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Sample records for action selection process

  1. Stress intensifies demands on response selection during action cascading processes.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Ali; Wolf, Oliver T; Beste, Christian

    2014-04-01

    Stress has been shown to modulate a number of cognitive processes including action control. These functions are important in daily life and are mediated by various cognitive subprocesses. However, it is unknown if stress affects the whole processing cascade, or exerts specific effects on a restricted subset of processes involved in the chaining of actions. We examine the effects of stress on action selection processes in a stop-change paradigm and apply event-related potentials (ERPs) combined with source localization analysis to examine potentially restricted effects of stress on subprocesses mediating action cascading. The results show that attentional selection processes, as well as processes related to allocation of processing resources were not affected by stress. Stress only seems to affect response selection functions during action cascading and leads to slowing of responses when two actions are executed in succession. These changes are related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Changes in response selection were predictable on the basis of individual salivary cortisol levels. The results show that stress does not affect the whole processing cascade involved in the cascading of different actions, but seems to exert circumscribed effects on response selection processes which have previously been shown to depend on dopaminergic neural transmission. PMID:24636514

  2. Action video games and improved attentional control: Disentangling selection- and response-based processes.

    PubMed

    Chisholm, Joseph D; Kingstone, Alan

    2015-10-01

    Research has demonstrated that experience with action video games is associated with improvements in a host of cognitive tasks. Evidence from paradigms that assess aspects of attention has suggested that action video game players (AVGPs) possess greater control over the allocation of attentional resources than do non-video-game players (NVGPs). Using a compound search task that teased apart selection- and response-based processes (Duncan, 1985), we required participants to perform an oculomotor capture task in which they made saccades to a uniquely colored target (selection-based process) and then produced a manual directional response based on information within the target (response-based process). We replicated the finding that AVGPs are less susceptible to attentional distraction and, critically, revealed that AVGPs outperform NVGPs on both selection-based and response-based processes. These results not only are consistent with the improved-attentional-control account of AVGP benefits, but they suggest that the benefit of action video game playing extends across the full breadth of attention-mediated stimulus-response processes that impact human performance. PMID:25772554

  3. Deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus modulates reward processing and action selection in Parkinson patients.

    PubMed

    Wagenbreth, Caroline; Zaehle, Tino; Galazky, Imke; Voges, Jürgen; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Düzel, Emrah

    2015-06-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) is an effective treatment for motor impairments in Parkinson's disease (PD) but its effect on the motivational regulation of action control is still not fully understood. We investigated whether DBS of the STN influences the ability of PD patients to act for anticipated reward or loss, or whether DBS improves action execution independent of motivational valence. 16 PD patients (12 male, mean age = 58.5 ± 10.17 years) treated with bilateral STN-DBS and an age- and gender-matched group of healthy controls (HC) performed a go/no-go task whose contingencies explicitly decouple valence and action. Patients were tested with (ON) and without (OFF) active STN stimulation. For HC, there was a benefit in performing rewarded actions when compared to actions that avoided punishment. PD patients showed such a benefit reliably only when STN stimulation was ON. In fact, the relative behavioral benefit for go for reward over go to avoid losing was stronger in the PD patients under DBS ON than in HC. In PD patients, rather than generally improving motor functions independent of motivational valence, modulation of the STN by DBS improves action execution specifically when rewards are anticipated. Thus, STN-DBS establishes a reliable congruency between action and reward ("Pavlovian congruency") and remarkably enhances it over the level observed in HC. PMID:25929662

  4. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report, Attachment 2, Geology report: Preliminary final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), Public Law 95-604. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  5. Perseveration in Tool Use: A Window for Understanding the Dynamics of the Action-Selection Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smitsman, Ad W.; Cox, Ralf F. A.

    2008-01-01

    Two experiments investigated how 3-year-old children select a tool to perform a manual task, with a focus on their perseverative parameter choices for the various relationships involved in handling a tool: the actor-to-tool relation and the tool-to-target relation (topology). The first study concerned the parameter value for the tool-to-target…

  6. Improving staff selection processes.

    PubMed

    Cerinus, Marie; Shannon, Marina

    2014-11-11

    This article, the second in a series of articles on Leading Better Care, describes the actions undertaken in recent years in NHS Lanarkshire to improve selection processes for nursing, midwifery and allied health professional (NMAHP) posts. This is an area of significant interest to these professions, management colleagues and patients given the pivotal importance of NMAHPs to patient care and experience. In recent times the importance of selecting staff not only with the right qualifications but also with the right attributes has been highlighted to ensure patients are well cared for in a safe, effective and compassionate manner. The article focuses on NMAHP selection processes, tracking local, collaborative development work undertaken to date. It presents an overview of some of the work being implemented, highlights a range of important factors, outlines how evaluation is progressing and concludes by recommending further empirical research. PMID:25370266

  7. Action selection and action value in frontal-striatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Moonsang; Lee, Eunjeong; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The role that frontal-striatal circuits play in normal behavior remains unclear. Two of the leading hypotheses suggest that these circuits are important for action selection or reinforcement learning. To examine these hypotheses we carried out an experiment in which monkeys had to select actions in two different task conditions. In the first (random) condition actions were selected on the basis of perceptual inference. In the second (fixed) condition the animals used reinforcement from previous trials to select actions. Examination of neural activity showed that the representation of the selected action was stronger in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and occurred earlier in the lPFC than it did in the dorsal striatum (dSTR). In contrast to this, the representation of action values, in both the random and fixed conditions was stronger in the dSTR. Thus, the dSTR contains an enriched representation of action value, but it followed frontal cortex in action selection. PMID:22681697

  8. Food processing in action

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Radio frequency (RF) heating is a commonly used food processing technology that has been applied for drying and baking as well as thawing of frozen foods. Its use in pasteurization, as well as for sterilization and disinfection of foods, is more limited. This column will review various RF heating ap...

  9. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial Action Selection Report, Appendix B of Attachment 2: Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which describes the proposed remedial action for the Naturita site. An extensive amount of data and supporting information has been generated and evaluated for this remedial action. These data and supporting information are not incorporated into this single document but are included or referenced in the supporting documents. The RAP consists of this RAS and four supporting documents or attachments. This Attachment 2, Geology Report describes the details of geologic, geomorphic, and seismic conditions at the Dry Flats disposal site.

  10. Mechanisms underlying selecting objects for action

    PubMed Central

    Wulff, Melanie; Laverick, Rosanna; Humphreys, Glyn W.; Wing, Alan M.; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-01-01

    We assessed the factors which affect the selection of objects for action, focusing on the role of action knowledge and its modulation by distracters. Fourteen neuropsychological patients and 10 healthy aged-matched controls selected pairs of objects commonly used together among distracters in two contexts: with real objects and with pictures of the same objects presented sequentially on a computer screen. Across both tasks, semantically related distracters led to slower responses and more errors than unrelated distracters and the object actively used for action was selected prior to the object that would be passively held during the action. We identified a sub-group of patients (N = 6) whose accuracy was 2SDs below the controls performances in the real object task. Interestingly, these impaired patients were more affected by the presence of unrelated distracters during both tasks than intact patients and healthy controls. Note that the impaired patients had lesions to left parietal, right anterior temporal and bilateral pre-motor regions. We conclude that: (1) motor procedures guide object selection for action, (2) semantic knowledge affects action-based selection, (3) impaired action decision making is associated with the inability to ignore distracting information and (4) lesions to either the dorsal or ventral visual stream can lead to deficits in making action decisions. Overall, the data indicate that impairments in everyday tasks can be evaluated using a simulated computer task. The implications for rehabilitation are discussed. PMID:25954177

  11. A Textbook Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Prosser, Daniel R.; Bondavalli, Bonnie J.

    In response to the problem facing college faculties of choosing textbooks that are both "readable" by students and adequate in content coverage, a text selection process has been developed that can be used with or without the aid of a reading specialist. The first step in the process, a preliminary check, examines each proposed text's publication…

  12. Sexual selection: Another Darwinian process.

    PubMed

    Gayon, Jean

    2010-02-01

    Why was sexual selection so important to Darwin? And why was it de-emphasized by almost all of Darwin's followers until the second half of the 20th century? These two questions shed light on the complexity of the scientific tradition named "Darwinism". Darwin's interest in sexual selection was almost as old as his discovery of the principle of natural selection. From the beginning, sexual selection was just another "natural means of selection", although different from standard "natural selection" in its mechanism. But it took Darwin 30 years to fully develop his theory, from the early notebooks to the 1871 book The Descent of Man, and Selection in Relation to Sex. Although there is a remarkable continuity in his basic ideas about sexual selection, he emphasized increasingly the idea that sexual selection could oppose the action of natural selection and be non adaptive. In time, he also gave more weight to mate choice (especially female choice), giving explicit arguments in favor of psychological notions such as "choice" and "aesthetic sense". But he also argued that there was no strict demarcation line between natural and sexual selection, a major difficulty of the theory from the beginning. Female choice was the main reason why Alfred Russel Wallace, the co-discoverer of the principle of natural selection, engaged in a major controversy with Darwin about sexual selection. Wallace was suspicious about sexual selection in general, trying to minimize it by all sorts of arguments. And he denied entirely the existence of female choice, because he thought that it was both unnecessary and an anthropomorphic notion. This had something to do with his spiritualist convictions, but also with his conception of natural selection as a sufficient principle for the evolutionary explanation of all biological phenomena (except for the origin of mind). This is why Wallace proposed to redefine Darwinism in a way that excluded Darwin's principle of sexual selection. The main result of

  13. Motor Simulation during Action Word Processing in Neurosurgical Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomasino, Barbara; Ceschia, Martina; Fabbro, Franco; Skrap, Miran

    2012-01-01

    The role that human motor areas play in linguistic processing is the subject of a stimulating debate. Data from nine neurosurgical patients with selective lesions of the precentral and postcentral sulcus could provide a direct answer as to whether motor area activation is necessary for action word processing. Action-related verbs (face-, hand-,…

  14. COTS software selection process.

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, William M. (Strike Wire Technologies, Louisville, CO); Lin, Han Wei; McClelland, Kelly (U.S. Security Associates, Livermore, CA); Ullrich, Rebecca Ann; Khanjenoori, Soheil; Dalton, Karen; Lai, Anh Tri; Kuca, Michal; Pacheco, Sandra; Shaffer-Gant, Jessica

    2006-05-01

    Today's need for rapid software development has generated a great interest in employing Commercial-Off-The-Shelf (COTS) software products as a way of managing cost, developing time, and effort. With an abundance of COTS software packages to choose from, the problem now is how to systematically evaluate, rank, and select a COTS product that best meets the software project requirements and at the same time can leverage off the current corporate information technology architectural environment. This paper describes a systematic process for decision support in evaluating and ranking COTS software. Performed right after the requirements analysis, this process provides the evaluators with more concise, structural, and step-by-step activities for determining the best COTS software product with manageable risk. In addition, the process is presented in phases that are flexible to allow for customization or tailoring to meet various projects' requirements.

  15. Dynamic sensor action selection with Bayesian decision analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kristensen, Steen; Hansen, Volker; Kondak, Konstantin

    1998-10-01

    The aim of this work is to create a framework for the dynamic planning of sensor actions for an autonomous mobile robot. The framework uses Bayesian decision analysis, i.e., a decision-theoretic method, to evaluate possible sensor actions and selecting the most appropriate ones given the available sensors and what is currently known about the state of the world. Since sensing changes the knowledge of the system and since the current state of the robot (task, position, etc.) determines what knowledge is relevant, the evaluation and selection of sensing actions is an on-going process that effectively determines the behavior of the robot. The framework has been implemented on a real mobile robot and has been proven to be able to control in real-time the sensor actions of the system. In current work we are investigating methods to reduce or automatically generate the necessary model information needed by the decision- theoretic method to select the appropriate sensor actions.

  16. Remedial action plan for the inactive uranium processing site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, geology report; Attachment 3, ground water hydrology report; Attachment 4, supplemental information

    SciTech Connect

    1998-03-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section} 7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  17. ARM Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, D. L.

    2015-10-01

    The Atmospheric Radiation Measurement (ARM) Program was created in 1989 with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop several highly instrumented ground stations to study cloud formation processes and their influence on radiative transfer. In 2003, the ARM Program became a national scientific user facility, known as the ARM Climate Research Facility. This scientific infrastructure provides for fixed sites, mobile facilities, an aerial facility, and a data archive available for use by scientists worldwide through the ARM Climate Research Facility—a scientific user facility. The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as lead mentors. Lead mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They must also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets. The ARM Climate Research Facility is seeking the best overall qualified candidate who can fulfill lead mentor requirements in a timely manner.

  18. Neural bases of selective attention in action video game players.

    PubMed

    Bavelier, D; Achtman, R L; Mani, M; Föcker, J

    2012-05-15

    Over the past few years, the very act of playing action video games has been shown to enhance several different aspects of visual selective attention, yet little is known about the neural mechanisms that mediate such attentional benefits. A review of the aspects of attention enhanced in action game players suggests there are changes in the mechanisms that control attention allocation and its efficiency (Hubert-Wallander, Green, & Bavelier, 2010). The present study used brain imaging to test this hypothesis by comparing attentional network recruitment and distractor processing in action gamers versus non-gamers as attentional demands increased. Moving distractors were found to elicit lesser activation of the visual motion-sensitive area (MT/MST) in gamers as compared to non-gamers, suggestive of a better early filtering of irrelevant information in gamers. As expected, a fronto-parietal network of areas showed greater recruitment as attentional demands increased in non-gamers. In contrast, gamers barely engaged this network as attentional demands increased. This reduced activity in the fronto-parietal network that is hypothesized to control the flexible allocation of top-down attention is compatible with the proposal that action game players may allocate attentional resources more automatically, possibly allowing more efficient early filtering of irrelevant information. PMID:21864560

  19. A distributed network critical for selecting among tool-directed actions.

    PubMed

    Watson, Christine E; Buxbaum, Laurel J

    2015-04-01

    Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for "using" and "grasping-to-move" conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for "conflict" and "non-conflict" tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping (VLSM), lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit an SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition. PMID

  20. A Distributed Network Critical for Selecting Among Tool-Directed Actions

    PubMed Central

    Watson, Christine E.; Buxbaum, Laurel J.

    2015-01-01

    Tools pose a challenge to the need to select actions appropriate for task goals and environmental constraints. For many tools (e.g., calculator), actions for “using” and “grasping-to-move” conflict with each other and may compete during selection. To date, little is known about the mechanisms that enable selection between possible tool actions or their neural substrates. The study of patients with chronic left hemisphere stroke, many of whom are deficient in tool-use action (apraxic), provides an opportunity to elucidate these issues. Here, 31 such patients pantomimed or recognized tool use actions for “conflict” and “non-conflict” tools. Voxel-based lesion-symptom mapping, lesion subtraction, and tractographic overlap analyses were used to determine brain regions necessary for selecting among tool-directed actions. Lesions to posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) and anterior intraparietal sulcus (aIPS) tended to impair production of use actions similarly for both conflict and non-conflict tools. By contrast, lesions to the supramarginal gyrus (SMG), inferior frontal gyrus (IFG)/anterior insula, and superior longitudinal fasciculus (SLF) specifically impaired production of use actions for conflict tools. Patients' errors on conflict tools suggested inappropriate selection of grasping actions and difficulty selecting single actions. Use/grasp conflict had no effect on action recognition. We suggest that the SMG/SLF/IFG pathway implements biased competition between possible tool actions, while aIPS and pMTG compute the structure-based and skilled use actions, respectively, that constitute input to this competitive process. This is the first study to demonstrate a reliable link between a characteristic of single tools (i.e., their association with different use and grasp actions) and action selection difficulties. Additionally, the data allow us to posit a SMG-involved subtype of apraxia characterized by an inability to resolve action competition

  1. Action selection for single-camera SLAM.

    PubMed

    Vidal-Calleja, Teresa A; Sanfeliu, Alberto; Andrade-Cetto, Juan

    2010-12-01

    A method for evaluating, at video rate, the quality of actions for a single camera while mapping unknown indoor environments is presented. The strategy maximizes mutual information between measurements and states to help the camera avoid making ill-conditioned measurements that are appropriate to lack of depth in monocular vision systems. Our system prompts a user with the appropriate motion commands during 6-DOF visual simultaneous localization and mapping with a handheld camera. Additionally, the system has been ported to a mobile robotic platform, thus closing the control-estimation loop. To show the viability of the approach, simulations and experiments are presented for the unconstrained motion of a handheld camera and for the motion of a mobile robot with nonholonomic constraints. When combined with a path planner, the technique safely drives to a marked goal while, at the same time, producing an optimal estimated map. PMID:20350845

  2. Remedial action selection using groundwater modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Haddad, B.I.; Parish, G.B.; Hauge, L.

    1996-12-31

    An environmental investigation uncovered petroleum contamination at a gasoline station in southern Wisconsin. The site was located in part of the ancestral Rock River valley in Rock County, Wisconsin where the valley is filled with sands and gravels. Groundwater pump tests were conducted for determination of aquifer properties needed to plan a remediation system; the results were indicative of a very high hydraulic conductivity. The site hydrogeology was modeled using the U.S. Geological Survey`s groundwater model, Modflow. The calibrated model was used to determine the number, pumping rate, and configuration of recovery wells to remediate the site. The most effective configuration was three wells pumping at 303 liters per minute (1/m) (80 gallons per minute (gpm)), producing a total pumping rate of 908 l/m (240 gpm). Treating 908 l/min (240 gpm) or 1,308,240 liters per day (345,600 gallons per day) constituted a significant volume to be treated and discharged. It was estimated that pumping for the two year remediation would cost $375,000 while the air sparging would cost $200,000. The recommended remedial system consisted of eight air sparging wells and four vapor recovery laterals. The Wisconsin Department of Natural Resources (WDNR) approved the remedial action plan in March, 1993. After 11 months of effective operation the concentrations of removed VOCs had decreased by 94 percent and groundwater sampling indicated no detectable concentrations of gasoline contaminants. Groundwater modeling was an effective technique to determine the economic feasibility of a groundwater remedial alternative.

  3. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation: Decomposing the Processes Underlying Action Preparation.

    PubMed

    Bestmann, Sven; Duque, Julie

    2016-08-01

    Preparing actions requires the operation of several cognitive control processes that influence the state of the motor system to ensure that the appropriate behavior is ultimately selected and executed. For example, some form of competition resolution ensures that the right action is chosen among alternatives, often in the presence of conflict; at the same time, impulse control ought to be deployed to prevent premature responses. Here we review how state-changes in the human motor system during action preparation can be studied through motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation over the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1). We discuss how the physiological fingerprints afforded by MEPs have helped to decompose some of the dynamic and effector-specific influences on the motor system during action preparation. We focus on competition resolution, conflict and impulse control, as well as on the influence of higher cognitive decision-related variables. The selected examples demonstrate the usefulness of MEPs as physiological readouts for decomposing the influence of distinct, but often overlapping, control processes on the human motor system during action preparation. PMID:26163320

  4. Proactive action preparation: seeing action preparation as a continuous and proactive process.

    PubMed

    Pezzulo, Giovanni; Ognibene, Dimitri

    2012-07-01

    In this paper, we aim to elucidate the processes that occur during action preparation from both a conceptual and a computational point of view. We first introduce the traditional, serial model of goal-directed action and discuss from a computational viewpoint its subprocesses occurring during the two phases of covert action preparation and overt motor control. Then, we discuss recent evidence indicating that these subprocesses are highly intertwined at representational and neural levels, which undermines the validity of the serial model and points instead to a parallel model of action specification and selection. Within the parallel view, we analyze the case of delayed choice, arguing that action preparation can be proactive, and preparatory processes can take place even before decisions are made. Specifically, we discuss how prior knowledge and prospective abilities can be used to maximize utility even before deciding what to do. To support our view, we present a computational implementation of (an approximated version of) proactive action preparation, showing its advantages in a simulated tennis-like scenario. PMID:22643383

  5. Target selection bias transfers across different response actions.

    PubMed

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2014-06-01

    Target selection is biased by recent experience. For example, a selected target feature may be stored in memory and bias selection on future trials, such that objects matching that feature are "primed" for selection. In the present study, we examined the role of action history in selection biases. Participants searched for a uniquely colored object. Pretrial cues indicated whether participants should respond with a keypress or a reach movement. If the representation of the feature that biases selection is critically bound with its associated action, we would expect priming effects to be restricted to cases where both the response mode and target color are repeated. However, we found that responses to the target were faster when the target color was repeated, even when the response switched from a reach to a keypress, or vice versa. Priming effects were even observed after "no-go" trials in which a response was withheld, and priming effects transferred across response modes when eye movement recordings ensured that participants did not saccade to the target. These results demonstrate that target features are represented in memory separately from their associated actions and can bias selection on subsequent trials even when a different mode of action output is required. PMID:24490945

  6. Selecting and sizing process compressors

    SciTech Connect

    Coker, A.K. )

    1994-07-01

    Proper compressor selection and sizing requires understanding the main types of compressors and their operation, using the right mathematical models for sizing both polytropic and adiabatic compressors, and providing for surge control and compressor discharge fluid treatment. There is no single type of compressor that can be adapted to a particular application. The operating conditions, space and weight restrictions must be reviewed before the appropriate compressor is selected. In addition, the type of driver must be selected since its operation and process conditions are interrelated. The different types of compressors can be classified into two basic types: reciprocating and centrifugal. Compressor performance often varies with changes in process conditions. Sometimes performance curves supplied by the manufacturer as discharge pressure and power requirement versus an inlet volumetric flow may not be valid for variations in process conditions. Lapina has provided a technique for obtaining a usable performance curve that is valid for the actual process conditions. The paper describes centrifugal and reciprocating compressors, compressor equations, the polytropic compressor, the adiabatic compressor, efficiency, mechanical losses, multicomponent gas streams, compressor surge control, and compressor fluids treatment.

  7. Action selection in multi-effector decision making

    PubMed Central

    Madlon-Kay, Seth; Pesaran, Bijan; Daw, Nathaniel D.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making and reinforcement learning over movements suffer from the curse of dimensionality: the space of possible movements is too vast to search or even represent in its entirety. When actions involve only a single effector, this problem can be ameliorated by considering that effector separately; accordingly, the brain’s sensorimotor systems can subdivide choice by representing values and actions separately for each effector. However, for many actions, such as playing the piano, the value of an action by an effector (e.g., a hand) depends inseparably on the actions of other effectors. By definition, the values of such coordinated multi-effector actions cannot be represented by effector-specific action values, such as those that have been most extensively investigated in parietal and premotor regions. For such actions, one possible solution is to choose according to more abstract valuations over different goods or options, which can then be mapped onto the necessary motor actions. Such an approach separates the learning and decision problem, which will often be lower-dimensional than the space of possible movements, from the multi-effector movement planning problem. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) is thought to contain goods-based value signals, so we hypothesized that this region might preferentially drive multi-effector action selection. To examine how the brain solves this problem, we used fMRI to compare patterns of BOLD activity in humans during reward learning tasks in which options were selected through either unimanual or bimanual actions, and in which the response requirements in the latter condition inseparably coupled valuation across both hands. We found value signals in the bilateral medial motor cortex and vmPFC, and consistent with previous studies, the medial motor value signals contained contra-lateral biases indicating effector-specificity, while the vmPFC value signals did not exhibit detectable effector specificity. Although

  8. Configural information is processed differently in human action.

    PubMed

    Loucks, Jeff

    2011-01-01

    Recent evidence indicates that observers' sensitivity to configural information in dynamic human action is disrupted when action is inverted, whereas sensitivity to featural action information is not. The current research involved two experiments that expand upon this basic finding. Experiment 1 revealed that featural and configural action information are processed similarly in static representations of action as in dynamic action. Experiment 2 indicated that configural processing is uniquely sensitive to orientation only in human action as compared to a similar control stimulus. These findings further support the idea that the perception of action recruits specialized orientation-specific configural processing, and parallel similar findings in face perception and visual expertise. PMID:22208127

  9. Perception and Action Selection Dissociate Human Ventral and Dorsal Cortex

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ikkai, Akiko; Jerde, Trenton A.; Curtis, Clayton E.

    2011-01-01

    We test theories about the functional organization of the human cortex by correlating brain activity with demands on perception versus action selection. Subjects covertly searched for a target among an array of 4, 8, or 12 items (perceptual manipulation) and then, depending on the color of the array, made a saccade toward, away from, or at a right…

  10. Young children's referent selection is guided by novelty for both words and actions.

    PubMed

    Dysart, Erin L; Mather, Emily; Riggs, Kevin J

    2016-06-01

    Young children are biased to select novel, name-unknown objects as referents of novel labels and to similarly favor novel, action-unknown objects as referents of novel actions. What process underlies these common behaviors? In the case of word learning, children may be driven by a novelty bias favoring novel objects as referents. Our study investigated this bias further by investigating whether novelty also affects children's selection of novel objects when a new action is given. In a pre-exposure session, 40 3- and 4-year-olds were shown eight novel objects for 1min. In subsequent referent selection trials, children were shown two pre-exposed objects and one super-novel object and either heard a novel name or saw a novel action. The super-novel object was selected significantly more than the pre-exposed objects on both word and action trials. Our data add to the growing literature suggesting that an endogenous attentional bias to novelty plays a role in children's referent selection and demonstrates further parallels between word and action learning. PMID:26897305

  11. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  12. The importance of sensory integration processes for action cascading

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Beste, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Dual tasking or action cascading is essential in everyday life and often investigated using tasks presenting stimuli in different sensory modalities. Findings obtained with multimodal tasks are often broadly generalized, but until today, it has remained unclear whether multimodal integration affects performance in action cascading or the underlying neurophysiology. To bridge this gap, we asked healthy young adults to complete a stop-change paradigm which presented different stimuli in either one or two modalities while recording behavioral and neurophysiological data. Bimodal stimulus presentation prolonged response times and affected bottom-up and top-down guided attentional processes as reflected by the P1 and N1, respectively. However, the most important effect was the modulation of response selection processes reflected by the P3 suggesting that a potentially different way of forming task goals operates during action cascading in bimodal vs. unimodal tasks. When two modalities are involved, separate task goals need to be formed while a conjoint task goal may be generated when all stimuli are presented in the same modality. On a systems level, these processes seem to be related to the modulation of activity in fronto-polar regions (BA10) as well as Broca's area (BA44). PMID:25820681

  13. A behavioral task for investigating action discovery, selection and switching: comparison between types of reinforcer

    PubMed Central

    Fisher, Simon D.; Gray, Jason P.; Black, Melony J.; Davies, Jennifer R.; Bednark, Jeffery G.; Redgrave, Peter; Franz, Elizabeth A.; Abraham, Wickliffe C.; Reynolds, John N. J.

    2014-01-01

    Action discovery and selection are critical cognitive processes that are understudied at the cellular and systems neuroscience levels. Presented here is a new rodent joystick task suitable to test these processes due to the range of action possibilities that can be learnt while performing the task. Rats learned to manipulate a joystick while progressing through task milestones that required increasing degrees of movement accuracy. In a switching phase designed to measure action discovery, rats were repeatedly required to discover new target positions to meet changing task demands. Behavior was compared using both food and electrical brain stimulation reward (BSR) of the substantia nigra as reinforcement. Rats reinforced with food and those with BSR performed similarly overall, although BSR-treated rats exhibited greater vigor in responding. In the switching phase, rats learnt new actions to adapt to changing task demands, reflecting action discovery processes. Because subjects are required to learn different goal-directed actions, this task could be employed in further investigations of the cellular mechanisms of action discovery and selection. Additionally, this task could be used to assess the behavioral flexibility impairments seen in conditions such as Parkinson's disease and obsessive-compulsive disorder. The versatility of the task will enable cross-species investigations of these impairments. PMID:25477795

  14. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public... FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent Fellow Selection Committee will evaluate all valid applications and recommend to the Foundation the...

  15. Central actions of a novel and selective dopamine antagonist

    SciTech Connect

    Schulz, D.W.

    1985-01-01

    Receptors for the neurotransmitter dopamine traditionally have been divided into two subgroups: the D/sub 1/ class, which is linked to the stimulation of adenylate cyclase-activity, and the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ class which is not. There is much evidence suggesting that it is the D/sub 2/ dopamine receptor that mediates the physiological and behavioral actions of dopamine in the intact animal. However, the benzazepine SCH23390 is a dopamine antagonist which has potent behavioral actions while displaying apparent neurochemical selectivity for the D/sub 1/ class of dopamine receptors. The purpose of this dissertation was to (1) confirm and characterize this selectivity, and (2) test certain hypothesis related to possible modes of action of SCH233390. The inhibition of adenylate cyclase by SCH23390 occurred via an action at the dopamine receptor only. A radiolabeled analog of SCH23390 displayed the receptor binding properties of a specific high-affinity ligand, and regional receptor densities were highly correlated with dopamine levels. The subcellular distribution of (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding did not correspond completely with that of dopamine-stimulated adenylate cyclase. The neurochemical potency of SCH23390 as a D/sub 1/ receptor antagonist was preserved following parental administration. A variety of dopamine agonists and antagonists displayed a high correlation between their abilities to compete for (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding in vitro and to act at an adenylate cyclase-linked receptor. Finally, the relative affinities of dopamine and SCH23390 for both D/sub 1/ receptors and (/sup 3/H)-SCH23390 binding sites were comparable. It is concluded that the behavioral effects of SCH23390 are mediated by actions at D/sub 1/ dopamine receptors only, and that the physiological importance of this class of receptors should be reevaluated.

  16. Monkey see, Monkey reach: Action selection of reaching movements in the macaque monkey

    PubMed Central

    Sartori, Luisa; Camperio-Ciani, Andrea; Bulgheroni, Maria; Castiello, Umberto

    2014-01-01

    Highly efficient systems are needed to link perception with action in the context of the highly complex environments in which primates move and interact. Another important component is, nonetheless, needed for action: selection. When one piece of fruit from a branch is being chosen by a monkey, many other pieces are within reach and visible: do the perceptual features of the objects surrounding a target determine interference effects? In humans, reaching to grasp a desired object appears to integrate the motor features of the objects which might become potential targets - a process which seems to be driven by inhibitory attention mechanisms. Here we show that non-human primates use similar mechanisms when carrying out goal-directed actions. The data indicate that the volumetric features of distractors are internally represented, implying that the basic cognitive operations allowing for action selection have deep evolutionary roots. PMID:24503774

  17. Context-dependent sequential effects of target selection for action

    PubMed Central

    Moher, Jeff; Song, Joo-Hyun

    2012-01-01

    Humans exhibit variation in behavior from moment to moment even when performing a simple, repetitive task. Errors are typically followed by cautious responses, minimizing subsequent distractor interference. However, less is known about how variation in the execution of an ultimately correct response affects subsequent behavior. We asked participants to reach toward a uniquely colored target presented among distractors and created two categories to describe participants' responses in correct trials based on analyses of movement trajectories; partial errors referred to trials in which observers initially selected a nontarget for action before redirecting the movement and accurately pointing to the target, and direct movements referred to trials in which the target was directly selected for action. We found that latency to initiate a hand movement was shorter in trials following partial errors compared to trials following direct movements. Furthermore, when the target and distractor colors were repeated, movement time and reach movement curvature toward distractors were greater following partial errors compared to direct movements. Finally, when the colors were repeated, partial errors were more frequent than direct movements following partial-error trials, and direct movements were more frequent following direct-movement trials. The dependence of these latter effects on repeated-task context indicates the involvement of higher-level cognitive mechanisms in an integrated attention-action system in which execution of a partial-error or direct-movement response affects memory representations that bias performance in subsequent trials. Altogether, these results demonstrate that whether a nontarget is selected for action or not has a measurable impact on subsequent behavior. PMID:23847303

  18. 15 CFR 2301.18 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection process. 2301.18 Section 2301.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Telecommunications and Information NATIONAL... PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection Process § 2301.18 Selection process. (a) The PTFP Director will...

  19. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Application and Selection Process § 1003.301 Selection process. (a) Threshold requirement. An applicant...

  20. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Application and Selection Process § 1003.301 Selection process. (a) Threshold requirement. An applicant...

  1. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED... Application and Selection Process § 1003.301 Selection process. (a) Threshold requirement. An applicant...

  2. 15 CFR 2301.18 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection process. 2301.18 Section 2301.18 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Telecommunications and Information NATIONAL... PROGRAM Evaluation and Selection Process § 2301.18 Selection process. (a) The PTFP Director will...

  3. Sequential selection of economic good and action in medial frontal cortex of macaques during value-based decisions.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiaomo; Stuphorn, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Value-based decisions could rely either on the selection of desired economic goods or on the selection of the actions that will obtain the goods. We investigated this question by recording from the supplementary eye field (SEF) of monkeys during a gambling task that allowed us to distinguish chosen good from chosen action signals. Analysis of the individual neuron activity, as well as of the population state-space dynamic, showed that SEF encodes first the chosen gamble option (the desired economic good) and only ~100 ms later the saccade that will obtain it (the chosen action). The action selection is likely driven by inhibitory interactions between different SEF neurons. Our results suggest that during value-based decisions, the selection of economic goods precedes and guides the selection of actions. The two selection steps serve different functions and can therefore not compensate for each other, even when information guiding both processes is given simultaneously. PMID:26613409

  4. I control therefore I do: judgments of agency influence action selection.

    PubMed

    Karsh, N; Eitam, B

    2015-05-01

    Our sense of being agents, that is of willingly controlling both our own bodies and the external environment is ubiquitous if thin. Empirical and theoretical work on this 'sense of agency' has documented motivational, cognitive and neural influences on implicit (out of awareness) and explicit (conscious) judgments of agency. For example, fluency of action selection processes has been recently shown to affect judgments of one's degree of control over an external event. However, it is an open question whether and how such judgments of agency act as input to other processes. In this study we demonstrate that the opposite relationship between action selection and judgment of agency also exists. Specifically, we show that manipulating one's objective control over the environment influences both the speed and the frequency of performing an action associated with that control. This pattern bears a striking resemblance to the effect that tangible rewards have on action selection and suggests that positive control feedback is rewarding to the organism, consequently affecting action selection. If further corroborated this 'reward from control' may explain everyday addictions such as prolonged engagement in arcade games and pathological behaviors, such as stereotypy. PMID:25724007

  5. Decision-making and action selection in insects: inspiration from vertebrate-based theories

    PubMed Central

    Barron, Andrew B.; Gurney, Kevin N.; Meah, Lianne F. S.; Vasilaki, Eleni; Marshall, James A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Effective decision-making, one of the most crucial functions of the brain, entails the analysis of sensory information and the selection of appropriate behavior in response to stimuli. Here, we consider the current state of knowledge on the mechanisms of decision-making and action selection in the insect brain, with emphasis on the olfactory processing system. Theoretical and computational models of decision-making emphasize the importance of using inhibitory connections to couple evidence-accumulating pathways; this coupling allows for effective discrimination between competing alternatives and thus enables a decision maker to reach a stable unitary decision. Theory also shows that the coupling of pathways can be implemented using a variety of different mechanisms and vastly improves the performance of decision-making systems. The vertebrate basal ganglia appear to resolve stable action selection by being a point of convergence for multiple excitatory and inhibitory inputs such that only one possible response is selected and all other alternatives are suppressed. Similar principles appear to operate within the insect brain. The insect lateral protocerebrum (LP) serves as a point of convergence for multiple excitatory and inhibitory channels of olfactory information to effect stable decision and action selection, at least for olfactory information. The LP is a rather understudied region of the insect brain, yet this premotor region may be key to effective resolution of action section. We argue that it may be beneficial to use models developed to explore the operation of the vertebrate brain as inspiration when considering action selection in the invertebrate domain. Such an approach may facilitate the proposal of new hypotheses and furthermore frame experimental studies for how decision-making and action selection might be achieved in insects. PMID:26347627

  6. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  7. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  8. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  9. 45 CFR 2400.31 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) JAMES MADISON MEMORIAL FELLOWSHIP FOUNDATION FELLOWSHIP PROGRAM REQUIREMENTS Selection of Fellows § 2400.31 Selection process. (a) An independent...

  10. Selective algicidal action of peptides against harmful algal bloom species.

    PubMed

    Park, Seong-Cheol; Lee, Jong-Kook; Kim, Si Wouk; Park, Yoonkyung

    2011-01-01

    Recently, harmful algal bloom (HAB), also termed "red tide", has been recognized as a serious problem in marine environments according to climate changes worldwide. Many novel materials or methods to prevent HAB have not yet been employed except for clay dispersion, in which can the resulting sedimentation on the seafloor can also cause alteration in marine ecology or secondary environmental pollution. In the current study, we investigated that antimicrobial peptide have a potential in controlling HAB without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Here, antimicrobial peptides are proposed as new algicidal compounds in combating HAB cells. HPA3 and HPA3NT3 peptides which exert potent antimicrobial activity via pore forming action in plasma membrane showed that HPA3NT3 reduced the motility of algal cells, disrupted their plasma membrane, and induced the efflux of intracellular components. Against raphidoflagellate such as Heterosigma akashiwo, Chattonella sp., and C. marina, it displayed a rapid lysing action in cell membranes at 1~4 µM within 2 min. Comparatively, its lysing effects occurred at 8 µM within 1 h in dinoflagellate such as Cochlodium polykrikoides, Prorocentrum micans, and P. minimum. Moreover, its lysing action induced the lysis of chloroplasts and loss of chlorophyll a. In the contrary, this peptide was not effective against Skeletonema costatum, harmless algal cell, even at 256 µM, moreover, it killed only H. akashiwo or C. marina in co-cultivation with S. costatum, indicating to its selective algicidal activity between harmful and harmless algal cells. The peptide was non-hemolytic against red blood cells of Sebastes schlegeli, the black rockfish, at 120 µM. HAB cells were quickly and selectively lysed following treatment of antimicrobial peptides without cytotoxicity to harmless marine organisms. Thus, the antibiotic peptides examined in our study appear to have much potential in effectively controlling HAB with minimal impact on marine

  11. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  12. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  13. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  14. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  15. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  16. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  17. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  18. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES... process. (a) Each Head Start program must have a formal process for establishing selection criteria...

  19. 45 CFR 1634.8 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 1634.8 Section 1634.8 Public... FOR GRANTS AND CONTRACTS § 1634.8 Selection process. (a) After receipt of all applications for a... is not contained in the application if appropriate for the review process; and (5) Convene a...

  20. Selecting a plutonium vitrification process

    SciTech Connect

    Jouan, A.

    1996-05-01

    Vitrification of plutonium is one means of mitigating its potential danger. This option is technically feasible, even if it is not the solution advocated in France. Two situations are possible, depending on whether or not the glass matrix also contains fission products; concentrations of up to 15% should be achievable for plutonium alone, whereas the upper limit is 3% in the presence of fission products. The French continuous vitrification process appears to be particularly suitable for plutonium vitrification: its capacity is compatible with the required throughout, and the compact dimensions of the process equipment prevent a criticality hazard. Preprocessing of plutonium metal, to convert it to PuO{sub 2} or to a nitric acid solution, may prove advantageous or even necessary depending on whether a dry or wet process is adopted. The process may involve a single step (vitrification of Pu or PuO{sub 2} mixed with glass frit) or may include a prior calcination step - notably if the plutonium is to be incorporated into a fission product glass. It is important to weigh the advantages and drawbacks of all the possible options in terms of feasibility, safety and cost-effectiveness.

  1. Shared neural processes support semantic control and action understanding

    PubMed Central

    Davey, James; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann; Costigan, Alison; Murphy, Nik; Krieger-Redwood, Katya; Hallam, Glyn; Jefferies, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    Executive–semantic control and action understanding appear to recruit overlapping brain regions but existing evidence from neuroimaging meta-analyses and neuropsychology lacks spatial precision; we therefore manipulated difficulty and feature type (visual vs. action) in a single fMRI study. Harder judgements recruited an executive–semantic network encompassing medial and inferior frontal regions (including LIFG) and posterior temporal cortex (including pMTG). These regions partially overlapped with brain areas involved in action but not visual judgements. In LIFG, the peak responses to action and difficulty were spatially identical across participants, while these responses were overlapping yet spatially distinct in posterior temporal cortex. We propose that the co-activation of LIFG and pMTG allows the flexible retrieval of semantic information, appropriate to the current context; this might be necessary both for semantic control and understanding actions. Feature selection in difficult trials also recruited ventral occipital–temporal areas, not implicated in action understanding. PMID:25658631

  2. The Coalescent Process in Models with Selection

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, N. L.; Darden, T.; Hudson, R. R.

    1988-01-01

    Statistical properties of the process describing the genealogical history of a random sample of genes are obtained for a class of population genetics models with selection. For models with selection, in contrast to models without selection, the distribution of this process, the coalescent process, depends on the distribution of the frequencies of alleles in the ancestral generations. If the ancestral frequency process can be approximated by a diffusion, then the mean and the variance of the number of segregating sites due to selectively neutral mutations in random samples can be numerically calculated. The calculations are greatly simplified if the frequencies of the alleles are tightly regulated. If the mutation rates between alleles maintained by balancing selection are low, then the number of selectively neutral segregating sites in a random sample of genes is expected to substantially exceed the number predicted under a neutral model. PMID:3066685

  3. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7... HOMELAND SECURITY FIRE PREVENTION AND CONTROL PUBLIC SAFETY AWARDS TO PUBLIC SAFETY OFFICERS § 150.7 Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed,...

  4. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each...

  5. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each...

  6. 7 CFR 3570.68 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection process. 3570.68 Section 3570.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COMMUNITY PROGRAMS Community Facilities Grant Program § 3570.68 Selection process. Each...

  7. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed,...

  8. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed,...

  9. 44 CFR 150.7 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Selection process. 150.7 Section 150.7 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF... Selection process. (a) President's Award. Nominations for the President's Award shall be reviewed,...

  10. ARM Lead Mentor Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Sisterson, DL

    2013-03-13

    The ARM Climate Research Facility currently operates more than 300 instrument systems that provide ground-based observations of the atmospheric column. To keep ARM at the forefront of climate observations, the ARM infrastructure depends heavily on instrument scientists and engineers, also known as Instrument Mentors. Instrument Mentors must have an excellent understanding of in situ and remote-sensing instrumentation theory and operation and have comprehensive knowledge of critical scale-dependent atmospheric processes. They also possess the technical and analytical skills to develop new data retrievals that provide innovative approaches for creating research-quality data sets.

  11. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Process selection. 5.3... ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.3 Process... with the Commission a request to use the traditional licensing process or alternative...

  12. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Process selection. 5.3... ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.3 Process... with the Commission a request to use the traditional licensing process or alternative...

  13. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Process selection. 5.3... ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.3 Process... with the Commission a request to use the traditional licensing process or alternative...

  14. 18 CFR 5.3 - Process selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Process selection. 5.3... ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE FEDERAL POWER ACT INTEGRATED LICENSE APPLICATION PROCESS § 5.3 Process... with the Commission a request to use the traditional licensing process or alternative...

  15. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture-insights from sensory deprivation.

    PubMed

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading. PMID:27321666

  16. Improvements of sensorimotor processes during action cascading associated with changes in sensory processing architecture–insights from sensory deprivation

    PubMed Central

    Gohil, Krutika; Hahne, Anja; Beste, Christian

    2016-01-01

    In most everyday situations sensorimotor processes are quite complex because situations often require to carry out several actions in a specific temporal order; i.e. one has to cascade different actions. While it is known that changes to stimuli affect action cascading mechanisms, it is unknown whether action cascading changes when sensory stimuli are not manipulated, but the neural architecture to process these stimuli is altered. In the current study we test this hypothesis using prelingually deaf subjects as a model to answer this question. We use a system neurophysiological approach using event-related potentials (ERPs) and source localization techniques. We show that prelingually deaf subjects show improvements in action cascading. However, this improvement is most likely not due to changes at the perceptual (P1-ERP) and attentional processing level (N1-ERP), but due to changes at the response selection level (P3-ERP). It seems that the temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) is important for these effects to occur, because the TPJ comprises overlapping networks important for the processing of sensory information and the selection of responses. Sensory deprivation thus affects cognitive processes downstream of sensory processing and only these seem to be important for behavioral improvements in situations requiring complex sensorimotor processes and action cascading. PMID:27321666

  17. Action Learning--A Process Which Supports Organisational Change Initiatives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joyce, Pauline

    2012-01-01

    This paper reflects on how action learning sets (ALSs) were used to support organisational change initiatives. It sets the scene with contextualising the inclusion of change projects in a masters programme. Action learning is understood to be a dynamic process where a team meets regularly to help individual members address issues through a highly…

  18. Expedited response action proposal for 316-5 process trenches

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-07-01

    A summary of the evaluation of remedial alternatives for the 300 Area Process Trench sediment removal at Hanford is presented. Based on the preliminary technology screening, screening factors, and selection criteria the preferred alternative for the 300 Area Process Trench is to remove and interim stabilize the sediments within the fenced area of the process trenches. This alternative involves proven technologies that are applied easily at this mixed waste site. This alternative removes and isolates contaminated sediments from the active portion of the trenches allowing continued used of the trenches until an inspection and treatment facility is constructed. The alternative does not incorporate any materials or actions that preclude consideration of a technology for final remediation of the operable unit. The estimated initial and annual costs would enable this alternative to be implemented under the guidelines for an EPA- funded ERA ($2 million). Implementation of the alternative can be accomplished with trained personnel using familiar procedures to provide a safe operation that accomplishes the objective for removing a potential source of contamination, thereby reducing potential environmental threat to groundwater. 18 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  19. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton: selective antitumor action via trapping PKCɛ.

