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Sample records for action spectra show

  1. Action spectra again?

    PubMed

    Coohill, T P

    1991-11-01

    Action spectroscopy has a long history and is of central importance to photobiological studies. Action spectra were among the first assays to point to chlorophyll as the molecule most responsible for plant growth and to DNA as the genetic material. It is useful to construct action spectra early in the investigation of new areas of photobiological research in an attempt to determine the wavelength limits of the radiation region causing the studied response. But due to the severe absorption of ultraviolet (UV) radiation by biological samples, UV action spectra were first limited to small cells (bacteria and fungi). Advances in techniques (e.g. single cell culture) and analysis allowed accurate action spectra to be reported even for mammalian cells. But precise analytical action spectra are often difficult to obtain when large, pigmented, or groups of cells are investigated. Here some action spectra are limited in interpretation and merely supply a wavelength vs effect curve. When polychromatic sources are employed, the interpretation of action spectra is even more complex and formidable. But such polychromatic action spectra can be more directly related to ambient responses. Since precise action spectra usually require the completion of a relatively large number of careful experiments using somewhat sophisticated equipment over a range of at least six wavelengths, they are often not pursued. But they remain central to the elucidation of the effect being studied. The worldwide community has agreed that stratospheric ozone is depleting, with the possibility of a consequent rise in the amount of UV-B (290-320 nm) reaching the earth's surface. It is therefore essential that new action spectra be completed for UV-B effects on a large variety of responses of human, animal, and aquatic plant systems. Combining these action spectra with the known amounts of UV-B reaching the biosphere can give rise to solar UV effectiveness spectra that, in turn, can give rise to estimates

  2. Action spectra for photosynthetic inhibition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caldwell, M. M.; Flint, S.; Camp, L. B.

    1981-01-01

    The ultraviolet action spectrum for photosynthesis inhibition was determined to fall between that of the general DNA action spectrum and the generalized plant action spectrum. The characteristics of this action spectrum suggest that a combination of pronounced increase in effectiveness with decreasing wavelength, substantial specificity for the UV-B waveband, and very diminished response in the UV-A waveband result in large radiation amplification factors when the action spectra are used as weighting functions. Attempted determination of dose/response relationships for leaf disc inhibition provided inconclusive data from which to deconvolute an action spectrum.

  3. Children Show Heightened Memory for Threatening Social Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baltazar, Nicole C.; Shutts, Kristin; Kinzler, Katherine D.

    2012-01-01

    Three experiments investigated whether a negativity bias in social perception extends to preschool-aged children's memory for the details of others' social actions and experiences. After learning about individuals who committed nice or mean social actions, children in Experiment 1 were more accurate at remembering who was mean compared with who…

  4. Outdoor ultraviolet polychromatic action spectra for growth responses of Bellis perennis and Cynosurus cristatus.

    PubMed

    Cooley, N M; Truscott, H M; Holmes, M G; Attridge, T H

    2000-12-01

    Polychromatic ultraviolet (UV) action spectra for various growth responses of the dicotyledon Bellis perennis L. (daisy) and the grass Cynosurus cristatus L. (crested dog's-tail) have been measured. The plants were grown in the natural environment and ambient daylight was supplemented with five different UV irradiances centred at eight different wavelengths (313, 318, 320, 322, 339, 348, 356 and 377 nm). Destructive growth analysis was performed on B. perennis and C. cristatus after 300 and 122 days respectively. Dose response curves were created to construct action spectra for individual responses. Different spectral responses were observed in these two plant types. B. perennis exhibited a substantial action maximum at 313 nm for the inhibition of aerial, root and total dry weight; a similar action maximum at 313 nm for the inhibition of leaf expansion was observed. Longer wavelengths were relatively ineffective on these growth parameters, with the exception of a small but statistically significant (P < 0.05) response to 320 nm radiation. By contrast, C. cristatus showed negligible response to 313 nm radiation, for inhibition of aerial, root and total dry weight but substantial responses to longer wavelengths, especially at 339 and 348 nm. These action spectra add weight to suggestions in the literature that UV-A has a role to play in responses in this region of the spectrum. The possible implications of these observations are discussed. PMID:11332892

