The theme for the 2011 Active Living Research Annual Conference was "Partnerships for Progress in Active Living: From Research to Action." The rationale for this theme was simple: no person is an island. The theme recognizes that partnerships are essential to identify and implement solutions for co...
Ponic, Pamela; Reid, Colleen; Frisby, Wendy
Feminist participatory action research integrates feminist theories and participatory action research methods, often with the explicit intention of building community-academic partnerships to create new forms of knowledge to inform women's health. Despite the current pro-partnership agenda in health research and policy settings, a lack of attention has been paid to how to cultivate effective partnerships given limited resources, competing agendas, and inherent power differences. Based on our 10+ years individually and collectively conducting women's health and feminist participatory action research, we suggest that it is imperative to intentionally develop power-with strategies in order to avoid replicating the power imbalances that such projects seek to redress. By drawing on examples from three of our recent feminist participatory action projects we reflect on some of the tensions and complexities of attempting to cultivate power-with research partnerships. We then offer skills and resources needed by academic researchers to effectively harness the collective resources, agendas, and knowledge that each partner brings to the table. We suggest that investing in the process of cultivating power-with research partnerships ultimately improves our collective ability to understand and address women's health issues.
Edwards-Groves, Christine; Olin, Anette; Karlberg-Granlund, Gunilla
This article is the first and introductory article of this special issue. The article gives a societist account of the principles of partnership and recognition as they are encountered and experienced in practices in action research. A societist account of practices requires a social theory for understanding practices. Therefore, the article…
Willcuts, Meredith Harris
The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership…
Willis, C. D.; Greene, J. K.; Abramowicz, A.; Riley, B. L.
Abstract Introduction: The Public Health Agency of Canada’s Multi-sectoral Partnerships Initiative, administered by the Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention (CCDP), brings together diverse partners to design, implement and advance innovative approaches for improving population health. This article describes the development and initial priorities of an action research project (a learning and improvement strategy) that aims to facilitate continuous improvement of the CCDP’s partnership initiative and contribute to the evidence on multi-sectoral partnerships. Methods: The learning and improvement strategy for the CCDP’s multi-sectoral partnership initiative was informed by (1) consultations with CCDP staff and senior management, and (2) a review of conceptual frameworks to do with multi-sectoral partnerships. Consultations explored the development of the multi-sectoral initiative, barriers and facilitators to success, and markers of effectiveness. Published and grey literature was reviewed using a systematic search strategy with findings synthesized using a narrative approach. Results: Consultations and the review highlighted the importance of understanding partnership impacts, developing a shared vision, implementing a shared measurement system and creating opportunities for knowledge exchange. With that in mind, we propose a six-component learning and improvement strategy that involves (1) prioritizing learning needs, (2) mapping needs to evidence, (3) using relevant data-collection methods, (4) analyzing and synthesizing data, (5) feeding data back to CCDP staff and teams and (6) taking action. Initial learning needs include investigating partnership reach and the unanticipated effects of multi-sectoral partnerships for individuals, groups, organizations or communities. Conclusion: While the CCDP is the primary audience for the learning and improvement strategy, it may prove useful for a range of audiences, including other government departments and external
Willcuts, Meredith Harris
The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study's findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses -- that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.
Willcuts, Meredith H.
The overall purpose of this action research study was to explore the experiences of ten middle school science teachers involved in a three-year partnership program between scientists and teachers at a Department of Energy national laboratory, including the impact of the program on their professional development, and to improve the partnership program by developing a set of recommendations based on the study’s findings. This action research study relied on qualitative data including field notes recorded at the summer academies and data from two focus groups with teachers and scientists. Additionally, the participating teachers submitted written reflections in science notebooks, participated in open-ended telephone interviews that were transcribed verbatim, and wrote journal summaries to the Department of Energy at the end of the summer academy. The analysis of the data, collaboratively examined by the teachers, the scientists, and the science education specialist acting as co-researchers on the project, revealed five elements critical to the success of the professional development of science teachers. First, scientist-teacher partnerships are a unique contribution to the professional development of teachers of science that is not replicated in other forms of teacher training. Second, the role of the science education specialist as a bridge between the scientists and teachers is a unique and vital one, impacting all aspects of the professional development. Third, there is a paradox for classroom teachers as they view the professional development experience from two different lenses – that of learner and that of teacher. Fourth, learning for science teachers must be designed to be constructivist in nature. Fifth, the principles of the nature of science must be explicitly showcased to be seen and understood by the classroom teacher.
Vásquez, Victoria Breckwich; Lanza, Dana; Hennessey-Lavery, Susana; Facente, Shelley; Halpin, Helen Ann; Minkler, Meredith
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an increasingly utilized research approach that involves the affected community identifying a health-related problem, developing a research agenda, and planning an appropriate intervention to address the problem. This report on a CBPR partnership in San Francisco's Bayview Hunters Point neighborhood documents the rise of a community food security policy in response to youth-involved research that found poor access to quality food in an economically disadvantaged area of the city. To analyze the impact of the research on public policy, a framework of specific steps in the policy-making process is used to organize and better understand the partnership's objectives, activities, strategies, and successes. This community-health department partnership has been able to achieve an innovative and sustainable public policy solution, the Good Neighbor Program, by working closely with policy makers and local businesses to expand community accessibility to healthy food.
Climate Education Partners (CEP) has been using an action research approach to build climate literacy and partnership with key influential (KI) leaders in the San Diego community. After identifying 6 key sectors that either (a) could reduce green house gas emissions and adapt to impacts, or (b) would be highly vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, we conducted 89 interviews with KIs from the San Diego region -- including elected officials, academics, laborers, and representatives from local businesses, non-profits, ethnic and cultural communities, faith-based groups, and special interest groups -- to assess their science knowledge and opinions about climate change and the impacts of climate change. Other questions asked were about KIs' personal efficacy, identity, values and engagement in pro-environmental behaviors related to climate change. The results of the interviews contributed to CEP's action research approach in two ways: 1) it provided critical data regarding which leaders wanted further engagement with CEP and what that engagement should entail (e.g., being a connector to other leaders, a spokesperson, or a participant in future educational activities), and 2) it provided key information about the extent to which "knowledge deficit" is related to use of climate change knowledge to inform engagement in mitigation and adaptive behaviors. Practically, the results were used to create a database that is being used to inform the contact and education of KIs. We were able to show, consistent with previous research and identity theory, that liberal leaders were more likely than conservatives to believe in, feel concern for, and be knowledgeable about climate change. However, engagement in mitigation behaviors- specifically making decisions that would reduce electricity, gas, or water use- were similar for both groups. These results are being used to create resources and direct climate education activities going forward.
Barta, William D.; Shelton, Deborah; Cepelak, Cheryl; Gallagher, Colleen
In the United States, the phenomenon of mass incarceration has created a public health crisis. One strategy for addressing this crisis involves developing a correctional agency – academic institution partnership tasked with augmenting the quality and quantity of evidence-based healthcare delivered in state prisons and attracting a greater number of health professionals to the field of correctional health research. Using a Connecticut correctional agency – academic institution partnership as a case example, the present paper examines some of the key challenges encountered over the course of a 3-year capacity-building initiative. Particular attention is given to agency and institution characteristics both at the structural level and in terms of divergent stakeholder perspectives. The authors find that future partnership development work in this area will likely benefit from close attention to predictable sources of temporal variation in agency capability to advance project-related aims. PMID:26997863
Shifferraw, Maigenet; Burton, Janet
Excited about the possibilities of action research, these authors decided to develop a project that would test the effectiveness of action research as a professional development model for adult basic education teachers in the District of Columbia. The objectives of this action research were to: (1) Provide opportunities for teachers to be engaged…
Alexander, Nick; Rowe, Sylvia; Brackett, Robert E; Burton-Freeman, Britt; Hentges, Eric J; Kretser, Alison; Klurfeld, David M; Meyers, Linda D; Mukherjea, Ratna; Ohlhorst, Sarah
Officers and other representatives of more than a dozen food-, nutrition-, and health-related scientific societies and organizations, food industry scientists, and staff of the USDA, the CDC, the Food and Drug Administration, and the NIH convened on 8 December 2014 in Washington, DC, to reach a consensus among individuals participating on guiding principles for the development of research-oriented, food- and nutrition-related public-private partnerships. During the daylong working meeting, participants discussed and revised 12 previously published guidelines to ensure integrity in the conduct of food and nutrition research collaborations among public, nonprofit, and private sectors. They agreed to reconvene periodically to reassess the public-private partnership principles. This article presents the guiding principles and potential benefits, outlines key discussion points, and articulates points of agreement and reservation.
Arhar, Joanne; Niesz, Tricia; Brossmann, Jeanette; Koebley, Sarah; O'Brien, Katherine; Loe, David; Black, Felicia
The focus of the Education Works Personalization Project was to facilitate teams of teacher action researchers whose goal was to personalize their teaching with the support of university partners including doctoral students in education. The subsequent apprentice-like research experience within this university-school partnership provided an…
Donovan, M. S., Ed.; Wigdor, A. K., Ed.; Snow, C. E., Ed.
This book is a proposal for the Strategic Education Research Partnership (SERP), a large-scale coherent program of research and development carried out through a partnership between researchers and practitioners. The program would put the problems of educational practice at its center and focus on carrying research and development through all the…
A collection of research reporting, theoretical analysis, and practical applications in science education: Examining qualitative research methods, action research, educator-researcher partnerships, and constructivist learning theory
Hartle, R. Todd
Educator-researcher partnerships are increasingly being used to improve the teaching of science. Chapter 1 provides a summary of the literature concerning partnerships, and examines the justification of qualitative methods in studying these relationships. It also justifies the use of Participatory Action Research (PAR). Empirically-based studies of educator-researcher partnership relationships are rare despite investments in their implementation by the National Science Foundation (NSF) and others. Chapter 2 describes a qualitative research project in which participants in an NSF GK-12 fellowship program were studied using informal observations, focus groups, personal interviews, and journals to identify and characterize the cultural factors that influenced the relationships between the educators and researchers. These factors were organized into ten critical axes encompassing a range of attitudes, behaviors, or values defined by two stereotypical extremes. These axes were: (1) Task Dictates Context vs. Context Dictates Task; (2) Introspection vs. Extroversion; (3) Internal vs. External Source of Success; (4) Prior Planning vs. Implementation Flexibility; (5) Flexible vs. Rigid Time Sense; (6) Focused Time vs. Multi-tasking; (7) Specific Details vs. General Ideas; (8) Critical Feedback vs. Encouragement; (9) Short Procedural vs. Long Content Repetition; and (10) Methods vs. Outcomes are Well Defined. Another ten important stereotypical characteristics, which did not fit the structure of an axis, were identified and characterized. The educator stereotypes were: (1) Rapport/Empathy; (2) Like Kids; (3) People Management; (4) Communication Skills; and (5) Entertaining. The researcher stereotypes were: (1) Community Collaboration; (2) Focus Intensity; (3) Persistent; (4) Pattern Seekers; and (5) Curiosity/Skeptical. Chapter 3 summarizes the research presented in chapter 2 into a practical guide for participants and administrators of educator-researcher partnerships
Nonis, Karen P.
Teachers have important contributions to make in applied research. Their classroom teaching, management and day to day observations of children with special needs and interaction with parents provides them with a vast pool of experience. Often teachers develop unique strategies for teaching and classroom management to cater to individual needs.…
Thorley, Wendy; Marjoribanks, Bruce; Kranz, Julian
This project was developed from practitioner action research and considers the impact of integrating fund-raising activities into the formal curriculum with a target group of undergraduate students. The main aim of this project was to evaluate the impact of developing fund-raising activities as an integral aspect at both module and programme…
Richardson, Janet; Grose, Jane
Green space offers a significant environmental resource that can improve the individual experience of health and quality of life. However, barriers exist that prevent the use of green space, and partnership (multi-agency) working has the potential to overcome these. Current public health policy aims to broaden the range of environmental public…
Hoehner, Christine M.; Hallal, Pedro C.; Reis, Rodrigo S.; Simoes, Eduardo J.; Malta, Deborah C.; Pratt, Michael; Brownson, Ross C.
The global health burden due to physical inactivity is enormous and growing. There is a need to consider new ways of generating evidence and to identify the role of government in promoting physical activity at the population level. In this paper, we summarize key findings from a large-scale cross-national collaboration to understand physical activity promotion in Brazil. We describe the main aspects of the partnership of Project GUIA (Guide for Useful Interventions for Activity in Brazil and Latin America) that sustained the collaborative effort for eight years and describe how the evidence gathered from the collaboration triggered political action in Brazil to scale up a physical activity intervention at the national level. Project GUIA is a cross-national multidisciplinary research partnership designed to understand and evaluate current efforts for physical activity promotion at the community level in Latin America. This example of scaling up is unprecedented for promoting health in the region and is an example that must be followed and evaluated. PMID:24323944
Aroian, Karen J.; Robertson, Patricia; Allred, Kelly; Andrews, Diane; Waldrop, Julee
In the current era of limited funding, researchers need strategic alliances to launch or sustain programs of research to significantly impact the nation's health. This article presents a collaborative model, the Scholar Award Model, which is based on a strategic alliance between a College of Nursing in a research-intensive university and a…
Solberg, Leif I.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Unützer, Jürgen; Jaeckels, Nancy; Oftedahl, Gary; Beck, Arne; Maciosek, Michael V.; Crain, A. Lauren
Background Translational research is increasingly important as academic health centers transform themselves to meet new requirements of NIH funding. Most attention has focused on T1 translation studies (bench to bedside) with considerable uncertainty about how to enhance T2 (effectiveness trials) and especially T3 (implementation studies). Objective To describe an innovative example of a T3 study, conducted as partnership research with the leaders of a major natural experiment in Minnesota to improve the primary care of depression. Methods All health plans in the state have agreed on a new payment model to support clinics that implement the well-evidenced collaborative care model for depression in the DIAMOND Initiative (Depression Improvement Across Minnesota: Offering a New Direction). The DIAMOND Study was developed in an ongoing partnership with Initiative leaders from seven health plans, 85 clinics, and a regional quality improvement collaborative to evaluate the implementation and its impacts on patients and other stakeholders. We agreed upon a staggered implementation, multiple baseline research design, utilizing the concepts of practical clinical trials and engaged scholarship and have collaborated on all aspects of conducting the study, including joint identification of patient and clinic survey recipients. Results Complex study methods have worked well through 20 months because of the commitment of all stakeholders to both the Initiative and study. Over 1,500 patient subjects have been recruited from health plan information delivered weekly and 99.7% of 316 physicians and administrators from all participating clinical organizations have completed Study surveys. Conclusions Partnership research can greatly facilitate translational research studies. PMID:20508531
Background Healthcare user fees present an important barrier for accessing services for the poorest (indigents) in Burkina Faso and selective removal of fees has been incorporated in national healthcare planning. However, establishing fair, effective and sustainable mechanisms for the removal of user fees presents important challenges. A participatory action-research project was conducted in Ouargaye, Burkina Faso, to test mechanisms for identifying those who are indigents, and funding and implementing user fee removal. In this paper, we explore stakeholder perceptions of ethical considerations relating to participation and partnership arising in the action-research. Methods We conducted 39 in-depth interviews to examine ethical issues associated with the action-research. Respondents included 14 individuals identified as indigent through the community selection process, seven members of village selection committees, six local healthcare professionals, five members of the management committees of local health clinics, five members of the research team, and four regional or national policy-makers. Using constant comparative techniques, we carried out an inductive thematic analysis of the collected data. Results The Ouargaye project involved a participatory model, included both implementation and research components, and focused on a vulnerable group within small, rural communities. Stakeholder perceptions and experiences relating to the participatory approach and reliance on multiple partnerships in the project were associated with a range of ethical considerations related to 1) seeking common ground through communication and collaboration, 2) community participation and risk of stigmatization, 3) impacts of local funding of the user fee removal, 4) efforts to promote fairness in the selection of the indigents, and 5) power relations and the development of partnerships. Conclusions This investigation of the Ouargaye project serves to illuminate the distinctive
Groundwater-Smith, Susan; Mockler, Nicole
This article provides a review of the concept of student voice as it has been represented in "Educational Action Research" from the 1990s to the present day. Contextualised within an exploration of the challenges posed by educational action research that incorporates student voice in the current age of accountability as reflected and…
Boland, Mary G; Kamikawa, Cindy; Inouye, Jillian; Latimer, Renee W; Marshall, Stephanie
Today's nursing leaders are setting the stage for the next evolution--bringing together skilled clinicians and administrators with peers in education to create new approaches to leading the profession forward. Partnerships share goals, common purpose, mutual respect, willingness to negotiate and compromise, informed participation, information giving, and shared decision making. The shared practice academia effort between a public university and a private health care system situated in the island state of Hawai'i is described. The medical center and school of nursing pursued individual strategic efforts to build research capacity and used the opportunity to fund academic practice research projects. The mutual need and recognition of the high stakes involved, in concert with stable, committed leaders at all levels, were key to the early success of their efforts. Through the formal research partnership mechanism, a discrete focus was created for efforts and used to move to tactical, operational, and interpersonal integration in this relationship.
This study examines elements of collaborative research partnerships (CRPs) between university researchers and organisations who engage in knowledge mobilisation activities in education. The study uses key informant interviews and document analysis from one type of partnership, and a survey of university-community partnerships across Canada to…
Wolsey, Ju-Lee A; Dunn, Kim Misener; Gentzke, Scott W; Joharchi, Hannah A; Clark, M Diane
Deaf individuals typically are seen through the lens of the dominant hearing society's perception, i.e., that being deaf is an impairment. Today, a small but growing number of Deaf and hearing researchers are challenging this perception. The authors examined perceptions of what components are necessary for a successful Deaf/hearing research partnership, and propose that it is essential for Deaf and hearing researchers to embrace a Deaf epistemology. The authors found that a core category of equity is the key to effective teams. This equity is based in part on the mutual understanding that American Sign Language is the lingua franca of the team, as it provides full and easy access between Deaf and hearing team members. Additionally, a transformative paradigm, as a research frame, was found to be necessary to focus on leveling the playing field for Deaf researchers.
Yull, Denise; Blitz, Lisa V.; Thompson, Tonia; Murray, Carla
Research has demonstrated persistent, disproportionally negative educational outcomes for students of color, causing national concern in this area. School personnel increasingly understand the need to engage with parents as educational partners, but parents of color may feel marginalized in these efforts. This paper presents findings from a series…
Jordan, Debra J.
Research shows that partnerships have become crucial to long-term organizational success. Benefits and constraints of partnerships are outlined. A second research article on pricing shows that establishing and advertising an anchor price helps consumers understand increases and discounts. Implications for camp management are discussed. (SAS)
Bateman, Andrea; Clayton, Berwyn
Auspicing in Australia's vocational education and training (VET) sector involves organizations entering into partnerships with registered training organizations (RTOs) to have the training and assessment they undertake recognized under the National Training Framework. RTOs bear responsibility for assuring the quality of the assessments conducted…
Henderson, S.; Kennedy, T.; Lemone, M.; Blurton, C.
The GLOBE Program is a worldwide science and education partnership endeavor designed to increase scientific understanding of Earth as a system, support improved student achievement in science and math, and enhance environmental awareness through inquiry-based learning activities. GLOBE began on the premise that teachers and their students would partner with scientists to collect and analyze environmental data using specific protocols in five study areas - atmosphere, soils, hydrology, land cover, and phenology. As the GLOBE network grew, additional partnerships flourished making GLOBE an unprecedented collaboration of individuals worldwide - primary, secondary, and tertiary students, teachers and teacher educators, scientists, government officials, and others - to improve K-12 education. Since its inception in 1994, more than one million students in over 14,000 schools around the world have taken part in The GLOBE Program. The GLOBE Web site (http://www.globe.gov) is the repository for over 11 million student-collected data measurements easily accessible to students and scientists worldwide. Utilizing the advantages of the Internet for information sharing and communication, GLOBE has created an international community. GLOBE enriches students by giving them the knowledge and skills that they will need to become informed citizens and responsible decision-makers in an increasingly complex world. Understanding that all members of a community must support change if it is to be sustainable, GLOBE actively encourages the development of GLOBE Learning Communities (GLCs) which are designed to get diverse stakeholder groups involved in a local or regional environmental issue. Central to the GLC is the engagement of local schools. GLCs go beyond individual teachers implementing GLOBE in the isolation of their classrooms. Instead, the GLC brings multiple teachers and grade levels together to examine environmental issues encouraging the participation of a broad range of
The Advisory Committee recommended formation of a Research and Information Collection Partnership (RICP). The responsibilities of the RICP are found in Section 4.0 of the TCRDSAC Agreement in Principle.
Harper, Michael J K
The concept of public-private partnerships as a way to tackle global health problems is discussed. It is noted that surveys of such partnerships have not included contraception and contraceptive research and development (R&D), since pregnancy is not regarded as a disease. Nevertheless, there has been an attempt to apply the concept to improve maternal health through establishment of the Consortium for Industrial Collaboration in Contraceptive Research (CICCR) and its involvement with the AMPPA projects. The outcome of the CICCR initiative is discussed. Actions for the future are outlined.
Walker, Martha Lentz
Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…
Ralston, Nicole; Weitzel, Bruce; Waggoner, Jacqueline; Naegele, Zulema; Smith, Rebecca
There has been a recent shift in university-district partnership models from traditional transactional partnerships, which lack a shared purpose, to transformational partnerships that are mutually beneficial to both universities and school districts. These transformational research-practice partnerships have gained popularity in the United States…
Dickens, Linda; Watkins, Karen
Explores both historical and contemporary definitions of action research. Describes the process and goals of action research in the tradition of Lewin. Presents a case study of an action-research project involving two teams in a high-technology corporation that depicts the process in action. (Author/CCM)
Henrick, Erin; Munoz, Marco A.; Cobb, Paul
District leaders often feel that working with researchers is not mutually beneficial. Researchers do not provide enough practical guidance, and they are often unable to present their findings in time to inform district decision making. Research-practice partnerships (RPPs) are a potential new strategy for addressing these challenges. RPPs are…
Kourkoutas, Elias; Eleftherakis, Theodoros G.; Vitalaki, Elena; Hart, Angie
This paper presents an action research program which was designed to support parents and primary school teachers, with the mediation of school professionals in order to enable them facilitate the school inclusion of at risk students or those with special educational needs. The aims, the organization process, and the implementation of the program,…
Anderson, Nancy Lois Ruth; Lesser, Janna; Oscós-Sánchez, Manuel ángel; Piñeda, Daniel V.; Garcia, Gwyn; Mancha, Juan
Every community is unique and has special strengths and health-related needs, such that a community-based participatory research partnership cannot be formed and implemented in a predetermined, step-by-step manner. In this article, we describe how the Community Partnership Model (CPM), designed to allow flexible movement back and forth through all action phases, can be adapted to a variety of communities. Originally developed for nursing practice, the CPM has evolved into approaches for the collaborative initiation and maintenance of community partnerships. The model is informed by the recognition that cultural, social, economic, and knowledge backgrounds may vary greatly between nurse researchers and their community partners. The Familias En Acción violence prevention project exemplifies the use of the CPM in a transcultural partnership formation and implementation process. The collaborative approaches of the model guide community and research partners to interconnect and move flexibly through all partnership phases, thereby facilitating sustainability and community self-advocacy. PMID:24391121
Glass, Nancy; Ramazani, Paul; Tosha, Mafille; Mpanano, Mitima; Cinyabuguma, Matthias
The Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) remains an all-too-potent reminder of how war, human rights violations and their related health and economic impacts can devastate a society. The last decade has seen the use of rape as a weapon of war in the DRC, where rebels and soldiers subject women and girls to brutalising attacks, rape, torture and mutilation. Survivors of sexual and gender-based violence (SGBV) are often further traumatised by infections, disease, poverty, stigma and social isolation. Substantial evidence exists showing an association between social determinants (e.g., poverty, stress and trauma, stigma, lack of access to health care) and health; however, limited research has been conducted to elucidate these relationships or to develop and test interventions to change social determinants of health, especially in conflict and post-conflict settings such as the DRC. The purpose of this article is to present a Congolese-US community-academic research partnership to obtain evidence to develop and implement a sustainable intervention to begin to address the social determinants of health, including poverty and traumatic stress for survivors of SGBV and their families in the South Kivu province of eastern DRC.
Promoting Learner Autonomy through Teacher-Student Partnership Assessment in an American High School: A Cycle of Action Research (El papel de la evaluación negociada en el desarrollo de la autonomía del estudiante en la escuela secundaria norteamericana: un ciclo de investigación-acción)
Picón Jácome, Édgar
In this article I present some findings of an action research study intended to find out to what extent a teacher-student partnership in writing assessment could promote high school students' autonomy. The study was conducted in a U.S. school. Two main action strategies in the assessment process were the use of symbols as the form of feedback…
that have not yet been established, approved, or tested on an enterprise scale. While P4 is not a new concept, it has never received as much attention ...as it does today as a tool or technique to accomplish DOD missions. More Defense Partnerships: Documenting Trends and Emerging Topics for Action...importance of effective screening techniques and the use of discretion when ana- lyzing potential P4 projects and determining their ideal structure
de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly
Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…
May, Marlynn L; Bowman, Gloria J; Ramos, Kenneth S; Rincones, Larry; Rebollar, Maria G; Rosa, Mary L; Saldana, Josephine; Sanchez, Adelina P; Serna, Teresa; Viega, Norma; Villegas, Gregoria S; Zamorano, Maria G; Ramos, Irma N
Cameron Park, Texas, is a colonia (an isolated, unincorporated rural settlement without municipal improvements) on the Texas-Mexico border in the Lower Rio Grande Valley, in Cameron County near Brownsville, Texas. Cameron Park has a population of 5,961 residents, 99.3% of whom are Hispanic. The annual median income is 16,934 US dollars, about one-half of the state median. Fifty-eight percent of families generally and 68% of those with children younger than 5 years have incomes below poverty level. Cameron Park resides geographically in a region where agriculture has been, and continues to be, a dominant industry, a fact consistent with the intensive use of pesticides and increased potential for air, water, and ground contamination. The practice of good environmental health is extremely difficult under these conditions. In 1999 the Texas A&M University Center for Housing and Urban Development's Colonias Program and the Center for Environmental and Rural Health teamed up to create an environmental health education and outreach program called the Cameron Park Project (CPP). The CPP focused on how to reduce potential environmental exposures associated with human illness by providing residents with scientifically sound information on positive health practices and how to deal with environmental hazards. In this article we discuss the research methodology used in the CPP, a methodology specifically chosen to address four challenges presented by colonias to conducting valid and reliable research. PMID:14527834
Epstein, Joyce L.; Coates, Lucretia; Salinas, Karen Clark; Sanders, Mavis G.; Simon, Beth S.
This handbook serves as a guide for state, district, and school leaders to organize and implement positive and permanent programs of school, family, and community partnerships. The book's eight chapters offer step-by-step strategies to improve school-family-community connections. Chapter 1 summarizes the theory and research on which the handbook…
Gordon, Wayne A; Brown, Margaret
What "connections"--a broader term than "partnerships"--need to be made to build research capacity? Connections build capacity to the degree that they augment the skills, knowledge and resources of the focal investigator or investigating entity. We suggest that the goal of capacity building through partnerships/connections is to maximize research utility, i.e., its potential to effect desired changes in targeted systems. Specifically, an investigator or research organization must create connections that will enable: the selection and framing of research questions to address matters of importance to relevant stakeholders, especially and necessarily responding to the needs of people with disabilities; the development of a research design adhering to the highest standards of science; and the translation of new knowledge into messages about the results useful to those who are potential beneficiaries, tailoring the message so that it will be clearly "heard" by each respective target audience (including clinicians, other researchers, administrators and/or people with disabilities and their family members). Utility of research traditionally has not comprised the standard for judging research. However, the current focus in Federal funding appears to be shifting, with a demand to assess outcomes (i.e., utility) of research, thus, bolstering the argument to strengthen research utility through creating appropriate partnerships.
Schnorr, Donna; Painter, Diane D.
This paper presents a collaborative action research partnership model that involved participation by graduate school of education preservice students, school and university teachers, and administrators. An elementary teacher-research group investigated what would happen when fourth graders worked in teams to research and produce a multimedia…
Pandya, R. E.; Udu-gama, N.
Losses from natural hazards continue to grow, despite growing scientific understanding. Similarly, increasing scientific evidence of our vulnerability to human-induced environmental change has little impact on human behavior. From the perspective of community leaders and policy makers, useful research is hard to locate and difficult to translate from academic publications. Making local decisions is complicated by multiple scientific approaches and predictions and a scientific emphasis on the abstract and global over the concrete and local. Collaborative and respectful locally-focused partnerships, in which community leaders and decision makers co-design local solutions with Earth and space scientists, can overcome this research-to-impact gap. These partnerships work best when they use available scientific and community knowledge to make an immediate local impact while also designing research that addresses broadly relevent and emerging priorities. Framed this way, successful partnerships rest on reciprocal volunteerism: for scientists, making an immediate impact with current knowledge is pro-bono work, while the longer term research better aligns with their career advancement. For community leaders this is flipped: immediate actions tie to their professional responsibilities, and participating in research is often extracurricular. The Thriving Earth Exchange has launched several of these local partnerships and is assembling a set of tools and resources that scientists and community leaders can use to advance their work together. We will introduce the institutional partners who help us identify communities willing to enter these partnerships, and describe how we recruit and select willing and able scientists, many from AGU. We will highlight the human-centered skills and values that are important predictors of successful partnerships and show how we nurture them. We will also describe the progress of several existing efforts and the strategies they use to advance
This article relates the experiences of teachers from the Towson University/Prince George's County Public Schools, Maryland, Professional Development School (PDS) site. A Collaborative Action Research Study Group (ARSG) was formed to facilitate the professional development of inservice teachers involved in PDS partnerships. Setup of the ARSG was…
Lillejord, Sølvi; Børte, Kristin
This mapping of research on partnership in teacher education provides an overview of themes and analyses problems identified in the studies that were included. The mapping gives a status of research in the field; identifies knowledge gaps and suggests improvements in partnership models. Studies included describe partnerships as complex and…
Meister, Gail R.; Blitz, Cynthia L.
An auxiliary and potentially powerful source of practitioners' knowledge, skills, and dispositions can come from participation in research-practice partnerships. Research-practice partnerships link researchers, usually faculty at institutions of higher education, with practitioners working in schools, district central offices, county offices, or…
This article explores the process of an action research project undertaken by a PDS partnership. Participants in a one day professional development seminar shared their perspectives on action research within a PDS network, and findings indicate that participants valued the collaborative effort and opportunities to share their research efforts.…
McCann, Judith J; Hills, Elizabeth Blanchard; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Smith, Carol E; Farran, Carol J; Wilkie, Diana J
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) program are two federal funding mechanisms that some nurses in academic positions have used to support research and development of innovative nursing products or services. Both the SBIR and STTR mechanisms are excellent sources of funding for nurse researchers who want to capitalize on relationships with small businesses or obtain seed money to fund high-risk projects with potential to attract new venture capital. This article provides an overview of National Institutes of Health (NIH)-funded SBIR and STTR programs and summarizes similarities and differences between the programs. The article also describes unique features of NIH SBIR and STTR funding mechanisms that differentiate them from other R-series funding mechanisms, reviews evaluation criteria for SBIR and STTR projects, and discusses critical partners and resources for proposal development. Finally, the article describes characteristics of successful partnerships and provides examples of SBIR/STTR-funded projects.
McCann, Judith J.; Hills, Elizabeth Blanchard; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.; Smith, Carol E.; Farran, Carol J.; Wilkie, Diana J.
The Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program and the Small Business Technology Transfer Research (STTR) program are two federal funding mechanisms that some nurses in academic positions have used to support research and development of innovative nursing products or services. Both the SBIR and STTR mechanisms are excellent sources of funding for nurse researchers who want to capitalize on relationships with small businesses or obtain seed money to fund high risk projects with potential to attract new venture capital. This paper provides an overview of NIH-funded SBIR and STTR programs and summarizes similarities and differences between the programs. The paper also describes unique features of NIH SBIR and STTR funding mechanisms that differentiate them from other R-series funding mechanisms, reviews evaluation criteria for SBIR and STTR projects, and discusses critical partners and resources for proposal development. Finally, the paper describes characteristics of successful partnerships and provides examples of SBIR/STTR-funded projects. PMID:20719996
Collaborative research partnerships are widely recognised as being of value. This paper examines the benefits, constraints and challenges of research partnerships between teacher education faculties in universities and teacher employing authorities or departments of education and schooling. A case study of a collaborative research partnership…
Penuel, William R.; Allen, Anna-Ruth; Coburn, Cynthia E.; Farrell, Caitlin
This article presents a conceptual framework for analyzing how researchers and district leaders perceive and navigate differences they encounter in the context of research-practice partnerships. Our framework contrasts with images of partnership work as facilitating the translation of research into practice. Instead, we argue that partnership…
Bryant, Carla; Connolly, Faith; Doss, Chris; Grigg, Jeffrey; Gorgen, Perry; Wentworth, Laura
This panel examines research on early education from two research practice partnerships, the Baltimore Education Research Consortium (BERC) with Baltimore City Schools and Johns Hopkins University in Baltimore, Maryland, and the Stanford-SFUSD Partnership with San Francisco Unified School District (SFUSD) and Stanford University in San Francisco,…
Sen, Reena; Goldbart, Juliet
This paper presents the processes and findings of a three-year action research project implemented in a small number of urban slums in the city of Kolkata (previously known as Calcutta), the capital of the state of West Bengal in Eastern India. The project involved partnership between an established institute for cerebral palsy in Kolkata, two…
Helskog, Guro Hansen
In this paper I use a general philosophy of science perspective in looking at the problem of justifying action research. First I try to clarify the concept of justification, by contrasting it with the concept of validity, which seems to be used almost as a synonym in some parts of the literature. I discuss the need for taking a stand in relation…
Glackin, M. M.; Miller, M.
The weather and climate industry meets the needs of businesses every day providing services and technology that save dollars and protect lives and property. This industry employs thousands of Americans and exports products and services to the benefit of the U.S. economy and the quality of life for all people. It excels in its ability to understand and the rapidly apply the latest research, innovative technology, and business insights to uniquely solve customer needs. These skills complement the expertise of the research community and federal agencies to improve safety and performance. We will review the broad sectors of industry that are served and share insights into partnerships with other industries including an in depth example for the aviation industry. Turbulence is a major safety risk and operational challenge for airline operations, costing airlines hundreds of millions of dollars in injury claims, operational inefficiencies, maintenance costs, and loss revenue. Leveraging research developed under federal grants with latest technology and decision science, the industry provides an innovative solution to the turbulence challenge, proven to improve safety and reduce turbulence-related cost by nearly 50%.
Rader, Hannelore B.
This paper describes initiatives at the University of Louisville (Kentucky) as an example of a successful scenario where, through a variety of partnerships, the libraries have become more central in the campus teaching and learning community. The first section describes faculty-librarianship partnerships, including initiatives related to…
Burton, Ella M.
Joyce Epstein at Johns Hopkins University is the nation's pre-eminent expert on School, Family and Community Partnerships. Dr. Epstein is the Director of the Center on School, Family and Community Partnerships. A membership organization associated with the center is available and provides significant help in the development of…
US Department of Labor, 2010
This publication builds on the "Making a Difference Through Strategic Business Partnerships: A Guide for Faith-Based and Community Organizations" guidebook by providing a series of snapshots of partnerships between employers and faith-based and community organizations (FBCOs). FBCOs bring unique assets to the task of assisting…
Beaulieu, Rodney J.
