIS SYNTHESIS. INFORMATION IS GIVEN ON -- (1) NUMBERS OF PEOPLE EMPLOYED, (2) PRESENT NUMBER, ESTIMATED INCREASE, OCCUPATIONAL GROUP AND LEVEL…
Tunks, Jeanne L.
This Yearbook chapter, a compilation of multiple sources, presents both the history of action research and an analysis of reported action research in the professional development school (PDS) between 1992 and 2010. The history begins prior to the inception of the PDS and provides a theoretical premise for action research in the PDS in subsequent…
This book, in its second edition, is intended as a practical guide to conducting action research in schools--it outlines the process of designing and reporting an action research project. Contending that action research can be used as a powerful tool that can contribute to school renewal and instructional improvement, the book defines and presents…
This paper explores some of the unique opportunities and challenges of integrating participatory action research into undergraduate GIS courses, drawing evidence from two undergraduate courses that contributed to a long-term participatory action research project. The author shows that incorporating participatory action research in undergraduate…
Robinson, Daniel; Foran, Andrew; Robinson, Ingrid
This paper reports on the results of the first cycle of an action research project. The objective of this action research was to examine the implementation of a school-based active transportation education program (Making Tracks). A two-cycle action research design was employed in which elementary school students' (ages 7-9), middle school…
Shifferraw, Maigenet; Burton, Janet
Excited about the possibilities of action research, these authors decided to develop a project that would test the effectiveness of action research as a professional development model for adult basic education teachers in the District of Columbia. The objectives of this action research were to: (1) Provide opportunities for teachers to be engaged…
Bruce, Susan M.; Pine, Gerald J.
This is the first book about action research devoted to the complex issues faced by children with disabilities and their teachers. The authors begin by providing the historical and philosophical underpinnings of action research and then present a framework for conducting action research in special education. In addition, they feature four examples…
Duncan, J. Michael
The Vision for Exploration has been the catalyst for NASA to refocus its life sciences research. In the future, life sciences research funded by NASA will be focused on answering questions that directly impact setting physiological standards and developing effective countermeasures to the undesirable physiological and psychological effects of spaceflight for maintaining the health of the human system. This, in turn, will contribute to the success of exploration class missions. We will show how research will impact setting physiologic standards, such as exposure limits, outcome limits, and accepted performance ranges. We will give examples of how a physiologic standard can eventually be translated into an operational requirement, then a functional requirement, and eventually spaceflight hardware or procedures. This knowledge will be important to the space medicine community as well as to vehicle contractors who, for the first time, must now consider the human system in developing and constructing a vehicle that can achieve the goal of success.
Schleyer, Titus K; Becich, Michael J; Hochheiser, Harry
Raine, Kim D
Improving the nutritional health of the public continues to be a major challenge. Our mission of advancing health through food and nutrition has become increasingly complex, particularly as food environments shape the availability, affordability, and social acceptability of food and nutrition "choices". Promoting nutritional health requires that dietitians expand our knowledge in understanding the determinants of healthy eating and of social change strategies that advocates for and acts on improving food environments. While no single strategy can solve the challenges of public health nutrition, we can each identify unique strengths and opportunities. If we practice in complementary ways, using those strengths for collective action will make us stronger together toward social change supporting improved nutritional health of the public.
Powell, Rebecca; Cantrell, Susan Chambers; Malo-Juvera, Victor; Correll, Pamela
Background: Many scholars have espoused the use of culturally responsive instruction (CRI) for closing achievement gaps, yet there is a paucity of research supporting its effectiveness. In this article, we share results of a mixed methods study that examined the use of the Culturally Responsive Instruction Observation Protocol (CRIOP) as a…
Deaver, Sarah P.
This paper describes methodology, data analysis, and initial results of a research study with the long-term goal of establishing contemporary normative data on drawings from children living in the United States. The pool of participants was composed of 316 fourth graders (mean age 9.69 years) and 151 second graders (mean age 7.56 years) who each…
Hicks, Lisa; Olins, Alexandra; Prince, Heath
Recent efforts to build economic and work force development systems in seven leading cities were reviewed to inform similar efforts undertaken in Baltimore, Maryland. Research examining efforts to establish work force development systems in the following cities were analyzed: Austin, Texas; Berkeley, California; Boston, Massachusetts; Cleveland,…
Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.
This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of emergency medical services (EMS), established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train paramedics. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I;…
Fullerton, S.M.; Knerr, S.; Burke, W.