    PubMed

    Foerster, F; Braig, S; Moser, C; Kubisch, R; Busse, J; Wagner, E; Schmoeckel, E; Mayr, D; Schmitt, S; Huettel, S; Zischka, H; Mueller, R; Vollmar, A M

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the actin cytoskeleton (CSK) of cancer cells offers a valuable strategy in cancer therapy. There are a number of natural compounds that interfere with the actin CSK, but the mode of their cytotoxic action and, moreover, their tumor-specific mechanisms are quite elusive. We used the myxobacterial compound Chondramide as a tool to first elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of actin targeting in breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231). Chondramide inhibits cellular actin filament dynamics shown by a fluorescence-based analysis (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)) and leads to apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and finally activation of caspases. Chondramide enhances the occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by affecting known MPT modulators: Hexokinase II bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) translocated from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and the proapoptotic protein Bad were recruited to the mitochondria. Importantly, protein kinase C-ɛ (PKCɛ), a prosurvival kinase possessing an actin-binding site and known to regulate the hexokinase/VDAC interaction as well as Bad phosphorylation was identified as the link between actin CSK and apoptosis induction. PKCɛ, which was found overexpressed in breast cancer cells, accumulated in actin bundles induced by Chondramide and lost its activity. Our second goal was to characterize the potential tumor-specific action of actin-binding agents. As the nontumor breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A in fact shows resistance to Chondramide-induced apoptosis and notably express low level of PKCɛ, we suggest that trapping PKCɛ via Chondramide-induced actin hyperpolymerization displays tumor cell specificity. Our work provides a link between targeting the ubiquitously occurring actin CSK and selective inhibition of pro-tumorigenic PKCɛ, thus setting the stage for actin-stabilizing agents as

  20. Targeting the actin cytoskeleton: selective antitumor action via trapping PKCɛ

    PubMed Central

    Foerster, F; Braig, S; Moser, C; Kubisch, R; Busse, J; Wagner, E; Schmoeckel, E; Mayr, D; Schmitt, S; Huettel, S; Zischka, H; Mueller, R; Vollmar, A M

    2014-01-01

    Targeting the actin cytoskeleton (CSK) of cancer cells offers a valuable strategy in cancer therapy. There are a number of natural compounds that interfere with the actin CSK, but the mode of their cytotoxic action and, moreover, their tumor-specific mechanisms are quite elusive. We used the myxobacterial compound Chondramide as a tool to first elucidate the mechanisms of cytotoxicity of actin targeting in breast cancer cells (MCF7, MDA-MB-231). Chondramide inhibits cellular actin filament dynamics shown by a fluorescence-based analysis (fluorescence recovery after photobleaching (FRAP)) and leads to apoptosis characterized by phosphatidylserine exposure, release of cytochrome C from mitochondria and finally activation of caspases. Chondramide enhances the occurrence of mitochondrial permeability transition (MPT) by affecting known MPT modulators: Hexokinase II bound to the voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) translocated from the outer mitochondrial membrane to the cytosol and the proapoptotic protein Bad were recruited to the mitochondria. Importantly, protein kinase C-ɛ (PKCɛ), a prosurvival kinase possessing an actin-binding site and known to regulate the hexokinase/VDAC interaction as well as Bad phosphorylation was identified as the link between actin CSK and apoptosis induction. PKCɛ, which was found overexpressed in breast cancer cells, accumulated in actin bundles induced by Chondramide and lost its activity. Our second goal was to characterize the potential tumor-specific action of actin-binding agents. As the nontumor breast epithelial cell line MCF-10A in fact shows resistance to Chondramide-induced apoptosis and notably express low level of PKCɛ, we suggest that trapping PKCɛ via Chondramide-induced actin hyperpolymerization displays tumor cell specificity. Our work provides a link between targeting the ubiquitously occurring actin CSK and selective inhibition of pro-tumorigenic PKCɛ, thus setting the stage for actin-stabilizing agents as

  1. Resilient Actions in the Diagnostic Process and System Performance

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Michael W.; Giardina, Traber Davis; Murphy, Daniel R.; Laxmisan, Archana; Singh, Hardeep

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Systemic issues can adversely affect the diagnostic process. Many system-related barriers can be masked by ‘resilient’ actions of frontline providers (ie, actions supporting the safe delivery of care in the presence of pressures that the system cannot readily adapt to). We explored system barriers and resilient actions of primary care providers (PCPs) in the diagnostic evaluation of cancer. Methods We conducted a secondary data analysis of interviews of PCPs involved in diagnostic evaluation of 29 lung and colorectal cancer cases. Cases covered a range of diagnostic timeliness and were analyzed to identify barriers for rapid diagnostic evaluation, and PCPs’ actions involving elements of resilience addressing those barriers. We rated these actions according to whether they were usual or extraordinary for typical PCP work. Results Resilient actions and associated barriers were found in 59% of the cases, in all ranges of timeliness, with 40% involving actions rated as beyond typical. Most of the barriers were related to access to specialty services and coordination with patients. Many of the resilient actions involved using additional communication channels to solicit cooperation from other participants in the diagnostic process. Discussion Diagnostic evaluation of cancer involves several resilient actions by PCPs targeted at system deficiencies. PCPs’ actions can sometimes mitigate system barriers to diagnosis, and thereby impact the sensitivity of ‘downstream’ measures (eg, delays) in detecting barriers. While resilient actions might enable providers to mitigate system deficiencies in the short run, they can be resource intensive and potentially unsustainable. They complement, rather than substitute for, structural remedies to improve system performance. Measures to detect and fix system performance issues targeted by these resilient actions could facilitate diagnostic safety. PMID:23813210

  2. DPADL: An Action Language for Data Processing Domains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This paper presents DPADL (Data Processing Action Description Language), a language for describing planning domains that involve data processing. DPADL is a declarative object-oriented language that supports constraints and embedded Java code, object creation and copying, explicit inputs and outputs for actions, and metadata descriptions of existing and desired data. DPADL is supported by the IMAGEbot system, which will provide automation for an ecosystem forecasting system called TOPS.

  3. From Outcome Prediction to Action Selection: Developmental Change in the Role of Action-Effect Bindings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verschoor, Stephan A.; Spapé, Michiel; Biro, Szilvia; Hommel, Bernhard

    2013-01-01

    Ideomotor theory considers bidirectional action-effect associations to be the fundamental building blocks for intentional action. The present study employed a novel pupillometric and oculomotor paradigm to study developmental changes in the role of action-effects in the acquisition of voluntary action. Our findings suggest that both 7- and…

  4. Early Onset of Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitor Antidepressant Action

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Matthew J.; Freemantle, Nick; Geddes, John R.; Bhagwagar, Zubin

    2008-01-01

    Context: Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are often described as having a delayed onset of effect in the treatment of depression. However, some trials have reported clinical improvement as early as the first week of treatment. Objective: To test the alternative hypotheses of delayed vs early onset of antidepressant action with SSRIs in patients with unipolar depression. Data Sources: Trials identified by searching CENTRAL, The Cochrane Collaboration database of controlled trials (2005), and the reference lists of identified trials and other systematic reviews. Study Selection: Randomized controlled trials of SSRIs vs placebo for the treatment of unipolar depression in adults that reported outcomes for at least 2 time points in the first 4 weeks of treatment (50 trials from >500 citations identified). Trials were excluded if limited to participants older than 65 years or specific comorbidities. Data Extraction: Data were extracted on trial design, participant characteristics, and outcomes by a single reviewer. Data Synthesis: Pooled estimates of treatment effect on depressive symptom rating scales were calculated for weeks 1 through 6 of treatment. In the primary analysis, the pattern of response seen was tested against alternative models of onset of response. The primary analysis incorporated data from 28 randomized controlled trials (n=5872). A model of early treatment response best fit the experimental data. Treatment with SSRIs rather than placebo was associated with clinical improvement by the end of the first week of use. A secondary analysis indicated an increased chance of achieving a 50% reduction in Hamilton Depression Rating Scale scores by 1 week (relative risk, 1.64; 95% confidence interval, 1.2-2.25) with SSRI treatment compared with placebo. Conclusions: Treatment with SSRIs is associated with symptomatic improvement in depression by the end of the first week of use, and the improvement continues at a decreasing rate for at least 6

  5. The Galileo arrival date selection process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ludwinski, Jan M.; Gershman, Robert

    1988-01-01

    The Galileo arrival date selection process has culminated in the selection of December 7,1995. This arrival date will provide excellent science opportunities at Jupiter as well as the first spacecraft reconnaissance ever of not one, but two asteroids during the cruise to Jupiter.

  6. An Inclusive Process for Departmental Textbook Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altman, William S.; Ericksen, Kristen; Pena-Shaff, Judith B.

    2006-01-01

    This article reports on the development and use of an inclusive process to select a departmental textbook for general psychology. It describes a method for developing department-specific instruments to narrow the available textbook choices and an in-class textbook trial used in the final selection. Reported advantages of this method include…

  7. Buyer Beware: Managing the Software Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carse, James W.

    1983-01-01

    Purchased application software has created a new set of problems for project managers charged with selection and implementation responsibilities. Eight activity phases in the software selection process are identified. Development and utilization of this approach at the University of Houston are described. (Author/MLW)

  8. Antidiabetic Actions of an Estrogen Receptor β Selective Agonist

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Magdalena, Paloma; Ropero, Ana B.; García-Arévalo, Marta; Soriano, Sergi; Quesada, Iván; Muhammed, Sarheed J.; Salehi, Albert; Gustafsson, Jan-Ake; Nadal, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    The estrogen receptor β (ERβ) is emerging as an important player in the physiology of the endocrine pancreas. We evaluated the role and antidiabetic actions of the ERβ selective agonist WAY200070 as an insulinotropic molecule. We demonstrate that WAY200070 enhances glucose-stimulated insulin secretion both in mouse and human islets. In vivo experiments showed that a single administration of WAY200070 leads to an increase in plasma insulin levels with a concomitant improved response to a glucose load. Two-week treatment administration increased glucose-induced insulin release and pancreatic β-cell mass and improved glucose and insulin sensitivity. In addition, streptozotocin-nicotinamide–induced diabetic mice treated with WAY200070 exhibited a significant improvement in plasma insulin levels and glucose tolerance as well as a regeneration of pancreatic β-cell mass. Studies performed in db/db mice demonstrated that this compound restored first-phase insulin secretion and enhanced pancreatic β-cell mass. We conclude that ERβ agonists should be considered as new targets for the treatment of diabetes. PMID:23349481

  9. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    The aim of this project is to develop an economical method for producing low-sulfur and low-ash coals using the selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process. This work has been divided into three tasks: (1) project planning and sample acquisition; (2) studies of the fundamental mechanism(s) of the selective coagulation process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from both the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur; and (3) bench-scale process development test work to establish the best possible method(s) of separating the hydrophobic and coagula from the dispersed mineral matter.

  10. Attentional selection in visual perception, memory and action: a quest for cross-domain integration

    PubMed Central

    Schneider, Werner X.; Einhäuser, Wolfgang; Horstmann, Gernot

    2013-01-01

    For decades, the cognitive and neural sciences have benefitted greatly from a separation of mind and brain into distinct functional domains. The tremendous success of this approach notwithstanding, it is self-evident that such a view is incomplete. Goal-directed behaviour of an organism requires the joint functioning of perception, memory and sensorimotor control. A prime candidate for achieving integration across these functional domains are attentional processes. Consequently, this Theme Issue brings together studies of attentional selection from many fields, both experimental and theoretical, that are united in their quest to find overreaching integrative principles of attention between perception, memory and action. In all domains, attention is understood as combination of competition and priority control (‘bias’), with the task as a decisive driving factor to ensure coherent goal-directed behaviour and cognition. Using vision as the predominant model system for attentional selection, many studies of this Theme Issue focus special emphasis on eye movements as a selection process that is both a fundamental action and serves a key function in perception. The Theme Issue spans a wide range of methods, from measuring human behaviour in the real word to recordings of single neurons in the non-human primate brain. We firmly believe that combining such a breadth in approaches is necessary not only for attentional selection, but also to take the next decisive step in all of the cognitive and neural sciences: to understand cognition and behaviour beyond isolated domains. PMID:24018715

  11. Selection of informative parameters of vibroacoustic processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koshek, L. N.

    1973-01-01

    The problem of selecting informative parameters of vibro-acoustic processes and the construction of apparatus for their determination are discussed. It is assumed that the processes being investigated are structurally uniform and either purely random or contain not very many determinative components.

  12. Age-related differences in task goal processing strategies during action cascading.

    PubMed

    Stock, Ann-Kathrin; Gohil, Krutika; Beste, Christian

    2016-06-01

    We are often faced with situations requiring the execution of a coordinated cascade of different actions to achieve a goal, but we can apply different strategies to do so. Until now, these different action cascading strategies have, however, not been examined with respect to possible effects of aging. We tackled this question in a systems neurophysiological study using EEG and source localization in healthy older adults and employing mathematical constraints to determine the strategy applied. The results suggest that older adults seem to apply a less efficient strategy when cascading different actions. Compared to younger adults, older adults seem to struggle to hierarchically organize their actions, which leads to an inefficient and more parallel processing of different task goals. On a systems level, the observed deficit is most likely due to an altered processing of task goals at the response selection level (P3 ERP) and related to changes of neural processes in the temporo-parietal junction. PMID:26025200

  13. Lexical selection in action: evidence from spontaneous punning.

    PubMed

    Otake, Takashi; Cutler, Anne

    2013-12-01

    Analysis of a corpus of spontaneously produced Japanese puns from a single speaker over a two-year period provides a view of how a punster selects a source word for a pun and transforms it into another word for humorous effect. The pun-making process is driven by a principle of similarity: the source word should as far as possible be preserved (in terms of segmental sequence) in the pun. This renders homophones (English example: band-banned) the pun type of choice, with part-whole relationships of embedding (cap-capture), and mutations of the source word (peas-bees) rather less favored. Similarity also governs mutations in that single-phoneme substitutions outnumber larger changes, and in phoneme substitutions, subphonemic features tend to be preserved. The process of spontaneous punning thus applies, on line, the same similarity criteria as govern explicit similarity judgments and offline decisions about pun success (e.g., for inclusion in published collections). Finally, the process of spoken-word recognition is word-play-friendly in that it involves multiple word-form activation and competition, which, coupled with known techniques in use in difficult listening conditions, enables listeners to generate most pun types as offshoots of normal listening procedures. PMID:24597277

  14. Selecting food. The contribution of memory, liking, and action.

    PubMed

    Parma, Valentina; Castiello, Umberto; Köster, Egon Peter; Mojet, Jos

    2014-05-01

    The goal of the present experiment was twofold: identifying similarities and differences between flavour memory and visual memory mechanisms and investigating whether kinematics could serve as an implicit measure for food selection. To test flavour and visual memory an 'implicit' paradigm to represent real-life situations in a controlled lab setting was implemented. A target, i.e., a piece of cake shaped like either an orange or a tangerine, covered with either orange- or a tangerine-flavoured icing, was provided to participants on Day 1. On Day 2, without prior notice, participants were requested to recognize the target amongst a set of distractors, characterized by various flavours (orange vs. tangerine) and/or sizes (orange-like vs. tangerine-like). Similarly, targets and distractors consisting of 2D figures varying in shape and size were used to assess visual memory. Reach-to-grasp kinematics towards the targets were recorded and analysed by means of digitalization techniques. Correlations between kinematic parameters, memory and liking for each food item were also calculated. Results concerned with memory recollection indices provided evidence of different key mechanisms which could be based either on novelty of flavour memory or visual memory, respectively. To a moderate extent, kinematics may serve as an implicit index of food selection processes. PMID:24560690

  15. The processing of speech, gesture, and action during language comprehension.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Spencer; Healey, Meghan; Özyürek, Asli; Holler, Judith

    2015-04-01

    Hand gestures and speech form a single integrated system of meaning during language comprehension, but is gesture processed with speech in a unique fashion? We had subjects watch multimodal videos that presented auditory (words) and visual (gestures and actions on objects) information. Half of the subjects related the audio information to a written prime presented before the video, and the other half related the visual information to the written prime. For half of the multimodal video stimuli, the audio and visual information contents were congruent, and for the other half, they were incongruent. For all subjects, stimuli in which the gestures and actions were incongruent with the speech produced more errors and longer response times than did stimuli that were congruent, but this effect was less prominent for speech-action stimuli than for speech-gesture stimuli. However, subjects focusing on visual targets were more accurate when processing actions than gestures. These results suggest that although actions may be easier to process than gestures, gestures may be more tightly tied to the processing of accompanying speech. PMID:25002252

  16. Sexual selection unhandicapped by the Fisher process.

    PubMed

    Grafen, A

    1990-06-21

    A population genetic model of sexual selection is constructed in which, at equilibrium, males signal their quality by developing costly ornaments, and females pay costs to use the ornaments in mate choice. It is shown that the form of the equilibrium is uninfluenced by the Fisher process, that is, by self-reinforcement of female preferences. This is a working model of the handicap principle applied to sexual selection, and places Zahavi's handicap principle on the same logical footing as the Fisher process, in that each can support sexual selection without the presence of the other. A way of measuring the relative importance of the two processes is suggested that can be applied to both theories and facts. A style of modelling that allows simple genetics and complicated biology to be combined is recommended. PMID:2402152

  17. Hierarchical processing in music, language, and action: Lashley revisited.

    PubMed

    Fitch, W Tecumseh; Martins, Mauricio D

    2014-05-01

    Sixty years ago, Karl Lashley suggested that complex action sequences, from simple motor acts to language and music, are a fundamental but neglected aspect of neural function. Lashley demonstrated the inadequacy of then-standard models of associative chaining, positing a more flexible and generalized "syntax of action" necessary to encompass key aspects of language and music. He suggested that hierarchy in language and music builds upon a more basic sequential action system, and provided several concrete hypotheses about the nature of this system. Here, we review a diverse set of modern data concerning musical, linguistic, and other action processing, finding them largely consistent with an updated neuroanatomical version of Lashley's hypotheses. In particular, the lateral premotor cortex, including Broca's area, plays important roles in hierarchical processing in language, music, and at least some action sequences. Although the precise computational function of the lateral prefrontal regions in action syntax remains debated, Lashley's notion-that this cortical region implements a working-memory buffer or stack scannable by posterior and subcortical brain regions-is consistent with considerable experimental data. PMID:24697242

  18. Selective effects of an octopus toxin on action potentials

    PubMed Central

    Dulhunty, Angela; Gage, Peter W.

    1971-01-01

    1. A lethal, water soluble toxin (Maculotoxin, MTX) with a molecular weight less than 540, can be extracted from the salivary glands of an octopus (Hapalochlaena maculosa). 2. MTX blocks action potentials in sartorius muscle fibres of toads without affecting the membrane potential. Delayed rectification is not inhibited by the toxin. 3. At low concentrations (10-6-10-5 g/ml.) MTX blocks action potentials only after a certain number have been elicited. The number of action potentials, which can be defined accurately, depends on the concentration of MTX and the concentration of sodium ions in the extracellular solution. 4. The toxin has no post-synaptic effect at the neuromuscular junction and it is concluded that it blocks neuromuscular transmission by inhibiting action potentials in motor nerve terminals. PMID:4330930

  19. Cue to action processing in motor cortex populations

    PubMed Central

    Donoghue, John P.

    2013-01-01

    The primary motor cortex (MI) commands motor output after kinematics are planned from goals, thought to occur in a larger premotor network. However, there is a growing body of evidence that MI is involved in processes beyond action generation, and neuronal subpopulations may perform computations related to cue-to-action processing. From multielectrode array recordings in awake behaving Macaca mulatta monkeys, our results suggest that early MI ensemble activity during goal-directed reaches is driven by target information when cues are closely linked in time to action. Single-neuron activity spanned cue presentation to movement, with the earliest responses temporally aligned to cue and the later responses better aligned to arm movements. Population decoding revealed that MI's coding of cue direction evolved temporally, likely going from cue to action generation. We confirmed that a portion of MI activity is related to visual target processing by showing changes in MI activity related to the extinguishing of a continuously pursued visual target. These findings support a view that MI is an integral part of a cue-to-action network for immediate responses to environmental stimuli. PMID:24174650

  20. Remedial action selection report Maybell, Colorado, site. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The site is 2.5 mi (4 km) northeast of the Yampa River on relatively flat terrain broken by low, flat-topped mesas. U.S. Highway 40 runs east-west 2 mi (3.2 km) south of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. The site is situated between Johnson Wash to the east and Rob Pit Mine to the west. Numerous reclaimed and unreclaimed mines are in the immediate vicinity. Aerial photographs (included at the end of this executive summary) show evidence of mining activity around the Maybell site. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [ml]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd 3 (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3}(420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}).

  1. Process for Selecting System Level Assessments for Human System Technologies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watts, James; Park, John

    2006-01-01

    The integration of many life support systems necessary to construct a stable habitat is difficult. The correct identification of the appropriate technologies and corresponding interfaces is an exhaustive process. Once technologies are selected secondary issues such as mechanical and electrical interfaces must be addressed. The required analytical and testing work must be approached in a piecewise fashion to achieve timely results. A repeatable process has been developed to identify and prioritize system level assessments and testing needs. This Assessment Selection Process has been defined to assess cross cutting integration issues on topics at the system or component levels. Assessments are used to identify risks, encourage future actions to mitigate risks, or spur further studies.

  2. Reasoning about nondeterministic and concurrent actions: A process algebra approach

    SciTech Connect

    De Giacomo, G.; Chen, Xiao Jun

    1996-12-31

    In this paper, we study reasoning about actions following a model checking approach in contrast to the usual validity checking one. Specifically, we model a dynamic system as a transition graph which represents all the possible system evolutions in terms of state changes caused by actions. Such a transition graph is defined by means of a suitable process algebra associated with an explicit global store. To reason about system properties we introduce an extension of modal {mu}-calculus. This setting, although directly applicable only when complete information on the system is available, has several interesting features for reasoning about actions. On one hand, it inherits from the vast literature on process algebras tools for dealing with complex systems, treating suitably important aspects like parallelism, communications, interruptions, coordinations among agents. On the other hand, reasoning by model checking is typically much easier than more general logical services such as validity checking.

  3. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1991-01-01

    Recent studies have resulted in the development of a novel agglomeration process for upgrading ultrafine coal. This process, which is known as selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC), is based on the new finding that hydrophobic coal particles can be selectively coagulated in the presence of dispersed mineral matter. The driving force for the coagulation is believed to be due to the structural arrangement of water molecules near the coal surface. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of the coal particles and (2) effectively disperse the particles of mineral matter. During the past quarter, several important aspects of the SHC process were examined. Direct measurements of the surface forces which control the selective coagulation process were conducted using a Mark 4 surface force apparatus. These preliminary measurements have provided irrefutable evidence for the existence of the hydrophobic force. Key expressions have been presented for a population balance model describing the hydrophobic coagulation process. In order to validate this model, experimental measurements of the size distributions of coal coagulation have been initiated. The liberation characteristics of samples obtained from the Elkhorn No. 3 and Pittsburgh No. 8 coal seams were determined using a SEM-IPS image processing system. Mixing studies were carried out to determine the effects of mixer-impeller configurations on the coagula size distributions. Bench-scale continuous testing has also been initiated during the past quarter using a rotating drum screen and sedimentation tank. 25 figs., 8 tabs.

  4. Action Recognition Using Nonnegative Action Component Representation and Sparse Basis Selection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Haoran; Yuan, Chunfeng; Hu, Weiming; Ling, Haibin; Yang, Wankou; Sun, Changyin

    2014-02-01

    In this paper, we propose using high-level action units to represent human actions in videos and, based on such units, a novel sparse model is developed for human action recognition. There are three interconnected components in our approach. First, we propose a new context-aware spatial-temporal descriptor, named locally weighted word context, to improve the discriminability of the traditionally used local spatial-temporal descriptors. Second, from the statistics of the context-aware descriptors, we learn action units using the graph regularized nonnegative matrix factorization, which leads to a part-based representation and encodes the geometrical information. These units effectively bridge the semantic gap in action recognition. Third, we propose a sparse model based on a joint l2,1-norm to preserve the representative items and suppress noise in the action units. Intuitively, when learning the dictionary for action representation, the sparse model captures the fact that actions from the same class share similar units. The proposed approach is evaluated on several publicly available data sets. The experimental results and analysis clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed approach. PMID:26270909

  5. 45 CFR 1305.6 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Selection process. 1305.6 Section 1305.6 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) OFFICE OF HUMAN DEVELOPMENT SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES THE ADMINISTRATION FOR CHILDREN, YOUTH AND FAMILIES, HEAD...

  6. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  7. 24 CFR 1003.301 - Selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Selection process. 1003.301 Section 1003.301 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN DEVELOPMENT (CONTINUED) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR PUBLIC AND INDIAN HOUSING, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND URBAN...

  8. Sequential selection of economic good and action in medial frontal cortex of macaques during value-based decisions

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xiaomo; Stuphorn, Veit

    2015-01-01

    Value-based decisions could rely either on the selection of desired economic goods or on the selection of the actions that will obtain the goods. We investigated this question by recording from the supplementary eye field (SEF) of monkeys during a gambling task that allowed us to distinguish chosen good from chosen action signals. Analysis of the individual neuron activity, as well as of the population state-space dynamic, showed that SEF encodes first the chosen gamble option (the desired economic good) and only ~100 ms later the saccade that will obtain it (the chosen action). The action selection is likely driven by inhibitory interactions between different SEF neurons. Our results suggest that during value-based decisions, the selection of economic goods precedes and guides the selection of actions. The two selection steps serve different functions and can therefore not compensate for each other, even when information guiding both processes is given simultaneously. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09418.001 PMID:26613409

  9. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Johnson, C.A.

    1982-09-01

    This bibliography contains 693 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. Foreign, as well as domestic, literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Grand Junction Remedial Action Program, and Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General Studies. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for (1) author; (2) corporate affiliation; (3) title; (4) publication description; (5) geographic location; and (6) keywords. An appendix of 202 bibliographic references without abstracts or indexes has been included in this bibliography. This appendix represents literature identified but not abstracted due to time constraints.

  10. Ingenuity in Action: Connecting Tinkering to Engineering Design Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jennifer; Werner-Avidon, Maia; Newton, Lisa; Randol, Scott; Smith, Brooke; Walker, Gretchen

    2013-01-01

    The Lawrence Hall of Science, a science center, seeks to replicate real-world engineering at the "Ingenuity in Action" exhibit, which consists of three open-ended challenges. These problems encourage children to engage in engineering design processes and problem-solving techniques through tinkering. We observed and interviewed 112…

  11. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  12. Selective epitaxy using the GILD process

    SciTech Connect

    Weiner, K.H.

    1990-12-31

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge{sub x}Si{sub 1-x} grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  13. Selective epitaxy using the gild process

    DOEpatents

    Weiner, Kurt H.

    1992-01-01

    The present invention comprises a method of selective epitaxy on a semiconductor substrate. The present invention provides a method of selectively forming high quality, thin GeSi layers in a silicon circuit, and a method for fabricating smaller semiconductor chips with a greater yield (more error free chips) at a lower cost. The method comprises forming an upper layer over a substrate, and depositing a reflectivity mask which is then removed over selected sections. Using a laser to melt the unmasked sections of the upper layer, the semiconductor material in the upper layer is heated and diffused into the substrate semiconductor material. By varying the amount of laser radiation, the epitaxial layer is formed to a controlled depth which may be very thin. When cooled, a single crystal epitaxial layer is formed over the patterned substrate. The present invention provides the ability to selectively grow layers of mixed semiconductors over patterned substrates such as a layer of Ge.sub.x Si.sub.1-x grown over silicon. Such a process may be used to manufacture small transistors that have a narrow base, heavy doping, and high gain. The narrowness allows a faster transistor, and the heavy doping reduces the resistance of the narrow layer. The process does not require high temperature annealing; therefore materials such as aluminum can be used. Furthermore, the process may be used to fabricate diodes that have a high reverse breakdown voltage and a low reverse leakage current.

  14. Staying Mindful in Action: The Challenge of "Double Awareness" on Task and Process in an Action Lab

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Svalgaard, Lotte

    2016-01-01

    Action Learning is a well-proven method to integrate "task" and "process", as learning about team and self (process) takes place while delivering on a task or business challenge of real importance (task). An Action Lab® is an intensive Action Learning programme lasting for 5 days, which aims at balancing and integrating…

  15. The left hemisphere and the selection of learned actions.

    PubMed

    Rushworth, M F; Nixon, P D; Wade, D T; Renowden, S; Passingham, R E

    1998-01-01

    The left hemisphere's dominance for movement is well known. The basis of its dominance is less clear. We have tested 16 left hemisphere (LH) patients, 17 right hemisphere (RH) patients and 12 neurologically normal controls on a battery of five tasks. The tasks were based on animal lesion and recording studies, and human imaging and magnetic stimulation studies that identified two distributed systems that are important for the selection of motor responses and object-oriented responses. The LH patients were impaired on three response selection tasks: learning to select between joystick movement responses instructed by visual cues; learning to select between analogous object-oriented responses instructed by visual cues; learning to select movements in a sequence. Although we replicated the finding that LH damage impairs sequencing, some of the impaired tasks had no sequencing element. We therefore argue that the LH deficits are best explained as an impairment of response selection. This was confirmed by showing that LH subjects were unimpaired on a more demanding task-object discrimination learning-which imposed a greater memory load but had no response selection element. Moreover, the LH deficits could not be attributed to disorganization of movement kinematics. The lesions of the impaired LH group were widespread but always included the distributed systems known to be important for response selection-the dorsolateral frontal and parietal cortices, striatum, thalamus and white matter fascicles. PMID:9533383

  16. Impulsivity and predictive control are associated with suboptimal action-selection and action-value learning in regular gamblers

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Matthew S.M.; Jocham, Gerhard; Hunt, Laurence T.; Behrens, Timothy E.J.; Rogers, Robert D.

    2016-01-01

    Heightened impulsivity and cognitive biases are risk factors for gambling problems. However, little is known about precisely how these factors increase the risks of gambling-related harm in vulnerable individuals. Here, we modelled the behaviour of eighty-seven community-recruited regular, but not clinically problematic, gamblers during a binary-choice reinforcement-learning game, to characterise the relationships between impulsivity, cognitive biases, and the capacity to make optimal action selections and learn about action-values. Impulsive gamblers showed diminished use of an optimal (Bayesian-derived) probability estimate when selecting between candidate actions, and showed slower learning rates and enhanced non-linear probability weighting while learning action values. Critically, gamblers who believed that it is possible to predict winning outcomes (as 'predictive control') failed to use the game's reinforcement history to guide their action selections. Extensive evidence attests to the ease with which gamblers can erroneously perceive structure in the reinforcement history of games when there is none. Our findings demonstrate that the generic and specific risk factors of impulsivity and cognitive biases can interfere with the capacity of some gamblers to utilise structure when it is available in the reinforcement history of games, potentially increasing their risks of sustaining gambling-related harms. PMID:27274706

  17. Broca's area processes the hierarchical organization of observed action

    PubMed Central

    Wakita, Masumi

    2014-01-01

    Broca's area has been suggested as the area responsible for the domain-general hierarchical processing of language and music. Although meaningful action shares a common hierarchical structure with language and music, the role of Broca's area in this domain remains controversial. To address the involvement of Broca's area in the processing action hierarchy, the activation of Broca's area was measured using near-infrared spectroscopy. Measurements were taken while participants watched silent movies that featured hand movements playing familiar and unfamiliar melodies. The unfamiliar melodies were reversed versions of the familiar melodies. Additionally, to investigate the effect of a motor experience on the activation of Broca's area, the participants were divided into well-trained and less-trained groups. The results showed that Broca's area in the well-trained participants demonstrated a significantly larger activation in response to the hand motion when an unfamiliar melody was played than when a familiar melody was played. However, Broca's area in the less-trained participants did not show a contrast between conditions despite identical abilities of the two participant groups to identify the melodies by watching key pressing actions. These results are consistent with previous findings that Broca's area exhibits increased activation in response to grammatically violated sentences and musically deviated chord progressions as well as the finding that this region does not represent the processing of grammatical structure in less-proficient foreign language speakers. Thus, the current study suggests that Broca's area represents action hierarchy and that sufficiently long motor training is necessary for it to become sensitive to motor syntax. Therefore, the notion that hierarchical processing in Broca's area is a common function shared between language and music may help to explain the role of Broca's area in action perception. PMID:24478668

  18. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern “vitality forms”. Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing. PMID:27375461

  19. Vitality Forms Processing in the Insula during Action Observation: A Multivoxel Pattern Analysis.

    PubMed

    Di Cesare, Giuseppe; Valente, Giancarlo; Di Dio, Cinzia; Ruffaldi, Emanuele; Bergamasco, Massimo; Goebel, Rainer; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Observing the style of an action done by others allows the observer to understand the cognitive state of the agent. This information has been defined by Stern "vitality forms". Previous experiments showed that the dorso-central insula is selectively active both during vitality form observation and execution. In the present study, we presented participants with videos showing hand actions performed with different velocities and asked them to judge either their vitality form (gentle, neutral, rude) or their velocity (slow, medium, fast). The aim of the present study was to assess, using multi-voxel pattern analysis, whether vitality forms and velocities of observed goal-directed actions are differentially processed in the insula, and more specifically whether action velocity is encoded per se or it is an element that triggers neural populations of the insula encoding the vitality form. The results showed that, consistently across subjects, in the dorso-central sector of the insula there were voxels selectively tuned to vitality forms, while voxel tuned to velocity were rare. These results indicate that the dorso-central insula, which previous data showed to be involved in the vitality form processing, contains voxels specific for the action style processing. PMID:27375461

  20. Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Aso, Yoshinori; Sitaraman, Divya; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Kaun, Karla R; Vogt, Katrin; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Robie, Alice A; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Rowell, William J; Johnston, Rebecca M; Ngo, Teri-T B; Chen, Nan; Korff, Wyatt; Nitabach, Michael N; Heberlein, Ulrike; Preat, Thomas; Branson, Kristin M; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Rubin, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Animals discriminate stimuli, learn their predictive value and use this knowledge to modify their behavior. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) plays a key role in these processes. Sensory stimuli are sparsely represented by ∼2000 Kenyon cells, which converge onto 34 output neurons (MBONs) of 21 types. We studied the role of MBONs in several associative learning tasks and in sleep regulation, revealing the extent to which information flow is segregated into distinct channels and suggesting possible roles for the multi-layered MBON network. We also show that optogenetic activation of MBONs can, depending on cell type, induce repulsion or attraction in flies. The behavioral effects of MBON perturbation are combinatorial, suggesting that the MBON ensemble collectively represents valence. We propose that local, stimulus-specific dopaminergic modulation selectively alters the balance within the MBON network for those stimuli. Our results suggest that valence encoded by the MBON ensemble biases memory-based action selection. PMID:25535794

  1. Selection-mutation process of RNA viruses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aafif, Amal; Lin, Juan

    1998-02-01

    RNA viruses mutate at a rate 105-106 times faster than their DNA counterparts. This process can be simulated by a continuous stochastic model on a smooth one-dimensional fitness landscape where selection forces the viral quasispecies to climb uphill to higher fitness values. Theoretical results of the model with drift velocity proportional to fitness are fitted to the experimental observations made by Novella et al. [Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 92, 5841 (1995)].

  2. Development of the selective coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  3. Development of the selective hydrophobic coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy. The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (i) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (ii) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. The technical work program was initiated on July 1, 1992. Force-distance curves were generated for DDOA Br-coated mica surfaces in water and used to calculate hydrophobicity constants and decay lengths for this system; and a new device for the measurement of water contact angles, similar to the Wilhelmy plate balance, has been built 225 kg samples of Pittsburgh No. 8 and Elkhom No. 3 seam coals were obtained; a static mixer test facility for the study of coagula growth was set up and was undergoing shakedown tests at the end of the quarter; a bench-scale lamella thickener was being constructed; and preliminary coagula/ mineral separation tests were being conducted in a bench-scale continuous drum filter.

  4. Development of the Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation process

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-01-01

    A novel technique for selectively coagulating and separating coal from dispersed mineral matter has been developed at Virginia Tech. The process, Selective Hydrophobic Coagulation (SHC), has been studied since 1986 under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (Contracts AC22-86PC91221 and AC22-90PC90174). The SHC process differs from oil agglomeration, shear or polymer flocculation, and electrolytic coagulation processes in that it does not require reagents or additives to induce the formation of coagula. In most cases, simple pH control is all that is required to (1) induce the coagulation of coal particles and (2) effectively disperse particles of mineral matter. If the coal is oxidized, a small dosage of reagents can be used to enhance the process. During the quarter, the Anutech Mark IV surface force apparatus was used to generate surface force-distance data for the mica/dodecylamine hydrochloride system (Task 2.1.1). Work to characterize the hydrophobicity of this system and the mica/DDOA[sup [minus

  5. Selective-oxidation catalyst improves Claus process

    SciTech Connect

    Lagas, J.A.; Borsboom, J. ); Berben, P.H. )

    1988-10-10

    Increased SO/sub 2/ emissions. On a worldwide scale, the exploitation and processing of crude oil and natural gas have increased significantly during the past 30 years. This expansion has caused severe pollution problems, especially from sulfur dioxide emissions to the atmosphere. A new development for the well-known Claus process improves production of elemental sulfur from H/sub 2/S. The ''SuperClaus'' process involves a modification of the process-control system and the use of a newly developed selective-oxidation catalyst in the third reactor with the objective of achieving a 99% or 99.5% overall sulfur recovery (two versions) without further tail-gas cleanup. The catalyst for the new process was developed and tested on laboratory bench scale for more than 3 years. Based on the results, it was decided to test the process directly in a commercial unit. A three-stage, 100-t/d Claus plant in a natural-gas plant in the Federal Republic of Germany has been retrofitted to SuperClause. Since Jan. 21, the process has been successfully operated.

  6. Knowledge and Transformative Social Action: The Encounter of Selected Traditions of Participatory (Action) Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Streck, Danilo Romeu

    2014-01-01

    The argument in this paper is that action and participatory research developed within the context of social and political movements aimed at promoting democratic relationships and institutions represents a methodological strategy for deconstructing and reconstructing the hegemonic perspective of knowledge and knowledge production. After a brief…

  7. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document: Final. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-01

    Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designed sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project. Since its inception through March 1996, the Surface Project (hereinafter called the Project) has cleaned up 16 of the 24 designated processing sites and approximately 5,000 VPs, reducing the risk to human health and the environment posed by the uranium mill tailings. Two of the 24 sites, Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, will not be remediated at the request of the state, reducing the total number of sites to 22. By the start of FY1998, the remaining 6 processing sites and associated VPs will be cleaned up. The remedial action activities to be funded in FY1998 by the FY1998 budget request are remediation of the remaining Grand Junction, Colorado, VPs; closure of the Cheney disposal cell in Grand Junction, Colorado; and preparation of the completion reports for 4 completed sites.

  8. Spacecraft Electrical Connector Selection and Application Processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Iannello, Chris; Davis, Mitchell I; Kichak, Robert A.; Slenski, George

    2009-01-01

    This assessment was initiated by the NASA Engineering & Safety Center (NESC) after a number of recent "high profile" connector problems, the most visible and publicized of these being the problem with the Space Shuttle's Engine Cut-Off System cryogenic feed-thru connector. The NESC commissioned a review of NASA's connector selection and application processes for space flight applications, including how lessons learned and past problem records are fed back into the processes to avoid recurring issues. Team members were primarily from the various NASA Centers and included connector and electrical parts specialists. The commissioned study was conducted on spacecraft connector selection and application processes at NASA Centers. The team also compared the NASA spacecraft connector selection and application process to the military process, identified recent high profile connector failures, and analyzed problem report data looking for trends and common occurrences. The team characterized NASA's connector problem experience into a list of top connector issues based on anecdotal evidence of a system's impact and commonality between Centers. These top issues are as follows, in no particular rank order: electrically shorted, bent and/or recessed contact pins, contact pin/socket contamination leading to electrically open or intermittencies, connector plating corrosion or corrosion of connector components, low or inadequate contact pin retention forces, contact crimp failures, unmated connectors and mis-wiring due to workmanship errors during installation or maintenance, loose connectors due to manufacturing defects such as wavy washer and worn bayonet retention, damaged connector elastomeric seals and cryogenic connector failure. A survey was also conducted of SAE Connector AE-8C1 committee members regarding their experience relative to the NASA concerns on connectors. The most common responses in order of occurrence were contact retention, plating issues, worn-out or damaged

  9. Enactment versus Observation: Item-Specific and Relational Processing in Goal-Directed Action Sequences (and Lists of Single Actions)

    PubMed Central

    Schult, Janette; von Stülpnagel, Rul; Steffens, Melanie C.

    2014-01-01

    What are the memory-related consequences of learning actions (such as “apply the patch”) by enactment during study, as compared to action observation? Theories converge in postulating that enactment encoding increases item-specific processing, but not the processing of relational information. Typically, in the laboratory enactment encoding is studied for lists of unrelated single actions in which one action execution has no overarching purpose or relation with other actions. In contrast, real-life actions are usually carried out with the intention to achieve such a purpose. When actions are embedded in action sequences, relational information provides efficient retrieval cues. We contrasted memory for single actions with memory for action sequences in three experiments. We found more reliance on relational processing for action-sequences than single actions. To what degree can this relational information be used after enactment versus after the observation of an actor? We found indicators of superior relational processing after observation than enactment in ordered pair recall (Experiment 1A) and in emerging subjective organization of repeated recall protocols (recall runs 2–3, Experiment 2). An indicator of superior item-specific processing after enactment compared to observation was recognition (Experiment 1B, Experiment 2). Similar net recall suggests that observation can be as good a learning strategy as enactment. We discuss possible reasons why these findings only partly converge with previous research and theorizing. PMID:24927279

  10. Striatal indirect pathway contributes to selection accuracy of learned motor actions.

    PubMed

    Nishizawa, Kayo; Fukabori, Ryoji; Okada, Kana; Kai, Nobuyuki; Uchigashima, Motokazu; Watanabe, Masahiko; Shiota, Akira; Ueda, Masatsugu; Tsutsui, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kazuto

    2012-09-26

    The dorsal striatum, which contains the dorsolateral striatum (DLS) and dorsomedial striatum (DMS), integrates the acquisition and implementation of instrumental learning in cooperation with the nucleus accumbens (NAc). The dorsal striatum regulates the basal ganglia circuitry through direct and indirect pathways. The mechanism by which these pathways mediate the learning processes of instrumental actions remains unclear. We investigated how the striatal indirect (striatopallidal) pathway arising from the DLS contributes to the performance of conditional discrimination. Immunotoxin targeting of the striatal neuronal type containing dopamine D(2) receptor in the DLS of transgenic rats resulted in selective, efficient elimination of the striatopallidal pathway. This elimination impaired the accuracy of response selection in a two-choice reaction time task dependent on different auditory stimuli. The impaired response selection was elicited early in the test sessions and was gradually restored as the sessions continued. The restoration from the deficits in auditory discrimination was prevented by excitotoxic lesion of the NAc but not by that of the DMS. In addition, lesion of the DLS mimicked the behavioral consequence of the striatopallidal removal at the early stage of test sessions of discriminative performance. Our results demonstrate that the DLS-derived striatopallidal pathway plays an essential role in the execution of conditional discrimination, showing its contribution to the control of selection accuracy of learned motor responses. The results also suggest the presence of a mechanism that compensates for the learning deficits during the repetitive sessions, at least partly, demanding accumbal function. PMID:23015433

  11. A hexapod walker using a heterarchical architecture for action selection

    PubMed Central

    Schilling, Malte; Paskarbeit, Jan; Hoinville, Thierry; Hüffmeier, Arne; Schneider, Axel; Schmitz, Josef; Cruse, Holk

    2013-01-01

    Moving in a cluttered environment with a six-legged walking machine that has additional body actuators, therefore controlling 22 DoFs, is not a trivial task. Already simple forward walking on a flat plane requires the system to select between different internal states. The orchestration of these states depends on walking velocity and on external disturbances. Such disturbances occur continuously, for example due to irregular up-and-down movements of the body or slipping of the legs, even on flat surfaces, in particular when negotiating tight curves. The number of possible states is further increased when the system is allowed to walk backward or when front legs are used as grippers and cannot contribute to walking. Further states are necessary for expansion that allow for navigation. Here we demonstrate a solution for the selection and sequencing of different (attractor) states required to control different behaviors as are forward walking at different speeds, backward walking, as well as negotiation of tight curves. This selection is made by a recurrent neural network (RNN) of motivation units, controlling a bank of decentralized memory elements in combination with the feedback through the environment. The underlying heterarchical architecture of the network allows to select various combinations of these elements. This modular approach representing an example of neural reuse of a limited number of procedures allows for adaptation to different internal and external conditions. A way is sketched as to how this approach may be expanded to form a cognitive system being able to plan ahead. This architecture is characterized by different types of modules being arranged in layers and columns, but the complete network can also be considered as a holistic system showing emergent properties which cannot be attributed to a specific module. PMID:24062682

  12. Information architecture: Standards adoption and retirement process service action plan

    SciTech Connect

    1997-03-01

    The purpose of this Service Action Plan is to announce, as well as provide, a high-level outline of a new Departmental process for the adoption and retirement of information technology standards. This process supports the implementation of a Department of Energy (DOE) Information Architecture. This plan was prepared with the Department of Energy information technology standards customers and stakeholders in mind. The process described in this plan will be serviced primarily by staff from the Office of the Deputy Assistant Secretary for Information Management with assistance from designated program and site Information Technology Standards Points of Contact. We welcome any comments regarding this new Departmental process and encourage the proposal of information technology standards for adoption or retirement.

  13. Process safety management and interim or remedial action plans

    SciTech Connect

    Boss, M.J.; Henney, D.A.; Heitzman, V.K.; Day, D.W.

    1996-12-31

    Remedial Actions, including Interim Remedial Activities, often require the use of treatment facilities or stabilization techniques using on-site chemical processes. As such, the 29 CFR 1910.119 Process Safety Management (PSM) of Highly Hazardous Chemicals (PSM Standard) and the USEPA regulations for Risk Management Planning require that these chemicals and their attendant potential hazards be identified. A Hazard and Operation (HAZOP) study, Failure Mode and Effect Analysis (FMEA), Fault Tree Analysis, or equivalent graphic presentation of processes must be completed. These studies form a segment of the Process Hazard Analysis (PHA). HAZOP addresses each system and each element of a system that could deviate from normal operations and thus cause a hazard. A full assessment of each process is produced by looking at the hazards, consequences, causes and personnel protection needed. Many variables must be considered when choosing the appropriate PHA technique including the size of the plant, the number of processes, the types of processes, and the types of chemicals used. A mixture of these techniques may be required to adequately transmit information about the process being evaluated.

  14. How Decisions Evolve: The Temporal Dynamics of Action Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scherbaum, Stefan; Dshemuchadse, Maja; Fischer, Rico; Goschke, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    To study the process of decision-making under conflict, researchers typically analyze response latency and accuracy. However, these tools provide little evidence regarding how the resolution of conflict unfolds over time. Here, we analyzed the trajectories of mouse movements while participants performed a continuous version of a spatial conflict…

  15. 12 CFR 1806.203 - Selection Process, actual award amounts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection Process, actual award amounts. 1806... OF THE TREASURY BANK ENTERPRISE AWARD PROGRAM Awards § 1806.203 Selection Process, actual award... round: (1) To select Applicants not previously selected, using the calculation and selection...

  16. Linking perception and action by structure or process? Toward an integrative perspective.

    PubMed

    Herwig, Arvid

    2015-05-01

    Over the past decades cognitive neuroscience's renewed interest in action has intensified the search of principles explaining how the cognitive system links perception to action and vice versa. To date, at least two seemingly alternative approaches can be distinguished. Perception and action might be linked either by common representational structures, as assumed by the ideomotor approach, or by common attentional processes, as assumed by the attention approach. This article first reviews the evidence from different paradigms supporting each approach. It becomes clear that most studies selectively focus either on actions directed at goals outside the actors' perceptual range (supporting the ideomotor approach) or on actions directed at targets within the actors' perceptual range (supporting the attention approach). In a second step, I will try to reconcile both approaches by reviewing recent eye movement studies that abolish the classical combination of approach and goals under study. Demonstrating that both approaches cover target- as well as goal-directed actions, it is proposed that operations addressed in both conceptual frameworks interact with each other. PMID:25732773

  17. 10 CFR 1021.211 - Interim actions: Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., except as provided at 40 CFR 1506.1. Actions that are covered by, or are a part of, a DOE proposal for... unless they qualify as interim actions under 40 CFR 1506.1. ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Interim actions: Limitations on actions during the...

  18. Parallel processing streams for motor output and sensory prediction during action preparation.

    PubMed

    Stenner, Max-Philipp; Bauer, Markus; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Haggard, Patrick; Dolan, Raymond J

    2015-03-15

    Sensory consequences of one's own actions are perceived as less intense than identical, externally generated stimuli. This is generally taken as evidence for sensory prediction of action consequences. Accordingly, recent theoretical models explain this attenuation by an anticipatory modulation of sensory processing prior to stimulus onset (Roussel et al. 2013) or even action execution (Brown et al. 2013). Experimentally, prestimulus changes that occur in anticipation of self-generated sensations are difficult to disentangle from more general effects of stimulus expectation, attention and task load (performing an action). Here, we show that an established manipulation of subjective agency over a stimulus leads to a predictive modulation in sensory cortex that is independent of these factors. We recorded magnetoencephalography while subjects performed a simple action with either hand and judged the loudness of a tone caused by the action. Effector selection was manipulated by subliminal motor priming. Compatible priming is known to enhance a subjective experience of agency over a consequent stimulus (Chambon and Haggard 2012). In line with this effect on subjective agency, we found stronger sensory attenuation when the action that caused the tone was compatibly primed. This perceptual effect was reflected in a transient phase-locked signal in auditory cortex before stimulus onset and motor execution. Interestingly, this sensory signal emerged at a time when the hemispheric lateralization of motor signals in M1 indicated ongoing effector selection. Our findings confirm theoretical predictions of a sensory modulation prior to self-generated sensations and support the idea that a sensory prediction is generated in parallel to motor output (Walsh and Haggard 2010), before an efference copy becomes available. PMID:25540223

  19. Selection of equipment for coke processing

    SciTech Connect

    Pokhodenko, N.T.; Kuznetsov, V.A.; Nurlygayanova, V.M.; Petrunina, O.A.

    1984-07-01

    This article shows how the design and selection of equipment for the crushing, transportation, and storage of petroleum coke is dependent on the physicomechanical properties of the coke. The mechanical properties of petroleum coke depend on its total porosity, which is determined from true and apparent densities. Topics considered include screen composition, bulk density, the degree of compaction, coefficients of internal and external friction, segregation, and the angle of repose. A vibrating platform operating at 350 cycles per minute was used to investigate the dynamics of compaction of coke fractions during rail transport. It is emphasized that the physical properties of coke as a free-flowing material are of paramount importance in designing the processing and transportation systems and storage facilities for coking and calcining units.

  20. Unconscious Processes in a Career Counselling Case: An Action-Theoretical Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dyer, Brenda; Pizzorno, Maria Chiara; Qu, Kejia; Valach, Ladislav; Marshall, Sheila K.; Young, Richard A.