Action research continues to grow as a research tradition, yet misconceptions about what it is and is not remains, even among scholars. For example, some mistakenly believe action research is only about professional development and is not a scholarly research approach. Some assume action research must be accomplished through a collaborative…
Butte Coll., Oroville, CA.
These three reports focus on various aspects of Butte Community College's (BCC's) partnerships with local high schools. In the first report, "The Partnership Concept," partnerships are described as formalized methods of cooperating with secondary schools and helping them be as successful with their students as possible, with the major underlying…
Andrews, Jeannette O; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha; Cox, Melissa J; Bunting, Shelia
The use of a dyadic lens to assess and leverage academic and community partners' readiness to conduct community-based participatory research (CBPR) has not been systematically investigated. With a lack of readiness to conduct CBPR, the partnership and its products are vulnerable. The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the dimensions and key indicators necessary for academic and community partnership readiness to conduct CBPR. Key informant interviews and focus groups (n = 36 participants) were conducted with academic and community participants who had experiences with CBPR partnerships. A 'framework analysis' approach was used to analyze the data and generate a new model, CBPR Partnership Readiness Model. Antecedents of CBPR partnership readiness are a catalyst and mutual interest. The major dimensions of the CBPR Partnership Readiness Model are (i) goodness of fit, (ii) capacity, and (iii) operations. Preferred outcomes are sustainable partnership and product, mutual growth, policy and social and health impact on the community. CBPR partnership readiness is an iterative and dynamic process, partnership and issue specific, influenced by a range of environmental and contextual factors, amenable to change and essential for sustainability and promotion of health and social change in the community.
This paper presents a historical overview of the use of action research in education and describes the basic assumptions and expectations that continue to characterize collaborative research projects today. Action research was initiated in the 1930's by Kurt Lewin and adapted by educators in the 1940's. Interest in action research declined between…
Conway, Colleen M.; Borst, James
Provides background information on using action research in music education. Offers guidelines for teachers to help them do action research. Includes an example of how a music teacher conducted action research in which the teacher asked, "Why did [the students] continue vocal music from middle school to high school?" (CMK)
CGH co-sponsors the 2015 International Symposium on Cancer Clinical Trials and related meetings held in partnership with the Japanese National Cancer Center (JNCC) and Embassies of France, Korea, United Kingdom (UK), and United States (US) in Tokyo on May 14 - 15, 2015.
Labbe, Nancy; And Others
Project SMART (Science and Mathematics Applied Resources for Teaching) is a cooperative partnership of schools, area industries, and the State University of New York at Oswego. In Project SMART's "Kids at Work" program, students learn that math and science skills are needed to reach their career goals, as students make field excursions…
The strength of partnerships within and without the educational enterprise provides the ability to alter or modify existing practices as social and economic realities emerge. A number of interdependent factors raise questions related to partnerships. Demography is a major factor; while a substantial portion of the aging population will have less…
This document represents a strategic guide to EPA’s research actions, alone and in part-nership with the broader federal, industry and scientific research community, to provide the science and engineering necessary for safe and sustainable water resources.
Chapman, Melanie; Bannister, Susan; Davies, Julie; Fleming, Simon; Graham, Claire; Mcmaster, Andrea; Seddon, Angela; Wheldon, Anita; Whittell, Bridget
This article describes a partnership research project carried out by a research team consisting of people with learning disabilities and people without learning disabilities. The research explored people's understandings of advocacy and identified gaps in advocacy provision for people with learning disabilities and their families. Four focus…
Hill, Kirsten; Reitano, Adrienne; Kowalski, David
The University of Pennsylvania's Graduate School of Education (Penn GSE), and the School District of Philadelphia (SDP), have a researcher-practitioner partnership called "Shared Solutions." They consider Shared Solutions to be a hybrid of the "place-based research alliances" and "design research teams" described by…
Murphy, Gail Tomblin; Alder, Rob; MacKenzie, Adrian; Cook, Amanda; Maddalena, Victor
potential benefits of reduced turnover among nurses, the cost of which has been identified as a major burden on the Canadian healthcare system (O'Brien-Pallas et al. 2010). One of the goals of the pan-Canadian framework for health human resources (HHR) planning adopted by the Federal/Provincial/Territorial Advisory Committee on Health Delivery and Human Resources is to enhance all jurisdictions' capacity to build and maintain a sustainable workforce in healthy, safe work environments (ACHDHR 2005).Within this context, Health Canada's Office of Nursing Policy provided funding to the Canadian Federation of Nurses Unions (CFNU) and partner agencies in October 2008 to develop pilot projects across the country aimed at improving nurse retention and recruitment through various workplace improvement schemes. Each of the provincial partners contributed funds, in-kind support or both to the projects. The initiative was entitled Research to Action: Applied Workplace Solutions for Nurses (RTA). A national steering committee including representation from unions, governments and employers, each pilot project, CFNU and its national partners – the Canadian Nurses Association, the Canadian Healthcare Association and the Dietitians of Canada – was formed to oversee the development of 10 pilot projects. There was one project in each of Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, New Brunswick, Prince Edward Island, Ontario, Manitoba, Saskatchewan, Alberta, British Columbia and Nunavut. The pilot projects, led by their own steering committees, focused on various aspects of nursing practice identified as particularly relevant to each jurisdiction, with a specific emphasis on improving the work life of nurses and transforming research knowledge into practice. The goals of the RTA initiative were to promote high-quality workplace environments, improve the retention and recruitment of nurses (RNs and LPNs), enhance the quality of patient care and engage stakeholders in collaborative partnerships
Davidoff, Sue, Ed.; And Others
This book is the result of a seminar on emancipatory education and the action research projects in the Department of Didactics at the University of the Western Cape in South Africa. The book starts with questions regarding the nature of action research. This first chapter discusses the meaning of some crucial organizing concepts, asks questions…
de-Graft Aikins, Ama; Arhinful, Daniel K; Pitchforth, Emma; Ogedegbe, Gbenga; Allotey, Pascale; Agyemang, Charles
This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north-south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership's achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships.
Tapprich, William; Grandgenett, Neal; Leas, Heather; Rodie, Steve; Shuster, Robert; Schaben, Chris; Cutucache, Christine
STEM faculty at the University of Nebraska at Omaha (UNO) have partnered with teachers and administrators in the Omaha Public Schools (OPS) to implement a Teacher-Researcher Partnership Program. This program establishes resources and infrastructure that engage K-12 science teachers in scientific research experiences. In the first implementation of…
Loughland, Tony; Bowen, Margo
This paper analyses the uncertain foundations of the use of action research in a graduate teaching degree. This analysis is conducted by the course coordinator in partnership with a recent graduate. The uncertainty is traced to the pedagogical incoherence of the course that is caused by philosophical infidelity. The philosophy and practice of the…
Dworkin, Robert H; Turk, Dennis C
There has been considerable progress identifying pathophysiologic mechanisms of neuropathic pain, but analgesic medications with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability still represent an unmet public health need. Numerous treatments examined in recent randomized clinical trials (RCTs) have failed to show efficacy for neuropathic pain, including treatments that had previously demonstrated efficacy. This suggests that at least some negative results reflect limited assay sensitivity of RCTs to distinguish efficacious treatments from placebo. Patient characteristics, clinical trial research designs and methods, outcome measures, approaches to data analysis, and statistical power may all play a role in accounting for difficulties in demonstrating the benefits of efficacious analgesic treatments vs placebo. The identification of specific clinical trial characteristics associated with assay sensitivity in existing data has the potential to provide an evidence-based approach to the design of analgesic clinical trials. The US Food and Drug Administration recently launched the Analgesic Clinical Trial Innovations, Opportunities, and Networks (ACTION) public-private partnership, which is designed to facilitate the discovery and development of analgesics with improved efficacy, safety, and tolerability for acute and chronic pain conditions. ACTION will establish a collaborative effort to prioritize research objectives, develop a standardized analgesic database platform, and conduct methodologically focused studies to increase the assay sensitivity and efficiency of analgesic clinical trials. The results of these activities have the potential to inform and accelerate the development of improved pain management interventions of all types, not just pharmacologic treatments.
Successful school library programs occur through careful planning and reflection. This reflective process is improved when it is applied in a systematic way through action research. The action research described in this paper enabled school librarians to reflect based on evidence, using data they had collected. This study presents examples of the…
Jefferson, Renée N.
Action research as a methodology is suitable for use within academic library settings. Its theoretical foundations are located in several disciplines and its applications span across many professions. In this article, an overview of the theoretical beginnings and evolution of action research is presented. Approaches generally used in conducting an…
The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…
The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…
Meyers, Ellen; Rust, Frances O'Connell
This collection of papers presents examples of teacher research in action. Each study grew out of teachers' questions regarding the implementation of some aspect of education policy in their schools and classrooms. After "Introduction" (Frances O'Connell Rust and Ellen Meyers), the eight papers focus on: (1) "How We Do Action Research" (Frances…
Cottrell, Lesley; Northrup, Karen; Wittberg, Richard
For more than a decade, the West Virginia Prevention Research Center, Mid-Ohio Valley Health Department, and the Wood County Schools have built and sustained a partnership to reduce health disparities and promote population health. Specifically, this partnership has contributed significantly to the peer-reviewed literature on children's physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement, as well as identifying possible areas for physical activity interventions (within the school and community settings) that would improve health and academic outcomes. This case study describes the partnership among a University Prevention Research Center, a local health department, and a local school system. In the description of the partnership, this paper sequentially explores characteristics of the partnership that were advantageous or challenging over time. It details the interface among state and local partner interest, resources, and goals all directed toward enhancing children's physical activity, fitness, cardiovascular risk, and academic improvement. The paper concludes with lessons learned that may contribute to the science and practice of multilevel collaborations in child health.
Harrison, Patricia; Edwards, Carys
This account of practice provides a practical example of the use of action learning within a masters educational programme, an MA in Change Management designed and delivered by a collaborative partnership between the Isle of Anglesey County Council (ACC) and Liverpool Business School (LBS), Liverpool John Moores University. The account has been…
This paper examines the learning gained from facilitating four action-learning sets whose members were drawn from management teams of local authority, health, education and police, working in partnership. Facilitation posed a series of difficult choices which impacted on personal and organizational dynamics within and between the partnership…
Lau, Chuen-Yen; Wang, Crystal; Orsega, Susan; Tramont, Edmund C; Koita, Ousmane; Polis, Michael A; Siddiqui, Sophia
As globalization progressively connects and impacts the health of people across the world, collaborative research partnerships provide mutual advantages by sharing knowledge and resources to address locally and globally relevant scientific and public health questions. Partnerships undertaken for scientific research are similar to business collaborations in that they require attention to partner systems, whether local, international, political, academic, or non-academic. Scientists, like diplomats or entrepreneurs, are representatives of their field, culture, and country and become obligatory agents in health diplomacy. This role significantly influences current and future collaborations with not only the immediate partner but with other in country partners as well. Research partnerships need continuous evaluation of the collaboration's productivity, perspectives of all partners, and desired outcomes for success to avoid engaging in "research tourism", particularly in developing regions. International engagement is a cornerstone in addressing the impact of infectious diseases globally. Global partnerships are strategically aligned with national, partner and global health priorities and may be based on specific requests for assistance from the partnering country governments. Here we share experiences from select research collaborations to highlight principles that we have found key in building long-term relationships with collaborators and in meeting the aim to address scientific questions relevant to the host country and strategic global health initiatives.
Lau, Chuen-Yen; Wang, Crystal; Orsega, Susan; Tramont, Edmund C; Koita, Ousmane; Polis, Michael A; Siddiqui, Sophia
As globalization progressively connects and impacts the health of people across the world, collaborative research partnerships provide mutual advantages by sharing knowledge and resources to address locally and globally relevant scientific and public health questions. Partnerships undertaken for scientific research are similar to business collaborations in that they require attention to partner systems, whether local, international, political, academic, or non-academic. Scientists, like diplomats or entrepreneurs, are representatives of their field, culture, and country and become obligatory agents in health diplomacy. This role significantly influences current and future collaborations with not only the immediate partner but with other in country partners as well. Research partnerships need continuous evaluation of the collaboration’s productivity, perspectives of all partners, and desired outcomes for success to avoid engaging in “research tourism”, particularly in developing regions. International engagement is a cornerstone in addressing the impact of infectious diseases globally. Global partnerships are strategically aligned with national, partner and global health priorities and may be based on specific requests for assistance from the partnering country governments. Here we share experiences from select research collaborations to highlight principles that we have found key in building long-term relationships with collaborators and in meeting the aim to address scientific questions relevant to the host country and strategic global health initiatives. PMID:26225217
This paper examines the challenges and opportunities in establishing and sustaining north–south research partnerships in Africa through a case study of the UK-Africa Academic Partnership on Chronic Disease. Established in 2006 with seed funding from the British Academy, the partnership aimed to bring together multidisciplinary chronic disease researchers based in the UK and Africa to collaborate on research, inform policymaking, train and support postgraduates and create a platform for research dissemination. We review the partnership’s achievements and challenges, applying established criteria for developing successful partnerships. During the funded period we achieved major success in creating a platform for research dissemination through international meetings and publications. Other goals, such as engaging in collaborative research and training postgraduates, were not as successfully realised. Enabling factors included trust and respect between core working group members, a shared commitment to achieving partnership goals, and the collective ability to develop creative strategies to overcome funding challenges. Barriers included limited funding, administrative support, and framework for monitoring and evaluating some goals. Chronic disease research partnerships in low-income regions operate within health research, practice, funding and policy environments that prioritise infectious diseases and other pressing public health and developmental challenges. Their long-term sustainability will therefore depend on integrated funding systems that provide a crucial capacity building bridge. Beyond the specific challenges of chronic disease research, we identify social capital, measurable goals, administrative support, creativity and innovation and funding as five key ingredients that are essential for sustaining research partnerships. PMID:22897937
Tamlyn, Karen; Creelman, Helen; Fisher, Garfield
The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of a partnership model used to conduct a research study entitled "Needs of patients with cancer and their family members in New Brunswick Health Region 3 (NBHR3)" (Tamlyn-Leaman, Creelman, & Fisher, 1997). This partial replication study carried out by the three authors between 1995 and 1997 was a needs assessment, adapted with permission from previous work by Fitch, Vachon, Greenberg, Saltmarche, and Franssen (1993). In order to conduct a comprehensive needs assessment with limited resources, a partnership between academic, public, and private sectors was established. An illustration of this partnership is presented in the model entitled "A Client-Centred Partnership Model." The operations of this partnership, including the strengths, the perceived benefits, lessons learned by each partner, the barriers, and the process for conflict resolution, are described. A summary of the cancer care initiatives undertaken by NBHR3, which were influenced directly or indirectly by the recommendations from this study, is included.
Altiner, Attila; Bell, John; Duerden, Martin; Essack, Sabiha; Kozlov, Roman; Noonan, Laura; Oxford, John; Pignatari, Antonio Carlos; Sessa, Aurelio; van der Velden, Alike
'Antimicrobial resistance is a global health security threat that requires concerted cross-sectional action by governments and society as a whole,' according to a report published by the WHO in April 2014() . On 24-25 June 2014, the Global Respiratory Infection Partnership (GRIP) met in London, UK, together with delegates from 18 different countries to discuss practical steps that can be taken at a local level to address this global problem in an aligned approach. This was the second annual summit of GRIP. The group, formed in 2012, includes primary care and hospital physicians, microbiologists, researchers, and pharmacists from nine core countries. GRIP aims to unite healthcare professionals (HCPs) around the world to take action against inappropriate antibiotic use, focussing on one of the most prevalent therapy areas where antibiotics are inappropriately prescribed - upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs). Chaired by GRIP member, Professor John Oxford (UK), the 2014 summit included engaging presentations by guest speakers examining the latest science regarding the impact of inappropriate antibiotic use.
Lewis, Jenny M
Background The last decade has witnessed a significant move towards new modes of governing that are based on coordination and collaboration. In particular, local level partnerships have been widely introduced around the world. There are few comprehensive approaches for researching the effects of these partnerships. The aim of this paper is to outline a network approach that combines structure and agency based explanations to research partnerships in health. Network research based on two Primary Care Partnerships (PCPs) in Victoria is used to demonstrate the utility of this approach. The paper examines multiple types of ties between people (structure), and the use and value of relationships to partners (agency), using interviews with the people involved in two PCPs – one in metropolitan Melbourne and one in a rural area. Results Network maps of ties based on work, strategic information and policy advice, show that there are many strong connections in both PCPs. Not surprisingly, PCP staff are central and highly connected. Of more interest are the ties that are dependent on these dedicated partnership staff, as they reveal which actors become weakly linked or disconnected without them. Network measures indicate that work ties are the most dispersed and strategic information ties are the most concentrated around fewer people. Divisions of general practice are weakly linked, while local government officials and Department of Human Services (DHS) regional staff appear to play important bridging roles. Finally, the relationships between partners have changed and improved, and most of those interviewed value their new or improved links with partners. Conclusion Improving service coordination and health promotion planning requires engaging people and building strong relationships. Mapping ties is a useful means for assessing the strengths and weaknesses of partnerships, and network analysis indicates concentration and dispersion, the importance of particular individuals
Niepold, F.; Brooks, D.; Lefer, B.; Linsley, A.; Duckenfield, K.
Expanding on the GLOBE Program's Atmosphere and Aerosol investigations, high school students can conduct Earth System scientific research that promotes scientific literacy in both content and the science process. Through the use of Student-Teacher-Scientist partnerships, Earth system scientific investigations can be conducted that serve the needs of the classroom as well as participating scientific investigators. During the proof-of-concept phase of this partnership model, teachers and their students developed science plans, through consultation with scientists, and began collecting atmospheric and aerosol data in support of the Gulf of Mexico Atmospheric Composition and Climate Study (GoMACCS) campaign in Houston Texas. This effort uses some pre-existing GLOBE materials, but draws on a variety of other resources to tailor the teacher development activities and intended student participation in a way that addresses local and regional problems. Students and teachers have learned about best practices in scientific inquiry and they also helped to expand the pipeline of potential future scientists and researchers for industry, academia, and government. This work began with a Student-Teacher-Scientist partnership started in 2002 during a GLOBE Aerosol Protocol Cross- Ground Validation of AERONET with MODIS Satellite Aerosol Measurements. Several other GLOBE schools, both national and international, have contributed to this research. The current project support of the intensive GoMACCS air quality and atmospheric dynamics field campaign during September and October of 2006. This model will be evaluated for wider use in other project-focused partnerships led by NOAA's Climate Program Office.
Kaasila, Raimo; Lutovac, Sonja
Research relationships are often poorly understood. Why are some collaborations between research partners more productive than others? This question was a starting point of this paper. By describing their own experiences over a period of three years, the authors evaluated research relationships through collaborative self-study. At the beginning,…
Altrichter, Herbert; Kemmis, Stephen; McTaggart, Robin; Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun
Explains why definition of action research is problematic and presents working definitions developed internationally that indicate its nature, philosophy, and methodology. Suggests that pragmatic approaches to definition serve communication purposes without narrowly confining the concept. (SK)
Limaye, Rupali J; Babalola, Stella; Kennedy, Caitlin E; Kerrigan, Deanna L
Concurrent sexual partnerships are hypothesized to be a contributing factor to Malawi's HIV epidemic. As social norms influence health behavior and have been found to influence sexual behavior, the purpose of this study was to explore two types of norms, descriptive and injunctive norms, toward concurrent sexual partnerships in Malawi. Data from 40 focus group discussions and 20 in-depth interviews conducted in five districts in Malawi, which included 318 participants aged 18-55 years, were analyzed. Participants perceived that concurrent sexual partnerships were extremely common, and believed that very few individuals in their communities were not in concurrent sexual partnerships. However, participants perceived that others in their communities heavily disapproved of concurrent sexual partnerships outside of polygamy, as polygamy was viewed as an acceptable type of partnership because it was conducted in the open. Participants asserted that there were no traditional practices that promoted concurrent sexual partnerships, and perceived that those that engaged in the behavior were for the most part stigmatized by community members. Further research is needed to obtain a thorough understanding of the way in which the perceived actions and beliefs of peers influence the beliefs, feelings and actions of individuals to strengthen HIV programming efforts in the region.
National Science Foundation, Arlington, VA.
This publication consists of colorful data sheets on the National Science Foundation's Engineering Research Centers (ERC) Program, a program designed to strengthen the competitiveness of U.S. industries by bringing new approaches and goals to academic engineering research and education. The main elements of the ERC mission are cross-disciplinary…
Reed, Maureen G; Godmaire, Hélène; Abernethy, Paivi; Guertin, Marc-André
Deliberation, dialogue and systematic learning are now considered attributes of good practice for organizations seeking to advance sustainability. Yet we do not know whether organizations that span spatial scales and governance responsibilities can establish effective communities of practice to facilitate learning and action. The purpose of this paper is to generate a framework that specifies actions and processes of a community of practice designed to instill collective learning and action strategies across a multi-level, multi-partner network. The framework is then used to describe and analyze a partnership among practitioners of Canada's 16 UNESCO biosphere reserves, and additional researchers and government representatives from across Canada. The framework is a cycle of seven action steps, beginning and ending with reflecting on and evaluating present practice. It is supported by seven characteristics of collaborative environmental management that are used to gauge the success of the partnership. Our results show that the partnership successfully built trust, established shared norms and common interest, created incentives to participate, generated value in information sharing and willingness to engage, demonstrated effective flow of information, and provided leadership and facilitation. Key to success was the presence of a multi-lingual facilitator who could bridge cultural differences across regions and academia-practitioner expectations. The project succeeded in establishing common goals, setting mutual expectations and building relations of trust and respect, and co-creating knowledge. It is too soon to determine whether changes in practices that support sustainability will be maintained over the long term and without the help of an outside facilitator.
López Turley, Ruth N.; Stevens, Carla
Research partnerships between school districts and universities can be extremely beneficial to both institutions, but these partnerships require many skills that academics and district leaders generally do not have, making these collaborations challenging to set up and difficult to maintain. Co-authored by a university professor and a school…
structures. Ken Shih (Physics) investigates how quantum confinement of electronic states impacts the thermodynamic properties of metallic...spectroscopic properties of conjugated polymers evolve in the size range between single polymer chains and bulk material.  This work shows that MEH-PPV...nanoparticles greater than 10 nm in size have spectroscopic properties of the bulk material. Also working in the area of photovoltaic research is David
In 2010, Ethiopian and U.S. universities formed partnership to train critical mass of Ethiopians in modern water resources tools, techniques, skills and knowledge, and to strengthen the institutional capacity of Ethiopian universities to establish graduate-level programs in Ethiopia. The partnership established Ethiopia's first water resource research institute, two graduate-level programs (water resource engineering and management, water and health) that are currently training about 100 students at M.S. and Ph.D. levels, summer undergraduate outreach program that provided community-based research experience in water resource for undergraduate students, and short-term trainings to practitioners and policy makers. The design, implementation and impact of these programs have had limitations and successes. In this presentation, I will provide lessons learnt from this partnership, and suggestions of elements required for successful North-South partnership in higher education and research.
Portilla, Lili M; Alving, Barbara
Reaping the benefits of investments in biomedical research can be achieved most efficiently through active collaboration among industry, academia, government, and nonprofit organizations. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) are exploring multiple ways in which to increase the efficiency of the translational process. Investigators involved in the NIH-funded Clinical and Translational Science Awards are developing public-private partnerships, addressing the barriers to collaboration, training the next generation of interdisciplinary team-oriented researchers, and producing open-source tools for collaboration. NIH is engaging with industry through the Foundation for the NIH and the Small Business Innovation Research Awards.
Epstein, Joyce L.; Sanders, Mavis G.; Simon, Beth S.; Salinas, Karen Clark; Jansorn, Natalie Rodriguez; Van Voorhis, Frances L.
Despite strong agreement on the importance of parent involvement, most schools, districts, and states still need help in developing comprehensive programs of school, family, and community partnerships. This revised handbook translates lessons learned over 20 years of research and fieldwork into practical solutions for program development. The book…
Otto, Alice; Nkanga, S.
An American teaching anesthesiology in Tanzania sought help from a member of the host culture in order to grasp cultural meanings underpinning medical education practices, using action research to develop and refine research methods and solve problems related to the need to accommodate culturally diverse students' learning needs. (SM)
Bretthauer-Mueller, Rosemary; Berkowitz, Judy M; Thomas, Melonie; McCarthy, Susan; Green, Lula Anna; Melancon, Heidi; Courtney, Anita H; Bryant, Carol A; Dodge, Kristin
The VERB campaign used a social marketing approach to deliver its message through the mass media, school and community promotions, and partnerships to encourage children aged 9-13 years (tweens) to be physically active every day. This paper presents the VERB campaign's community and national partnership strategy, highlights three successful partnerships, and discusses challenges associated with the efforts. The national advertising generated awareness of and affinity for the product's brand and motivated the primary audience to seek out the product. The campaign's national and community partners were engaged to facilitate a product-distribution channel. The campaign developed a three-pronged partnership strategy to integrate the promotion with the placement of the campaign's product (physical activity): (1) reframe the way physical activity is positioned and delivered; (2) connect the brand to the point-of-purchase; and (3) refer (or drive) the audience to the action outlets, opportunities, places, spaces and programs to purchase the product. The VERB campaign provided partners with marketing training and resources to assist them as they leveraged tweens' brand awareness and supported regular physical activity among tweens. The method of technical assistance and the types of marketing tools were provided in relationship to four characteristics of the partner: (1) partner's network, (2) leaders and champions in the network, (3) partner's financial resources for community campaigns; and (4) partner's understanding of the marketing mindset. Coordinated, collaborative, and strong mass-media and community-based interventions within a national social marketing campaign can sustain the immediate effects of such campaigns.
Alberta Advanced Education, 2006
The Aboriginal Learning Subcommittee looked specifically at developing recommendations that address First Nations, Metis and Inuit learning needs and supports. The Subcommittee proposes policy actions and recommends that all stakeholders work together to implement these actions. The first recommendation for action is to build on partnerships to…
Hadfield, Mark; Bennett, Steve
Describes a project that trained institutional policymakers in action research regarding problems in developing training policies about young people's needs, examining attempts to collaborate and dialog with stakeholders and discussing how project members became enmeshed in complex sets of relationships calling for construction of dialog in…
Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.
We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649
Andrews, Jeannette O; Cox, Melissa J; Newman, Susan D; Meadows, Otha
An earlier investigation by academic and community co-investigators led to the development of the Partnership Readiness for Community-Based Participatory Research (CBPR) Model, which defined major dimensions and key indicators of partnership readiness. As a next step in this process, we used qualitative methods, cognitive pretesting, and expert reviews to develop a working guide, or toolkit, based on the model for academic and community partners to assess and leverage their readiness for CBPR. The 75-page toolkit is designed as a qualitative assessment promoting equal voice and transparent, bi-directional discussions among all the partners. The toolkit is formatted to direct individual partner assessments, followed by team assessments, discussions, and action plans to optimize their goodness of fit, capacity, and operations to conduct CBPR. The toolkit has been piloted with two cohorts in the Medical University of South Carolina's (MUSC) Community Engaged Scholars (CES) Program with promising results from process and outcome evaluation data.
García Lizana, Francisca
Demographic change and aging are a common challenge in Europe. The rising number of elderly people will need support at home, and will consume more healthcare services, putting further pressure on the welfare system. Collaborative, integrated and people-centered care provision, whether in hospitals, homes or in the community, is a way forward to sustainable and efficient care systems. Innovative treatments to address chronic diseases and the functional decline of older people will enable them to live longer in better health and with a better quality of life. To fully unleash the potential of aging in the European Union, the European Commission -within its Innovation Union policy- launched the first European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP AHA). Promoting engagement and partnerships among all stakeholders in the healthcare chain is essential. This article describes the theoretical foundations, the development and expectations of the initiative, and its first actions.
While community based participatory research (CBPR) principles stress the importance of "equitable partnerships" and an "empowering and power-sharing process that attends to social inequalities", descriptions of actual projects often cite the challenges confronted in academic–-community partnerships...
Kiener, Michael S.; Koch, Lynn; Gitchel, Dent
This paper examines applications of action research to rehabilitation education. An overview of action research is provided, and specific examples of action research in rehabilitation and other professions are illustrated. Emphasis is placed on utilizing action research to evaluate teaching and student learning and develop scientist practitioners…
Coburn, Cynthia E.; Penuel, William R.; Geil, Kimberly E.
Pressures are increasing on educational policy and practice to use research to guide improvement. Recently there have been concerted efforts to forge new and different kinds of relationships between researchers and practitioners. School districts across the country are developing a new kind of partnership with researchers. These research-practice…
Mitchell, Penelope; Pirkis, Jane; Hall, Jane; Haas, Marion
Within the health services research community there is a growing strength of feeling that ongoing partnerships between researchers and decision-makers are critically important to effective transfer and exchange of knowledge generated from health services research. A body of literature is emerging around this idea that favours a particular model of partnership based on decision-maker involvement in research. This model is also gaining favour among health research funding bodies internationally. We argue that it is premature for the health services community to privilege any particular model of partnership between researchers and decision-makers. Rather a diversity of models should be conceptualized, explored in theory and practice, and evaluated. We identify seven dimensions that could be used to describe and differentiate models of partnerships for knowledge exchange and illustrate how these dimensions could be applied to analysing partnerships, using three case studies from recent and ongoing health services research partnerships in Australia.
Edsall, D. W.
Members of the AGU have an opportunity to become involved in cooperative research with scientists from the Cook Islands, Fiji, Guam, Federated States of Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands, Tonga, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Western Samoa as well as Australia and New Zealand. Governmental officials and scientists from the member countries of the South Pacific Applied Geoscience Commission (SOPAC) and its Science Technology and Resources Network (STAR) are looking for individuals, academic and research organizations, foundations, private industry, governmental agencies and professional societies to assist with important research efforts. Involvement would include: promoting; training; funding; equipping, facilitating; coordinating; advising; monitoring; collaborating; interpreting; evaluating and reporting. Studies in all onshore, coastal and offshore environments are needed. Topics include: development of natural resources; reduction of environmental vulnerability; support of sustainable development; development of potable water supplies; protecting coral reef environments; and basic investigations of local weather, climatology, biology, geology, geophysics and oceanography. This paper addresses ways to create such research partnerships.
Kendall, E. A.; Valentic, T. A.; Stehle, R. H.
Under an Arctic Research Support and Logistics contract from NSF (GEO/PLR), SRI International, as part of the CH2M HILL Polar Services (CPS) program, forms partnerships with Arctic research teams to provide data transfer, remote operations, and safety/operations communications. This teamwork is integral to the success of real-time science results and often allows for unmanned operations which are both cost-effective and safer. The CPS program utilizes a variety of communications networks, services and technologies to support researchers and instruments throughout the Arctic, including Iridium, VSAT, Inmarsat BGAN, HughesNet, TeleGreenland, radios, and personal locator beacons. Program-wide IT and communications limitations are due to the broad categories of bandwidth, availability, and power. At these sites it is essential to conserve bandwidth and power through using efficient software, coding and scheduling techniques. There are interesting new products and services on the horizon that the program may be able to take advantage of in the future such as Iridium NEXT, Inmarsat Xpress, and Omnispace mobile satellite services. Additionally, there are engineering and computer software opportunities to develop more efficient products. We will present an overview of science/engineering partnerships formed by the CPS program, discuss current limitations and identify future technological possibilities that could further advance Arctic science goals.
The need for public-private partnerships arose against the backdrop of inadequacies on the part of the public sector to provide public good on their own, in an efficient and effective manner, owing to lack of resources and management issues. These considerations led to the evolution of a range of interface arrangements that brought together organizations with the mandate to offer public good on one hand, and those that could facilitate this goal though the provision of resources, technical expertise or outreach, on the other. The former category includes of governments and intergovernmental agencies and the latter, the non-profit and for-profit private sector. Though such partnerships create a powerful mechanism for addressing difficult problems by leveraging on the strengths of different partners, they also package complex ethical and process-related challenges. The complex transnational nature of some of these partnership arrangements necessitates that they be guided by a set of global principles and norms. Participation of international agencies warrants that they be set within a comprehensive policy and operational framework within the organizational mandate and involvement of countries requires legislative authorization, within the framework of which, procedural and process related guidelines need to be developed. This paper outlines key ethical and procedural issues inherent to different types of public-private arrangements and issues a Global Call to Action. PMID:15282025
Olin, Anette; Karlberg-Granlund, Gunilla; Furu, Eli Moksnes
This article focuses on the double role of the academic action researcher working as facilitator and researcher in democratic professional development projects. The inquiry is based on three partnership projects: "research circles" in Sweden, "dialogue conferences" in Norway and "tailored professional development" in…
Allen, Michele L.; Culhane-Pera, Kathleen A.; Pergament, Shannon; Call, Kathleen Thiede
Introduction Community-based participatory research (CBPR) adds community perspectives to research and aids translational research aims. There is a need for increased capacity in CBPR but few models exist for how to support the development of community/university partnerships Objective Evaluate an approach to promote nascent CBPR partnerships. Methods Design was a mixed-methods evaluation utilizing interviews, process notes, and open and closed ended survey questions. We trained ten community scholars, matched them with prepared researchers to form seven partnerships, and supported their developing partnerships. Sequential mixed-methods analysis assessed research and partnership processes and identified integrated themes. Results Four of seven partnerships were funded within 15 months; all self-reported their partnerships as successful. Themes were: 1) Motivators contributed to partnership development and resiliency; 2) Partners took on responsibilities that utilized individuals' strengths; 3) Partners grappled with communication, decision-making, and power-dynamics; and 4) Community-university infrastructure was essential to partnership development. Conclusions This program for developing nascent partnerships between academicians and community members may guide others in increasing capacity for CBPR. PMID:22212224
Klein, Sheri R., Ed.
Among the plethora of action research books on the market, there is no one text exclusively devoted to understanding how to acquire and interpret research data. Action Research Methods provides a balanced overview of the quantitative and qualitative methodologies and methods for conducting action research within a variety of educational…
This paper outlines the potential benefits of using computers to enhance the action research process for classroom teachers. An argument is made for classifying action research as a type of qualitative methodology. This argument is then used to apply the literature on computer use in qualitative research to its use in action research; advantages…
Song, Liyan; Kenton, Jeffrey M.
This paper presents a study on the effectiveness of an action research model from the perspectives of school educators as action researchers. The study design followed seven action researchers--inservice teachers and school library media specialists--as they completed research projects in their schools. Data came from three different sources:…
Murphy, Gill; Peters, Kath; Wilkes, Lesley; Jackson, Debra
Background Conceptual frameworks are important to ensure a clear underpinning research philosophy. Further, the use of conceptual frameworks can support structured research processes. Aim To present a partnership model for a reflective narrative for researcher and participant. Discussion This paper positions the underpinning philosophical framework of the model in social constructionism (the idea that jointly constructed understandings form the basis for shared assumptions) and narrative enquiry. The model has five stages - study design, invitation to share a research space and partnership, a metaphorical research space, building a community story, and reading the community story to others. Core principles of the partnership model are continual reflection by the researcher, potential reflections by participants, reciprocal sharing, and partnership in research. Conclusion A 'trajectory of self' for both participants and researchers can be enhanced within reflective partnerships. Implications for practice This model can be applied to studies that use narrative enquiry and are seeking a humanistic approach with participant engagement.
McPherson, Maggie; Nunes, Jose Miguel Baptista
Presents the Educational Management Action Research model, which is intended to support action research into issues relating to the management of distance learning programs. Describes its successful use in a particular information technology course. (EV)
Prigge, George W.; Torraco, Richard J.