The existence of pronounced differences in health outcomes between US populations is a problem of moral significance and public health urgency. Pursuing research on genetic contributors to such disparities, despite striking data on the fundamental role of social factors, has been controversial. Still, advances in genomic science are providing an understanding of disease biology at a level of precision not previously possible. The potential for genomic strategies to help in addressing population-level disparities therefore needs to be carefully evaluated. Using 3 examples from current research, we argue that the best way to maximize the benefits of population-based genomic investigations, and mitigate potential harms, is to direct research away from the identification of genetic causes of disparities and instead focus on applying genomic methodologies to the development of clinical and public health tools with the potential to ameliorate healthcare inequities, direct population-level health interventions or inform public policy. Such a transformation will require close collaboration between transdisciplinary teams and community members as well as a reorientation of current research objectives to better align genomic discovery efforts with public health priorities and well-recognized barriers to fair health care delivery. PMID:22488458
Bachler, Mike; Sappe', Hoyt
This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of environmental horticulture, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to address the needs of the horticulture field. Section 1 contains general information:…
Bowman, Nicholas A.; Herzog, Serge
Decades of research in survey methodology and psychology have yielded important insights about how to create effective and valid survey instruments. As Porter (in press) has argued convincingly, college student surveys often fall well short of these standards by placing unrealistic demands on students' memory and by assuming that students readily…
Hatcher, Timothy; And Others
A 7-month research project was conducted by graduate students at a garment manufacturing plant in Fayetteville, Arkansas, to gain information about high employee turnover. Information also was gathered about the employment situation in northwest Arkansas in general, union-labor relationships, and how other companies handled turnover. Data were…
Downing, Clinton R.
Research on 125 assistant elementary principals in North Carolina revealed seven concerns about performance of duties: (1) lack of a well-defined job description, (2) lack of authority to implement assigned tasks, (3) lack of involvement in the instructional process, (4) lack of recognition, (5) make-shift office space, (6) low salaries, and (7)…
Brown, Ted; Sappe', Hoyt
This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of commercial art, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train commercial artists. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase I; description…
Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.
Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent 2 highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, and research in this area has increased dramatically over the past 5 years. We conceptualize the…
Sappe', Hoyt; Squires, Sheila S.
This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of instrumentation technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train instrumentation technicians. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of…
Sappe', Hoyt; Smith, Debra S.
This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of dental laboratory technology, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train dental laboratory technicians. Section 1 contains general information:…
Sappe', Hoyt; Kirkpatrick, Thomas
This report provides results of Phase I of a project that researched the occupational area of electrical distribution, established appropriate committees, and conducted task verification. These results are intended to guide development of a program designed to train apprentice line workers. Section 1 contains general information: purpose of Phase…
This report summarizes three bodies of research on teenage pregnancy and programs to reduce the risk of teenage pregnancy. Studies included in this report were completed in 1980 or later, conducted in the United States or Canada, targeted adolescents, employed an experimental or quasi-experimental design, had a sample size of at least 100 in the…
Johnson, J L; Leff, M
A relationship between parental substance abuse and subsequent alcohol problems in their children has been documented extensively. Children of alcoholics (COAs) are considered to be at high risk because there is a greater likelihood that they will develop alcoholism compared with a randomly selected child from the same community. COAs and children of other drug-abusing parents are especially vulnerable to the risk for maladaptive behavior because they have combinations of many risk factors present in their lives. The single most potent risk factor is their parent's substance-abusing behavior. This single risk factor can place children of substance abusers at biologic, psychologic, and environmental risk. Since the turn of the century, many reports have described the deleterious influence of parental alcoholism on their children. A series of studies measured mortality, physiology, and general health in the offspring of alcoholic parents and concluded that when mothers stopped drinking during gestation, their children were healthier. Today, research on COAs can be classified into studies of fetal alcohol syndrome, the transmission of alcoholism, psychobiologic markers of vulnerability, and psychosocial characteristics. Each of these studies hypothesizes that differences between COAs and children of nonalcoholics influence maladaptive behaviors later in life, such as academic failure or alcoholism. This research supports the belief that COAs are at risk for a variety of problems that may include behavioral, psychologic, cognitive, or neuropsychologic deficits. The vast literature on COAs far outweighs the literature on children of other drug abusers. Relatively little is known about children of heroin addicts, cocaine abusers, or polydrug abusers. Nonetheless, many researchers suggest that the children of addicted parents are at greater risk for later dysfunctional behaviors and that they, too, deserve significant attention to prevent intergenerational transmission of
Happell, Brenda; Johnston, Linda; Hill, Christine
The lack of research utilization within nursing practice has been extensively discussed in the literature. The Clinical Research Fellowship (CRF) program was developed to assist nurses to change practice on the basis of high-quality research evidence. This paper presents the results of a qualitative study examining the experiences of four CRF participants and three of their unit managers in completing the program and implementing changes within the clinical setting. The major themes to emerge from the data were: experience of the program, outcomes, implementation, assistance from the Centre for Psychiatric Nursing Research and Practice, Victoria, Australia, benefits and drawbacks to the program and whether it would be recommended to others. The findings indicate a positive view of the program itself although problems with the implementation stage were clearly evident. Further support following completion of the program is required to achieve maximum benefit from the program.