    2010-01-01

    Although clients and counselors can often account for their actions in counselling, sometimes the link between the action taken and the larger goal is not apparent. This article accounts for counterproductive, paradoxical actions within the counselling process by addressing unconscious processes as links between immediate actions and larger…

  1. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs): progesterone receptor action, mode of action on the endometrium and treatment options in gynecological therapies

    PubMed Central

    Wagenfeld, Andrea; Saunders, Philippa T.K.; Whitaker, Lucy; Critchley, Hilary O.D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction: The progesterone receptor plays an essential role in uterine physiology and reproduction. Selective progesterone receptor modulators (SPRMs) have emerged as a valuable treatment option for hormone dependent conditions like uterine fibroids, which have a major impact on women’s quality of life. SPRMs offer potential for longer term medical treatment and thereby patients may avoid surgical intervention. Areas covered: The authors have reviewed the functional role of the progesterone receptor and its isoforms and their molecular mechanisms of action via genomic and non-genomic pathways. The current knowledge of the interaction of the PR and different SPRMs tested in clinical trials has been reviewed. The authors focused on pharmacological effects of selected SPRMs on the endometrium, their anti-proliferative action, and their suppression of bleeding. Potential underlying molecular mechanisms and the specific histological changes in the endometrium induced by SPRMs (PAEC; Progesterone receptor modulator Associated Endometrial Changes) have been discussed. The clinical potential of this compound class including its impact on quality of life has been covered. Expert Opinion: Clinical studies indicate SPRMs hold promise for treatment of benign gynecological complaints (fibroids, heavy menstrual bleeding; HMB). There however remains a knowledge gap concerning mechanism of action. PMID:27138351

  2. Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process

    SciTech Connect

    Bailiff, E.G.; Bolling, J.D.

    2000-08-01

    This report establishes requirements and standard methods for the development and maintenance of the Emergency Action Level (EAL) Process used by all lead and event contractors for emergency planning and preparedness. The EAL process ensures a technically defensible approach to emergency categorization/classification in accordance with DOE Order 151.1. The instructions provided in this document include methods and requirements for the development and approval of the EAL process. EALs are developed to cover events inside and outside the Y-12 Plant and to allow the Emergency Response Organization (ERO) to classify or reclassify events promptly based on specific indicators. This report is divided into the following 11 subsections: (1) EAL Process, (2) Categorization/Classification System for Operational Emergencies, (3) Development of EALs, (4) Barrier Analysis for EALs, (5) Symptom-Based and Event-Based EALs, (6) Other Considerations, (7) Integration of EALs with Normal and Off-Normal Operations, (8) EAL Manual, (9) Testing EALs for Completeness, (10) Training and Implementation of EALs, and (11) Configuration Management.

  3. Properties of Neurons in External Globus Pallidus Can Support Optimal Action Selection

    PubMed Central

    Bogacz, Rafal; Martin Moraud, Eduardo; Abdi, Azzedine; Magill, Peter J.; Baufreton, Jérôme

    2016-01-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key nucleus within basal ganglia circuits that are thought to be involved in action selection. A class of computational models assumes that, during action selection, the basal ganglia compute for all actions available in a given context the probabilities that they should be selected. These models suggest that a network of GPe and subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons computes the normalization term in Bayes’ equation. In order to perform such computation, the GPe needs to send feedback to the STN equal to a particular function of the activity of STN neurons. However, the complex form of this function makes it unlikely that individual GPe neurons, or even a single GPe cell type, could compute it. Here, we demonstrate how this function could be computed within a network containing two types of GABAergic GPe projection neuron, so-called ‘prototypic’ and ‘arkypallidal’ neurons, that have different response properties in vivo and distinct connections. We compare our model predictions with the experimentally-reported connectivity and input-output functions (f-I curves) of the two populations of GPe neurons. We show that, together, these dichotomous cell types fulfil the requirements necessary to compute the function needed for optimal action selection. We conclude that, by virtue of their distinct response properties and connectivities, a network of arkypallidal and prototypic GPe neurons comprises a neural substrate capable of supporting the computation of the posterior probabilities of actions. PMID:27389780

  4. Properties of Neurons in External Globus Pallidus Can Support Optimal Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Bogacz, Rafal; Martin Moraud, Eduardo; Abdi, Azzedine; Magill, Peter J; Baufreton, Jérôme

    2016-07-01

    The external globus pallidus (GPe) is a key nucleus within basal ganglia circuits that are thought to be involved in action selection. A class of computational models assumes that, during action selection, the basal ganglia compute for all actions available in a given context the probabilities that they should be selected. These models suggest that a network of GPe and subthalamic nucleus (STN) neurons computes the normalization term in Bayes' equation. In order to perform such computation, the GPe needs to send feedback to the STN equal to a particular function of the activity of STN neurons. However, the complex form of this function makes it unlikely that individual GPe neurons, or even a single GPe cell type, could compute it. Here, we demonstrate how this function could be computed within a network containing two types of GABAergic GPe projection neuron, so-called 'prototypic' and 'arkypallidal' neurons, that have different response properties in vivo and distinct connections. We compare our model predictions with the experimentally-reported connectivity and input-output functions (f-I curves) of the two populations of GPe neurons. We show that, together, these dichotomous cell types fulfil the requirements necessary to compute the function needed for optimal action selection. We conclude that, by virtue of their distinct response properties and connectivities, a network of arkypallidal and prototypic GPe neurons comprises a neural substrate capable of supporting the computation of the posterior probabilities of actions. PMID:27389780

  5. Mushroom body output neurons encode valence and guide memory-based action selection in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Aso, Yoshinori; Sitaraman, Divya; Ichinose, Toshiharu; Kaun, Karla R; Vogt, Katrin; Belliart-Guérin, Ghislain; Plaçais, Pierre-Yves; Robie, Alice A; Yamagata, Nobuhiro; Schnaitmann, Christopher; Rowell, William J; Johnston, Rebecca M; Ngo, Teri-T B; Chen, Nan; Korff, Wyatt; Nitabach, Michael N; Heberlein, Ulrike; Preat, Thomas; Branson, Kristin M; Tanimoto, Hiromu; Rubin, Gerald M

    2014-01-01

    Animals discriminate stimuli, learn their predictive value and use this knowledge to modify their behavior. In Drosophila, the mushroom body (MB) plays a key role in these processes. Sensory stimuli are sparsely represented by ∼2000 Kenyon cells, which converge onto 34 output neurons (MBONs) of 21 types. We studied the role of MBONs in several associative learning tasks and in sleep regulation, revealing the extent to which information flow is segregated into distinct channels and suggesting possible roles for the multi-layered MBON network. We also show that optogenetic activation of MBONs can, depending on cell type, induce repulsion or attraction in flies. The behavioral effects of MBON perturbation are combinatorial, suggesting that the MBON ensemble collectively represents valence. We propose that local, stimulus-specific dopaminergic modulation selectively alters the balance within the MBON network for those stimuli. Our results suggest that valence encoded by the MBON ensemble biases memory-based action selection. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.04580.001 PMID:25535794

  6. Process for selecting engineering tools : applied to selecting a SysML tool.

    SciTech Connect

    De Spain, Mark J.; Post, Debra S.; Taylor, Jeffrey L.; De Jong, Kent

    2011-02-01

    Process for Selecting Engineering Tools outlines the process and tools used to select a SysML (Systems Modeling Language) tool. The process is general in nature and users could use the process to select most engineering tools and software applications.

  7. Selecting object pairs for action: Is the active object always first?

    PubMed

    Laverick, Rosanna; Wulff, Melanie; Honisch, Juliane J; Chua, Wei Ling; Wing, Alan M; Rotshtein, Pia

    2015-08-01

    Perception is linked to action via two routes: a direct route based on affordance information in the environment and an indirect route based on semantic knowledge about objects. The present study explored the factors modulating the recruitment of the two routes, in particular which factors affecting the selection of paired objects. In Experiment 1, we presented real objects among semantically related or unrelated distracters. Participants had to select two objects that can interact. The presence of distracters affected selection times, but not the semantic relations of the objects with the distracters. Furthermore, participants first selected the active object (e.g. teaspoon) with their right hand, followed by the passive object (e.g. mug), often with their left hand. In Experiment 2, we presented pictures of the same objects with no hand grip, congruent or incongruent hand grip. Participants had to decide whether the two objects can interact. Action decisions were faster when the presentation of the active object preceded the presentation of the passive object, and when the grip was congruent. Interestingly, participants were slower when the objects were semantically but not functionally related; this effect increased with congruently gripped objects. Our data showed that action decisions in the presence of strong affordance cues (real objects, pictures of congruently gripped objects) relied on sensory-motor representation, supporting the direct route from perception-to-action that bypasses semantic knowledge. However, in the case of weak affordance cues (pictures), semantic information interfered with action decisions, indicating that semantic knowledge impacts action decisions. The data support the dual-route account from perception-to-action. PMID:25929555

  8. Selection Committees and the Recruitment Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gherman, Paul M.

    1981-01-01

    Describes the functions of selection committees in the recruitment, evaluation, and hiring of professional personnel in academic libraries. The composition of a selection committee, committee responsibilities, advertising an available position, screening applications, and interviewing candidates are discussed. A 7-item reference list accompanies…

  9. Parental Involvement in the Habilitation Process Following Children's Cochlear Implantation: An Action Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Young, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Action theory and the qualitative action-project method are used in this study to address and illustrate the complexity of parenting children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) as well as the intentionality of parents engaged in that process. "Action" refers to individual and joint goal-directed and intentional behaviors. Action theory has…

  10. It Takes Three: Selection, Influence, and De-Selection Processes of Depression in Adolescent Friendship Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Van Zalk, Maarten Herman Walter; Kerr, Margaret; Branje, Susan J. T.; Stattin, Hakan; Meeus, Wim H. J.

    2010-01-01

    The authors of this study tested a selection-influence-de-selection model of depression. This model explains friendship influence processes (i.e., friends' depressive symptoms increase adolescents' depressive symptoms) while controlling for two processes: friendship selection (i.e., selection of friends with similar levels of depressive symptoms)…

  11. Use of an action-selection framework for human-carnivore conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans.

    PubMed

    Barlow, Adam C D; Greenwood, Christina J; Ahmad, Ishtiaq U; Smith, James L D

    2010-10-01

    Human-carnivore conflict is manifested in the death of humans, livestock, and carnivores. The resulting negative local attitudes and retribution killings imperil the future of many endangered carnivores. We tailored existing management tools to create a framework to facilitate the selection of actions to alleviate human-carnivore conflict and applied the framework to the human-tiger conflict in the Bangladesh Sundarbans. We identified potential actions that consider previous management efforts, local knowledge, cost-effectiveness, fieldwork experience of authors and project staff, previous research on tiger ecology by the authors, and recommendations from human-carnivore conflict studies in other countries. Our framework includes creation of a profile to improve understanding of the nature of the conflict and its underlying causality. Identified actions include deterrents, education, direct tiger management, and response teams. We ranked actions by their potential to reduce conflict and the monetary cost of their implementation. We ranked tiger-response teams and monitoring problem tigers as the two best actions because both had relatively high impact and cost-effectiveness. We believe this framework could be used under a wide range of human-wildlife conflict situations because it provides a structured approach to selection of mitigating actions. PMID:20345402

  12. Process Algebra Approach for Action Recognition in the Maritime Domain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huntsberger, Terry

    2011-01-01

    The maritime environment poses a number of challenges for autonomous operation of surface boats. Among these challenges are the highly dynamic nature of the environment, the onboard sensing and reasoning requirements for obeying the navigational rules of the road, and the need for robust day/night hazard detection and avoidance. Development of full mission level autonomy entails addressing these challenges, coupled with inference of the tactical and strategic intent of possibly adversarial vehicles in the surrounding environment. This paper introduces PACIFIC (Process Algebra Capture of Intent From Information Content), an onboard system based on formal process algebras that is capable of extracting actions/activities from sensory inputs and reasoning within a mission context to ensure proper responses. PACIFIC is part of the Behavior Engine in CARACaS (Cognitive Architecture for Robotic Agent Command and Sensing), a system that is currently running on a number of U.S. Navy unmanned surface and underwater vehicles. Results from a series of experimental studies that demonstrate the effectiveness of the system are also presented.

  13. Action Goal Selection and Motor Planning Can Be Dissociated by Tool Use

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Therese; Schicke, Tobias; Roder, Brigitte

    2008-01-01

    The preparation of eye or hand movements enhances visual perception at the upcoming movement end position. The spatial location of this influence of action on perception could be determined either by goal selection or by motor planning. We employed a tool use task to dissociate these two alternatives. The instructed goal location was a visual…

  14. Corticostriatal circuit mechanisms of value-based action selection: Implementation of reinforcement learning algorithms and beyond.

    PubMed

    Morita, Kenji; Jitsev, Jenia; Morrison, Abigail

    2016-09-15

    Value-based action selection has been suggested to be realized in the corticostriatal local circuits through competition among neural populations. In this article, we review theoretical and experimental studies that have constructed and verified this notion, and provide new perspectives on how the local-circuit selection mechanisms implement reinforcement learning (RL) algorithms and computations beyond them. The striatal neurons are mostly inhibitory, and lateral inhibition among them has been classically proposed to realize "Winner-Take-All (WTA)" selection of the maximum-valued action (i.e., 'max' operation). Although this view has been challenged by the revealed weakness, sparseness, and asymmetry of lateral inhibition, which suggest more complex dynamics, WTA-like competition could still occur on short time scales. Unlike the striatal circuit, the cortical circuit contains recurrent excitation, which may enable retention or temporal integration of information and probabilistic "soft-max" selection. The striatal "max" circuit and the cortical "soft-max" circuit might co-implement an RL algorithm called Q-learning; the cortical circuit might also similarly serve for other algorithms such as SARSA. In these implementations, the cortical circuit presumably sustains activity representing the executed action, which negatively impacts dopamine neurons so that they can calculate reward-prediction-error. Regarding the suggested more complex dynamics of striatal, as well as cortical, circuits on long time scales, which could be viewed as a sequence of short WTA fragments, computational roles remain open: such a sequence might represent (1) sequential state-action-state transitions, constituting replay or simulation of the internal model, (2) a single state/action by the whole trajectory, or (3) probabilistic sampling of state/action. PMID:27173430

  15. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12. Environmental Restoration Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 12

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P. T.; Webb, J. R.; Knox, N. P.; Goins, L. F.; Harrell, R. E.; Mallory, P. K.; Cravens, C. D.

    1991-09-01

    The 664 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the twelfth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types -- technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions -- have been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy Remedial Action Programs. Major sections are (1) Decontamination and Decommissioning Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) Environmental Restoration Program. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects, analyzes, and disseminates information on environmental restoration and remedial actions. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at FTS 624-7764 or (615) 574-7764.

  17. Superintendent Selection Processes: Perspectives of Professional Search Consultants

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waite, Robert

    2013-01-01

    Hiring the superintendent is the most important job of a school board. The superintendent selection process is increasingly being guided by paid consultants employed to work with school boards in a process to select superintendents. This qualitative study examined the selection criteria school boards use from the perspective of the professional…

  18. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  19. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  20. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  1. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  2. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section 1780... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  3. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  4. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  5. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  6. 7 CFR 1780.17 - Selection priorities and process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Selection priorities and process. 1780.17 Section... § 1780.17 Selection priorities and process. When ranking eligible applications for consideration for... and other agencies' selection systems, to ensure effective RUS fund utilization, and to assist...

  7. 7 CFR 1469.6 - Enrollment criteria and selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Enrollment criteria and selection process. 1469.6... General Provisions § 1469.6 Enrollment criteria and selection process. (a) Selection and funding of... existing natural resource, environmental quality, and agricultural activity data along with...

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, volume 9

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Michelson, D.C.; Turmer, G.S.

    1988-09-01

    The 604 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the ninth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign and domestic literature of all types--technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions--has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action programs. Major sections are (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program, (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, (4) Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management, (7) Technical Measurements Center, and (8) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Subsections for sections 1, 2, 5, and 6 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. This report is a product of the Remedial Action Program Information Center (RAPIC), which selects and analyzes information on remedial actions and relevant radioactive waste management technologies. RAPIC staff and resources are available to meet a variety of information needs. Contact the center at (615) 576-0568 or FTS 626-0568.

  9. Development of goal-directed action selection guided by intrinsic motivations: an experiment with children.

    PubMed

    Taffoni, Fabrizio; Tamilia, Eleonora; Focaroli, Valentina; Formica, Domenico; Ricci, Luca; Di Pino, Giovanni; Baldassarre, Gianluca; Mirolli, Marco; Guglielmelli, Eugenio; Keller, Flavio

    2014-07-01

    Action selection is extremely important, particularly when the accomplishment of competitive tasks may require access to limited motor resources. The spontaneous exploration of the world plays a fundamental role in the development of this capacity, providing subjects with an increasingly diverse set of opportunities to acquire, practice and refine the understanding of action-outcome connection. The computational modeling literature proposed a number of specific mechanisms for autonomous agents to discover and target interesting outcomes: intrinsic motivations hold a central importance among those mechanisms. Unfortunately, the study of the acquisition of action-outcome relation was mostly carried out with experiments involving extrinsic tasks, either based on rewards or on predefined task goals. This work presents a new experimental paradigm to study the effect of intrinsic motivation on action-outcome relation learning and action selection during free exploration of the world. Three- and four-year-old children were observed during the free exploration of a new toy: half of them were allowed to develop the knowledge concerning its functioning; the other half were not allowed to learn anything. The knowledge acquired during the free exploration of the toy was subsequently assessed and compared. PMID:24691755

  10. A Biologically Inspired Computational Model of Basal Ganglia in Action Selection

    PubMed Central

    Baston, Chiara; Ursino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning. Some examples are displayed, concerning a few paradigmatic cases: action selection in basal conditions, action selection in the presence of a strong conflict (where the role of the hyperdirect pathway emerges), synapse changes induced by phasic dopamine, and learning new actions based on a previous history of rewards and punishments. Finally, some simulations show model working in conditions of altered dopamine levels, to illustrate pathological cases (dopamine depletion in parkinsonian subjects or dopamine hypermedication). Due to its parsimonious approach, the model may represent a straightforward tool to analyze BG functionality in behavioral experiments. PMID:26640481

  11. Selective histamine H1 antagonism: novel hypnotic and pharmacologic actions challenge classical notions of antihistamines.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Stephen M

    2008-12-01

    Numerous "antihistamines" as well as various psychotropic medications with antihistamine properties are widely utilized to treat insomnia. Over-the-counter sleep aids usually contain an antihistamine and various antidepressants and antipsychotics with antihistamine properties have sedative-hypnotic actions. Although widely used for the treatment of insomnia, many agents that block the histamine H1 receptor are also widely considered to have therapeutic limitations, including the development of next-day carryover sedation, as well as problems with chronic use, such as the development of tolerance to sedative-hypnotic actions and weight gain. Although these clinical actions are classically attributed to blockade of the H1 receptor, recent findings with H1 selective agents and H1 selective dosing of older agents are challenging these notions and suggest that some of the clinical limitations of current H1-blocking agents at their currently utilized doses could be attributable to other properties of these drugs, especially to their simultaneous actions on muscarinic, cholinergic, and adrenergic receptors. Selective H1 antagonism is emerging as a novel approach to the treatment of insomnia, without tolerance, weight gain, or the need for the restrictive prescription scheduling required of other hypnotics. PMID:19179941

  12. A Biologically Inspired Computational Model of Basal Ganglia in Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Baston, Chiara; Ursino, Mauro

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia (BG) are a subcortical structure implicated in action selection. The aim of this work is to present a new cognitive neuroscience model of the BG, which aspires to represent a parsimonious balance between simplicity and completeness. The model includes the 3 main pathways operating in the BG circuitry, that is, the direct (Go), indirect (NoGo), and hyperdirect pathways. The main original aspects, compared with previous models, are the use of a two-term Hebb rule to train synapses in the striatum, based exclusively on neuronal activity changes caused by dopamine peaks or dips, and the role of the cholinergic interneurons (affected by dopamine themselves) during learning. Some examples are displayed, concerning a few paradigmatic cases: action selection in basal conditions, action selection in the presence of a strong conflict (where the role of the hyperdirect pathway emerges), synapse changes induced by phasic dopamine, and learning new actions based on a previous history of rewards and punishments. Finally, some simulations show model working in conditions of altered dopamine levels, to illustrate pathological cases (dopamine depletion in parkinsonian subjects or dopamine hypermedication). Due to its parsimonious approach, the model may represent a straightforward tool to analyze BG functionality in behavioral experiments. PMID:26640481

  13. Environmental Asthma Reduction Potential Estimates for Selected Mitigation Actions in Finland Using a Life Table Approach

    PubMed Central

    Rumrich, Isabell Katharina; Hänninen, Otto

    2015-01-01

    Aims: To quantify the reduction potential of asthma in Finland achievable by adjusting exposures to selected environmental factors. Methods: A life table model for the Finnish population for 1986–2040 was developed and Years Lived with Disability caused by asthma and attributable to the following selected exposures were estimated: tobacco smoke (smoking and second hand tobacco smoke), ambient fine particles, indoor dampness and mould, and pets. Results: At baseline (2011) about 25% of the total asthma burden was attributable to the selected exposures. Banning tobacco was the most efficient mitigation action, leading to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. A 50% reduction in exposure to dampness and mould as well as a doubling in exposure to pets lead each to a 2% reduction. Ban of urban small scale wood combustion, chosen as a mitigation action to reduce exposure to fine particles, leads to a reduction of less than 1% of the total asthma burden. Combination of the most efficient mitigation actions reduces the total asthma burden by 10%. A more feasible combination of mitigation actions leads to 6% reduction of the asthma burden. Conclusions: The adjustment of environmental exposures can reduce the asthma burden in Finland by up to 10%. PMID:26067987

  14. Investigating Preservice Teachers' Literature Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michna, Katie Charisse Neves

    This paper examines the literature selection and evaluation practices of preservice teachers, investigating trends in choosing and acquiring literature and factors affecting the literature's appeal. Participants were undergraduate students enrolled in a language arts course for elementary school majors who completed a survey and attached it to a…

  15. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Remedial action selection report. Revised final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that have been conducted by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium mill processing site near Durango, Colorado. Secondly, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  16. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Durango, Colorado: Remedial action selection report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    The uranium mill tailings site near Durango, Colorado, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Included in the RAP is this Remedial Action Selection Report (RAS), which has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that have been conducted by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium mill processing site near Durango, Colorado. Secondly, this document and the rest of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Colorado.

  17. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, S.D.

    1998-07-01

    The sequential manner in which materials and processes for a manufactured product are selected is inherently less than optimal. Designers` tendency to choose processes and materials with which they are familiar exacerbate this problem. A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach is presented.

  18. The Action Execution Process Implemented in Different Cognitive Architectures: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Daqi; Franklin, Stan

    2014-12-01

    An agent achieves its goals by interacting with its environment, cyclically choosing and executing suitable actions. An action execution process is a reasonable and critical part of an entire cognitive architecture, because the process of generating executable motor commands is not only driven by low-level environmental information, but is also initiated and affected by the agent's high-level mental processes. This review focuses on cognitive models of action, or more specifically, of the action execution process, as implemented in a set of popular cognitive architectures. We examine the representations and procedures inside the action execution process, as well as the cooperation between action execution and other high-level cognitive modules. We finally conclude with some general observations regarding the nature of action execution.

  19. Process observation in selective laser melting (SLM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, U.; Abels, P.

    2015-03-01

    In additive manufacturing, the quality of products can be traced by observation of process variables track by track and layer by layer. The stacking of layer wise information can be used to consolidate the entire build up history of a product thus leading to a truly three dimensional quality histogram. The first step that is necessary to achieve such a quality histogram is the acquisition of process measurands that are related to product quality. Successful acquisition of measurements for thermal radiation has been reported in several publications. The authors of such papers report the detection of changes in boundary conditions of the process by observing the thermal radiation of the process. It has been reported that for example a change in laser power has an influence on the thermal emission and that different readings are received for processing a thin powder layer on a solid work piece compared to scanning pure powder in the situation of an overhang structure. A correlation to the underlying reason for the increase in thermal radiation however is mostly related to the experimental setup rather than to in process measurements. This report demonstrates an approach of acquiring and combining synchronous measurements of different physical properties of the process. The coaxial observation system used in the experiments enables the synchronous acquisition of measurements of the thermal emission and the acquisition of images that visualize the surface of the powder bed in the vicinity of the interaction zone. The images are used to monitor the motion of powder particles as they are influenced by the melting process. This amount of particle motion is then correlated to areas of different powder thicknesses. The combination of this information with excessive readings in thermal emission classifies the event to be a situation of noncritical deviation of thermal emission. In fact, this combination of extracted features establishes a first key criterion for an

  20. An evaluation of the selection process of hospital information systems.

    PubMed

    Thompson, A M

    1990-10-01

    This research study evaluates the selection process of a Hospital Information System (HIS), focusing on the level of compromise required by healthcare professionals during said process and the level of satisfaction achieved with the system selected. How other variables, such as job title, length of experience in the healthcare, data processing, and information systems fields affect these measured levels are also evaluated. Results of this study indicate that a HIS is critical to the viability of a hospital's operation and the level of compromises made during the selection process have an impact upon the how satisfied the healthcare provider is with the HIS they select. PMID:2094751

  1. How action selection can be embodied: intracranial gamma band recording shows response competition during the Eriksen flankers test

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Fausto; Uithol, Sebo; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sartori, Ivana; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in monkeys suggest that action selection is based on a competition between various action options that are automatically planned by the motor system. Here we discuss data from intracranial EEG recordings in human premotor cortex (PMC) during a bimanual version of the Eriksen flankers test that suggest that the same principles apply to human action decisions. Recording sites in the dorsal PMC show an early but undifferentiated activation, a delayed response that depends on the experimental conditions and, finally, a movement related activation during action execution. Additionally, we found that the medial part of the PMC show a significant increase in response for ipsilateral trials, suggesting a role in inhibiting the wrong response. The ventral PMC seems to be involved in action execution, rather than action selection. Together these findings suggest that the human PMC is part of a network that specifies, selects, and executes actions. PMID:25206328

  2. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Vol. 18. Part 2. Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    1997-09-01

    This bibliography contains 3638 citations with abstracts of documents relevant to environmental restoration, nuclear facility decontamination and decommissioning (D&D), uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. This report is the eighteenth in a series of bibliographies prepared annually for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Environmental Restoration. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been included in Part 1 of the report. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, financial, and regulatory information that pertains to DOE environmental restoration programs. The citations are separated by topic into 16 sections, including (1) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (2) DOE D&D Program; (3) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (4) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Programs; (5) NORM-Contaminated Site Restoration; (6) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) DOE Site-Wide Remedial Actions; (9) DOE Onsite Remedial Action Projects; (10) Contaminated Site Remedial Actions; (11) DOE Underground Storage Tank Remediation; (12) DOE Technology Development, Demonstration, and Evaluations; (13) Soil Remediation; (14) Groundwater Remediation; (15) Environmental Measurements, Analysis, and Decision-Making; and (16) Environmental Management Issues. Within the 16 sections, the citations are sorted by geographic location. If a geographic location is not specified, the citations are sorted according to the document title. In Part 2 of the report, indexes are provided for author, author affiliation, selected title phrase, selected title word, publication description, geographic location, and keyword.

  3. GABAAα1-mediated plasticity in the orbitofrontal cortex regulates context-dependent action selection.

    PubMed

    Swanson, Andrew M; Allen, Amanda G; Shapiro, Lauren P; Gourley, Shannon L

    2015-03-01

    An essential aspect of goal-directed action selection is differentiating between behaviors that are more, or less, likely to be reinforced. Habits, by contrast, are stimulus-elicited behaviors insensitive to action-outcome contingencies and are considered an etiological factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, isolating the neuroanatomy and neurobiology of goal-directed action selection on the one hand, and habit formation on the other, is critical. Using in vivo viral-mediated gene silencing, we knocked down Gabra1 in the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex (oPFC) in mice, decreasing oPFC GABAAα1 expression, as well as expression of the synaptic marker PSD-95. Mice expressing Green Fluorescent Protein or Gabra1 knockdown in the adjacent M2 motor cortex served as comparison groups. Using instrumental response training followed by action-outcome contingency degradation, we then found that oPFC GABAAα1 deficiency impaired animals' ability to differentiate between actions that were more or less likely to be reinforced, though sensitivity to outcome devaluation and extinction were intact. Meanwhile, M2 GABAAα1 deficiency enhanced sensitivity to action-outcome relationships. Behavioral abnormalities following oPFC GABAAα1 knockdown were rescued by testing mice in a distinct context relative to that in which they had been initially trained. Together, our findings corroborate evidence that chronic GABAAα1 deficiency remodels cortical synapses and suggest that neuroplasticity within the healthy oPFC gates the influence of reward-related contextual stimuli. These stimuli might otherwise promote maladaptive habit-based behavioral response strategies that contribute to-or exacerbate-neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:25348603

  4. Code-specific learning rules improve action selection by populations of spiking neurons.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Johannes; Urbanczik, Robert; Senn, Walter

    2014-08-01

    Population coding is widely regarded as a key mechanism for achieving reliable behavioral decisions. We previously introduced reinforcement learning for population-based decision making by spiking neurons. Here we generalize population reinforcement learning to spike-based plasticity rules that take account of the postsynaptic neural code. We consider spike/no-spike, spike count and spike latency codes. The multi-valued and continuous-valued features in the postsynaptic code allow for a generalization of binary decision making to multi-valued decision making and continuous-valued action selection. We show that code-specific learning rules speed up learning both for the discrete classification and the continuous regression tasks. The suggested learning rules also speed up with increasing population size as opposed to standard reinforcement learning rules. Continuous action selection is further shown to explain realistic learning speeds in the Morris water maze. Finally, we introduce the concept of action perturbation as opposed to the classical weight- or node-perturbation as an exploration mechanism underlying reinforcement learning. Exploration in the action space greatly increases the speed of learning as compared to exploration in the neuron or weight space. PMID:24875790

  5. Velocity selection for ultracold atoms using mazer action in a bimodal cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irshad, Afshan; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2010-01-01

    In this paper, we discuss the velocity selection of ultracold three-level atoms in Λ configuration using a mazer. Our model is the same as discussed by Arun et al. [R. Arun, G.S. Agarwal, M.O. Scully, H. Walther, Phys. Rev. A 62 (2000) 023809] for mazer action in a bimodal cavity. We show that the initial Maxwellian velocity distribution of ultracold atoms can be narrowed due to the presence of resonances in the transmission through dressed-state potential. When the atoms are initially prepared in one of the two lower atomic states then significantly better velocity selectivity is obtained due to the presence of dark states.

  6. Selective antagonistic effects of exposure to bright light on the hypothermic action of ethanol.

    PubMed

    Overstreet, D H; Dilsaver, S C; Rezvani, A H; Janowsky, D S

    1990-01-01

    Flinders Sensitive and Resistant Lines of rats, which are differentially sensitive to the hypothermic effects of both muscarinic agonists and ethanol, were exposed to full spectrum artificial bright light for eight days, because exposure to bright light has been shown to blunt hypothermic responses to muscarinic agonists. There was a selective blunting of the hypothermic effects of ethanol, but no significant change in the intoxicating effects of ethanol, as measured by evaluation of the righting reflex. The selective effect of exposure to bright light on the hypothermic actions of ethanol suggests that bright light may be modifying the function of only a limited number of brain regions, including the hypothalamus. PMID:2085349

  7. Minimum-action paths for wave-number selection in nonequilibrium systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Liyan; Zheng, Zhigang; Cross, M. C.

    2016-04-01

    The problem of wave-number selections in nonequilibrium pattern-forming systems in the presence of noise is investigated. The minimum-action method is proposed to study the noise-induced transitions between the different spatiotemporal states by generalizing the traditional theory previously applied in low-dimensional dynamical systems. The scheme is shown as an example in the stabilized Kuramoto-Sivashinsky equation. The present method allows us to conveniently find the unique noise selected state, in contrast to previous work using direct simulations of the stochastic partial differential equation, where the constraints of the simulation only allow a narrow band to be determined.

  8. Interim action record of decision remedial alternative selection: TNX area groundwater operable unit

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.R.

    1994-10-01

    This document presents the selected interim remedial action for the TNX Area Groundwater Operable Unit at the Savannah River Site (SRS), which was developed in accordance with CERCLA of 1980, as amended by the Superfund Amendments and Reauthorization Act (SARA) of 1986, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution contingency Plan (NCP). This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific CERCLA unit.

  9. Folklore and the College Selection Process Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Pete

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a response to Clinton F. Conrad's article, "Beyond the Folklore." Conrad's strategy for assessing undergraduate quality echoes the sentiments espoused by many admission and college counseling professionals over the years at various workshops for students and families that focus on navigating the process. As transcendent as the…

  10. ENVIRONMENTAL TOOLS FOR MATERIAL AND PROCESS SELECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A number of tools are being used within the Sustainable Technology Division of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency to provide decision-makers with information on environmentally favorable materials and processes. These tools include LCA (Life Cycle Assessment), GREENSCOPE (...

  11. Using Card Games to Simulate the Process of Natural Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilliot, Matthew E.; Harden, Siegfried

    2014-01-01

    In 1858, Darwin published "On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection." His explanation of evolution by natural selection has become the unifying theme of biology. We have found that many students do not fully comprehend the process of evolution by natural selection. We discuss a few simple games that incorporate hands-on…

  12. Cortical drive of low-frequency oscillations in the human nucleus accumbens during action selection

    PubMed Central

    Litvak, Vladimir; Rutledge, Robb B.; Zaehle, Tino; Schmitt, Friedhelm C.; Voges, Jürgen; Heinze, Hans-Jochen; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2015-01-01

    The nucleus accumbens is thought to contribute to action selection by integrating behaviorally relevant information from multiple regions, including prefrontal cortex. Studies in rodents suggest that information flow to the nucleus accumbens may be regulated via task-dependent oscillatory coupling between regions. During instrumental behavior, local field potentials (LFP) in the rat nucleus accumbens and prefrontal cortex are coupled at delta frequencies (Gruber AJ, Hussain RJ, O'Donnell P. PLoS One 4: e5062, 2009), possibly mediating suppression of afferent input from other areas and thereby supporting cortical control (Calhoon GG, O'Donnell P. Neuron 78: 181–190, 2013). In this report, we demonstrate low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling in humans, both at rest and during a decision-making task. We recorded LFP from the nucleus accumbens in six epilepsy patients who underwent implantation of deep brain stimulation electrodes. All patients showed significant coherence and phase-synchronization between LFP and surface EEG at delta and low theta frequencies. Although the direction of this coupling as indexed by Granger causality varied between subjects in the resting-state data, all patients showed a cortical drive of the nucleus accumbens during action selection in a decision-making task. In three patients this was accompanied by a significant coherence increase over baseline. Our results suggest that low-frequency cortico-accumbens coupling represents a highly conserved regulatory mechanism for action selection. PMID:25878159

  13. Action recognition based on a selective sampling strategy for real-time video surveillance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Bo; Zhang, Hong; Yuan, Ding

    2015-12-01

    Action recognition is a very challenging task in the field of real-time video surveillance. The traditional models on action recognition are constructed of Spatial-temporal features and Bag-of-Feature representations. Based on this model, current research work tends to introduce dense sampling to achieve better performance. However, such approaches are computationally intractable when dealing with large video dataset. Hence, there are some recent works focused on feature reduction to speed up the algorithm without reducing accuracy. In this paper, we proposed a novel selective feature sampling strategy on action recognition. Firstly, the optical flow field is estimated throughout the input video. And then the sparse FAST (Features from Accelerated Segment Test) points are selected within the motion regions detected by using the optical flows on the temporally down-sampled image sequences. The selective features, sparse FAST points, are the seeds to generate the 3D patches. Consequently, the simplified LPM (Local Part Model) which greatly speeds up the model is formed via 3D patches. Moreover, MBHs (Motion Boundary Histograms) calculated by optical flows are also adopted in the framework to further improve the efficiency. Experimental results on UCF50 dataset and our artificial dataset show that our method could reach more real-time effect and achieve a higher accuracy compared with the other competitive methods published recently.

  14. Animation and Learning: Selective Processing of Information in Dynamic Graphics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, R. K.

    2003-01-01

    Studied the selective processing of information in dynamic graphics by 12 undergraduates who received training aided by animation and 12 who did not. Results indicate selective processing of the animation that involved perceptually driven dynamic effects and raise questions about the assumed superiority of animations over static graphics. (SLD)

  15. Process for selective grinding of coal

    DOEpatents

    Venkatachari, Mukund K.; Benz, August D.; Huettenhain, Horst

    1991-01-01

    A process for preparing coal for use as a fuel. Forming a coal-water slurry having solid coal particles with a particle size not exceeding about 80 microns, transferring the coal-water slurry to a solid bowl centrifuge, and operating same to classify the ground coal-water slurry to provide a centrate containing solid particles with a particle size distribution of from about 5 microns to about 20 microns and a centrifuge cake of solids having a particle size distribution of from about 10 microns to about 80 microns. The classifer cake is reground and mixed with fresh feed to the solid bowl centrifuge for additional classification.

  16. Neural Bases of Sequence Processing in Action and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carota, Francesca; Sirigu, Angela

    2008-01-01

    Real-time estimation of what we will do next is a crucial prerequisite of purposive behavior. During the planning of goal-oriented actions, for instance, the temporal and causal organization of upcoming subsequent moves needs to be predicted based on our knowledge of events. A forward computation of sequential structure is also essential for…

  17. Dorsal premotor activity and connectivity relate to action selection performance after stroke.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Jill Campbell; Dewanjee, Pritha; Shariff, Umar; Cramer, Steven C

    2016-05-01

    Compensatory activation in dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) during movement execution has often been reported after stroke. However, the role of PMd in the planning of skilled movement after stroke has not been well studied. The current study investigated the behavioral and neural response to the addition of action selection (AS) demands, a motor planning process that engages PMd in controls, to movement after stroke. Ten individuals with chronic, left hemisphere stroke and 16 age-matched controls made a joystick movement with the right hand under two conditions. In the AS condition, participants moved right or left based on an abstract, visual rule; in the execution only condition, participants moved in the same direction on every trial. Despite a similar behavioral response to the AS condition (increase in reaction time), brain activation differed between the two groups: the control group showed increased activation in left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) while the stroke group showed increased activation in several right/contralesional regions including right IPL. Variability in behavioral performance between participants was significantly related to variability in brain activation. Individuals post-stroke with relatively poorer AS task performance showed greater magnitude of activation in left PMd and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), increased left primary motor cortex-PMd connectivity, and decreased left PMd-DLPFC connectivity. Changes in the premotor-prefrontal component of the motor network during complex movement conditions may negatively impact the performance and learning of skilled movement and may be a prime target for rehabilitation protocols aimed at improving the function of residual brain circuits after stroke. Hum Brain Mapp 37:1816-1830, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26876608

  18. Record of decision remedial alternative selection for the Grace Road site (631-22G) operable unit: Final action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Grace Road Site located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, South Carolina. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004 requirements. This decision is based on the Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA unit.

  19. Record of Decision Remedial Alternative Selection for the Gunsite 113 Access Road (631-24G) Operable Unit: Final Action

    SciTech Connect

    Palmer, E.

    1997-01-01

    This decision document presents the selected remedial action for the Gunsite 113 Access Road Unit located at the Savannah River Site near Aiken, SC. The selected action was developed in accordance with CERCLA, as amended, and to the extent practicable, the National Oil and Hazardous Substances Pollution Contingency Plan (NCP). The selected remedy satisfies both CERCLA and RCRA 3004(U) requirements. This decision is based ont he Administrative Record File for this specific RCRA/CERCLA Unit.

  20. Differential effects of systemic cholinergic receptor blockade on Pavlovian incentive motivation and goal-directed action selection.

    PubMed

    Ostlund, Sean B; Kosheleff, Alisa R; Maidment, Nigel T

    2014-05-01

    Reward-seeking actions can be guided by external cues that signal reward availability. For instance, when confronted with a stimulus that signals sugar, rats will prefer an action that produces sugar over a second action that produces grain pellets. Action selection is also sensitive to changes in the incentive value of potential rewards. Thus, rats that have been prefed a large meal of sucrose will prefer a grain-seeking action to a sucrose-seeking action. The current study investigated the dependence of these different aspects of action selection on cholinergic transmission. Hungry rats were given differential training with two unique stimulus-outcome (S1-O1 and S2-O2) and action-outcome (A1-O1 and A2-O2) contingencies during separate training phases. Rats were then given a series of Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer tests, an assay of cue-triggered responding. Before each test, rats were injected with scopolamine (0, 0.03, or 0.1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a muscarinic receptor antagonist, or mecamylamine (0, 0.75, or 2.25 mg/kg, intraperitoneally), a nicotinic receptor antagonist. Although the reward-paired cues were capable of biasing action selection when rats were tested off-drug, both anticholinergic treatments were effective in disrupting this effect. During a subsequent round of outcome devaluation testing-used to assess the sensitivity of action selection to a change in reward value--we found no effect of either scopolamine or mecamylamine. These results reveal that cholinergic signaling at both muscarinic and nicotinic receptors mediates action selection based on Pavlovian reward expectations, but is not critical for flexibly selecting actions using current reward values. PMID:24370780

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 1. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Faust, R.A.; Fore, C.S.; Knox, N.P.

    1980-09-01

    This bibliography of 633 references represents the first in a series to be produced by the Remedial Actions Program Information Center (RAPIC) containing scientific, technical, economic, and regulatory information concerning the decommissioning of nuclear facilities. Major chapters selected for this bibliography are Facility Decommissioning, Uranium Mill Tailings Cleanup, Contaminated Site Restoration, and Criteria and Standards. The references within each chapter are arranged alphabetically by leading author, corporate affiliation, or title of the document. When the author is not given, the corporate affiliation appears first. If these two levels of authorship are not given, the title of the document is used as the identifying level. Indexes are provided for (1) author(s), (2) keywords, (3) title, (4) technology development, and (5) publication description. An appendix of 123 entries lists recently acquired references relevant to decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These references are also arranged according to one of the four subject categories and followed by author, title, and publication description indexes. The bibliography was compiled from a specialized data base established and maintained by RAPIC to provide information support for the Department of Energy's Remedial Actions Program, under the cosponsorship of its three major components: Surplus Facilities Management Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Actions Program, and Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Actions Program. RAPIC is part of the Ecological Sciences Information Center within the Information Center Complex at Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  2. Action selection in a possible model of striatal medium spiny neuron dysfunction: behavioral and EEG data in a patient with benign hereditary chorea.

    PubMed

    Beste, Christian; Saft, Carsten

    2015-01-01

    Chaining or cascading of different actions and responses is necessary to accomplish a goal. Yet, little is known about the functional neuroanatomical-electrophysiological mechanisms mediating these processes. Computational models suggest that medium spiny neurons (MSNs) play an important role in action cascading, but this assumption has hardly been tested relating neuroanatomical and electrophysiological parameters in a human model of circumscribed MSN dysfunction. As a possible human model of circumscribed MSN dysfunction, we investigate benign hereditary chorea in a case-control study applying bootstrap statistics. To investigate these mechanisms, we used a stop-change paradigm, where we apply mathematical constraints to describe the degree of how task goals are activated with more or less overlap during action cascading. We record event-related potentials and analyze neural synchronization processes. The results show that MSN dysfunctions lead to deficits in action cascading processes only when two response options seek simultaneous access to response selection resources. Attentional selection processes are not affected, but processes reflecting the transition between stimulus evaluation and responding are affected. The results underline computational models of MSN functioning and show that dysfunction in these networks leads to a more parallel and hence inefficient response selection. PMID:24135770

  3. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cooperation early in the NEPA process. 1010.16 Section 1010.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  4. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  5. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  6. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  7. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... reasonable alternatives being considered in the environmental review process (40 CFR 1506.1). The RUS... 7 Agriculture 12 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794... Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act § 1794.15 Limitations on actions during the NEPA...

  8. 36 CFR 1010.16 - Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cooperation early in the NEPA process. 1010.16 Section 1010.16 Parks, Forests, and Public Property PRESIDIO TRUST ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY § 1010.16 Actions to encourage agency cooperation early in the NEPA process. Consistent with 40 CFR 1501.6, the Trust may request the NPS to be a cooperating agency for actions...

  9. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  10. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  11. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  12. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... statements. When CPSC makes changes in the proposed action that are important to environmental issues or when... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for... ENVIRONMENTAL REVIEW General § 1021.4 Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions....

  13. 43 CFR 46.160 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... analysis process. 46.160 Section 46.160 Public Lands: Interior Office of the Secretary of the Interior... Quality § 46.160 Limitations on actions during the NEPA analysis process. During the preparation of a... accordance with 40 CFR 1506.1 when that action is within the scope of, and analyzed in, an existing...

  14. Intentional action processing results from automatic bottom-up attention: An EEG-investigation into the Social Relevance Hypothesis using hypnosis.

    PubMed

    Neufeld, Eleonore; Brown, Elliot C; Lee-Grimm, Sie-In; Newen, Albert; Brüne, Martin

    2016-05-01

    Social stimuli grab our attention. However, it has rarely been investigated how variations in attention affect the processing of social stimuli, although the answer could help us uncover details of social cognition processes such as action understanding. In the present study, we examined how changes to bottom-up attention affects neural EEG-responses associated with intentional action processing. We induced an increase in bottom-up attention by using hypnosis. We recorded the electroencephalographic μ-wave suppression of hypnotized participants when presented with intentional actions in first and third person perspective in a video-clip paradigm. Previous studies have shown that the μ-rhythm is selectively suppressed both when executing and observing goal-directed motor actions; hence it can be used as a neural signal for intentional action processing. Our results show that neutral hypnotic trance increases μ-suppression in highly suggestible participants when they observe intentional actions. This suggests that social action processing is enhanced when bottom-up attentional processes are predominant. Our findings support the Social Relevance Hypothesis, according to which social action processing is a bottom-up driven attentional process, and can thus be altered as a function of bottom-up processing devoted to a social stimulus. PMID:26998562

  15. Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum

    PubMed Central

    Robertson, Alan P.; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype

  16. The effects of an action video game on visual and affective information processing.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Kira; West, Robert

    2013-04-01

    Playing action video games can have beneficial effects on visuospatial cognition and negative effects on social information processing. However, these two effects have not been demonstrated in the same individuals in a single study. The current study used event-related brain potentials (ERPs) to examine the effects of playing an action or non-action video game on the processing of emotion in facial expression. The data revealed that 10h of playing an action or non-action video game had differential effects on the ERPs relative to a no-contact control group. Playing an action game resulted in two effects: one that reflected an increase in the amplitude of the ERPs following training over the right frontal and posterior regions that was similar for angry, happy, and neutral faces; and one that reflected a reduction in the allocation of attention to happy faces. In contrast, playing a non-action game resulted in changes in slow wave activity over the central-parietal and frontal regions that were greater for targets (i.e., angry and happy faces) than for non-targets (i.e., neutral faces). These data demonstrate that the contrasting effects of action video games on visuospatial and emotion processing occur in the same individuals following the same level of gaming experience. This observation leads to the suggestion that caution should be exercised when using action video games to modify visual processing, as this experience could also have unintended effects on emotion processing. PMID:23419898

  17. Increasing Speed of Processing With Action Video Games.

    PubMed

    Dye, Matthew W G; Green, C Shawn; Bavelier, Daphne

    2009-01-01

    In many everyday situations, speed is of the essence. However, fast decisions typically mean more mistakes. To this day, it remains unknown whether reaction times can be reduced with appropriate training, within one individual, across a range of tasks, and without compromising accuracy. Here we review evidence that the very act of playing action video games significantly reduces reaction times without sacrificing accuracy. Critically, this increase in speed is observed across various tasks beyond game situations. Video gaming may therefore provide an efficient training regimen to induce a general speeding of perceptual reaction times without decreases in accuracy of performance. PMID:20485453

  18. A Formal Language Selection Process for Introductory Programming Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Kevin R.; Chao, Joseph T.; Ottaway, Thomas A.; Chang, Jane

    2006-01-01

    The selection of a programming language for introductory courses has long been an informal process involving faculty evaluation, discussion, and consensus. As the number of faculty, students, and language options grows, this process becomes increasingly unwieldy. As it stands, the process currently lacks structure and replicability. Establishing a…

  19. Making DATA Work: A Process for Conducting Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Anita; Kaffenberger, Carol

    2013-01-01

    This conceptual model introduces a process to help school counselors use data to drive decision making and offers examples to implement the process. A step-by-step process is offered to help school counselors and school counselor supervisors address educational issues, close achievement gaps, and demonstrate program effectiveness. To illustrate…

  20. Other-self confusions in action memory: The role of motor processes.

    PubMed

    Lindner, Isabel; Schain, Cécile; Echterhoff, Gerald

    2016-04-01

    People can come to falsely remember performing actions that they have not actually performed. Common accounts of such false action memories have invoked source confusion from the overlap of sensory features but largely ignored the role of motor processes. We addressed this lacuna with a paradigm in which participants first perform (vs. do not perform) actions and then observe another person performing some of the non-performed actions. In this paradigm, observation of videos showing another's actions can later induce false self-attributions of these actions, the observation-inflation effect. Contrary to a sensory-feature account but consistent with a motor-simulation account, we found the effect even with perceptually impoverished action videos in which the majority of sensory features is absent, but motion cues are preserved (Experiment 1). We then created conditions during action observation that should (vs. should not) impede motor simulation. As predicted we found that the effect of observation was reduced when participants executed movements that were incongruent (vs. congruent) with the observed actions (Experiment 2). We discuss the processes that can produce associations of self with observed others' actions and later affect observers' action memory. PMID:26803394

  1. Natural Selection Is a Sorting Process: What Does that Mean?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Rebecca M.