This qualitative research study utilized the grounded theory tradition to examine organizational structures and processes in a purposefully selected sample of American universities that have established and maintained partnerships with industry. Institutional leaders from the corporate relations offices from fifteen of the top research…
The purpose of this paper is to address the gap that exists in the knowledge base for understanding the repertoire of images that preservice teachers gain as they engage in action research. Data were collected using a variety of qualitative methods: journals, metaphors, narratives, action research reports, and focus group interviews. Data were…
Hanson, Lori; Terstappen, Vincent
In recent years, the use of collaborative and partnership approaches in health and agricultural research has flourished. Such approaches are frequently adopted to ensure more successful research uptake and to contribute to community empowerment through participatory research practices. At the same time that interest in research partnerships has been growing, publications on methods, models, and guidelines for building these partnerships have proliferated. However, partnership development is not necessarily as straightforward or linear a process as such literature makes it appear, particularly when the research involves divisive or contentious issues. This paper explores prevailing views on research partnerships, and also questions the applicability of partnership models using an emerging research program around gender equity and health in Fair Trade coffee cooperatives in Nicaragua as an example. Moreover, the paper introduces some of the complicated issues facing the authors as they attempt to develop and expand partnerships in this research area. The paper culminates with a series of strategies that the authors plan to use that offer alternative ways of thinking about building research partnerships concerning controversial or complex issues in the field of community health and development.
Bradshaw, Catherine P; Haynes, Katherine Taylor
Building on growing interest in translational research, this paper provides an overview of a special issue of Administration and Policy in Mental Health and Mental Health Service Research, which is focused on the process of forging and sustaining partnerships to support child mental health prevention and services research. We propose that partnership-focused research is a subdiscipline of translational research which requires additional research to better refine the theoretical framework and the core principles that will guide future research and training efforts. We summarize some of the major themes across the eight original articles and three commentaries included in the special issue. By advancing the science of partnership-focused research we will be able to bridge the gap between child mental health prevention and services research and practice.
Cook, Stuart W.
This paper contains informal remarks on action research in social psychology from its post World War II origins to its current status. Kurt Lewin first described action research in the 1946 article, "Action Research and Minority Problems," as a three-step process of program planning, program execution, and follow-up evaluation. Ronald Lippitt and…
Parsons, Jim B.; Harding, Kelly J.
This essay explores connections between post-colonial theory and action research. Post-colonial theory is committed to addressing the plague of colonialism. Action research, at its core, promises to problematize uncontested "colonial" hegemonies of any form. Both post-colonial theory and action research engage dialogic, critically reflective and…
Morrell, Elizabeth; Sorensen, Janni; Howarth, Joe
This article describes the evolution of the Charlotte Action Research Project (CHARP), a community-university partnership founded in 2008 at the University of North Carolina at Charlotte, and focuses particularly on the program's unique organizational structure. Research findings of a project evaluation suggest that the CHARP model's unique…
Munoz, Marco A.; Winter, Paul A.; Ricciardi, Diane
This paper describes a research partnership conducted between Jefferson County (Ky.) Public Schools, the University of Louisville, and the University of Kentucky. The aim of the partnership was to share resources while meeting the different institutions' needs in areas such as research and recruitment. Although effective district and university…
Cervenec, J. M.; Hitzhusen, G.; Ward, S.; Foster, C.
In 2009, the Byrd Polar Research Center (BPRC) and Ohio Interfaith Power and Light (OhIPL) collaborated on a climate change education summit for scientists and clergy. Since that first program, a robust partnership has been nurtured where researchers at the center regularly contribute to events within the faith community. In 2014 alone, BPRC supported OhIPL in hosting a Teach-In event on climate change before a live audience that was simultaneously broadcast to three remote sites across Ohio; a State of the Climate event at the Ohio Statehouse that featured presentations by a scientist, a policymaker, and a member of the faith community; and an Earthkeeping Summit to bring together members of the faith community from across Ohio. OhIPL has helped BPRC fulfill one of our mission objectives of communicating science to a broad community. OhIPL engages houses of worship of all denominations through faith and education with a goal of moving them towards actions that reduce energy consumption. Houses of worship take actions for various reasons - including creation care, concerns of social justice related to climate change, or a desire to save money through building efficiency.
Moch, Susan D; Vandenbark, R Todd; Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Stombaugh, Angela
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended.
Pehler, Shelley-Rae; Stombaugh, Angela
Purpose. The purpose of this article is to describe action research in nursing education and to propose a definition of action research for providing guidelines for research proposals and criteria for assessing potential publications for nursing higher education. Methods. The first part of this project involved a search of the literature on action research in nursing higher education from 1994 to 2013. Searches were conducted in the CINAHL and MEDLINE databases. Applying the criteria identified, 80 publications were reviewed. The second part of the project involved a literature review of action research methodology from several disciplines to assist in assessing articles in this review. Results. This article summarizes the nursing higher education literature reviewed and provides processes and content related to four topic areas in nursing higher education. The descriptions assist researchers in learning more about the complexity of both the action research process and the varied outcomes. The literature review of action research in many disciplines along with the review of action research in higher education provided a framework for developing a nursing-education-centric definition of action research. Conclusions. Although guidelines for developing action research and criteria for publication are suggested, continued development of methods for synthesizing action research is recommended. PMID:28078138
Lynch, David; Smith, Richard
This article reviews literature about partnerships between teacher education faculties and schools that indicates not just heightened interest in recent years, but also significant progress. Despite interest and progress, conceptual and practical difficulties remain in establishing, developing, nurturing and implementing successful partnerships so…
Guiffrida, Douglas A.; Douthit, Kathryn Z.; Lynch, Martin F.; Mackie, Karen L.
The increased use of action research in counseling training and professional publications provides an opportunity to bridge the research-practitioner gap that has plagued the profession for decades. In this article, action research is defined, and special considerations that counselor researchers need to address when designing, conducting, and…
Hine, Gregory S. C.; Lavery, Shane D.
This research paper explores the experiences of three teacher-researchers, "Simone", "Damian" and "Michael", who undertook an action research project in their respective schools as part of their postgraduate studies. The paper initially outlines the construct of action research in the light of its applicability to…
King, Gillian; Servais, Michelle; Forchuk, Cheryl; Chalmers, Heather; Currie, Melissa; Law, Mary; Specht, Jacqueline; Rosenbaum, Peter; Willoughby, Teena; Kertoy, Marilyn
Despite the increasing number of multidisciplinary community-university research partnerships designed to address real-world issues, little is known about their nature. This article describes the features and impacts of five research partnerships addressing health or social service issues, which constituted a convenience sample from the province of Ontario, Canada. The article describes their characteristics, ways of operating, outputs, types of requests received from community members and mid-term impacts. Requests directed to partnerships were tracked over a 10-month period in 2003 to 2004, using a research contact checklist, and 174 community members later completed an impact questionnaire capturing perceptions of the impacts of the partnerships on personal knowledge and research skill development, organisational/group access to and use of information, and community and organisational development. The data indicated that partnerships had similar priorities and magnitudes of mid-term impacts, yet differed in the scope of their partnering, realm of intended influence and the number of mechanisms used to engage and communicate with target audiences. The partnerships produced different types of outputs and received different types of requests from community members. The findings inform researchers about partnership diversity and help to establish more realistic expectations about the magnitude of partnerships' impacts.
Valli, Linda; Stefanski, Amanda; Jacobson, Reuben
School-community partnerships are currently in the forefront of place-based urban reform efforts. But the literature on these partnerships indicates a variety of models that require different commitments and resources. Through a close review of the literature, we developed a typology of four partnership categories organized from the least to the…
Monteiro, Maria Ines; Siqueira, Carlos Eduardo; Filho, Heleno Rodrigues Correa
Three partnerships between the University of Campinas, community, and public health care services are discussed in this article. A theoretical framework underpins the critical reviews of their accomplishments following criteria proposed by scholars of community-university partnerships and community-based participatory research. The article…
Njelesani, Janet; Stevens, Marianne; Cleaver, Shaun; Mwambwa, Lombe; Nixon, Stephanie
The country of Zambia's Sixth National Development Plan includes many objectives related to participation and health that align with values underlying occupational therapy. Given this link, occupational therapy research has the potential to advance the Sixth National Development Plan and thereby enhance the participation and health of Zambians. However, there is neither a school of occupational therapy nor many occupational therapists working in Zambia. Using an example of a global research partnership between Canadian occupational therapy researchers and Zambian researchers, this paper examines the partnership using four criteria for global health research in order to derive lessons for future occupational therapy research partnerships. Implications for future occupational therapy research partnerships include the need for partners to combine their complementary skills and knowledge so that they may collaborate in mutually beneficial ways to address global health challenges and expand the reach of occupational therapy perspectives.
Flynn, B C; Ray, D W; Rider, M S
The Healthy Cities process uses action research to empower communities to take action for health. Five concepts that link community empowerment and action research are: focus on community, citizen participation, information and problem solving, sharing of power, and quality of life. Two city examples from Healthy Cities Indiana, a pilot program of CITYNET Healthy Cities, provide illustrations of these concepts. The dynamics of community participation in action research and the successes and barriers to community participation are presented. Outcomes that empowered the community are suggested: the extent to which Healthy City projects are initiated, their progress monitored, continued action in health supported, resources obtained, and policies promoted that contribute equity in health.
Pinto, Rogério M; Wall, Melanie M; Spector, Anya Y
Partnerships between HIV researchers and service providers are essential for reducing the gap between research and practice. Community-Based Participatory Research principles guided this cross-sectional study, combining 40 in-depth interviews with surveys of 141 providers in 24 social service agencies in New York City. We generated the Provider-Researcher Partnership Model to account for provider- and agency-level factors' influence on intentions to form partnerships with researchers. Providers preferred "balanced partnerships" in which researchers and providers allocated research tasks and procedures to reflect diverse knowledge/skill sets. An organizational culture that values research can help enhance providers' intentions to partner. Providers' intentions and priorities found in this study may encourage researchers to engage in and policy makers to fund collaborative research.
McTaggart, Robin, Ed.
The collection of essays in this book illustrate commonalties and differences among the theories, practices, and forms of organization of participatory action research in different countries. Participatory action research expresses the recognition that all research methodologies are implicitly political in nature, and this is reflected in the…
Lichtveld, Maureen; Goldstein, Bernard; Grattan, Lynn; Mundorf, Christopher
On the occasion of the 50(th) anniversary of the National Institutes of Environmental Health Sciences we reflect on how environmental research incorporating community members as active partners has evolved, benefited communities and advanced environmental health research. We highlight the commitment to community partnerships in the aftermath of the 2010 Deep Water Horizon Oil Spill, and how that commitment helped improve science. We provide examples of community-academic partnerships across the engagement spectrum. Finally, we offer suggestions to improve the community engagement in order to cultivate more long partnerships and better scientific research.
Davies, Jeanne; Lester, Carolyn; O'Neill, Martin; Williams, Gareth
Objective: This article describes the Triangle Project's work with a post industrial community, where healthy living activities were developed in response to community members' expressed needs. Method: An action research partnership approach was taken to reduce health inequalities, with local people developing their own activities to address…
Bowen, Sarah; Botting, Ingrid; Graham, Ian D.; Huebner, Lori-Anne
Background: The current literature proposing criteria and guidelines for collaborative health system research often fails to differentiate between: (a) various types of partnerships, (b) collaborations formed for the specific purpose of developing a research proposal and those based on long-standing relationships, (c) researcher vs. decision-maker initiatives, and (d) the underlying drivers for the collaboration. Methods: Qualitative interviews were conducted with 16 decision-makers and researchers who partnered on a Canadian major peer-reviewed grant proposal in 2013. Objectives of this exploration of participants’ experiences with health system research collaboration were to: (a) explore perspectives and experience with research collaboration in general; (b) identify characteristics and strategies associated with effective partnerships; and (c) provide guidance for development of effective research partnerships. Interviews were audio-recorded and transcribed: transcripts were qualitatively analyzed using a general inductive approach. Results: Findings suggest that the common "two cultures" approach to research/decision-maker collaboration provides an inadequate framework for understanding the complexity of research partnerships. Many commonly-identified challenges to researcher/knowledge user (KU) collaboration are experienced as manageable by experienced research teams. Additional challenges (past experience with research and researchers; issues arising from previous collaboration; and health system dynamics) may be experienced in partnerships based on existing collaborations, and interact with partnership demands of time and communication. Current research practice may discourage KUs from engaging in collaborative research, in spite of strong beliefs in its potential benefits. Practical suggestions for supporting collaborations designed to respond to real-time health system challenges were identified. Conclusion: Participants’ experience with previous
To have a significant impact on public health, partnerships are essential - especially among researchers and organizations that can translate such research into action. Based on the experience of YMCA of the USA, this commentary describes how to develop a partnership strategy. It also highlights the opportunities and challenges associated with developing partnerships and translating theory into action.
Goehring, L.; Haacker-Santos, R.; Dutilly, E.
REU and internship site directors often operate in geographic and institutional isolation from each other, unable to share best practices or resources. When collaboration is possible, benefits for both the students and leaders of these programs can be achieved. In 2013, the SOARS REU program, hosted at the National Center for Atmospheric Research (NCAR), supported the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON) in creating a new internship program aimed at engaging undergraduate science and engineering students in NEON's work. Both student programs share the objective of reaching underrepresented groups in STEM. The year long collaboration allowed NEON to learn best practices in recruitment and support of students, mentor training, and program development, and to customize its internship according to its organization i.e., a science/engineering observatory under construction. Both programs shared several elements: students were housed together so that interns could tap into a larger cohort of supportive peers; students participated in a joint leadership training to strengthen cross program mentoring; and students met weekly for a scientific communications workshop. Having multiple science disciplines represented enhanced the workshop as students learned about writing styles and cultures of each other's fields, fostering an appreciation of different scientific disciplines and interdisciplinary thinking. Finally, at the end of the summer, students presented their findings in a joint poster session. We found that collaboration between programs led to increased recruitment of students from diverse backgrounds and support of students through stronger cohorts, shared trainings, and enhanced program content. In this presentation we share findings of our programs' evaluations and make recommendations on building collaborative partnerships for internships and research experiences for undergraduates.
Fielden, Sarah J; Rusch, Melanie L; Masinda, Mambo Tabu; Sands, Jim; Frankish, Jim; Evoy, Brian
Community-academic partnership research is a fairly new genre of community-based participatory research. It has arisen in part, from recognition of the potential role of alliances in the development and translation of applied knowledge and the elimination of health disparities. This paper reports on the learning process of academic and community members who worked together in developing a logic model for a research program focusing on partnerships with vulnerable populations. The Partners in Community Health Research is a 6-year training program that seeks to combine research, training, and practice through the work of its "learning clusters". As these types of partnerships proliferate, the articulation and exploration of clear models will assist in their implementation. The authors, coming from both academia and community agencies, present a logic model meant to facilitate program management. Key considerations in the model's development are discussed in the context of an ongoing research partnership; namely, the complexity of the research partnership, power and accountability, alignment with health promotion policy, and the iterative nature of program design. Recommendations challenge academics, policy-makers, service providers, and community members to reflect on the elements needed to support and manage research partnerships and the tools necessary to ensure continued collaboration.
Meade, Cathy D.; Menard, Janelle M.; Luque, John S.; Martinez-Tyson, Dinorah; Gwede, Clement K.
To effectively attenuate cancer disparities in multiethnic, medically underserved populations, interventions must be developed collaboratively through solid community–academic partnerships and driven by community-based participatory research (CBPR). The Tampa Bay Community Cancer Network (TBCCN) has been created to identify and implement interventions to address local cancer disparities in partnership with community-based nonprofit organizations, faith-based groups, community health centers, local media, and adult literacy and education organizations. TBCCN activities and research efforts are geared toward addressing critical information and access issues related to cancer control and prevention in diverse communities in the Tampa Bay area. Such efforts include cross-cultural health promotion, screening, and awareness activities in addition to applied research projects that are rooted in communities and guided by CBPR methods. This article describes these activities as examples of partnership building to positively affect cancer disparities, promote community health, and set the stage for community-based research partnerships. PMID:19822724
The distance between educational researchers and classroom teachers benefits disinterested observation, but dispossesses the researchers of participatory modes of understanding. In attempting to resolve this problem, some researchers have developed the theory and practice of teachers as researchers, similar to Kurt Lewin's action research. Lewin…
Eilertsen, Tor-Vidar; Gustafson, Niklas; Salo, Petri
This paper is based on the assumption that action research always affects the micropolitical balance characteristic of a certain school setting. The authors claim that micropolitics, that is the patterns of formal power and informal influence, has largely been neglected in the literature on action research in schools. This means that action…
Teachers' classroom-based action research is sometimes misunderstood by those who undertake it and support it, in three respects. First, it is wrongly assumed to fall into either positivist or interpretive paradigms (or perhaps a mixture of both) or to be critical. Second, there is little understanding as to why action research is necessarily…
In this article, the author compares the practices, philosophy, and history of action research, also known as participatory action research, to the purposes and practices of dance education. The comparison yields connections in four categories, enhancing self-reflective teaching and curriculum design, taking responsibility for teaching outcomes,…
Jose, Kim; Venn, Alison; Jarman, Lisa; Seal, Judy; Teale, Brook; Scott, Jennifer; Sanderson, Kristy
Research funding is increasingly supporting collaborations between knowledge users and researchers. Partnering Healthy@Work (pH@W), an inaugural recipient of funding through Australia's Partnership for Better Health Grants scheme, was a 5-year partnership between the Menzies Institute for Medical Research, University of Tasmania and the Tasmanian State Service (TSS). The partnerships purpose was to evaluate a comprehensive workplace health promotion programme (Healthy@Work) targeting 30 000 public sector employees; generating new knowledge and influencing workplace health promotion policy and decision-making. This mixed methods study evaluates the partnership between policy-makers and academics and identifies strategies that enabled pH@W to deliver key project outcomes. A pH@W document review was conducted, two partnership assessment tools completed and semi-structured interviews conducted with key policy-makers and academics. Analysis of the partnership assessment tools and interviews found that pH@W had reached a strong level of collaboration. Policy-relevant knowledge was generated about the health of TSS employees and their engagement with workplace health promotion. Knowledge exchange of a conceptual and instrumental nature occurred and was facilitated by the shared grant application, clear governance structures, joint planning, regular information exchange between researchers and policy-makers and research student placements in the TSS. Flexibility and acknowledgement of different priorities and perspectives of partner organizations were identified as critical factors for enabling effective partnership working and research relevance. Academic-policy-maker partnerships can be a powerful mechanism for improving policy relevance of research, but need to incorporate strategies that facilitate regular input from researchers and policy-makers in order to achieve this.
Rodriguez, Carolyn I; Arbuckle, Melissa R; Simpson, Helen B; Herman, Daniel B; Stroup, T Scott; Skrobala, Anne M; Sederer, Lloyd I; Appel, Anita; Essock, Susan M
To help grow a cadre of researchers with the knowledge and skills to pursue topics of great utility to public mental health systems, the director of the Division of Mental Health Services and Policy Research at Columbia University used funding from the New York State Office of Mental Health (OMH) to create a rapid small-grant program called the OMH Policy Scholars Program. This column uses two case examples to describe how this public-academic partnership exposes early-career researchers to the needs and complexities of large public mental health systems while providing them with senior research and policy mentors to help ensure the success of the scholars' projects and oversee their introduction to and work within the public mental health system. This type of collaboration is one model of encouraging early-career psychiatric researchers to pursue policy-relevant research.
Somekh, Bridget; Zeichner, Ken
This paper explores how action research theories and practices are remodelled in local contexts and used to support educational reform. From an analysis of 46 publications from the period 2000-2008, five "variations" in the globalized theory and practice of action research are identified: action research in times of political upheaval and…
Tierney, William M; Nyandiko, Winstone N; Siika, Abraham M; Wools-Kaloustian, Kara; Sidle, John E; Kiplagat, Jepchirchir; Bell, April; Inui, Thomas S
In the context of a long-term institutional 'twinning' partnership initiated by Indiana and Moi Universities more than 22 years ago, a vibrant program of research has arisen and grown in size and stature. The history of the AMPATH (Academic Model Providing Access to Healthcare) Research Program is described, with its distinctive attention to Kenyan-North American equity, mutual benefit, policies that support research best practices, peer review within research working groups/cores, contributions to clinical care, use of healthcare informatics, development of research infrastructure and commitment to research workforce capacity. In the development and management of research within our partnership, we describe a number of significant challenges we have encountered that require ongoing attention, many of which are "good problems" occasioned by the program's success and growth. Finally, we assess the special value a partnership program like ours has created and end by affirming the importance of organizational diversity, solidarity of purpose, and resilience in the 'research enterprise.'
Newman, Joan; Rougas, Mary Ellen
The partnership described focuses on a severe problem with environmental pollution at Akwesasne, the Mohawk reservation situated along the St. Lawrence River, at the juncture of New York, Quebec, and Ontario. Industries are located along the river and its tributaries and in past years have discharged PCBs (and other toxins) into the waterways in…
I am a doctoral student enrolled in an educational research program. While completing an action research course, I conducted research to improve my academic writing and to develop skills for formulating arguments about educational issues. From this research I developed an appreciation for and an understanding of good writing habits and elements of…
This article reports on research funded as a "Best Practice" project by the Department for Education and Skills (DfES) designed to use action research to progress the government agenda for healthy schools. The project involved teachers working with university researcher. The outcome is five small research reports consisting of two…
The ideologies underpinning public/private partnerships (PPPs) have been much contested in theory, but what does promulgating a social partnership mean in practice? This qualitative research study has been "critiquing" a construct of "ecologies of learning" or "capacities of capital" for social partnerships between…
Cousins, J. Bradley; Simon, Marielle
To enhance the relevance and usefulness of social-science research, large-scale research grant-allocation policies are emphasizing, if not requiring, the formation of research partnerships between researchers and members of the community of practice. The emergence of a revisionist conception of traditional dissemination and utilization of…
Fonger, Nicole L.
Partnerships between researchers and teachers are central to stimulating advancements in a linking research and practice agenda. This paper addresses two key aims. First, research on supporting students' representational fluency in technology-rich algebra learning environments is used to illustrate a linking research and practice agenda. Three…
The project will implement novel field and laboratory-based studies, state-of-the-art modeling, and other research syntheses toward these goals and toward decreasing scientific uncertainty related to nutrient management. The key research areas involve improved nutrient indicator ...
Midboe, Amanda M; Elwy, A Rani; Durfee, Janet M; Gifford, Allen L; Yakovchenko, Vera; Martinello, Richard A; Ross, David; Czarnogorski, Maggie; Goetz, Matthew B; Asch, Steven M
We are in a new era of partner-based implementation research, and we need clear strategies for how to navigate this new era. Drawing on principles from community-based participatory research, the Clinical Public Health group of the Department of Veterans Affairs and the HIV/Hepatitis Quality Enhancement Research Initiative (HHQUERI) forged a longstanding partnership that has improved the care of Veterans with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) and Hepatitis C Virus. An exemplar HIV testing project epitomizes this partnership and is discussed in terms of the lessons learned as a result of our high level of collaboration around design, analysis, implementation, and dissemination across projects over the past several years. Lessons learned through this partnered testing program involve respecting different time horizons among the partners, identifying relevant research questions for both parties, designing flexible studies, engaging all partners throughout the research, and placing an emphasis on relationship building at all times. These lessons and strategies can benefit others conducting partner-based research both within the Veterans Health Administration (VA) and in other integrated healthcare systems.
Amorim, Antonio Carlos; Ryan, Charly
Deleuze and his colleagues, particularly Guattari, have had a profound impact on a number of fields of study. The authors argue that their work offers a range of images to help think about and write action research, a way that acknowledges and celebrates the complexities of the sites of action. The article has a divided structure, coherent with…
Alerts science teachers to ethical and social issues as well as research findings associated with recent developments in biomedicine. Also provides a brief list of suggested readings on bioethical issues. (PEB)
Hoffman, Patricia; Dahlman, Anne; Zierdt, Ginger
This article details a strategic planning model and concurrent 3-year research study focusing on the benefits of preK-16 professional development school learning communities for the participating preK-16 educational leaders in a midwestern school-university partnership network. Results of the study, along with the strategic plan's success at…
Rappaport, Nancy; Alegria, Margarita; Mulvaney-Day, Norah; Boyle, Barbara
In this study, the authors identify three guiding principles or relational strategies for developing successful community partnerships and building an alliance for systemic change. These principles were derived from their work over 4 years with an urban public school system, which was focused on generating a series of interventions for improving the behavioral and academic functioning of immigrant students. In their process, they developed an analysis and monitoring system of students' progress, which allowed for earlier targeted effective support.
Morales, Marie Paz E.
This paper reviews Participatory Action Research as an approach to teacher professional development. It maps the origins of Participatory Action Research (PAR) and discusses the benefits and challenges that have been identified by other researchers in utilizing PAR approaches in conducting research. It draws ideas of combining the features of…
Raman, D. Raj; Geisinger, Brandi N.; Kemis, Mari R.; de la Mora, Arlene
Summer research opportunities for undergraduates, such as those supported by the National Science Foundation's Research Experience for Undergraduates (REU) program, can be critical experiences that help persuade students to pursue research through graduate studies. Studies analyzing the key actions of successful mentors are scarce. The goal of…
Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…
The Strategic Research Action Plan for EPA’s Chemical Safety for Sustainability research program presents the purpose, design and themes of the Agency’s research efforts to ensure safety in the design, manufacture and use of existing and future chemicals.
Turnbull, H. Rutherford, III; Turnbull, Ann P.
This paper describes collegial model approaches to the interactions between rehabilitation researchers and individuals with disabilities or their family members. The approaches, called participatory research and participatory action research, grew out of a 1989 conference sponsored by the National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation…
Background Partnerships are increasingly common in conducting research. However, there is little published evidence about processes in research-policy partnerships in different contexts. This paper contributes to filling this gap by analysing experiences of research-policy partnerships between Ministries of Health and research organisations for the implementation of the Mental Health and Poverty Project in Ghana, South Africa, Uganda and Zambia. Methods A conceptual framework for understanding and assessing research-policy partnerships was developed and guided this study. The data collection methods for this qualitative study included semi-structured interviews with Ministry of Health Partners (MOHPs) and Research Partners (RPs) in each country. Results The term partnership was perceived by the partners as a collaboration involving mutually-agreed goals and objectives. The principles of trust, openness, equality and mutual respect were identified as constituting the core of partnerships. The MOHPs and RPs had clearly defined roles, with the MOHPs largely providing political support and RPs leading the research agenda. Different influences affected partnerships. At the individual level, personal relationships and ability to compromise within partnerships were seen as important. At the organisational level, the main influences included the degree of formalisation of roles and responsibilities and the internal structures and procedures affecting decision-making. At the contextual level, political environment and the degree of health system decentralisation affected partnerships. Conclusions Several lessons can be learned from these experiences. Taking account of influences on the partnership at individual, organisation and contextual/system levels can increase its effectiveness. A common understanding of mutually-agreed goals and objectives of the partnership is essential. It is important to give attention to the processes of initiating and maintaining partnerships
Gillian-Daniel, Anne Lynn; Gordon, Robert J.; Taylor, Benjamin L.; McCarthy, Jon J.
Many materials science education and outreach activities are designed to be easy and cost-effective to implement in K- 12 classrooms. While these activities are extremely effective at teaching broad materials science concepts such as size and scale, materials properties, and the use of tools in science, they do not connect very closely to the work being done in materials science research laboratories. In an effort to more closely connect our outreach efforts to the work being done by our researchers, the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Materials Research Science and Engineering Center (UW-MRSEC) has developed a partnership with Hitachi High Technologies America, Inc. This partnership allows us to introduce public audiences to a state-of-the-art tabletop scanning electron microscope (SEM) that is being used by UW researchers. In this paper, we describe the partnership including the use of the SEM in our Research Experience for Teachers (RET) program and in our community outreach programs.
By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer The Frederick National Laboratory for Cancer Research (FNLCR) recently formed a partnership with the Pancreatic Cancer Action Network (PanCAN) to award a one-year fellowship to two scientists whose research will help lead to new therapies for pancreatic cancer. The scientists will focus on KRAS, a gene in the RAS family that is mutated in 95 percent of pancreatic cancers, according to the National Cancer Institute (NCI).
Cockburn, Lynn; Trentham, Barry
Projects involving mental health clients receiving occupational therapy and senior citizens engaged in capacity building illustrate steps in the participatory action research (PAR) process: issue identification and planning; investigation and action; action, reflection, and modification cycles; and knowledge creation and change. Challenges and…
Turnbull, Ann P.; Friesen, Barbara J.; Ramirez, Carmen
This article discusses a participatory action research (PAR) approach to conducting family research. It proposes a model of PAR implementation level including the options of family members as research leaders and researchers as ongoing advisors, researchers and family members as coresearchers, and researches as leaders, and family members as…
Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph
The Space Partnership Development Program of NASA has been highly successful in leveraging commercial research investments to the strategic mission and applied research goals of the Agency through industry academic partnerships. This program is currently undergoing an outward-looking transformation towards Agency wide research and discovery goals that leverage partnership contributions to the strategic research needed to demonstrate enabling space exploration technologies encompassing both robotic spacecraft missions and human space flight. New Space Partnership Initiatives with incremental goals and milestones will allow a continuing series of accomplishments to be achieved throughout the duration of each initiative, permit the "lessons learned" and capabilities acquired from previous implementation steps to be incorporated into subsequent phases of the initiatives, and allow adjustments to be made to the implementation of the initiatives as new opportunities or challenges arise. An Agency technological risk reduction roadmap for any required technologies not currently available will identify the initiative focus areas for the development, demonstration and utilization of space resources supporting the production of power, air, and water, structures and shielding materials. This paper examines the successes to date, lessons learned, and programmatic outlook of enabling sustainable exploration and discovery through governmental, industrial, academic, and international partnerships. Previous government and industry technology development programs have demonstrated that a focused research program that appropriately shares the developmental risk can rapidly mature low Technology Readiness Level (TRL) technologies to the demonstration level. This cost effective and timely, reduced time to discovery, partnership approach to the development of needed technological capabilities addresses the dual use requirements by the investing partners. In addition, these partnerships
Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L.; Cene, Crystal W.; Varma, Deepthi S.; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W.; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B.; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G.; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to…
Breault, Donna Adair; Breault, Rick
Researchers have long lamented the lack of research regarding the preparation of school leaders. In response, we offer lessons about school and university partnerships from exemplary professional development school (PDS) research to inform collaborative efforts for leadership preparation. We conducted an extensive literature review of 250 studies…
Cousins, J. Bradley; Simon, Marielle
A multimethod evaluation of a major Canadian strategic grant program with surveys of 74 funded projects, 4 case studies, and interviews with researchers and grant application staff reveals the favorable effects of partnerships between research and practice on research and dissemination strategies in spite of ideological and pragmatic constraints.…
Bennett, Clare; Perry, Jane; Lapworth, Tracy; Davies, Judith; Preece, Vicky
Since April 2006, commissioning responsibility for healthcare services in public prisons has been fully devolved to NHS primary care trusts (PCTs), with the expectation that offenders will have access to the same range and quality of health services available to the wider population. In order to support prison nurses in meeting this goal, a PCT and university established a partnership, which used an action research approach to develop, instigate and evaluate a bespoke educational programme for nurses working in two local prisons. This article outlines the processes involved in the design and implementation of the programme. It also reports on findings from pre- and post-intervention questionnaires and focus groups with course participants, and semi-structured interviews with key stakeholders, which suggest that the innovation had a positive impact on the nurses' confidence, assertiveness, clinical expertise and approach to change. The article concludes that the action research project should continue, but its scope should now broaden to address educational support for healthcare assistants, collaborative learning between prison officers and prison nurses, and the implementation of clinical supervision and action learning sets.
Hughes, Chris; Lord, Wed
Current collaborative research with Pratt & Whitney on Ultra High Bypass Engine Cycle noise, performance and emissions improvements as part of the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project Ultra High Bypass Engine Partnership Element is discussed. The Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals are reviewed, as well as their relative technology level compared to previous NASA noise program goals. Progress toward achieving the Subsonic Fixed Wing Project goals over the 2008 fiscal year by the UHB Partnership in this area of research are reviewed. The current research activity in Ultra High Bypass Engine Cycle technology, specifically the Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan, at NASA and Pratt & Whitney are discussed including the contributions each entity bring toward the research project, and technical plans and objectives. Pratt & Whitney Geared Turbofan current and future technology and business plans are also discussed, including the role the NASA SFW UHB partnership plays toward achieving those goals.
Morales, Chelsea T.; Muzquiz, LeeAnna I.; Howlett, Kevin; Azure, Bernie; Bodnar, Brenda; Finley, Vernon; Incashola, Tony; Mathias, Cheryl; Laukes, Cindi; Beatty, Patrick; Burke, Wylie; Pershouse, Mark A.; Putnam, Elizabeth A.; Trinidad, Susan Brown; James, Rosalina; Woodahl, Erica L.
Background Inclusion of American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations in pharmacogenetic research is key if the benefits of pharmacogenetic testing are to reach these communities. Community-based participatory research (CBPR) offers a model to engage these communities in pharmacogenetics. Objectives An academic-community partnership between the University of Montana and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribes (CSKT) was established to engage the community as partners and advisors in pharmacogenetic research. Methods A community advisory committee, the Community Pharmacogenetics Advisory Council (CPAC), was established to ensure community involvement in the research process. To promote bidirectional learning, researchers gave workshops and presentations about pharmacogenetic research to increase research capacity and CPAC members trained researchers in cultural competencies. As part of our commitment to a sustainable relationship, we conducted a self-assessment of the partnership, which included surveys and interviews with CPAC members and researchers. Results Academic and community participants agree that the partnership has promoted a bidirectional exchange of knowledge. Interviews showed positive feedback from the perspectives of both the CPAC and researchers. CPAC members discussed their trust in and support of the partnership as well as having learned more about research processes and pharmacogenetics. Researchers discussed their appreciation of CPAC involvement in the project and guidance the group provided in understanding the CSKT community and culture. Discussion We have created an academic-community partnership to ensure CSKT community input and to share decision-making about pharmacogenetic research. Our CBPR approach may be a model for engaging AI/AN people, and other underserved populations, in genetic research. PMID:27346763
Lunt, Neil; Fouche, Christa
We reflect on the action research process implemented in assisting the development of a culture of practitioner inquiry amongst social workers in social services agencies, and highlight the overall outcomes of the intervention. The paper outlines the rationale and process for undertaking an action research process with social services…
Hui, Ming-Fai, Ed.; Grossman, David L., Ed.
There has been a dearth of studies on teacher educators using action research to improve their own practice. This book is the first systematic study of a group of teachers examining and enhancing their own practice through the inquiry process of action research. This book presents a broad overview of a variety of methodologies that can be used to…
Tubbs-Cooley, Heather L.; Martsolf, Donna S.; Pickler, Rita H.; Morrison, Caroline F.; Wardlaw, Cassie E.