Lancaster, D.E. ); McKetta, S. ); Lowry, P.H. )
Analytical techniques that have grown out of the Gas Research Institute's Appalachian basin research effort are being successfully applied to the Mississippian Barnett shale of Texas' Fort Worth basin. Analysis has shown that well performance can be explained by a layered reservoir description, productive pay may be overstated by log analysis, productivity is enhanced by natural fractures, and long, bounded, high conductivity fractures are indeed being created and propped. As with the Appalachian shales, the key to fracture treatment optimization appears to be a better characterization of the Barnett shale via an integration of log and test data. The paper describes the geologic setting, drilling since 1981, a summary of the cooperative work performed on the 2 T.P. Sims well, the shale-specific log, core analysis fracture orientation, frac treatment analysis, and production data analysis.
Radiation hormesis research in Japan to determine the validity of Luckey's claims has revealed information on the health effects of low-level radiation. The scientific data of animal tests we obtained and successful results actually brought by radon therapy on human patients show us a clearer understanding of the health effects of low-level radiation. We obtained many animal test results and epidemiological survey data through our research activities cooperating with more than ten universities in Japan, categorized as follows: 1. suppression of cancer by enhancement of the immune system based on gene activation; 2. rejuvenation and suppression of aging by increasing cell membrane permeability and enzyme syntheses; 3. adaptive response by activation of gene expression on DNA repair and cell apoptosis; 4. pain relief and stress moderation by hormone formation in the brain and central nervous system; 5. avoidance and therapy of obstinate diseases by enhancing damage control systems and form one formation.
Silva de Lima, Maurício; Garcia de Oliveira Soares, Bernardo; de Jesus Mari, Jair
This paper aims to review the recent mental health epidemiological research conducted in South America. The Latin American and the Caribbean (LILACS) database was searched from 1999 to 2003 using a specific strategy for identification of cohort, case-control and cross-sectional population-based studies in South America. The authors screened references and identified relevant studies. Further studies were obtained contacting local experts in epidemiology. 140 references were identified, and 12 studies were selected. Most selected studies explored the prevalence and risk factors for common mental disorders, and several of them used sophisticated methods of sample selection and analysis. There is a need for improving the quality of psychiatric journals in Latin America, and for increasing the distribution and access to research data. Regionally relevant problems such as violence and substance abuse should be considered in designing future investigations in this area. PMID:16633474
Ditre, Joseph W.; Brandon, Thomas H.; Zale, Emily L.; Meagher, Mary M.
Tobacco addiction and chronic pain represent two highly prevalent and comorbid conditions that engender substantial burdens upon individuals and systems. Although interrelations between pain and smoking have been of clinical and empirical interest for decades, research on the topic of pain, nicotine, and tobacco smoking has increased dramatically over the past five years. We conceptualize the interaction of pain and smoking as a prototypical example of the biopsychosocial model. Accordingly, the current review extrapolated from behavioral, cognitive, affective, biomedical, and social perspectives to propose causal mechanisms that may contribute to the observed comorbidity between these two conditions. Research in the broad area of pain and smoking was first dichotomized into investigations of either "effects of smoking on pain" or "effects of pain on smoking." We then integrated the extant literature to present a reciprocal model of pain and smoking that is hypothesized to interact in the manner of a positive feedback loop, resulting in greater pain, increased smoking, and the maintenance of tobacco addiction. Finally, we proposed directions for future research, and discussed clinical implications for smokers with comorbid pain disorders. We observed modest evidence to support the notions that smoking may be a risk factor in the multifactorial etiology of some chronically painful conditions, and that the experience of pain may come to serve as a potent motivator of smoking. We also found that whereas animal studies yielded consistent support for direct pain-inhibitory effects of nicotine and tobacco smoke, results from human studies were much less consistent. Future research in the emerging area of pain and smoking has the potential to inform theoretical and clinical applications with respect to tobacco smoking, chronic pain, and their comorbid presentation. PMID:21967450
Young, Jeffrey R.
Kristin Roovers was a postdoctoral fellow at the University of Pennsylvania with a bright career ahead of her--a trusted member of a research laboratory at the medical school studying the role of cell growth in diabetes. When an editor of "The Journal of Clinical Investigation" did a spot-check on one of her images for an article in 2005, Roovers'…
Leykum, Luci K; Pugh, Jacqueline A; Lanham, Holly J; Harmon, Joel; McDaniel, Reuben R
Background A gap continues to exist between what is known to be effective and what is actually delivered in the usual course of medical care. The goal of implementation research is to reduce this gap. However, a tension exists between the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge through implementation trials, and the inherent differences between healthcare organizations that make standard interventional approaches less likely to succeed. The purpose of this paper is to explore the integration of participatory action research and randomized controlled trial (RCT) study designs to suggest a new approach for studying interventions in healthcare settings. Discussion We summarize key elements of participatory action research, with particular attention to its collaborative, reflective approach. Elements of participatory action research and RCT study designs are discussed and contrasted, with a complex adaptive systems approach used to frame their integration. Summary The integration of participatory action research and RCT design results in a new approach that reflects not only the complex nature of healthcare organizations, but also the need to obtain generalizeable knowledge regarding the implementation process. PMID:19852784
Cagnazzo, Luca; Taticchi, Paolo; Bidini, Gianni; Baglieri, Enzo
New business models and theories are developing nowadays towards collaborative environments direction, and many new tools in sustaining companies involved in these organizations are emerging. Among them, a plethora of methodologies to analyze their needs are already developed for single companies. Few academic works are available about Enterprise Networks (ENs) need analysis. This paper presents the learning from an action research (AR) in the mechatronics sector: AR has been used in order to experience the issue of evaluating network needs and therefore define, develop, and test a complete framework for network evaluation. Reflection on the story in the light of the experience and the theory is presented, as well as extrapolation to a broader context and articulation of usable knowledge.