    2013-01-01

    To learn why natural selection acts only on existing variation, students categorize processes as either creative or sorting. This activity helps students confront the misconception that adaptations evolve because species need them.

  2. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, Chang Y.

    1993-01-01

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO.sub.2 and NO.sub.x.

  3. Rational Action Selection in 1 1/2- to 3-Year-Olds Following an Extended Training Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klossek, Ulrike M. H.; Dickinson, Anthony

    2012-01-01

    Previous studies failed to find evidence for rational action selection in children under 2 years of age. The current study investigated whether younger children required more training to encode the relevant causal relationships. Children between 1 1/2 and 3 years of age were trained over two sessions to perform actions on a touch-sensitive screen…

  4. Advanced process selectively removes H/sub 2/S

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-06-08

    A selective H/sub 2/S-removal scheme called the HS process is being tested at a New Mexico pilot plant having an 18-in-diam contactor, a 24-in-diam stripping still, and a 30-gpm solution flow capacity. The test program goals are to (1) demonstrate the technical and economic superiority of the process over other options, and (2) redefine mass-transfer and ray hydraulic data for scale-up to commercial size. The technology combines a selective chemical solvent based on methyldiethanolamine (MDEA), a unique contactor design, and an innovative selective contactor tray.

  5. Caught in Action: Selecting Peptide Aptamers Against Intrinsically Disordered Proteins in Live Cells

    PubMed Central

    Cobbert, Jacqueline D.; DeMott, Christopher; Majumder, Subhabrata; Smith, Eric A.; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S.; McDonough, Kathleen A.; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or unstructured segments within proteins play an important role in cellular physiology and pathology. Low cellular concentration, multiple binding partners, frequent post-translational modifications and the presence of multiple conformations make it difficult to characterize IDP interactions in intact cells. We used peptide aptamers selected by using the yeast-two-hybrid scheme and in-cell NMR to identify high affinity binders to transiently structured IDP and unstructured segments at atomic resolution. Since both the selection and characterization of peptide aptamers take place inside the cell, only physiologically relevant conformations of IDPs are targeted. The method is validated by using peptide aptamers selected against the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein, Pup, of the mycobacterium proteasome. The selected aptamers bind to distinct sites on Pup and have vastly different effects on rescuing mycobacterial proteasome substrate and on the survival of the Bacille-Calmette-Guèrin, BCG, strain of M. bovis. This technology can be applied to study the elusive action of IDPs under near physiological conditions. PMID:25801767

  6. Caught in action: selecting peptide aptamers against intrinsically disordered proteins in live cells.

    PubMed

    Cobbert, Jacqueline D; DeMott, Christopher; Majumder, Subhabrata; Smith, Eric A; Reverdatto, Sergey; Burz, David S; McDonough, Kathleen A; Shekhtman, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) or unstructured segments within proteins play an important role in cellular physiology and pathology. Low cellular concentration, multiple binding partners, frequent post-translational modifications and the presence of multiple conformations make it difficult to characterize IDP interactions in intact cells. We used peptide aptamers selected by using the yeast-two-hybrid scheme and in-cell NMR to identify high affinity binders to transiently structured IDP and unstructured segments at atomic resolution. Since both the selection and characterization of peptide aptamers take place inside the cell, only physiologically relevant conformations of IDPs are targeted. The method is validated by using peptide aptamers selected against the prokaryotic ubiquitin-like protein, Pup, of the mycobacterium proteasome. The selected aptamers bind to distinct sites on Pup and have vastly different effects on rescuing mycobacterial proteasome substrate and on the survival of the Bacille-Calmette-Guèrin, BCG, strain of M. bovis. This technology can be applied to study the elusive action of IDPs under near physiological conditions. PMID:25801767

  7. GABAAα1-Mediated Plasticity in the Orbitofrontal Cortex Regulates Context-Dependent Action Selection

    PubMed Central

    Swanson, Andrew M; Allen, Amanda G; Shapiro, Lauren P; Gourley, Shannon L

    2015-01-01

    An essential aspect of goal-directed action selection is differentiating between behaviors that are more, or less, likely to be reinforced. Habits, by contrast, are stimulus-elicited behaviors insensitive to action–outcome contingencies and are considered an etiological factor in several neuropsychiatric disorders. Thus, isolating the neuroanatomy and neurobiology of goal-directed action selection on the one hand, and habit formation on the other, is critical. Using in vivo viral-mediated gene silencing, we knocked down Gabra1 in the orbitofrontal prefrontal cortex (oPFC) in mice, decreasing oPFC GABAAα1 expression, as well as expression of the synaptic marker PSD-95. Mice expressing Green Fluorescent Protein or Gabra1 knockdown in the adjacent M2 motor cortex served as comparison groups. Using instrumental response training followed by action–outcome contingency degradation, we then found that oPFC GABAAα1 deficiency impaired animals' ability to differentiate between actions that were more or less likely to be reinforced, though sensitivity to outcome devaluation and extinction were intact. Meanwhile, M2 GABAAα1 deficiency enhanced sensitivity to action–outcome relationships. Behavioral abnormalities following oPFC GABAAα1 knockdown were rescued by testing mice in a distinct context relative to that in which they had been initially trained. Together, our findings corroborate evidence that chronic GABAAα1 deficiency remodels cortical synapses and suggest that neuroplasticity within the healthy oPFC gates the influence of reward-related contextual stimuli. These stimuli might otherwise promote maladaptive habit-based behavioral response strategies that contribute to—or exacerbate—neuropsychiatric illness. PMID:25348603

  8. A review of channel selection algorithms for EEG signal processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alotaiby, Turky; El-Samie, Fathi E. Abd; Alshebeili, Saleh A.; Ahmad, Ishtiaq

    2015-12-01

    Digital processing of electroencephalography (EEG) signals has now been popularly used in a wide variety of applications such as seizure detection/prediction, motor imagery classification, mental task classification, emotion classification, sleep state classification, and drug effects diagnosis. With the large number of EEG channels acquired, it has become apparent that efficient channel selection algorithms are needed with varying importance from one application to another. The main purpose of the channel selection process is threefold: (i) to reduce the computational complexity of any processing task performed on EEG signals by selecting the relevant channels and hence extracting the features of major importance, (ii) to reduce the amount of overfitting that may arise due to the utilization of unnecessary channels, for the purpose of improving the performance, and (iii) to reduce the setup time in some applications. Signal processing tools such as time-domain analysis, power spectral estimation, and wavelet transform have been used for feature extraction and hence for channel selection in most of channel selection algorithms. In addition, different evaluation approaches such as filtering, wrapper, embedded, hybrid, and human-based techniques have been widely used for the evaluation of the selected subset of channels. In this paper, we survey the recent developments in the field of EEG channel selection methods along with their applications and classify these methods according to the evaluation approach.

  9. Aging-Related Dysfunction of Striatal Cholinergic Interneurons Produces Conflict in Action Selection.

    PubMed

    Matamales, Miriam; Skrbis, Zala; Hatch, Robert J; Balleine, Bernard W; Götz, Jürgen; Bertran-Gonzalez, Jesus

    2016-04-20

    For goal-directed action to remain adaptive, new strategies are required to accommodate environmental changes, a process for which parafascicular thalamic modulation of cholinergic interneurons in the striatum (PF-to-CIN) appears critical. In the elderly, however, previously acquired experience frequently interferes with new learning, yet the source of this effect has remained unexplored. Here, combining sophisticated behavioral designs, cell-specific manipulation, and extensive neuronal imaging, we investigated the involvement of the PF-to-CIN pathway in this process. We found functional alterations of this circuit in aged mice that were consistent with their incapacity to update initial goal-directed learning, resulting in faulty activation of projection neurons in the striatum. Toxicogenetic ablation of CINs in young mice reproduced these behavioral and neuronal defects, suggesting that age-related deficits in PF-to-CIN function reduce the ability of older individuals to resolve conflict between actions, likely contributing to impairments in adaptive goal-directed action and executive control in aging. VIDEO ABSTRACT. PMID:27100198

  10. Decoding Concrete and Abstract Action Representations During Explicit and Implicit Conceptual Processing.

    PubMed

    Wurm, Moritz F; Ariani, Giacomo; Greenlee, Mark W; Lingnau, Angelika

    2016-08-01

    Action understanding requires a many-to-one mapping of perceived input onto abstract representations that generalize across concrete features. It is debated whether such abstract action concepts are encoded in ventral premotor cortex (PMv; motor hypothesis) or, alternatively, are represented in lateral occipitotemporal cortex (LOTC; cognitive hypothesis). We used fMRI-based multivoxel pattern analysis to decode observed actions at concrete and abstract, object-independent levels of representation. Participants observed videos of 2 actions involving 2 different objects, using either an explicit or implicit task with respect to conceptual action processing. We decoded concrete action representations by training and testing a classifier to discriminate between actions within each object category. To identify abstract action representations, we trained the classifier to discriminate actions in one object and tested the classifier on actions performed on the other object, and vice versa. Region-of-interest and searchlight analyses revealed decoding in LOTC at both concrete and abstract levels during both tasks, whereas decoding in PMv was restricted to the concrete level during the explicit task. In right inferior parietal cortex, decoding was significant for the abstract level during the explicit task. Our findings are incompatible with the motor hypothesis, but support the cognitive hypothesis of action understanding. PMID:26223260

  11. Selection process for trade study: Graphite Composite Primary Structure (GCPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenberg, H. S.

    1994-01-01

    This TA 2 document describes the selection process that will be used to identify the most suitable structural configuration for an SSTO winged vehicle capable of delivering 25,000 lbs to a 220 nm circular orbit at 51.6 degree inclination. The most suitable unpressurized graphite composite structures and material selections is within this configuration and will be the prototype design for subsequent design and analysis and the basis for the design and fabrication of payload bay, wing, and thrust structure full scale test articles representing segments of the prototype structures. The selection process for this TA 2 trade study is the same as that for the TA 1 trade study. As the trade study progresses additional insight may result in modifications to the selection criteria within this process. Such modifications will result in an update of this document as appropriate.

  12. 40 CFR 1506.1 - Limitations on actions during NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Limitations on actions during NEPA process. 1506.1 Section 1506.1 Protection of Environment COUNCIL ON ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY OTHER... quality of the human environment unless such action: (1) Is justified independently of the program; (2)...

  13. The Data-to-Action Framework: A Rapid Program Improvement Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zakocs, Ronda; Hill, Jessica A.; Brown, Pamela; Wheaton, Jocelyn; Freire, Kimberley E.

    2015-01-01

    Although health education programs may benefit from quality improvement methods, scant resources exist to help practitioners apply these methods for program improvement. The purpose of this article is to describe the Data-to-Action framework, a process that guides practitioners through rapid-feedback cycles in order to generate actionable data to…

  14. Action Interrupted: Movement and Breakpoints in the Processing of Motion Violations in Toddlers and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friend, Margaret; Pace, Amy E.

    2016-01-01

    From early in development, segmenting events unfolding in the world in meaningful ways renders input more manageable and facilitates interpretation and prediction. Yet, little is known about how children process action structure in events composed of multiple coarse-grained actions. More importantly, little is known about the time course of action…

  15. Animating Critical Action Learning: Process-Based Leadership and Management Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trehan, Kiran; Pedler, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Increasing attention is focusing on the value of critical approaches to enhancing leadership and management development processes. This paper examines how a critical action learning perspectives can be harnessed to produce valuable learning and development through critically reflective practise. Critical action learning approaches not only explore…

  16. Psychological Selection of Personnel for Data Processing Professions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pitariu, Horia

    In Romania, the implementation of computers in social-economic life is being carried out with a view to creating a national data processing system. Parallel to the construction of electronic data processing equipment, there is a sustained concern for the selection and training of computer specialists. This study examined a psychological testing…

  17. PROCESS OF SELECTING INDICATORS FOR MONITORING CONDITIONS OF RANGELAND HEALTH

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper reports on a process for selecting a suite of indicators that, in combination, can be useful in assessing the ecological conditions of rangelands. onceptual models that depict the structural and functional properties of ecological processes were used to show the linkag...

  18. Concurrent materials and process selection in conceptual design

    SciTech Connect

    Kleban, Stephen D.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.

    2000-08-16

    A method for concurrent selection of materials and a joining process based on product requirements using a knowledge-based, constraint satisfaction approach facilitates the product design and manufacturing process. Using a Windows-based computer video display and a data base of materials and their properties, the designer can ascertain the preferred composition of two parts based on various operating/environmental constraints such as load, temperature, lifetime, etc. Optimum joinder of the two parts may simultaneously be determined using a joining process data base based upon the selected composition of the components as well as the operating/environmental constraints.

  19. From Intent to Action: An Iterative Engineering Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mouton, Patrice; Rodet, Jacques; Vacaresse, Sylvain

    2015-01-01

    Quite by chance, and over the course of a few haphazard meetings, a Master's degree in "E-learning Design" gradually developed in a Faculty of Economics. Its original and evolving design was the result of an iterative process carried out, not by a single Instructional Designer (ID), but by a full ID team. Over the last 10 years it has…

  20. Cell surface thiol isomerases may explain the platelet-selective action of S-nitrosoglutathione.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fang; Gordge, Michael P

    2011-10-30

    S-nitrosoglutathione (GSNO) at low concentration inhibits platelet aggregation without causing vasodilation, suggesting platelet-selective nitric oxide delivery. The mechanism of this selectivity is unknown, but may involve cell surface thiol isomerases, in particular protein disulphide isomerase (csPDI) (EC 5.3.4.1). We have now compared csPDI expression and activity on platelets, endothelial cells and vascular smooth muscle cells, and the dependence on thiol reductase activity of these cell types for NO uptake from GSNO. csPDI expression was measured by flow cytometry and its reductase activity using the pseudosubstrate dieosin glutathione disulphide. This activity assay was adapted and validated for 96-well plate format. Flow cytometry revealed csPDI on all three cell types, but percentage positivity of expression was higher on platelets than on vascular cells. Consistent with this, thiol isomerase-related reductase activity was higher on platelets (P<0.01), and cellular activation (with either phorbol myristate acetate or ionomycin) increased csPDI activity on both platelets and smooth muscle cells, but not on endothelium. Intracellular NO delivery from GSNO was greater in platelets than in vascular cells (P<0.002), and was more sensitive to thiol isomerase inhibition using phenylarsine oxide (P<0.05). Increased surface thiol isomerase activity on platelets, compared with cells of the vascular wall, may explain the platelet-selective actions of GSNO and help define its antithrombotic potential. PMID:21642008

  1. UMTRA Ground Water Project management action process document

    SciTech Connect

    1996-03-01

    A critical U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) mission is to plan, implement, and complete DOE Environmental Restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC). These facilities include the 24 inactive processing sites the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) (42 USC Section 7901 et seq.) identified as Title I sites, which had operated from the late 1940s through the 1970s. In UMTRCA, Congress acknowledged the potentially harmful health effects associated with uranium mill tailings and directed the DOE to stabilize, dispose of, and control the tailings in a safe and environmentally sound manner. The UMTRA Surface Project deals with buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the processing sites and any associated vicinity properties (VP). Surface remediation at the processing sites will be completed in 1997 when the Naturita, Colorado, site is scheduled to be finished. The UMTRA Ground Water Project was authorized in an amendment to the UMTRCA (42 USC Section 7922(a)), when Congress directed DOE to comply with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) ground water standards. The UMTRA Ground Water Project addresses any contamination derived from the milling operation that is determined to be present at levels above the EPA standards.

  2. An International Perspective on Pharmacy Student Selection Policies and Processes

    PubMed Central

    Kennedy, Julia; Jensen, Maree; Sheridan, Janie

    2015-01-01

    Objective. To reflect on selection policies and procedures for programs at pharmacy schools that are members of an international alliance of universities (Universitas 21). Methods. A questionnaire on selection policies and procedures was distributed to admissions directors at participating schools. Results. Completed questionnaires were received from 7 schools in 6 countries. Although marked differences were noted in the programs in different countries, there were commonalities in the selection processes. There was an emphasis on previous academic performance, especially in science subjects. With one exception, all schools had some form of interview, with several having moved to multiple mini-interviews in recent years. Conclusion. The majority of pharmacy schools in this survey relied on traditional selection processes. While there was increasing use of multiple mini-interviews, the authors suggest that additional new approaches may be required in light of the changing nature of the profession. PMID:26689381

  3. Selection of Temporal Lags When Modeling Economic and Financial Processes.

    PubMed

    Matilla-Garcia, Mariano; Ojeda, Rina B; Marin, Manuel Ruiz

    2016-10-01

    This paper suggests new nonparametric statistical tools and procedures for modeling linear and nonlinear univariate economic and financial processes. In particular, the tools presented help in selecting relevant lags in the model description of a general linear or nonlinear time series; that is, nonlinear models are not a restriction. The tests seem to be robust to the selection of free parameters. We also show that the test can be used as a diagnostic tool for well-defined models. PMID:27550703

  4. Multicriteria framework for selecting a process modelling language

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scanavachi Moreira Campos, Ana Carolina; Teixeira de Almeida, Adiel

    2016-01-01

    The choice of process modelling language can affect business process management (BPM) since each modelling language shows different features of a given process and may limit the ways in which a process can be described and analysed. However, choosing the appropriate modelling language for process modelling has become a difficult task because of the availability of a large number modelling languages and also due to the lack of guidelines on evaluating, and comparing languages so as to assist in selecting the most appropriate one. This paper proposes a framework for selecting a modelling language in accordance with the purposes of modelling. This framework is based on the semiotic quality framework (SEQUAL) for evaluating process modelling languages and a multicriteria decision aid (MCDA) approach in order to select the most appropriate language for BPM. This study does not attempt to set out new forms of assessment and evaluation criteria, but does attempt to demonstrate how two existing approaches can be combined so as to solve the problem of selection of modelling language. The framework is described in this paper and then demonstrated by means of an example. Finally, the advantages and disadvantages of using SEQUAL and MCDA in an integrated manner are discussed.

  5. Neural strategies for selective attention distinguish fast-action video game players.

    PubMed

    Krishnan, Lavanya; Kang, Albert; Sperling, George; Srinivasan, Ramesh

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the psychophysical and neurophysiological differences between fast-action video game players (specifically first person shooter players, FPS) and non-action players (role-playing game players, RPG) in a visual search task. We measured both successful detections (hit rates) and steady-state visually evoked EEG potentials (SSVEPs). Search difficulty was varied along two dimensions: number of adjacent attended and ignored regions (1, 2 and 4), and presentation rate of novel search arrays (3, 8.6 and 20 Hz). Hit rates decreased with increasing presentation rates and number of regions, with the FPS players performing on average better than the RPG players. The largest differences in hit rate, between groups, occurred when four regions were simultaneously attended. We computed signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) of SSVEPs and used partial least squares regression to model hit rates, SNRs and their relationship at 3 Hz and 8.6 Hz. The following are the most significant results: RPG players' parietal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating attentional signal enhancement. FPS players' parietal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker were predictive of hit rate and were positively correlated with it, indicating distractor suppression. Consistent with these parietal responses, RPG players' frontal responses to the attended 8.6 Hz flicker, increased as task difficulty increased with number of regions; FPS players' frontal responses to the ignored 3 Hz flicker increased with number of regions. Thus the FPS players appear to employ an active suppression mechanism to deploy selective attention simultaneously to multiple interleaved regions, while RPG primarily use signal enhancement. These results suggest that fast-action gaming can affect neural strategies and the corresponding networks underlying attention, presumably by training mechanisms of distractor suppression. PMID:22614909

  6. Selecting public relations personnel of hospitals by analytic network process.

    PubMed

    Liao, Sen-Kuei; Chang, Kuei-Lun

    2009-01-01

    This study describes the use of analytic network process (ANP) in the Taiwanese hospital public relations personnel selection process. Starting with interviewing 48 practitioners and executives in north Taiwan, we collected selection criteria. Then, we retained the 12 critical criteria that were mentioned above 40 times by theses respondents, including: interpersonal skill, experience, negotiation, language, ability to follow orders, cognitive ability, adaptation to environment, adaptation to company, emotion, loyalty, attitude, and Response. Finally, we discussed with the 20 executives to take these important criteria into three perspectives to structure the hierarchy for hospital public relations personnel selection. After discussing with practitioners and executives, we find that selecting criteria are interrelated. The ANP, which incorporates interdependence relationships, is a new approach for multi-criteria decision-making. Thus, we apply ANP to select the most optimal public relations personnel of hospitals. An empirical study of public relations personnel selection problems in Taiwan hospitals is conducted to illustrate how the selection procedure works. PMID:19197656

  7. Selective incarceration of caesium ions by Venus flytrap action of a flexible framework sulfide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Nan; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.

    2010-03-01

    The selective capture of Cs+ from solution is relevant to the remediation of nuclear waste and remains a significant challenge. Here we describe a new framework composed of [(CH3)2NH2]+ and [Ga2Sb2S7]2- layers, which are perforated with holes. Shape selectivity couples with framework flexibility, allowing the compound to respond to the ion-exchange process. The size, shape and flexibility of the holes allow Cs+ ions in an aqueous solution to selectively pass through and enter the material via an ion-exchange process. Following capture, the structure dynamically closes its holes in a manner reminiscent of a Venus flytrap, which prevents the Cs+ ions from leaching out. This process has useful implications in the separation science of Cs as it relates to the clean-up of nuclear waste. The dynamic response we describe here provides important insights for designing new materials for the selective removal of difficult-to-capture ions.

  8. Selective incarceration of caesium ions by Venus flytrap action of a flexible framework sulfide.

    SciTech Connect

    Ding, N.; Kanatzidis, M. G.

    2009-12-01

    The selective capture of Cs{sup +} from solution is relevant to the remediation of nuclear waste and remains a significant challenge. Here we describe a new framework composed of [(CH{sub 3}){sub 2}NH{sub 2}]{sup +} and [Ga{sub 2}Sb{sub 2}S{sub 7}]{sup 2-} layers, which are perforated with holes. Shape selectivity couples with framework flexibility, allowing the compound to respond to the ion-exchange process. The size, shape and flexibility of the holes allow Cs{sup +} ions in an aqueous solution to selectively pass through and enter the material via an ion-exchange process. Following capture, the structure dynamically closes its holes in a manner reminiscent of a Venus flytrap, which prevents the Cs{sup +} ions from leaching out. This process has useful implications in the separation science of Cs as it relates to the clean-up of nuclear waste. The dynamic response we describe here provides important insights for designing new materials for the selective removal of difficult-to-capture ions.

  9. The mutation process in a chlorella population under the combined action of radionuclides and chemical mutagens

    SciTech Connect

    Ptitsyna, S.N.; Sergeeva, S.A.; Shevchenko, V.A.; Shvobene, R.Y.

    1985-09-01

    This paper investigates the dynamics of the mutation process under the combined chronic action of radionuclides (/sup 144/Ce, /sup 90/Sr) and inhibitors of repair, acriflavine and caffeine, as well as under the joint action of ethyleneimine and acriflavine, in a Chlorella population. It is shown that the modifying effect of acriflavine is more pronounced under the action of /sup 144/Ce, which is evidently due to its stronger genetic effect, in comparison with /sup 90/Sr. Experiments with inhibitors confirm the participation of the repair systems in the establishment of the visible picture of the mutation process induced by radionuclides and by ethyleneimine (EI).

  10. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  11. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  12. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  13. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  14. 39 CFR 281.2 - Action required by processing postal officials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 39 Postal Service 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Action required by processing postal officials. 281.2 Section 281.2 Postal Service UNITED STATES POSTAL SERVICE ORGANIZATION AND ADMINISTRATION FIRM... processing postal officials. Postal officials processing salvable mail recovered from the scene of...

  15. The Coalescent Process in Models with Selection and Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Hudson, R. R.; Kaplan, N. L.

    1988-01-01

    The statistical properties of the process describing the genealogical history of a random sample of genes at a selectively neutral locus which is linked to a locus at which natural selection operates are investigated. It is found that the equations describing this process are simple modifications of the equations describing the process assuming that the two loci are completely linked. Thus, the statistical properties of the genealogical process for a random sample at a neutral locus linked to a locus with selection follow from the results obtained for the selected locus. Sequence data from the alcohol dehydrogenase (Adh) region of Drosophila melanogaster are examined and compared to predictions based on the theory. It is found that the spatial distribution of nucleotide differences between Fast and Slow alleles of Adh is very similar to the spatial distribution predicted if balancing selection operates to maintain the allozyme variation at the Adh locus. The spatial distribution of nucleotide differences between different Slow alleles of Adh do not match the predictions of this simple model very well. PMID:3147214

  16. Bixin action in the healing process of rats mouth wounds.

    PubMed

    Piva, Renata Machado; Johann, Aline Cristina Batista Rodrigues; Costa, Camila Kocler; Miguel, Obdulio Gomez; Rosa, Edvaldo Ribeiro; de Azevedo-Alanis, Luciana Reis; Trevilatto, Paula Cristina; Ignacio, Sergio Aparecido; Bettega, Patrícia Vida Cassi; Gregio, Ana Maria Trindade

    2013-01-01

    Oral lesions that manifest as ulcer lesions are quite common and can cause discomfort to the patient. Searching for drugs to accelerate the healing of these lesions is nonstop process. Bixin is a molecule found in annatto (urucum) seeds and is considered a viable therapeutic option to treat such lesions due to its anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant, and healing properties. Therefore, the present study aimed to evaluate the effect of the bixin solution in the ulcer healing process in the oral mucosa of rats. Ulcers were induced with punches of 0.5 cm in the middle of the dorsum of the tongue of 64 Wistar rats. The animals were randomly divided into 8 groups, in which 4 groups were treated with saline solution, while the other 4 were treated with the bixin solution. The animals were sacrificed in the periods 2, 7, 14, and 21 days after the beginning of the treatment. The species were histologically processed and stained with hematoxylin/eosin and picrosirius. Fibroblasts, reepithelialization, and wound contraction could be observed, as could the quantification of neutrophils, macrophages, plasma cells, lymphocytes, and mature and immature collagen. On the seventh day, the experimental group, when compared to the control group, presented a higher proliferation of fibroblasts, more advanced reepithelialization, and a higher contraction in the wounds. A reduction in the average number of neutrophils in the experimental group, when compared to the control group, could be observed in all periods (p=0.000). Up to two days, the total collagen area was higher (p=0.044) in the experimental group (4139.60±3047.51t han in the control group (1564.81±918.47). The deposition of mature collagen, on the 14(th) day, was higher (p=0.048) in the experimental group (5802.40±3578.18) than in the control group (1737.26±1439.97). The results found in the present study indicate that the bixin solution inhibits the acute inflammatory response with a minor average number of neutrophils and

  17. Land use in the CERCLA remedy selection process. Directive

    SciTech Connect

    1995-05-01

    The directive presents additional information for considering land use in making remedy selection decisions under the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) at National Priorities List (NPL) sites. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) believes that early community involvement, with a particular focus on the community`s desired future uses of property associated with the CERCLA site, should result in a more democratic decisionmaking process; greater community support for remedies selected as a result of this process; and more expedited, cost-effective cleanups.

  18. Investigations on Manufacturability and Process Reliability of Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krauss, H.; Zaeh, M. F.

    Selective laser melting is a layer-wise manufacturing process that enables the use of complex geometric shapes in part design and production. An infrared laser beam is focused on a thin layer of metallic powder and selectively deflected in order to scan the cross-section of the parts being built. The process quality is dominated by the consolidation of powder particles through laser beam interaction, the part geometry itself and the arrangement of multiple parts. In this paper, the manufacturability is investigated by characterizing single melt tracks and the buildup of thin wall structures consisting of a few aligned scan tracks.

  19. Discrimination against international medical graduates in the United States residency program selection process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Available evidence suggests that international medical graduates have improved the availability of U.S. health care while maintaining academic standards. We wondered whether studies had been conducted to address how international graduates were treated in the post-graduate selection process compared to U.S. graduates. Methods We conducted a Medline search for research on the selection process. Results Two studies provide strong evidence that psychiatry and family practice programs respond to identical requests for applications at least 80% more often for U.S. medical graduates than for international graduates. In a third study, a survey of surgical program directors, over 70% perceived that there was discrimination against international graduates in the selection process. Conclusions There is sufficient evidence to support action against discrimination in the selection process. Medical organizations should publish explicit proscriptions of discrimination against international medical graduates (as the American Psychiatric Association has done) and promote them in diversity statements. They should develop uniform and transparent policies for program directors to use to select applicants that minimize the possibility of non-academic discrimination, and the accreditation organization should monitor whether it is occurring. Whether there should be protectionism for U.S. graduates or whether post-graduate medical education should be an unfettered meritocracy needs to be openly discussed by medicine and society. PMID:20100347

  20. Electrical Identification and Selective Microstimulation of Neuronal Compartments Based on Features of Extracellular Action Potentials.

    PubMed

    Radivojevic, Milos; Jäckel, David; Altermatt, Michael; Müller, Jan; Viswam, Vijay; Hierlemann, Andreas; Bakkum, Douglas J

    2016-01-01

    A detailed, high-spatiotemporal-resolution characterization of neuronal responses to local electrical fields and the capability of precise extracellular microstimulation of selected neurons are pivotal for studying and manipulating neuronal activity and circuits in networks and for developing neural prosthetics. Here, we studied cultured neocortical neurons by using high-density microelectrode arrays and optical imaging, complemented by the patch-clamp technique, and with the aim to correlate morphological and electrical features of neuronal compartments with their responsiveness to extracellular stimulation. We developed strategies to electrically identify any neuron in the network, while subcellular spatial resolution recording of extracellular action potential (AP) traces enabled their assignment to the axon initial segment (AIS), axonal arbor and proximal somatodendritic compartments. Stimulation at the AIS required low voltages and provided immediate, selective and reliable neuronal activation, whereas stimulation at the soma required high voltages and produced delayed and unreliable responses. Subthreshold stimulation at the soma depolarized the somatic membrane potential without eliciting APs. PMID:27510732

  1. Syntax in Action Has Priority over Movement Selection in Piano Playing: An ERP Study.

    PubMed

    Bianco, Roberta; Novembre, Giacomo; Keller, Peter E; Scharf, Florian; Friederici, Angela D; Villringer, Arno; Sammler, Daniela

    2016-01-01

    Complex human behavior is hierarchically organized. Whether or not syntax plays a role in this organization is currently under debate. The present ERP study uses piano performance to isolate syntactic operations in action planning and to demonstrate their priority over nonsyntactic levels of movement selection. Expert pianists were asked to execute chord progressions on a mute keyboard by copying the posture of a performing model hand shown in sequences of photos. We manipulated the final chord of each sequence in terms of Syntax (congruent/incongruent keys) and Manner (conventional/unconventional fingering), as well as the strength of its predictability by varying the length of the Context (five-chord/two-chord progressions). The production of syntactically incongruent compared to congruent chords showed a response delay that was larger in the long compared to the short context. This behavioral effect was accompanied by a centroparietal negativity in the long but not in the short context, suggesting that a syntax-based motor plan was prepared ahead. Conversely, the execution of the unconventional manner was not delayed as a function of Context and elicited an opposite electrophysiological pattern (a posterior positivity). The current data support the hypothesis that motor plans operate at the level of musical syntax and are incrementally translated to lower levels of movement selection. PMID:26351994

  2. Electrical Identification and Selective Microstimulation of Neuronal Compartments Based on Features of Extracellular Action Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Radivojevic, Milos; Jäckel, David; Altermatt, Michael; Müller, Jan; Viswam, Vijay; Hierlemann, Andreas; Bakkum, Douglas J.

    2016-01-01

    A detailed, high-spatiotemporal-resolution characterization of neuronal responses to local electrical fields and the capability of precise extracellular microstimulation of selected neurons are pivotal for studying and manipulating neuronal activity and circuits in networks and for developing neural prosthetics. Here, we studied cultured neocortical neurons by using high-density microelectrode arrays and optical imaging, complemented by the patch-clamp technique, and with the aim to correlate morphological and electrical features of neuronal compartments with their responsiveness to extracellular stimulation. We developed strategies to electrically identify any neuron in the network, while subcellular spatial resolution recording of extracellular action potential (AP) traces enabled their assignment to the axon initial segment (AIS), axonal arbor and proximal somatodendritic compartments. Stimulation at the AIS required low voltages and provided immediate, selective and reliable neuronal activation, whereas stimulation at the soma required high voltages and produced delayed and unreliable responses. Subthreshold stimulation at the soma depolarized the somatic membrane potential without eliciting APs. PMID:27510732

  3. Selective actions of calcium antagonistic drugs on the haemodynamics and regional organ blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    McCann, E; Lundberg, C; Gerdin, B; Arfors, K E

    1986-01-01

    Six substances, all of which influence calcium utilization by smooth muscle, namely nimodipine (50 micrograms/kg), flunarizine (1 mg/kg), verapamil (0.2 mg/kg), lidoflazine (1 mg/kg), magnesium (600 mumol Mg++/kg), and manganese (180 mumol Mn++/kg), were given intravenously to rats and their effects on regional blood flows and on cardiac output were determined by the radioactive microsphere technique. All compounds caused a temporary fall in mean arterial blood pressure. Cardiac output was decreased by manganese, and minute work by nimodipine, manganese and lidoflazine. Nimodipine increased blood flow in the liver, skeletal muscle and heart and decreased that in the stomach, ileum, colon, kidney, spleen and skin; manganese increased flow in the duodenum, jejunum, liver and myocardium and decreased that in the stomach, ileum, colon, spleen and skin; flunarizine increased flow in the liver, heart and brain; and magnesium increased flow in the liver, spleen and brain. Lidoflazine and verapamil, although leading to haemodynamic alterations, had no selective effect on organ blood flow. Selective actions by calcium effector drugs can provide information on mechanisms of calcium flux in various types of vascular smooth muscle, and show that it is possible to tailor combinations of anti-calcium agents with optimal effects on a given organ. PMID:3781760

  4. Fundamental Aspects of Selective Melting Additive Manufacturing Processes

    SciTech Connect

    van Swol, Frank B.; Miller, James E.

    2014-12-01

    Certain details of the additive manufacturing process known as selective laser melting (SLM) affect the performance of the final metal part. To unleash the full potential of SLM it is crucial that the process engineer in the field receives guidance about how to select values for a multitude of process variables employed in the building process. These include, for example, the type of powder (e.g., size distribution, shape, type of alloy), orientation of the build axis, the beam scan rate, the beam power density, the scan pattern and scan rate. The science-based selection of these settings con- stitutes an intrinsically challenging multi-physics problem involving heating and melting a metal alloy, reactive, dynamic wetting followed by re-solidification. In addition, inherent to the process is its considerable variability that stems from the powder packing. Each time a limited number of powder particles are placed, the stacking is intrinsically different from the previous, possessing a different geometry, and having a different set of contact areas with the surrounding particles. As a result, even if all other process parameters (scan rate, etc) are exactly the same, the shape and contact geometry and area of the final melt pool will be unique to that particular configuration. This report identifies the most important issues facing SLM, discusses the fundamental physics associated with it and points out how modeling can support the additive manufacturing efforts.

  5. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  6. Becoming Dean: Selection and Socialization Processes of an Academic Leader

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Enomoto, Ernestine; Matsuoka, Jon

    2007-01-01

    In this qualitative case study, we offer an insider's perspective on the selection and socialization processes of an academic leader. The primary method of data collection was through a series of interviews with the candidate over a five-year period. Analysis drew from an organizational socialization model devised by Saks and Ashforth, which…

  7. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  8. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  9. 15 CFR 296.20 - The selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false The selection process. 296.20 Section 296.20 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS TECHNOLOGY...

  10. Team Teachers: The Importance of the Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matranga, Myrna

    1992-01-01

    Discusses the team teaching process developed in the Washoe County School District in Reno, Nevada, resulting from the Nevada Legislature's mandate to reduce class size to a 15:1 ratio. Describes the nature of team relationships and how teachers came to teach in a team situation. Advises teacher input in team partner selection as essential to…

  11. Geological Disposal Concept Selection Aligned with a Voluntarism Process - 13538

    SciTech Connect

    Crockett, Glenda; King, Samantha

    2013-07-01

    The UK's Radioactive Waste Management Directorate (RWMD) is currently at a generic stage in its implementation programme. The UK site selection process is a voluntarist process and, as yet, no communities have decided to participate. RWMD has set out a process to describe how a geological disposal concept would be selected for the range of higher activity wastes in the UK inventory, including major steps and decision making points, aligned with the stages of the UK site selection process. A platform of information is being developed on geological disposal concepts at various stages of implementation internationally and, in order to build on international experience, RWMD is developing its approach to technology transfer. The UK has a range of different types of higher activity wastes with different characteristics; therefore a range of geological disposal concepts may be needed. In addition to identifying key aspects for considering the compatibility of different engineered barrier systems for different types of waste, RWMD is developing a methodology to determine minimum separation distances between disposal modules in a co-located geological disposal facility. RWMD's approach to geological disposal concept selection is intended to be flexible, recognising the long term nature of the project. RWMD is also committed to keeping alternative radioactive waste management options under review; an approach has been developed and periodic reviews of alternative options will be published. (authors)

  12. Employee Selection Process: Integrating Employee Needs and Employer Motivators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carroll, Brian J.

    1989-01-01

    Offers suggestions for managers relative to the employee selection process, focusing on the identification of a potential employee's needs and the employer's motivators that affect employee productivity. Discusses the use of a preemployment survey and offers a questionnaire that allows matching of the employee's needs with employment…

  13. Friendship and Delinquency: Selection and Influence Processes in Early Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knecht, Andrea; Snijders, Tom A. B.; Baerveldt, Chris; Steglich, Christian E. G.; Raub, Werner

    2010-01-01

    Positive association of relevant characteristics is a widespread pattern among adolescent friends. A positive association may be caused by the selection of similar others as friends and by the deselection of dissimilar ones, but also by influence processes where friends adjust their behavior to each other. Social control theory argues that…

  14. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  15. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  16. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  17. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  18. 7 CFR 1703.105 - Processing of selected applications.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Processing of selected applications. 1703.105 Section 1703.105 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE RURAL DEVELOPMENT Distance Learning and Telemedicine Loan and Grant...

  19. Process for selected gas oxide removal by radiofrequency catalysts

    DOEpatents

    Cha, C.Y.

    1993-09-21

    This process to remove gas oxides from flue gas utilizes adsorption on a char bed subsequently followed by radiofrequency catalysis enhancing such removal through selected reactions. Common gas oxides include SO[sub 2] and NO[sub x]. 1 figure.

  20. Efficiency and Effectiveness of a Resident Assistant Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Broitman, Thomas

    The American phenomenon of "more is better" extends a value-loaded concept implicit in budget preparation. At any university, the scope, magnitude and cost of a residence hall assistant program selection process is a metaphor to illustrate efficiency and effectiveness of human resources. In order to discover a more efficient and effective…

  1. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-01-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal sits, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)) to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal sits would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  2. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 3

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-02-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The proposed remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 162 ac (66 ha) of soils at the processing and disposal sites; however, 133 ac (55 ha) of these soils at and adjacent to the processing site are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac (45 ha) of contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. This area is steeply sloped. The cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers. Another 220 ac (89 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed during the remedial action. The final disposal site would result in approximately 57 ac (23 ha) being removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use.

  3. The developmental cognitive neuroscience of action: semantics, motor resonance and social processing.

    PubMed

    Ní Choisdealbha, Áine; Reid, Vincent

    2014-06-01

    The widespread use of EEG methods and the introduction of new brain imaging methods such as near-infrared spectroscopy have made cognitive neuroscience research with infants more feasible, resulting in an explosion of new findings. Among the long-established study of the neural correlates of face and speech perception in infancy, there has been an abundance of recent research on infant perception and production of action and concomitant neurocognitive development. In this review, three significant strands of developmental action research are discussed. The first strand focuses on the relationship of diverse social cognitive processes, including the perception of goals and animacy, and the development of precursors to theory of mind, to action perception. The second investigates the role of motor resonance and mirror systems in early action development. The third strand focuses on the extraction of meaning from action by infants and discusses how semantic processing of action emerges early in life. Although these strands of research are pursued separately, many of the findings from each strand inform all three theoretical frameworks. This review will evaluate the evidence for a synthesised account of infant action development. PMID:24710665

  4. RP and N400 ERP components reflect semantic violations in visual processing of human actions.

    PubMed

    Proverbio, Alice Mado; Riva, Federica

    2009-08-14

    Event-related brain potentials (ERPs) were used to investigate the visual processing of actions belonging to the typical human repertoire. Two hundred and sixty coloured pictures representing persons differing in number, age and gender, engaged in simple actions, were presented to 23 right-handed students. Perception of meaningful actions (e.g., young woman trying shoes in shop) was contrasted with perception of actions lacking an understandable goal (e.g., businesswoman balancing on one foot in desert). The results indicated early recognition of comprehensible behaviour in the form of an enhanced posterior "recognition potential" (RP) (N250), which was followed by a larger negativity (N400) in response to incongruent actions. The results suggest that incoming visual information regarding human gestures is processed similarly to linguistic inputs from a conceptual point of view, thus eliciting a posterior RP when the action code is visually recognized and comprehended, and a later N400 when the action is not recognized or is difficult to integrate with previous knowledge. PMID:19427368

  5. L-ALLIANCE: a mechanism for adaptive action selection in heterogeneous multi-robot teams

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, L.E.

    1995-11-01

    In practical applications of robotics, it is usually quite difficult, if not impossible, for the system designer to fully predict the environmental states in which the robots will operate. The complexity of the problem is further increased when dealing with teams of robots which themselves may be incompletely known and characterized in advance. It is thus highly desirable for robot teams to be able to adapt their performance during the mission due to changes in the environment, or to changes in other robot team members. In previous work, we introduced a behavior-based mechanism called the ALLIANCE architecture -- that facilitates the fault tolerant cooperative control of multi-robot teams. However, this previous work did not address the issue of how to dynamically update the control parameters during a mission to adapt to ongoing changes in the environment or in the robot team, and to ensure the efficiency of the collective team actions. In this paper, we address this issue by proposing the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, which defines an automated method whereby robots can use knowledge learned from previous experience to continually improve their collective action selection when working on missions composed of loosely coupled, discrete subtasks. This ability to dynamically update robotic control parameters provides a number of distinct advantages: it alleviates the need for human tuning of control parameters, it facilitates the use of custom-designed multi-robot teams for any given application, it improves the efficiency of the mission performance, and It allows robots to continually adapt their performance over time due to changes in the robot team and/or the environment. We describe the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, present the results of various alternative update strategies we investigated, present the formal model of the L-ALLIANCE mechanism, and present the results of a simple proof of concept implementation on a small team of heterogeneous mobile robots.

  6. Process for coal liquefaction employing selective coal feed

    DOEpatents

    Hoover, David S.; Givens, Edwin N.

    1983-01-01

    An improved coal liquefaction process is provided whereby coal conversion is improved and yields of pentane soluble liquefaction products are increased. In this process, selected feed coal is pulverized and slurried with a process derived solvent, passed through a preheater and one or more dissolvers in the presence of hydrogen-rich gases at elevated temperatures and pressures, following which solids, including mineral ash and unconverted coal macerals, are separated from the condensed reactor effluent. The selected feed coals comprise washed coals having a substantial amount of mineral matter, preferably from about 25-75%, by weight, based upon run-of-mine coal, removed with at least 1.0% by weight of pyritic sulfur remaining and exhibiting vitrinite reflectance of less than about 0.70%.

  7. Using the Knowledge to Action Process Model to Incite Clinical Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petzold, Anita; Korner-Bitensky, Nicol; Menon, Anita

    2010-01-01

    Introduction: Knowledge translation (KT) has only recently emerged in the field of rehabilitation with attention on creating effective KT interventions to increase clinicians' knowledge and use of evidence-based practice (EBP). The uptake of EBP is a complex process that can be facilitated by the use of the Knowledge to Action Process model. This…

  8. Riding the Wave: Student Researcher Reflection on the Action Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrows, Andrea; Thomas, Jonathan; Woods, Angie; Suess, Robert; Dole, Deborah

    2012-01-01

    The focus of this article is the exploration of and an explanation of student researchers' affect and activity in an action research project. Using a hermeneutical theoretical framework we argue that the researcher group as a whole constructs a wave process and at the same time each individual researcher in the group creates a wave process that…

  9. Defining physics: The Nobel Prize selection process, 1901-1937

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacLachlan, James

    1991-02-01

    The great prestige of the Nobel Prizes has come virtually to define physics in the public mind. An examination of the nominations and the selections in the first 37 years of Nobel awards shows that those in charge of the selections went through a process of development as they refined their conceptions of the kind of work appropriate to be rewarded. Analyses are presented of the 1800 nominations made by 448 nominators for 213 scientists, of whom 44 received physics prizes between 1901 and 1937, 10 more who were awarded Nobel Prizes in physics after 1937, and 12 in chemistry, although nominated also in physics.

  10. HS process: an advanced process for selective H/sub 2/S

    SciTech Connect

    Sigmund, P.W.; Butwell, K.F.; Wussler, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Union Carbide's HS process offers improved efficiency in both H/sub 2/S removal and system costs while remaining flexible to diverse gas-conditioning requirements. The process combines three principal elements - an MDEA (methyldiethanolamine) solvent, a multistaged contactor design, and a special selective contactor tray. Prototype pilot-plant operations have demonstrated the superior performance of the HS process over existing methods.