Background. Collaborative nursing research across academic and practice settings is imperative to generate knowledge to improve patient care. Models of academic/practice partnerships for nursing research are lacking. This paper reports data collected before and during a one-day retreat for nurse researchers and administrators from local universities and health care organizations designed to establish a regional nursing research partnership. Methods. Quantitative and qualitative methods were used to address the study aims: (1) to assess research involvement and institutional research resources; (2) to assess interest in and concerns regarding cross-institutional collaborations; and (3) to describe perceptions of the purpose of a partnership and resources needed to ensure success. Results. Participants (n = 49) had differing perceptions of accessibility to resources; participants in practice settings reported less accessibility to resources, notably grant development, informatics, and research assistant support. Participants were interested in collaboration although concerns about conflict of interest were expressed. Four themes related to partnering were identified: harnessing our nursing voice and identity; developing as researchers; staying connected; and positioning for a collaborative project. Conclusion. Academic-practice research collaborations will become increasingly important with health care system changes. Strategies to develop and sustain productive partnerships should be supported. PMID:23984059
Ansari, Walid El; Oskrochi, Reza; Phillips, Ceri
A multi-site evaluation (survey) of five Kellogg-funded Community Partnerships (CPs) in South Africa was undertaken to explore the relationship between leadership skills and a range of 30 operational, functional and organisational factors deemed critical to successful CPs. The CPs were collaborative academic-health service-community efforts aimed at health professions education reforms. The level of agreement to eleven dichotomous (‘Yes/No’) leadership skills items was used to compute two measures of members’ appreciation of their CPs’ leadership. The associations between these measures and 30 CPs factors were explored, and the partnership factors that leadership skills explained were assessed after controlling. Respondents who perceived the leadership of their CPs favourably had more positive ratings across 30 other partnership factors than those who rated leadership skills less favourably, and were more likely to report a positive cost/ benefit ratio. In addition, respondents who viewed their CPs’ leadership positively also rated the operational understanding, the communication mechanisms, as well as the rules and procedures of the CPs more favourably. Leadership skills explained between 20% and 7% of the variance of 10 partnership factors. The influence of leaders’ skills in effective health-focussed partnerships is much broader than previously conceptualised. PMID:19440289
El Ansari, Walid; Oskrochi, Reza; Phillips, Ceri
A multi-site evaluation (survey) of five Kellogg-funded Community Partnerships (CPs) in South Africa was undertaken to explore the relationship between leadership skills and a range of 30 operational, functional and organisational factors deemed critical to successful CPs. The CPs were collaborative academic-health service-community efforts aimed at health professions education reforms. The level of agreement to eleven dichotomous ('Yes/No') leadership skills items was used to compute two measures of members' appreciation of their CPs' leadership. The associations between these measures and 30 CPs factors were explored, and the partnership factors that leadership skills explained were assessed after controlling. Respondents who perceived the leadership of their CPs favourably had more positive ratings across 30 other partnership factors than those who rated leadership skills less favourably, and were more likely to report a positive cost/ benefit ratio. In addition, respondents who viewed their CPs' leadership positively also rated the operational understanding, the communication mechanisms, as well as the rules and procedures of the CPs more favourably. Leadership skills explained between 20% and 7% of the variance of 10 partnership factors. The influence of leaders' skills in effective health-focussed partnerships is much broader than previously conceptualised.
This paper discusses how major breakthroughs in generating, analysing and disseminating action research about problem-based learning were made through the medium of poetry. I used poetry in three ways: as data, as an interpretive device and as a reflective medium. Poetry helped me to disseminate my research in provocative, memorable and…
Queer theory and action research together offer possibilities for exposing the deep injustice of both homophobia and heterosexism. Underpinning identity categories of sexuality and gender, these forms of social injustice lurk in schools, families, religions, communities, and nation-states. For educators and educational researchers, addressing…
Since the introduction of the action research into China in the 1980s, especially since the start of the twenty-first century, Chinese education researchers have been trying to localize it in relation to the backdrop of the national curriculum reform in basic education. This article presents three cases in which educators aimed for a conscious…
Discusses participatory action research, a methodology incorporating subjects in the research and indexing results to transformation in the lives of those involved. The approach is gaining momentum and recognition in academic circles but is often limited to specialized training centers. Two years of experience teaching this approach in social work…
Tomal, Daniel R.
This book is a straightforward, no-nonsense guide to a research method that can be used by educators to increase student learning, student self-esteem, and quality of school life in the classroom. This user-friendly book covers the principles and history of action research, ethical and legal considerations, methods for conducting both formal and…
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) brings young people together with adult researchers to identify, study, and act on relevant social problems. In this chapter, the author draws on examples from a recent YPAR project, called Tracing Transitions, whose aim was to study the impact of school closure on students. After defining YPAR in terms…
Minkler, Meredith; Vasquez, Victoria Breckwich; Tajik, Mansoureh; Petersen, Dana
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) increasingly is being used to study and address environmental justice. This article presents the results of a cross-site case study of four CBPR partnerships in the United States that researched environmental health problems and worked to educate legislators and promote relevant public policy. The…
Brizay, Ulrike; Golob, Lina; Globerman, Jason; Gogolishvili, David; Bird, Mara; Rios-Ellis, Britt; Rourke, Sean B; Heidari, Shirin
Introduction Community involvement in HIV research has increased over recent years, enhancing community-academic partnerships. Several terms have been used to describe community participation in research. Clarification is needed to determine whether these terms are synonymous or actually describe different research processes. In addition, it remains unclear if the role that communities play in the actual research process follows the recommendations given in theoretical frameworks of community-academia research. Objectives The objective of this study is to review the existing terms and definitions regarding community-academic partnerships and assess how studies are implementing these in relation to conceptual definitions. Methods A systematic literature review was conducted in PubMed. Two reviewers independently assessed each article, applying the following inclusion criteria: the article must be published in English before 2013; it must provide an explicit definition and/or defining methodology for a term describing research with a community component; and it has to refer to HIV or AIDS, reproductive health and/or STDs. When disagreements about the relevance of an article emerged, a third reviewer was involved until concordance was reached. Data were extracted by one reviewer and independently verified by a second. Qualitative data were analyzed using MaxQDA for content and thematic analyses while quantitative data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Community feedback on data analysis and presentation of results was also incorporated. Results In total, 246 articles were retrieved, 159 of which fulfilled the inclusion criteria. The number of studies that included community participation in the field of HIV research increased between 1991 and 2012, and the terms used to describe these activities have changed, moving away from action research (AR) to participatory action research (PAR), community-based research (CBR) and community-based participatory research
Sanders, Latasha D; Larkins, Teri L; Boyle, John N; George, Susan F; Triplett, Erin W; Leypoldt, Melissa D
Since the inception of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) National Breast and Cervical Cancer Early Detection Program (NBCCEDP) in 1990, partnerships have played a significant role in providing breast and cervical cancer screening and early detection to uninsured and underinsured women. The state, tribal, and territorial NBCCEDP grantees have shared resources and responsibilities with a variety of partners (eg, community-based organizations, government agencies, tribes, health care systems, companies, professional organizations) to achieve common goals. National partners, such as the American Cancer Society, Susan G. Komen for the Cure, and the Avon Foundation for Women, have provided funding, lobbied for national and state funding, supported outreach and education activities, and provided treatment referral services for the programs. This article provides an overview of grantee partnerships to illustrate the effects, successes, and challenges of these partnerships and how they have affected the populations served by the program.
Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda
The National Science Foundation contracted with Abt Associates to conduct an evaluation of its Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) program, which supports intellectually substantive collaborations between U.S. and foreign researchers in which the international partnership is essential to the research effort. The evaluation…
Martinez, Alina; Epstein, Carter; Parsad, Amanda
The National Science Foundation contracted with Abt Associates to conduct an evaluation of its Partnerships for International Research and Education (PIRE) program, which supports intellectually substantive collaborations between U.S. and foreign researchers in which the international partnership is essential to the research effort. The evaluation…
Pinto, Rogério M.; Wall, Melanie M.; Spector, Anya Y.
Partnerships between HIV researchers and service providers are essential for reducing the gap between research and practice. Community-Based Participatory Research principles guided this cross-sectional study, combining 40 in-depth interviews with surveys of 141 providers in 24 social service agencies in New York City. We generated the…
Teachers enrolled in the master of natural science program for high school science teachers at a large research university must complete a year-long action research study. This account, by the program’s action research coordinator, describes both process and outcomes of this research experience from the perspectives of the research coordinator and the teacher-researchers, shedding light on the organizational learning that takes place, and the ways in which the research experience affected individual teacher-researchers. Teachers reported that their action research experience changed them in fundamental ways, providing them with a framework for deepening their understanding of student thinking, challenging their folk wisdom about teaching and learning, building confidence in their abilities and renewing their commitment to teaching as a vocation.
Frerichs, Leah; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Cheney, Ann; Hassmiller Lich, Kristen; Jones, Jennifer; Young, Tiffany L; Cene, Crystal W; Varma, Deepthi S; Schaal, Jennifer; Black, Adina; Striley, Catherine W; Vassar, Stefanie; Sullivan, Greer; Cottler, Linda B; Brown, Arleen; Burke, Jessica G; Corbie-Smith, Giselle
Community-academic research partnerships aim to build stakeholder trust in order to improve the reach and translation of health research, but there is limited empirical research regarding effective ways to build trust. This multisite study was launched to identify similarities and differences among stakeholders' perspectives of antecedents to trust in research partnerships. In 2013-2014, we conducted a mixed-methods concept mapping study with participants from three major stakeholder groups who identified and rated the importance of different antecedents of trust on a 5-point Likert-type scale. Study participants were community members ( n = 66), health care providers ( n = 38), and academic researchers ( n = 44). All stakeholder groups rated "authentic communication" and "reciprocal relationships" the highest in importance. Community members rated "communication/methodology to resolve problems" ( M = 4.23, SD = 0.58) significantly higher than academic researchers ( M = 3.87, SD = 0.67) and health care providers ( M = 3.89, SD = 0.62; p < .01) and had different perspectives regarding the importance of issues related to "sustainability." The importance of communication and relationships across stakeholders indicates the importance of colearning processes that involve the exchange of knowledge and skills. The differences uncovered suggest specific areas where attention and skill building may be needed to improve trust within partnerships. More research on how partnerships can improve communication specific to problem solving and sustainability is merited.
Reich, Stephanie M; Kay, Joseph S; Lin, Grace C
Community-based participatory research is predicated on building partnerships that tackle important issues to the community and effectively improve these issues. Community-based participatory research can also be an empowering experience, especially for children. This article describes a university-community partnership in which students at a low-income middle school worked to improve the quality of the cafeteria food provided to the 986 students eligible for free and reduced price lunches. The project led to menu changes, improved communication between youth, school administrators, and district staff, and enabled youth to enact school improvements that were beneficial for their health.
Pine, Gerald J.
As a collaborative process, action research begins when educational researchers, university faculty, and teachers assist each other in developing the skills to identify and conceptualize problems. The fundamental principle of collaborative research is that the research process is based on a system of discussion, investigation, and analysis in…
National Alliance of Business, Inc., Washington, DC.
This document profiles the business-education partnerships in 12 cities and reports the lessons learned from their experiences. The cities are Albuquerque (New Mexico), Cincinnati (Ohio), Detroit (Michigan), Indianapolis (Indiana), Louisville (Kentucky), Memphis (Tennessee), Miami/Dade County (Florida), Pittsburgh (Pennsylvania), Providence (Rhode…
Pearce, Kevin A; Jarrett, Traci D; Scutchfield, F Douglas; Talbert, Jeffery C; Bolt, W David; Barron, Mary A; Houlihan, Jessica M; Dignan, Mark B
Kentucky has among the highest rates of diabetes and obesity in the United States. The Kentucky Diabetes and Obesity Collaborative (KDOC) was designed to develop a novel research infrastructure that can be used by researchers focusing on obesity and diabetes among patients cared for by Federally Qualified Health Centers (FQHC) serving rural Kentucky. Focus groups were carried out to develop an understanding of the needs and interests of FQHC practitioners and staff regarding participation in KDOC. Focus groups were conducted with 6 FQHCs and included a total of 41 individuals including health care providers, administrative staff and clinical staff. The discussions ranged in time from 30 to 70 minutes and averaged 45 minutes. Analysis of the transcripts of the focus groups revealed 4 themes: 1) contextual factors, 2) infrastructure, 3) interpersonal relationships, and 4) clinical features. The participants also noted four requirements that should be met for a research project to be successful in rural primary care settings: 1) there must be a shared understanding of health priorities of rural communities between the researcher and the practices/providers; 2) the proposed research must be relevant to clinics and their communities; 3) research and recommendations for evidence-based interventions need to reflect the day-to-day challenges of rural primary care providers; and 4) there needs to be an understanding of community norms and resources. Although research-clinic partnerships were viewed favourably overall, challenges in data integration to support both research and clinical outcomes were identified.
Background Childhood obesity remains a significant global problem with immediate and long-term individual health and societal consequences. Targets for change should include the most potent and predictive factors for obesity at all levels of the personal, social and physical environments. The Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living (‘the Center’) is a public-private partnership that was developed to address child health issues through research, service, and education. This overview paper introduces a special issue of seven articles on childhood obesity from the Center, and the implications of this research for obesity prevention. Methods and results A review of the literature on public-private partnerships was undertaken and key components of the partnership between the Michael & Susan Dell Foundation and the Center were compared for compatibility. The conceptual framework for Center research, based on social cognitive theory and the social-ecological model, is explained. An overview of papers in this special issue, relative to the conceptual framework, and the implications of this research for childhood obesity prevention, are provided. Conclusions The public-private partnership that created the Michael & Susan Dell Center for Healthy Living has been instrumental in motivating the Center’s academic faculty to focus their research on improvements in child, family and community health through etiologic, epidemiologic, methodologic and intervention research. This special issue extends this work and places particular emphasis on socioeconomic inequalities in addressing the obesity problem in the U.S. and worldwide. PMID:26222489
Fawcett, Stephen B.
The dual purposes of applied research—contributing to understanding and improvement—are only partially served by method systems that encourage studying (with increasing precision) a narrow range of questions of modest societal importance. To optimize contributions to challenging societal problems, a field's cherished standards should be adapted to support more adventuresome forms of community research and action. This paper outlines 10 values for community research and action, based on insights from the fields of behavioral and community psychology. These values—reflect the goals and challenges of establishing collaborative relationships with research participants, determining research goals and methods, designing and disseminating interventions, communicating research findings, and advocating for community change. Critical challenges are outlined, and implications for the field and its clients are discussed. PMID:16795759
The purpose of this article is to present a specific approach to the practice of action research "in complex organisations". Clearly, there are many approaches to the challenge of doing action research in organisations; approaches that are, and also must be, quite context dependent and specific. But my purpose is neither to give an…
Brown, Barb; Dressler, Roswita; Eaton, Sarah Elaine; Jacobsen, Michele
In this article, action research is explored as a process for instructor reflection, professional learning and collaboration. The context for the professional learning was the teaching of graduate level education courses in which action research, in conjunction with a cohort-based, collaboratory approach to learning, was used to facilitate…
Watt, Daniel Lynn; Watt, Molly Lynn
The Logo Action Research Collaborative is creating a professional development program in the Newton (Massachusetts) schools which is based on action research and designed to support teachers and improve the use of Logo computer-assisted instruction in their classrooms. During the 1 year workshop, teachers work collaboratively on Logo programming…
Khanlou, N; Peter, E
This paper addresses the distinctive nature of participatory action research (PAR) in relation to ethical review requirements. As a framework for conducting research and reducing health disparities, PAR is gaining increased attention in community and public health research. As a result, PAR researchers and members of Research Ethics Boards could benefit from an increased understanding of the array of ethical concerns that can arise. We discuss these concerns in light of commonly held ethical requirements for clinical research (social or scientific value, scientific validity, fair subject/participant selection, favourable risk-benefit ratio, independent review, informed consent, and respect for potential and enrolled participants) and refer to guidelines specifically developed for participatory research in health promotion. We draw from our community-based experiences in mental health promotion research with immigrant and culturally diverse youth to illustrate the ethical advantages and challenges of applying a PAR approach. We conclude with process suggestions for Research Ethics Boards.
BROOKS, ERIC; DOLAN, ERIN; TAX, FRANS
A partnership between scientists, high school teachers, and their students provides authentic research experiences to help students understand the nature and processes of science. The Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP) engages students in a large-scale genomics research project using classroom-tested protocols that can help to find the function of a disabled gene in the widely studied plant Arabidopsis thaliana. Here, we describe the framework of PREP in the classroom within the context of the National Science Education Standards. PMID:24339450
Lee, Vanessa; Coombe, Leanne; Robinson, Priscilla
In Australia, graduates of Master of Public Health (MPH) programmes are expected to achieve a set of core competencies, including a subset that is specifically related to Indigenous health. This paper reports on the methods utilised in a project which was designed using action research to strengthen Indigenous public health curricula within MPH…
Kitchen, Julian; Raynor, Marg
This action research report focuses on a new elective course entitled "Indigenizing Education: Education for/about Aboriginal Peoples" that was developed and taught by two teacher educators--one Euro-Canadian and the other Metis. The purpose of the course was to increase understanding of Indigenous peoples and of the impact of…
Ferrell, Elizabeth W.; Nance, Cara N.; Torres, Amanda L.; Torres, Selina M.
Many urban high schools serving low-income families have below-average attendance rates, which can indicate that fewer students are prepared to matriculate into college and career opportunities. Through the use of participatory action research (PAR), we--a group of four educators at Wilson High School--have changed school policies and procedures…
Edwards, Emily; Burns, Anne
Action research (AR) is becoming increasingly popular in ELT contexts as a means of continuous professional development. The positive impacts of AR on language teacher development are well documented, but the important question of how those impacts can be sustained over time is virtually unexplored. Drawing on findings from a study of teachers in…
Day, Nicole Kristine
This paper reviews data from 27 final reports of action research projects in the area of instructional coaching undertaken as part of Cycle 4 (2008-2010) of the Alberta Initiative for School Improvement (AISI). AISI was an Alberta government programme that provided funding to every school district to allow teachers to create site-based, action…
Piggot-Irvine, Eileen; Rowe, Wendy; Ferkins, Lesley
The focus of this paper is to share thinking about meta-level evaluation of action research (AR), and to introduce indicator domains for assessing and measuring inputs, outputs and outcomes. Meta-level and multi-site evaluation has been rare in AR beyond project implementation and participant satisfaction. The paper is the first of several…
Utah State Office of Education, Salt Lake City.
This booklet contains a synopsis of eight action research projects undertaken by educators from various Utah public schools presented at a series of workshops. Twenty-seven educators representing 19 schools, 9 school districts, and the Utah State Office of Education (USOE) attended the series of 4 full-day workshops held during October, February,…
Historically, "teacher action research" and "teacher research" have been terms mostly used at the PK-12 level. Yet, embracing it fully and visibly in the teacher education realm is important because it raises awareness of the critical and transformative aspects of teaching and learning. It allows teacher research to be made visible and validated…
Barley, Helen; Karim, Muhammed; Gilchrist, Myra; Gillies, Andrew
To meet the needs of a modern Scottish society, a "Curriculum for Excellence" enables teachers to deliver a more coherent and skills-based curriculum, involving partnerships with external agencies. This article analyses the work of one host school/researcher team through the Researchers in Residence scheme in an Edinburgh secondary…
Martinez, Linda Sprague; Ndulue, Uchenna J.; Brunette, Maria J.
PenC seeks to build community-university-labor partnership in order to design, implement and evaluate an intervention aimed at preventing falls and silica exposure among Latino construction workers. This study evaluated the PenC partnership process. Semi-structured partner interviews and surveys were used. Thematic, univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted; results were presented back to partners who then provided data context. Although all partners report increased capacity including new connections and knowledge, resident researchers, here promotores, are much more likely to share information with their neighbors and other local residents. Engaging residents can lead to deeper community penetration. PMID:26005517
Martinez, Linda Sprague; Ndulue, Uchenna J; Brunette, Maria J
PenC seeks to build community-university-labor partnership in order to design, implement and evaluate an intervention aimed at preventing falls and silica exposure among Latino construction workers. This study evaluated the PenC partnership process. Semi-structured partner interviews and surveys were used. Thematic, univariate and bivariate analyses were conducted; results were presented back to partners who then provided data context. Although all partners report increased capacity including new connections and knowledge, resident researchers, here promotores, are much more likely to share information with their neighbors and other local residents. Engaging residents can lead to deeper community penetration.
Löfman, Päivi; Pelkonen, Marjaana; Pietilä, Anna-Maija
The purpose of this article is to describe the ethical issues arising out of participatory action research (PAR), on the basis of both an empirical study and the research literature, and to discuss how to deal with these issues. The data consist of the experiences and results of three phases of PAR relating to orthopaedic patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and the analysis of 20 articles on the ethics of action research. As a result, the following ethical issues and the ways to treat them were discussed: informed consent, confidentiality and anonymity, protecting an individual from harm, the role of the researcher, the location of 'power' in PAR, and the ownership of the research. The flexibility of PAR in use and its main features are also related to the decisions made and actions taken in response to ethical issues. It is particularly important in PAR to proceed according to the participants, and to involve them from the beginning of the process, in order to insure the equal balance of power between participants and researcher.
Goto, Aya; Vinh, Nguyen Quang; Van, Nguyen Thi Tu; Phuc, Trinh Huu; Minh, Pham Nghiem; Yasumura, Seiji; Khue, Nguyen Thi
Development of academic partnerships between developing and developed countries is a sustainable approach to build research capacity in the developing world. International collaboration between the Department of Public Health of Fukushima Medical University School of Medicine in Japan and the University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Ho Chi Minh City…
Hindman, Annemarie H.; Snell, Emily K.; Wasik, Barbara A.; Lewis, Kandia N.; Hammer, Carol Scheffner; Iannone-Campbell, Charlene
This article describes how a research-practice partnership has informed the iterative development of a web-mediated early childhood language and literacy professional development (PD) intervention. Funded through the Investing in Innovation (i3) program, this new PD model is based on an effective in-situ intervention. As we translated the…
Bell, Jamie; Chesebrough, David; Cryan, Jason; Koster, Emlyn
A growing trend in natural history museums, science museums, and science centers is the establishment of innovative new partnerships with universities to bring scientific research to the public in compelling and transformative ways. The strengths of both kinds of institutions are leveraged in effective and publicly visible programs, activities,…
Downer, Jason T.; LaForett, Dore R.; Mendez, Julia L.
University-community partnerships are becoming increasingly salient to the development of early childhood education experiences that promote school readiness for young children (Barnett & Frede, 2001). Given the unique skills required for such collaborative research endeavors, there is a need for capacity-building that begins with training of new…
Agosta, E.; Graetz, J. E.; Mastropieri, M. A.; Scruggs, T. E.
In this project, a partnership between school and university personnel addressed, in a systematic, research-oriented fashion, a classroom problem. A young child with autism exhibited excessively loud screaming, yelling, humming, and other distracting noises during class activities in a special education setting. These disruptive behaviors were a…
Perin, Dolores; Raufman, Julia; Kalamkarian, Hoori Santikian
This paper reports findings from a researcher-practitioner partnership that assessed the readiness for postsecondary reading and writing demands of 211 students in developmental reading and English courses in two community colleges. An assessment battery was designed for the study, comprising two standardized tests and five projectdeveloped tasks.…
Glenn, Margaret K.
Purpose: To examine the perceived need for research on elements of successful service dog partnerships in the workplace outlined by stakeholders in an exploratory study. Method: A structured mixed methods approach was used to gather ideas from people with service dogs, trainers, vocational rehabilitation counselors, and other health care…
Robbins, Joanne K.; Weisenburgh-Snyder, Amy B.; Damons, Bruce; Van Rooyen, Marie; Ismail, Camila
Effective performance-based instruction is making a sustained and noticeable impact on township schools in the Eastern Cape of South Africa. We document the performance improvement effort made over the past 7 years by Partnerships for Educational Excellence and Research International (P.E.E.R), a team of educators, instructional system designers,…
King, Sharon V.; Gachuhi, Mugo; Ice, Gillian; Cattell, Maria; Whittington, Frank
This article reprises four presentations on "Gerontology Education in Kenya," a seminar at the 2004 Annual Meeting of the Association of Gerontology in Higher Education. It describes the process by which the Gerontology Institute of Georgia State University established a 3-year gerontology education and research partnership with Kenyatta…
Mullahey, J. Jeffrey
Budget reductions have severely affected resources available to deliver agriculture and natural resource Extension programs in Florida. University of Florida/Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences delivers Extension programming through a unique partnership between research and education centers and county Extension. Science-based information…
Snyder, Carolyn A.; Carter, Howard; Soltys, Mickey
The nature of technology-based collaboration is affected by the changing goals and priorities, budgetary considerations, staff expertise, and leadership of each of the organizations involved in the partnership. In the context of a national research library, this article will describe Southern Illinois University Carbondale Library Affairs'…
Sample McMeeking, L. B.; Weinberg, A. E.
Research experiences for undergraduates (REU) have been shown to be effective in improving undergraduate students' personal/professional development, ability to synthesize knowledge, improvement in research skills, professional advancement, and career choice. Adding to the literature on REU programs, a new conceptual model situating REU within a context of participatory action research (PAR) is presented and compared with data from a PAR-based coastal climate research experience that took place in Summer 2012. The purpose of the interdisciplinary Participatory Action Research Experiences for Undergraduates (PAREU) model is to act as an additional year to traditional, lab-based REU where undergraduate science students, social science experts, and community members collaborate to develop research with the goal of enacting change. The benefits to traditional REU's are well established and include increased content knowledge, better research skills, changes in attitudes, and greater career awareness gained by students. Additional positive outcomes are expected from undergraduate researchers (UR) who participate in PAREU, including the ability to better communicate with non-scientists. With highly politicized aspects of science, such as climate change, this becomes especially important for future scientists. Further, they will be able to articulate the relevance of science research to society, which is an important skill, especially given the funding climate where agencies require broader impacts statements. Making science relevant may also benefit URs who wish to apply their science research. Finally, URs will gain social science research skills by apprenticing in a research project that includes science and social science research components, which enables them to participate in future education and outreach. The model also positively impacts community members by elevating their voices within and outside the community, particularly in areas severely underserved
Dumka, Larry E.; Mauricio, Anne-Marie; Gonzales, Nancy A.
We describe critical participatory principles and practices used in a successful multiyear partnership between university researchers and a public elementary school district to implement an efficacy trial of the Puentes program, a family based program to prevent school disengagement and mental health problems in Mexican origin 7th graders. We highlight the role of the School Advisory Board as the principle structure facilitating the collaboration and the expansion of roles and power sharing that evolved over the course of the project. We also present the results of a focus group conducted to evaluate the school district's perspective on the partnership. We end by sharing conclusions regarding the critical aspects of the partnership. PMID:17846895
Liberty, Kathleen A.; Laver, Alison; Sabatino, Deborah
This article contrasts the traditional relationships between researchers and subjects in traditional rehabilitation evaluation and research with relationships between researchers and clients-consumers in new methodologies. Collaborative research, characterized by shared power and non-hierarchical authority between client-consumers and researchers…
The USDA Agricultural Research Service (ARS) is coordinating ten well-established research sites as a Long Term Agro-ecosystem Research (LTAR) Network. The goal of the LTAR is to sustain a land-based infrastructure for research, environmental management testing, and education, that enables understan...
Woodahl, Erica L; Lesko, Lawrence J; Hopkins, Scarlett; Robinson, Renee F; Thummel, Kenneth E; Burke, Wylie
Pharmacogenetics is a subset of personalized medicine that applies knowledge about genetic variation in gene–drug pairs to help guide optimal dosing. There is a lack of data, however, about pharmacogenetic variation in underserved populations. One strategy for increasing participation of underserved populations in pharmacogenetic research is to include communities in the research process. We have established academic–community partnerships with American Indian and Alaska Native people living in Alaska and Montana to study pharmacogenetics. Key features of the partnership include community oversight of the project, research objectives that address community health priorities, and bidirectional learning that builds capacity in both the community and the research team. Engaging the community as coresearchers can help build trust to advance pharmacogenetic research objectives. PMID:25141898
Ryu, Chang Yeol
Our NSF program of Partnership for International Research and Education (PIRE) is focused on the development and training of graduate, undergraduate students and faculty members in the field of polymer physics by promoting both domestic and international research collaborations with specific exchange opportunities for both US and Korean participants. This collaborative effort by a group of 5 US faculty members is motivated by the global partnership with Korean polymer physicists to promote novel opportunities in polymer science research and education. Our PIRE program involves a focused research plan at the forefront of polymer physics based on the synthesis, separation, characterization, and theory of synthetic polymers in bulk and at interfaces. The multifaceted research activities spanning the areas of polymer synthesis, characterization, property modifications and their modeling will be presented to advance our knowledge on polymer behaviors at interfaces.
Dewar, Belinda; Sharp, Cathy
This article discusses the use of action learning as a structured and deliberate learning process to support practitioners to implement change in an action research project. It discusses both action learning and action research before describing the context of the study. The article then goes on to discuss how the process of action learning…
Stark, Jody L.
In its broadest sense, pragmatism could be said to be the philosophical orientation of all action research. Action research is characterized by research, action, and participation grounded in democratic principles and guided by the aim of social improvement. Furthermore, action research is an active process of inquiry that does not admit…
Luttenberg, Johan; Meijer, Paulien; Oolbekkink-Marchand, Helma
Reflection in action research is a complex matter, as is action research itself. In recent years, complexity science has regularly been called upon in order to more thoroughly understand the complexity of action research. The present article investigates the benefits that complexity science may yield for reflection in action research. This article…
: Bradley, Michael W.; Armstrong, Patrice; Byl, Thomas D.
The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Tennessee Water Science Center and the College of Engineering and Technology at Tennessee State University developed a Partnership in Environmental Education and Research (PEER) to support environmental research at TSU and to expand the environmental research capabilities of the USGS in Tennessee. The PEER program is driven by the research needs to better define the occurrence, fate, and transport of contaminants in groundwater and surface water. Research in the PEER program has primarily focused on the transport and remediation of organic contamination in karst settings. Research conducted through the program has also expanded to a variety of media and settings. Research areas include contaminant occurrence and transport, natural and enhanced bioremediation, geochemical conditions in karst aquifers, mathematical modeling for contaminant transport and degradation, new methods to evaluate groundwater contamination, the resuspension of bacteria from sediment in streams, the use of bioluminescence and chemiluminescence to identify the presence of contaminants, and contaminant remediation in wetlands. The PEER program has increased research and education opportunities for students in the College of Engineering, Technology, and Computer Science and has provided students with experience in presenting the results of their research. Students in the program have participated in state, regional, national and international conferences with more than 140 presentations since 1998 and more than 40 student awards. The PEER program also supports TSU outreach activities and efforts to increase minority participation in environmental and earth science programs at the undergraduate and graduate levels. TSU students and USGS staff participate in the TSU summer programs for elementary and high school students to promote earth sciences. The 2007 summer camps included more than 130 students from 20 different States and Washington DC.
Bousquet, J; Farrell, J; Crooks, G; Hellings, P; Bel, E H; Bewick, M; Chavannes, N H; de Sousa, J Correia; Cruz, A A; Haahtela, T; Joos, G; Khaltaev, N; Malva, J; Muraro, A; Nogues, M; Palkonen, S; Pedersen, S; Robalo-Cordeiro, C; Samolinski, B; Strandberg, T; Valiulis, A; Yorgancioglu, A; Zuberbier, T; Bedbrook, A; Aberer, W; Adachi, M; Agusti, A; Akdis, C A; Akdis, M; Ankri, J; Alonso, A; Annesi-Maesano, I; Ansotegui, I J; Anto, J M; Arnavielhe, S; Arshad, H; Bai, C; Baiardini, I; Bachert, C; Baigenzhin, A K; Barbara, C; Bateman, E D; Beghé, B; Kheder, A Ben; Bennoor, K S; Benson, M; Bergmann, K C; Bieber, T; Bindslev-Jensen, C; Bjermer, L; Blain, H; Blasi, F; Boner, A L; Bonini, M; Bonini, S; Bosnic-Anticevitch, S; Boulet, L P; Bourret, R; Bousquet, P J; Braido, F; Briggs, A H; Brightling, C E; Brozek, J; Buhl, R; Burney, P G; Bush, A; Caballero-Fonseca, F; Caimmi, D; Calderon, M A; Calverley, P M; Camargos, P A M; Canonica, G W; Camuzat, T; Carlsen, K H; Carr, W; Carriazo, A; Casale, T; Cepeda Sarabia, A M; Chatzi, L; Chen, Y Z; Chiron, R; Chkhartishvili, E; Chuchalin, A G; Chung, K F; Ciprandi, G; Cirule, I; Cox, L; Costa, D J; Custovic, A; Dahl, R; Dahlen, S E; Darsow, U; De Carlo, G; De Blay, F; Dedeu, T; Deleanu, D; De Manuel Keenoy, E; Demoly, P; Denburg, J A; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Dinh-Xuan, A T; Djukanovic, R; Dokic, D; Douagui, H; Dray, G; Dubakiene, R; Durham, S R; Dykewicz, M S; El-Gamal, Y; Emuzyte, R; Fabbri, L M; Fletcher, M; Fiocchi, A; Fink Wagner, A; Fonseca, J; Fokkens, W J; Forastiere, F; Frith, P; Gaga, M; Gamkrelidze, A; Garces, J; Garcia-Aymerich, J; Gemicioğlu, B; Gereda, J E; González Diaz, S; Gotua, M; Grisle, I; Grouse, L; Gutter, Z; Guzmán, M A; Heaney, L G; Hellquist-Dahl, B; Henderson, D; Hendry, A; Heinrich, J; Heve, D; Horak, F; Hourihane, J O' B; Howarth, P; Humbert, M; Hyland, M E; Illario, M; Ivancevich, J C; Jardim, J R; Jares, E J; Jeandel, C; Jenkins, C; Johnston, S L; Jonquet, O; Julge, K; Jung, K S; Just, J; Kaidashev, I; Kaitov, M R; Kalayci, O; Kalyoncu, A F; Keil, T; Keith, P K; Klimek, L; Koffi N'Goran, B; Kolek, V; Koppelman, G H; Kowalski, M L; Kull, I; Kuna, P; Kvedariene, V; Lambrecht, B; Lau, S; Larenas-Linnemann, D; Laune, D; Le, L T T; Lieberman, P; Lipworth, B; Li, J; Lodrup Carlsen, K; Louis, R; MacNee, W; Magard, Y; Magnan, A; Mahboub, B; Mair, A; Majer, I; Makela, M J; Manning, P; Mara, S; Marshall, G D; Masjedi, M R; Matignon, P; Maurer, M; Mavale-Manuel, S; Melén, E; Melo-Gomes, E; Meltzer, E O; Menzies-Gow, A; Merk, H; Michel, J P; Miculinic, N; Mihaltan, F; Milenkovic, B; Mohammad, G M Y; Molimard, M; Momas, I; Montilla-Santana, A; Morais-Almeida, M; Morgan, M; Mösges, R; Mullol, J; Nafti, S; Namazova-Baranova, L; Naclerio, R; Neou, A; Neffen, H; Nekam, K; Niggemann, B; Ninot, G; Nyembue, T D; O'Hehir, R E; Ohta, K; Okamoto, Y; Okubo, K; Ouedraogo, S; Paggiaro, P; Pali-Schöll, I; Panzner, P; Papadopoulos, N; Papi, A; Park, H S; Passalacqua, G; Pavord, I; Pawankar, R; Pengelly, R; Pfaar, O; Picard, R; Pigearias, B; Pin, I; Plavec, D; Poethig, D; Pohl, W; Popov, T A; Portejoie, F; Potter, P; Postma, D; Price, D; Rabe, K F; Raciborski, F; Radier Pontal, F; Repka-Ramirez, S; Reitamo, S; Rennard, S; Rodenas, F; Roberts, J; Roca, J; Rodriguez Mañas, L; Rolland, C; Roman Rodriguez, M; Romano, A; Rosado-Pinto, J; Rosario, N; Rosenwasser, L; Rottem, M; Ryan, D; Sanchez-Borges, M; Scadding, G K; Schunemann, H J; Serrano, E; Schmid-Grendelmeier, P; Schulz, H; Sheikh, A; Shields, M; Siafakas, N; Sibille, Y; Similowski, T; Simons, F E R; Sisul, J C; Skrindo, I; Smit, H A; Solé, D; Sooronbaev, T; Spranger, O; Stelmach, R; Sterk, P J; Sunyer, J; Thijs, C; To, T; Todo-Bom, A; Triggiani, M; Valenta, R; Valero, A L; Valia, E; Valovirta, E; Van Ganse, E; van Hage, M; Vandenplas, O; Vasankari, T; Vellas, B; Vestbo, J; Vezzani, G; Vichyanond, P; Viegi, G; Vogelmeier, C; Vontetsianos, T; Wagenmann, M; Wallaert, B; Walker, S; Wang, D Y; Wahn, U; Wickman, M; Williams, D M; Williams, S; Wright, J; Yawn, B P; Yiallouros, P K; Yusuf, O M; Zaidi, A; Zar, H J; Zernotti, M E; Zhang, L; Zhong, N; Zidarn, M; Mercier, J
Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing (EIP on AHA) focuses on the integrated care of chronic diseases. Area 5 (Care Pathways) was initiated using chronic respiratory diseases as a model. The chronic respiratory disease action plan includes (1) AIRWAYS integrated care pathways (ICPs), (2) the joint initiative between the Reference site MACVIA-LR (Contre les MAladies Chroniques pour un VIeillissement Actif) and ARIA (Allergic Rhinitis and its Impact on Asthma), (3) Commitments for Action to the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing and the AIRWAYS ICPs network. It is deployed in collaboration with the World Health Organization Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD). The European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing has proposed a 5-step framework for developing an individual scaling up strategy: (1) what to scale up: (1-a) databases of good practices, (1-b) assessment of viability of the scaling up of good practices, (1-c) classification of good practices for local replication and (2) how to scale up: (2-a) facilitating partnerships for scaling up, (2-b) implementation of key success factors and lessons learnt, including emerging technologies for individualised and predictive medicine. This strategy has already been applied to the chronic respiratory disease action plan of the European Innovation Partnership on Active and Healthy Ageing.