Luallin, Meryl D
Patient satisfaction surveys have become popular gauges of practice efficiency and are among the markers used by third-party payers to measure health-care quality. Although surveys may yield valuable information for providers to improve their services, these results most often are assigned a low priority and not applied in actual practice. This article briefly outlines the basic features of a patient satisfaction survey and details specific steps that managers may follow to implement their findings.
Olshansky, Ellen; Sacco, Diane; Braxter, Betty; Dodge, Pamela; Hughes, Ebony; Ondeck, Michele; Stubbs, Margaret L; Upvall, Michele J
Participatory action research (PAR) is an excellent way to systematically learn about the conditions under which people experience health disparities, what it is like from the perspective of those experiencing such disparities and, even more importantly, how to ameliorate this major public health problem and create a more equitable and effective health care system. This article describes the method of PAR, supports the appropriateness of PAR to learn about and reduce health disparities, and then presents some specific examples of research projects that have employed or are planning to employ PAR. These examples are from the work of several authors of this article, who are members of an interdisciplinary working group that serves as a forum for discussion of issues related to qualitative research methods and facilitates the development of qualitative studies. All of the authors of this article are part of a task force of this working group that is focusing specifically on community outreach with the goal of reducing health disparities within specific communities.
Aslani, Zahra; Alimohammadi, Nasrollah; Taleghani, Fariba; Khorasani, Parvaneh
ABSTRACT Background: Self-care needs are major problems among stroke patients. Nurses can support them through interventions such as education, a change in their attitude and emphasis on their remaining abilities. However, research has shown some weak points in the quality of care given to these patients. So the aim of this study was to improve the nurses’ practice in self-care education to stroke patients. Methods: The findings of evaluation phase showed that during action research, approaching the nurses’ empowerment in self-care education to stroke patients has been set in motion. The nursing practice improvement, knowledge based practice, nurses’ attitude change, ability to respond against routinization, and motivation promotion emphasize the success of change process. Facilitators and barriers of educating patients are acknowledged by the participants as a factor influencing the continuation of change. Results: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. Conclusions: The lack of nurses’ educating performance skills was overcome using action research and changes were made to improve the performance of nurses. PMID:27713896
Wichman, H A; Donaldson, S I
This paper discusses ergonomics research using remotely situated video cameras in spacecraft. Two prototype studies of crewmembers working in the micro-G environments aboard the first two flights of Spacelab are described. Various aspects of crew restraint, stabilization, manipulation of controls, and mobilization were observed, operationally defined, and quantified by observing videotaped scenes of Spacelab crewmembers. In the first study, four performance behaviors were quantified to provide estimates of their frequency of occurrence and variation over the course of each of the flights. The behaviors and their mean percent of observed times were: Hand-Hold 32.2%, Foot Restraint 35.3%, Translation 9.4%, and Struggle 3.7%. Because we observed that nearly a third of a crewmember's time was spent inefficiently holding on with one hand while trying to work with the other, a second study was conducted exploring the use of foot restraints and hand stabilization. During 18 episodes of single-foot restraint, for example, there were 52 instances of hand stabilization and 135 instances of stabilization attempts with the other foot. The paper concludes with some defining characteristics of adequate foot restraints, and a proposal for extending this research model to future spacecraft studies.
Steele, R. Jr.; DeWall, K.G.; Watkins, J.C.; Russell, M.J.; Bramwell, D.
This report provides an update on the valve research being sponsored by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). The research addresses the need to provide assurance that motor-operated valves can perform their intended safety function, usually to open or close against specified (design basis) flow and pressure loads. This report describes several important developments: Two methods for estimating or bounding the design basis stem factor (in rising-stem valves), using data from tests less severe than design basis tests; a new correlation for evaluating the opening responses of gate valves and for predicting opening requirements; an extrapolation method that uses the results of a best effort flow test to estimate the design basis closing requirements of a gate valve that exhibits atypical responses (peak force occurs before flow isolation); and the extension of the original INEL closing correlation to include low- flow and low-pressure loads. The report also includes a general approach, presented in step-by-step format, for determining operating margins for rising-stem valves (gate valves and globe valves) as well as quarter-turn valves (ball valves and butterfly valves).