  11. STIMA: a short screening test for ideo-motor apraxia, selective for action meaning and bodily district.

    PubMed

    Tessari, Alessia; Toraldo, Alessio; Lunardelli, Alberta; Zadini, Antonietta; Rumiati, Raffaella Ida

    2015-06-01

    We propose STIMA, a short test for ideo-motor apraxia, allowing us to quantify the apraxic deficit according to action meaning and affected body segment. STIMA is based on a neurocognitive model holding that there are two processes involved in action imitation (i.e., a semantic route for recognizing and imitating known gestures, and a direct route for reproducing new gestures). The test allows to identify which imitative process has been selectively impaired by brain damage (direct vs. semantic route) and possible deficits depending on the body segment involved (hand/limb vs. hand/fingers). N = 111 healthy participants were administered with an imitation task in two separated blocks of known and new gestures. In each block, half of the gestures were performed mainly with the proximal part of the upper limb and the remaining half with the distal one. It resulted in 18 known gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) and 18 new gestures (nine proximal and nine distal) for a total of 36. Each gesture was presented up to a maximum of two times. Detailed criteria are used to assign the final imitation score. Cut offs, equivalent scores and main percentile scores were computed for each subscale. Participants imitated better known than new gestures, and proximal better than distal gestures. Age influenced performance on all subscales, while education only affected one subscale. STIMA is easy and quick to administer, and compared to previous tests, it offers important information for planning adequate rehabilitation programs based on the functional locus of the deficit. PMID:25847083

  12. Amorphous solid dispersions: Rational selection of a manufacturing process.

    PubMed

    Vasconcelos, Teófilo; Marques, Sara; das Neves, José; Sarmento, Bruno

    2016-05-01

    Amorphous products and particularly amorphous solid dispersions are currently one of the most exciting areas in the pharmaceutical field. This approach presents huge potential and advantageous features concerning the overall improvement of drug bioavailability. Currently, different manufacturing processes are being developed to produce amorphous solid dispersions with suitable robustness and reproducibility, ranging from solvent evaporation to melting processes. In the present paper, laboratorial and industrial scale processes were reviewed, and guidelines for a rationale selection of manufacturing processes were proposed. This would ensure an adequate development (laboratorial scale) and production according to the good manufacturing practices (GMP) (industrial scale) of amorphous solid dispersions, with further implications on the process validations and drug development pipeline. PMID:26826438

  13. Parameters in selective laser melting for processing metallic powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kurzynowski, Tomasz; Chlebus, Edward; Kuźnicka, Bogumiła; Reiner, Jacek

    2012-03-01

    The paper presents results of studies on Selective Laser Melting. SLM is an additive manufacturing technology which may be used to process almost all metallic materials in the form of powder. Types of energy emission sources, mainly fiber lasers and/or Nd:YAG laser with similar characteristics and the wavelength of 1,06 - 1,08 microns, are provided primarily for processing metallic powder materials with high absorption of laser radiation. The paper presents results of selected variable parameters (laser power, scanning time, scanning strategy) and fixed parameters such as the protective atmosphere (argon, nitrogen, helium), temperature, type and shape of the powder material. The thematic scope is very broad, so the work was focused on optimizing the process of selective laser micrometallurgy for producing fully dense parts. The density is closely linked with other two conditions: discontinuity of the microstructure (microcracks) and stability (repeatability) of the process. Materials used for the research were stainless steel 316L (AISI), tool steel H13 (AISI), and titanium alloy Ti6Al7Nb (ISO 5832-11). Studies were performed with a scanning electron microscope, a light microscopes, a confocal microscope and a μCT scanner.

  14. Sense of Control Depends on Fluency of Action Selection, Not Motor Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambon, Valerian; Haggard, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Sense of agency refers to the feeling of controlling one's own actions, and, through these actions, events in the outside world. Sense of agency is widely held to involve a retrospective inference based on matching actual effects of an action with its expected effects. We hypothesise a second, prospective aspect of sense of agency, reflecting the…

  15. 34 CFR 426.24 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use for Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.24 Section 426.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... use for Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for an Agriculture Action Center: (a) Program factors. (10 points) The Secretary reviews...

  16. 34 CFR 426.24 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use for Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.24 Section 426.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... use for Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for an Agriculture Action Center: (a) Program factors. (10 points) The Secretary reviews...

  17. 34 CFR 426.24 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use for Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.24 Section 426.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... use for Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for an Agriculture Action Center: (a) Program factors. (10 points) The Secretary reviews...

  18. 34 CFR 426.24 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use for Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.24 Section 426.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... use for Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for an Agriculture Action Center: (a) Program factors. (10 points) The Secretary reviews...

  19. 34 CFR 426.24 - What selection criteria does the Secretary use for Agriculture Action Centers?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Agriculture Action Centers? 426.24 Section 426.24 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of... use for Agriculture Action Centers? The Secretary uses the following criteria to evaluate an application for an Agriculture Action Center: (a) Program factors. (10 points) The Secretary reviews...

  20. Clinical, Imaging and Pathological Correlates of a Hereditary Deficit in Verb and Action Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bak, Thomas H.; Yancopoulou, Despina; Nestor, Peter J.; Xuereb, John H.; Spillantini, Maria G.; Pulvermuller, Friedemann; Hodges, John R.

    2006-01-01

    Selective verb and noun deficits have been observed in a number of neurological conditions and their occurrence has been interpreted as evidence for different neural networks underlying the processing of specific word categories. We describe the first case of a familial occurrence of a selective deficit of verb processing. Father (Individual I)…

  1. Consideration of measurement error when using commercial indoor radon determinations for selecting radon action levels

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Reimer, G.M.; Szarzi, S.L.; Dolan, Michael P.

    1998-01-01

    An examination of year-long, in-home radon measurement in Colorado from commercial companies applying typical methods indicates that considerable variation in precision exists. This variation can have a substantial impact on any mitigation decisions, either voluntary or mandated by law, especially regarding property sale or exchange. Both long-term exposure (nuclear track greater than 90 days), and short-term (charcoal adsorption 4-7 days) exposure methods were used. In addition, periods of continuous monitoring with a highly calibrated alpha-scintillometer took place for accuracy calibration. The results of duplicate commercial analysis show that typical results are no better than ??25 percent with occasional outliers (up to 5 percent of all analyses) well beyond that limit. Differential seasonal measurements (winter/summer) by short-term methods provide equivalent information to single long-term measurements. Action levels in the U.S. for possible mitigation decisions should be selected so that they consider the measurement variability; specifically, they should reflect a concentration range similar to that adopted by the European Community.

  2. Skeletal unloading induces selective resistance to the anabolic actions of growth hormone on bone

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halloran, B. P.; Bikle, D. D.; Harris, J.; Autry, C. P.; Currier, P. A.; Tanner, S.; Patterson-Buckendahl, P.; Morey-Holton, E.

    1995-01-01

    Loss of skeletal weight bearing or physical unloading of bone in the growing animal inhibits bone formation and induces a bone mineral deficit. To determine whether the inhibition of bone formation induced by skeletal unloading in the growing animal is a consequence of diminished sensitivity to growth hormone (GH) we studied the effects of skeletal unloading in young hypophysectomized rats treated with GH (0, 50, 500 micrograms/100 g body weight/day). Skeletal unloading reduced serum osteocalcin, impaired uptake of 3H-proline into bone, decreased proximal tibial mass, and diminished periosteal bone formation at the tibiofibular junction. When compared with animals receiving excipient alone, GH administration increased bone mass in all animals. The responses in serum osteocalcin, uptake of 3H-proline and 45Ca into the proximal tibia, and proximal tibial mass in non-weight bearing animals were equal to those in weight bearing animals. The responses in trabecular bone volume in the proximal tibia and bone formation at the tibiofibular junction to GH, however, were reduced significantly by skeletal unloading. Bone unloading prevented completely the increase in metaphyseal trabecular bone normally induced by GH and severely dampened the stimulatory effect (158% vs. 313%, p < 0.002) of GH on periosteal bone formation. These results suggest that while GH can stimulate the overall accumulation of bone mineral in both weight bearing and non-weight bearing animals, skeletal unloading selectively impairs the response of trabecular bone and periosteal bone formation to the anabolic actions of GH.

  3. Some fuzzy techniques for staff selection process: A survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Md Saad, R.; Ahmad, M. Z.; Abu, M. S.; Jusoh, M. S.

    2013-04-01

    With high level of business competition, it is vital to have flexible staff that are able to adapt themselves with work circumstances. However, staff selection process is not an easy task to be solved, even when it is tackled in a simplified version containing only a single criterion and a homogeneous skill. When multiple criteria and various skills are involved, the problem becomes much more complicated. In adddition, there are some information that could not be measured precisely. This is patently obvious when dealing with opinions, thoughts, feelings, believes, etc. One possible tool to handle this issue is by using fuzzy set theory. Therefore, the objective of this paper is to review the existing fuzzy techniques for solving staff selection process. It classifies several existing research methods and identifies areas where there is a gap and need further research. Finally, this paper concludes by suggesting new ideas for future research based on the gaps identified.

  4. SP600125 has a remarkable anticancer potential against undifferentiated thyroid cancer through selective action on ROCK and p53 pathways

    PubMed Central

    Grassi, Elisa Stellaria; Vezzoli, Valeria; Negri, Irene; Lábadi, Árpád; Fugazzola, Laura; Vitale, Giovanni; Persani, Luca

    2015-01-01

    Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with increasing incidence worldwide. The majority of thyroid cancer cases are well differentiated with favorable outcome. However, undifferentiated thyroid cancers are one of the most lethal human malignancies because of their invasiveness, metastatization and refractoriness even to the most recently developed therapies. In this study we show for the first time a significant hyperactivation of ROCK/HDAC6 pathway in thyroid cancer tissues, and its negative correlation with p53 DNA binding ability. We demonstrate that a small compound, SP600125 (SP), is able to induce cell death selectively in undifferentiated thyroid cancer cell lines by specifically acting on the pathogenic pathways of cancer development. In detail, SP acts on the ROCK/HDAC6 pathway involved in dedifferentiation and invasiveness of undifferentiated human cancers, by restoring its physiological activity level. As main consequence, cancer cell migration is inhibited and, at the same time, cell death is induced through the mitotic catastrophe. Moreover, SP exerts a preferential action on the mutant p53 by increasing its DNA binding ability. In TP53-mutant cells that survive mitotic catastrophe this process results in p21 induction and eventually lead to premature senescence. In conclusion, SP has been proved to be able to simultaneously block cell replication and migration, the two main processes involved in cancer development and dissemination, making it an ideal candidate for developing new drugs against anaplastic thyroid cancer. PMID:26415230

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium Processing Site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 4

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgated standards for the UMTRCA that contain measures to control the contaminated materials and to protect groundwater quality. Remedial action at the Naturita site must be performed in accordance with these standards and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of Colorado. The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to either the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [10 kilometers (km)] to the southeast, or a licensed non-DOE disposal facility capable of handling RRM. At either disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed Dry Flats disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. This report discusses environmental impacts associated with the proposed remedial action.

  6. Filament winding cylinders. III - Selection of the process variables

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Soo-Yong; Springer, George S.

    1990-01-01

    By using the Lee-Springer filament winding model temperatures, degrees of cure, viscosities, stresses, strains, fiber tensions, fiber motions, and void diameters were calculated in graphite-epoxy composite cylinders during the winding and subsequent curing. The results demonstrate the type of information which can be generated by the model. It is shown, in reference to these results, how the model, and the corresponding WINDTHICK code, can be used to select the appropriate process variables.

  7. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development.

    PubMed

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual's capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6-7 years and 8-12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13-17 years) and adults (18-34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8-12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants' proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  8. Modeling the Maturation of Grip Selection Planning and Action Representation: Insights from Typical and Atypical Motor Development

    PubMed Central

    Fuelscher, Ian; Williams, Jacqueline; Wilmut, Kate; Enticott, Peter G.; Hyde, Christian

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the purported association between developmental changes in grip selection planning and improvements in an individual’s capacity to represent action at an internal level [i.e., motor imagery (MI)]. Participants were groups of healthy children aged 6–7 years and 8–12 years respectively, while a group of adolescents (13–17 years) and adults (18–34 years) allowed for consideration of childhood development in the broader context of motor maturation. A group of children aged 8–12 years with probable DCD (pDCD) was included as a reference group for atypical motor development. Participants’ proficiency to generate and/or engage internal action representations was inferred from performance on the hand rotation task, a well-validated measure of MI. A grip selection task designed to elicit the end-state comfort (ESC) effect provided a window into the integrity of grip selection planning. Consistent with earlier accounts, the efficiency of grip selection planning followed a non-linear developmental progression in neurotypical individuals. As expected, analysis confirmed that these developmental improvements were predicted by an increased capacity to generate and/or engage internal action representations. The profile of this association remained stable throughout the (typical) developmental spectrum. These findings are consistent with computational accounts of action planning that argue that internal action representations are associated with the expression and development of grip selection planning across typical development. However, no such association was found for our sample of children with pDCD, suggesting that individuals with atypical motor skill may adopt an alternative, sub-optimal strategy to plan their grip selection compared to their same-age control peers. PMID:26903915

  9. Neural and Computational Mechanisms of Action Processing: Interaction between Visual and Motor Representations.

    PubMed

    Giese, Martin A; Rizzolatti, Giacomo

    2015-10-01

    Action recognition has received enormous interest in the field of neuroscience over the last two decades. In spite of this interest, the knowledge in terms of fundamental neural mechanisms that provide constraints for underlying computations remains rather limited. This fact stands in contrast with a wide variety of speculative theories about how action recognition might work. This review focuses on new fundamental electrophysiological results in monkeys, which provide constraints for the detailed underlying computations. In addition, we review models for action recognition and processing that have concrete mathematical implementations, as opposed to conceptual models. We think that only such implemented models can be meaningfully linked quantitatively to physiological data and have a potential to narrow down the many possible computational explanations for action recognition. In addition, only concrete implementations allow judging whether postulated computational concepts have a feasible implementation in terms of realistic neural circuits. PMID:26447579

  10. Composite Interstage Structural Concept Down Select Process and Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sleight, David W.; Kosareo, Daniel N.; Thoma, Scott D.

    2012-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Composites Technologies (ACT) project evaluated several composite construction options for the Ares V Interstage to support the Constellation Program's goal of reducing the mass of vehicle dry structures. In Phase 1 of the project, eight candidate construction concepts were evaluated for the Ares V Interstage design. Trade studies were performed using finite element analyses to determine weight estimates for the construction concepts. An evaluation process was then used to down select the construction concepts down to two concepts for further consideration in Phase 2 of the project. In Phase 2 of the project, additional trade studies were performed using detailed finite element analyses of the Interstage and a final down select process was used to choose the recommended Interstage construction concept. The results of the study showed that a honeycomb sandwich design was the most favorable Interstage construction concept based on advantages in manufacturing cost. Details of the Phase 1 and Phase 2 trade studies and down select process with final results are presented in the paper.

  11. An evolutionary analysis of antigen processing and presentation across different timescales reveals pervasive selection.

    PubMed

    Forni, Diego; Cagliani, Rachele; Tresoldi, Claudia; Pozzoli, Uberto; De Gioia, Luca; Filippi, Giulia; Riva, Stefania; Menozzi, Giorgia; Colleoni, Marta; Biasin, Mara; Lo Caputo, Sergio; Mazzotta, Francesco; Comi, Giacomo P; Bresolin, Nereo; Clerici, Mario; Sironi, Manuela

    2014-03-01

    The antigenic repertoire presented by MHC molecules is generated by the antigen processing and presentation (APP) pathway. We analyzed the evolutionary history of 45 genes involved in APP at the inter- and intra-species level. Results showed that 11 genes evolved adaptively in mammals. Several positively selected sites involve positions of fundamental importance to the protein function (e.g. the TAP1 peptide-binding domains, the sugar binding interface of langerin, and the CD1D trafficking signal region). In CYBB, all selected sites cluster in two loops protruding into the endosomal lumen; analysis of missense mutations responsible for chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) showed the action of different selective forces on the very same gene region, as most CGD substitutions involve aminoacid positions that are conserved in all mammals. As for ERAP2, different computational methods indicated that positive selection has driven the recurrent appearance of protein-destabilizing variants during mammalian evolution. Application of a population-genetics phylogenetics approach showed that purifying selection represented a major force acting on some APP components (e.g. immunoproteasome subunits and chaperones) and allowed identification of positive selection events in the human lineage. We also investigated the evolutionary history of APP genes in human populations by developing a new approach that uses several different tests to identify the selection target, and that integrates low-coverage whole-genome sequencing data with Sanger sequencing. This analysis revealed that 9 APP genes underwent local adaptation in human populations. Most positive selection targets are located within noncoding regions with regulatory function in myeloid cells or act as expression quantitative trait loci. Conversely, balancing selection targeted nonsynonymous variants in TAP1 and CD207 (langerin). Finally, we suggest that selected variants in PSMB10 and CD207 contribute to human phenotypes

  12. Pre-SMA graymatter density predicts individual differences in action selection in the face of conscious and unconscious response conflict.

    PubMed

    van Gaal, Simon; Scholte, H Steven; Lamme, Victor A F; Fahrenfort, Johannes J; Ridderinkhof, K Richard

    2011-02-01

    The presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA) is considered key in contributing to voluntary action selection during response conflict. Here we test whether individual differences in the ability to select appropriate actions in the face of strong (conscious) and weak (virtually unconscious) distracting alternatives are related to individual variability in pre-SMA anatomy. To this end, we scanned 58 participants, who performed a masked priming task in which conflicting response tendencies were elicited either consciously (through primes that were weakly masked) or virtually unconsciously (strongly masked primes), with structural magnetic resonance imaging. Voxel-based morphometry revealed that individual differences in pre-SMA gray-matter density are related to subjects' ability to voluntary select the correct action in the face of conflict, irrespective of the awareness level of conflict-inducing stimuli. These results link structural anatomy to individual differences in cognitive control ability, and provide support for the role of the pre-SMA in the selection of appropriate actions in situations of response conflict. Furthermore, these results suggest that flexible and voluntary behavior requires efficiently dealing with competing response tendencies, even those that are activated automatically and unconsciously. PMID:20175674

  13. Development of the selective coagulation process. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, R.H.; Luttrell, G.H.

    1992-07-01

    The selective hydrophobic coagulation (SHC) process is based on the recent finding that hydrophobic particles can be selectively coagulated without using traditional agglomerating agents or flocculants. The driving force for the coagulation is the attractive energy between hydrophobic surfaces, an interaction that has been overlooked in classical colloid chemistry. In most cases, selective separations can be achieved using simple pH control to disperse the mineral matter, followed by recovery of the coal coagula using techniques that take advantage of the size enlargement. In the present work, studies have been carried out to further investigate the fundamental mechanisms of the SHC process and the parameters that affect the process of separating coal from the ash-forming minerals and pyritic sulfur. Studies have included direct force measurements of the attractive interaction between model hydrophobic surfaces, in-situ measurements of the size distributions of coagula formed under a variety of operating conditions, and development of a population balance model to describe the coagulation process. An extended DLVO colloid stability model which includes a hydrophobic interaction energy term has also been developed to explain the findings obtained from the experimental studies. In addition to the fundamental studies, bench-scale process development test work has been performed to establish the best possible method of separating the coagula from dispersed mineral matter. Two types of separators, i.e., a sedimentation tank and a rotating drum screen, were examined in this study. The sedimentation tank proved to be the more efficient unit, achieving ash reductions as high as 60% in a single pass while recovering more than 90% of the combustible material. This device, which minimizes turbulence and coagula breakage, was used in subsequent test work to optimize design and operating parameters.

  14. Action video games do not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks.

    PubMed

    van Ravenzwaaij, Don; Boekel, Wouter; Forstmann, Birte U; Ratcliff, Roger; Wagenmakers, Eric-Jan

    2014-10-01

    Previous research suggests that playing action video games improves performance on sensory, perceptual, and attentional tasks. For instance, Green, Pouget, and Bavelier (2010) used the diffusion model to decompose data from a motion detection task and estimate the contribution of several underlying psychological processes. Their analysis indicated that playing action video games leads to faster information processing, reduced response caution, and no difference in motor responding. Because perceptual learning is generally thought to be highly context-specific, this transfer from gaming is surprising and warrants corroborative evidence from a large-scale training study. We conducted 2 experiments in which participants practiced either an action video game or a cognitive game in 5 separate, supervised sessions. Prior to each session and following the last session, participants performed a perceptual discrimination task. In the second experiment, we included a third condition in which no video games were played at all. Behavioral data and diffusion model parameters showed similar practice effects for the action gamers, the cognitive gamers, and the nongamers and suggest that, in contrast to earlier reports, playing action video games does not improve the speed of information processing in simple perceptual tasks. PMID:24933517

  15. Win some, lose some: hypermnesia for actions reflects increased item-specific processing.

    PubMed

    Olofsson, U

    1997-11-01

    Memory for simple action phrases (e.g., "Break a match") improves when subjects perform the actions at study. The relative contribution of item-specific and relational processing to this enactment effect has been an issue of considerable debate. It was addressed in the present study by examining hypermnesia in a multiple-test free recall paradigm, based on the assumptions that item-specific processing increases the probability of interest gains and relational processing protects against interest forgetting (e.g., Burns, 1993; Klein, Loftus, Kihlstrom, & Aseron, 1989). It was found that the enactment condition produced both significantly more gains and more losses than did the nonenactment condition, resulting in a net gain (hypermnesia) for the enactment condition. The results suggest that enactment promotes item-specific processing at the expense of relational processing. PMID:9421565

  16. Basolateral amygdala rapid glutamate release encodes an outcome-specific representation vital for reward-predictive cues to selectively invigorate reward-seeking actions

    PubMed Central

    Malvaez, Melissa; Greenfield, Venuz Y.; Wang, Alice S.; Yorita, Allison M.; Feng, Lili; Linker, Kay E.; Monbouquette, Harold G.; Wassum, Kate M.

    2015-01-01

    Environmental stimuli have the ability to generate specific representations of the rewards they predict and in so doing alter the selection and performance of reward-seeking actions. The basolateral amygdala participates in this process, but precisely how is unknown. To rectify this, we monitored, in near-real time, basolateral amygdala glutamate concentration changes during a test of the ability of reward-predictive cues to influence reward-seeking actions (Pavlovian-instrumental transfer). Glutamate concentration was found to be transiently elevated around instrumental reward seeking. During the Pavlovian-instrumental transfer test these glutamate transients were time-locked to and correlated with only those actions invigorated by outcome-specific motivational information provided by the reward-predictive stimulus (i.e., actions earning the same specific outcome as predicted by the presented CS). In addition, basolateral amygdala AMPA, but not NMDA glutamate receptor inactivation abolished the selective excitatory influence of reward-predictive cues over reward seeking. These data the hypothesis that transient glutamate release in the BLA can encode the outcome-specific motivational information provided by reward-predictive stimuli. PMID:26212790

  17. Spatial frequency processing in scene-selective cortical regions.

    PubMed

    Kauffmann, Louise; Ramanoël, Stephen; Guyader, Nathalie; Chauvin, Alan; Peyrin, Carole

    2015-05-15

    Visual analysis begins with the parallel extraction of different attributes at different spatial frequencies. Low spatial frequencies (LSF) convey coarse information and are characterized by high luminance contrast, while high spatial frequencies (HSF) convey fine details and are characterized by low luminance contrast. In the present fMRI study, we examined how scene-selective regions-the parahippocampal place area (PPA), the retrosplenial cortex (RSC) and the occipital place area (OPA)-responded to spatial frequencies when contrast was either equalized or not equalized across spatial frequencies. Participants performed a categorization task on LSF, HSF and non-filtered scenes belonging to two different categories (indoors and outdoors). We either left contrast across scenes untouched, or equalized it using a root-mean-square contrast normalization. We found that when contrast remained unmodified, LSF and NF scenes elicited greater activation than HSF scenes in the PPA. However, when contrast was equalized across spatial frequencies, the PPA was selective to HFS. This suggests that PPA activity relies on an interaction between spatial frequency and contrast in scenes. In the RSC, LSF and NF elicited greater response than HSF scenes when contrast was not modified, while no effect of spatial frequencies appeared when contrast was equalized across filtered scenes, suggesting that the RSC is sensitive to high-contrast information. Finally, we observed selective activation of the OPA in response to HSF, irrespective of contrast manipulation. These results provide new insights into how scene-selective areas operate during scene processing. PMID:25754068

  18. The OSIRIS-REx Mission Sample Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beshore, Edward C.; Lauretta, Dante

    2014-11-01

    In September of 2016, the OSIRIS-REx (Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, REgolith eXplorer) spacecraft will depart for asteroid (101955) Bennu, and in doing so, will turn an important corner in the exploration of the solar system. After arriving at Bennu in the fall of 2018, OSIRIS-REx will undertake a program of observations designed to select a site suitable for retrieving a sample that will be returned to the Earth in 2023. The third mission in NASA’s New Frontiers program, OSIRIS-REx will return over 60 grams from Bennu’s surface.OSIRIS-REx is unique because the science team will have an operational role to play in preparing data products needed to select a sample site. These include products used to ensure flight system safety — topographic maps and shape models, temperature measurements, maps of hazards — as well as assessments of sampleability and science value. The timing and production of these will be presented, as will the high-level decision-making tools and processes for the interim and final site selection processes.

  19. Process observation in fiber laser-based selective laser melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thombansen, Ulrich; Gatej, Alexander; Pereira, Milton

    2015-01-01

    The process observation in selective laser melting (SLM) focuses on observing the interaction point where the powder is processed. To provide process relevant information, signals have to be acquired that are resolved in both time and space. Especially in high-power SLM, where more than 1 kW of laser power is used, processing speeds of several meters per second are required for a high-quality processing results. Therefore, an implementation of a suitable process observation system has to acquire a large amount of spatially resolved data at low sampling speeds or it has to restrict the acquisition to a predefined area at a high sampling speed. In any case, it is vitally important to synchronously record the laser beam position and the acquired signal. This is a prerequisite that allows the recorded data become information. Today, most SLM systems employ f-theta lenses to focus the processing laser beam onto the powder bed. This report describes the drawbacks that result for process observation and suggests a variable retro-focus system which solves these issues. The beam quality of fiber lasers delivers the processing laser beam to the powder bed at relevant focus diameters, which is a key prerequisite for this solution to be viable. The optical train we present here couples the processing laser beam and the process observation coaxially, ensuring consistent alignment of interaction zone and observed area. With respect to signal processing, we have developed a solution that synchronously acquires signals from a pyrometer and the position of the laser beam by sampling the data with a field programmable gate array. The relevance of the acquired signals has been validated by the scanning of a sample filament. Experiments with grooved samples show a correlation between different powder thicknesses and the acquired signals at relevant processing parameters. This basic work takes a first step toward self-optimization of the manufacturing process in SLM. It enables the

  20. 7 CFR 1794.15 - Limitations on actions during the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on actions during the NEPA process. 1794.15 Section 1794.15 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) ENVIRONMENTAL POLICIES AND PROCEDURES Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Act...

  1. Improving the Process of Career Decision Making: An Action Research Approach

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenbank, Paul

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study adopts an action research approach with the aim of improving the process of career decision making among undergraduates in a business school at a "new" university in the UK. Design/methodology/approach: The study utilised unfreezing techniques, multiple case studies in conjunction with the principle of analogical encoding, and…

  2. Action and Object Processing in Aphasia: From Nouns and Verbs to the Effect of Manipulability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arevalo, A.; Perani, D.; Cappa, S. F.; Butler, A.; Bates, E.; Dronkers, N.

    2007-01-01

    The processing of words and pictures representing actions and objects was tested in 21 aphasic patients and 20 healthy controls across three word production tasks: picture-naming (PN), single word reading (WR) and word repetition (WRP). Analysis (1) targeted task and lexical category (noun-verb), revealing worse performance on PN and verb items…

  3. Participation, Roles and Processes in a Collaborative Action Research Project: A Reflexive Account of the Facilitator

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avgitidou, Sofia

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyses and discusses the roles and participation of those involved in a collaborative action research project to highlight the factors that influenced their content, quality and intensity. Emphasis is given to the reflections of the facilitator (author) on the processes employed to achieve equal participation and roles in the action…

  4. Empowering Parents in the College-Planning Process: An Action-Inquiry Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallett, Ronald E.; Griffen, Jacalyn

    2015-01-01

    Involving parents in the college-planning process is essential to increasing access for students from low-income communities of color. Using the action inquiry model, we explore how collaboration between a school district and a university can empower parents to engage in meaningful conversations and planning related to college access. This…

  5. Conservation Action Planning: Lessons learned from the St. Marys River watershed biodiversity conservation planning process

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patterson, Tamatha A.; Grundel, Ralph

    2014-01-01

    Conservation Action Planning (CAP) is an adaptive management planning process refined by The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and embraced worldwide as the Open Standards for the Practice of Conservation. The CAP process facilitates open, multi-institutional collaboration on a common conservation agenda through organized actions and quantified results. While specifically designed for conservation efforts, the framework is adaptable and flexible to multiple scales and can be used for any collaborative planning effort. The CAP framework addresses inception; design and development of goals, measures, and strategies; and plan implementation and evaluation. The specific components of the CAP include defining the project scope and conservation targets; assessing the ecological viability; ascertaining threats and surrounding situation; identifying opportunities and designing strategies for action; and implementing actions and monitoring results. In 2007, TNC and a multidisciplinary graduate student team from the University of Michigan's School of Natural Resources and Environment initiated a CAP for the St. Marys River, the connecting channel between Lake Superior and Lake Huron, and its local watershed. The students not only gained experience in conservation planning, but also learned lessons that notably benefited the CAP process and were valuable for any successful collaborative effort—a dedicated core team improved product quality, accelerated the timeline, and provided necessary support for ongoing efforts; an academic approach in preparation for engagement in the planning process brought applicable scientific research to the forefront, enhanced workshop facilitation, and improved stakeholder participation; and early and continuous interactions with regional stakeholders improved cooperation and built a supportive network for collaboration.

  6. 16 CFR 1021.4 - Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Overview of environmental review process for CPSC actions. 1021.4 Section 1021.4 Commercial Practices CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION GENERAL... there is significant new environmental information, the Executive Director instructs CPSC staff...

  7. 25 CFR 175.62 - Utility actions pending the appeal process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... POWER UTILITIES Appeals § 175.62 Utility actions pending the appeal process. Pending an appeal, utility... the customer meets the utility's requirements. (b) If the appeal involves the amount of a bill and: (1) The customer has paid the bill, the customer shall be deemed to have paid the bill under protest...

  8. Thru the Lenz: Participatory Action Research, Photography, and Creative Process in an Urban High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goessling, Kristen; Doyle, Carol

    2009-01-01

    This article describes how counseling psychology graduate students collaborated with high school students in a participatory action research project called, Thru the Lenz. This project was created in order to gain insight into the lives, experiences, and communities of the students. It utilized photography, creative processes, and a humanistic…

  9. The Curriculum Development for Science Teachers' Training: The Action Lesson Focusing on Science Process Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khayotha, Jesda; Sitti, Somsong; Sonsupap, Kanyarat

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop innovation curriculum and study the effect of curriculum usage in science teachers' training in establishing the supplementary subject curriculum for action lesson. It focuses on science process skills with 10 teachers for 4 days, and 236 Grade 9 students from 10 schools during the first semester of…

  10. Special concrete shield selection using the analytic hierarchy process

    SciTech Connect

    Abulfaraj, W.H. . Nuclear Engineering Dept.)

    1994-08-01

    Special types of concrete radiation shields that depend on locally available materials and have improved properties for both neutron and gamma-ray attenuation were developed by using plastic materials and heavy ores. The analytic hierarchy process (AHP) is implemented to evaluate these types for selecting the best biological radiation shield for nuclear reactors. Factors affecting the selection decision are degree of protection against neutrons, degree of protection against gamma rays, suitability of the concrete as building material, and economic considerations. The seven concrete alternatives are barite-polyethylene concrete, barite-polyvinyl chloride (PVC) concrete, barite-portland cement concrete, pyrite-polyethylene concrete, pyrite-PVC concrete, pyrite-portland cement concrete, and ordinary concrete. The AHP analysis shows the superiority of pyrite-polyethylene concrete over the others.

  11. Race, Self-Selection, and the Job Search Process1

    PubMed Central

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S.

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original datasets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Finally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process. PMID:26046224

  12. Race, self-selection, and the job search process.

    PubMed

    Pager, Devah; Pedulla, David S

    2015-01-01

    While existing research has documented persistent barriers facing African-American job seekers, far less research has questioned how job seekers respond to this reality. Do minorities self-select into particular segments of the labor market to avoid discrimination? Such questions have remained unanswered due to the lack of data available on the positions to which job seekers apply. Drawing on two original data sets with application-specific information, we find little evidence that blacks target or avoid particular job types. Rather, blacks cast a wider net in their search than similarly situated whites, including a greater range of occupational categories and characteristics in their pool of job applications. Additionally, we show that perceptions of discrimination are associated with increased search breadth, suggesting that broad search among African-Americans represents an adaptation to labor market discrimination. Together these findings provide novel evidence on the role of race and self-selection in the job search process. PMID:26046224

  13. Gaming to see: action video gaming is associated with enhanced processing of masked stimuli

    PubMed Central

    Pohl, Carsten; Kunde, Wilfried; Ganz, Thomas; Conzelmann, Annette; Pauli, Paul; Kiesel, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    Recent research revealed that action video game players outperform non-players in a wide range of attentional, perceptual and cognitive tasks. Here we tested if expertise in action video games is related to differences regarding the potential of shortly presented stimuli to bias behavior. In a response priming paradigm, participants classified four animal pictures functioning as targets as being smaller or larger than a reference frame. Before each target, one of the same four animal pictures was presented as a masked prime to influence participants' responses in a congruent or incongruent way. Masked primes induced congruence effects, that is, faster responses for congruent compared to incongruent conditions, indicating processing of hardly visible primes. Results also suggested that action video game players showed a larger congruence effect than non-players for 20 ms primes, whereas there was no group difference for 60 ms primes. In addition, there was a tendency for action video game players to detect masked primes for some prime durations better than non-players. Thus, action video game expertise may be accompanied by faster and more efficient processing of shortly presented visual stimuli. PMID:24550879

  14. Rank Signals in Four Areas of Macaque Frontal Cortex During Selection of Actions and Objects in Serial Order

    PubMed Central

    Olson, Carl R.

    2010-01-01

    Neurons in several areas of monkey frontal cortex exhibit ordinal position (rank) selectivity during the performance of serial order tasks. It has been unclear whether rank selectivity or the dependence of rank selectivity on task context varies across the areas of frontal cortex. To resolve this issue, we recorded from neurons in the supplementary motor area (SMA), presupplementary motor area (pre-SMA), supplementary eye field (SEF), and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) as monkeys performed two oculomotor tasks, one requiring the selection of three actions in sequence and the other requiring the selection of three objects in sequence. We found that neurons representing all ranks were present in all areas. Only to a moderate degree did the prevalence and nature of rank selectivity vary from area to area. The two most prominent inter-area differences involved a lower prevalence of rank selectivity in the dlPFC than in the other areas and a higher proportion of neurons preferring late ranks in the SMA and SEF than in the other areas. Neurons in all four areas are rank generalists in the sense of favoring the same rank in both the serial action task and the serial object task. PMID:20445037

  15. The Self in Action Effects: Selective Attenuation of Self-Generated Sounds

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weiss, Carmen; Herwig, Arvid; Schutz-Bosbach, Simone

    2011-01-01

    The immediate experience of self-agency, that is, the experience of generating and controlling our actions, is thought to be a key aspect of selfhood. It has been suggested that this experience is intimately linked to internal motor signals associated with the ongoing actions. These signals should lead to an attenuation of the sensory consequences…

  16. How You Move Is What You See: Action Planning Biases Selection in Visual Search

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wykowska, Agnieszka; Schubo, Anna; Hommel, Bernhard

    2009-01-01

    Three experiments investigated the impact of planning and preparing a manual grasping or pointing movement on feature detection in a visual search task. The authors hypothesized that action planning may prime perceptual dimensions that provide information for the open parameters of that action. Indeed, preparing for grasping facilitated detection…

  17. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions. Volume 6. A selected bibliography

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1985-09-01

    This bibliography of 683 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the sixth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Programs. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Facilities Contaminated with Natural Radioactivity; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (6) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (7) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (8) Technical Measurements Center; and (9) General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 7 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate affiliation or by publication description.

  18. Toxicity, sublethal effects, and potential modes of action of select fungicides on freshwater fish and invertebrates

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Elskus, Adria A.

    2012-01-01

    Despite decades of agricultural and urban use of fungicides and widespread detection of these pesticides in surface waters, relatively few data are available on the effects of fungicides on fish and invertebrates in the aquatic environment. Nine fungicides are reviewed in this report: azoxystrobin, boscalid, chlorothalonil, fludioxonil, myclobutanil, fenarimol, pyraclostrobin, pyrimethanil, and zoxamide. These fungicides were identified as emerging chemicals of concern because of their high or increasing global use rates, detection frequency in surface waters, or likely persistence in the environment. A review of the literature revealed significant sublethal effects of fungicides on fish, aquatic invertebrates, and ecosystems, including zooplankton and fish reproduction, fish immune function, zooplankton community composition, metabolic enzymes, and ecosystem processes, such as leaf decomposition in streams, among other biological effects. Some of these effects can occur at fungicide concentrations well below single-species acute lethality values (48- or 96-hour concentration that effects a response in 50 percent of the organisms, that is, effective concentration killing 50 percent of the organisms in 48 or 96 hours) and chronic sublethal values (for example, 21-day no observed adverse effects concentration), indicating that single-species toxicity values may dramatically underestimate the toxic potency of some fungicides. Fungicide modes of toxic action in fungi can sometimes reflect the biochemical and (or) physiological effects of fungicides observed in vertebrates and invertebrates; however, far more studies are needed to explore the potential to predict effects in nontarget organisms based on specific fungicide modes of toxic action. Fungicides can also have additive and (or) synergistic effects when used with other fungicides and insecticides, highlighting the need to study pesticide mixtures that occur in surface waters. For fungicides that partition to

  19. The role of motor memory in action selection and procedural learning: insights from children with typical and atypical development

    PubMed Central

    Tallet, Jessica; Albaret, Jean-Michel; Rivière, James

    2015-01-01

    Motor memory is the process by which humans can adopt both persistent and flexible motor behaviours. Persistence and flexibility can be assessed through the examination of the cooperation/competition between new and old motor routines in the motor memory repertoire. Two paradigms seem to be particularly relevant to examine this competition/cooperation. First, a manual search task for hidden objects, namely the C-not-B task, which allows examining how a motor routine may influence the selection of action in toddlers. The second paradigm is procedural learning, and more precisely the consolidation stage, which allows assessing how a previously learnt motor routine becomes resistant to subsequent programming or learning of a new – competitive – motor routine. The present article defends the idea that results of both paradigms give precious information to understand the evolution of motor routines in healthy children. Moreover, these findings echo some clinical observations in developmental neuropsychology, particularly in children with Developmental Coordination Disorder. Such studies suggest that the level of equilibrium between persistence and flexibility of motor routines is an index of the maturity of the motor system. PMID:26159158

  20. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lowman, Idaho: Remedial action selection report for the Lowman UMTRA project site, Idaho. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L.; Nagel, J.

    1991-09-01

    The inactive uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho, was designated as one of 24 abandoned uranium tailings sites to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan and certify that the remedial action complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remedial action plan (RAP), which includes this remedial action selection report (RAS), has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Lowman, Idaho. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Idaho, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement (No. DE-FC04-85AL20535) between the DOE and the State of Idaho.

  1. Remedial action plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Lowman, Idaho: Remedial action selection report for the Lowman UMTRA project site, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, M.L. . Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project Office); Nagel, J. . Div. of Environmental Quality)

    1991-09-01

    The inactive uranium mill tailings site near Lowman, Idaho, was designated as one of 24 abandoned uranium tailings sites to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE's remedial action plan and certify that the remedial action complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The remedial action plan (RAP), which includes this remedial action selection report (RAS), has been developed to serve a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Lowman, Idaho. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Idaho, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement (No. DE-FC04-85AL20535) between the DOE and the State of Idaho.

  2. SELECTION AND PRELIMINARY EVALUATION OF ALTERNATIVE REDUCTANTS FOR SRAT PROCESSING

    SciTech Connect

    Stone, M.; Pickenheim, B.; Peeler, D.

    2009-06-30

    Defense Waste Processing Facility - Engineering (DWPF-E) has requested the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) to perform scoping evaluations of alternative flowsheets with the primary focus on alternatives to formic acid during Chemical Process Cell (CPC) processing. The reductants shown below were selected for testing during the evaluation of alternative reductants for Sludge Receipt and Adjustment Tank (SRAT) processing. The reductants fall into two general categories: reducing acids and non-acidic reducing agents. Reducing acids were selected as direct replacements for formic acid to reduce mercury in the SRAT, to acidify the sludge, and to balance the melter REDuction/OXidation potential (REDOX). Non-acidic reductants were selected as melter reductants and would not be able to reduce mercury in the SRAT. Sugar was not tested during this scoping evaluation as previous work has already been conducted on the use of sugar with DWPF feeds. Based on the testing performed, the only viable short-term path to mitigating hydrogen generation in the CPC is replacement of formic acid with a mixture of glycolic and formic acids. An experiment using glycolic acid blended with formic on an 80:20 molar basis was able to reduce mercury, while also targeting a predicted REDuction/OXidation (REDOX) of 0.2 expressed as Fe{sup 2+}/{Sigma}Fe. Based on this result, SRNL recommends performing a complete CPC demonstration of the glycolic/formic acid flowsheet followed by a design basis development and documentation. Of the options tested recently and in the past, nitric/glycolic/formic blended acids has the potential for near term implementation in the existing CPC equipment providing rapid throughput improvement. Use of a non-acidic reductant is recommended only if the processing constraints to remove mercury and acidify the sludge acidification are eliminated. The non-acidic reductants (e.g. sugar) will not reduce mercury during CPC processing and sludge acidification would

  3. Aasgard B process selection of hydrogen sulfide removal and disposal

    SciTech Connect

    Son, K.J. van; Chludzinski, G.; Charles, P.R.

    1999-07-01

    The Aasgard offshore project consists of a 2-stage development to produce the oil and gas reserves from three fields in the Norwegian Sea. The three fields Midgard, Smoerbukk and Smoerbukk Soer have reserves of approximately 220 Gia standard cubic meters (Gsm{sup 3}, 8 Tcf) and 120 (Mm{sup 3}, 750 MMbbls) of crude oil and condensate. The Aasgard unit will be jointly developed by Statoil and Saga, and operated by Statoil. Other partners are Neste Petroleum, Mobil, Total, Agip and Norsk Hydro. This paper will focus on the process selection and preliminary design of the gas treating system.

  4. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 5

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Chilton, B.D.; Baldauf, M.F.

    1984-09-01

    This bibliography of 756 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fifth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; and (7) Technical Measurements Center. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 4, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The Appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms.

  5. Selective effects of physical exercise on choice reaction processes.

    PubMed

    Arcelin, R; Delignieres, D; Brisswalter, J

    1998-08-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of an exercise of moderate intensity (60% of maximal aerobic power) on specific information-processing mechanisms. 22 students completed 3 10-min. exercise bouts on a bicycle ergometer. Concomitantly, participants performed six manual-choice-reaction tasks manipulating task variables (Signal Intensity, Stimulus-Response Compatibility, and Time Uncertainty) on two levels. Reaction tests, randomly ordered, were administered at rest and during exercise. A significant underadditive interaction between Time Uncertainty and exercise was found for the highest quartiles of the distribution of reaction times. No other interaction effects were obtained for the other variables. These results reasonably support that moderate aerobic exercise showed selective rather than general influences on information processing. PMID:9760644

  6. Selecting and testing recyclables collection and processing options

    SciTech Connect

    Tarman-Ramcheck, W.; Hunsicker, M.

    1994-11-01

    How does a community select the best way to collect and process recyclables? Cost is certain a factor, but the many other considerations include convenience for residents, flexibility, environmental impact, and compatibility with the existing waste management system. If the community wants to consider bagging recyclables and co-collecting them with mixed waste, there are the additional and thorny issues of how such programs will be received by the public, the impact of those choices on participation, quality of recyclables, and real costs associated with such systems. To select a recycling collection system that best meets state requirements as well as city needs, Wauwatosa undertook a comprehensive recycling system analysis. Guided by a citizen`s advisory committee and assisted by a consultant, the city reviewed all available waste management methods and identified four alternatives with the potential to meet the city`s needs. The comprehensive approach taken by Wauwatosa illustrates one way to get a handle on a community`s important considerations. Pilot testing of the selected combined collection option also provided some insights into what can be expected of such systems.

  7. Being selective at the plate: processing dependence between perceptual variables relates to hitting goals and performance.

    PubMed

    Gray, Rob

    2013-08-01

    Performance of a skill that involves acting on a goal object (e.g., a ball to be hit) can influence one's judgment of the size and speed of that object. The present study examined how these action-specific effects are affected when the goal of the actor is varied and they are free to choose between alternative actions. In Experiment 1, expert baseball players were asked to perform three different directional hitting tasks in a batting simulation and make interleaved perceptual judgments about three ball parameters (speed, plate crossing location, and size). Perceived ball size was largest (and perceived speed was slowest) when the ball crossing location was optimal for the particular hitting task the batter was performing (e.g., an "outside" pitch for opposite-field hitting). The magnitude of processing dependency between variables (speed vs. location and size vs. location) was positively correlated with batting performance. In Experiment 2, the action-specific effects observed in Experiment 1 were mimicked by systematically changing the ball diameter in the simulation as a function of plate crossing location. The number of swing initiations was greater when ball size was larger, and batters were more successful in the hitting task for which the larger pitches were optimal (e.g., greater number of pull hits than opposite-field hits when "inside" pitches were larger). These findings suggest attentional accentuation of goal-relevant targets underlies action-related changes in perception and are consistent with an action selection role for these effects. PMID:23163787

  8. Optogenetic Stimulation in a Computational Model of the Basal Ganglia Biases Action Selection and Reward Prediction Error

    PubMed Central

    Berthet, Pierre; Lansner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation of specific types of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum has been shown to bias the selection of mice in a two choices task. This shift is dependent on the localisation and on the intensity of the stimulation but also on the recent reward history. We have implemented a way to simulate this increased activity produced by the optical flash in our computational model of the basal ganglia (BG). This abstract model features the direct and indirect pathways commonly described in biology, and a reward prediction pathway (RP). The framework is similar to Actor-Critic methods and to the ventral/dorsal distinction in the striatum. We thus investigated the impact on the selection caused by an added stimulation in each of the three pathways. We were able to reproduce in our model the bias in action selection observed in mice. Our results also showed that biasing the reward prediction is sufficient to create a modification in the action selection. However, we had to increase the percentage of trials with stimulation relative to that in experiments in order to impact the selection. We found that increasing only the reward prediction had a different effect if the stimulation in RP was action dependent (only for a specific action) or not. We further looked at the evolution of the change in the weights depending on the stage of learning within a block. A bias in RP impacts the plasticity differently depending on that stage but also on the outcome. It remains to experimentally test how the dopaminergic neurons are affected by specific stimulations of neurons in the striatum and to relate data to predictions of our model. PMID:24614169

  9. Optogenetic stimulation in a computational model of the basal ganglia biases action selection and reward prediction error.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Pierre; Lansner, Anders

    2014-01-01

    Optogenetic stimulation of specific types of medium spiny neurons (MSNs) in the striatum has been shown to bias the selection of mice in a two choices task. This shift is dependent on the localisation and on the intensity of the stimulation but also on the recent reward history. We have implemented a way to simulate this increased activity produced by the optical flash in our computational model of the basal ganglia (BG). This abstract model features the direct and indirect pathways commonly described in biology, and a reward prediction pathway (RP). The framework is similar to Actor-Critic methods and to the ventral/dorsal distinction in the striatum. We thus investigated the impact on the selection caused by an added stimulation in each of the three pathways. We were able to reproduce in our model the bias in action selection observed in mice. Our results also showed that biasing the reward prediction is sufficient to create a modification in the action selection. However, we had to increase the percentage of trials with stimulation relative to that in experiments in order to impact the selection. We found that increasing only the reward prediction had a different effect if the stimulation in RP was action dependent (only for a specific action) or not. We further looked at the evolution of the change in the weights depending on the stage of learning within a block. A bias in RP impacts the plasticity differently depending on that stage but also on the outcome. It remains to experimentally test how the dopaminergic neurons are affected by specific stimulations of neurons in the striatum and to relate data to predictions of our model. PMID:24614169

  10. Neuromagnetic hand and foot motor sources recruited during action verb processing.

    PubMed

    Klepp, Anne; Weissler, Hannah; Niccolai, Valentina; Terhalle, Anselm; Geisler, Hans; Schnitzler, Alfons; Biermann-Ruben, Katja

    2014-01-01

    The current study investigated sensorimotor involvement in the processing of verbs describing actions performed with the hands, feet, or no body part. Actual movements were used to identify neuromagnetic sources for hand and foot actions. These sources constrained the analysis of verb processing. While hand and foot sources picked up activation in all three verb conditions, peak amplitudes showed an interaction of source and verb condition at 200 ms after word onset, thereby reflecting effector-specificity. Specifically, hand verbs elicited significantly higher peak amplitudes than foot verbs in hand sources. Our results are in line with theories of embodied cognition that assume an involvement of sensorimotor areas in early stages of lexico-semantic processing, even for single words without a semantic or motor task. PMID:24412808

  11. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado: Revision 5

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-10-01

    Title 1 of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978, Public Law (PL) 95-604, authorized the US Department of Energy (DOE) to perform remedial action at the inactive Naturita, Colorado, uranium processing site to reduce the potential health effects from the radioactive materials at the site and at vicinity properties associated with the site. Title 2 of the UMTRCA authorized the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) or agreement state to regulate the operation and eventual reclamation of active uranium processing sites. The uranium mill tailings at the site were removed and reprocessed from 1977 to 1979. The contaminated areas include the former tailings area, the mill yard, the former ore storage area, and adjacent areas that were contaminated by uranium processing activities and wind and water erosion. The Naturita remedial action would result in the loss of 133 acres (ac) of contaminated soils at the processing site. If supplemental standards are approved by the NRC and the state of Colorado, approximately 112 ac of steeply sloped contaminated soils adjacent to the processing site would not be cleaned up. Cleanup of this contamination would have adverse environmental consequences and would be potentially hazardous to remedial action workers.