Trotter, Robert T; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F
Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an "logic model plus" evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a "near real time" feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics.
Academic practice partnerships in practice research support health social workers in engaging in research that is embedded within their practice. This shift in culture enables social workers to join in a health service discourse that is increasingly data -driven and focused on effective practice and demonstrated quality of care for patients. The mentoring model is described as enabling practitioners to superimpose research skills onto existing practice skills. An academic practice research collaboration can reduce the distance between research and practice, contribute to a body of knowledge for health social work and promote health social workers as 'research focused practitioners'.
Donovan, Dennis M.; Sigo, Robin L. W.
Indigenous communities have engaged in needs and resources assessments for thousands of years. By blending CBPR/TPR approaches with community-driven assets and needs assessments, academic and community based researchers can work together to better understand and identify community strengths as well as issues of concern in Native communities. This best practice approach can set research agendas that are relevant to Native communities and result in interventions and health promotion programs that are respectful of Tribal sovereignty and that incorporate unique traditions and strengths of Native communities. A successful research partnership to develop and implement a needs and resources assessment using CBPR/TPR approaches is presented using a case study that can be used as a model for other research partnerships. PMID:23123765
Participatory Action Research (PAR) is a qualitative research methodology option that requires further understanding and consideration. PAR is considered democratic, equitable, liberating, and life-enhancing qualitative inquiry that remains distinct from other qualitative methodologies (Kach & Kralik, 2006). Using PAR, qualitative features of an…
researches with the flexibility to engage in sabbaticals and career transitions between academia, government, and the private sector. The Federal government...to support these career paths among their faculty. These practices can also be integrated into the structure of Federally funded university research... careers in this sector. However, it is difficult to imagine how this workforce expansion and overall increase in research capacity can be maintained by
Smith-Stoner, Marilyn; Molle, Mary E
Nurse educators must continually improve their teaching skills through innovation. However, research about the process used by faculty members to transform their teaching methods is limited. This collaborative study uses classroom action research to describe, analyze, and address problems encountered in implementing cooperative learning in two undergraduate nursing courses. After four rounds of action and reflection, the following themes emerged: students did not understand the need for structured cooperative learning; classroom structure and seating arrangement influenced the effectiveness of activities; highly structured activities engaged the students; and short, targeted activities that involved novel content were most effective. These findings indicate that designing specific activities to prepare students for class is critical to cooperative learning.
Background The English National Health Service has made a major investment in nine partnerships between higher education institutions and local health services called Collaborations for Leadership in Applied Health Research and Care (CLAHRC). They have been funded to increase capacity and capability to produce and implement research through sustained interactions between academics and health services. CLAHRCs provide a natural 'test bed' for exploring questions about research implementation within a partnership model of delivery. This protocol describes an externally funded evaluation that focuses on implementation mechanisms and processes within three CLAHRCs. It seeks to uncover what works, for whom, how, and in what circumstances. Design and methods This study is a longitudinal three-phase, multi-method realistic evaluation, which deliberately aims to explore the boundaries around knowledge use in context. The evaluation funder wishes to see it conducted for the process of learning, not for judging performance. The study is underpinned by a conceptual framework that combines the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services and Knowledge to Action frameworks to reflect the complexities of implementation. Three participating CLARHCS will provide in-depth comparative case studies of research implementation using multiple data collection methods including interviews, observation, documents, and publicly available data to test and refine hypotheses over four rounds of data collection. We will test the wider applicability of emerging findings with a wider community using an interpretative forum. Discussion The idea that collaboration between academics and services might lead to more applicable health research that is actually used in practice is theoretically and intuitively appealing; however the evidence for it is limited. Our evaluation is designed to capture the processes and impacts of collaborative approaches for implementing research, and
Biraimah, Karen L.
This paper, which builds upon research linked to the development of sustainable study abroad programs in emerging nations, focuses on key challenges to true partnerships between emerging and established universities. It begins with an analysis of challenges which may occur when attempting to develop an equitable partnership based on joint grants…
National Academies Press, 2009
Constituting one-third of all U.S. institutions of higher education, emerging research institutions (ERIs) are crucial to sustaining the nation's technological competitiveness through innovation and workforce development. Many, however, are not fully engaged in sustained sponsored research. This book summarizes the discussions at a workshop…
Logar, Nathaniel; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Narayanamurti, Venkatesh
In the study of innovation institutions, it is important to consider how different institutional models can affect a research organization in conducting or funding successful work. As an industry collaborative, Semiconductor Research Corporation (SRC) provides an example of a privately funded institution that leverages the inputs of several member…
Warburton, J.; Timm, K.; Larson, A. M.
Polar TREC-Teachers and Researchers Exploring and Collaborating started in 2007 with the start of the International Polar Year. As a three-year (2007-2009) NSF-funded program of the Arctic Research Consortium of the US, the program placed 50 teachers with researchers for 2-8 week Teacher Research Experiences (TRE) in the Arctic and Antarctica during the fourth International Polar Year. PolarTREC contributed to the legacy of the IPY through the creation and dissemination of polar education resources, prolonged teacher-researcher relationships, and contributions to scholarly knowledge on the impacts of TRE's. Participating teachers brought scientific information about the polar regions to schools and communities through multimedia web-based communications and live events. Live events from the field attracted over 14,000 participants and PolarTREC teachers have constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as products of their experiences. Although the research experience is central to the PolarTREC Model, many participants cite the ongoing collaboration and the relationship they built with their teacher/researcher as one of the best outcomes of the program. In addition, most participating scientists reported that the outreach activities related to the PolarTREC teacher positively impacted their project. Many researchers noted that conducting outreach through PolarTREC was “easy,” and one added that the connections with the media through PolarTREC, “really increased our public image and bridged the separation between science and the public at large.”Researcher satisfaction was reflected in the interest to repeat the experience, and many researchers have applied to host an additional PolarTREC Teacher. Participating teachers cited PolarTREC as a life-changing professional development experience, which led to increases in their knowledge of the polar regions, science careers, the scientific process, and effective instruction methods. Students of
Coghlan, David; Coughlan, Paul
The philosophical foundations of action learning research have not received a great deal of attention. In the context of action learning postgraduate and professional programmes in universities, articulation of a philosophy of action learning research seems timely and appropriate. This article explores a philosophy of action learning research,…
Based on a research project that sought to train instructors to conduct action research in a real-life context, this handbook was created to help literacy instructors to use action research in workplace education programs. The handbook is organized in three parts. The first part describes action research as a type of practice-based research. It…
EPA-ORD seeks applications to enter into a cooperative agreement with EPA that will provide training opportunities for undergraduate, graduate, and post-doctoral trainees on-site at ORD’s Mid-Continent Ecology Division (MED) research
Murciano-Goroff, Yonina R
Complementing government and industry funding, philanthropies have made distinct contributions to altering the trajectory of cancer research, often in ways that reflect both the business training of their donors and their close ties to the lay public.
Timm, K.; Warburton, J.; Larson, A. M.
Since 1998, the Arctic Research Consortium of the United States (ARCUS) has designed and implemented successful Teacher Research Experience (TRE) programs enabling teachers to work directly with polar scientists in the field and bring their experience back to their classrooms and communities. The PolarTREC TRE model, administered during the International Polar Year (2007-2009), is most effective, exhibiting far-reaching broader impacts when ideas are shared, each partners’ expertise is respected, and both work toward the common goal of delivering high-quality information. Between 2004 and 2009, ARCUS has selected, trained, and supported 77 teachers on polar teacher research experiences. Although a limited number of teachers are able to participate in a field experience, selected teachers have expertise in translating research approaches and results into widely shared learning tools and programs. Between 2007-2009, PolarTREC teachers have constructed nearly 100 classroom lesson plans and activities as a result of their experience. Selected teachers are usually well connected within their schools, communities, and professions, bringing the science to numerous followers during their expedition. Live events with teachers and researchers in the field have attracted over 11,000 participants, primarily K-12 students. The PolarTREC TRE Model includes numerous methods to support outreach activities while teachers and researchers are in the field. These include web-based communications, journals, discussion forums, multimedia, and live events—all easily replicable activities with the potential to affect large numbers of people. In addition, the TRE experience continues to produce broader impacts far into the future of the teacher and researcher’s careers through ongoing communications, presentations at professional conferences, and continued support of each other’s work through activities including classroom visits, joint proposal development, and much more
Olesen, Ole F; Chan, Sharon; Chappell, Janice; Guo, Yan; Leite, Luciana C C
The 4th Global Forum on TB Vaccines, convened in Shanghai, China, from 21 - 24 April 2015, brought together a wide and diverse community involved in tuberculosis vaccine research and development to discuss the current status of, and future directions for this critical effort. This paper summarizes the sessions on Advancing the Pipeline: A Vision for the Next Decade, Engaging the BRICS: Basic Research to Manufacturing, and Regulatory and Access Issues for New TB Vaccines. Summaries of all sessions from the 4th Global Forum are compiled in a special supplement of Tuberculosis. [August 2016, Vol 99, Supp S1, S1-S30].
Samaras, Athena T.; Murphy, Kara; Nonzee, Narissa J.; Endress, Richard; Taylor, Shaneah; Hajjar, Nadia; Bularzik, Rosario; Frankovich, Carmi; Dong, XinQi; Simon, Melissa A.
Background Using community-based participatory research (CBPR), the DuPage County Patient Navigation Collaborative (DPNC) developed an academic campus-community research partnership aimed at increasing access to care for underserved breast and cervical cancer patients within DuPage County, a collar county of Chicago. Given rapidly shifting demographics, targeting CBPR initiatives among underserved suburban communities is essential. Objectives To discuss the facilitating factors and lessons learned in forging the DPNC. Methods A patient navigation collaborative was formed to guide medically underserved women through diagnostic resolution and if necessary, treatment, following an abnormal breast or cervical cancer screening. Lessons Learned Facilitating factors included: (1) fostering and maintaining collaborations within a suburban context (2) a systems-based participatory research approach (3) a truly equitable community-academic partnership, (4) funding adaptability (5) culturally relevant navigation, and (6) emphasis on co-learning and capacity building. Conclusions By highlighting the strategies that contributed to DPNC success, we envision the DPNC to serve as a feasible model for future health interventions. PMID:24859105
Tompkins, Nathan; Olivier-Mason, Anique
Many science classes today are taught in a historical context as if scientific discovery was something that only happened in the past with textbooks focused on presenting facts and equations without conveying that the process of science is to ask and answer questions. To address these deficiencies we have developed a science outreach course to unite high school science educators with young researchers for a series of workshops to develop teaching modules. The modules connect specific textbook concepts and state standards to current materials science research in hands-on learning experiences for high school students. The idea is to make math, science, technology, and engineering concepts more exciting, accessible, and relevant to high school students through interactions with diverse researchers and instruction from curriculum based on cutting-edge materials science research. The goal is to demonstrate that science is a living, active process of inquiry and questioning; not simply a litany of facts, figures, and historical anecdotes. The ultimate aim is for the teaching modules prepared in this course to be packaged and prepared for dissemination to schools outside the immediate vicinity in order to expand the reach to communities underrepresented in the sciences.
Pilo, Miranda; Gavio, Brigitte; Grosso, Daniele; Mantero, Alfonso
International researchers put to evidence a worrying decrease in science disciplines' role in many countries, especially in the European Community and a poor quality in scientific competences, as issues of TIMMS (trends in international mathematics and science study) and PISA (programme for international student assessment) have proved, together…
Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K.
Description This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings. PMID:24072560
Hasche, Leslie K; Lenze, Shannon; Brown, Teresa; Lawrence, Lisa; Nickel, Mike; Morrow-Howell, Nancy; Proctor, Enola K
This manuscript details potential benefits for using a research-practice partnership to adapt collaborative depression care for public community long-term care agencies serving older adults. We used sequential, multi-phase, and mixed methods approaches for documenting the process of adaptation within a case study. Systematic adaptation strategies are described, such as leveraging long-term research-practice collaborations, consulting with multiple stakeholders across all levels and disciplines, and balancing demands to monitor treatment fidelity, clinical outcomes, and implementation results. These examples demonstrate that researchers interested in implementation science need skills to negotiate the competing demands that arise from both the research and practice settings.
plug, plug / silicone paste, plug / aquarium sealant). The best material combination was plug / epoxy, which survived all testing. We completed...Research. Research areas include nanotechnology; smart materials ; communications; computing; command and control; sensors; coastal monitoring; haptics... materials ; communications; computing; command and control; sensors; coastal monitoring; haptics; force protection; human performance; ESTOL; rockets
There are marked similarities between Confucian ideas about the relationship between action, knowledge and learning, and contemporary educational thinking about action research. Examples can be seen in the relationship between action and research. First, Confucius emphasized the importance of "action" which was different from…
Bonner, C. E.; Black, S. M.
Norfolk State University, a historically black university in Norfolk, VA, has established a number of fruitful research and education partnerships with a wide range of domestic research universities over the last ten years. These partnerships have been the result of the combination of a number of well established research collaborations developed by faculty in Materials Science and Engineering and their colleagues at University of Virginia, Purdue, Cornell, Georgia Tech, and the University of Washington. In this presentation, we will describe the formation of these partnerships, including the process and challenges of their formation and the benefits to both groups that these types of relations can produce for the students, faculty, and institutions. We will use examples from our own experience both successful and unsuccessful to describe a framework under which small MSIs and Research I institutions can form mutually beneficial relations that maximize the capabilities of the participating institutions and opportunities for the students and faculty to impact the science, engineering, and technology and the culture of STEM training and practice.
Hoeft, Theresa J; Burke, Wylie; Hopkins, Scarlett E; Charles, Walkie; Trinidad, Susan B; James, Rosalina D; Boyer, Bert B
Community-based participatory research (CBPR) is an important framework for partnering with communities to reduce health disparities. Working in partnership with community incurs additional costs, some that can be represented in a budget summary page and others that are tied to the competing demands placed on community and academic partners. These cost considerations can inform development of community-academic partnerships. We calculated costs from a case study based on an ongoing CBPR project involving a Community Planning Group (CPG) of community co-researchers in rural Alaska and a bicultural liaison group who help bridge communication between CPG and academic co-researchers. Budget considerations specific to CBPR include travel and other communication-related costs, compensation for community partners, and food served at meetings. We also identified sources of competing demands for community and academic partners. Our findings can inform budget discussions in community-academic partnerships. Discussions of competing demands on community partners' time can help plan timelines for CBPR projects. Our findings may also inform discussions about tenure and promotion policies that may represent barriers to participation in CBPR for academic researchers.
Background Over the past two decades, the promotion of collaborative partnerships involving researchers from low and middle income countries with those from high income countries has been a major development in global health research. Ideally, these partnerships would lead to more equitable collaboration including the sharing of research responsibilities and rewards. While collaborative partnership initiatives have shown promise and attracted growing interest, there has been little scholarly debate regarding the fair distribution of authorship credit within these partnerships. Discussion In this paper, we identify four key authorship issues relevant to global health research and discuss their ethical and practical implications. First, we argue that authorship guidance may not adequately apply to global health research because it requires authors to write or substantially revise the manuscript. Since most journals of international reputation in global health are written in English, this would systematically and unjustly exclude non-English speaking researchers even if they have substantially contributed to the research project. Second, current guidance on authorship order does not address or mitigate unfair practices which can occur in global health research due to power differences between researchers from high and low-middle income countries. It also provides insufficient recognition of “technical tasks” such as local participant recruitment. Third, we consider the potential for real or perceived editorial bias in medical science journals in favour of prominent western researchers, and the risk of promoting misplaced credit and/or prestige authorship. Finally, we explore how diverse cultural practices and expectations regarding authorship may create conflict between researchers from low-middle and high income countries and contribute to unethical authorship practices. To effectively deal with these issues, we suggest: 1) undertaking further empirical and
Barr, Donald A
Public-private partnerships have become a common approach to health care problems worldwide. Many public-private partnerships were created during the late 1990s, but most were focused on specific diseases such as HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis, and malaria. Recently there has been enthusiasm for using public-private partnerships to improve the delivery of health and welfare services for a wider range of health problems, especially in developing countries. The success of public-private partnerships in this context appears to be mixed, and few data are available to evaluate their effectiveness. This analysis provides an overview of the history of health-related public-private partnerships during the past 20 years and describes a research protocol commissioned by the World Health Organization to evaluate the effectiveness of public-private partnerships in a research context.
is oxidative damage from reactive oxygen species such as superoxide, hydroxyl radical, and hydrogen peroxide .5 Previous studies have suggested that...of curcumin ”. (not funded). 2. Investigator-initiated grant submitted to the ABMRF/the Foundation for Alcohol Research in September 2008: “Role of...targets of curcumin for oral cancer prevention”. (priority score: 198; currently under revision) Page 6 4. R21 grant submitted
Allergy immunotherapy across the life cycle to promote active and healthy ageing: from research to policies: An AIRWAYS Integrated Care Pathways (ICPs) programme item (Action Plan B3 of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing) and the Global Alliance against Chronic Respiratory Diseases (GARD), a World Health Organization GARD research demonstration project.
Calderon, M A; Demoly, P; Casale, T; Akdis, C A; Bachert, C; Bewick, M; Bilò, B M; Bohle, B; Bonini, S; Bush, A; Caimmi, D P; Canonica, G W; Cardona, V; Chiriac, A M; Cox, L; Custovic, A; De Blay, F; Devillier, P; Didier, A; Di Lorenzo, G; Du Toit, G; Durham, S R; Eng, P; Fiocchi, A; Fox, A T; van Wijk, R Gerth; Gomez, R M; Haathela, T; Halken, S; Hellings, P W; Jacobsen, L; Just, J; Tanno, L K; Kleine-Tebbe, J; Klimek, L; Knol, E F; Kuna, P; Larenas-Linnemann, D E; Linneberg, A; Matricardi, M; Malling, H J; Moesges, R; Mullol, J; Muraro, A; Papadopoulos, N; Passalacqua, G; Pastorello, E; Pfaar, O; Price, D; Del Rio, P Rodriguez; Ruëff, R; Samolinski, B; Scadding, G K; Senti, G; Shamji, M H; Sheikh, A; Sisul, J C; Sole, D; Sturm, G J; Tabar, A; Van Ree, R; Ventura, M T; Vidal, C; Varga, E M; Worm, M; Zuberbier, T; Bousquet, J
Allergic diseases often occur early in life and persist throughout life. This life-course perspective should be considered in allergen immunotherapy. In particular it is essential to understand whether this al treatment may be used in old age adults. The current paper was developed by a working group of AIRWAYS integrated care pathways for airways diseases, the model of chronic respiratory diseases of the European Innovation Partnership on active and healthy ageing (DG CONNECT and DG Santé). It considered (1) the political background, (2) the rationale for allergen immunotherapy across the life cycle, (3) the unmet needs for the treatment, in particular in preschool children and old age adults, (4) the strategic framework and the practical approach to synergize current initiatives in allergen immunotherapy, its mechanisms and the concept of active and healthy ageing.
research reports ............................................................ 28-655 1. Results of CADRC research - Knowledge management using semantic... management team, operational since January , continues to lead the project and develop the collaborative relationships between the educational and...for the project, valued at -$1.5 million "o provided assistance in financial management of the project "o contributed $90,000 for a pre-feasibility
Kimura, K.; Hoette, V.
The Science Museum of Tokyo brings science and the general public together through an international collaboration of institutes, universities, and K-12 projects. These include the live science show ``UNIVERSE'', a ``live observing'' program with Hands-On Universe (HOU), Internet telescopes and the constellation cameras i-CAN. We are expanding these activities into formal education in an after-school program. We model partnerships between educators, researchers, university students, teachers and parents to create informal and formal education programs.
This book presents a fresh view of action research as a methodology uniquely suited to researching the processes of innovation and change. Drawing on twenty-five years' experience of leading or facilitating action research projects, Bridget Somekh argues that action research can be a powerful systematic intervention, which goes beyond describing,…
Zhou, Jun; Liu, Katrina Yan
Action research in China during late 1970s and 1980s was influenced by positivist scientific research, believing the purpose of doing action research is to explore the general law of education. It was carried out through educational experimentations emphasizing the control of the experimental conditions. Starting from 1990s, action research in…
Trotter, Robert T.; Laurila, Kelly; Alberts, David; Huenneke, Laura F.
Complex community oriented health care prevention and intervention partnerships fail or only partially succeed at alarming rates. In light of the current rapid expansion of critically needed programs targeted at health disparities in minority populations, we have designed and are testing an “logic model plus” evaluation model that combines classic logic model and query based evaluation designs (CDC, NIH, Kellogg Foundation) with advances in community engaged designs derived from industry-university partnership models. These approaches support the application of a “near real time” feedback system (diagnosis and intervention) based on organizational theory, social network theory, and logic model metrics directed at partnership dynamics, combined with logic model metrics. PMID:25265164
Thompson, Susan; Kent, Jennifer; Lyons, Claudine
As populations across the globe face an increasing health burden from rising rates of obesity, diabetes and other lifestyle-related diseases, health professionals are collaborating with urban planners to influence city design that supports healthy ways of living. This paper details the establishment and operation of an innovative, interdisciplinary collaboration that brings together urban planning and health. Situated in a built environment faculty at one of Australia's most prestigious universities, the Healthy Built Environments Program (HBEP) partners planning academics, a health non-government organisation, local councils and private planning consultants in a state government health department funded consortium. The HBEP focuses on three strategic areas: research, workforce development and education, and leadership and advocacy. Interdisciplinary research includes a comprehensive literature review that establishes Australian-based evidence to support the development, prioritisation and implementation of healthy built environment policies and practices. Another ongoing study examines the design features, social interventions and locational qualities that positively benefit human health. Formal courses, workshops, public lectures and e-learning develop professional capacity, as well as skills in interdisciplinary practice to support productive collaborations between health professionals and planners. The third area involves working with government and non-government agencies, and the private sector and the community, to advocate closer links between health and the built environment. Our paper presents an overview of the HBEP's major achievements. We conclude with a critical review of the challenges, revealing lessons in bringing health and planning closer together to create health-supportive cities for the 21st century.
Action research concerns action, and transforming people's practices (as well as their understandings of their practices and the conditions under which they practise). Sometimes we may feel that action research works best when it contributes to our understandings. In this paper, by contrast, I want to explore the "happening-ness" of action and…
Introduction: Action Research is a formative study of progress commonly practiced by teachers in schools. Basically an action research is a spiral process that includes problem investigation, taking action & fact-finding about the result of action. It enables a teacher to adopt/craft most appropriate strategy within its own teaching…
Introduction: Action Research is a formative study of progress commonly practiced by teachers in schools. Basically an action research is a spiral process that includes problem investigation, taking action & fact-finding about the result of action. It enables a teacher to adopt/craft most appropriate strategy within its own teaching environment.…
Laborde, Danielle J; Brannock, Kristen; Breland-Noble, Alfiee; Parrish, Theodore
To support reduction of racial disparities in mental health diagnosis and treatment, mental health researchers and black community-based organization (CBO) leaders need training on how to engage in collaborative research partnerships. In this study, we pilot tested a series of partnership skills training modules for researchers and CBO leaders in a collaborative learning format. Two different sets of three modules, designed for separate training of researchers and CBO leaders, covered considering, establishing and managing mental health research partnerships and included instructions for self-directed activities and discussions. Eight CBO leaders participated in 10 sessions, and six researchers participated in eight sessions. The effectiveness of the training content and format was evaluated through standardized observations, focus group discussions, participant evaluation forms and retrospective pre-/posttests to measure perceived gains in knowledge. Participants generally were satisfied with the training experience and gained new partnership knowledge and skills. Although the CBO leaders were more engaged in the cooperative learning process, this training format appealed to both audiences. Pilot testing demonstrated that: 1) our modules can equip researchers and CBO leaders with new partnership knowledge and skills and 2) the cooperative learning format is a well-received and suitable option for mental health research partnership training.
Elberse, Janneke E.; Caron‐Flinterman, J. Francisca; Broerse, Jacqueline E. W.
Abstract Objective To gain more insight into exclusion mechanisms and inclusion strategies in patient–expert partnerships. Background Patient participation in health research, on the level of ‘partnerships with experts’ is a growing phenomenon. However, little research is conducted whether exclusion mechanisms take place and to what extent patients’ perspectives are included in the final outcomes of these partnerships. Case study A dialogue meeting attended by experts, patients and patient representatives to develop a joint research agenda. Different inclusion strategies were applied during the dialogue meeting to avoid possible exclusion. Method Data were collected by the means of audio and video recordings, observations, document analysis and evaluative interviews. The data are clustered using a framework that divides exclusion mechanisms in three categories: circumstances, behaviour and verbal communication. The data are analysed focusing on the experiences of participants, observation of occurrence of exclusion and difference between input and outcome of the dialogue meeting. Results The circumstances of the dialogue and the behaviour of the participants were experienced as mainly inclusive. Some exclusion was observed particularly with respect to verbal communication. The input of the patients was less visible in the outcome of the dialogue meeting compared to the input of the experts. Conclusion This case study reveals that exclusion of patients’ perspective occurred during a dialogue meeting with experts, despite the fact that inclusion strategies were used and patients experienced the dialogue meeting as inclusive. To realize a more effective patient–expert partnership, more attention should be paid to the application of some additional inclusion strategies. PMID:21176013
Metzler, Marilyn M.; Higgins, Donna L.; Beeker, Carolyn G.; Freudenberg, Nicholas; Lantz, Paula M.; Senturia, Kirsten D.; Eisinger, Alison A.; Viruell-Fuentes, Edna A.; Gheisar, Bookda; Palermo, Ann-Gel; Softley, Donald
Objective. This study describes key activities integral to the development of 3 community-based participatory research (CBPR) partnerships. Methods. We compared findings from individual case studies conducted at 3 urban research centers (URCs) to identify crosscutting adaptations of a CBPR approach in the first 4 years of the partnerships’ development. Results. Activities critical in partnership development include sharing decisionmaking, defining principles of collaboration, establishing research priorities, and securing funding. Intermediate outcomes were sustained CBPR partnerships, trust within the partnerships, public health research programs, and increased capacity to conduct CBPR. Challenges included the time needed for meaningful collaboration, concerns regarding sustainable funding, and issues related to institutional racism. Conclusions. The URC experiences suggest that CBPR can be successfully implemented in diverse settings. PMID:12721148
Gonzalez, Raquel-Amaya Martinez
The involvement of parents in schools has been legislated in Spain since 1970, with the main activities being parents associations and school councils, but these partnerships do not represent a particularly friendly situation. A research project was carried out through the University of Oviedo, Spain, Department of Education, to create a mechanism…
Osterman, Karen; Furman, Gail; Sernak, Kathleen
This exploratory study gathered information about the use of action research within doctor of education programs in educational leadership and explored faculty understanding of and perspectives on action research. Survey data established that action research is used infrequently to meet dissertation requirements. Contributing factors include lack…
Herr, Kathryn; Anderson, Gary L.
Many students struggle with turning action research projects into a Master's thesis or doctoral dissertation: to address this need, the authors have distilled decades of action research experience into a reference for graduate students. This book is designed to provide a roadmap to show that action research is appropriate not only for a…
Sagor, Richard D.; Curley, Janet L.
The impact of action research on student academic and social performance is examined in this paper. Project LEARN (League of Educational Action Researchers in the Northwest), a cooperative initiative with school districts to train teams of educators in collaborative action research, was evaluated in five participating schools--two elementary, one…
This review article discusses the use of action research in music education and its potential for producing knowledge and improving practice. The discussion is situated in an analysis of action research studies in music education. The review demonstrates that action research in music education focuses on a wide variety of subject matter,…
Radencic, S.; McNeal, K. S.; Pierce, D.; Hare, D.
The Initiating New Science Partnerships in Rural Education (INSPIRE) program at Mississippi State University (MSU), funded by the NSF Graduate STEM Fellows in K-12 Education (GK12) program, focuses on the advancement of Earth and Space science education in K-12 classrooms. INSPIRE is currently in its second year of partnering ten graduate students from the STEM fields of Geosciences, Engineering and Chemistry at MSU with five teachers from local, rural school districts. The five year project serves to increase inquiry and technology experiences in science and math while enhancing graduate student's communication skills as they create interactive lessons linking their STEM research focus to the state and national standards covered in the classrooms. Each graduate student is responsible for the development of two lessons each month of the school year that are then published on the INSPIRE project webpage, www.gk12.msstate.edu, where they are a free resource for any K-12 classroom teacher seeking innovative activities for their classrooms. Many of the participating teachers and graduate students share activities developed with non-participating teachers, expanding INSPIRE's outreach throughout the local community. Numerous challenges were met during the formation of the program as well as throughout the first year in which the project management team worked together to find solutions ensuring that INSPIRE maintained successful partnerships for all involved. Proposed solutions of the following key components were identified by INSPIRE through the development, implementation, and continuous evaluation (internal and external) of the first year of the program as areas that can pose challenges to the construction of strong relationships between STEM research and K-12 classrooms: initializing the partnerships with the K-12 classrooms and STEM graduate fields at the university; maintaining strong partnerships; providing appropriate training and support; developing sound
Nemani, R. R.; Lee, T. J.; Michaelis, A.; Ganguly, S.; Votava, P.
NASA Earth Exchange (NEX) is a data, computing and knowledge collaborative that houses satellite, climate and ancillary data where a community of researchers can come together to share modeling and analysis codes, scientific results, knowledge and expertise on a centralized platform with access to large supercomputing resources. As a part of broadening the community beyond NASA-funded researchers, NASA through an agreement with Amazon Inc. made available to the public a large collection of Climate and Earth Sciences satellite data. The data, available through the Open NASA Earth Exchange (OpenNEX) platform hosted by Amazon Web Services (AWS) public cloud, consists of large amounts of global land surface imaging, vegetation conditions, climate observations and climate projections. In addition to the data, users of OpenNEX platform can also watch lectures from leading experts, learn basic access and use of the available data sets. In order to advance White House initiatives such as Open Data, Big Data and Climate Data and the Climate Action Plan, NASA over the past six months conducted the OpenNEX Challenge. The two-part challenge was designed to engage the public in creating innovative ways to use NASA data and address climate change impacts on economic growth, health and livelihood. Our intention was that the challenges allow citizen scientists to realize the value of NASA data assets and offers NASA new ideas on how to share and use that data. The first "ideation" challenge, closed on July 31st attracted over 450 participants consisting of climate scientists, hobbyists, citizen scientists, IT experts and App developers. Winning ideas from the first challenge will be incorporated into the second "builder" challenge currently targeted to launch mid-August and close by mid-November. The winner(s) will be formally announced at AGU in December of 2014. We will share our experiences and lessons learned over the past year from OpenNEX, a public-private partnership for
Boodrookas, George J.
This study explored, through the use of phenomenological research methods, the experiences of community college administrators in the development and implementation of educational partnerships. The study focused on the actions of these administrators who serve as partnership "champions" in ventures related to community, economic and…
Crist, Patricia A
ABSTRACT Evidence-based practice (EBP) is crucial to the success of delivering quality occupational therapy services. The skill to engage in the scholarship of practice is central to being able to create evidence specific to one's everyday practice and leads to an emerging role within occupational therapy called the practice-scholar. The purpose of this retrospective study was to investigate the effectiveness of an instructional approach that engaged the scholarship of practice and the functions of a practice-scholar. Occupational therapy graduate students and practitioners collaborated to develop a practice-based study proposal during a traditional experimental research class. The objective was to apply research concepts contextualized within the natural practice context while developing the role of the practice-scholar in designing outcomes studies. As part of an entry-level research course, students (n == 39) and practitioners (n == 14) were grouped into learning teams and discussed two self-assessments to reflect on their self-efficacy perceptions of practice-scholarship research at the beginning and the end of a series of guided sessions to design a research proposal. Postcourse results show that students' perceptions of self-efficacy improved regarding their abilities to participate in practice-scholarship as a result of the learning partnerships. Anecdotal similarities were found for practitioners. As an instructional method, the learning partnership facilitated the development of foundational knowledge and skills related to becoming practice-scholars through increased self-efficacy in using proposal design. This educational approach proactively used the scholarship of practice research to bridge practice and education using a meaningful, partnership-based model for entry-level graduate students and occupational therapy practitioners.
Reviews key ideas of action research in the past 15 years, particularly those of John Elliott. Describes and comments on the main characteristics of action research. Focuses on methodological and epistemological issues related to its practice. (CFR)
The 1993 edition of Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory`s Catalog of Research Abstracts is a comprehensive listing of ongoing research projects in LBL`s ten research divisions. Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) is a major multi-program national laboratory managed by the University of California for the US Department of Energy (DOE). LBL has more than 3000 employees, including over 1000 scientists and engineers. With an annual budget of approximately $250 million, LBL conducts a wide range of research activities, many that address the long-term needs of American industry and have the potential for a positive impact on US competitiveness. LBL actively seeks to share its expertise with the private sector to increase US competitiveness in world markets. LBL has transferable expertise in conservation and renewable energy, environmental remediation, materials sciences, computing sciences, and biotechnology, which includes fundamental genetic research and nuclear medicine. This catalog gives an excellent overview of LBL`s expertise, and is a good resource for those seeking partnerships with national laboratories. Such partnerships allow private enterprise access to the exceptional scientific and engineering capabilities of the federal laboratory systems. Such arrangements also leverage the research and development resources of the private partner. Most importantly, they are a means of accessing the cutting-edge technologies and innovations being discovered every day in our federal laboratories.