Kang, Qian; Appels, Lise; Tan, Tianwei
“Second generation” bioethanol, with lignocellulose material as feedstock, is a promising alternative for first generation bioethanol. This paper provides an overview of the current status and reveals the bottlenecks that hamper its implementation. The current literature specifies a conversion of biomass to bioethanol of 30 to ~50% only. Novel processes increase the conversion yield to about 92% of the theoretical yield. New combined processes reduce both the number of operational steps and the production of inhibitors. Recent advances in genetically engineered microorganisms are promising for higher alcohol tolerance and conversion efficiency. By combining advanced systems and by intensive additional research to eliminate current bottlenecks, second generation bioethanol could surpass the traditional first generation processes. PMID:25614881
McLaughlin, Colleen; Ayubayeva, Nazipa
This article tells the story of an attempt to bring about major educational reform of the curriculum and educational values in Kazakhstan, using action research as part of that process. The article begins with a brief and selective review of the literature on aspects of emotion and moves to an account of the context and history of the reforms,…
The parents of autistic children have become objects of many controversial studies and theories. This is a review of the studies that have been conducted in the nineties with this group of parents. The studies are combined into three categories: works on the broader phenotype, studies on the parental stress and the perception of the child, and finally, parents as therapists of their children. Although the idea of genetic determination of the cognitive, social and communication deficits, has been widely spread, it still has not been sufficiently proved. The research show that parents of children with autism experience profound stress. This stress response has specific profile--the most difficult for parents are handicaps related with atypical child behaviors, and the lack of knowledge about real development limitation and child problems. But even though, the parents supported by professionals may become the good teachers and therapists for their children. The partnership between parents and professionals is one of the conditions of the parent's success in these roles.
Senger, P L; Oki, A C; Trevisan, M S; McLean, D J
Education in reproductive science is operating from an outdated paradigm of teaching and learning. Traditionally, reproductive education follows the pattern where students read a textbook, listen to instructor presentations, re-read the textbook and class notes and then complete a test. This paradigm is inefficient, costly and has not incorporated the potential that technology can offer with respect to increases in student learning. Further, teachers of reproductive science (and all of science for that matter) have little training in the use of documented methods of instructional design and cognitive psychology. Thus, most of us have learned to teach by repeating the approaches our mentors used (both good and bad). The technology now exists to explain complex topics using multimedia presentations in which digital animation and three-dimensional anatomical reconstructions greatly reduce time required for delivery while at the same time improving student understanding. With funding from the Small Business Innovation Research program through the U.S. Department of Education, we have developed and tested a multimedia approach to teaching complex concepts in reproductive physiology. The results of five separate experiments involving 1058 university students and 122 patients in an OB/GYN clinic indicate that students and patients learned as much or more in less time when viewing the multimedia presentations when compared to traditional teaching methodologies.
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Action on applications for research in Schedule I... REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Action on Application for Registration: Revocation Or Suspension of Registration § 1301.32 Action on applications for research...
... 21 Food and Drugs 9 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Action on applications for research in Schedule I... REGISTRATION OF MANUFACTURERS, DISTRIBUTORS, AND DISPENSERS OF CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES Action on Application for Registration: Revocation Or Suspension of Registration § 1301.32 Action on applications for research...
Katsenou, Christina; Flogaitis, Evgenia; Liarakou, Georgia
This article aims to explore the contribution of action research to the development of active participation of pupils in the context of the sustainable school. Action research is looked at not simply as a methodological tool for the exploration of participation, but as a key element of the educational actions that promote the active participation…
Smith, Tenbroeck; de Moor, Janet S.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Khoury, Muin J.; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Stein, Kevin D.; Rechis, Ruth; Parry,, Carla; Leach, Corinne R.; Padgett, Lynne; Rowland, Julia H.
To meet the complex needs of a growing number of cancer survivors, it is essential to accelerate the translation of survivorship research into evidence-based interventions and, as appropriate, recommendations for care that may be implemented in a wide variety of settings. Current progress in translating research into care is stymied, with results of many studies un- or underutilized. To better understand this problem and identify strategies to encourage the translation of survivorship research findings into practice, four agencies (American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, LIVE STRONG Foundation, National Cancer Institute) hosted a meeting in June, 2012, titled: “Biennial Cancer Survivorship Research Conference: Translating Science to Care.” Meeting participants concluded that accelerating science into care will require a coordinated, collaborative effort by individuals from diverse settings, including researchers and clinicians, survivors and families, public health professionals, and policy makers. This commentary describes an approach stemming from that meeting to facilitate translating research into care by changing the process of conducting research—improving communication, collaboration, evaluation, and feedback through true and ongoing partnerships. We apply the T0-T4 translational process model to survivorship research and provide illustrations of its use. The resultant framework is intended to orient stakeholders to the role of their work in the translational process and facilitate the transdisciplinary collaboration needed to translate basic discoveries into best practices regarding clinical care, self-care/management, and community programs for cancer survivors. Finally, we discuss barriers to implementing translational survivorship science identified at the meeting, along with future directions to accelerate this process. PMID:25249551
Crist, Janice D.; Parsons, Mickey L.; Warner-Robbins, Carmen; Mullins, María Victoria; Espinosa, Yvette M.