  12. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the Naturita Uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-08-01

    The proposed remedial action for the Naturita processing site is relocation of the contaminated materials and debris to the Dry Flats disposal site, 6 road miles (mi) [ 1 0 kilometers (km)] to the southeast. At the disposal site, the contaminated materials would be stabilized and covered with layers of earth and rock. The proposed disposal site is on land administered by the Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and used primarily for livestock grazing. The final disposal site would cover approximately 57 ac (23 ha), which would be permanently transferred from the BLM to the DOE and restricted from future uses. The remedial action activities would be conducted by the DOE`s Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project. The remedial action would result in the loss of approximately 164 ac (66 ha) of soils, but 132 ac (53 ha) of these soils are contaminated and cannot be used for other purposes. Another 154 ac (62 ha) of soils would be temporarily disturbed. Approximately 57 ac (23 ha) of open range land would be permanently removed from livestock grazing and wildlife use. The removal of the contaminated materials would affect the 1 00-year floodplain of the San Miguel River and would result in the loss of riparian habitat along the river. The southwestern willow flycatcher, a Federal candidate species, may be affected by the remedial action, and the use of water from the San Miguel River ``may affect`` the Colorado squawfish, humpback chub, bonytail chub, and razorback sucker. Traffic levels on State Highways 90 and 141 would be increased during the remedial action, as would the noise levels along these transportation routes. Measures for mitigating the adverse environmental impacts of the proposed remedial action are discussed in Section 6.0 of this environmental assessment (EA).

  13. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 2, Indexes

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This is part 2 of a bibliography on nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial action. This report contains indexes on the following: authors, corporate affiliation, title words, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  14. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Falls City, Texas. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report; Attachment 3, Groundwater hydrology report; Attachment 4, Water resources protection strategy: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Chernoff, A.R.; Lacker, D.K.

    1992-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas, was one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be remediated by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under Title I of the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA). The UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). The RAP, which includes this summary remedial action selection report (RAS), serves a two-fold purpose. First, it describes the activities proposed by the DOE to accomplish long-term stabilization and control of the residual radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Falls City, Texas. Second, this document and the remainder of the RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the State of Texas, and the NRC, becomes Appendix B of the Cooperative Agreement between the DOE and the State of Texas.

  15. Facilitating the learning process in design-based learning practices: an investigation of teachers' actions in supervising students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez Puente, S. M.; van Eijck, M.; Jochems, W.

    2013-11-01

    Background: In research on design-based learning (DBL), inadequate attention is paid to the role the teacher plays in supervising students in gathering and applying knowledge to design artifacts, systems, and innovative solutions in higher education. Purpose: In this study, we examine whether teacher actions we previously identified in the DBL literature as important in facilitating learning processes and student supervision are present in current DBL engineering practices. Sample: The sample (N=16) consisted of teachers and supervisors in two engineering study programs at a university of technology: mechanical and electrical engineering. We selected randomly teachers from freshman and second-year bachelor DBL projects responsible for student supervision and assessment. Design and method: Interviews with teachers, and interviews and observations of supervisors were used to examine how supervision and facilitation actions are applied according to the DBL framework. Results: Major findings indicate that formulating questions is the most common practice seen in facilitating learning in open-ended engineering design environments. Furthermore, other DBL actions we expected to see based upon the literature were seldom observed in the coaching practices within these two programs. Conclusions: Professionalization of teachers in supervising students need to include methods to scaffold learning by supporting students in reflecting and in providing formative feedback.

  16. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography: Volume 8

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Michelson, D.C.; Knox, N.P.

    1987-09-01

    The 553 abstracted references on nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions constitute the eighth in a series of reports. Foreign and domestic literature of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, symposia proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - has been included. The bibliography contains scientific, technical, economic, regulatory, and legal information pertinent to the US Department of energy's remedial action program. Major chapters are Surplus Facilities Management Program, Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning, Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program, Facilities Contaminated with Naturally Occurring Radionuclides, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program, Uranium Mill Tailings Management, Technical Measurements Center, and General Remedial Action Program Studies. Chapter sections for chapters 1, 2, 5, and 6 include Design, Planning, and Regulations; Environmental Studies and Site Surveys; Health, Safety, and Biomedical Studies; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Site Stabilization and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; Remedial Action Experience; and General Studies. Within these categories, references are arranged alphabetically by first author. Those references having no individual author are listed by corporate affiliation or by publication description. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. The appendix contains a list of frequently used acronyms and abbreviations.

  17. Nanoemulsion: process selection and application in cosmetics--a review.

    PubMed

    Yukuyama, M N; Ghisleni, D D M; Pinto, T J A; Bou-Chacra, N A

    2016-02-01

    In recent decades, considerable and continuous growth in consumer demand in the cosmetics field has spurred the development of sophisticated formulations, aiming at high performance, attractive appearance, sensorial benefit and safety. Yet despite increasing demand from consumers, the formulator faces certain restrictions regarding the optimum equilibrium between the active compound concentration and the formulation base taking into account the nature of the skin structure, mainly concerning to the ideal penetration of the active compound, due to the natural skin barrier. Emulsion is a mixture of two immiscible phases, and the interest in nanoscale emulsion has been growing considerably in recent decades due to its specific attributes such as high stability, attractive appearance and drug delivery properties; therefore, performance is expected to improve using a lipid-based nanocarrier. Nanoemulsions are generated by different approaches: the so-called high-energy and low-energy methods. The global overview of these mechanisms and different alternatives for each method are presented in this paper, along with their benefits and drawbacks. As a cosmetics formulation is reflected in product delivery to consumers, nanoemulsion development with prospects for large-scale production is one of the key attributes in the method selection process. Thus, the aim of this review was to highlight the main high- and low-energy methods applicable in cosmetics and dermatological product development, their specificities, recent research on these methods in the cosmetics and consideration for the process selection optimization. The specific process with regard to inorganic nanoparticles, polymer nanoparticles and nanocapsule formulation is not considered in this paper. PMID:26171789

  18. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge.

    PubMed

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain. PMID:24461373

  19. Action semantics: A unifying conceptual framework for the selective use of multimodal and modality-specific object knowledge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Elk, Michiel; van Schie, Hein; Bekkering, Harold

    2014-06-01

    Our capacity to use tools and objects is often considered one of the hallmarks of the human species. Many objects greatly extend our bodily capabilities to act in the physical world, such as when using a hammer or a saw. In addition, humans have the remarkable capability to use objects in a flexible fashion and to combine multiple objects in complex actions. We prepare coffee, cook dinner and drive our car. In this review we propose that humans have developed declarative and procedural knowledge, i.e. action semantics that enables us to use objects in a meaningful way. A state-of-the-art review of research on object use is provided, involving behavioral, developmental, neuropsychological and neuroimaging studies. We show that research in each of these domains is characterized by similar discussions regarding (1) the role of object affordances, (2) the relation between goals and means in object use and (3) the functional and neural organization of action semantics. We propose a novel conceptual framework of action semantics to address these issues and to integrate the previous findings. We argue that action semantics entails both multimodal object representations and modality-specific sub-systems, involving manipulation knowledge, functional knowledge and representations of the sensory and proprioceptive consequences of object use. Furthermore, we argue that action semantics are hierarchically organized and selectively activated and used depending on the action intention of the actor and the current task context. Our framework presents an integrative account of multiple findings and perspectives on object use that may guide future studies in this interdisciplinary domain.

  20. Selecting a Control Strategy for Plug and Process Loads

    SciTech Connect

    Lobato, C.; Sheppy, M.; Brackney, L.; Pless, S.; Torcellini, P.

    2012-09-01

    Plug and Process Loads (PPLs) are building loads that are not related to general lighting, heating, ventilation, cooling, and water heating, and typically do not provide comfort to the building occupants. PPLs in commercial buildings account for almost 5% of U.S. primary energy consumption. On an individual building level, they account for approximately 25% of the total electrical load in a minimally code-compliant commercial building, and can exceed 50% in an ultra-high efficiency building such as the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Research Support Facility (RSF) (Lobato et al. 2010). Minimizing these loads is a primary challenge in the design and operation of an energy-efficient building. A complex array of technologies that measure and manage PPLs has emerged in the marketplace. Some fall short of manufacturer performance claims, however. NREL has been actively engaged in developing an evaluation and selection process for PPLs control, and is using this process to evaluate a range of technologies for active PPLs management that will cap RSF plug loads. Using a control strategy to match plug load use to users' required job functions is a huge untapped potential for energy savings.

  1. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: A selected bibliography, Volume 13: Part 1, Main text

    SciTech Connect

    Goins, L.F.; Webb, J.R.; Cravens, C.D.; Mallory, P.K.

    1992-09-01

    This publication contains 1035 abstracted references on environmental restoration, nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions. These citations constitute the thirteenth in a series of reports prepared annually for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration programs. Citations to foreign and domestic literature of all types. There are 13 major sections of the publication, including: (1) DOE Decontamination and Decommissioning Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) DOE Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) DOE Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Project; (5) Uranium Mill Tailings Management; (6) DOE Environmental Restoration Program; (7) DOE Site-Specific Remedial Actions; (8) Contaminated Site Restoration; (9) Remediation of Contaminated Soil and Groundwater; (10) Environmental Data Measurements, Management, and Evaluation; (11) Remedial Action Assessment and Decision-Making; (12) Technology Development and Evaluation; and (13) Environmental and Waste Management Issues. Bibliographic references are arranged in nine subject categories by geographic location and then alphabetically by first author, corporate affiliation, or publication title. Indexes are provided for author, corporate affiliation, title word, publication description, geographic location, subject category, and key word.

  2. Remedial Action Assessment System (RAAS): Evaluation of selected feasibility studies of CERCLA (Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act) hazardous waste sites

    SciTech Connect

    Whelan, G. ); Hartz, K.E.; Hilliard, N.D. and Associates, Seattle, WA )

    1990-04-01

    Congress and the public have mandated much closer scrutiny of the management of chemically hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes. Legislative language, regulatory intent, and prudent technical judgment, call for using scientifically based studies to assess current conditions and to evaluate and select costeffective strategies for mitigating unacceptable situations. The NCP requires that a Remedial Investigation (RI) and a Feasibility Study (FS) be conducted at each site targeted for remedial response action. The goal of the RI is to obtain the site data needed so that the potential impacts on public health or welfare or on the environment can be evaluated and so that the remedial alternatives can be identified and selected. The goal of the FS is to identify and evaluate alternative remedial actions (including a no-action alternative) in terms of their cost, effectiveness, and engineering feasibility. The NCP also requires the analysis of impacts on public health and welfare and on the environment; this analysis is the endangerment assessment (EA). In summary, the RI, EA, and FS processes require assessment of the contamination at a site, of the potential impacts in public health or the environment from that contamination, and of alternative RAs that could address potential impacts to the environment. 35 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Neutral and Selective Processes Drive Population Differentiation for Iris hexagona.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Jennafer A P; Arnold, Michael L

    2015-01-01

    Gene flow among widespread populations can be reduced by geographical distance or by divergent selection resulting from local adaptation. In this study, we tested for the divergence of phenotypes and genotypes among 8 populations of Iris hexagona. Using a genotyping-by-sequencing approach, we generated a panel of 750 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and used population genetic analyses to determine what may affect patterns of divergence across I. hexagona populations. Specifically, genetic differentiation was compared between populations at neutral and nonneutral SNPs and detected significant differences between the 2 types of markers. We then asked whether loci with the strongest degree of population genetic differentiation were also the loci with the strongest association to morphology or climate differences, allowing us to test if pollinators or climate drive population differentiation or some combination of both. We found 2 markers that were associated with morphology and 1 marker associated with 2 of the environmental variables, which were also identified in the outlier analysis. We then show that the SNPs putatively under selection were positively correlated with both geographic distance and phenotypic distance, albeit weakly to phenotypic distance. Moreover, neutral SNPs were only correlated with geographic distance and thus isolation-by-distance was observed for neutral SNPs. Our data suggest that both deterministic and neutral processes have contributed to the evolutionary trajectory of I. hexagona populations. PMID:26163584

  4. Selection criteria for waste management processes in manned space missions.

    PubMed

    Doll, S; Cothran, B; McGhee, J

    1991-10-01

    Management of waste produced during manned space exploration missions will be an important function of advanced life support systems. Waste materials can be thrown away or recovered for reuse. The first approach relies totally on external supplies to replace depleted resources while the second approach regenerates resources internally. The selection of appropriate waste management processes will be based upon criteria which include mission and hardware characteristics as well as overall system considerations. Mission characteristics discussed include destination, duration, crew size, operating environment, and transportation costs. Hardware characteristics include power, mass and volume requirements as well as suitability for a given task. Overall system considerations are essential to assure optimization for the entire mission rather than for an individual system. For example, a waste management system designed for a short trip to the moon will probably not be the best one for an extended mission to Mars. The purpose of this paper is to develop a methodology to identify and compare viable waste management options for selection of an appropriate waste management system. PMID:11537685

  5. Object Processing in Visual Perception and Action in Children and Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schum, Nina; Franz, Volker H.; Jovanovic, Bianca; Schwarzer, Gudrun

    2012-01-01

    We investigated whether 6- and 7-year-olds and 9- and 10-year-olds, as well as adults, process object dimensions independent of or in interaction with one another in a perception and action task by adapting Ganel and Goodale's method for testing adults ("Nature", 2003, Vol. 426, pp. 664-667). In addition, we aimed to confirm Ganel and Goodale's…

  6. ExoMars 2018 Landing Site Selection Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vago, Jorge L.; Kminek, Gerhard; Rodionov, Daniel

    The ExoMars 2018 mission will include two science elements: a Rover and a Surface Platform. The ExoMars Rover will carry a comprehensive suite of instruments dedicated to geology and exobiology research named after Louis Pasteur. The Rover will be able to travel several kilometres searching for traces of past and present signs of life. It will do this by collecting and analysing samples from outcrops, and from the subsurface—down to 2-m depth. The very powerful combination of mobility with the ability to access locations where organic molecules can be well preserved is unique to this mission. After the Rover will have egressed, the ExoMars Surface Platform will begin its science mission to study the surface environment at the landing location. This talk will describe the landing site selection process and introduce the scientific, planetary protection, and engineering requirements that candidate landing sites must comply with in order to be considered for the mission.

  7. The National Toxicology Program chemical nomination selection and testing process.

    PubMed

    Heindel, J J

    1988-01-01

    The NTP is an interagency program of the Federal Government which coordinates toxicological programs at the NIH (NIEHS), FDA (NCTR), and CDC (NIOSH) with input from NCI, NIH, OSHA, CPSC, EPA, and ATSDR. The NTP has the capability to completely characterize the toxicologic profile of a chemical, including studies of chemical disposition, genetic toxicity, immunotoxicity, teratology, reproductive toxicity, carcinogenicity, neurotoxicity, and specific organ toxicity. The NTP encourages nominations of chemicals of human health concern from all sectors of the public, including industry, labor, and the general public. The specific process of nomination, evaluation, and selection of chemicals for testing by the NTP is described. It is a multicomponent system with several evaluations and a public peer review step to assure adequate consideration of all nominated chemicals. The results of NTP studies are all peer reviewed and available to the general public as well as to the scientific community. PMID:2980357

  8. Nuclear facility decommissioning and site remedial actions: a selected bibliography. Volume 4

    SciTech Connect

    Owen, P.T.; Knox, N.P.; Fielden, J.M.; Faust, R.A.

    1983-09-01

    This bibliography of 657 references with abstracts on the subject of nuclear facility decommissioning, uranium mill tailings management, and site remedial actions is the fourth in a series of annual reports prepared for the US Department of Energy, Division of Remedial Action Projects. Foreign as well as domestic documents of all types - technical reports, progress reports, journal articles, conference papers, symposium proceedings, theses, books, patents, legislation, and research project descriptions - have been references in this publication. The bibliography contains scientific (basic research as well as applied technology), economic, regulatory, and legal literature pertinent to the US Department of Energy's Remedial Action Program. Major chapters are: (1) Surplus Facilities Management Program; (2) Nuclear Facilities Decommissioning; (3) Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program; (4) Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action Program; (5) Grand Junction Remedial Action Program; and (6) Uranium Mill Tailings Management. Chapter sections for chapters 1 and 2 include: Design, Planning, and Regulations; Site Surveys; Decontamination Studies; Dismantlement and Demolition; Land Decontamination and Reclamation; Waste Disposal; and General studies. The references within each chapter or section are arranged alphabetically by leading author. References having no individual author are arranged by corporate author, or by title. Indexes are provided for the categories of author, corporate affiliation, title, publication description, geographic location, and keywords. Appendix A lists 264 bibliographic references to literature identified during this reporting period but not abstracted due to time constraints. Title and publication description indexes are given for this appendix. Appendix B defines frequently used acronyms, and Appendix C lists the recipients of this report according to their corporate affiliation.

  9. Gut wall bacteria of earthworms: a natural selection process.

    PubMed

    Thakuria, Dwipendra; Schmidt, Olaf; Finan, Dillon; Egan, Damian; Doohan, Fiona M

    2010-03-01

    Earthworms and microorganisms are interdependent and their interactions regulate the biogeochemistry of terrestrial soils. Investigating earthworm-microorganism interactions, we tested the hypothesis that differences in burrowing and feeding habits of anecic and endogeic earthworms are reflected by the existence of ecological group-specific gut wall bacterial communities. Bacterial community was detected using automated ribosomal intergenic spacer analysis of 16S and 23S genes and ribotype data was used to assess diversity and community composition. Using soil and earthworm samples collected from adjacent wheat-barley and grass-clover fields, we found that the anecic Lumbricus terrestris and L. friendi, the endogeic Aporrectodea caliginosa and A. longa (classically defined as anecic, but now known to possess endogeic characteristics) contain ecological group-specific gut wall-associated bacterial communities. The abundance of specific gut wall-associated bacteria (identified by sequence analysis of ribotype bands), including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and an actinobacterium, was ecological group dependent. A microcosm study, conducted using A. caliginosa and L. terrestris and five different feeding regimes, indicated that food resource can cause shifts in gut wall-associated bacterial community, but the magnitude of these shifts did not obscure the delineation between ecological group specificity. Using A. caliginosa and A. longa samples collected in six different arable fields, we deduced that, within an ecological group, habitat was a more important determinant of gut wall-associated bacterial community composition than was host species. Hence, we conclude that the selection of bacteria associated with the gut wall of earthworms is a natural selection process and the strongest determinant of this process is in the order ecological group>habitat>species. PMID:19924156

  10. 5 CFR 838.223 - OPM action on receipt of a court order not acceptable for processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false OPM action on receipt of a court order not acceptable for processing. 838.223 Section 838.223 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL... § 838.223 OPM action on receipt of a court order not acceptable for processing. If OPM receives...

  11. Changing Preschool Children's Attitudes into Behavior towards Selected Environmental Issues: An Action Research Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ertürk Kara, Gözde; Aydos, E. Hande; Aydin, Özge

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide the transform of attitudes into behavior of 60-72 month of age children continued early childhood education toward environmental issues. Collaborative action research method of qualitative design was used. The whole participants of the study were 60-72 months of age children who were attending in an early…

  12. Perfect error processing: Perfectionism-related variations in action monitoring and error processing mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Jutta; Acharki, Manuela; Kresimon, Miriam; Völler, Frederike; Gibbons, Henning

    2015-08-01

    Showing excellent performance and avoiding poor performance are the main characteristics of perfectionists. Perfectionism-related variations (N=94) in neural correlates of performance monitoring were investigated in a flanker task by assessing two perfectionism-related trait dimensions: Personal standard perfectionism (PSP), reflecting intrinsic motivation to show error-free performance, and evaluative concern perfectionism (ECP), representing the worry of being poorly evaluated based on bad performance. A moderating effect of ECP and PSP on error processing - an important performance monitoring system - was investigated by examining the error (-related) negativity (Ne/ERN) and the error positivity (Pe). The smallest Ne/ERN difference (error-correct) was obtained for pure-ECP participants (high-ECP-low-PSP), whereas the highest difference was shown for those with high-ECP-high-PSP (i.e., mixed perfectionists). Pe was positively correlated with PSP only. Our results encouraged the cognitive-bias hypothesis suggesting that pure-ECP participants reduce response-related attention to avoid intense error processing by minimising the subjective threat of negative evaluations. The PSP-related variations in late error processing are consistent with the participants' high in PSP goal-oriented tendency to optimise their behaviour. PMID:26071226

  13. 48 CFR 15.101-2 - Lowest price technically acceptable source selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... acceptable source selection process. 15.101-2 Section 15.101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Processes and Techniques 15.101-2 Lowest price technically acceptable source selection process. (a) The lowest price technically acceptable source selection process is appropriate when best value is...

  14. 48 CFR 15.101-2 - Lowest price technically acceptable source selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... acceptable source selection process. 15.101-2 Section 15.101-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System FEDERAL... Processes and Techniques 15.101-2 Lowest price technically acceptable source selection process. (a) The lowest price technically acceptable source selection process is appropriate when best value is...

  15. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-07-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  16. Evaluation of Select Surface Processing Techniques for In Situ Application During the Additive Manufacturing Build Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Book, Todd A.; Sangid, Michael D.

    2016-03-01

    Although additive manufacturing offers numerous performance advantages for different applications, it is not being used for critical applications due to uncertainties in structural integrity as a result of innate process variability and defects. To minimize uncertainty, the current approach relies on the concurrent utilization of process monitoring, post-processing, and non-destructive inspection in addition to an extensive material qualification process. This paper examines an alternative approach by evaluating the application of select surface process techniques, to include sliding severe plastic deformation (SPD) and fine particle shot peening, on direct metal laser sintering-produced AlSi10Mg materials. Each surface processing technique is compared to baseline as-built and post-processed samples as a proof of concept for surface enhancement. Initial results pairing sliding SPD with the manufacture's recommended thermal stress relief cycle demonstrated uniform recrystallization of the microstructure, resulting in a more homogeneous distribution of strain among the microstructure than as-built or post-processed conditions. This result demonstrates the potential for the in situ application of various surface processing techniques during the layerwise direct metal laser sintering build process.

  17. Seeing the World through Another Person's Eyes: Simulating Selective Attention via Action Observation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frischen, Alexandra; Loach, Daniel; Tipper, Steven P.

    2009-01-01

    Selective attention is usually considered an egocentric mechanism, biasing sensory information based on its behavioural relevance to oneself. This study provides evidence for an equivalent allocentric mechanism that allows passive observers to selectively attend to information from the perspective of another person. In a negative priming task,…

  18. Genome size as a mutation-selection-drift process.

    PubMed

    Lozovskaya, E R; Nurminsky, D I; Petrov, D A; Hartl, D L

    1999-10-01

    A novel method for estimating neutral rates and patterns of DNA evolution in Drosophila takes advantage of the propensity of non-LTR retrotransposable elements to create nonfunctional, transpositionally inactive copies as a product of transposition. For many LINE elements, most copies present in a genome at any one time are nonfunctional "dead-on-arrival" (DOA) copies. Because these are off-shoots of active, transpositionally competent "master" lineages, in a gene tree of a LINE element from multiple samples from related species, the DOA lineages are expected to map to the terminal branches and the active lineages to the internal branches, the primary exceptions being when the sample includes DOA copies that are allelic or orthologous. Analysis of nucleotide substitutions and other changes along the terminal branches therefore allows estimation of the fixation process in the DOA copies, which are unconstrained with respect to protein coding; and under selective neutrality, the fixation process estimates the underlying mutational pattern. We have studied the retroelement Helena in Drosophila. An unexpectedly high rate of DNA loss was observed, yielding a half-life of unconstrained DNA sequences approximately 60-fold faster in Drosophila than in mammals. The high rate of DNA loss suggests a straightforward explanation of the seeming paradox that Drosophila has many fewer pseudogenes than found in mammalian species. Differential rates of deletion in different taxa might also contribute to the celebrated C-value paradox of why some closely related organisms can have very different DNA contents. New data presented here rule out the possibility that the transposition process itself is highly mutagenic, hence the observed linear relation between number of deletions and number of nucleotide substitutions is most easily explained by the hypothesis that both types of changes accumulate in unconstrained sequences over time. PMID:10734601

  19. Process and analytical studies of enhanced low severity co-processing using selective coal pretreatment

    SciTech Connect

    Baldwin, R.M.; Miller, R.L.

    1991-12-01

    The findings in the first phase were as follows: 1. Both reductive (non-selective) alkylation and selective oxygen alkylation brought about an increase in liquefaction reactivity for both coals. 2. Selective oxygen alkylation is more effective in enhancing the reactivity of low rank coals. In the second phase of studies, the major findings were as follows: 1. Liquefaction reactivity increases with increasing level of alkylation for both hydroliquefaction and co-processing reaction conditions. 2. the increase in reactivity found for O-alkylated Wyodak subbituminous coal is caused by chemical changes at phenolic and carboxylic functional sites. 3. O-methylation of Wyodak subbituminous coal reduced the apparent activation energy for liquefaction of this coal.

  20. UMTRA Surface Project management action process document. Final report: Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    A critical mission of the US Department of Energy (DOE) is the planning, implementation, and completion of environmental restoration (ER) programs at facilities that were operated by or in support of the former Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) from the late 1940s into the 1970s. Among these facilities are the 24 former uranium mill sites designed in the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act (UMTRCA) of 1978 (42 USC {section} 7901 et seq.) Title 1 of the UMTRCA authorized the DOE to undertake remedial actions at these designated sites and associated vicinity properties (VP), which contain uranium mill tailings and other residual radioactive materials (RRM) derived from the processing sites. Title 2 of the UMTRCA addresses uranium mill sites that were licensed at the time the UMTRCA was enacted. Cleanup of these Title 2 sites is the responsibility of the licensees. The cleanup of the Title 1 sites has been split into two separate projects: the Surface Project, which deals with the mill buildings, tailings, and contaminated soils at the sites and VPs; and the Ground Water Project, which is limited to the contaminated ground water at the sites. This management action process (MAP) document discusses the Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Surface Project only; a separate MAP document has been prepared for the UMTRA Ground Water Project.

  1. Neuronal interactions between mentalising and action systems during indirect request processing.

    PubMed

    van Ackeren, Markus J; Smaragdi, Areti; Rueschemeyer, Shirley-Ann

    2016-09-01

    Human communication relies on the ability to process linguistic structure and to map words and utterances onto our environment. Furthermore, as what we communicate is often not directly encoded in our language (e.g. in the case of irony, jokes or indirect requests), we need to extract additional cues to infer the beliefs and desires of our conversational partners. Although the functional interplay between language and the ability to mentalise has been discussed in theoretical accounts in the past, the neurobiological underpinnings of these dynamics are currently not well understood. Here, we address this issue using functional imaging (fMRI). Participants listened to question-reply dialogues. In these dialogues, a reply is interpreted as a direct reply, an indirect reply or a request for action, depending on the question. We show that inferring meaning from indirect replies engages parts of the mentalising network (mPFC) while requests for action also activate the cortical motor system (IPL). Subsequent connectivity analysis using Dynamic Causal Modelling (DCM) revealed that this pattern of activation is best explained by an increase in effective connectivity from the mentalising network (mPFC) to the action system (IPL). These results are an important step towards a more integrative understanding of the neurobiological basis of indirect speech processing. PMID:27131039

  2. Lessons Learned for Cx PRACA. Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelle, Pido I.; Ratterman, Christian; Gibbs, Cecil

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the Constellation Program Problem Reporting, Analysis and Corrective Action Process and System (Cx PRACA). The goal of the Cx PRACA is to incorporate Lessons learned from the Shuttle, ISS, and Orbiter programs by creating a single tool for managing the PRACA process, that clearly defines the scope of PRACA applicability and what must be reported, and defines the ownership and responsibility for managing the PRACA process including disposition approval authority. CxP PRACA is a process, supported by a single information gathering data module which will be integrated with a single CxP Information System, providing interoperability, import and export capability making the CxP PRACA a more effective and user friendly technical and management tool.

  3. Reliability of internal prediction/estimation and its application. I. Adaptive action selection reflecting reliability of value function.

    PubMed

    Sakaguchi, Yutaka; Takano, Mitsuo

    2004-09-01

    This article proposes an adaptive action-selection method for a model-free reinforcement learning system, based on the concept of the 'reliability of internal prediction/estimation'. This concept is realized using an internal variable, called the Reliability Index (RI), which estimates the accuracy of the internal estimator. We define this index for a value function of a temporal difference learning system and substitute it for the temperature parameter of the Boltzmann action-selection rule. Accordingly, the weight of exploratory actions adaptively changes depending on the uncertainty of the prediction. We use this idea for tabular and weighted-sum type value functions. Moreover, we use the RI to adjust the learning coefficient in addition to the temperature parameter, meaning that the reliability becomes a general basis for meta-learning. Numerical experiments were performed to examine the behavior of the proposed method. The RI-based Q-learning system demonstrated its features when the adaptive learning coefficient and large RI-discount rate (which indicate how the RI values of future states are reflected in the RI value of the current state) were introduced. Statistical tests confirmed that the algorithm spent more time exploring in the initial phase of learning, but accelerated learning from the midpoint of learning. It is also shown that the proposed method does not work well with the actor-critic models. The limitations of the proposed method and its relationship to relevant research are discussed. PMID:15312837

  4. Mechanisms of actions of sodium hypochlorite in cleaning and disinfection processes.

    PubMed

    Fukuzaki, Satoshi

    2006-12-01

    Sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) is the most widely used disinfectant in the food industry despite the increasing availability of other disinfectants. Sodium hypochlorite fulfills many requirements as the ideal disinfectant and furthermore it has an excellent cleaning action. The effectiveness of sodium hypochlorite in the cleaning and disinfection processes depends on the concentration of available chlorine and the pH of the solution. Hypochlorous acid (HOCl) is a weak acid and dissociates to the hypochlorite ion (-OCl) and proton (H+) depending on the solution pH. It is generally believed that HOCl is the active species in the germicidal action, whereas the concentration of -OCl is a key factor determining the cleaning efficiency. This implies that the optimal pH region of the germicidal activity of sodium hypochlorite differs from that of its cleaning activity. This paper describes the theory and practice of the cleaning and disinfecting operations based on the use of sodium hypochlorite solution. PMID:17190269

  5. Potent inhibitory action of the gastric proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against urease activity of Helicobacter pylori: unique action selective for H. pylori cells.

    PubMed Central

    Nagata, K; Satoh, H; Iwahi, T; Shimoyama, T; Tamura, T

    1993-01-01

    The gastric proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole, its active analog AG-2000, and omeprazole dose dependently inhibited urease activity extracted with distilled water from Helicobacter pylori cells; the 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 3.6 and 9.5 microM, which were more potent than those of urease inhibitors, such as acetohydroxamic acid, hydroxyurea, and thiourea. These compounds also inhibited urease activity in intact cells of H. pylori and Helicobacter mustelae but did not inhibit ureases from other bacteria, such as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Providencia rettgeri. The mechanism of urease inhibition was considered to be blockage of the SH groups of H. pylori urease, since SH residues in the enzyme decreased after preincubation with lansoprazole and glutathione or dithiothreitol completely abolished the inhibitory action. The SH-blocking reagents N-ethylmaleimide and idoacetamide were also examined for their inhibition of the urease activity; their 50% inhibitory concentrations were 100- to 1,000-fold higher than those of lansoprazole. These results suggest that lansoprazole and omeprazole can potently and selectively inhibit H. pylori urease and that inhibition may be related to earlier findings indicating that these compounds have selective activity against HP growth. PMID:8494373

  6. Potent inhibitory action of the gastric proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole against urease activity of Helicobacter pylori: unique action selective for H. pylori cells.

    PubMed

    Nagata, K; Satoh, H; Iwahi, T; Shimoyama, T; Tamura, T

    1993-04-01

    The gastric proton pump inhibitor lansoprazole, its active analog AG-2000, and omeprazole dose dependently inhibited urease activity extracted with distilled water from Helicobacter pylori cells; the 50% inhibitory concentrations were between 3.6 and 9.5 microM, which were more potent than those of urease inhibitors, such as acetohydroxamic acid, hydroxyurea, and thiourea. These compounds also inhibited urease activity in intact cells of H. pylori and Helicobacter mustelae but did not inhibit ureases from other bacteria, such as Proteus vulgaris, Proteus mirabilis, and Providencia rettgeri. The mechanism of urease inhibition was considered to be blockage of the SH groups of H. pylori urease, since SH residues in the enzyme decreased after preincubation with lansoprazole and glutathione or dithiothreitol completely abolished the inhibitory action. The SH-blocking reagents N-ethylmaleimide and idoacetamide were also examined for their inhibition of the urease activity; their 50% inhibitory concentrations were 100- to 1,000-fold higher than those of lansoprazole. These results suggest that lansoprazole and omeprazole can potently and selectively inhibit H. pylori urease and that inhibition may be related to earlier findings indicating that these compounds have selective activity against HP growth. PMID:8494373

  7. Final audit report of remedial action construction at the UMTRA Project, Grand Junction, Colorado, processing site

    SciTech Connect

    1995-02-01

    This final audit report (FAR) for remedial action at the Grand Junction, Colorado, Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project processing site consists of a summary of the radiological surveillances/ audits, the quality assurance (QA) in-process surveillances, and the QA final close-out inspection performed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) and Technical Assistance Contractor (TAC). The FAR also summarizes other surveillances performed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). To summarize, a total of one finding and 127 observations were noted during DOE/TAC audit and surveillance activities. The NRC noted general site-related observations during the OSCRs. Follow-up to responses required from MK-Ferguson for the DOE/TAC finding and observations indicated that all issues related to the Grand Junction processing site were resolved and closed out to the DOE`s satisfaction. The NRC OSCRs resulted in no issues related to the Grand Junction processing site requiring a response from MK-Ferguson.

  8. 24 CFR 700.110 - Announcement of fund availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., application process and selection. 700.110 Section 700.110 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating... PROGRAM § 700.110 Announcement of fund availability, application process and selection. (a) Notice of... deadline for submissions, and further explanation of the selection criteria, review and selection...

  9. Electron impact action spectroscopy of mass/charge selected macromolecular ions: Inner-shell excitation of ubiquitin protein

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Rankovic, Milos Lj.; Giuliani, Alexandre; Milosavljevic, Aleksandar R.

    2016-02-11

    In this study, we have performed inner-shell electron impact action spectroscopy of mass and charge selected macromolecular ions. For this purpose, we have coupled a focusing electron gun with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This experiment represents a proof of principle that an energy-tunable electron beam can be used in combination with radio frequency traps as an activation method in tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) and allows performing action spectroscopy. Electron impact MS2 spectra of multiply protonated ubiquitin protein ion have been recorded at incident electron energies around the carbon 1s excitation. Both MS2 and single ionization energy dependencemore » spectra are compared with literature data obtained using the soft X-ray activation conditions.« less

  10. Electron impact action spectroscopy of mass/charge selected macromolecular ions: Inner-shell excitation of ubiquitin protein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranković, Miloš Lj.; Giuliani, Alexandre; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.

    2016-02-01

    We have performed inner-shell electron impact action spectroscopy of mass and charge selected macromolecular ions. For this purpose, we have coupled a focusing electron gun with a linear quadrupole ion trap mass spectrometer. This experiment represents a proof of principle that an energy-tunable electron beam can be used in combination with radio frequency traps as an activation method in tandem mass spectrometry (MS2) and allows performing action spectroscopy. Electron impact MS2 spectra of multiply protonated ubiquitin protein ion have been recorded at incident electron energies around the carbon 1 s excitation. Both MS2 and single ionization energy dependence spectra are compared with literature data obtained using the soft X-ray activation conditions.

  11. Free energy calculation provides insight into the action mechanism of selective PARP-1 inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Cao, Ran

    2016-04-01

    Selective poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP)-1 inhibitor represents promising therapy against cancers with a good balance between efficacy and safety. Owing to the conserved structure between PARP-1 and PARP-2, most of the clinical and experimental drugs show equivalent inhibition against both targets. Most recently, it's disclosed a highly selective PARP-1 inhibitor (NMS-P118) with promising pharmacokinetic properties. Herein, we combined molecular simulation with free energy calculation to gain insights into the selective mechanism of NMS-P118. Our results suggest the reduction of binding affinity for PARP-2 is attributed to the unfavorable conformational change of protein, which is accompanied by a significant energy penalty. Alanine-scanning mutagenesis study further reveals the important role for a tyrosine residue of donor loop (Tyr889(PARP-1) and Tyr455(PARP-2)) in contributing to the ligand selectivity. Retrospective structural analysis indicates the ligand-induced movement of Tyr455(PARP-2) disrupts the intra-molecule hydrogen bonding network, which partially accounts for the "high-energy" protein conformation in the presence of NMS-P118. Interestingly, such effect isn't observed in other non-selective PARP inhibitors including BMN673 and A861695, which validates the computational prediction. Our work provides energetic insight into the subtle variations in the crystal structures and could facilitate rational design of new selective PARP inhibitor. PMID:26969680

  12. Human values in the team leader selection process.

    PubMed

    Rovira, Núria; Ozgen, Sibel; Medir, Magda; Tous, Jordi; Alabart, Joan Ramon

    2012-03-01

    The selection process of team leaders is fundamental if the effectiveness of teams is to be guaranteed. Human values have proven to be an important factor in the behaviour of individuals and leaders. The aim of this study is twofold. The first is to validate Schwartz's survey of human values. The second is to determine whether there are any relationships between the values held by individuals and their preferred roles in a team. Human values were measured by the items of the Schwartz Value Survey (SVS) and the preferred roles in a team were identified by the Belbin Self Perception Inventory (BSPI). The two questionnaires were answered by two samples of undergraduate students (183 and 177 students, respectively). As far as the first objective is concerned, Smallest Space Analysis (SSA) was performed at the outset to examine how well the two-dimensional circular structure, as postulated by Schwartz, was represented in the study population. Then, the results of this analysis were compared and contrasted with those of two other published studies; one by Schwartz (2006) and one by Ros and Grad (1991). As for the second objective, Pearson correlation coefficients were computed to assess the associations between the ratings on the SVS survey items and the ratings on the eight team roles as measured by the BSPI. PMID:22379711

  13. Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Yongchun; Periana, Roy; Chen, Weiqun; van Duin, Adri; Nielsen, Robert; Shuler, Patrick; Ma, Qisheng; Blanco, Mario; Li, Zaiwei; Oxgaard, Jonas; Cheng, Jihong; Cheung, Sam; Pudar, Sanja

    2009-09-28

    This is the Final Report of the five-year project Using Ionic Liquids in Selective Hydrocarbon Conversion Processes (DE-FC36-04GO14276, July 1, 2004- June 30, 2009), in which we present our major accomplishments with detailed descriptions of our experimental and theoretical efforts. Upon the successful conduction of this project, we have followed our proposed breakdown work structure completing most of the technical tasks. Finally, we have developed and demonstrated several optimized homogenously catalytic methane conversion systems involving applications of novel ionic liquids, which present much more superior performance than the Catalytica system (the best-to-date system) in terms of three times higher reaction rates and longer catalysts lifetime and much stronger resistance to water deactivation. We have developed in-depth mechanistic understandings on the complicated chemistry involved in homogenously catalytic methane oxidation as well as developed the unique yet effective experimental protocols (reactors, analytical tools and screening methodologies) for achieving a highly efficient yet economically feasible and environmentally friendly catalytic methane conversion system. The most important findings have been published, patented as well as reported to DOE in this Final Report and our 20 Quarterly Reports.

  14. Antibacterial Effects and Mode of Action of Selected Essential Oils Components against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus

    PubMed Central

    Lopez-Romero, Julio Cesar; González-Ríos, Humberto; Borges, Anabela; Simões, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Bacterial resistance has been increasingly reported worldwide and is one of the major causes of failure in the treatment of infectious diseases. Natural-based products, including plant secondary metabolites (phytochemicals), may be used to surpass or reduce this problem. The objective of this study was to determine the antibacterial effect and mode of action of selected essential oils (EOs) components: carveol, carvone, citronellol, and citronellal, against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were assessed for the selected EOs components. Moreover, physicochemical bacterial surface characterization, bacterial surface charge, membrane integrity, and K+ leakage assays were carried out to investigate the antimicrobial mode of action of EOs components. Citronellol was the most effective molecule against both pathogens, followed by citronellal, carveol, and carvone. Changes in the hydrophobicity, surface charge, and membrane integrity with the subsequent K+ leakage from E. coli and S. aureus were observed after exposure to EOs. This study demonstrates that the selected EOs have significant antimicrobial activity against the bacteria tested, acting on the cell surface and causing the disruption of the bacterial membrane. Moreover, these molecules are interesting alternatives to conventional antimicrobials for the control of microbial infections. PMID:26221178

  15. Direct selective laser sintering of high performance metals: Machine design, process development and process control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Suman

    1998-11-01

    This dissertation describes the development of an advanced manufacturing technology known as Direct Selective Laser Sintering (Direct SLS). Direct SLS is a laser based rapid manufacturing technology that enables production of functional, fully dense, metal and cermet components via the direct, layerwise consolidation of constituent powders. Specifically, this dissertation focuses on a new, hybrid net shape manufacturing technique known as Selective Laser Sintering/Hot Isostatic Pressing (SLS/HIP). The objective of research presented in this dissertation was to establish the fundamental machine technology and processing science to enable direct SLS fabrication of metal components composed of high performance, high temperature metals and alloys. Several processing requirements differentiate direct SLS of metals from SLS of polymers or polymer coated powders. Perhaps the most important distinguishing characteristic is the regime of high temperatures involved in direct SLS of metals. Biasing the temperature of the feedstock powder via radiant preheat prior to and during SLS processing was shown to be beneficial. Preheating the powder significantly influenced the flow and wetting characteristics of the melt. During this work, it was conclusively established that powder cleanliness is of paramount importance for successful layerwise consolidation of metal powders by direct SLS. Sequential trials were conducted to establish optimal bake-out and degas cycles under high vacuum. These cycles agreed well with established practices in the powder metallurgy industry. A study of some of the important transport mechanisms in direct SLS of metals was undertaken to obtain a fundamental understanding of the underlying process physics. This study not only provides an explanation of phenomena observed during SLS processing of a variety of metallic materials but also helps in developing selection schemes for those materials that are most amenable to direct SLS processing. The

  16. Remedial Action Plan and site design for stabilization of the inactive uranium mill tailings site at Gunnison, Colorado: Remedial action selection report. [Uranium Mill Tailings Remedial Action (UMTRA) Project

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-10-01

    The Gunnison uranium mill tailings site is just south of the city limits of Gunnison, Colorado, in the south-central part of the state. The entire site covers 61 acres in the valley of the Gunnison River and Tomichi Creek. Contaminated materials at the Gunnison processing site include the tailings pile, covering about 35 acres to an average depth of nine feet and containing 459,000 cubic yards. Ore storage areas and the former mill processing area cover about 20 acres on the south side of the site. The volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 718,900 cubic yards. An interim action was approved by the US Department of Energy to eliminate existing safety hazards to the Gunnison community. These actions, started in September 1991, included demolition of mill buildings and related processing facilities, excavation of two underground storage tanks, removal of asbestos and other hazardous materials from buildings, storage of those materials in a secured area on the site, and improvements of site security.

  17. Formal Specification and Automatic Analysis of Business Processes under Authorization Constraints: An Action-Based Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Armando, Alessandro; Giunchiglia, Enrico; Ponta, Serena Elisa

    We present an approach to the formal specification and automatic analysis of business processes under authorization constraints based on the action language \\cal{C}. The use of \\cal{C} allows for a natural and concise modeling of the business process and the associated security policy and for the automatic analysis of the resulting specification by using the Causal Calculator (CCALC). Our approach improves upon previous work by greatly simplifying the specification step while retaining the ability to perform a fully automatic analysis. To illustrate the effectiveness of the approach we describe its application to a version of a business process taken from the banking domain and use CCALC to determine resource allocation plans complying with the security policy.

  18. Masked priming of complex movements: perceptual and motor processes in unconscious action perception.

    PubMed

    Güldenpenning, Iris; Braun, Jelena F; Machlitt, Daniel; Schack, Thomas

    2015-09-01

    Fast motor actions in sports often require the ability to discriminate between similar movement patterns (e.g. feint vs. non-feint) at an early stage. Moreover, an athlete might even initiate a motor response without a conscious processing of the relevant movement information. Therefore, the question was raised of whether or not athletes and novices of a particular movement can unconsciously distinguish between similar movement patterns. Using a masked priming experiment (Experiment 1), it is demonstrated that both groups were similarly able to unconsciously distinguish a feint and a non-feint action. To further investigate whether this result is based on perceptual priming effects or on unconscious motor activations, a second masked priming experiment was conducted (Experiment 2). Experiment 2 revealed perceptual priming effects which are not mediated by motor expertise. Moreover, unconscious pictures of feint and non-feint actions from different movement stages are sufficient to activate a motor response in athletes. In novices, a negative congruency effect occurred. For both groups, largest response congruency effects were found for prime pictures participants could consciously perceive as target pictures during the experimental session. The results found here point out that perceptual priming effects are not mediated by motor expertise whereas response priming effects might be. PMID:25187216

  19. Evolution in action in the classroom: Engaging students in scientific practices to develop a conceptual understanding of natural selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Wendy Renae

    Public understanding and acceptance of the theory of evolution in the United States is not commensurate with its acceptance in the scientific community and its role as the central organizing principle of the biological sciences. There are a multitude of factors that affect student understanding of the theory of evolution documented in the literature including the proposition that understanding of evolution is intimately linked to understanding the nature of science. This study describes the development, implementation, and assessment of learning activities that address the process of natural selection and the scientific methodology that illuminates these mechanisms. While pre and post-test scores were higher for students in an Advanced Placement Biology course than students in a general biology course, similar learning gains were observed in both groups. Learning gains were documented in understanding the random nature of mutations and their importance to the process of natural selection, explaining selection as a competitive advantage of one variation over another type and specifically linking this to reproductive success, and in connecting inheritance, variation, and selection to explain the process of natural selection. Acceptance of the scientific validity of the theory of evolution as measured by the Measure of Acceptance of the Theory of Evolution (MATE) Instrument also increased significantly in both groups over the course of the school year. These findings suggest that the sequence of activities implemented in this study promote conceptual change about the nature of science and the process of evolution by natural selection in students.

  20. Subliminal Priming of Actions Influences Sense of Control over Effects of Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenke, Dorit; Fleming, Stephen M.; Haggard, Patrick

    2010-01-01

    The experience of controlling one's own actions, and through them events in the outside world, is a pervasive feature of human mental life. Two experiments investigated the relation between this sense of control and the internal processes involved in action selection and cognitive control. Action selection was manipulated by subliminally priming…

  1. Clinical Trial Risk in Hepatitis C: Endpoint Selection and Drug Action

    PubMed Central

    Tillie, Nicole A.; Parker, Jayson L.; Feld, Jordan J.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study analyzed the risk of clinical trial failure of new drugs for hepatitis C between January 1998 and January 2015. Methods. Hepatitis C drug development trials that were in phases I–III of clinical trial testing were obtained from the publicly accessible clinical trial repository and other publicly available databases. Drug compounds were excluded from the study if they began their phase I testing before 1998, if they were not industry sponsored, or if they treated secondary complications of hepatitis C. Clinical trial success rates were analyzed in comparison to industry expectations. Further analysis was conducted on the molecule classifications, the mechanisms of action, and the trial endpoints. Results. One hundred and twenty-three unique drug compounds were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria, eight of which had FDA approval. The overall cumulative pass rate for hepatitis C drugs was 20%, which is double the industry expectation rate. Viral inhibitor small molecule drugs significantly reduced the risk of drug failure during clinical trials compared to other mechanisms of action. Conclusion. On average, one in every five drugs that began clinical testing will be approved for market. Viral inhibitor small molecule drugs are the most promising and hold the least risk.