Caskey, Micki M.
Action research is one of the relevant methodologies for addressing research questions and issues in middle grades education. Accounting for nearly 20% of published middle grades research studies (Hough, 2003), action research has emerged as an important and appropriate research method. In addition to reviewing the historical context, this article…
The case for the notion of action learning research has been posed and explored in several publications over the past few years. There is no tradition within action learning of understanding it as an approach to research. Within some academic circles, there has been a focus on the "action turn," the development of the notion of actionable…
Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Kretser, Alison; Steele, Robert; Kretsch, Molly; Applebaum, Rhona; Clydesdale, Fergus; Cummins, Deborah; Hentges, Eric; Navia, Juan; Jarvis, Ashley; Falci, Ken
The present article articulates principles for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in scientific research. Recognizing that PPPs represent one approach for creating research collaborations and that there are other methods outside the scope of this article, PPPs can be useful in leveraging diverse expertise among government, academic, and industry researchers to address public health needs and questions concerned with nutrition, health, food science, and food and ingredient safety. A three-step process was used to identify the principles proposed herein: step 1) review of existing PPP guidelines, both in the peer-reviewed literature and at 16 disparate non-industry organizations; step 2) analysis of relevant successful or promising PPPs; and step 3) formal background interviews of 27 experienced, senior-level individuals from academia, government, industry, foundations, and non-governmental organizations. This process resulted in the articulation of 12 potential principles for establishing and managing successful research PPPs. The review of existing guidelines showed that guidelines for research partnerships currently reside largely within institutions rather than in the peer-reviewed literature. This article aims to introduce these principles into the literature to serve as a framework for dialogue and for future PPPs.
Rowe, Sylvia; Alexander, Nick; Kretser, Alison; Steele, Robert; Kretsch, Molly; Applebaum, Rhona; Clydesdale, Fergus; Cummins, Deborah; Hentges, Eric; Navia, Juan; Jarvis, Ashley; Falci, Ken
The present article articulates principles for effective public-private partnerships (PPPs) in scientific research. Recognizing that PPPs represent one approach for creating research collaborations and that there are other methods outside the scope of this article, PPPs can be useful in leveraging diverse expertise among government, academic, and industry researchers to address public health needs and questions concerned with nutrition, health, food science, and food and ingredient safety. A three-step process was used to identify the principles proposed herein: step 1) review of existing PPP guidelines, both in the peer-reviewed literature and at 16 disparate non-industry organizations; step 2) analysis of relevant successful or promising PPPs; and step 3) formal background interviews of 27 experienced, senior-level individuals from academia, government, industry, foundations, and non-governmental organizations. This process resulted in the articulation of 12 potential principles for establishing and managing successful research PPPs. The review of existing guidelines showed that guidelines for research partnerships currently reside largely within institutions rather than in the peer-reviewed literature. This article aims to introduce these principles into the literature to serve as a framework for dialogue and for future PPPs. PMID:24117791
de Wet, Heidi; Proks, Peter
Sulphonylureas stimulate insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells primarily by closing ATP-sensitive K+ channels in the β-cell plasma membrane. The mechanism of channel inhibition by these drugs is unusually complex. As direct inhibitors of channel activity, sulphonylureas act only as partial antagonists at therapeutic concentrations. However, they also exert an additional indirect inhibitory effect via modulation of nucleotide-dependent channel gating. In this review, we summarize current knowledge and recent advances in our understanding of the molecular mechanism of action of these drugs. PMID:26517901
Moore, B., III
Climate Science Centers: An "Existence Theorem" for a Federal-University Partnership to Develop Actionable and Needs-Driven Science Agendas. Berrien Moore III (University of Oklahoma) The South Central Climate Science Center (CSC) is one of eight regional centers established by the Department of the Interior (DoI) under Secretarial Order 3289 to address the impacts of climate change on America's water, land, and other natural and cultural resources. Under DoI leadership and funding, these CSCs will provide scientific information tools and techniques to study impacts of climate change synthesize and integrate climate change impact data develop tools that the DoI managers and partners can use when managing the DOI's land, water, fish and wildlife, and cultural heritage resources (emphasis added) The network of Climate Science Centers will provide decision makers with the science, tools, and information they need to address the impacts of climate variability and change on their areas of responsibility. Note from Webster, a tool is a device for doing work; it makes outcomes more realizable and more cost effective, and, in a word, better. Prior to the existence of CSCs, the university and federal scientific world certainly contained a large "set" of scientists with considerable strength in the physical, biological, natural, and social sciences to address the complexities and interdisciplinary nature of the challenges in the areas of climate variability, change, impacts, and adaptation. However, this set of scientists were hardly an integrated community let alone a focused team, but rather a collection of distinguished researchers, educators, and practitioners that were working with disparate though at times linked objectives, and they were rarely aligning themselves formally to an overarching strategic pathway. In addition, data, models, research results, tools, and products were generally somewhat "disconnected" from the broad range of stakeholders. I should note also
Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie
Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university–public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health. PMID:27854518
Paradis, Gilles; Hamelin, Anne-Marie; Malowany, Maureen; Levy, Joseph; Rossignol, Michel; Bergeron, Pierre; Kishchuk, Natalie
Enhancing effective preventive interventions to address contemporary public health problems requires improved capacity for applied public health research. A particular need has been recognized for capacity development in population health intervention research to address the complex multidisciplinary challenges of developing, implementing, and evaluating public health practices, intervention programs, and policies. Research training programs need to adapt to these new realities. We have presented an example of a 2003 to 2015 training program in transdisciplinary research on public health interventions that embedded doctoral and postdoctoral trainees in public health organizations in Quebec, Canada. This university-public health partnership for research training is an example of how to link science and practice to meet emerging needs in public health.
Phillips, Terry; And Others
A study examined structures, processes, and practices of assessing competence in nursing and midwifery education programs in Britain. The methodology included documentation, interviews, and observations. Most interviewees were clear about the shortcomings of traditional assessment. In a satisfactory partnership, all the partners made a significant…
Action researchers frequently find themselves caught in a tension between the need to generate actionable, useful knowledge as an outcome of publicly funded research and the necessity to recognize that knowledge can only be actionable, and useful in that sense, if it is locally and culturally specific. This paper directly addresses this tension…
Young, Mark R.; Rapp, Eve; Murphy, James W.
Action Research is an applied scholarly paradigm resulting in action for continuous improvement in our teaching and learning techniques offering faculty immediate classroom payback and providing documentation of meeting our educational responsibilities as required by AACSB standards. This article reviews the iterative action research process of…
Irizarry, Jason G.
This article explores youth participatory action research as a promising instructional practice with the potential to reverse the depoliticizing and "softening" of multicultural education. It demonstrates how, with its explicit commitment to action, youth participatory action research can help to improve the educational experiences and…
Xiao, Lily D; Kelton, Moira; Paterson, Jan
The aim of this study was to develop quality clinical placements in residential aged care facilities for undergraduate nursing students undertaking their nursing practicum topics. The proportion of people aged over 65 years is expected to increase steadily from 13% in 2006 to 26% of the total population in Australia in 2051. However, when demand is increasing for a nursing workforce competent in the care of older people, studies have shown that nursing students generally lack interest in working with older people. The lack of exposure of nursing students to quality clinical placements is one of the key factors contributing to this situation. Critical action research built on a partnership between an Australian university and five aged care organisations was utilised. A theoretical framework informed by Habermas' communicative action theory was utilised to guide the action research. Multiple research activities were used to support collaborative critical reflection and inform actions throughout the action research. Clinical placements in eight residential aged care facilities were developed to support 179 nursing students across three year-levels to complete their practicum topics. Findings were presented in three categories described as structures developed to govern clinical placement, learning and teaching in residential aged care facilities.
Esposito, Jennifer; Evans-Winters, Venus
In this paper, we argue that teacher-researchers, especially those in politically contested school communities, should be encouraged to conduct critical action research that is contextually bound. Such a research methodology includes tenets of critical action research, postmodern and feminist theory, and attention to how oppression manifests in…
Masuda, Jeffrey R; Creighton, Genevieve; Nixon, Sean; Frankish, James
Enthusiasm for community-based participatory research (CBPR) is increasing among health researchers and practitioners in addressing health disparities. Although there are many benefits of CBPR, such as its ability to democratize knowledge and link research to community action and social change, there are also perils that researchers can encounter that can threaten the integrity of the research and undermine relationships. Despite the increasing demand for CBPR-qualified individuals, few programs exist that are capable of facilitating in-depth and experiential training for both students and those working in communities. This article reviews the Partnerships in Community Health Research (PCHR), a training program at the University of British Columbia that between 2001 and 2009 has equipped graduate student and community-based learners with knowledge, skills, and experience to engage together more effectively using CBPR. With case studies of PCHR learner projects, this article illustrates some of the important successes and lessons learned in preparing CBPR-qualified researchers and community-based professionals in Canada.
Kinnucan-Wesch, Kathryn; Franco, Suzanne; Hendricks, Martha S.
The purpose of this technical report is to summarize the research methodology of the Novice Teacher Study (NTS) strand of the Teacher Quality Partnership (TQP) research. The Ohio TQP has embarked on a series of research studies to learn more about the characteristics of effective teachers and to identify the patterns of teacher performance in both…
Partnership between developed and developing countries in matters of space research and application must perforce be lopsided at the outset for a variety of reasons. In such developing countries, universities are weak, there are few centers of applied sciences, communities of scientists are sub-critical and isolated, institutional framework is inadequate, and because of shifting political climate, societies are not as well-ordered as in developed countries. Initially therefore, flow of ideas and facilities, both tangible and intangible, will be unidirectional. For this initial stage to be as short as possible, new approaches to hasten the process have to be developed. Classical approaches to collaborative effort by developed countries to assist these developing countries to the level at which meaningful partnership can evolve has to be reassessed. A few decades ago, one could speak of developing countries as a coherent whole, but now, the situation has changed. The collaborative effort between such countries as India, Korea, etc. and the developed world, which enabled those countries to take off technologically, cannot be adequately applied to the developing countries in Africa. New approaches have to be devised. New recipes have to be concocted. Even with countries in Africa, different approaches have to be taken. Each country in Africa faces unique circumstances, situations, and problems. While a country like Nigeria has a large trainable labour force and an enormous human capital which gives the country a comparative advantage, many countries have less than 10% of the young people between the ages of 1 11 years; 12-19 years; 20-24 years in educational- institutions. In establishing partnership between African countries and the developed countries, specific approaches need to be taken. For example, problems such as cultivating the right attitude in young people to the learning of science are common to both developed and developing countries. The problem could be
Partnership between developed and developing countries in matters of space research and application must perforce be lopsided at the outset for a variety of reasons. In such developing countries, universities are weak, there are few centers of applied sciences, communities of scientists are sub-critical and isolated, institutional framework is inadequate, and because of shifting political climate, societies are not as well-ordered as in developed countries. Initially therefore, flow of ideas and facilities, both tangible and intangible, will be unidirectional. For this initial stage to be as short as possible, new approaches to hasten the process have to be developed. Classical approaches to collaborative effort by developed countries to assist these developing countries to the level at which meaningful partnership can evolve has to be reassessed. A few decades ago, one could speak of developing countries as a coherent whole, but now, the situation has changed. The collaborative effort between such countries as India, Korea, etc. and the developed world, which enabled those countries to take off technologically, cannot be adequately applied to the developing countries in Africa. New approaches have to be devised. New recipes have to be concocted. Even with countries in Africa, different approaches have to be taken. Each country in Africa faces unique circumstances, situations, and problems. While a country like Nigeria has a large trainable labour force and an enormous human capital which gives the country a comparative advantage, many countries have less than 10% of the young people between the ages of 1 11 years; 12-19 years; 20-24 years in- educational institutions. In establishing partnership between African countries and the developed countries, specific approaches need to be taken. For example, problems such as cultivating the right attitude in young people to the learning of science are common to both developed and developing countries. The problem could be
Henning Loeb, Ingrid
This article investigates the cooperation of a teaching team in Swedish upper secondary education over a period of five years. The data collection builds on field studies and partly on a collaborative research approach. Three areas of cooperation have been identified: collaboration among the staff; interactions between the staff and the students;…
Gupte, Akshay; Padmapriyadarsini, Chandrasekaran; Mave, Vidya; Kadam, Dileep; Suryavanshi, Nishi; Shivakumar, Shri Vijay Bala Yogendra; Kohli, Rewa; Gupte, Nikhil; Thiruvengadam, Kannan; Kagal, Anju; Meshram, Sushant; Bharadwaj, Renu; Khadse, Sandhya; Ramachandran, Geetha; Hanna, Luke Elizabeth; Pradhan, Neeta; Gomathy, N S; DeLuca, Andrea; Gupta, Amita; Swaminathan, Soumya
Introduction Tuberculosis disease (TB) remains an important global health threat. An evidence-based response, tailored to local disease epidemiology in high-burden countries, is key to controlling the global TB epidemic. Reliable surrogate biomarkers that predict key active disease and latent TB infection outcomes are vital to advancing clinical research necessary to ‘End TB’. Well executed longitudinal studies strengthening local research capacity for addressing TB research priorities and advancing biomarker discovery are urgently needed. Methods and analysis The Cohort for Tuberculosis Research by the Indo-US Medical Partnership (CTRIUMPH) study conducted in Byramjee Jeejeebhoy Government Medical College (BJGMC), Pune and National Institute for Research in Tuberculosis (NIRT), Chennai, India, will establish and maintain three prospective cohorts: (1) an Active TB Cohort comprising 800 adults with pulmonary TB, 200 adults with extrapulmonary TB and 200 children with TB; (2) a Household Contact Cohort of 3200 adults and children at risk of developing active disease; and (3) a Control Cohort consisting of 300 adults and 200 children with no known exposure to TB. Relevant clinical, sociodemographic and psychosocial data will be collected and a strategic specimen repository established at multiple time points over 24 months of follow-up to measure host and microbial factors associated with (1) TB treatment outcomes; (2) progression from infection to active TB disease; and (3) Mycobacterium tuberculosis transmission among Indian adults and children. We anticipate CTRIUMPH to serve as a research platform necessary to characterise some relevant aspects of the TB epidemic in India, generate evidence to inform local and global TB control strategies and support novel TB biomarker discovery. Ethics and dissemination This study is approved by the Institutional Review Boards of NIRT, BJGMC and Johns Hopkins University, USA. Study results will be disseminated through peer
Industry Education Council (Hamilton-Wentworth), Hamilton (Ontario).
This handbook provides basic information about forming and operating an industry-education partnership council (IEPC). Purpose of the handbook is to enable interested communities to replicate the model IEPC and develop strong local industry-education alliances. Part I is an introduction to industry-education partnerships. Part II focuses on…
Park, Hyun-Sook; Meyer, Luanna; Goetz, Lori
This introductory article discusses the benefits of participatory action research (PAR), including the empowerment of participants in research and the research process, the difficulties PAR presents, and summarizes following articles in a special series on the facets of PAR. (CR)
Morin, P. J.; Hamilton, P.; Campbell, K. M.
The Science Museum of Minnesota (SMM) and the National Center for Earth-surface Dynamics (NCED) have been formal partners since 2002, when we jointly secured NSF center-level funding. We began in our local community by together creating our own "Big Back Yard", a 1.75 acre outdoor park in which museum visitors, teachers and students explore natural and engineered river systems through miniature golf and interactive exhibits. We went on to jointly design "Earthscapes" programming for students, teachers and graduate students, related directly or indirectly to the park. From there, our partnership led to a major new exhibition that begins touring nationally and around the world in late 2007. A current effort seeks to bring NCED and SMM together with five other geo-science-oriented, NSF-supported Science and Technology Centers (STCs) from around the United States to develop collaborative means by which the research and science of all six STCs can reach larger informal science education audiences. We have learned a lot along the way about how museums can help individual and teams of researchers most effectively reach formal and informal audiences. Successful partnerships require significant joint commitment and funding, dedicated staff, and meaningful formative and summative evaluation. For a research center or an individual researcher, partnering with a museum provides experience, expertise, infrastructure, collegial relationships and community visibility that significantly enhance that of the academy. For a museum, one successful and highly visible research collaboration opens many new doors in the research community, providing new opportunities to broaden and deepen the scientific content of exhibits and programming.
Malenfant, Kara J.; Hinchliffe, Lisa Janicke; Gilchrist, Debra
This introductory essay to this special issue demonstrates that action research has a vital role in evidence-informed practice in academic libraries. This special issue of "College and Research Libraries" ("C&RL") proudly features a selection of action research studies by participants of the Association of College and…
Robinson, Daniel B.
This article presents an action research project focused on improving physical education (PE) for adolescent female students. One university researcher, three male PE teachers, and 13 of their most disengaged female students participated in the one-year, two-cycle, action research project. The process and results are offered so that future PE…
Mazzei, Lisa A.
Action researchers often generate large amounts of textual material in the form of notes and transcripts, failing to account for those thoughts that we and our research participants silently voice. As such, action research that attempts to engage practitioners in self reflexivity and textual analysis is a fertile site for a consideration of how…
This article considers the value of collaborative forms of educational action research in higher education and the difficulties involved in implementing such forms of research. It is argued that educational action research represents an opportunity for improving teaching and learning and developing the knowledge and skills of those participating…
Clifford, Matthew; Millar, Susan B.
Federal programs, such as the National Science Foundation's Math and Science Partnership program, are promoting partnerships between K-12 school districts and higher education institutions (K-20 partnerships) in hopes of fostering greater alignment and cooperation among participating institutions and pooling resources to address persistent…
Penrod, Janice; Loeb, Susan J; Ladonne, Robert A; Martin, Lea M
Participatory action research (PAR) approaches harness collaborative partnerships to stimulate change in defined communities. The purpose of this article is to illustrate key methodological strategies used in the application of PAR methods in the particularly challenging environment of a hierarchical organization. A study designed to promote sustainable, insider-generated system-level changes in the provision of end-of-life (EOL) care in the restrictive setting of six state prisons is used as an exemplar of the application of three cardinal principles of PAR. First, development of a collaborative network with active partnership between outsider academic researchers and insider co-researchers began with careful attention to understanding the culture and processes of prisons and gaining the support of organizational leadership, using qualitative data gathering and trust-building. During the implementation phase, promoting co-ownership of change in EOL care through the co-construction of knowledge and systems to enhance sustainable change required carefully-orchestrated strategies to maximize the collaborative spirit of the project. Co-researchers were empowered to examine their worlds and capture opportunities for change using new leadership skills role-modeled by the research team. Third, their local knowledge of the barriers inherent in the contextual reality of prisons was translated into achievable system change by production of a toolkit of formalized and well-rehearsed change strategies that collaborative teams were empowered to enact within their hierarchical prison environment. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng
The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors…
Pueyo, Natalie C.; Raub, Andrew G.; Jackson, Sean; Metz, Madalyn M.; Mount, Allegra C.; Naughton, Kyle L.; Eaton, Ashley L.; Thomas, Nicole M.; Hastings, Peter; Greaves, John; Blumberg, Bruce; Collins, Terrence J.; Sogo, Steven G.
A chemical research program at a public high school has been developed. The full-year Advanced Chemical Research class (ACR) in the high school enrolls 20-30 seniors each year, engaging them in long-term experimental projects. Through partnerships involving university scientists, ACR high school students have had the opportunity to explore a…
Frazee-Brookman, Lauren; Stahmer, Aubyn; Stadnick, Nicole; Chlebowski, Colby; Herschel, Amy; Garland, Ann F.
This study characterized the use of research community partnerships (RCPs) to tailor evidence-based intervention, training, and implementation models for delivery across different childhood problems and service contexts using a survey completed by project principal investigators and community partners. To build on previous RCP research and to…
Brooks, Eric Dwayne
This study investigated whether participation in the Partnership for Research and Education in Plants (PREP), a long-term authentic plant research project, in conjunction with explicit verses implicit instruction can change high school students' conceptions of the nature of science (NOS). The participants included a total of 134 students comprised…
Rowell, Lonnie L.; Polush, Elena Yu; Riel, Margaret; Bruewer, Aaron
The purpose of this study was to identify distinguishing characteristics of action research within the Action Research Special Interest Group of the American Educational Research Association. The authors sought to delineate the foundational framework endorsed by this community. The study was conducted during January-April 2012 and employed an…
McGrath, Helen; O'Toole, Thomas
This paper applies an action research (AR) design and action learning (AL) approach to network capability development in an entrepreneurial context. Recent research suggests that networks are a viable strategy for the entrepreneurial firm to overcome the liabilities associated with newness and smallness. However, a gap emerges as few, if any,…
Kaleebu, P; Kamali, A; Seeley, J; Elliott, A M; Katongole-Mbidde, E
For the past 25 years, the Medical Research Council/Uganda Virus Research Institute Uganda Research Unit on AIDS has conducted research on HIV-1, coinfections and, more recently, on non-communicable diseases. Working with various partners, the research findings of the Unit have contributed to the understanding and control of the HIV epidemic both in Uganda and globally, and informed the future development of biomedical HIV interventions, health policy and practice. In this report, as we celebrate our silver jubilee, we describe some of these achievements and the Unit's multidisciplinary approach to research. We also discuss the future direction of the Unit; an exemplar of a partnership that has been largely funded from the north but led in the south.
Eghbalnia, Cynthia; Sharkey, Ken; Garland-Porter, Denisha; Alam, Mohammad; Crumpton, Marilyn; Jones, Camille; Ryan, Patrick H
The authors implemented and assessed the effectiveness of a public health initiative aimed at reducing traffic-related air pollution exposure of the school community at four Cincinnati public schools. A partnership was fostered with academic environmental health researchers and community members. Anti-idling campaign materials were developed and education and training were provided to school bus drivers, students, parents, and school staff. Pledge drives and pre- and posteducation assessments were documented to measure the effectiveness of the program. After completing the educational component of the public health initiative, bus drivers (n = 397), community members (n = 53), and staff (n = 214) demonstrated significantly increased knowledge about the health effects of idling (p < .05). More than 30% of parents signed the pledge to reduce idling after the public health intervention. A community-driven public health initiative can be effective in both 1) enhancing community awareness about the benefits of reducing idling vehicles and 2) increasing active participation in idling reduction. The partnership initially developed has continued to develop toward a sustainable and growing process.
Rozum, B.; Wesolek, A.
At many institutions, attracting and mentoring quality students is of key importance. Through their developing careers, typically under the tutelage of one primary faculty member, students build portfolios, prepare for graduate school, and apply to post-doc programs or faculty positions. Often though, the corpus of that primary faculty member's work is not available in a single location. This is a disadvantage both for current students, who wish to highlight the importance of their work within the context of a research group and for the department, which can miss opportunities to attract high-quality future students. Utah State University Libraries hosts a thriving institutional repository, DigitalCommons@USU, which provides open access to scholarly works, research, reports, publications, and journals produced by Utah State University faculty, staff, and students. The Library and the Physics Department developed a partnership to transcend traditional library repository architecture and emphasize faculty research groups within the department. Previously, only student theses and dissertations were collected, and they were not associated with the department in any way. Now student presentations, papers, and posters appear with other faculty works all in the same research work space. This poster session highlights the features of the University's repository and describes what is required to establish a similar structure at other academic institutions. We anticipate several long-term benefits of this new structure. Students are pleased with the increased visibility of their research and with having an online presence through their "Selected Works" personal author site. Faculty are pleased with the opportunity to highlight their research and the potential to attract new students to their research groups. This new repository model also allows the library to amplify the existing scientific outreach initiatives of the physics department. One example of this is a recent
This book discusses the current understanding on the primary mechanisms by which prolactin regulates cellular proliferation and other metabolic processes (including gene expression) in its target cells. Reviews and analyzes information relative to the molecular events involved in the actions of prolactin on cells to provide a basis for determining the sequence of molecular reactions by which prolactin expresses its biological responses. The contents discussed are Activation of Molecular Events by Prolactin. Prolactin Interaction with its Receptors and Relationship to Subsequent Regulation of Metabolic Processes. Actions of Prolactin in the Brain. Models of Prolactin Action in Nonmmalian Vertebraes. Prolactin Regulation of Membrane Fludity and Prostglandin Formation. Role of Calcium Ions and Phospholipids in Prolactin Regulation of its Traget Cells. Synergistic Actions of Glucocorticoid and Prolactin in Murine Milk-Protein Gene Expression. Role of Polyamines in Prolactin Actions. Prolactin and the Regulation of Secretion Including Membrane Flow: Potential Roles for Tubulin and Microtubules. Protein Phosphorylation of Prlactin Target Tissue: Mammary Gland, Prolactin, Growth Factors, and Cell Growth.
Granados Moreno, Palmira; Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha Maria
Public-private partnerships (PPPs) have been increasingly used to spur and facilitate innovation in a number of fields. In healthcare, the purpose of using a PPP is commonly to develop and/or provide vaccines and drugs against communicable diseases, mainly in developing or underdeveloped countries. With the advancement of technology and of the area of genomics, these partnerships also focus on large-scale genomic research projects that aim to advance the understanding of diseases that have a genetic component and to develop personalized treatments. This new focus has created new forms of PPPs that involve information technology companies, which provide computing infrastructure and services to store, analyze, and share the massive amounts of data genomic-related projects produce. In this article, we explore models of PPPs proposed to handle, protect, and share the genomic data collected and to further develop genomic-based medical products. We also identify the reasons that make these models suitable and the challenges they have yet to overcome. To achieve this, we describe the details and complexities of MSSNG, International Cancer Genome Consortium, and 100,000 Genomes Project, the three PPPs that focus on large-scale genomic research to better understand the genetic components of autism, cancer, rare diseases, and infectious diseases with the intention to find appropriate treatments. Organized as PPP and employing cloud-computing services, the three projects have advanced quickly and are likely to be important sources of research and development for future personalized medicine. However, there still are unresolved matters relating to conflicts of interest, commercialization, and data control. Learning from the challenges encountered by past PPPs allowed us to establish that developing guidelines to adequately manage personal health information stored in clouds and ensuring the protection of data integrity and privacy would be critical steps in the development of
Granados Moreno, Palmira; Joly, Yann; Knoppers, Bartha Maria
Public–private partnerships (PPPs) have been increasingly used to spur and facilitate innovation in a number of fields. In healthcare, the purpose of using a PPP is commonly to develop and/or provide vaccines and drugs against communicable diseases, mainly in developing or underdeveloped countries. With the advancement of technology and of the area of genomics, these partnerships also focus on large-scale genomic research projects that aim to advance the understanding of diseases that have a genetic component and to develop personalized treatments. This new focus has created new forms of PPPs that involve information technology companies, which provide computing infrastructure and services to store, analyze, and share the massive amounts of data genomic-related projects produce. In this article, we explore models of PPPs proposed to handle, protect, and share the genomic data collected and to further develop genomic-based medical products. We also identify the reasons that make these models suitable and the challenges they have yet to overcome. To achieve this, we describe the details and complexities of MSSNG, International Cancer Genome Consortium, and 100,000 Genomes Project, the three PPPs that focus on large-scale genomic research to better understand the genetic components of autism, cancer, rare diseases, and infectious diseases with the intention to find appropriate treatments. Organized as PPP and employing cloud-computing services, the three projects have advanced quickly and are likely to be important sources of research and development for future personalized medicine. However, there still are unresolved matters relating to conflicts of interest, commercialization, and data control. Learning from the challenges encountered by past PPPs allowed us to establish that developing guidelines to adequately manage personal health information stored in clouds and ensuring the protection of data integrity and privacy would be critical steps in the development
Khorasani, Parvaneh; Rassouli, Maryam; Parvizy, Soroor; Zagheri-Tafreshi, Mansoureh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mahmood
Background: Patient education is among the lowest met need of patients in Iran; therefore, expansion of that role can result in greater professional accountability. This study aimed to explain the practical science of the process, structure, and outcomes of a nurse-led action research project to expand the nurses’ role in patient education in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was part of a participatory action research. Daily communications and monthly joint meetings were held from January 2012 to February 2014 for planning and management. These were based on the research protocol, and the conceptual framework included the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships process by means of Leadership for Change skills. Data were produced and gathered through participant observations. Administrative data included project records, official documents, artifacts, news, and reports, which were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Results: A participatory project was established with three groups of participants organized from both academic and clinical fields. These consisted of a “core research support team,” “two steering committees,” and community representatives of clients and professionals as “feedback groups.” A seven-stage process, named the “Nurse Educators: Al-Zahra Role Expansion Action Research” (NEAREAR) process, resulted from the project, in which strategic issues were gradually developed and implemented through 32 action plans and quality improvement cycles of action research. Audits and supervision evaluations showed meaningful changes in capacity building components. Conclusions: A nurse-led ad hoc structure with academic–clinical partnerships and strategic management process was suggested as a possible practical model for expanding nurses’ educational role in similar contexts. Implications and practical science introduced in this action research could also be applicable for top managers and health system
Action research, a term first used in the 1940's by Kurt Lewin, implies the application of tools and methods of social science to immediate, practical problems, with the goals of contributing to theory and knowledge in the field of education and improving practice in the schools. Collaborative action research suggests that each group represented…
A number of key constructs underpin educational action research. This paper focuses on the concept of "truth" and by doing so hopes to highlight some debate in this area. In reflecting upon what "truth" might mean to those involved in action research, I shall critically evaluate Thorndike's "Law of Effect" and Bruner's "Three Forms of…
Tobin, Jennifer Ann
This action research study used narrative analysis to explore the role of the body in the writing process of creative writers. Specifically, the purpose of this action research study was threefold: it was first to examine how professional creative writers describe their writing process with particular attention to their perceptions of the role and…
Zidack, Astri Marie
This action research study engaged a small public middle school in the northwest United States in a collaborative process to address cyberbullying issues that often lead to academic and behavior problems in schools (Hinduja, 2010; Olweus, 2010). The specific purpose of this action research study was to address the middle school's cyberbullying…
Robinson, Daniel B.; Walters, William
This article summarizes an action research project undertaken at a teacher education institution in Canada. The action research was implemented in an effort to respond to initial observations related to some practicum limitations. In an effort to seek a "solution" to these limitations, a modified practicum model was piloted with a small…
Cain, Tim; Harris, Richard
In a culture of performativity, action research offers teachers an opportunity to step back and reflect on their practice. This paper reports on a collaborative project carried out between a university and a secondary school in England, in which the university staff supported an action research project within the school. Five school teachers…
Action research began as an ambitious epistemological and social intervention. As the concept has become reified, packaged for methodology textbooks and professional development workshops, it has degenerated into a cure that may be worse than the disease. The point is not the trivial one that action research, like any practice, sometimes shows up…
In this article I outline different elements of action research in an attempt to describe and define participatory action research (PAR). There is a lot more material available to readers these days, some of which I will refer you to in this article. I see my role here is to summarise enough of this material to help support your reading of the…
What is "action research" and how is it relevant to urban youth activists? Action research is a systematic process of inquiry, which involves gathering information about an issue or problem, analyzing the findings, and developing practical plans for affecting positive change. It is motivated by the desire to investigate in order to better…
Furtado, Leena; Anderson, Dawnette
This study presents four teacher reflections from action research projects ranging from kindergarten to adult school improvements. A teacher leadership matrix guided participants to connect teaching and learning theory to best practices by exploring uncharted territory within an iterative cycle of research and action. Teachers developed the…
Rajaram, Shireen S.
This action-research project focused on gathering data on awareness of lead poisoning, as well as disseminating information on lead poisoning prevention in a metropolitan midwestern city. This project reflects an action-research approach to service learning and was in collaboration with a grass-roots organization. This paper outlines the daunting…
Lieblein, Geir; Breland, Tor Arvid; Francis, Charles; Ostergaard, Edvin
Purpose: This article examines and evaluates the potential contributions from action learning and action research with stakeholders to higher education in agriculture and food systems. Design/Methodology/Approach: The research is based on our experiences over the past two decades of running PhD courses and an MSc degree programme in Agroecology in…
In this short paper I examine whether obtaining the capability to change practice can be solely achieved through reflective action research, and how. I take as our framework of analysis that offered by Aristotelian thought, especially in the discussion of powers and potential. I conclude that action research as a way of changing practice cannot be…
Bocci, Melissa Cochrane
Youth Participatory Action Research (YPAR) requires students to use language in myriad ways as they define a problem, design and conduct an original research project, disseminate their findings, and take change-seeking actions in their community. YPAR embeds language development in community-centered and cross-disciplinary work and empowers youth…
Teaching teams can hold the promise of being an ideal vehicle in which collaborative action research is conducted. This case documents the mixed results of a team leader's efforts to improve teaching and introduce inquiry-based professional development through action research in a community college. This case paints a realistic and…
Warren, Susan; Doorn, Dan; Green, James
This investigation explored the effects of action research on teachers in a graduate education program. Mixed methods were utilized, combining a semantic differential study of student attitudes with qualitative analysis of students' perceptions of their experience as action researchers. Results indicate that participants perceived themselves as…
Garrett, Joyce Lynn
Action research is a systematic approach used by practitioners to conceive questions and control methodologies, and to explore classroom or school-based problems. Action research is the perfect marriage of theory and practice. Recent trends in education, such as professional development schools, data-driven decision making, and undergraduate…
This article suggests that the methodology of community-based action research provides concrete strategies for fostering effective community problem solving. To argue for a community research pedagogy, the author draws upon past and present scholarship in action research and participatory action research, experiences teaching an undergraduate…
Background This paper provides a brief overview of the Canadian physical activity communications and social marketing organization "ParticipACTION"; introduces the "new" ParticipACTION; describes the research process leading to the collection of baseline data on the new ParticipACTION; and outlines the accompanying series of papers in the supplement presenting the detailed baseline data. Methods Information on ParticipACTION was gathered from close personal involvement with the organization, from interviews and meetings with key leaders of the organization, from published literature and from ParticipACTION archives. In 2001, after nearly 30 years of operation, ParticipACTION ceased operations because of inadequate funding. In February 2007 the organization was officially resurrected and the launch of the first mass media campaign of the "new" ParticipACTION occurred in October 2007. The six-year absence of ParticipACTION, or any equivalent substitute, provided a unique opportunity to examine the impact of a national physical activity social marketing organization on important individual and organizational level indicators of success. A rapid response research team was established in January 2007 to exploit this natural intervention research opportunity. Results The research team was successful in obtaining funding through the new Canadian Institutes of Health Research Intervention Research (Healthy Living and Chronic Disease Prevention) Funding Program. Data were collected on individuals and organizations prior to the complete implementation of the first mass media campaign of the new ParticipACTION. Conclusion Rapid response research and funding mechanisms facilitated the collection of baseline information on the new ParticipACTION. These data will allow for comprehensive assessments of future initiatives of ParticipACTION. PMID:19995455
Courville, Z.; Haynes, R.; DeFrancis, G.; Koh, S.; Ringelberg, D.
Outreach informed by scientific research plays an important role in fostering interest in science by making science and scientists accessible, fun, and interesting. Developing an interest in science in young, elementary-aged students through outreach is a rewarding endeavor for researchers, in that audiences are usually receptive, requirements for broader impacts are met, and bonds are formed between researchers and members of their local and surrounding communities. Promoting such interest among young students is imperative not only for an individual researcher's own self interest, but also for the strength of American science and innovation moving forward, and is the responsibility of the current generation of scientists. Developing genuine and successful inquiry-based, hands-on activities for elementary-aged students is outside the expertise of many researchers. Partnering with an informal education learning center (i.e. science museum or after-school program) provides researchers with the expertise they might be lacking in such endeavors. Here, we present a series of polar-, engineering- and microbiology-themed hands-on activities that have been developed by researchers at a government lab in partnership with a local science museum. Through a series of workshops, the science education staff at the museum provided researchers with background and instruction on inquiry and hands-on activities, and then collaborated with the researchers to develop activities which were later demonstrated at the museum to museum-goers. Education staff provided feedback about the presentation of the activities for further refinement. The program provided an opportunity for researchers to develop fun, on-target and age-appropriate science activities for elementary-aged students, an audience for outreach, and enabled general public audiences the chance to interact with researchers and scientists in an informal setting.