Eliminating health disparities involving minority groups is a major national priority. Action research, a response to this national priority, may be derived from different theoretical models. The purposes of action research are to involve key community stakeholders in developing knowledge and taking pragmatic action to solve problems. In this article, the authors examine how the model was put into action for 2 distinct programs of research, comparing and contrasting final results, one report primarily focusing on recruitment and retention of participants and the other focusing on a community faith-based action research with formerly incarcerated women. PMID:19752634
Holt, Robert R
Freud always defined the primary process metapsychologically, but he described the ways it shows up in dreams, parapraxes, jokes, and symptoms with enough observational detail to make it possible to create an objective, reliable scoring system to measure its manifestations in Rorschach responses, dreams, TAT stories, free associations, and other verbal texts. That system can identify signs of the thinker's efforts, adaptive or maladaptive, to control or defend against the emergence of primary process. A prerequisite and a consequence of the research that used this system was clarification and elaboration of the psychoanalytic theory of thinking. Results of empirical tests of several propositions derived from psychoanalytic theory are summarized. Predictions concerning the method's most useful index, of adaptive vs. maladaptive regression, have been repeatedly verified: People who score high on this index (who are able to produce well-controlled "primary products" in their Rorschach responses), as compared to those who score at the maladaptive pole (producing primary-process-filled responses with poor reality testing, anxiety, and pathological defensive efforts), are better able to tolerate sensory deprivation, are more able to enter special states of consciousness comfortably (drug-induced, hypnotic, etc.), and have higher achievements in artistic creativity, while schizophrenics tend to score at the extreme of maladaptive regression. Capacity for adaptive regression also predicts success in psychotherapy, and rises with the degree of improvement after both psychotherapy and drug treatment. Some predictive failures have been theoretically interesting: Kris's hypothesis about creativity and the controlled use of primary process holds for males but usually not for females. This body of work is presented as a refutation of charges, brought by such critics as Crews, that psychoanalysis cannot become a science.
Rose, Lynnette; Vaughn, Margaret; Taylor, Linda
This research explores an action research project conducted by the first author focused on supporting her preschool students' literacy and language development. Using observations, interviews, artifacts, and assessment, this research documents the first author's process of conducting an action research project over the course of one year to…
Ryan, Susan M.; Yuan, Susan J.; Karambelas, Alex M.; Lampugnale, Luke E.; Parrott, Bernard J.; Sagar, Cora E.; Terry, Taylor V.
This article describes an undergraduate Participatory Action Research (PAR) course in which students with and without intellectual disabilities collaborated as co-researchers in order to explore various aspects of the university experience. The article describes the university course as well as presents results of the students' PAR projects. The…
Over the past several years, parents, athletes, schools, and communities have raised concerns about the safety of recycled tire crumb rubber used as infill for playing fields and playgrounds in the United States. The public has expressed concerns that the use of these fields could potentially be related to certain health effects. Studies to date have not shown an elevated health risk from playing on fields with tire crumb rubber, but these studies have limitations and do not comprehensively evaluate the concerns about health risks from exposure to tire crumb rubber. This status report provides a summary of activities to date, including: (1) stakeholder outreach, (2) the tire crumb rubber manufacturing industry, (3) the final peer-reviewed Literature Review/Gaps Analysis (LRGA), (4) progress on the research activities, and (5) next steps and a timeline for completion of the final report. The status report does not include research findings.
Giachello, Aida L.; Arrom, Jose O.; Davis, Margaret; Sayad, Judith V.; Ramirez, Dinah; Nandi, Chandana; Ramos, Catalina
To address disproportionately high rates of diabetes morbidity and mortality in some of Chicago's medically underserved minority neighborhoods, a group of community residents, medical and social service providers, and a local university founded the Chicago Southeast Diabetes Community Action Coalition, a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention REACH 2010 Initiative. A community-based participatory action research model guided coalition activities from conceptualization through implementation. Capacity building activities included training on: diabetes, coalition building, research methods, and action planning. Other activities sought to increase coalition members' understanding of the social causes and potential solutions for health disparities related to diabetes. Trained coalition members conducted epidemiologic analyses, focus groups, a telephone survey, and a community inventory. All coalition members participated in decisions. The participatory process led to increased awareness of the complexities of diabetes in the community and to a state of readiness for social action. Data documented disparities in diabetes. The participatory action research approach (a) encouraged key stakeholders outside of the health care sector to participate (e.g., business sector, church groups); (b) permitted an examination of the sociopolitical context affecting the health of the community; (c) provided an opportunity to focus on preventing the onset of diabetes and its complications; (d) increased understanding of the importance of community research in catalyzing social action aimed at community and systems change and change among change agents. PMID:12815078