  2. Clinical Trial Risk in Hepatitis C: Endpoint Selection and Drug Action.

    PubMed

    Tillie, Nicole A; Parker, Jayson L; Feld, Jordan J

    2016-01-01

    Background and Aims. This study analyzed the risk of clinical trial failure of new drugs for hepatitis C between January 1998 and January 2015. Methods. Hepatitis C drug development trials that were in phases I-III of clinical trial testing were obtained from the publicly accessible clinical trial repository and other publicly available databases. Drug compounds were excluded from the study if they began their phase I testing before 1998, if they were not industry sponsored, or if they treated secondary complications of hepatitis C. Clinical trial success rates were analyzed in comparison to industry expectations. Further analysis was conducted on the molecule classifications, the mechanisms of action, and the trial endpoints. Results. One hundred and twenty-three unique drug compounds were found to fulfill the inclusion criteria, eight of which had FDA approval. The overall cumulative pass rate for hepatitis C drugs was 20%, which is double the industry expectation rate. Viral inhibitor small molecule drugs significantly reduced the risk of drug failure during clinical trials compared to other mechanisms of action. Conclusion. On average, one in every five drugs that began clinical testing will be approved for market. Viral inhibitor small molecule drugs are the most promising and hold the least risk. PMID:27446855

  3. Remedial Action Plan and Site Design for Stabilization of the Inactive Uranium Mill Tailings Site, Maybell, Colorado. Remedial action selection report: Attachment 2, Geology report, Final

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-06-01

    The Maybell uranium mill tailings site is 25 miles (mi) (40 kilometers [km]) west of the town of Craig, Colorado, in Moffat County, in the northwestern part of the state. The unincorporated town of Maybell is 5 road mi (8 km) southwest of the site. The designated site covers approximately 110 acres (ac) (45 hectares [ha]) and consists of a concave-shaped tailings pile and rubble from the demolition of the mill buildings buried in the former mill area. Contaminated materials at the Maybell processing site include the tailings pile, which has an average depth of 20 feet (ft) (6 meters [m]) and contains 2.8 million cubic yards (yd{sup 3}) (2.1 million cubic meters [m{sup 3}]) of tailings. The former mill processing area is on the north side of the site and contains 20,000 yd{sup 3} (15,000 m{sup 3}) of contaminated demolition debris. Off-pile contamination is present and includes areas adjacent to the tailings pile, as well as contamination dispersed by wind and surface water flow. The volume of off-pile contamination to be placed in the disposal cell is 550,000 yd{sup 3} (420,000 m{sup 3}). The total volume of contaminated materials to be disposed of as part of the remedial action is estimated to be 3.37 million yd{sup 3} (2.58 million m{sup 3}). Information presented in this Final Remedial Action Plan (RAP) and referenced in supporting documents represents the current disposal cell design features and ground water compliance strategy proposed by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the Maybell, Colorado, tailings site. Both the disposal cell design and the ground water compliance strategy have changed from those proposed prior to the preliminary final RAP document as a result of prudent site-specific technical evaluations.

  4. Mate Choice in Soldier Beetles: Field & Laboratory Experiments that Demonstrate Sexual Selection in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eason, Perri K.; Sherman, Peter T.

    2003-01-01

    Although the theory of evolution is the foundation of modern biology, students too rarely have an opportunity to watch selection operate in natural populations of animals. This lack may be partially responsible for the unfortunate ignorance of many people regarding the significance of evolution in biology. Laboratory exercises that directly study…

  5. Selection, Optimization, and Compensation: An Action-Related Approach to Work and Partnership.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiese, Bettina S.; Baltes, Paul B.; Freund, Alexandra M.

    2000-01-01

    Data from German professionals (n=206) were used to test selective optimization with compensation (SOC)--goal setting in career and partnership domains and use of means to achieve goals. A positive relationship was found between SOC behaviors and successful life management; it was more predictive for the partnership domain. (Contains 82…

  6. Lipid oxidation volatiles absent in milk after selected ultrasound processing.

    PubMed

    Juliano, Pablo; Torkamani, Amir Ehsan; Leong, Thomas; Kolb, Veronika; Watkins, Peter; Ajlouni, Said; Singh, Tanoj Kumar

    2014-11-01

    Ultrasonic processing can suit a number of potential applications in the dairy industry. However, the impact of ultrasound treatment on milk stability during storage has not been fully explored under wider ranges of frequencies, specific energies and temperature applications. The effect of ultrasonication on lipid oxidation was investigated in various types of milk. Four batches of raw milk (up to 2L) were sonicated at various frequencies (20, 400, 1000, 1600 and 2000kHz), using different temperatures (4, 20, 45 and 63°C), sonication times and ultrasound energy inputs up to 409kJ/kg. Pasteurized skim milk was also sonicated at low and high frequency for comparison. In selected experiments, non-sonicated and sonicated samples were stored at 4°C and were drawn periodically up to 14days for SPME-GCMS analysis. The cavitational yield, characterized in all systems in water, was highest between 400kHz and 1000kHz. Volatile compounds from milk lipid oxidation were detected and exceeded their odor threshold values at 400kHz and 1000kHz at specific energies greater than 271kJ/kg in raw milk. However, no oxidative volatile compounds were detected below 230kJ/kg in batch systems at the tested frequencies under refrigerated conditions. Skim milk showed a lower energy threshold for oxidative volatile formation. The same oxidative volatiles were detected after various passes of milk through a 0.3L flow cell enclosing a 20kHz horn and operating above 90kJ/kg. This study showed that lipid oxidation in milk can be controlled by decreasing the sonication time and the temperature in the system depending on the fat content in the sample among other factors. PMID:24704065

  7. Lessons Learnt from Applying Action Research to Support Strategy Formation Processes in Long-Term Care Networks

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cramer, Hendrik; Dewulf, Geert; Voordijk, Hans

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates how action research (AR) that is aimed at scaling-up experiments can be applied to support a strategy formation process (SFP) in a subsidized long-term care network. Previous research has developed numerous AR frameworks to support experiments in various domains, but has failed to explain how to apply AR and action learning…

  8. Automated frame selection process for high-resolution microendoscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishijima, Ayumu; Schwarz, Richard A.; Shin, Dongsuk; Mondrik, Sharon; Vigneswaran, Nadarajah; Gillenwater, Ann M.; Anandasabapathy, Sharmila; Richards-Kortum, Rebecca

    2015-04-01

    We developed an automated frame selection algorithm for high-resolution microendoscopy video sequences. The algorithm rapidly selects a representative frame with minimal motion artifact from a short video sequence, enabling fully automated image analysis at the point-of-care. The algorithm was evaluated by quantitative comparison of diagnostically relevant image features and diagnostic classification results obtained using automated frame selection versus manual frame selection. A data set consisting of video sequences collected in vivo from 100 oral sites and 167 esophageal sites was used in the analysis. The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve was 0.78 (automated selection) versus 0.82 (manual selection) for oral sites, and 0.93 (automated selection) versus 0.92 (manual selection) for esophageal sites. The implementation of fully automated high-resolution microendoscopy at the point-of-care has the potential to reduce the number of biopsies needed for accurate diagnosis of precancer and cancer in low-resource settings where there may be limited infrastructure and personnel for standard histologic analysis.

  9. Principal Selection in Rural School Districts: A Process Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richardson, M. D.; And Others

    Recent research illustrates the increasingly important role of the school principal. As a result, procedures for selecting principals have also become more critical to rural school districts. School systems, particularly rural school districts, are encouraged to adopt systematic, rational means for selecting administrators. Such procedures will…

  10. Early and Late Selection in Unconscious Information Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pohl, Carsten; Kiesel, Andrea; Kunde, Wilfried; Hoffmann, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    In four experiments, we investigated whether masked stimuli in priming experiments are subjected to early or to late selection. In Experiment 1, participants classified four target-pictures as being small or large. In line with early selection accounts, prime-pictures with a different perceptual appearance as the experienced targets did not elicit…

  11. Central action of dendrotoxin: selective reduction of a transient K conductance in hippocampus and binding to localized acceptors

    SciTech Connect

    Halliwell, J.V.; Othman, I.B.; Pelchen-Matthews, A.; Dolly, J.O.

    1986-01-01

    Dendrotoxin, a small single-chain protein from the venom of Dendroaspis angusticeps, is highly toxic following intracerebroventricular injection into rats. Voltage-clamp analysis of CA/sub 1/ neurons in hippocampal slices, treated with tetrodotoxin, revealed that nanomolar concentrations of dendrotoxin reduce selectively a transient, voltage-dependent K conductance. Epileptiform activity known to be induced by dendrotoxin can be attributed to such an action. Membrane currents not affected directly by the toxin include (i) Ca-activated K conductance; (ii) noninactivating voltage-dependent K conductance; (iii) inactivating the noninactivating Ca conductances; (iv) persistent inward (anomalous) rectifier current. Persistence of the effects of the toxin when Cd was included to suppress spontaneous transmitter release indicates a direct action on the neuronal membrane. Using biologically active, /sup 125/I-labeled dendrotoxin, protein acceptor sites of high affinity were detected on cerebrocortical synapotosomal membranes and sections of rat brain. In hippocampus, toxin binding was shown autoradiographically to reside in synapse-rich and white matter regions, with lower levels in cell body layers. This acceptor is implicated in the action of toxin because its affinities for dendrotoxin congeners are proportional to their central neurotoxicities and potencies in reducing the transient, voltage-dependent K conductance.

  12. Higher order thoughts in action: consciousness as an unconscious re-description process

    PubMed Central

    Timmermans, Bert; Schilbach, Leonhard; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel

    2012-01-01

    Metacognition is usually construed as a conscious, intentional process whereby people reflect upon their own mental activity. Here, we instead suggest that metacognition is but an instance of a larger class of representational re-description processes that we assume occur unconsciously and automatically. From this perspective, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to anticipate the consequences of action or activity on itself, on the world and on other people through three predictive loops: an inner loop, a perception–action loop and a self–other (social cognition) loop, which together form a tangled hierarchy. We ask what kinds of mechanisms may subtend this form of enactive metacognition. We extend previous neural network simulations and compare the model with signal detection theory, highlighting that while the latter approach assumes that both type I (objective) and type II (subjective, metacognition-based) decisions tap into the same signal at different hierarchical levels, our approach is closer to dual-route models in which it is assumed that the re-descriptions made possible by the emergence of meta-representations occur independently and outside of the first-order causal chain. We close by reviewing relevant neurological evidence for the idea that awareness, self-awareness and social cognition involve the same mechanisms. PMID:22492757

  13. Revealing action representation processes in audio perception using fractal EEG analysis.

    PubMed

    Hadjidimitriou, Stelios K; Zacharakis, Asteris I; Doulgeris, Panagiotis C; Panoulas, Konstantinos J; Hadjileontiadis, Leontios J; Panas, Stavros M

    2011-04-01

    Electroencephalogram (EEG) recordings, and especially the Mu-rhythm over the sensorimotor cortex that relates to the activation of the mirror neuron system (MNS), were acquired from two subject groups (orchestral musicians and nonmusicians), in order to explore action representation processes involved in the perception and performance of musical pieces. Two types of stimuli were used, i.e., an auditory one consisting of an excerpt of Beethoven's fifth symphony and a visual one presenting a conductor directing an orchestra performing the same excerpt of the piece. Three tasks were conducted including auditory stimulation, audiovisual stimulation, and visual stimulation only, and the acquired signals were processed using fractal [time-dependent fractal dimension (FD) estimation] and statistical analysis (analysis of variance, Mann-Whitney). Experimental results showed significant differences between the two groups while desychronization of the Mu-rhythm, which can be linked to MNS activation, was observed during all tasks for the musicians' group, as opposed to the nonmusicians' group who exhibited similar response only when the visual stimulus was present. The mobility of the conductor was also correlated to the estimated FD signals, showing significantly higher correlation for the case of musicians compared to nonmusicians' one. The present study sheds light upon the difference in action representation in auditory perception between musicians and nonmusicians and paves the way for better comprehension of the underlying mechanisms of the MNS. PMID:20388591

  14. Higher order thoughts in action: consciousness as an unconscious re-description process.

    PubMed

    Timmermans, Bert; Schilbach, Leonhard; Pasquali, Antoine; Cleeremans, Axel

    2012-05-19

    Metacognition is usually construed as a conscious, intentional process whereby people reflect upon their own mental activity. Here, we instead suggest that metacognition is but an instance of a larger class of representational re-description processes that we assume occur unconsciously and automatically. From this perspective, the brain continuously and unconsciously learns to anticipate the consequences of action or activity on itself, on the world and on other people through three predictive loops: an inner loop, a perception-action loop and a self-other (social cognition) loop, which together form a tangled hierarchy. We ask what kinds of mechanisms may subtend this form of enactive metacognition. We extend previous neural network simulations and compare the model with signal detection theory, highlighting that while the latter approach assumes that both type I (objective) and type II (subjective, metacognition-based) decisions tap into the same signal at different hierarchical levels, our approach is closer to dual-route models in which it is assumed that the re-descriptions made possible by the emergence of meta-representations occur independently and outside of the first-order causal chain. We close by reviewing relevant neurological evidence for the idea that awareness, self-awareness and social cognition involve the same mechanisms. PMID:22492757

  15. Mutation-Selection Balance in Multi-Locus Systems. I. Duplicate Gene Action

    PubMed Central

    Pritchett-Ewing, Evelyn

    1981-01-01

    A theoretical model is presented that extends the case of selection against homozygous recessives counterbalanced by mutation to a system of n loci. This extension allows analysis of the role of gene duplication in the evolution of new function. The aspect of retention of function for sufficiently long periods of time to allow for divergence vs. silencing of nonfunctional loci is discussed in relation to examples in salmonid and catastomid fishes and in the globin-like clusters. PMID:17249091

  16. Mode of Action, In Vitro Activity, and In Vivo Efficacy of AFN-1252, a Selective Antistaphylococcal FabI Inhibitor

    PubMed Central

    Albert, Monique; Awrey, Donald; Bardouniotis, Elias; Berman, Judd; Clarke, Teresa; Dorsey, Mandy; Hafkin, Barry; Ramnauth, Jaillal; Romanov, Vladimir; Schmid, Molly B.; Thalakada, Rosanne; Yethon, Jeremy; Pauls, Henry W.

    2012-01-01

    The mechanism of action of AFN-1252, a selective inhibitor of Staphylococcus aureus enoyl-acyl carrier protein reductase (FabI), which is involved in fatty acid biosynthesis, was confirmed by using biochemistry, macromolecular synthesis, genetics, and cocrystallization of an AFN-1252–FabI complex. AFN-1252 demonstrated a low propensity for spontaneous resistance development and a time-dependent reduction of the viability of both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. aureus, achieving a ≥2-log10 reduction in S. aureus counts over 24 h, and was extremely potent against clinical isolates of S. aureus (MIC90, 0.015 μg/ml) and coagulase-negative staphylococci (MIC90, 0.12 μg/ml), regardless of their drug resistance, hospital- or community-associated origin, or other clinical subgroup. AFN-1252 was orally available in mouse pharmacokinetic studies, and a single oral dose of 1 mg/kg AFN-1252 was efficacious in a mouse model of septicemia, providing 100% protection from an otherwise lethal peritoneal infection of S. aureus Smith. A median effective dose of 0.15 mg/kg indicated that AFN-1252 was 12 to 24 times more potent than linezolid in the model. These studies, demonstrating a selective mode of action, potent in vitro activity, and in vivo efficacy, support the continued investigation of AFN-1252 as a targeted therapeutic for staphylococcal infections. PMID:22948878

  17. Diversity of actions of GnRHs mediated by ligand-induced selective signaling

    PubMed Central

    Millar, Robert P.; Pawson, Adam J.; Morgan, Kevin; Rissman, Emilie F.; Lu, Zhi-Liang

    2009-01-01

    Geoffrey Wingfield Harris’ demonstration of hypothalamic hormones regulating pituitary function led to their structural identification and therapeutic utilization in a wide spectrum of diseases. Amongst these, Gonadotropin Releasing Hormone (GnRH) and its analogs are widely employed in modulating gonadotropin and sex steroid secretion to treat infertility, precocious puberty and many hormone-dependent diseases including endometriosis, uterine fibroids and prostatic cancer. While these effects are all mediated via modulation of the pituitary gonadotrope GnRH receptor and the Gq signaling pathway, it has become increasingly apparent that GnRH regulates many extrapituitary cells in the nervous system and periphery. This review focuses on two such examples, namely GnRH analog effects on reproductive behaviors and GnRH analog effects on the inhibition of cancer cell growth. For both effects the relative activities of a range of GnRH analogs is distinctly different from their effects on the pituitary gonadotrope and different signaling pathways are utilized. As there is only a single functional GnRH receptor type in man we have proposed that the GnRH receptor can assume different conformations which have different selectivity for GnRH analogs and intracellular signaling proteins complexes. This ligand-induced selective-signaling recruits certain pathways while by-passing others and has implications in developing more selective GnRH analogs for highly specific therapeutic intervention. PMID:17976709

  18. Defining the mechanism of action and enzymatic selectivity of psammaplin A against its epigenetic targets.

    PubMed

    Baud, Matthias G J; Leiser, Thomas; Haus, Patricia; Samlal, Sharon; Wong, Ai Ching; Wood, Robert J; Petrucci, Vanessa; Gunaratnam, Mekala; Hughes, Siobhan M; Buluwela, Lakjaya; Turlais, Fabrice; Neidle, Stephen; Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef; White, Andrew J P; Fuchter, Matthew J

    2012-02-23

    Psammaplin A (11c) is a marine metabolite previously reported to be a potent inhibitor of two classes of epigenetic enzymes: histone deacetylases and DNA methyltransferases. The design and synthesis of a focused library based on the psammaplin A core has been carried out to probe the molecular features of this molecule responsible for its activity. By direct in vitro assay of the free thiol generated upon reduction of the dimeric psammaplin scaffold, we have unambiguously demonstrated that 11c functions as a natural prodrug, with the reduced form being highly potent against HDAC1 in vitro (IC(50) 0.9 nM). Furthermore, we have shown it to have high isoform selectivity, being 360-fold selective for HDAC1 over HDAC6 and more than 1000-fold less potent against HDAC7 and HDAC8. SAR around our focused library revealed a number of features, most notably the oxime functionality to be important to this selectivity. Many of the compounds show significant cytotoxicity in A549, MCF7, and W138 cells, with the SAR of cytotoxicity correlating to HDAC inhibition. Furthermore, compound treatment causes upregulation of histone acetylation but little effect on tubulin acetylation. Finally, we have found no evidence for 11c functioning as a DNMT inhibitor. PMID:22280363

  19. Dynamical modeling of microRNA action on the protein translation process

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Protein translation is a multistep process which can be represented as a cascade of biochemical reactions (initiation, ribosome assembly, elongation, etc.), the rate of which can be regulated by small non-coding microRNAs through multiple mechanisms. It remains unclear what mechanisms of microRNA action are the most dominant: moreover, many experimental reports deliver controversial messages on what is the concrete mechanism actually observed in the experiment. Nissan and Parker have recently demonstrated that it might be impossible to distinguish alternative biological hypotheses using the steady state data on the rate of protein synthesis. For their analysis they used two simple kinetic models of protein translation. Results In contrary to the study by Nissan and Parker, we show that dynamical data allow discriminating some of the mechanisms of microRNA action. We demonstrate this using the same models as developed by Nissan and Parker for the sake of comparison but the methods developed (asymptotology of biochemical networks) can be used for other models. We formulate a hypothesis that the effect of microRNA action is measurable and observable only if it affects the dominant system (generalization of the limiting step notion for complex networks) of the protein translation machinery. The dominant system can vary in different experimental conditions that can partially explain the existing controversy of some of the experimental data. Conclusions Our analysis of the transient protein translation dynamics shows that it gives enough information to verify or reject a hypothesis about a particular molecular mechanism of microRNA action on protein translation. For multiscale systems only that action of microRNA is distinguishable which affects the parameters of dominant system (critical parameters), or changes the dominant system itself. Dominant systems generalize and further develop the old and very popular idea of limiting step. Algorithms for identifying

  20. Selected characteristics of biochar from different feedstock and [yrolysis process

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pyrolysis process is one of the technologies used to convert biomass to energy. During the process, up to 40% of the initial biomass is recovered as biochar, the co-product of the process. Feedstock composition and chemistry is altered during the process, rendering its components (e.g. carbon, nutr...

  1. Impact of action primes on implicit processing of thematic and functional similarity relations: evidence from eye-tracking.

    PubMed

    Pluciennicka, Ewa; Wamain, Yannick; Coello, Yann; Kalénine, Solène

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to specify the role of action representations in thematic and functional similarity relations between manipulable artifact objects. Recent behavioral and neurophysiological evidence indicates that while they are all relevant for manipulable artifact concepts, semantic relations based on thematic (e.g., saw-wood), specific function similarity (e.g., saw-axe), and general function similarity (e.g., saw-knife) are differently processed, and may relate to different levels of action representation. Point-light displays of object-related actions previously encoded at the gesture level (e.g., "sawing") or at the higher level of action representation (e.g., "cutting") were used as primes before participants identified target objects (e.g., saw) among semantically related and unrelated distractors (e.g., wood, feather, piano). Analysis of eye movements on the different objects during target identification informed about the amplitude and the timing of implicit activation of the different semantic relations. Results showed that action prime encoding impacted the processing of thematic relations, but not that of functional similarity relations. Semantic competition with thematic distractors was greater and earlier following action primes encoded at the gesture level compared to action primes encoded at higher level. As a whole, these findings highlight the direct influence of action representations on thematic relation processing, and suggest that thematic relations involve gesture-level representations rather than intention-level representations. PMID:26077343

  2. Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) Upper Stage Configuration Selection Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davis, Daniel J.; Coook, Jerry R.

    2006-01-01

    changed since the CLV Project's inception, the USE design has remained essentially a clean-sheet approach. Although a clean-sheet upper stage design inherently carries more risk than a modified design, it does offer many advantages: a design for increased reliability; built-in extensibility to allow for commonality/growth without major redesign; and incorporation of state-of-the-art materials, hardware, and design, fabrication, and test techniques and processes to facilitate a potentially better, more reliable system. Because consideration was given in the ESAS to both clean-sheet and modified USE designs, this paper will highlight the advantages and disadvantages of both approaches and provide a detailed discussion of trades/selections made that led to the final upper stage configuration.

  3. Mechanism of the tissue-specific action of the selective androgen receptor modulator S-101479.

    PubMed

    Furuya, Kazuyuki; Yamamoto, Noriko; Ohyabu, Yuki; Morikyu, Teruyuki; Ishige, Hirohide; Albers, Michael; Endo, Yasuhisa

    2013-01-01

    Selective androgen receptor modulators (SARMs) comprise a new class of molecules that induce anabolic effects with fewer side effects than those of other anabolic agents. We previously reported that the novel SARM S-101479 had a tissue-selective bone anabolic effect with diminished side effects in female animals. However, the mechanism of its tissue selectivity is not well known. In this report, we show that S-101479 increased alkaline phosphatase activity and androgen receptor (AR) transcriptional activity in osteoblastic cell lines in the same manner as the natural androgen ligand dihydrotestosterone (DHT); conversely, stimulation of AR dimerization was very low compared with that of DHT (34.4%). S-101479 increased bone mineral content in ovariectomized rats without promoting endometrial proliferation. Yeast two-hybrid interaction assays revealed that DHT promoted recruitment of numerous cofactors to AR such as TIF2, SRC1, β-catenin, NCoA3, gelsolin and PROX1 in a dose-dependent manner. SARMs induced recruitment of fewer cofactors than DHT; in particular, S-101479 failed to induce recruitment of canonical p160 coactivators such as SRC1, TIF2 and notably NCoA3 but only stimulated binding of AR to gelsolin and PROX1. The results suggest that a full capability of the AR to dimerize and to effectively and unselectively recruit all canonical cofactors is not a prerequisite for transcriptional activity in osteoblastic cells and resulting anabolic effects in bone tissues. Instead, few relevant cofactors might be sufficient to promote AR activity in these tissues. PMID:23449329

  4. Causal Inference for Cross-Modal Action Selection: A Computational Study in a Decision Making Framework

    PubMed Central

    Daemi, Mehdi; Harris, Laurence R.; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2016-01-01

    Animals try to make sense of sensory information from multiple modalities by categorizing them into perceptions of individual or multiple external objects or internal concepts. For example, the brain constructs sensory, spatial representations of the locations of visual and auditory stimuli in the visual and auditory cortices based on retinal and cochlear stimulations. Currently, it is not known how the brain compares the temporal and spatial features of these sensory representations to decide whether they originate from the same or separate sources in space. Here, we propose a computational model of how the brain might solve such a task. We reduce the visual and auditory information to time-varying, finite-dimensional signals. We introduce controlled, leaky integrators as working memory that retains the sensory information for the limited time-course of task implementation. We propose our model within an evidence-based, decision-making framework, where the alternative plan units are saliency maps of space. A spatiotemporal similarity measure, computed directly from the unimodal signals, is suggested as the criterion to infer common or separate causes. We provide simulations that (1) validate our model against behavioral, experimental results in tasks where the participants were asked to report common or separate causes for cross-modal stimuli presented with arbitrary spatial and temporal disparities. (2) Predict the behavior in novel experiments where stimuli have different combinations of spatial, temporal, and reliability features. (3) Illustrate the dynamics of the proposed internal system. These results confirm our spatiotemporal similarity measure as a viable criterion for causal inference, and our decision-making framework as a viable mechanism for target selection, which may be used by the brain in cross-modal situations. Further, we suggest that a similar approach can be extended to other cognitive problems where working memory is a limiting factor, such

  5. Determination of ecologically vital groundwaters at selected sites in the Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program

    SciTech Connect

    Vinikour, W.S.; Yin, S.C.L.

    1989-08-01

    The US Department of Energy is classifying groundwaters at sites in its Formerly Utilized Sites Remedial Action Program (FUSRAP). Of particular concern is the potential presence of groundwaters that are highly vulnerable to contamination and that are either (1) irreplaceable sources of drinking water or (2) ecologically vital. Conditions at nine FUSRAP sites were evaluated to determine if ecologically vital groundwaters are present. The sites evaluated were Wayne Interim Storage Site, Maywood Interim Storage Site, and Middlesex Sampling Plant in New Jersey; Ashland 2 Site, Seaway Industrial Park, Colonie Interim storage Site, and Niagara Falls Storage Site in New York; and the St. Louis Airport Site and Hazelwood Interim Storage Site in Missouri. The analyses indicated that groundwaters are vulnerable to contamination at all but two of the sites -- the Ashland 2 and Seaway Industrial Park sites in New York. Groundwater discharge points were identified within a 2-mile radius (i.e., the classification review area) of all of the sites. No ecologically vital groundwater areas exist in the vicinities of any of the nine FUSRAP sites evaluated. 35 refs., 17 figs.

  6. Exploring Conformation Selective Far Infrared Action Spectroscopy of Isolated Molecules and Solvated Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakker, Daniël; Rijs, Anouk; Mahé, Jérôme; Gaigeot, Marie-Pierre

    2015-06-01

    Far-Infrared (IR) spectroscopy has been labeled as a promising method for identifying structural motifs in large molecules. However, several hurdles have kept this promising spectral region from breaking through to widespread use for gas phase experiments. Normal modes in the far-IR mostly have weak intensities, and high brightness sources of far-IR radiation are rare. Moreover, standard density functional theory - applied to identify the specific molecular structure responsible for the measured IR spectra - does not reproduce features in the far-IR well. This mismatch can be attributed to the high degree of anharmonicity of many of the normal modes present in the far-IR. We have overcome these hurdles by combining an advanced laser source with novel experiments and high-level dynamical calculations. We present far-IR spectra of a family of phenolic molecules and solvated clusters, obtained using the free electron laser FELIX. By employing IR-UV ion-dip spectroscopy in the gas phase, we are able to obtain conformer specific far-IR spectra of isolated molecules or solvated clusters. The studied systems display both intra- and intermolecular hydrogen bonding, enabling us to study the merits of far-IR action spectroscopy for direct probing of these weak interactions. Moreover, the combination of far-IR experiments with quantum chemical calculations allows us to test the limits of the harmonic approximation in DFT calculations, and to test the possibilities of employing a more sophisticated technique, namely Born-Oppenheimer molecular dynamics.

  7. Metabolic activation and antineoplastic-selective mechanism of action of two novel fluoropyrimidines

    SciTech Connect

    Boothman, D.A.

    1986-01-01

    The coadministration of tetrahydrouridine (H/sub 4/Urd) diverted the metabolism of /sup 3/H-5-fluoro-2'-deoxycytidine (FdCyd) in human epidermoid laryngeal carcinoma (HEp-2) cells through the deoxycytidine kinase-deoxycytidylate deaminase (dCK-dCMPD) pathway to the formation of 5-fluorodeoxyuridylate (FdUMP) without the incorporation of 5-fluorouridylate (FUMP) into RNA or the formation of RNA-level antimetabolite pools. Antimetabolite pool sizes, as assayed by HPLC, following treatment of BD2F/sub 1/ mice bearing ascitic mammary adenocarcinoma-755 (ADC-755) or Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) with /sup 3/H-FdCyd + H/sub 4/ Urd resulted in pool sizes indicative of a tumor-selective, dual pathway metabolism of FdCyd via both the cytidine deaminase-deoxythymidine kinase (CD-dTK) and dCK-dCMPD pathways. In contrast to the high levels of all RNA- and DNA-level antimetabolites derived from FdCyd found in tumor tissue, in normal tissues (bone marrow, intestine, liver and spleen) and in serum, FdCyd was metabolized to only a small extent, all antimetabolite pools were markedly lower. /sup 3/H-FdCyd + H/sub 4/Urd exposure resulted in selective incorporation of antimetabolites into tumor RNA and DNA. dCMPD and CD enzyme assays have confirmed that H/sub 4/Urd administration effectively inhibited the low CD activity in normal, but not the elevated levels found in tumor tissue.

  8. Dopamine dynamics during emotional cognitive processing: Implications of the specific actions of clozapine compared with haloperidol.

    PubMed

    Kawano, Masahiko; Oshibuchi, Hidehiro; Kawano, Takaaki; Muraoka, Hiroyuki; Tsutsumi, Takahiro; Yamada, Makiko; Inada, Ken; Ishigooka, Jun

    2016-06-15

    Clozapine has improved efficacy relative to typical antipsychotics in schizophrenia treatment, particularly regarding emotional symptoms. However, the mechanisms underlying its therapeutic benefits remain unclear. Using a methamphetamine-sensitised rat model, we measured changes in dopamine levels in the amygdalae in response to a fear-conditioned cue, serving as a biochemical marker of emotional cognitive processing disruption in psychosis, for analysing the biochemical mechanisms associated with the clinical benefits of clozapine. We also compared how clozapine and haloperidol affected basal dopamine levels and phasic dopamine release in response to the fear-conditioned cue. Extracellular dopamine was collected from the amygdalae of freely moving rats via microdialysis and was analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clozapine or haloperidol was injected during microdialysis, followed by exposure to the fear-conditioned cue. We analysed the ratio of change in dopamine levels from baseline. Haloperidol treatment increased the baseline dopamine levels in both non-sensitised and sensitised rats. Conversely, clozapine only increased the basal dopamine levels in the non-sensitised rats, but not in the sensitised rats. Although both antipsychotics attenuated phasic dopamine release in both the non-sensitised and sensitised rats, the attenuation extent was greater for clozapine than for haloperidol under both dopaminergic conditions. Our findings indicate that stabilized dopamine release in the amygdalae is a common therapeutic mechanism of antipsychotic action during emotional processing. However, the specific dopaminergic state-dependent action of clozapine on both basal dopamine levels and stress-induced dopamine release may be the underlying mechanism for its superior clinical effect on emotional cognitive processing in patients with schizophrenia. PMID:27085900

  9. Selective actions of Lynx proteins on different nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xin; Bao, Haibo; Sun, Huahua; Zhang, Yixi; Fang, Jichao; Liu, Qinghong; Liu, Zewen

    2015-08-01

    Nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) are major neurotransmitter receptors and targets of neonicotinoid insecticides in the insect nervous system. The full function of nAChRs is often dependent on associated proteins, such as chaperones, regulators and modulators. Here, three Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins, Loc-lynx1, Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3, were identified in the locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis. Co-expression with Lynx resulted in a dramatic increase in agonist-evoked macroscopic currents on nAChRs Locα1/β2 and Locα2/β2 in Xenopus oocytes, but no changes in agonist sensitivity. Loc-lynx1 and Loc-lynx3 only modulated nAChRs Locα1/β2 while Loc-lynx2 modulated Locα2/β2 specifically. Meanwhile, Loc-lynx1 induced a more significant increase in currents evoked by imidacloprid and epibatidine than Loc-lynx3, and the effects of Loc-lynx1 on imidacloprid and epibatidine were significantly higher than those on acetylcholine. Among three lynx proteins, only Loc-lynx1 significantly increased [(3) H]epibatidine binding on Locα1/β2. The results indicated that Loc-lynx1 had different modulation patterns in nAChRs compared to Loc-lynx2 and Loc-lynx3. Taken together, these findings indicated that three Lynx proteins were nAChR modulators and had selective activities in different nAChRs. Lynx proteins might display their selectivities from three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. Insect Lynx (Ly-6/neurotoxin) proteins act as the allosteric modulators on insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), the important targets of insecticides. We found that insect lynx proteins showed their selectivities from at least three aspects: nAChR subtypes, various agonists and different modulation patterns. PMID:25951893

  10. The Interference of Selected Cytotoxic Alkaloids with the Cytoskeleton: An Insight into Their Modes of Action.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojuan; Tanaka, Mine; Krstin, Sonja; Peixoto, Herbenya Silva; Wink, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Alkaloids, the largest group among the nitrogen-containing secondary metabolites of plants, usually interact with several molecular targets. In this study, we provide evidence that six cytotoxic alkaloids (sanguinarine, chelerythrine, chelidonine, noscapine, protopine, homoharringtonine), which are known to affect neuroreceptors, protein biosynthesis and nucleic acids, also interact with the cellular cytoskeleton, such as microtubules and actin filaments, as well. Sanguinarine, chelerythrine and chelidonine depolymerized the microtubule network in living cancer cells (Hela cells and human osteosarcoma U2OS cells) and inhibited tubulin polymerization in vitro with IC50 values of 48.41 ± 3.73, 206.39 ± 4.20 and 34.51 ± 9.47 μM, respectively. However, sanguinarine and chelerythrine did not arrest the cell cycle while 2.5 μM chelidonine arrested the cell cycle in the G₂/M phase with 88.27% ± 0.99% of the cells in this phase. Noscapine and protopine apparently affected microtubule structures in living cells without affecting tubulin polymerization in vitro, which led to cell cycle arrest in the G2/M phase, promoting this cell population to 73.42% ± 8.31% and 54.35% ± 11.26% at a concentration of 80 μM and 250.9 μM, respectively. Homoharringtonine did not show any effects on microtubules and cell cycle, while the known microtubule-stabilizing agent paclitaxel was found to inhibit tubulin polymerization in the presence of MAPs in vitro with an IC50 value of 38.19 ± 3.33 μM. Concerning actin filaments, sanguinarine, chelerythrine and chelidonine exhibited a certain effect on the cellular actin filament network by reducing the mass of actin filaments. The interactions of these cytotoxic alkaloids with microtubules and actin filaments present new insights into their molecular modes of action. PMID:27420038

  11. Path selection process utilizing rapid estimation scheme. [for Martian rover

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ring, H.; Shen, C. N.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the use of a rapid estimation scheme for path selection by a roving vehicle. Essentially, the evaluation procedure simulates movement of the rover over each of several corridors lying radially outward from the scanning position. Two levels of corridors are used, and the path selection scheme selects the optimal primary corridor according to a dynamic programming algorithm. In the present version, the length of the corridors is variable. The rapid estimation scheme provides information to define corridor dimensions. This corridor structure, which varies as a function of the terrain, eliminates the need for backtracking, except in certain extreme cases. Computer results are promising in that obstacles were avoided while corridor lengths were kept to a maximum where safety permitted.

  12. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Dreyer, Felix R.; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., “love”) which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories – related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts – was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or ‘epiphenomenal’ to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into

  13. Is the Motor System Necessary for Processing Action and Abstract Emotion Words? Evidence from Focal Brain Lesions.

    PubMed

    Dreyer, Felix R; Frey, Dietmar; Arana, Sophie; von Saldern, Sarah; Picht, Thomas; Vajkoczy, Peter; Pulvermüller, Friedemann

    2015-01-01

    Neuroimaging and neuropsychological experiments suggest that modality-preferential cortices, including motor- and somatosensory areas, contribute to the semantic processing of action related concrete words. Still, a possible role of sensorimotor areas in processing abstract meaning remains under debate. Recent fMRI studies indicate an involvement of the left sensorimotor cortex in the processing of abstract-emotional words (e.g., "love") which resembles activation patterns seen for action words. But are the activated areas indeed necessary for processing action-related and abstract words? The current study now investigates word processing in two patients suffering from focal brain lesion in the left frontocentral motor system. A speeded Lexical Decision Task on meticulously matched word groups showed that the recognition of nouns from different semantic categories - related to food, animals, tools, and abstract-emotional concepts - was differentially affected. Whereas patient HS with a lesion in dorsolateral central sensorimotor systems next to the hand area showed a category-specific deficit in recognizing tool words, patient CA suffering from lesion centered in the left supplementary motor area was primarily impaired in abstract-emotional word processing. These results point to a causal role of the motor cortex in the semantic processing of both action-related object concepts and abstract-emotional concepts and therefore suggest that the motor areas previously found active in action-related and abstract word processing can serve a meaning-specific necessary role in word recognition. The category-specific nature of the observed dissociations is difficult to reconcile with the idea that sensorimotor systems are somehow peripheral or 'epiphenomenal' to meaning and concept processing. Rather, our results are consistent with the claim that cognition is grounded in action and perception and based on distributed action perception circuits reaching into modality

  14. Comparison of the β-Adrenergic Receptor Antagonists Landiolol and Esmolol: Receptor Selectivity, Partial Agonism, and Pharmacochaperoning Actions.

    PubMed

    Nasrollahi-Shirazi, Shahrooz; Sucic, Sonja; Yang, Qiong; Freissmuth, Michael; Nanoff, Christian

    2016-10-01

    Blockage of β1-adrenergic receptors is one of the most effective treatments in cardiovascular medicine. Esmolol was introduced some three decades ago as a short-acting β1-selective antagonist. Landiolol is a more recent addition. Here we compared the two compounds for their selectivity for β1-adrenergic receptors over β2-adrenergic receptors, partial agonistic activity, signaling bias, and pharmacochaperoning action by using human embryonic kidney (HEK)293 cell lines, which heterologously express each human receptor subtype. The affinity of landiolol for β1-adrenergic receptors and β2-adrenergic receptors was higher and lower than that of esmolol, respectively, resulting in an improved selectivity (216-fold versus 30-fold). The principal metabolite of landiolol (M1) was also β1-selective, but its affinity was very low. Both landiolol and esmolol caused a very modest rise in cAMP levels but a robust increase in the phosphorylation of extracellular signal regulated kinases 1 and 2, indicating that the two drugs exerted partial agonist activity with a signaling bias. If cells were incubated for ≥24 hours in the presence of ≥1 μM esmolol, the levels of β1-adrenergic-but not of β2-adrenergic-receptors increased. This effect was contingent on export of the β1-receptor from endoplasmic reticulum and was not seen in the presence of landiolol. On the basis of these observations, we conclude that landiolol offers the advantage of: 1) improved selectivity and 2) the absence of pharmacochaperoning activity, which sensitizes cells to rebound effects upon drug discontinuation. PMID:27451411

  15. Secondary Bifurcations in a Lotka-Volterra Model for N Competitors with Applications to Action Selection and Compulsive Behaviors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frank, T. D.

    A Lotka-Volterra model for an arbitrary number of competitors is studied for different ratios of self-inhibition versus cross-inhibition. It is shown that winner-takes-all fixed points (states of single surviving species) are the only stable fixed points of the model when cross-inhibition exceeds self-inhibition. Secondary bifurcations in terms of bifurcations between winner-takes-all fixed points induced by changes in the exponential growth rates of competitors are studied and the critical control parameters are identified. A selection principle is derived that states that evolution proceeds in such a way that exponential growth rates of surviving competitors are magnified in evolutionary bifurcation steps. The interacting competitor model is applied as an amplitude equation model for interacting patterns of self-organizing pattern formation systems with an eye on action selection and compulsive behaviors in humans. The possibility is discussed that human behavior is subjected to the selection principle of "faster growth rates".

  16. ANALYSIS OF SELECTED FACTORS RELATIVE TO AUTOMATED SCHOOL SCHEDULING PROCESSES.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CHAFFEE, LEONARD M.; HELLER, ROBERT W.

    PROJECT PASS (PROJECT IN AUTOMATED SCHOOL SCHEDULING) WAS SPONSORED IN 1965 BY THE WESTERN NEW YORK SCHOOL STUDY COUNCIL TO PROVIDE IN-SERVICE EDUCATION FOR SCHOOL PERSONNEL CONTEMPLATING THE USE OF AUTOMATED APPROACHES TO SCHOOL SCHEDULING. TWO TECHNIQUES WERE UTILIZED--CLASS LOADING AND STUDENT SELECTION (CLASS), AND GENERAL ACADEMIC SIMULATION…

  17. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING... proposals will be reviewed by NIST to assure compliance with the proposal content and other basic provisions... and selection of finalists. NIST will appoint an evaluation panel to review and evaluate all...

  18. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING... proposals will be reviewed by NIST to assure compliance with the proposal content and other basic provisions... and selection of finalists. NIST will appoint an evaluation panel to review and evaluate all...

  19. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING... proposals will be reviewed by NIST to assure compliance with the proposal content and other basic provisions... and selection of finalists. NIST will appoint an evaluation panel to review and evaluate all...

  20. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING... proposals will be reviewed by NIST to assure compliance with the proposal content and other basic provisions... and selection of finalists. NIST will appoint an evaluation panel to review and evaluate all...

  1. 15 CFR 292.5 - Proposal selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS MANUFACTURING... proposals will be reviewed by NIST to assure compliance with the proposal content and other basic provisions... and selection of finalists. NIST will appoint an evaluation panel to review and evaluate all...

  2. LEACHING AND SELECTED HYDRAULIC PROPERTIES OF PROCESSED OIL SHALES

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a column leaching test procedure developed to simulate the leaching of high volume wastes under semi-arid field conditions. The report also presents results obtained when retorted oil shales (Tosco, Paraho, Lurgi) are leached by this procedure. Selected hydr...

  3. 45 CFR 2522.400 - What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Selection of AmeriCorps Programs § 2522.400 What process does the Corporation use to select new grantees... staff review, and approval by the Chief Executive Officer or the Board of Directors, or their designee....

  4. Remedial action plan for the inactive Uranium Processing Site at Naturita, Colorado. Remedial action plan: Attachment 2, Geology report, Attachment 3, Ground water hydrology report: Working draft

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    The uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado, is one of 24 inactive uranium mill sites designated to be cleaned up by the US Department of Energy (DOE) under the Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), 42 USC {section}7901 et seq. Part of the UMTRCA requires that the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) concur with the DOE`s remedial action plan (RAP) and certify that the remedial action conducted at the site complies with the standards promulgated by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). This RAP serves two purposes. First, it describes the activities that are proposed by the DOE to accomplish remediation and long-term stabilization and control of the radioactive materials at the inactive uranium processing site near Naturita, Colorado. Second, this RAP, upon concurrence and execution by the DOE, the state of Colorado, and the NRC, become Appendix B of the cooperative agreement between the DOE and the state of Colorado.

  5. Environmental assessment of remedial action at the inactive uraniferous lignite processing sites at Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota. [UMTRA Project

    SciTech Connect

    Beranich, S.; Berger, N.; Bierley, D.; Bond, T.M.; Burt, C.; Caldwell, J.A.; Dery, V.A.; Dutcher, A.; Glover, W.A.; Heydenburg, R.J.; Larson, N.B.; Lindsey, G.; Longley, J.M.; Millard, J.B.; Miller, M.; Peel, R.C.; Persson-Reeves, C.H.; Titus, F.B.; Wagner, L.

    1989-09-01

    The Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978 (UMTRCA), to clean up the Belfield and Bowman, North Dakota, uraniferous lignite processing sites to reduce the potential health impacts associated with the residual radioactive materials remaining at these sites. Remedial action at these sites must be performed in accordance with the US Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standards promulgated for the remedial action and with the concurrence of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) and the state of North Dakota. The inactive Belfield uraniferous lignite processing site is one mile southeast of Belfield, North Dakota. The inactive Bowman uraniferous lignite processing site at the former town of Griffin, is seven miles northwest of Bowman, North Dakota and 65 road miles south of Belfield. Lignite ash from the processing operations has contaminated the soils over the entire 10.7-acre designated Belfield site and the entire 12.1-acre designated Bowman site. Dispersion of the ash has contaminated an additional 20.6 acres surrounding the Belfield processing site and an additional 59.2 acres surrounding the Bowman processing site. The proposed remedial action is to relocate the contaminated materials at the Belfield processing site to the Bowman processing/disposal site for codisposal with the Bowman contaminated soils. The environmental impacts assessed in this EA were evaluated for the proposed remedial action and the no action alternative and demonstrate that the proposed action would not significantly affect the quality of the human environment and would be performed in compliance with applicable environmental laws. The no action alternative would not be consistent with the intent of Public Law 95-604 and would not comply with the EPA standards. 48 refs., 10 figs., 7 tabs.

  6. Adhesive materials and processing selection for environmentally conscious manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Tira, J.S.

    1995-06-01

    Manufacturers that use certain adhesives and related manufacturing processes must consider the impact they have on worker health, safety, and the environment. Product manufacturers must find alternate replacements for solvent-based adhesives and solvent cements. In addition, processes that use ozone-depleting solvents for hand-wipe cleaning operations as well as vapor degreasing must find suitable alternates in order to be environmentally compliant. Likewise, manufacturers that use etching solutions that contain chrome must find a replacement. This paper identifies some of the specific problems associated with using certain adhesives and manufacturing processes. Environmentally acceptable alternative adhesives and processes are presented.

  7. Acoustic Aposematism and Evasive Action in Select Chemically Defended Arctiine (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Species: Nonchalant or Not?

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, Nicolas J.; Conner, William E.

    2016-01-01

    Tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) have experienced intense selective pressure from echolocating, insectivorous bats for over 65 million years. One outcome has been the evolution of acoustic signals that advertise the presence of toxins sequestered from the moths’ larval host plants, i.e. acoustic aposematism. Little is known about the effectiveness of tiger moth anti-bat sounds in their natural environments. We used multiple infrared cameras to reconstruct bat-moth interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) space to examine how functional sound-producing organs called tymbals affect predation of two chemically defended tiger moth species: Pygarctia roseicapitis (Arctiini) and Cisthene martini (Lithosiini). P. roseicapitis and C. martini with intact tymbals were 1.8 and 1.6 times less likely to be captured by bats relative to those rendered silent. 3-D flight path and acoustic analyses indicated that bats actively avoided capturing sound-producing moths. Clicking behavior differed between the two tiger moth species, with P. roseicapitis responding in an earlier phase of bat attack. Evasive flight behavior in response to bat attacks was markedly different between the two tiger moth species. P. roseicapitis frequently paired evasive dives with aposematic sound production. C. martini were considerably more nonchalant and employed evasion in fewer interactions. Our results show that acoustic aposematism is effective at deterring bat predation in a natural context and that this strategy is likely to be the ancestral function of tymbal organs within the Arctiinae. PMID:27096408

  8. Acoustic Aposematism and Evasive Action in Select Chemically Defended Arctiine (Lepidoptera: Erebidae) Species: Nonchalant or Not?

    PubMed

    Dowdy, Nicolas J; Conner, William E

    2016-01-01

    Tiger moths (Erebidae: Arctiinae) have experienced intense selective pressure from echolocating, insectivorous bats for over 65 million years. One outcome has been the evolution of acoustic signals that advertise the presence of toxins sequestered from the moths' larval host plants, i.e. acoustic aposematism. Little is known about the effectiveness of tiger moth anti-bat sounds in their natural environments. We used multiple infrared cameras to reconstruct bat-moth interactions in three-dimensional (3-D) space to examine how functional sound-producing organs called tymbals affect predation of two chemically defended tiger moth species: Pygarctia roseicapitis (Arctiini) and Cisthene martini (Lithosiini). P. roseicapitis and C. martini with intact tymbals were 1.8 and 1.6 times less likely to be captured by bats relative to those rendered silent. 3-D flight path and acoustic analyses indicated that bats actively avoided capturing sound-producing moths. Clicking behavior differed between the two tiger moth species, with P. roseicapitis responding in an earlier phase of bat attack. Evasive flight behavior in response to bat attacks was markedly different between the two tiger moth species. P. roseicapitis frequently paired evasive dives with aposematic sound production. C. martini were considerably more nonchalant and employed evasion in fewer interactions. Our results show that acoustic aposematism is effective at deterring bat predation in a natural context and that this strategy is likely to be the ancestral function of tymbal organs within the Arctiinae. PMID:27096408

  9. Motor unit action potential conduction velocity estimated from surface electromyographic signals using image processing techniques.