The 21st Century Truck Program has been established as a government-industry research partnership to support the development and implementation of commercially viable technologies that will dramatically cut fuel use and emissions of commercial trucks and buses while enhancing their safety and affordability as well as maintaining or enhancing performance. The innovations resulting from this program will reduce dependence on foreign oil, improve our nation's air quality, provide advanced technology for military vehicles, and enhance the competitiveness of the U.S. truck and bus industry while ensuring safe and affordable freight and bus transportation for the nation's economy. This Technology Roadmap for the 21st Century Truck Program has been prepared to guide the development of the technical advancements that will enable the needed improvements in commercial truck fuel economy, emissions, and safety.
Loukanova, Svetla; Prytherch, Helen; Blank, Antje; Duysburgh, Els; Tomson, Göran; Gustafsson, Lars L.; Sié, Ali; Williams, John; Leshabari, Melkizedeck; Haefeli, Walter E.; Sauerborn, Rainer; Fonn, Sharon
Background The European Union (EU) supports North–South Partnerships and collaborative research projects through its Framework Programmes and Horizon 2020. There is limited research on how such projects can be harnessed to provide a structured platform for doctoral level studies as a way of strengthening health system research capacity in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA). Objective The aim of this study was to explore the challenges of, and facilitating factors for, ‘nesting’ doctoral students in North–South collaborative research projects. The term nesting refers to the embedding of the processes of recruiting, supervising, and coordinating doctoral students in the overall research plan and processes. Design This cross-sectional qualitative study was undertaken by the EU-funded QUALMAT Project. A questionnaire was implemented with doctoral students, supervisors, and country principal investigators (PIs), and content analysis was undertaken. Results Completed questionnaires were received from nine doctoral students, six supervisors, and three country PIs (86% responses rate). The doctoral students from SSA described high expectations about the input they would receive (administrative support, equipment, training, supervision). This contrasted with the expectations of the supervisors for proactivity and self-management on the part of the students. The rationale for candidate selection, and understandings of the purpose of the doctoral students in the project were areas of considerable divergence. There were some challenges associated with the use of the country PIs as co-supervisors. Doctoral student progress was at times impeded by delays in the release of funding instalments from the EU. The paper provides a checklist of essential requirements and a set of recommendations for effective nesting of doctoral students in joint North–South projects. Conclusion There are considerable challenges to the effective nesting of doctoral students within major collaborative
Mark, Rob; Nakabugo, Mary Goretti
The Irish-African Partnership for Research Capacity Building (IAP) is a research consortium involving all of the nine universities on the island of Ireland together with four African universities, with the overall aim of building research capacity for poverty reduction. The project was supported by a three-year grant from Irish Aid. This article…
Mckinney, Marvin; Fitzgerald, Hiram E; Winn, Donna-Marie; Babcock, Patrick
Research findings documenting the issues and challenges of boys prebirth through age 5 years have barely penetrated the arena of public policy making nor has it permeated the public agenda of politicians, government, or other funding stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to articulate pathways for researchers to enter into the policy-making process. We review critical issues related to implementing the process of public policy. We argue that the policy process needs to be informed by more dynamic theoretical models of human development, and that researchers and clinicians need to be exposed more deeply to the processes required to inform and subsequently change public policy. We contend that most quantitative research on boys at risk occurs at the micro- and the mesosystem level rather than at the exo- and the macrosystem levels where structural societal policies embedded in economic and racial inequities contribute to risk. Researchers, clinicians, and policy makers need to create collaborative partnerships designed to develop, advocate, and implement more evidence-based policies designed to enhance the quality of life for boys at risk.
Parsons, Sarah; Charman, Tony; Faulkner, Rachel; Ragan, Jude; Wallace, Simon; Wittemeyer, Kerstin
While the last 10 years have seen a significant increase in research published on early intervention and autism, there is a persistent disconnect between educational research and practice. Governments have invested significant funds in autism education, and a range of approaches have been implemented in schools, but there is limited research exploring whether these educational strategies are effective and a lack of involvement of teaching professionals in the research. Given that the majority of children and young people with autism spend most of their time in school and not in early or specialised intervention programmes, there is a compelling need to conduct better educational research and implement educational interventions in schools. We argue that building collaborative partnerships between researchers and school practitioners is central to achieving improved understanding of, and outcomes for, pupils on the autism spectrum. This commentary offers perspectives from teachers about their experiences of, and priorities for, research, and also presents a model of collaboration between autism school practitioners and researchers, which could support a more integrated approach to research. We reflect on the strengths and challenges of this as well as outcomes achieved so far.
Phillips, Meredith; Yamashiro, Kyo; Farrukh, Adina; Lim, Cynthia; Hayes, Katherine; Wagner, Nicole; White, Jeffrey; Chen, Hansheng
The Los Angeles Unified School District (LAUSD) serves a large majority of socioeconomically disadvantaged students who are struggling academically and are underprepared for high school graduation and college. This article describes the partnership between LAUSD and the Los Angeles Education Research Institute, and how this collaboration endeavors to produce accessible and high-quality research to inform pressing problems of practice. The article also presents findings from an ongoing partnership research project analyzing a district policy focused on improving college readiness by aligning high school graduation and college-eligibility requirements. In a cohort that went through high school before the policy became mandatory for all students, less than 1/5 of all students (and 30% of graduates) met the college eligibility criteria. Our findings indicate that academic and behavioral indicators from 8th and 9th grade can help identify for possible intervention students who are not on track to meet these new graduation requirements. PMID:26709340
The alternatives assessment partnership project on alternatives to certain phthalates seeks to eplore the human health and environmental profiles of eight action plan phthalates and functional alternatives
Kile, Diane W.; And Others
Excerpts from an interview with teachers of a graduate program called the Classroom Research Study Group disclose details of the two-semester, four-course program focusing on the teacher as researcher. Program activities seek to develop teacher skills in identifying research questions, gathering data, and writing about the studies. (IAH)
Locke, Terry; Alcorn, Noeline; O'Neill, John
This article begins by raising issues around the way in which ethical approval for research is managed in university settings, where committees often base their assumptions on a principlist approach making a number of assumptions that we consider to be contestable, such as a neat separation between researcher and researched. However, collaborative…
Ritchie, Mona J; Dollar, Katherine M; Kearney, Lisa K; Kirchner, Joann E
This column describes a facilitation strategy that incorporates evidence-based implementation knowledge and practice-based wisdom. The authors also describe a partnership between research and clinical operations leaders in the U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs to bridge the gap between implementation knowledge and its use. The initial product of the partnership, the Implementation Facilitation Training Manual: Using External and Internal Facilitation to Improve Care in the Veterans Health Administration, is a resource that can be used by others to guide implementation efforts.
Campbell, Anne; McNamara, Olwen; Furlong, John; Lewis, Sarah F.; Howson, John
This article reviews the processes, issues and dilemmas involved in evaluation research undertaken in the context of changing and evolving government policy in education. The article is grounded in an evaluation of the National Partnership Project (NPP), the team conducted on behalf of England's Teacher Training Agency (TTA) in 2004-2005. It will…
McMillan, Janice; Stanton, Timothy K.
In this paper we explore an approach to developing and implementing service-learning and community-based research in a study-abroad program in Cape Town, South Africa. Drawing on a notion of partnerships reflecting the values of accompaniment and transparency, and influenced by the importance of learning service, we outline an intentional, engaged…
Biag, Manuelito D.; Sanchez, Monika A.
Background/Context: Much of the literature on school-university research partnerships has focused on collaborations that address curriculum, instruction, and leadership. Less scholarly attention has been paid to how practitioners and academics work together to improve school climate. Purpose: We seek to deepen understanding of how educators and…
Shaffer, Christopher D.; Alvarez, Consuelo; Bailey, Cheryl; Barnard, Daron; Bhalla, Satish; Chandrasekaran, Chitra; Chandrasekaran, Vidya; Chung, Hui-Min; Dorer, Douglas R.; Du, Chunguang; Eckdahl, Todd T.; Poet, Jeff L.; Frohlich, Donald; Goodman, Anya L.; Gosser, Yuying; Hauser, Charles; Hoopes, Laura L. M.; Johnson, Diana; Jones, Christopher J.; Kaehler, Marian; Kokan, Nighat; Kopp, Olga R.; Kuleck, Gary A.; McNeil, Gerard; Moss, Robert; Myka, Jennifer L.; Nagengast, Alexis; Morris, Robert; Overvoorde, Paul J.; Shoop, Elizabeth; Parrish, Susan; Reed, Kelynne; Regisford, E. Gloria; Revie, Dennis; Rosenwald, Anne G.; Saville, Ken; Schroeder, Stephanie; Shaw, Mary; Skuse, Gary; Smith, Christopher; Smith, Mary; Spana, Eric P.; Spratt, Mary; Stamm, Joyce; Thompson, Jeff S.; Wawersik, Matthew; Wilson, Barbara A.; Youngblom, Jim; Leung, Wilson; Buhler, Jeremy; Mardis, Elaine R.; Lopatto, David; Elgin, Sarah C. R.
Genomics is not only essential for students to understand biology but also provides unprecedented opportunities for undergraduate research. The goal of the Genomics Education Partnership (GEP), a collaboration between a growing number of colleges and universities around the country and the Department of Biology and Genome Center of Washington…
Holton, Valerie L.; Early, Jennifer L.; Jettner, Jennifer F.; Shaw, Kathleen K.
As universities institutionalize a public mission, they seek strategies and opportunities to more deeply involve external stakeholders in all aspects of their work: teaching, research, and service. These partnerships support universities in their efforts to generate new knowledge, educate the citizenry, and to improve the well-being of…
Background Since Mozambique’s independence, the major emphasis of its higher educational institutions has been on didactic education. Because of fiscal and human resource constraints, basic and applied research activities have been relatively modest in scope, and priorities have often been set primarily by external collaborators. These factors have compromised the scope and the relevance of locally conducted research and have limited the impact of Mozambique’s universities as major catalysts for national development. Case description We developed a multi-institutional partnership to undertake a comprehensive analysis of the research environment at Mozambique’s major public universities to identify factors that have served as barriers to the development of a robust research enterprise. Based on this analysis, we developed a multifaceted plan to reduce the impact of these barriers and to enhance research capacity within Mozambique. Interventions On the basis of our needs assessment, we have implemented a number of major initiatives within participating institutions to facilitate basic and applied research activities. These have included specialized training programmes, a reorganization of the research administration infrastructure, the development of multiple collaborative research projects that have emphasized local research priorities and a substantial investment in bioinformatics. We have established a research support centre that provides grant development and management services to Mozambique’s public universities and have developed an independent Institutional Review Board for the review of research involving human research subjects. Multiple research projects involving both communicable and non-communicable diseases have been developed and substantial external research support has been obtained to undertake these projects. A sizable investment in biomedical informatics has enhanced both connectivity and access to digital reference material. Active
Greenwood, Brian; Bhasin, Amit; Targett, Geoffrey
Recently, there has been a major increase in financial support for malaria control. Most of these funds have, appropriately, been spent on the tools needed for effective prevention and treatment of malaria such as insecticide-treated bed nets, indoor residual spraying and artemisinin combination therapy. There has been less investment in the training of the scientists from malaria-endemic countries needed to support these large and increasingly complex malaria control programmes, especially in Africa. In 2000, with support from the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation, the Gates Malaria Partnership was established to support postgraduate training of African scientists wishing to pursue a career in malaria research. The programme had three research capacity development components: a PhD fellowship programme, a postdoctoral fellowship programme and a laboratory infrastructure programme. During an 8-year period, 36 African PhD students and six postdoctoral fellows were supported, and two research laboratories were built in Tanzania. Some of the lessons learnt during this project--such as the need to improve PhD supervision in African universities and to provide better support for postdoctoral fellows--are now being applied to a successor malaria research capacity development programme, the Malaria Capacity Development Consortium, and may be of interest to other groups involved in improving postgraduate training in health sciences in African universities.
Slapac, Alina; Navarro, Virginia
As two teacher educators teaching two sections of a master's action research capstone course, we analyze (1) course content and pedagogy, (2) evolving beliefs about research, and (3) transformations in question posing as students assume the role of researchers. Our theoretical frame draws on teacher research, social justice advocacy, and the…
Ramakrishna, C. Pushpa; Prasad, V. S.
This manual, prepared by the Distance Education Council (India) presents guidelines for action research in distance education, balancing practical research activities with a sound theoretical research base. Chapter 1, "Scope, Purpose and Design of the Manual," suggests several definitions of research; draws distinctions between academic…
Zuber-Skerritt, Ortrun; Passfield, Ron
As co-founders of the Action Learning and Action Research Association (ALARA), we tell the story of this international network organisation through our personal experience. Our history traces the evolution of ALARA from origins at the first World Congress in 1990 in Brisbane, Australia, through development over two and a half decades, to its…
This article observes that participatory action research (PAR), by nature of being collaborative, necessitates making explicit theories of change that may have otherwise gone unseen or unexamined. The article explores the limits of the reform/revolution paradox on actions and theories of change in PAR. Citing examples from two recent youth PAR…
Edward N. Steadman; Daniel J. Daly; Lynette L. de Silva; John A. Harju; Melanie D. Jensen; Erin M. O'Leary; Wesley D. Peck; Steven A. Smith; James A. Sorensen
During the period of October 1, 2003, through September 30, 2005, the Plains CO2 Reduction (PCOR) Partnership, identified geologic and terrestrial candidates for near-term practical and environmentally sound carbon dioxide (CO2) sequestration demonstrations in the heartland of North America. The PCOR Partnership region covered nine states and three Canadian provinces. The validation test candidates were further vetted to ensure that they represented projects with (1) commercial potential and (2) a mix that would support future projects both dependent and independent of CO2 monetization. This report uses the findings contained in the PCOR Partnership's two dozen topical reports and half-dozen fact sheets as well as the capabilities of its geographic information system-based Decision Support System to provide a concise picture of the sequestration potential for both terrestrial and geologic sequestration in the PCOR Partnership region based on assessments of sources, sinks, regulations, deployment issues, transportation, and capture and separation. The report also includes concise action plans for deployment and public education and outreach as well as a brief overview of the structure, development, and capabilities of the PCOR Partnership. The PCOR Partnership is one of seven regional partnerships under Phase I of the U.S. Department of Energy National Energy Technology Laboratory's Regional Carbon Sequestration Partnership program. The PCOR Partnership, comprising 49 public and private sector members, is led by the Energy & Environmental Research Center at the University of North Dakota. The international PCOR Partnership region includes the Canadian provinces of Alberta, Saskatchewan, and Manitoba and the states of Montana (part), Wyoming (part), North Dakota, South Dakota, Nebraska, Missouri, Iowa, Minnesota, and Wisconsin.
Kelly, Patricia J
Advanced practice nurses and nurse researchers with experience in clinical settings may encounter challenges in the initial development and implementation of community-based projects. Participatory action research methodology, a user-friendly framework for community-based research activities, provides a way for researchers and community members to work together to define a problem, take action, and evaluate their work. This article attempts to bridge the theory-implementation gap by describing background steps that researchers can use when conceptualizing and initiating a research project with community partners. Suggestions for initial steps and the planning and review cycles are presented, along with examples from the literature.
EPA's six research priorities: Air, Climate, Energy; Chemical Safety for Sustainability, Homeland Security, Human Health Risk Assessment, Sustainable and Healthy Communities, Safe and Sustainable Water Resources.
Zaikowski, Lori; Lichtman, Paul
The new paradigm for student research should be articulations and collaborations with local governmental, academic, and civic entities. This will enable students to make lasting contributions to bettering their communities through scientific research, and to better understand the practical relevance of science. This article presents two such…
Fernández-Díaz, Elia; Fernández-Olaskoaga, Lorea; Gutiérrez-Esteban, Prudencia
The study presented in this article forms part of a wider project promoting collaboration between junior researchers from different universities with the objective of rethinking and improving teaching practice in relation to the use of technology. The article describes research carried out during the 2012/13 academic year aimed at developing…
Patterson, Leslie, Ed.; And Others
This book, which focuses on the language arts teacher/researcher, is offered as a testament to teachers' expanding participation in collecting data and building theories about teaching, learning, curriculum, and assessment. The book's 24 chapters are grouped into four parts. The first part addresses general issues about teacher research: its…
Yarnall, L.; Tennant, E.; Stites, R.
Spurred by a demand to prepare more American workers for middle-class jobs in high technology industries, funders are investing aggressively in large-scale partnerships between community college workforce educators and employers. Despite such investments, however, few broadly usable insights have been gleaned about effective partnership and…
Auerbach, Susan, Ed.
School leaders are increasingly called upon to pursue meaningful partnerships with families and community groups, yet many leaders are unprepared to meet the challenges of partnerships, to cross cultural boundaries, or to be accountable to the community. Alliances are needed among educators, families, and community groups that value relationship…
Falk, John H.; Dierking, Lynn D.; Staus, Nancy L.; Wyld, Jennifer N.; Bailey, Deborah L.; Penuel, William R.
This paper, describes Synergies, an on-going longitudinal study and design effort, being conducted in a diverse, under-resourced community in Portland, Oregon, with the goal of measurably improving STEM learning, interest and participation by early adolescents, both in school and out of school. Authors examine how the work of this particular research-practice partnership is attempting to accommodate the six principles outlined in this issue: (1) to more accurately reflect learning as a lifelong process occurring across settings, situations and time frames; (2) to consider what STEM content is worth learning; (3) to examine learning as a cultural process, involving varied repertoires of practice across learners' everyday lives; (4) to directly involve practitioners (and learners) in the research process; (5) to document how existing and emerging technologies and new media are, and will continue, to shape and redefine the content and practice of STEM learning research; and, (6) to take into account the broader socio-cultural-political contexts of the needs and concerns of the larger global society.
Purcell, E Peyton; Mitchell, Charlene; Celestin, Michael D; Evans, Kiameesha R; Haynes, Venice; McFall, Angela; Troyer, Lisa; Sanchez, Michael A
Despite a wealth of intervention research in cancer control, full integration of evidence-based interventions into practice often fails, at least in part because of inadequate collaboration between practitioners and researchers. The National Cancer Institute piloted a mentorship program designed for practitioners to improve their ability to navigate evidence-based decision making within a context of inadequate resources, political barriers, and organizational constraints. The National Cancer Institute simultaneously sought to provide opportunities for practitioners and researchers to share and learn from each other. We identified four key successes and challenges related to translation as experienced by mentees: (a) establishing and maintaining partnerships, (b) data collection and analysis, (c) navigating context, and (d) program adaptation and evaluation. Mentorship programs have the potential to facilitate increased and more successful integration of evidence-based interventions into practice by promoting and building the capacity for collaborative decision making and generating in-depth understanding of the translation barriers and successes as well as strategies to address the complex contextual issues relative to implementation.
Moran, M; Guzman, J; Ropars, A L; Illmer, A
Product Development Partnerships (PDPs) are playing an increasingly important role in the development of new medicines for neglected diseases of the developing world; however, there has been limited information on their funding and expenditure patterns. This paper analyses funding for the 14 PDPs working on neglected disease research and development (R&D) by using unpublished data from the Global Funding of Innovation for Neglected Diseases (G-FINDER) project, which surveyed 2007 global investments into R&D of products for neglected diseases. PDPs captured US$469 million or 23% of 'external' R&D funding for neglected diseases, i.e. funding granted by donors to research organisations, as opposed to internal investments by donors. PDP's funding sources were highly concentrated with the Gates Foundation providing nearly half of PDPs' combined income (49%) and four public funders (the US Agency for International Development (USAID), the UK Department for International Development (DFID), the Dutch government and Irish Aid) providing 28%. PDPs collectively spent US$262 million on R&D activities in 2007, with 88% of this expenditure going to academic institutions, contract research organisations and companies in the developed world. Our analysis confirms the central role played by PDPs in R&D for neglected diseases, but highlights the need to diversify their funding sources.
Isman, Aytekin; Altinay Aksal, Fahriye; Altinay Gazi, Zehra
The research study stimulates critical approach to research and practice, with an increasing emphasis on ethics and ethical decision making of the teacher researchers within action research process by using technology in its process. The study investigates the impact of technology within the action research, ethical considerations and dilemmas…
This paper examines how a community action research approach supported the implementation of an educational support programme for children, parents and local educators. The aim was the creation of a learning community that acknowledged, valued and used the expertise and experience of all involved. The action reflection cycle informed the…
Pratt, Bridget; Loff, Bebe
Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs--Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health--according to Frost and Reich's access framework. We also evaluated PDPs' capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products' registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations--high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels--remains a challenge.
Certain product development partnerships (PDPs) recognize that to promote the reduction of global health disparities they must create access to their products and strengthen research capacity in developing countries. We evaluated the contribution of 3 PDPs—Medicines for Malaria Venture, Drugs for Neglected Diseases Initiative, and Institute for One World Health—according to Frost and Reich’s access framework. We also evaluated PDPs’ capacity building in low- and middle-income countries at the individual, institutional, and system levels. We found that these PDPs advance public health by ensuring their products’ registration, distribution, and adoption into national treatment policies in disease-endemic countries. Nonetheless, ensuring broad, equitable access for these populations—high distribution coverage; affordability, particularly for the poor; and adoption at provider and end-user levels—remains a challenge. PMID:24028246
Guevara, Jose Roberto Q.
Ecologically sound tourism planning and policy require an empowering community participation. The participatory action research model helps a community gain understanding of its social reality, learn how to learn, initiate dialog, and discover new possibilities for addressing its situation. (SK)
Cook, Won Kim
Introduction Integrating research and action represents a goal and key principles of CBPR, but there has been little effort to synthesize the literature to evaluate if such integration is occurring. Objectives 1) To examine the extent to which CBPR integrates action to effect community-level change; and 2) to ascertain factors that facilitates such integration. Methods Original articles reporting on CBPR in environmental and occupational health in the United States were identified primarily through a MEDLINE search. Inceptions, processes, methods, and outcomes of the projects were reviewed. Results In fourteen of the twenty studies reviewed, CBPR led to community-level action to improve the health and well-being of the community members. Observational studies that investigated problems posed by the affected community and that incorporated qualitative methods were more likely to lead to action. The collaboration among government scientists, university researchers, and community partners emerged as a new model of CBPR partnerships that effectively integrates research and action. Conclusions To help CBPR better integrate research and action, a shift towards community-initiated and action-oriented observational studies might be needed. PMID:18621950
Nasir, Laraib; Naqvi, Syeda Meenoo; Bhamani, Shelina
This research aimed to improve written expression (composition) skills of 5th grade students of an elite private school. The research was designed under the paradigm of action research. A total sample of 39 students' from the same grade was chosen for the study. The baseline assessment was carried out to explore the pre-intervention writing skill…
Longstreet, Wilma S.
Neither the scientific nor the humanistic research paradigm is completely appropriate for the education field. Human service situations yield research results that are tentative descriptions or generalizations due to continuous change. An action research paradigm should reflect the ongoing need of the subjects to act without waiting for research…
Dold, Claudia J.; Chapman, Richard A.
Interest in participatory action research (PAR) is rising among academics, researchers, families, and youth themselves who are involved in the system of care. PAR combines systematic research and professional guidance with the development of a practical intervention tailored to the user population in collaboration with the user population. We…
Wong, Rosemary S. L.; Vikram, Bhadrasain; Govern, Frank S.; Petereit, Daniel G.; Maguire, Patrick D.; Clarkson, Maggie R.; Heron, Dwight E.; Coleman, C. Norman
Purpose: To increase access of underserved/health disparities communities to National Cancer Institute (NCI) clinical trials, the Radiation Research Program piloted a unique model – the Cancer Disparities Research Partnership (CDRP) program. CDRP targeted community hospitals with a limited past NCI funding history and provided funding to establish the infrastructure for their clinical research program. Methods: Initially, 5-year planning phase funding was awarded to six CDRP institutions through a cooperative agreement (U56). Five were subsequently eligible to compete for 5-year implementation phase (U54) funding and three received a second award. Additionally, the NCI Center to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities supported their U56 patient navigation programs. Results: Community-based hospitals with little or no clinical trials experience required at least a year to develop the infrastructure and establish community outreach/education and patient navigation programs before accrual to clinical trials could begin. Once established, CDRP sites increased their yearly patient accrual mainly to NCI-sponsored cooperative group trials (~60%) and Principal Investigator/mentor-initiated trials (~30%). The total number of patients accrued on all types of trials was 2,371, while 5,147 patients received navigation services. Conclusion: Despite a historical gap in participation in clinical cancer research, underserved communities are willing/eager to participate. Since a limited number of cooperative group trials address locally advanced diseases seen in health disparities populations; this shortcoming needs to be rectified. Sustainability for these programs remains a challenge. Addressing these gaps through research and public health mechanisms may have an important impact on their health, scientific progress, and efforts to increase diversity in NCI clinical trials. PMID:25405101
Levin, Jeffrey L; Gilmore, Karen; Carruth, Ann; Wickman, Amanda; Shepherd, Sara; Gallardo, Gilbert; Nonnenmann, Matthew
Commercial fishing continues to be a dangerous line of work. There are many hazards and the work is complex, even on a small scale. Along the United States Gulf Coast, the make-up of the commercial fishing population is diverse, with many Vietnamese shrimpers. Cultural barriers can interfere with critical communication and with receptivity to necessary safety training. In the course of studying these factors, it became apparent that language was a significant barrier among Vietnamese shrimp fishermen learning sound signals and making Mayday calls, potentially contributing to adverse events. This article is a qualitative description of a pilot project in response to this observation and aimed at the development of a model simulating the bridge of a commercial fishing vessel (including horn blast and radio). The model is used to improve knowledge and skills of the fishermen by providing instruction in Vietnamese. As a Mayday call must be made in English, instructional aids are provided to assist fishermen in the exercise. This example of research to practice (r2p) demonstrates how research findings may enhance acquisition of safety knowledge and skills through development of these types of models as well sustainable instructional tools like the multi-lingual interactive CD described here. It further illustrates the importance of partnerships in the design and delivery of workplace safety training interventions. The model, instructional aids, and CD are timely as they coincide with new regulation which mandates certification of these competencies or skills.
This article summarizes the work and the main findings of an action research project that was conducted in an early childhood education and care setting in the city of Malmö, Sweden in the autumn of 2013 and spring 2014. Rönnerman's model (Aktionsforskning i praktiken: förskola och skola på vetenskaplig grund [Action research in practice:…
Davis, Jerry L.
The research was conducted to determine the attitudes, general aptitudes, and interest patterns of residents of a county prison and, on the basis of the test performances, to offer recommendations concerning prison reforms. The results of the assessment techniques were interpreted to residents and to prison administrators. Examples of new programs…
Lewis, David J.
An action research investigation of an aquaculture project in Bangladesh resulted in a process model of interagency partnerships between nongovernmental organizations and government. Findings showed partnerships are diverse and highly vulnerable to external forces such as economics, politics, culture, and support of those in power. (SK)
Pueyo, Natalie C.; Raub, Andrew G.; Jackson, Sean; Metz, Madalyn M.; Mount, Allegra C.; Naughton, Kyle L.; Eaton, Ashley L.; Thomas, Nicole M.; Hastings, Peter; Greaves, John; Blumberg, Bruce; Collins, Terrence J.; Sogo, Steven G.
A chemical research program at a public high school has been developed. The full-year Advanced Chemical Research class (ACR) in the high school enrolls 20 to 30 seniors each year, engaging them in long-term experimental projects. Through partnerships involving university scientists, ACR high school students have had the opportunity to explore a number of highly sophisticated original research projects. As an example of the quality of experimental work made possible through these high school–university partnerships, this article describes the development of a novel method for the oxidation of ethidium bromide, a mutagen commonly used in molecular biology. Data collected from ACR alumni show that the ACR program is instrumental in encouraging students to pursue careers in scientific fields and in creating life-long problem-solvers. PMID:23585695
Pueyo, Natalie C; Raub, Andrew G; Jackson, Sean; Metz, Madalyn M; Mount, Allegra C; Naughton, Kyle L; Eaton, Ashley L; Thomas, Nicole M; Hastings, Peter; Greaves, John; Blumberg, Bruce; Collins, Terrence J; Sogo, Steven G
A chemical research program at a public high school has been developed. The full-year Advanced Chemical Research class (ACR) in the high school enrolls 20 to 30 seniors each year, engaging them in long-term experimental projects. Through partnerships involving university scientists, ACR high school students have had the opportunity to explore a number of highly sophisticated original research projects. As an example of the quality of experimental work made possible through these high school-university partnerships, this article describes the development of a novel method for the oxidation of ethidium bromide, a mutagen commonly used in molecular biology. Data collected from ACR alumni show that the ACR program is instrumental in encouraging students to pursue careers in scientific fields and in creating life-long problem-solvers.
This report by the National Research Council's (NRC's) Committee on Review of the FreedomCAR and Fuel Research Program, Phase 3, is the third NRC review. The Phase 1 and Phase 2 reviews were issued in 2005 and 2008, respectively (NRC, 2005, 2008). The long-range goals of the Partnership focus on a transition to a highway transportation system that uses sustainable energy resources and reduces emissions, including net carbon emissions, on a life-cycle or well (source)-to-wheels basis (DOE, 2004). The Partnership focuses on precompetitive research and development (R&D) that can help to accelerate the emergence of technologies that can meet the long-range goals. • This review document is published by National Academies Press. You may (a) read the text for free on the National Academies Press web site, (b) download a free PDF after providing some identifying information, or (c) purchase a paperback copy of the book.
Williamson, Heather J; Young, Belinda-Rose; Murray, Nichole; Burton, Donna L; Levin, Bruce Lubotsky; Massey, Oliver Tom; Baldwin, Julie A
Community-university partnerships are frequently used to enhance translational research efforts while benefiting the community. However, challenges remain in evaluating such efforts. This article discusses the utility of applying the contextual and interactive model of community-university collaboration to a translational research education program, the Institute for Translational Research in Adolescent Behavioral Health, to guide programmatic efforts and future evaluations. Institute stakeholders from academia and the community completed in-depth interviews querying their expectations and experiences in this collaboration. Key quotes and themes were extracted and analyzed based on the constructs within the 3 phases of the model. The findings note specific themes for future evaluations. Overall, the contextual and interactive model of community-university collaboration proved a useful framework to guide the process evaluation of the Institute. Findings suggest possible strategies for the successful development, evaluation, and sustainability of community-university partnerships.
Williamson, Heather J.; Young, Belinda-Rose; Murray, Nichole; Burton, Donna L.; Levin, Bruce Lubotsky; Massey, Oliver Tom; Baldwin, Julie A.
Community–university partnerships are frequently used to enhance translational research efforts while benefiting the community. However, challenges remain in evaluating such efforts. This article discusses the utility of applying the contextual and interactive model of community–university collaboration to a translational research education program, the Institute for Translational Research in Adolescent Behavioral Health, to guide programmatic efforts and future evaluations. Institute stakeholders from academia and the community completed in-depth interviews querying their expectations and experiences in this collaboration. Key quotes and themes were extracted and analyzed based on the constructs within the 3 phases of the model. The findings note specific themes for future evaluations. Overall, the contextual and interactive model of community–university collaboration proved a useful framework to guide the process evaluation of the Institute. Findings suggest possible strategies for the successful development, evaluation, and sustainability of community–university partnerships. PMID:28184179
Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G; Celestin, Michel J; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J Bryan
Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention.
Brown, David Richard; Hernández, Agueda; Saint-Jean, Gilbert; Evans, Siân; Tafari, Ida; Brewster, Luther G.; Celestin, Michel J.; Gómez-Estefan, Carlos; Regalado, Fernando; Akal, Siri; Nierenberg, Barry; Kauschinger, Elaine D.; Schwartz, Robert; Page, J. Bryan
Healthy People 2010 made it a priority to eliminate health disparities. We used a rapid assessment response and evaluation (RARE) to launch a program of participatory action research focused on health disparities in an urban, disadvantaged Black community serviced by a major south Florida health center. We formed partnerships with community members, identified local health disparities, and guided interventions targeting health disparities. We describe the RARE structure used to triangulate data sources and guide intervention plans as well as findings and conclusions drawn from scientific literature and epidemiological, historic, planning, clinical, and ethnographic data. Disenfranchisement and socioeconomic deprivation emerged as the principal determinants of local health disparities and the most appropriate targets for intervention. PMID:18048802
Bissessar, Charmaine S.
An exponential body of extant research illustrates the symbiotic dyad action research, andragogy, reflective praxis, and transformative learning share. This paper contains a narrative review of 83 action research papers submitted to the researcher as part of the fulfilment of the Bachelor of Education degree from April 2011 to May 2013.…
Beidler, Caroline; Wittberg, Richard; Meloncon, Lisa; Parin, Megan; Kopras, Elizabeth J.; Succop, Paul; Dietrich, Kim N.
Background: Marietta, Ohio, is an Appalachian-American community whose residents have long struggled with understanding their exposure to airborne manganese (Mn). Although community engagement in research is strongly endorsed by the National Institutes of Health and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences in particular, little has been documented demonstrating how an academic–community partnership that implements the community-based participatory research (CBPR) principles can be created and mobilized for research. Objectives: We created a bidirectional, academic–community partnership with an Appalachian-American community to a) identify the community’s thoughts and perceptions about local air quality, its effect on health, and the perception of risk communication sources and b) jointly develop and conduct environmental health research. Methods: We formed a community advisory board (CAB), jointly conducted pilot research studies, and used the results to develop a community-driven research agenda. Results: Persons in the community were “very concerned” to “concerned” about local air quality (91%) and perceived the air quality to have a direct impact on their health and on their children’s health (93% and 94%, respectively). The CAB identified the primary research question: “Does Mn affect the cognition and behavior of children?” Although the community members perceived research scientists as the most trusted and knowledgeable regarding risks from industrial emissions, they received very little risk information from research scientists. Conclusions: Engaging a community in environmental health research from its onset enhanced the quality and relevance of the research investigation. The CBPR principles were a useful framework in building a strong academic–community partnership. Because of the current disconnect between communities and research scientists, academic researchers should consider working collaboratively with community
Many countries around the globe are designing and implementing low emission development strategies (LEDS). These LEDS seek to achieve social, economic, and environmental development goals while reducing long-term greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and increasing resiliency to climate change impacts. The LEDS Global Partnership (LEDS GP) harnesses the collective knowledge and resources of more than 120 countries and international donor and technical organizations to strengthen climate-resilient low emission development efforts around the world.
Alexa, L.; Alexa, M.; Avasilcăi, S.
The current business environment is characterized by increased competition and highly innovative approach, in order to create products and services to better respond to the costumers’ needs and expectations. In this specific context, the research approaches need to be more flexible and business oriented and so, throughout the paper we have used a research method that combines design research and action research, named Action Design Research which is a research method used for generating prescriptive design knowledge through building and evaluating IT artifacts in an organizational setting . Following the Action Design Research stages and principles: problem identification, building, intervention and evaluation, reflection and learning and formalization of learning, the research team has developed an online instrument used to actively involve the consumer in the product development process, in order to generate a better consumers insight regarding their needs and desires and to design and/or adjust the product accordingly. The customer engagement IT tool created and tested by using Action Design Research, E-PICUS, has been developed within the framework of the research project „E-solutions for innovation through customer pro-active involvement in value creation to increase organisational competitiveness (E-PICUS)”, PN- II-PT-PCCA-2013-4-1811, currently undergoing.