Bryce, Jennifer; Arnold, Fred; Blanc, Ann; Hancioglu, Attila; Newby, Holly; Requejo, Jennifer; Wardlaw, Tessa
Considerable progress has been made in reducing maternal, newborn, and child mortality worldwide, but many more deaths could be prevented if effective interventions were available to all who could benefit from them. Timely, high-quality measurements of intervention coverage—the proportion of a population in need of a health intervention that actually receives it—are essential to support sound decisions about progress and investments in women's and children's health. The PLOS Medicine “Measuring Coverage in MNCH” Collection of research studies and reviews presents systematic assessments of the validity of health intervention coverage measurement based on household surveys, the primary method for estimating population-level intervention coverage in low- and middle-income countries. In this overview of the Collection, we discuss how and why some of the indicators now being used to track intervention coverage may not provide fully reliable coverage measurements, and how a better understanding of the systematic and random error inherent in these coverage indicators can help in their interpretation and use. We draw together strategies proposed across the Collection for improving coverage measurement, and recommend continued support for high-quality household surveys at national and sub-national levels, supplemented by surveys with lighter tools that can be implemented every 1–2 years and by complementary health-facility-based assessments of service quality. Finally, we stress the importance of learning more about coverage measurement to strengthen the foundation for assessing and improving the progress of maternal, newborn, and child health programs. Please see later in the article for the Editors' Summary PMID:23667340
Yanar, Zeynep M; Fazli, Mehria; Rahman, Jahanara; Farthing, Rys
Participatory action research (PAR) is a methodological approach that seeks to maximize the participation of people whose lives it researches. It is underpinned by an ethical concern to research "with" people, rather than "on" people. However, this ethical approach to research is often, paradoxically, problematized by universities' research ethics committees (RECs). This article explores one site of tension between PAR and RECs-the requirement for anonymity for below 18-year-olds. It explores this tension by exploring a case study of a peer-to-peer research project undertaken by young women in East London, and using our own experiences and perspectives, it argues that anonymity can be unjust, disempowering, and unnecessary, and can reduce "pride." Without wanting to develop specific recommendations, given the limited scope of our case study, this article uses firsthand experiences to add weight to the broader discussions calling for a critical rethink of REC guidelines.
Sciammas, Charlie; Seto, Edmund; Bhatia, Rajiv; Rivard, Tom
Health impacts on neighborhood residents from transportation systems can be an environmental justice issue. To assess the effects of transportation planning decisions, including the construction of an intraurban freeway, on residents of the Excelsior neighborhood in southeast San Francisco, PODER (People Organizing to Demand Environmental and Economic Rights), a local grassroots environmental justice organization; the San Francisco Department of Public Health; and the University of California, Berkeley, collaborated on participatory research. We used our findings regarding traffic-related exposures and health hazards in the area to facilitate community education and action to address transportation-related health burdens on neighborhood residents. PMID:19890147
Eaves, Daniel L.; Riach, Martin; Holmes, Paul S.; Wright, David J.
Motor imagery (MI) and action observation (AO) have traditionally been viewed as two separate techniques, which can both be used alongside physical practice to enhance motor learning and rehabilitation. Their independent use has largely been shown to be effective, and there is clear evidence that the two processes can elicit similar activity in the motor system. Building on these well-established findings, research has now turned to investigate the effects of their combined use. In this article, we first review the available neurophysiological and behavioral evidence for the effects of combined action observation and motor imagery (AO+MI) on motor processes. We next describe a conceptual framework for their combined use, and then discuss several areas for future research into AO+MI processes. In this review, we advocate a more integrated approach to AO+MI techniques than has previously been adopted by movement scientists and practitioners alike. We hope that this early review of an emergent body of research, along with a related set of research questions, can inspire new work in this area. We are optimistic that future research will further confirm if, how, and when this combined approach to AO+MI can be more effective in motor learning and rehabilitation settings, relative to the more traditional application of MI or AO independently. PMID:27917103
The aim of this study is to investigate whether Lego could be used as a tool for reflective practice with social care practitioners (SCPs) and student practitioners. This article outlines an action research study conducted in an institute of higher education in Ireland. Findings from this study suggest that Lego can be used to support student…
Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh
The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of "knowledge" and "understanding." The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education.