    PubMed

    Soares, Fabiano Araujo; Carvalho, João Luiz Azevedo; Miosso, Cristiano Jacques; de Andrade, Marcelino Monteiro; da Rocha, Adson Ferreira

    2015-01-01

    In surface electromyography (surface EMG, or S-EMG), conduction velocity (CV) refers to the velocity at which the motor unit action potentials (MUAPs) propagate along the muscle fibers, during contractions. The CV is related to the type and diameter of the muscle fibers, ion concentration, pH, and firing rate of the motor units (MUs). The CV can be used in the evaluation of contractile properties of MUs, and of muscle fatigue. The most popular methods for CV estimation are those based on maximum likelihood estimation (MLE). This work proposes an algorithm for estimating CV from S-EMG signals, using digital image processing techniques. The proposed approach is demonstrated and evaluated, using both simulated and experimentally-acquired multichannel S-EMG signals. We show that the proposed algorithm is as precise and accurate as the MLE method in typical conditions of noise and CV. The proposed method is not susceptible to errors associated with MUAP propagation direction or inadequate initialization parameters, which are common with the MLE algorithm. Image processing -based approaches may be useful in S-EMG analysis to extract different physiological parameters from multichannel S-EMG signals. Other new methods based on image processing could also be developed to help solving other tasks in EMG analysis, such as estimation of the CV for individual MUs, localization and tracking of innervation zones, and study of MU recruitment strategies. PMID:26384112

  10. New Decision Tool To Evaluate Award Selection Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thornley, Richard; Spence, Matthew W.; Taylor, Mark; Magnan, Jacques

    2002-01-01

    Describes an Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research initiative to enhance the review process for its training awards using a new tool based on the ProGrid decision-assist software. Implementation resulted in several modifications to the review process in the areas of definition, rationality, fairness, timeliness, and responsiveness; the…

  11. Selective Archiving of Web Resources: A Study of Processing Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willer, Mirna; Buzina, Tanja; Holub, Karolina; Zajec, Jasenka; Milinovic, Miroslav; Topolscak, Nebojsa

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to assess costs in the National and University Library of Croatia for processing Croatian web resources and the maintenance and development of the service, and to analyse the present organisation and workflow of their processing, and to propose improvements. Design/methodology/approach: The assessment period…

  12. Cryostat "UV" Relief Valve Selection and Process Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Mulholland, G.T.; Wintercorn, S.J.; /Fermilab

    1987-08-11

    This report describes the selection of the relief valves for the D-Zero cryostats. The selection was based on the flow requirements calculated in D-Zero engineering note 3740.214,224-EN-6 under fire conditions (1200 F, no vacuum) for the central cryostat; 264 SCFM. This value was calculated from section 5.3.5 of 'Pressure Relief Device Standards; S 1.3-Compressed Gas Storage Containers', published by the Compressed Gas Association, Inc. The flow calculated above is far greater than the required fire condition flow capacity of 264 SCFM. The improbable 70 F flow temperature value of 738 SCFM is still much greater than the required fire capacity. The flow capacity of the paralleled supplemental rupture disc is 2640 SCFM, independently greater than the fire condition flow requirement.

  13. Factors influencing equipment selection in electron beam processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnard, J. W.

    2003-08-01

    During the eighties and nineties accelerator manufacturers dramatically increased the beam power available for high-energy equipment. This effort was directed primarily at meeting the demands of the sterilization industry. During this era, the perception that bigger (higher power, higher energy) was always better prevailed since the operating and capital costs of accelerators did not increase with power and energy as fast as the throughput. High power was needed to maintain per unit costs low for treatment. This philosophy runs counter to certain present-day realities of the sterilization business as well as conditions influencing accelerator selection in other electron beam applications. Recent experience in machine selection is described and factors affecting choice are presented.

  14. NERSC-6 Workload Analysis and Benchmark Selection Process

    SciTech Connect

    Antypas, Katie; Shalf, John; Wasserman, Harvey

    2008-08-29

    This report describes efforts carried out during early 2008 to determine some of the science drivers for the"NERSC-6" next-generation high-performance computing system acquisition. Although the starting point was existing Greenbooks from DOE and the NERSC User Group, the main contribution of this work is an analysis of the current NERSC computational workload combined with requirements information elicited from key users and other scientists about expected needs in the 2009-2011 timeframe. The NERSC workload is described in terms of science areas, computer codes supporting research within those areas, and description of key algorithms that comprise the codes. This work was carried out in large part to help select a small set of benchmark programs that accurately capture the science and algorithmic characteristics of the workload. The report concludes with a description of the codes selected and some preliminary performance data for them on several important systems.

  15. Selective action of two aporphines at alpha 1-adrenoceptors and potential-operated Ca2+ channels.

    PubMed

    Ivorra, M D; Chuliá, S; Lugnier, C; D'Ocon, M P

    1993-02-01

    Contractions evoked by noradrenaline (1 microM) or a depolarizing solution of 60 mM KCl were concentration dependently depressed by the aporphine alkaloids (S)-boldine and (R)-apomorphine in rat aorta. Both drugs had a greater inhibitory potency on the contraction elicited by noradrenaline. Dose-response curves for noradrenaline were shifted to the right in presence of (S)-boldine. (R)-Apomorphine acted by a complex mechanism at alpha 1-adrenoceptors and its inhibitory effect was irreversible. The conformational features of these alkaloids may explain their different behaviour at alpha 1-adrenoceptors. In Ca(2+)-free solution, the alkaloids inhibited the contraction evoked by noradrenaline but did not modify (apomorphine) or increase (boldine) the contractile response induced by caffeine. Both alkaloids interacted with [3H]prazosin binding and with the benzothiazepine binding site of the Ca2+ entry receptor complex but had no effect at the dihydropyridine binding site in the rat cerebral cortex. Both drugs showed some selectivity as inhibitors of [3H]prazosin binding as opposed to [3H]d-cis diltiazem binding. (R)-Apomorphine slightly inhibited one of the two forms of the Ca(2+)-independent, low Km cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (type IV), whereas it did not have a significant effect on the other phosphodiesterase forms. (S)-Boldine had negligible inhibitory effects on all phosphodiesterase forms. The present study provides evidence that (S)-boldine and (R)-apomorphine have interesting properties as Ca2+ entry blockers (through the benzothiazepine receptor site in the Ca2+ channel) and at alpha 1-adrenoceptors. PMID:8384112

  16. Dipeptidyl Peptidase IV as a Potential Target for Selective Prodrug Activation and Chemotherapeutic Action in Cancers

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs is often offset by severe side effects attributable to poor selectivity and toxicity to normal cells. Recently, the enzyme dipeptidyl peptidase IV (DPPIV) was considered as a potential target for the delivery of chemotherapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of targeting chemotherapeutic drugs to DPPIV as a strategy to enhance their specificity. The expression profile of DPPIV was obtained for seven cancer cell lines using DNA microarray data from the DTP database, and was validated by RT-PCR. A prodrug was then synthesized by linking the cytotoxic drug melphalan to a proline-glycine dipeptide moiety, followed by hydrolysis studies in the seven cell lines with a standard substrate, as well as the glycyl-prolyl-melphalan (GP-Mel). Lastly, cell proliferation studies were carried out to demonstrate enzyme-dependent activation of the candidate prodrug. The relative RT-PCR expression levels of DPPIV in the cancer cell lines exhibited linear correlation with U95Av2 Affymetrix data (r2 = 0.94), and with specific activity of a standard substrate, glycine-proline-p-nitroanilide (r2 = 0.96). The significantly higher antiproliferative activity of GP-Mel in Caco-2 cells (GI50 = 261 μM) compared to that in SK-MEL-5 cells (GI50 = 807 μM) was consistent with the 9-fold higher specific activity of the prodrug in Caco-2 cells (5.14 pmol/min/μg protein) compared to SK-MEL-5 cells (0.68 pmol/min/μg protein) and with DPPIV expression levels in these cells. Our results demonstrate the great potential to exploit DPPIV as a prodrug activating enzyme for efficient chemotherapeutic drug targeting. PMID:25365774

  17. Neuroprotective actions of GR89696, a highly potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist.

    PubMed Central

    Birch, P. J.; Rogers, H.; Hayes, A. G.; Hayward, N. J.; Tyers, M. B.; Scopes, D. I.; Naylor, A.; Judd, D. B.

    1991-01-01

    1. The effect of a novel, highly potent and selective kappa-opioid receptor agonist, GR89696, has been evaluated in two animal models of cerebral ischaemia: transient bilateral carotid artery occlusion in the Mongolian gerbil and permanent, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion in the mouse. 2. In the Mongolian gerbil model, administration of GR89696 (3 to 30 micrograms kg-1, s.c.), immediately before and at 4 h after insult, produced a dose-dependent reduction in the hippocampal CA1 neuronal cell loss resulting from a 7-min bilateral carotid occlusion. Similar effects were obtained with two other kappa-agonists, GR86014 (1 mgkg-1, s.c.) and GR91272 (1 mgkg-1, s.c.). The neuroprotective effect of GR89696 was completely blocked by prior administration of the opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone, at 10 mgkg-1, s.c. Repeated post-treatment with GR89696 (100 micrograms kg-1, s.c.) or GR44821 (10 mgkg-1, s.c.) was also effective in protecting completely the hippocampal CA1 neurones from ischaemia-induced neurodegeneration. 3. In the permanent, unilateral middle cerebral artery occlusion model in the mouse, repeated administration of GR89696 at 300 micrograms kg-1, s.c. produced a 50% reduction in cerebrocortical infarct volume. In these experiments GR89696 was dosed 5 min, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h after occlusion on the first day and then three times daily for the next three days. GR89696 (300 micrograms kg-1) also produced a significant 35% reduction in infarct volume in this model when the initiation of dosing was delayed for 6 h after the insult. 4. The results indicate that the potent kappa-opioid receptor agonist, GR89696, is neuroprotective in both global and focal cerebral ischaemia models and suggest that, with this class of compound, there may be a considerable time window for pharmacological intervention. PMID:1657267

  18. Conformational selection underpins recognition of multiple DNA sequences by proteins and consequent functional actions.

    PubMed

    Naiya, Gitashri; Raha, Paromita; Mondal, Manas Kumar; Pal, Uttam; Saha, Rajesh; Chaudhuri, Susobhan; Batabyal, Subrata; Kumar Pal, Samir; Bhattacharyya, Dhananjay; Maiti, Nakul C; Roy, Siddhartha

    2016-08-21

    Recognition of multiple functional DNA sequences by a DNA-binding protein occurs widely in nature. The physico-chemical basis of this phenomenon is not well-understood. The E. coli gal repressor, a gene regulatory protein, binds two homologous but non-identical sixteen basepair sequences in the gal operon and interacts by protein-protein interaction to regulate gene expression. The two sites have nearly equal affinities for the Gal repressor. Spectroscopic studies of the Gal repressor bound to these two different DNA sequences detected significant conformational differences between them. Comprehensive single base-substitution and binding measurements were carried out on the two sequences to understand the nature of the two protein-DNA interfaces. Magnitudes of basepair-protein interaction energy show significant variation between homologous positions of the two DNA sequences. Magnitudes of variation are such that when summed over the whole sequence they largely cancel each other out, thus producing nearly equal net affinity. Modeling suggests significant alterations in the protein-DNA interface in the two complexes, which are consistent with conformational adaptation of the protein to different DNA sequences. The functional role of the two sequences was studied by substitution of one site by the other and vice versa. In both cases, substitution reduces repression in vivo. This suggests that naturally occurring DNA sequence variations play functional roles beyond merely acting as high-affinity anchoring points. We propose that two different pre-existing conformations in the conformational ensemble of the free protein are selected by two different DNA sequences for efficient sequence read-out and the conformational difference of the bound proteins leads to different functional roles. PMID:27426617

  19. Action selection performance of a reconfigurable basal ganglia inspired model with Hebbian-Bayesian Go-NoGo connectivity.

    PubMed

    Berthet, Pierre; Hellgren-Kotaleski, Jeanette; Lansner, Anders

    2012-01-01

    Several studies have shown a strong involvement of the basal ganglia (BG) in action selection and dopamine dependent learning. The dopaminergic signal to striatum, the input stage of the BG, has been commonly described as coding a reward prediction error (RPE), i.e., the difference between the predicted and actual reward. The RPE has been hypothesized to be critical in the modulation of the synaptic plasticity in cortico-striatal synapses in the direct and indirect pathway. We developed an abstract computational model of the BG, with a dual pathway structure functionally corresponding to the direct and indirect pathways, and compared its behavior to biological data as well as other reinforcement learning models. The computations in our model are inspired by Bayesian inference, and the synaptic plasticity changes depend on a three factor Hebbian-Bayesian learning rule based on co-activation of pre- and post-synaptic units and on the value of the RPE. The model builds on a modified Actor-Critic architecture and implements the direct (Go) and the indirect (NoGo) pathway, as well as the reward prediction (RP) system, acting in a complementary fashion. We investigated the performance of the model system when different configurations of the Go, NoGo, and RP system were utilized, e.g., using only the Go, NoGo, or RP system, or combinations of those. Learning performance was investigated in several types of learning paradigms, such as learning-relearning, successive learning, stochastic learning, reversal learning and a two-choice task. The RPE and the activity of the model during learning were similar to monkey electrophysiological and behavioral data. Our results, however, show that there is not a unique best way to configure this BG model to handle well all the learning paradigms tested. We thus suggest that an agent might dynamically configure its action selection mode, possibly depending on task characteristics and also on how much time is available. PMID:23060764

  20. Enhanced attention and impulsive action following NMDA receptor GluN2B-selective antagonist pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Guy A; Silenieks, Leo B; MacMillan, Cam; Sevo, Julia; Zeeb, Fiona D; Thevarkunnel, Sandy

    2016-09-15

    NMDA GluN2B (NR2B) subtype selective antagonists are currently in clinical development for a variety of indications, including major depression. We previously reported the selective NMDA GluN2B antagonists Ro 63-1908 and traxoprodil, increase premature responding in a 5-choice serial reaction time task (5-CSRTT) suggesting an effect on impulsive action. The present studies extend these investigations to a Go-NoGo and delay discounting task, and the 5-CSRTT under test conditions of both regular (5s) and short (2-5s) multiple ITI (Intertrial interval). Dizocilpine was included for comparison. Both Ro 63-1908 (0.1-1mg/kg SC) and traxoprodil (0.3-3mg/kg SC) increased premature and perseverative responses in both 5-CSRT tasks and improved attention when tested under a short ITI test condition. Ro 63-1908 but not traxoprodil increased motor impulsivity (false alarms) in a Go-NoGo task. Dizocilpine (0.01-0.06mg/kg SC) affected both measures of motor impulsivity and marginally improved attention. In a delay discounting test of impulsive choice, both dizocilpine and Ro 63-1908 decreased impulsive choice (increased choice for the larger, delayed reward), while traxoprodil showed a similar trend. Motor stimulant effects were evident following Ro 63-1908, but not traxoprodil treatment - although no signs of motor stereotypy characteristic of dizocilpine (>0.1mg/kg) were noted. The findings of both NMDA GluN2B antagonists affecting measures of impulsive action and compulsive behavior may underpin emerging evidence to suggest glutamate signaling through the NMDA GluN2B receptor plays an important role in behavioural flexibility. The profiles between Ro 63-1908 and traxoprodil were not identical, perhaps suggesting differences between members of this drug class. PMID:27180168

  1. Knowledge-to-action processes in SHRTN collaborative communities of practice: A study protocol

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The Seniors Health Research Transfer Network (SHRTN) Collaborative is a network of networks that work together to improve the health and health care of Ontario seniors. The collaborative facilitates knowledge exchange through a library service, knowledge brokers (KBs), local implementation teams, collaborative technology, and, most importantly, Communities of Practice (CoPs) whose members work together to identify innovations, translate evidence, and help implement changes. This project aims to increase our understanding of knowledge-to-action (KTA) processes mobilized through SHRTN CoPs that are working to improve the health of Ontario seniors. For this research, KTA refers to the movement of research and experience-based knowledge between social contexts, and the use of that knowledge to improve practice. We will examine the KTA processes themselves, as well as the role of human agents within those processes. The conceptual framework we have adopted to inform our research is the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARIHS) framework. Methods/design This study will use a multiple case study design (minimum of nine cases over three years) to investigate how SHRTN CoPs work and pursue knowledge exchange in different situations. Each case will yield a unique narrative, framed around the three PARIHS dimensions: evidence, context, and facilitation. Together, the cases will shed light on how SHRTN CoPs approach their knowledge exchange initiatives, and how they respond to challenges and achieve their objectives. Data will be collected using interviews, document analysis, and ethnographic observation. Discussion This research will generate new knowledge about the defining characteristics of CoPs operating in the health system, on leadership roles in CoPs, and on the nature of interaction processes, relationships, and knowledge exchange mechanisms. Our work will yield a better understanding of the factors that contribute to the

  2. Rational adaptation under task and processing constraints: implications for testing theories of cognition and action.

    PubMed

    Howes, Andrew; Lewis, Richard L; Vera, Alonso

    2009-10-01

    The authors assume that individuals adapt rationally to a utility function given constraints imposed by their cognitive architecture and the local task environment. This assumption underlies a new approach to modeling and understanding cognition-cognitively bounded rational analysis-that sharpens the predictive acuity of general, integrated theories of cognition and action. Such theories provide the necessary computational means to explain the flexible nature of human behavior but in doing so introduce extreme degrees of freedom in accounting for data. The new approach narrows the space of predicted behaviors through analysis of the payoff achieved by alternative strategies, rather than through fitting strategies and theoretical parameters to data. It extends and complements established approaches, including computational cognitive architectures, rational analysis, optimal motor control, bounded rationality, and signal detection theory. The authors illustrate the approach with a reanalysis of an existing account of psychological refractory period (PRP) dual-task performance and the development and analysis of a new theory of ordered dual-task responses. These analyses yield several novel results, including a new understanding of the role of strategic variation in existing accounts of PRP and the first predictive, quantitative account showing how the details of ordered dual-task phenomena emerge from the rational control of a cognitive system subject to the combined constraints of internal variance, motor interference, and a response selection bottleneck. PMID:19839682

  3. Modeling of Visuospatial Perspectives Processing and Modulation of the Fronto-Parietal Network Activity during Action Imitation

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Hyuk; Gentili, Rodolphe J.; Reggia, James A.; Contreras-Vidal, José L.

    2013-01-01

    It has been suggested that the human mirror neuron system (MNS) plays a critical role in action observation and imitation. However, the transformation of perspective between the observed (allocentric) and the imitated (egocentric) actions has received little attention. We expand a previously proposed biologically plausible MNS model by incorporating general spatial transformation capabilities that are assumed to be encoded by the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the superior parietal lobule (SPL) as well as investigating their interactions with the inferior frontal gyrus and the inferior parietal lobule. The results reveal that the IPS/SPL could process the frame of reference and the viewpoint transformations, and provide invariant visual representations for the temporo-parieto-frontal circuit. This allows the imitator to imitate the action performed by a demonstrator under various perspectives while replicating results from the literatures. Our results confirm and extend the importance of perspective transformation processing during action observation and imitation. PMID:23366445

  4. Selective catalytic process for conversion of light naphtha to aromatics

    SciTech Connect

    Law, D.V.; Tamm, P.W.; Detz, C.M.

    1987-01-01

    AROMAX catalyst represents a unique advance in the development of modern reforming catalysts. The catalyst employs a zeolite to take advantage of a conversion chemistry that is entirely different from that of conventional reforming catalysts. This process chemistry, however, can still be carried out under process conditions which are essentially identical to those of conventional reforming. The result is the use of conventional designs and hardware to achieve highly efficient conversion of previously undesirable light feedstocks to high value aromatics.

  5. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED... preparation costs incurred by proposers and to make the selection process more efficient, NIST may...

  6. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED... preparation costs incurred by proposers and to make the selection process more efficient, NIST may...

  7. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED... preparation costs incurred by proposers and to make the selection process more efficient, NIST may...

  8. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED... preparation costs incurred by proposers and to make the selection process more efficient, NIST may...

  9. 15 CFR 295.5 - Use of pre-proposals in the selection process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF STANDARDS AND TECHNOLOGY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE NIST EXTRAMURAL PROGRAMS ADVANCED... preparation costs incurred by proposers and to make the selection process more efficient, NIST may...

  10. Soils Project Risk-Based Corrective Action Evaluation Process with ROTC 1 and ROTC 2, Revision 0

    SciTech Connect

    Matthews, Patrick; Sloop, Christina

    2012-04-01

    This document formally defines and clarifies the NDEP-approved process the NNSA/NSO Soils Activity uses to fulfill the requirements of the FFACO and state regulations. This process is used to establish FALs in accordance with the risk-based corrective action (RBCA) process stipulated in Chapter 445 of the Nevada Administrative Code (NAC) as described in the ASTM International (ASTM) Method E1739-95 (NAC, 2008; ASTM, 1995). It is designed to provide a set of consistent standards for chemical and radiological corrective actions.

  11. How do motoric realities shape, and become shaped by, the way people evaluate and select potential courses of action? Toward a unitary framework of embodied decision making.

    PubMed

    DeCaro, Daniel A; Bar-Eli, Michael; Conlin, Juliet A; Diederich, Adele; Johnson, Joseph G; Plessner, Henning

    2009-01-01

    Until recently, the constraints imposed on decision makers by the human physical condition - situated both as a physical agent and within physical space - have played only an incidental, if not entirely inconsequential, role in conceptualizations of human decision making. The act of deciding has been positioned as the quintessence of traditional decision theory, while actual enactment of the decided action within physical space by a corporal actor, with all that this entails, has been regarded as the obvious and, therefore, scientifically uninteresting result of having made up one's mind (cf. Bagozzi et al., 2003). However, recent discoveries made in the area of embodied cognition regarding the involvement of fundamentally motoric representations in long-presumed "cognitive" systems (Wilson, 2002) potentially turned conventional wisdom upside-down. In this chapter, we go beyond prominent theories of action selection and decision making to rethink the link between mind and body as it pertains to the relatively novel frontier of embodied decision making. In particular, we reconceptualize what it means to evaluate one's options in light of recent advancements in embodied cognition, motor control, and dynamic decision making. In the process, we provide a much needed account of the primary theoretical issues that any good account would seem to be impelled to address. Perhaps the greatest contribution provided by the present chapter is an organizing framework that we hope will guide future research to the eventual answer to what it means to be an embodied decision maker. PMID:19477340

  12. Highly selective catalytic process for synthesizing 1-hexene from ethylene

    DOEpatents

    Sen, Ayusman; Murtuza, Shahid; Harkins, Seth B.; Andes, Cecily

    2002-01-01

    Ethylene is trimerized to form 1-hexene, at a selectivity of up to about 99 mole percent, by contacting ethylene, at an ethylene pressure of from about 200-1500 psig and at a reaction temperature of from about 0.degree. C. to about 100.degree. C., with a catalyst comprising a tantalum compound (e.g., TaCl.sub.5) and a alkylating component comprising a metal hydrocarbyl compound or a metal hydrocarbyl halide compound (e.g., Sn(CH.sub.3).sub.4).

  13. Clonal status of actionable driver events and the timing of mutational processes in cancer evolution.

    PubMed

    McGranahan, Nicholas; Favero, Francesco; de Bruin, Elza C; Birkbak, Nicolai Juul; Szallasi, Zoltan; Swanton, Charles

    2015-04-15

    Deciphering whether actionable driver mutations are found in all or a subset of tumor cells will likely be required to improve drug development and precision medicine strategies. We analyzed nine cancer types to determine the subclonal frequencies of driver events, to time mutational processes during cancer evolution, and to identify drivers of subclonal expansions. Although mutations in known driver genes typically occurred early in cancer evolution, we also identified later subclonal "actionable" mutations, including BRAF (V600E), IDH1 (R132H), PIK3CA (E545K), EGFR (L858R), and KRAS (G12D), which may compromise the efficacy of targeted therapy approaches. More than 20% of IDH1 mutations in glioblastomas, and 15% of mutations in genes in the PI3K (phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase)-AKT-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin) signaling axis across all tumor types were subclonal. Mutations in the RAS-MEK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) signaling axis were less likely to be subclonal than mutations in genes associated with PI3K-AKT-mTOR signaling. Analysis of late mutations revealed a link between APOBEC-mediated mutagenesis and the acquisition of subclonal driver mutations and uncovered putative cancer genes involved in subclonal expansions, including CTNNA2 and ATXN1. Our results provide a pan-cancer census of driver events within the context of intratumor heterogeneity and reveal patterns of tumor evolution across cancers. The frequent presence of subclonal driver mutations suggests the need to stratify targeted therapy response according to the proportion of tumor cells in which the driver is identified. PMID:25877892

  14. Connecting the Dots--From Planning to Implementation: Translating Commitments into Action in a Strategic Planning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mieso, Rob Roba

    2010-01-01

    This study examines the implementation of the Commitments to Action (CTAs) that were developed for the Outreach Institutional Initiative (OII) as part of the 2006 strategic planning process at De Anza College. Although the strategic planning process identified four Institutional Initiatives (IIs) [Outreach, Individualized Attention to Student…

  15. "The Drawer Is Still Closed": Simulating Past and Future Actions when Processing Sentences that Describe a State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaup, Barbara; Ludtke, Jana; Maienborn, Claudia

    2010-01-01

    In two experiments using the action-sentence-compatibility paradigm we investigated the simulation processes that readers undertake when processing state descriptions with adjectives (e.g., "Die Schublade ist offen/zu". ["The drawer is open/shut"]) or adjectival passives (e.g., "Die Schublade ist geoffnet/geschlossen". ["The drawer is…

  16. Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body.

    PubMed

    Czarnek, Katarzyna; Terpiłowska, Sylwia; Siwicki, Andrzej K

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin. PMID:26557039

  17. Selected aspects of the action of cobalt ions in the human body

    PubMed Central

    Terpiłowska, Sylwia; Siwicki, Andrzej K.

    2015-01-01

    Cobalt is widespread in the natural environment and can be formed as an effect of anthropogenic activity. This element is used in numerous industrial applications and nuclear power plants. Cobalt is an essential trace element for the human body and can occur in organic and inorganic forms. The organic form is a necessary component of vitamin B12 and plays a very important role in forming amino acids and some proteins in nerve cells, and in creating neurotransmitters that are indispensable for correct functioning of the organism. Its excess or deficiency will influence it unfavourably. Salts of cobalt have been applied in medicine in the treatment of anaemia, as well as in sport as an attractive alternative to traditional blood doping. Inorganic forms of cobalt present in ion form, are toxic to the human body, and the longer they are stored in the body, the more changes they cause in cells. Cobalt gets into the body in several ways: firstly, with food; secondly by the respiratory system; thirdly, by the skin; and finally, as a component of biomaterials. Cobalt and its alloys are fundamental components in orthopaedic implants and have been used for about 40 years. The corrosion of metal is the main problem in the construction of implants. These released metal ions may cause type IV inflammatory and hypersensitivity reactions, and alternations in bone modelling that lead to aseptic loosening and implant failure. The ions of cobalt released from the surface of the implant are absorbed by present macrophages, which are involved in many of the processes associated with phagocytose orthopaedic biomaterials particles and release pro-inflammatory mediators such as interleukin-1 (IL-1), interleukin-6 (IL-6), tumour necrosis factor α (TNF-α), and prostaglandin. PMID:26557039

  18. Processing, selecting and ritualizing: ambivalent relationships to semen.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Dean A

    2015-05-01

    Two articles on human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and reproduction have recently been published in Reproductive BioMedicine Online, both describing developments that increase reproductive options for HIV-positive men. A study of a semen-processing technique used at a South African hospital found that two out of 103 processed samples tested positive for HIV DNA and none for RNA, indicating 98.1% and 100% effectiveness, respectively. The authors recommend semen processing followed by viral validation of processed sperm samples when providing assisted reproduction treatment to couples with an HIV-positive male partner. The other article reviews developments such as semen processing, antiretroviral (ARV) therapy and pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), which have all reduced the risk of HIV transmission in the context of reproduction. The author also notes, however, that research on fertility in the context of HIV focuses almost exclusively on heterosexual couples, and has overlooked the links between reproduction, HIV and homosexuality. This article analyses the ambivalent role of semen - associated with both reproduction and infection - and how reproductive medicine and health care in different ways seek to 'get hold' of sperm. By taking this analytic approach, sex and parenthood can be thought of as two different but related kinds of intimacy and kinship. PMID:25773527

  19. Selected Systems Engineering Process Deficiencies and Their Consequences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Lawrence Dale

    2006-01-01

    The systems engineering process is well established and well understood. While this statement could be argued in the light of the many systems engineering guidelines and that have been developed, comparative review of these respective descriptions reveal that they differ primarily in the number of discrete steps or other nuances, and are at their core essentially common. Likewise, the systems engineering textbooks differ primarily in the context for application of systems engineering or in the utilization of evolved tools and techniques, not in the basic method. Thus, failures in systems engineering cannot credibly be attributed to implementation of the wrong systems engineering process among alternatives. However, numerous systems failures can be attributed to deficient implementation of the systems engineering process. What may clearly be perceived as a system engineering deficiency in retrospect can appear to be a well considered system engineering efficiency in real time - an efficiency taken to reduce cost or meet a schedule, or more often both. Typically these efficiencies are grounded on apparently solid rationale, such as reuse of heritage hardware or software. Over time, unintended consequences of a systems engineering process deficiency may begin to be realized, and unfortunately often the consequence is system failure. This paper describes several actual cases of system failures that resulted from deficiencies in their systems engineering process implementation, including the Ariane 5 and the Hubble Space Telescope.

  20. Supercritical phase process for selective synthesis of wax from syngas

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Li; Yoshii, Kyotaka; Yan, Shi-Run

    1996-10-01

    Wax is widely used in many fields. Much attention was focused on its production method for its increasingly high price. It is difficult to selectively synthesize wax from syngas through Fischer-Tropsch reaction, due to ASF regulation. Here we report that addition of several percent of heavy {alpha}-olefins (i.e. C{sub 7}-C{sub 17}), which are of low value, into supercritical phase F-T reactions can accelerate carbon chain growth remarkably. Wax yield was enhanced twice or three times in olefin-added case, where high cobalt-content catalysts was employed. More interestingly, CO conversion and CO{sub 2} CH{sub 4} selectively decreased if heavy olefin was added. It should be stressed that this effect can not appear in gas-phase F-T reaction and is not so obvious in liquid-phase F-T reaction. Influence of catalysts pore size, type and amount of added olefins; was also investigated. Using the same high cobalt-ontent catalysts, CO/CO{sub 2} mixture gas diluted with much nitrogen reacted with hydrogen completely to form liquid hydrocarbons effectively.

  1. Development and application of microbial selective plugging processes

    SciTech Connect

    Jenneman, G.E.; Gevertz, D.; Davey, M.E.

    1995-12-31

    Phillips Petroleum Company recently completed a microbial selective plugging (MSP) pilot at the North Burbank Unit (NBU), Shidler, Oklahoma. Nutrients were selected for the pilot that could stimulate indigenous microflora in the reservoir brine to grow and produce exopolymer. It was found that soluble corn starch polymers (e.g., maltodextrins) stimulated the indigenous bacteria to produce exopolymer, whereas simple sugars (e.g., glucose and sucrose), as well as complex media (e.g., molasses and Nutrient Broth), did not. Injection of maltodextrin into rock cores in the presence of indigenous NBU bacteria resulted in stable permeability reductions (> 90%) across the entire length, while injection of glucose resulted only in face plugging. In addition, it was found that organic phosphate esters (OPE) served as a preferable source of phosphorus for the indigenous bacteria, since orthophosphates and condensed phosphates precipitated in NBU brine at reservoir temperature (45{degrees}C). Injection of maltodextrin and ethyl acid phosphate into a producing well stimulated an increase in maltodextrin utilizing bacteria (MUB) in the back-flowed, produced fluid. Additional screens of indigenous and nonindigenous bacteria yielded several nonindigenous isolates that could synthesize polymer when growing in brine containing 6% NaCl at 45{degrees}C.

  2. Selecting interventions to promote fruit and vegetable consumption: from policy to action, a planning framework case study in Western Australia

    PubMed Central

    Pollard, Christina M; Lewis, Janette M; Binns, Colin W

    2008-01-01

    Background The Department of Health in Western Australia identified access to, and daily consumption of recommended amounts of fruit and vegetables, as priority health determinants. The numerous factors that influence supply and consumption of fruit and vegetables indicated that a comprehensive approach would be required. A government and non-government sector steering group was set up to select priority interventions using the National Public Health Partnership's Framework for Implementing Public Health Strategies. This structured framework was used for developing strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply, and to identify implementation priorities. After one year a desktop audit of progress on framework interventions was undertaken. Results The structured framework led to a plan for defined actions, partners, costs, and performance indicators for strategies to improve fruit and vegetable consumption and supply. Lead agency custodians for management of the selected interventions were identified. After one year there was significant progress in the implementation of a number of the high-ranking interventions. The exception was interventions that provide the infrastructure support such as research and development capacity, information systems. Conclusion A structured framework and stakeholder participation assisted in developing a fruit and vegetable implementation strategy. Engagement and commitment of influential and diverse stakeholders is needed, not just for program support, but particularly in the areas of food and nutrition policy development and providing the infrastructure support required. Further work is required to develop performance outcomes and cost effectiveness measures for many of the strategies that have been proposed to address portfolio objectives. PMID:19108736

  3. Quality of margarine: fats selection and processing parameters.

    PubMed

    Miskandar, Mat Sahri; Man, Yaakob Che; Yusoff, Mohd Suria Affandi; Rahman, Russly Abd

    2005-01-01

    Optimum processing conditions on palm oil-based formulations are required to produce the desired quality margarine. As oils and fats contribute to the overall property of the margarine, this paper will review the importance of beta' tending oils and fats in margarine formulation, effects of the processing parameters -- emulsion temperature, flow-rate, product temperature and pin-worker speed -- on palm oil margarines produced and their subsequent behaviour in storage. Palm oil, which contributes the beta' crystal polymorph and the best alternative to hydrogenated liquid fats, and the processing conditions can affect the margarine consistency by influencing the solid fat content (SFC) and the types of crystal polymorph formed during production as well as in storage. Palm oil, or hydrogenated palm oil and olein, in mixture with oils of beta tending, can veer the product to the beta' crystal form. However, merely having beta' crystal tending oils is not sufficient as the processing conditions are also important. The emulsion temperature had no significant effect on the consistency and polymorphic changes of the product during storage, even though differences were observed during processing. The consistency of margarine during storage was high at low emulsion flow-rates and low at high flow rates. The temperature of the scraped-surface tube-cooler is the most important parameter in margarine processing. High temperature will produce a hardened product with formation of beta-crystals during storage. The speed of the pin-worker is responsible for inducing crystallization but, at the same time, destroys the crystal agglomerates, resulting in melting. PMID:16326646

  4. Evolution and the Growth Process: Natural Selection of Entrepreneurial Traits*

    PubMed Central

    Galor, Oded; Michalopoulos, Stelios

    2013-01-01

    This research suggests that a Darwinian evolution of entrepreneurial spirit played a significant role in the process of economic development and the dynamics of inequality within and across societies. The study argues that entrepreneurial spirit evolved non-monotonically in the course of human history. In early stages of development, risk-tolerant, growth promoting traits generated an evolutionary advantage and their increased representation accelerated the pace of technological progress and the process of economic development. In mature stages of development, however, risk-averse traits gained an evolutionary advantage, diminishing the growth potential of advanced economies and contributing to convergence in economic growth across countries. PMID:25089059

  5. Nurse-led action research project for expanding nurses’ role in patient education in Iran: Process, structure, and outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Parvaneh; Rassouli, Maryam; Parvizy, Soroor; Zagheri-Tafreshi, Mansoureh; Nasr-Esfahani, Mahmood

    2015-01-01

    Background: Patient education is among the lowest met need of patients in Iran; therefore, expansion of that role can result in greater professional accountability. This study aimed to explain the practical science of the process, structure, and outcomes of a nurse-led action research project to expand the nurses’ role in patient education in Iran. Materials and Methods: This study was part of a participatory action research. Daily communications and monthly joint meetings were held from January 2012 to February 2014 for planning and management. These were based on the research protocol, and the conceptual framework included the Mobilizing for Action through Planning and Partnerships process by means of Leadership for Change skills. Data were produced and gathered through participant observations. Administrative data included project records, official documents, artifacts, news, and reports, which were analyzed through qualitative content analysis. Results: A participatory project was established with three groups of participants organized from both academic and clinical fields. These consisted of a “core research support team,” “two steering committees,” and community representatives of clients and professionals as “feedback groups.” A seven-stage process, named the “Nurse Educators: Al-Zahra Role Expansion Action Research” (NEAREAR) process, resulted from the project, in which strategic issues were gradually developed and implemented through 32 action plans and quality improvement cycles of action research. Audits and supervision evaluations showed meaningful changes in capacity building components. Conclusions: A nurse-led ad hoc structure with academic–clinical partnerships and strategic management process was suggested as a possible practical model for expanding nurses’ educational role in similar contexts. Implications and practical science introduced in this action research could also be applicable for top managers and health system

  6. A Subjective and Objective Process for Athletic Training Student Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hawkins, Jeremy R.; McLoda, Todd A.; Stanek, Justin M.

    2015-01-01

    Context: Admission decisions are made annually concerning whom to accept into athletic training programs. Objective: To present an approach used to make admissions decisions at an undergraduate athletic training program and to corroborate this information by comparing each aspect to nursing program admission processes. Background: Annually,…

  7. Selective Bibliography on the History of Computing and Information Processing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aspray, William

    1982-01-01

    Lists some of the better-known and more accessible books on the history of computing and information processing, covering: (1) popular general works; (2) more technical general works; (3) microelectronics and computing; (4) artificial intelligence and robotics; (5) works relating to Charles Babbage; (6) other biographical and personal accounts;…

  8. Primary and Secondary Selection Tools in an Optometry Admission Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spafford, Marlee M.

    2000-01-01

    A five-year evaluation of the admissions decision process at the University of Waterloo (Ontario) School of Optometry found that when primary tools (i.e., university grades, Optometry Admission Test scores) did not differentiate candidates, there was an increased emphasis on secondary tools (i.e., interview, autobiographic sketch, prerequisite…

  9. School Decentralization as a Process of Differentiation, Hierarchization and Selection

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Altrichter, Herbert; Heinrich, Martin; Soukup-Altrichter, Katharina

    2014-01-01

    The Austrian "school autonomy policy", which allowed schools to develop specific "curricular profiles", is taken as an example for discussing processes and effects of school decentralization policies. Data from school case studies (based on qualitative interviews and document analysis) are used to analyse and interpret the…

  10. Development of SAP-DoA techniques for GPR data processing within COST Action TU1208

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meschino, Simone; Pajewski, Lara; Marciniak, Marian

    2016-04-01

    This work focuses on the use of Sub-Array Processing (SAP) and Direction of Arrival (DoA) approaches for the processing of Ground-Penetrating Radar data, with the purpose of locating metal scatterers embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. Research activities have been carried out during two Short-Term Scientific Missions (STSMs) funded by the COST (European COoperation in Science and Technology) Action TU1208 "Civil Engineering Applications of Ground Penetrating Radar" in May 2015 and January 2016. In applications involving smart antennas and in the presence of several transmitters operating simultaneously, it is important for a receiving array to be able to estimate the Direction of Arrival (DoA) of the incoming signals, in order to decipher how many emitters are present and predict their positions. A number of methods have been devised for DoA estimation: the MUltiple SIgnal Classification (MUSIC) and Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique (ESPRIT) are amongst the most popular ones [1]. In the scenario considered by us, the electromagnetic sources are the currents induced on metal elements embedded in concrete or buried in the ground. GPR radargrams are processed, to estimate the DoAs of the electric field back-scattered by the sought targets. In order to work in near-field conditions, a sub-array processing (SAP) approach is adopted: the radargram is partitioned in sub-radargrams composed of few A-scans each, the dominant DoA is predicted for each sub-radargram. The estimated angles are triangulated, obtaining a set of crossings with intersections condensed around object locations. This pattern is filtered, in order to remove a noisy background of unwanted crossings, and is processed by applying the statistical procedure described in [2]. We tested our approach on synthetic GPR radargrams, obtained by using the freeware simulator gprMax implementing the Finite-Difference Time-Domain method [3]. In particular, we worked with

  11. Electric Propulsion System Selection Process for Interplanetary Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Landau, Damon; Chase, James; Kowalkowski, Theresa; Oh, David; Randolph, Thomas; Sims, Jon; Timmerman, Paul

    2008-01-01

    The disparate design problems of selecting an electric propulsion system, launch vehicle, and flight time all have a significant impact on the cost and robustness of a mission. The effects of these system choices combine into a single optimization of the total mission cost, where the design constraint is a required spacecraft neutral (non-electric propulsion) mass. Cost-optimal systems are designed for a range of mass margins to examine how the optimal design varies with mass growth. The resulting cost-optimal designs are compared with results generated via mass optimization methods. Additional optimizations with continuous system parameters address the impact on mission cost due to discrete sets of launch vehicle, power, and specific impulse. The examined mission set comprises a near-Earth asteroid sample return, multiple main belt asteroid rendezvous, comet rendezvous, comet sample return, and a mission to Saturn.

  12. Process for selective production of di- and tri-alkylamines

    DOEpatents

    Klier, Kamil; Herman, Richard G.; Vedage, Gamini A.

    1984-01-01

    A primary alkyl amine and an alcohol of up to 12 carbon atoms are reacted at low temperature (50.degree.-250.degree. C.) over specific catalysts (alkali-treated catalysts generally or binary Cu/ZnO and Pd/SiO.sub.2 systems, with or without alkali treatment) to produce, with good selectivity, secondary and tertiary alkylamines of the general formula, R.sub.1 N(R.sub.2).sub.2, wherein R.sub.1 is a lower alkyl or an aryl group, and R.sub.2 is hydrogen or another lower alkyl or aryl group, with at least one of R.sub.2 's being an alkyl or aryl group.

  13. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY-CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS. VOLUME XVII. NITROGEN OXIDES SUMMARY REPORT

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. undertook a study of the 'Environmental Consideration of Selected Energy-Conserving Manufacturing Process Options.' Some 80 industrial process options were examined in 13 industrial sectors. Results were published in 15 volumes, including a summary, industr...

  14. ENVIRONMENTAL CONSIDERATIONS OF SELECTED ENERGY-CONSERVING MANUFACTURING PROCESS OPTIONS. VOLUME XX: TOXICS/ORGANICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Arthur D. Little, Inc. undertook a study of the 'Environmental Considerations of Selected Energy-Conserving Manufacturing Process Options.' Some 80 industrial process options were examined in13 industrial sectors. Results were published in 15 volumes, including a summary, industr...

  15. Selecting Processes to Minimize Hexavalent Chromium from Stainless Steel Welding

    PubMed Central

    KEANE, M.; SIERT, A.; STONE, S.; CHEN, B.; SLAVEN, J.; CUMPSTON, A.; ANTONINI, J.

    2015-01-01

    Eight welding processes/shielding gas combinations were assessed for generation of hexavalent chromium (Cr6+) in stainless steel welding fumes. The processes examined were gas metal arc welding (GMAW) (axial spray, short circuit, and pulsed spray modes), flux cored arc welding (FCAW), and shielded metal arc welding (SMAW). The Cr6+ fractions were measured in the fumes; fume generation rates, Cr6+ generation rates, and Cr6+ generation rates per unit mass of welding wire were determined. A limited controlled comparison study was done in a welding shop including SMAW, FCAW, and three GMAW methods. The processes studied were compared for costs, including relative labor costs. Results indicate the Cr6+ in the fume varied widely, from a low of 2800 to a high of 34,000 ppm. Generation rates of Cr6+ ranged from 69 to 7800 μg/min, and Cr6+ generation rates per unit of wire ranged from 1 to 270 μg/g. The results of field study were similar to the findings in the laboratory. The Cr6+ (ppm) in the fume did not necessarily correlate with the Cr6+ generation rate. Physical properties were similar for the processes, with mass median aerodynamic diameters ranging from 250 to 336 nm, while the FCAW and SMAW fumes were larger (360 and 670 nm, respectively). Conclusion: The pulsed axial spray method was the best choice of the processes studied based on minimal fume generation, minimal Cr6+ generation, and cost per weld. This method is usable in any position, has a high metal deposition rate, and is relatively simple to learn and use. PMID:26690276

  16. Superintendent Search and Selection Processes in the State of Wisconsin: Seeking the Best Match

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    Local school boards have the responsibility to select school superintendents to lead their districts. The process by which school boards go about searching for and selecting a superintendent varies. In Wisconsin, school boards have the option to hire a search firm or other outside assistance, or they can choose to search for and select a…

  17. Occurrence of Aflatoxins in Selected Processed Foods from Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Mushtaq, Muhammad; Sultana, Bushra; Anwar, Farooq; Khan, Muhammad Zargham; Ashrafuzzaman, Muhammad

    2012-01-01

    A total of 125 (ready to eat) processed food samples (70 intended for infant and 55 for adult intake) belonging to 20 different food categories were analyzed for aflatoxins contamination using Reverse Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography (RP-HPLC) with fluorescent detection. A solvent mixture of acetonitrile-water was used for the extraction followed by immunoaffinity clean-up to enhance sensitivity of the method. The limit of detection (LOD) (0.01–0.02 ng·g−1) and limit of quantification (LOQ) (0.02 ng·g−1) was established for aflatoxins based on signal to noise ratio of 3:1 and 10:1, respectively. Of the processed food samples tested, 38% were contaminated with four types of aflatoxins, i.e., AFB1 (0.02–1.24 μg·kg−1), AFB2 (0.02–0.37 μg·kg−1), AFG1 (0.25–2.7 μg·kg−1) and AFG2 (0.21–1.3 μg·kg−1). In addition, the results showed that 21% of the processed foods intended for infants contained AFB1 levels higher than the European Union permissible limits (0.1 μg·kg−1), while all of those intended for adult consumption had aflatoxin contamination levels within the permitted limits. PMID:22942705

  18. [Behavior of selected veterinary preparations during industrial milk processing].

    PubMed

    Konrad, H; Gabro, T; Dedek, W

    1977-01-01

    Since the extensive veterinary-hygienic treatment of herds with insecticidal veterinary preparations may lead to milk contamination, the authors studied the behaviour of some active agents (butonate, dichlorvos (DDVP), trichlorphon, naled, carbaryl, hexachloro-p-xylene and rafoxanide) during the industrial processing of milk to fluid milk, cream, butter, cheese and milk powder, and during the storage of these products. Small-scale model experiments served to investigate the effects of pasteurization (74 and 95 degrees C.), separation and churning as well as of the processing to milk powder and cheese. Analyses for residues were performed by thin-layer chromatography, colorimetry and with the aid of the isotope technique. From the viewpoint of milk processing, the use of TCP and, in part, that of DDVP may be considered as less critical due to their hydrophilic properties and rapid degradation. In view of their lipophilic behaviour, the use of butonate, carbaryl, rafoxanide and hexachloro-p-xylene as active agents in veterinary preparations for milk cows must be regarded as problematic. The utilization of naled is also problematic due to the fact that the toxicology of its metabolites is not yet sufficiently known. PMID:404556

  19. 7 CFR 1944.253 - Notice of funding availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2014-01-01 2013-01-01 true Notice of funding availability, application process and selection. 1944.253 Section 1944.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Services Program § 1944.253 Notice of funding availability, application process and selection....

  20. 7 CFR 1944.253 - Notice of funding availability, application process and selection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Notice of funding availability, application process and selection. 1944.253 Section 1944.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture... Housing Services Program § 1944.253 Notice of funding availability, application process and selection....