Pierce, D.; Radencic, S.; Funderburk, W. K.; Walker, R. M.; Jackson, B. S.; Dawkins, K. S.; Schmitz, D.; Bruce, L. M.; McNeal, K.
INSPIRE, a five-year partnership between Mississippi State University and three local school districts, is designed to strengthen the communication skills of graduate Fellows in geosciences, physics, astronomy, chemistry, and engineering as they incorporate their research into inquiry-based lessons in 7th - 12th grade science and math classrooms. All lesson plans designed and taught by the graduate Fellows must include one or more connections to their research, and these connections must be demonstrated to the students during the lessons. International research partnerships with Australia, the Bahamas, England, and Poland provide valuable opportunities for graduate Fellows to conduct field work abroad and allow our partner teachers to have authentic research experiences that they can bring back to their classrooms. Program effectiveness has been examined using pre- and post-year attitudinal surveys, formal lesson plan documents, Fellow and teacher journals, focus group meetings with a project evaluator, and direct observation of Fellow-led classroom activities. Analyses of data gathered during the past four years of the partnership will be presented that examine the diversity in approaches taken by Fellows to communicate big ideas, changes in the ability of Fellows to find connections between their research and classroom lessons while keeping them aligned with state and national standards, and the quality of the mentorship provided to the Fellows by our partner teachers. INSPIRE is funded by the Graduate K-12 (GK-12) STEM Fellowship Program of the National Science Foundation (Award No. DGE-0947419).
Akom, Antwi A. A.
The central purpose of this article is to introduce Black Emancipatory Action Research (BEAR) as a framework that will allow social scientists to explore the implications that "racing research and researching race" have for methodological practices and knowledge production in the field of education and beyond (Twine and Warren 2003). Drawing on…
Nall, Mark; Casas, Joseph
This paper proposes the formation of an international panel of space related public/private partnerships for the purposes of sharing best practices among members. The exploration and development of space is too costly to be conducted by governments alone. Private industry has a significant role in creating needed technologies, and developing commercial space infrastructure, thereby allowing sustainable exploration to take place. Public/private partnerships between government and industry are key to fostering industrial participation in space. The spacefaring nations have, or are developing these partnerships. Those organizations forming these partnerships can benefit from sharing among each other best practices and lessons learned. In this way the common goal of space exploration and development can be more effectively pursued.
Dulmus, Catherine N.; Cristalli, Maria E.
Human service organizations are uniquely positioned, given their scope of practice and access to consumers with the widest range of needs to significantly increase the national capacity for research if they were effectively equipped with the knowledge, skills, and funding to integrate research and development into their ongoing organizational…
Paberzs, Adam; Piechowski, Patricia; Warrick, Debra; Grawi, Carolyn; Choate, Celeste; Sneed, Glenda; Carr, Diane; Lota, Kanchan; Key, Kent; Alexander, Valerie; Ghosh, Pratik; Sampselle, Carolyn
In 2007, the Michigan Institute for Clinical and Health Research (MICHR) at the University of Michigan received a Clinical and Translational Science Award (CTSA). Within MICHR, the Community Engagement (CE) program supports partnership efforts between researchers, practitioners, and community-based organizations in specific focal communities throughout Michigan. A key component of the CE program is the Community Engagement Coordinating Council, a group that provides input and guidance on program priorities, strategic planning, and reviews pilot funding proposals for community-academic partnerships. This paper will describe a unique MICHR pilot funding mechanism for Community-University Research Partnerships (CURES) with an emphasis on the ways that community partners are involved in the review process, as well as the benefits, challenges, and insights gained over 5 years of pilot review. There is a growing need for community involvement and expertise in review of funding proposals for community-engaged research at both institutional and federal levels. The CURES pilot review process is one example of an institutional effort to engage community partners in university funding decisions and has demonstrated clear benefit toward accomplishing the aims of the CTSA.
"Using Action Research to Foster Positive Social Values" provides teachers with a unique framework in which to consider classroom violence. It uses actual case studies and working models done through classroom research to produce more effective classrooms that foster positive social values. The author lays out a theoretical framework for: (1)…
Teacher action research is in the emergent stages in Sudanese schools and needs to be well disseminated and actively supported from the Ministry of education. Although the teacher-as-researcher movement has been in existence for some twenty years, there is a reason to think that the majority if not all, of Sudanese class teachers remain…
Binnie, Lynne M.; Allen, Kristen; Beck, Elaine
This paper outlines the efforts of an Educational Psychology Service (EPS) to develop its practice in the area of research. It will argue that the Action Enquiry model of service delivery can empower teaching staff and may allow an effective means of change and improvement to take place in schools. This model steers research towards providing…
This article reports a study on collaboration within an action research project that was conducted by university researchers and elementary school teachers in the Azores, Portugal. More specifically, it examines how different kinds of participants worked together in different phases of the project. The notion of mutuality (i.e., the relative…
This study was carried out with 44 students attending the Social Studies Education Department of Faculty of Education at Abant Izzet Baysal University, who chose the elective Media Literacy Course. In the study, that was planned as an action research, the assistant professor of the course acted as "researcher" and the students (teacher…
Gitlin, Andrew; Peck, Marcie
In this article, Gitlin and Peck argue that much of the development of action research has been based on a reconstructed view of science (i.e., a science that is more contextual, less law-like, less causal, but still accurately represents reality and is teacher centered as opposed to researcher centered). In contrast to this reconstructed view of…
Blair, Thomas; Minkler, Meredith
Purpose: Although participatory action research (PAR) is increasingly viewed as an important complement to traditional investigator-driven research, relatively little PAR has taken place in which older adults have been prominent partners. This article provides a review of the literature on PAR in gerontology, highlighting key studies and their…
The article describes a collaborative action research in a preschool in Reykjavik. The participants were two preschool teachers who collaborated with researchers at the University of Iceland. The project was set up as a professional development course for the teachers. Emphasis was placed on continuity in children's education, integration of play…
Glassman, Michael; Erdem, Gizem
This article traces the development of the "second" and arguably more well-known "genre" of participatory action research (PAR). The article argues that the origins of PAR are highly distributed and cannot really be traced back to the ideas of a single person or even a single group of researchers. Instead, the development of…
This study examined the technology integration practices of teachers involved in a statewide initiative via one cycle of action research. It differs from other studies of teacher technology integration practices because it simultaneously involved and provided direct benefits to teachers and researchers. The study used thematic analysis to provide…
Zambo, Debby; Isai, Shelley
This case study reveals the development and action research work of a student in a newly designed educational doctorate aimed at preparing scholarly and influential practitioners. Data were gathered from a research journal, field notes, email correspondence, observation, and dissertation work, and analyzed with a constant comparative approach.…
Useful as a classroom text and self-teaching tool, this book outlines the process of designing and reporting action research projects in schools. The underlying assumption of the book is that research is not a domain that belongs only to academics, but is a powerful approach that can be used by practitioners to contribute to school renewal and…
Draper, Roni Jo; Adair, Marta; Broomhead, Paul; Gray, Sharon; Grierson, Sirpa; Hendrickson, Scott; Jensen, Amy P.; Nokes, Jeffery D.; Shumway, Steven; Siebert, Daniel; Wright, Geoffrey
This narrative study describes the experiences of a group of teacher educators as they worked together in a collaborative research activity investigating theories of literacy and the preparation of secondary teachers. The collaboration was organized around the precepts associated with participatory action research (PAR). After four years of…
Mogk, D. W.; Manduca, C. A.
The Digital Library for Earth System Education (DLESE; www.dlese.org) supports excellence in Earth system education-for all learners in all instructional settings. Application of emerging information technologies provides new opportunities to form meaningful partnerships between the research community and education and public outreach efforts in the Earth sciences. Current activities at DLESE include:\\Working/Interest Groups: List-servers and websites are available to support self-defined working/interest groups. Groups currently active include K-12, Diversity, Water in the Earth System, Integrating Research and Education, and Science Policy. You are invited to join existing groups or start new topical discussions. The Integrating Research and Education list-server provides an excellent venue for sharing information on successful programs of this type. Dataset Working Group: This group is focused on the development of data access, tools and materials that will allow students to explore the Earth system using research data. A demonstration project showing integrated access to distributed datasets spanning the Earth system is underway. The Earth Exploration Toolbook project is collecting information and tips for using available data interfaces and tools. Researcher and educators are invited to join the dataset working group and contribute to the data access, interfaces, and educational resources needed to support learning through data exploration.\\Collections Development: Both individual learning resources and resource collections are being collected, organized and cataloged for broad dissemination using the search and browse functions of the DLESE discovery system. A Resource Cataloger has been developed to allow individuals to catalog resources that they have either developed themselves or that they routinely use in their instructional practice. Our experience shows that users or creators are most familiar with resources they use, and are therefore best
Metcalfe, Leanne; O’Donoghue, Katriona; Ball, Simon T.; Beale, Angela; Beale, William; Hilton, Rachel; Hodkinson, Keith; Lipkin, Graham W.; Loud, Fiona; Marson, Lorna P.; Morris, Peter J.
Background It has been suggested that the research priorities of those funding and performing research in transplantation may differ from those of end service users such as patients, carers and healthcare professionals involved in day-to-day care. The Kidney Transplant Priority Setting Partnership (PSP) was established with the aim of involving all stakeholders in prioritising future research in the field. Methods The PSP methodology is as outlined by the James Lind Alliance. An initial survey collected unanswered research questions from patients, carers and clinicians. Duplicate and out-of-scope topics were excluded and the existing literature searched to identify topics answered by current evidence. An interim prioritisation survey asked patients and professionals to score the importance of the remaining questions to create a ranked long-list. These were considered at a final consensus workshop using a modified nominal group technique to agree a final top ten. Results The initial survey identified 497 questions from 183 respondents, covering all aspects of transplantation from assessment through to long-term follow-up. These were grouped into 90 unanswered “indicative” questions. The interim prioritisation survey received 256 responses (34.8% patients/carers, 10.9% donors and 54.3% professionals), resulting in a ranked list of 25 questions that were considered during the final workshop. Participants agreed a top ten priorities for future research that included optimisation of immunosuppression (improved monitoring, choice of regimen, personalisation), prevention of sensitisation and transplanting the sensitised patient, management of antibody-mediated rejection, long-term risks to live donors, methods of organ preservation, induction of tolerance and bioengineering of organs. There was evidence that patient and carer involvement had a significant impact on shaping the final priorities. Conclusions The final list of priorities relates to all stages of the
O'Neill, D. Kevin
Several points of contrast are highlighted between design-based research (DBR) as often practiced within the learning sciences and design partnerships inspired by cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT). It is argued that learning scientists can improve their work by learning from CHAT-inspired DBR in 4 particular ways: (a) by recognizing the…
Hammel, Joy; Jones, Robin; Gossett, Andrea; Morgan, Elizabeth
This participatory action research study focused on identifying community participation goals, barriers, and supports/strategies in partnership with people who have experienced a stroke. Goals demonstrate that participation is more than activity performance in context; instead, it relates to "being a part of" the community and having access to participation opportunities and supports. Results of community site audits from the first 20 participants document environmental (physical, cognitive, social) and system level barriers, as well as effective strategies for promoting participation via environmental modification and systems level changes. A consumer-directed, Web-based tool for documenting participation barriers and sharing strategies is discussed.
Galinsky, Ellen; Sakai, Kelly; Wigton, Tyler
emphasis on flexibility as one component of effective workplaces that can benefit employers, employees, and communities alike. Galinsky, Sakai, and Wigton conclude by drawing lessons learned from the project and briefly discussing the implications of using research to bring about workplace change.
MEZA, ROSEMARY D.; BRIKHO, BRIGITTE; NAAF, MEGHAN; ESTABILLO, JASPER A.; GOMEZ, EMILY D.; VEJNOSKA, SARAH F.; DUFEK, SARAH; STAHMER, AUBYN C.; AARONS, GREGORY A.
Policy Points: Communities, funding agencies, and institutions are increasingly involving community stakeholders as partners in research, to provide firsthand knowledge and insight.Based on our systematic review of major literature databases, we recommend using a single term, community‐academic partnership (CAP), and a conceptual definition to unite multiple research disciplines and strengthen the field.Interpersonal and operational factors that facilitate or hinder the collaborative process have been consistently identified, including “trust among partners” and “respect among partners” (facilitating interpersonal factors) and “excessive time commitment” (hindering operational factor).Once CAP processes and characteristics are better understood, the effectiveness of collaborative partner involvement can be tested. Context Communities, funding agencies, and institutions are increasingly involving community stakeholders as partners in research. Community stakeholders can provide firsthand knowledge and insight, thereby increasing research relevance and feasibility. Despite the greater emphasis and use of community‐academic partnerships (CAP) across multiple disciplines, definitions of partnerships and methodologies vary greatly, and no systematic reviews consolidating this literature have been published. The purpose of this article, then, is to facilitate the continued growth of this field by examining the characteristics of CAPs and the current state of the science, identifying the facilitating and hindering influences on the collaborative process, and developing a common term and conceptual definition for use across disciplines. Methods Our systematic search of 6 major literature databases generated 1,332 unique articles, 50 of which met our criteria for inclusion and provided data on 54 unique CAPs. We then analyzed studies to describe CAP characteristics and to identify the terms and methods used, as well as the common influences on the CAP
Boyle, Andrea; Davis, Harvey; Pritchard, Hilary K; McBride, Marilyn; Orsi, Allen; Scott, Stephani; Kresge, Linda
The nursing shortage affects communities at many levels, from community hospitals to schools of nursing. The authors describe an innovative 4-way partnership involving a community healthcare district, a community hospital, a community college, and a state university. Working together, these partners established a new baccalaureate nursing program based at a community college and also functioning as a satellite of an existing university-based program, which increased the enrollment of baccalaureate nursing students by 50%. Their work could serve as a model for other collaborative efforts to expand nursing education and reduce the shortage of nurses.
Phelps, L. Allen; Prevost, Amy
In settings across the United States, governing boards, state officials, and campus leaders are intensely examining, refining, and reprioritizing post-secondary education missions and spending to optimize value-added economic and social returns. In this article, the authors discuss the nation's changing research and innovation context, the…
Most action researchers agree that action research consists of cycles of planning, acting, reflecting, and taking further action. However, in action research literature, there is something missing. The nature of reflection in the action research process, including its relationship with the tensions that arise while discussing purposes, processes,…
Postholm, May Britt; Skrøvset, Siw
This article focuses on the challenges and opportunities a researcher may encounter in practice, and presents four narratives that take the reader into situations which may arise when the researcher steps into the practice field. Episodes that challenge the researcher both cognitively and emotionally are depicted in the narratives. The authors…
Cornelissen, Frank; van den Berg, Ellen
Today, many institutions of higher education support students in conducting practice-oriented research. This research refers to a broad array of approaches geared toward practitioners' practice. The supervision of such research is of crucial importance, but little is known about its nature and characteristics. This study examined what research…
Jaffe, Peter G; Berman, Helene; MacQuarrie, Barb
The importance of Canadian research on violence against women became a national focus after the 1989 murder of 14 women at École Polytechnique in Montreal. This tragedy led to several federal government studies that identified a need to develop centers for applied research and community-university alliances on violence against women. One such center is the Centre for Research & Education on Violence against Women and Children. The Centre was founded in London, Canada in 1992 out of a partnership of a university, a community college, and community services. The centre's history and current activities are summarized as a model for the development and sustainability of similar centers.
Redline, Susan; Baker-Goodwin, Si; Bakker, Jessie P.; Epstein, Matthew; Hanes, Sherry; Hanson, Mark; Harrington, Zinta; Johnston, James C.; Kapur, Vishesh K.; Keepnews, David; Kontos, Emily; Lowe, Andy; Owens, Judith; Page, Kathy; Rothstein, Nancy
Due to an ongoing recent evolution in practice, sleep medicine as a discipline has been compelled to respond to the converging pressures to reduce costs, improve outcomes, and demonstrate value. Patient “researchers” are uniquely placed to participate in initiatives that address the specific needs and priorities of patients and facilitate the identification of interventions with high likelihood of acceptance by the “customer.” To date, however, the “patient voice” largely has been lacking in processes affecting relevant policies and practice guidelines. In this Special Report, patient and research leaders of the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network (SAPCON), a national collaborative group of patients, researchers and clinicians working together to promote patient-centered comparative effectiveness research, discuss these interrelated challenges in the context of sleep apnea, and the role patients and patient-centered networks may play in informing evidence-based research designed to meet patient's needs. We first briefly discuss the challenges facing sleep medicine associated with costs, outcomes, and value. We then discuss the key role patients and patient-centered networks can play in efforts to design research to guide better sleep health care, and national support for such initiatives. Finally, we summarize some of the challenges in moving to a new paradigm of patient-researcher-clinician partnerships. By forging strong partnerships among patients, clinicians and researchers, networks such as SAPCON can serve as a living demonstration of how to achieve value in health care. Citation: Redline S, Baker-Goodwin S, Bakker JP, Epstein M, Hanes S, Hanson M, Harrington Z, Johnston JC, Kapur VK, Keepnews D, Kontos E, Lowe A, Owens J, Page K, Rothstein N, Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. Patient partnerships transforming sleep medicine research and clinical care: perspectives from the Sleep Apnea Patient-Centered Outcomes Network. J
The Global Mercury Partnership is a voluntary multi-stakeholder partnership initiated in 2005 to take immediate actions to protect human health and the environment from the releases of mercury and its compounds to the environment.
Curtis, Valerie A; Garbrah-Aidoo, Nana; Scott, Beth
Skill in marketing is a scarce resource in public health, especially in developing countries. The Global Public-Private Partnership for Handwashing with Soap set out to tap the consumer marketing skills of industry for national handwashing programs. Lessons learned from commercial marketers included how to (1) understand consumer motivation, (2) employ 1 single unifying idea, (3) plan for effective reach, and (4) ensure effectiveness before national launch. After the first marketing program, 71% of Ghanaian mothers knew the television ad and the reported rates of handwashing with soap increased. Conditions for the expansion of such partnerships include a wider appreciation of what consumer marketing is, what it can do for public health, and the potential benefits to industry. Although there are practical and philosophical difficulties, there are many opportunities for such partnerships.
ANDRILL, the Antarctic geology Drilling project, sponsors an intense Scientist-Educator partnership opportunity: as participants, educators spend two months working with scientists, technicians, and drillers in Antarctica. The program is ANDRILL's Research Immersion for Science Educators Program (ARISE). During the austral summer of 2006, six ARISE participants from four countries worked as part of ANDRILL's McMurdo Ice Shelf project team. During that season, drillers recovered over 1200 m of rock core from beneath 85 m of ice and 850 m of sea water. Scientists, technicians, and educators worked together to process and interpret the core. The intensity, duration, and relative isolation of working in Antarctica fueled learning and inspired new teaching activities. Eight new ARISE participants are working on ANDRILL's Southern McMurdo Sound project in 2007. Building on these Scientist-Educator partnerships, ANDRILL is compiling a collection of educational materials and outreach capabilities that are broadening the impacts of Antarctic geoscience research across diverse communities. Past and current ARISE participants represent a range of grade levels and educational situations; each person makes outreach efforts in their own community, and shares their efforts among the group of educators. The results are reaching students, youth in informal science education venues, science educators, and the public, in the United States and around the world. This presentation will highlight outreach efforts and educational materials produced by ANDRILL staff and ARISE participants, and offer a list of best practices for maximizing impact from Scientist-Educator partnerships.
Teal, Randall; Enga, Zoe; Diehl, Sandra J.; Rohweder, Catherine L.; Kim, Mimi; Dave, Gaurav; Durr, April; Wynn, Mysha; Isler, Malika Roman; Corbie-Smith, Giselle; Weiner, Bryan J.
Background Partnerships between academic and community-based organizations can richly inform the research process and speed translation of findings. While immense potential exists to co-conduct research, a better understanding of how to create and sustain equitable relationships between entities with different organizational goals, structures, resources, and expectations is needed. Objective To engage community leaders in the development of an instrument to assess community-based organizations' interest and capacity to engage with academia in translational research partnerships. Methods Leaders from community-based organizations partnered with our research team in the design of a 50-item instrument to assess organizational experience with applying for federal funding and conducting research studies. Respondents completed a self-administered, paper/pencil survey and a follow-up structured cognitive interview (n=11). A community advisory board (n=8) provided further feedback on the survey through guided discussion. Thematic analysis of the cognitive interviews and a summary of the community advisory board discussion informed survey revisions. Results Cognitive interviews and discussion with community leaders identified language and measurement issues for revision. Importantly, they also revealed an unconscious bias on the part of researchers and offered an opportunity, at an early research stage, to address imbalances in the survey perspective and to develop a more collaborative, equitable approach. Conclusions Engaging community leaders enhanced face and content validity and served as a means to form relationships with potential community co-investigators in the future. Cognitive interviewing can enable a bi-directional approach to partnerships, starting with instrument development. PMID:26639377
Bain, David L; Brenowitz, Michael; Roberts, Christopher J
Training researchers for positions in the United States biopharmaceutical industry has long been driven by academia. This commentary explores how the changing landscape of academic training will impact the industrial workforce, particularly with regard to the development of protein therapeutics in the area of biophysical and higher order structural characterization. We discuss how to balance future training and employment opportunities, how academic-industrial partnerships can help young scientists acquire the skills needed by their future employer, and how an appropriately trained workforce can facilitate the translation of new technology from academic to industrial laboratories. We also present suggestions to facilitate the coordinated development of industrial-academic educational partnerships to develop new training programs, and the ability of students to locate these programs, through the development of authoritative public resources.
This paper explores the combination of storytelling and reflective action research as a means to effect change and learning within and across communities and organizations. Taking the complex challenge of "pro-environmental behaviour change" as an example, the paper reflects on the experiences of a pilot project run for the UK government…
This is part II of a case study involving a large federally funded technology grant program implemented across several central Texas school districts and was followed by the researcher-participant at the university level as well as one of the campus sites. Many ethical research questions were raised during this study such as the use of participant…
Rhodes, Scott D; Hergenrather, Kenneth C; Wilkin, Aimee M; Jolly, Christine
Little is known about the experiences of persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in some regions of the United States that are disproportionately affected by HIV/AIDS. "Visions and Voices: HIV in the 21st Century" was an exploratory study to gain insight into the life experiences of 15 indigent PLWHA. The study used photovoice to uncover the realities of living with HIV/AIDS though photographic documentation and Freirean-based critical dialogue and facilitate a process for PLWHA to reach local community members and leaders, policy makers, and advocates to develop plans of action and effect change. From the participants' photographs and words, seven themes emerged and were presented during a community forum. Three main outcomes occurred, including a participant-developed and locally funded gallery exhibition to address HIV/AIDS misinformation and stigma; a new partnership with the public health department to use PLWHA in their prevention programming; and increased community efforts to address substance use.
Ostrovsky, Andrey; Katz, Mitchell H
A coalition of local public health system stakeholders in San Francisco developed a community assessment and strategic planning tool, the San Francisco Community Vital Signs (SFCVS). The SFCVS builds on the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships (MAPP) model by incorporating Internet-based technology into local public health system evaluation and strengthening. This article describes the overlap between the SFCVS and MAPP processes, the manner in which information technology facilitated the SFCVS process, and a template for infusing a Web-based platform into the MAPP model. Internet-based applications helped to implement many (16 of 41; 39%) of the components of the SFCVS process. Of these 16 process measures, the majority (10; 63%) required the use of Web-based technology. The SFCVS demonstrates that a MAPP-like process can leverage the Internet to augment the functionality of public health activities.
Science research courses have been around for years at the university and high school level. As inquiry based learning has become more and more a part of the science teacher's vocabulary, many of these courses have adopted an inquiry model for studying science. Learners of all ages benefit from learning through the natural process of inquiry. I participated in the CIRES Earthworks program for science teachers (Colorado University) in the summer of 2007 and experienced, first hand, the value of inquiry learning. With the support and vision of my school administration, and with the support and commitment of community partners, I have developed a Middle School Science Research Program that is transforming how science is taught to students in my community. Swift Creek Middle School is located in Tallahassee, Florida. There are approximately 1000 students in this suburban public school. Students at Swift Creek are required to take one science class each year through 8th grade. As more emphasis is placed on learning a large number of scientific facts and information, in order to prepare students for yearly, standardized tests, there is a concern that less emphasis may be placed on the process and nature of science. The program I developed draws from the inquiry model followed at the CIRES Earthworks program, utilizes valuable community partnerships, and plays an important role in meeting that need. There are three major components to this Middle School Research Program, and the Center for Integrated Research and Learning (CIRL) at the National High Magnetic Field Lab (NHMFL) at Florida State University is playing an important role in all three. First, each student will develop their own research question and design experiments to answer the question. Scientists from the NHMFL are serving as mentors, or "buddy scientists," to my students as they work through the process of inquiry. Scientists from the CIRES - Earthworks program, Florida State University, and other
Ford, K. E. Saavik; Paglione, Timothy; Robbins, Dennis; Mac Low, Mordecai-Mark; Agueros, Marcel A.
AstroCom NYC is an NSF-funded partnership between astronomers at The City University of New York (CUNY), The American Museum of Natural History (AMNH) and Columbia University, designed to increase recruitment and retention of underrepresented minorities in astronomy and astrophysics. I will discuss the major program elements, including: recruitment, student selection, a 'Methods of Scientific Research' (MSR) course, summer research experience and ongoing structured mentoring. I will also discuss how the programs are integrated into each institution and present progress updates from our first two years.
Smith, Tenbroeck; de Moor, Janet S.; Glasgow, Russell E.; Khoury, Muin J.; Hawkins, Nikki A.; Stein, Kevin D.; Rechis, Ruth; Parry,, Carla; Leach, Corinne R.; Padgett, Lynne; Rowland, Julia H.
To meet the complex needs of a growing number of cancer survivors, it is essential to accelerate the translation of survivorship research into evidence-based interventions and, as appropriate, recommendations for care that may be implemented in a wide variety of settings. Current progress in translating research into care is stymied, with results of many studies un- or underutilized. To better understand this problem and identify strategies to encourage the translation of survivorship research findings into practice, four agencies (American Cancer Society, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, LIVE STRONG Foundation, National Cancer Institute) hosted a meeting in June, 2012, titled: “Biennial Cancer Survivorship Research Conference: Translating Science to Care.” Meeting participants concluded that accelerating science into care will require a coordinated, collaborative effort by individuals from diverse settings, including researchers and clinicians, survivors and families, public health professionals, and policy makers. This commentary describes an approach stemming from that meeting to facilitate translating research into care by changing the process of conducting research—improving communication, collaboration, evaluation, and feedback through true and ongoing partnerships. We apply the T0-T4 translational process model to survivorship research and provide illustrations of its use. The resultant framework is intended to orient stakeholders to the role of their work in the translational process and facilitate the transdisciplinary collaboration needed to translate basic discoveries into best practices regarding clinical care, self-care/management, and community programs for cancer survivors. Finally, we discuss barriers to implementing translational survivorship science identified at the meeting, along with future directions to accelerate this process. PMID:25249551
Post, Margaret; Little, Priscilla
This article examines how out-of-school time programs can promote youth involvement in civic action by focusing on four interrelated programmatic strategies: establishing organizational readiness that fosters engagement; promoting youth-adult partnerships; engaging youth as leaders and decision makers; and involving youth in research and…
Murphy, Declan G M; Goldman, Michel; Loth, Eva; Spooren, Will
We have made little recent progress developing effective new treatments for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders. Novel molecular mechanisms have been identified, but have not translated into the clinic. We suggest an alternative: combinations of treatments targeting different aspects of final common pathways in biologically defined clinical subgroups. This will require integrated translational neuroscience and international public-private partnerships.
Today, many higher educational institutions are forward thinking about promoting strategic initiatives by establishing partnerships with other universities nationally and internationally. Being financial and academically savvy, universities are reaching out to meet the demands of public interests in different types of college programs and…
Heafner, Tina; McIntyre, Ellen; Spooner, Melba
Responding to the challenge of more rigorous and outcome-oriented program evaluation criteria of the Council for the Accreditation of Educator Preparation (CAEP), authors take a critical look at the intersection of two standards: Clinical Partnerships and Practice (Standard 2) and Program Impact (Standard 4). Illustrating one aspect of a secondary…
Windle, Sheila; Sefton, Terry
This paper and its appended multi-media production describe the rationale and process of creating and presenting a "digitally saturated" (Lankshear & Knobel, 2003), multi-layered, synchronous "montage" (Denzin & Lincoln, 2003) of educational Action Research findings. The authors contend that this type of presentation, arising from the fusion of…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…
This article looks at my reflection as a teacher during a master's degree practicum for a Second Language Studies Program. This particular practicum differs from the other common student teacher-training courses found in master's programs as it incorporated a teacher-training session on conducting action research (AR) in the classroom, a practice…
Smith, Laura; Davis, Kathryn; Bhowmik, Malika
Youth participatory action research (YPAR) projects offer young people the opportunity to increase their sociocultural awareness, critical thinking abilities, and sense of agency within a collaborative group experience. Thus far, however, such projects have been primarily the province of educators and social psychologists, and not substantively…
Richardson, Eileen M.
In a high-school reading class, the author used Reader's Theater as an instructional and motivational strategy for underachieving students. This action research focused on the extent to which implementing Reader's Theater motivated students to read and improve their reading skills. Consistent increases in scores for all students occurred over the…
Gregory, Sheila; Poland, Fiona; Spalding, Nicola J.; Sargen, Kevin; McCulloch, Jane; Vicary, Penny
This paper reflects on the challenges and benefits of multidimensional collaboration in an action research study to evaluate and improve preoperative education for patients awaiting colorectal surgery. Three cycles of planning, acting, observing and reflecting were designed to evaluate practice and implement change in this interactive setting,…
Kuhne, Gary W.; Weirauch, Drucie; Fetterman, David J.; Mearns, Raiana M.; Kalinosky, Kathy; Cegles, Kathleen A.; Ritchey, Linda
Six case studies illustrate action research in adult education: faculty development in a museum, participation in a church congregation, retention of literacy volunteers in a corrections center, learner participation in a homeless shelter, technology innovation in a university, and infection control in a hospital. (SK)
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Fritch, Sarah C., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…
Learning networks are a critical element of ethos of the community action research approach taken by the Early Learning Initiative at the National College of Ireland, a community-based educational initiative in the Dublin Docklands. Key criteria for networking, whether at local, national or international level, are the individual's and…
Endreny, Anna Henderson
In this paper, I describe the action research I conducted in my third-grade science classrooms over the course of two years. In order to gain an understanding of my third-grade students' ideas about animal adaptations and how the teaching of a unit on crayfish influenced these ideas, I used clinical interviews, observations, and written…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 5900 Culminating…
Bell, Edwin D.; Grant, Kathy; Fisk-Moody, Patricia
The authors implemented an action research project to help teacher education candidates to reflect upon, assess, and ultimately strengthen teacher candidate dispositions through the Reflective Dispositional Coaching Model. The teacher education faculty agreed that candidate dispositions should address four areas: (a) professionalism, (b)…
Cook, Ruth Gannon; Ley, Kathryn
This action research study investigated a marketing plan based on collaboration among a program faculty team and other organizational units for a graduate professional program. From its inception through the second year of operation, program enrollment increased due to the marketing plan based on an effective approach grounded in simple marketing…
This article examines the effectiveness of action research as a continuous professional development (CPD) tool. The aim of the CPD programme was to support 14 community-based Early Childhood Care and Education (ECCE) centres in Ireland to improve quality in their settings through the implementation of the national quality and curriculum frameworks…
This paper reports on the results of a qualitative study that explored the experiences of one group of pre-service English language teachers in Hong Kong as they undertook an action research project as part of their undergraduate teacher training programme. Grounded in a theory of teacher identity construction as both practice and discourse, the…
Morales, Marie Paz E.; Abulon, Edna Luz R.; Soriano, Portia R.; David, Adonis P.; Hermosisima, Ma. Victoria C.; Gerundio, Maribel G.
Action research is viewed as a path towards better student achievement. This track may be attained through the reflective nature instilled in the teacher that sparks initiatives to promote better classroom practices in the aspects of pedagogy, assessment, and parental involvement. This descriptive survey explores Filipino teachers' conceptions of…
This study explores action research as a professional development strategy to improve interprofessional collaboration in a school division team focused on supporting students with a variety of learning and behavioural needs. Occupational therapists, speech and language pathologists, a psychologist, and a social worker worked together to learn more…
This is a study on teachers' professional development through action research practice. The participants of the study were 23 English Language Teachers (ELT) who teach in high schools, preparatory schools and colleges in Debre Markos, in Dessie and around in 2014. The methods of data collection were teacher reflection, and in-depth interview. The…
This study reports on graduate students' thoughts and beliefs about utilizing action research as a means of professional development two years after their graduation from a Master of Arts program in Education. Because many school districts now encourage teachers to engage in self-study and to collect data that informs their instruction, the author…
Feldman, Allan; Bennett, Kory; Vernaza-Hernández, Vanessa
The pursuit of justice has concerned human beings for centuries and, despite its importance, often remains outside the boundaries of our educational systems. This article reports on a study of an action research seminar for a group of teacher leaders in a position to instigate positive change within their educational context, and make their…
Sellers, Daniel; Byrne, Tina
In 2014 the National Adult Literacy Agency (NALA) published a research report titled "What Really Counts Next: Action Learning Project with Numeracy Tutors" (Sellers and Byrne, 2014). The report provided an in-depth insight into the way tutors made changes to their practice, and offered practical tips on how to teach numeracy to adult…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Moyer, Peggy S., Ed.
This document presents the course syllabus for Education 590 Culminating Experience at the University of Tennessee at Chattanooga's teacher licensure program. It also includes action research projects from spring 2003: "'To Track or Untrack...That Is the Question'" (Sarah Armes); "Providing Urban Students with the Motivation to…
Deemer, Sandra A.
The author describes an action research project given to masters-level preservice teachers in her educational psychology classes to help them connect the theories they are learning with educational problems they have observed or experienced. Students' responses on a six-item survey indicated that they valued the better understanding of how…
Action research changes people's practices, their understandings of their practices, and the conditions under which they practice. It changes people's patterns of "saying", "doing" and "relating" to form new patterns--new ways of life. It is a meta-practice: a practice that changes other practices. It transforms the…
Mostofo, Jameel; Zambo, Ron
There is a continuing emphasis in the United States on improving students' mathematical abilities, and one approach is to better prepare teachers. To investigate the potential usefulness of Lesson Study to better prepare teachers, one author set out to conduct action research on his classroom practice. Specifically, he sought to determine whether…
McAllister, Deborah A., Ed.; Cutcher, Cortney L., Ed.
As a part of the teacher licensure program at the graduate level at The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga (UTC), the M.Ed. Licensure candidate is required to complete an action research project during a 3-semester-hour course that coincides with the 9-semester-hour student teaching experience. This course, Education 590 Culminating…
Boxelaar, Lucia; Paine, Mark; Beilin, Ruth
Post-modern theorists have challenged the totalizing and unifying ambitions of change management practices. This paper explores how a narrative action research approach may be used to combine our modernist commitment to facilitate change and collaboration in the land management context with a post-modern sensitivity to complexity and difference.…