Ariel, Ellen; Owens, Leigh
The module described and evaluated here was created in response to perceived learning difficulties in diagnostic test design and interpretation for students in third-year Clinical Microbiology. Previously, the activities in lectures and laboratory classes in the module fell into the lower cognitive operations of “knowledge” and “understanding.” The new approach was to exchange part of the traditional activities with elements of interactive learning, where students had the opportunity to engage in deep learning using a variety of learning styles. The effectiveness of the new curriculum was assessed by means of on-course student assessment throughout the module, a final exam, an anonymous questionnaire on student evaluation of the different activities and a focus group of volunteers. Although the new curriculum enabled a major part of the student cohort to achieve higher pass grades (p < 0.001), it did not meet the requirements of the weaker students, and the proportion of the students failing the module remained at 34%. The action research applied here provided a number of valuable suggestions from students on how to improve future curricula from their perspective. Most importantly, an interactive online program that facilitated flexibility in the learning space for the different reagents and their interaction in diagnostic tests was proposed. The methods applied to improve and assess a curriculum refresh by involving students as partners in the process, as well as the outcomes, are discussed. Journal of Microbiology & Biology Education PMID:26753024
Action research is an approach to enquiry that forges linkages between research and teaching, with each potentially informing the other in a responsive and creative cycle. This paper provides an overview of a pedagogic action research project which was undertaken in order to respond directly to learning needs expressed by a group of second year…
Responding to Martin Luther King Jr.'s 1968 address at the American Psychological Association calling for a psychology that would educate Whites about racial injustice, this article challenges the widening epistemological gap between those who suffer from inequality and those who conduct social policy research on inequality. In this 20-year memoir on the echoes of a single piece of participatory policy research, Changing Minds: The Impact of College in a Maximum-Security Prison (Fine et al., 2001), readers are invited to explore how deep critical participation by a collaborative team of university and prisoner researchers has facilitated theoretical and methodological complexity, enhanced contextual and construct validity, thickened commitments to ethics and action, and fueled the political sustainability and generalizability of the findings over time and space.
Willis, C. D.; Greene, J. K.; Abramowicz, A.; Riley, B. L.
Abstract Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP’s partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. Methods: The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP’s multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data-collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. Conclusion: While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external
Hicks, Heraline E; De Rosa, Christopher T
The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR) was created by the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) of 1980, commonly known as Superfund. ATSDR is the principal United States federal public health agency involved with issues of public health and applied science concerning the human health impact of living in the vicinity of a hazardous waste site, or emergencies resulting from unplanned releases of hazardous substances into community environments. In pursuing these mandates, ATSDR's mission is to prevent exposure and adverse human health effects and diminished quality of life associated with exposure to hazardous substances from waste sites, unplanned releases, and other sources of pollution present in the environment. There are more than 2,000 toxic substances found at hazardous waste sites in the United States. ATSDR has developed a prioritized list of 275 substances that pose the greatest hazard to human health. In conducting its work ATSDR has identified data gaps in knowledge about the toxicity of various hazardous substances as well as gaps in human exposure characterization. As part of its mandate, ATSDR initiated a Substance-Specific Applied Research Program (SSARP) to address these data gaps. The ATSDR Great Lakes Human Health Effects Research Program (GLHHERP) is a congressionally-mandated research program that characterizes exposure to persistent toxic substances and investigates the potential for adverse health outcome in at-risk populations. The research findings from this program in the areas of exposure, sociodemographic data, and health effects have significant public health implications for ATSDR's Superfund research activities.
Johnson, Susan M.; Wittenborn, Andrea K.
This article introduces the special section "New Research Findings on Emotionally Focused Therapy." Emotionally focused couple therapy researchers have a strong tradition of outcome and process research and this special section presents new findings from three recent studies. The first study furthers the goal of determining the kinds of clients…
James, E. Alana; Milenkiewicz, Margaret T.; Bucknam, Alan
The participatory action research (PAR) process discussed in the text represents the next evolutionary stage for action research and practitioner research in education. The authors integrate process with methodology to provide an overview of the PAR process similar to professional learning communities in schools. Results of the original PAR study…
Ballard, Heidi L.; Belsky, Jill M.
How can a participatory approach to research promote environmental learning and enhance social-ecological systems resilience? Participatory action research (PAR) is an approach to research that its' supporters claim can foster new knowledge, learning, and action to support positive social and environmental change through reorienting the standard…
Lorenzetti, Liza; Walsh, Christine Ann
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is increasingly recognized within academic research and pedagogy. What are the benefits of including feminism within participatory action research and teaching? In responding to this question, we discuss the similarities and salient differences between PAR and feminist informed PAR (FPAR). There are eight themes…
This article explores the design and implementation of critical action research undertaken to encourage equal classroom participation. Building on a body of literature on critical action research and oral participation, the author reports her research project undertaken in a multi-lingual and multi-ethnic class in Japan to examine practices of how…
Gilles, Carol; Wilson, Jennifer; Elias, Martille
Action research, also called classroom or teacher research, has been defined as "systematic, intentional inquiry by teachers". Action research encourages school personnel to systematically develop a question, gather data, and then analyze that data to improve their practice. Over the last 15 years, the complexities of using action…
Bryant, Jill; Bates, Alisa
The purpose of this research was to study the design and implementation of a newly developed, two-semester, action research course in a Master of Arts in Teaching program. Over a four-year period, we (the instructors) used action research methodologies for analysis and evaluation of the course. Throughout this study, students expressed varying…
Ringler, Marjorie C.
Learner-centered leadership promotes the facilitation of action research in the classroom as a method of improving teaching and learning. Action research is a classroom research process in which educators study their students' learning related to their own teaching. This process allows teachers to reflect on their own instructional practices and…
The idea of using values as a means of guiding our research decisions and judging the validity of our claims of knowledge is well established in literature on the self-reflective genre of action research. Values in action research should always result in virtuous behaviour--to promote the general social good. However, ideas of what constitutes the…