  5. Photosynthetic action spectra and adaptation to spectral light distribution in a benthic cyanobacterial mat.

    PubMed Central

    Jorgensen, B B; Cohen, Y; Des Marais, D J

    1987-01-01

    We studied adaptation to spectral light distribution in undisturbed benthic communities of cyanobacterial mats growing in hypersaline ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico. Microscale measurements of oxygen photosynthesis and action spectra were performed with microelectrodes; spectral radiance was measured with fiber-optic microprobes. The spatial resolution of all measurements was 0.1 mm, and the spectral resolution was 10 to 15 nm. Light attenuation spectra showed absorption predominantly by chlorophyll a (Chl a) (430 and 670 nm), phycocyanin (620 nm), and carotenoids (440 to 500 nm). Blue light (450 nm) was attenuated 10-fold more strongly than red light (600 nm). The action spectra of the surface film of diatoms accordingly showed activity over the whole spectrum, with maxima for Chl a and carotenoids. The underlying dense Microcoleus population showed almost exclusively activity dependent upon light harvesting by phycobilins at 550 to 660 nm. Maximum activity was at 580 and 650 nm, indicating absorption by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as well as by allophycocyanin. Very little Chl a-dependent activity could be detected in the cyanobacterial action spectrum, even with additional 600-nm light to excite photosystem II. The depth distribution of photosynthesis showed detectable activity down to a depth of 0.8 to 2.5 mm, where the downwelling radiant flux at 600 nm was reduced to 0.2 to 0.6% of the surface flux. PMID:11536572

  6. Photosynthetic action spectra and adaptation to spectral light distribution in a benthic cyanobacterial mat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jorgensen, B. B.; Cohen, Y.; Des Marais, D. J.

    1987-01-01

    We studied adaptation to spectral light distribution in undisturbed benthic communities of cyanobacterial mats growing in hypersaline ponds at Guerrero Negro, Baja California, Mexico. Microscale measurements of oxygen photosynthesis and action spectra were performed with microelectrodes; spectral radiance was measured with fiber-optic microprobes. The spatial resolution of all measurements was 0.1 mm, and the spectral resolution was 10 to 15 nm. Light attenuation spectra showed absorption predominantly by chlorophyll a (Chl a) (430 and 670 nm), phycocyanin (620 nm), and carotenoids (440 to 500 nm). Blue light (450 nm) was attenuated 10-fold more strongly than red light (600 nm). The action spectra of the surface film of diatoms accordingly showed activity over the whole spectrum, with maxima for Chl a and carotenoids. The underlying dense Microcoleus population showed almost exclusively activity dependent upon light harvesting by phycobilins at 550 to 660 nm. Maximum activity was at 580 and 650 nm, indicating absorption by phycoerythrin and phycocyanin as well as by allophycocyanin. Very little Chl a-dependent activity could be detected in the cyanobacterial action spectrum, even with additional 600-nm light to excite photosystem II. The depth distribution of photosynthesis showed detectable activity down to a depth of 0.8 to 2.5 mm, where the downwelling radiant flux at 600 nm was reduced to 0.2 to 0.6% of the surface flux.

  7. Instrumentation and action spectra in light-associated diseases

    SciTech Connect

    Cripps, D.J.

    1981-07-01

    Instrumentation for studying action spectra in controls and various light-associated diseases is described. This study summarizes tests performed with a prism grating monochromator during the last 10 yr. There were 68 photodermatoses studied: xeroderma pigmentosum (XP) (1), lupus erythematosus (LE) (12), polymorphous light eruption (PLE) (23), solar urticaria (4), actinic reticuloid (2), halogenated salicylanilide photosensitivity and persistent light reactors (11), psoralen photosensitivity (6), and porphyria (9). A normal minimal erythema dose in the UVB (below 320 nm) was generally observed in polymorphous light eruption and lupus erythematosus. The most exquisite photosensitivity for delayed erythema was observed in actinic reticuloid, which in one case was 25-35 times more sensitive in the UVB range which was also observed but to a lesser extent in XP and in persistent light reactors. Persistence of erythema and edema at test sites was observed in XP, PLE, LE, and actinic reticuloid. A delay in development of erythema reaching a maximum at 72 hr was observed in XP and psoralen phototoxicity. Maximum photosensitivity occurred in solar urticaria. Three patients had peak sensitivity in the range of 310-313 nm and the 4th at 460 nm. Photosensitivity in the visible range was detected in 2 patients with solar urticaria, one with actinic reticuloid, and confirmed in 9 patients with porphyria (405 nm). Photosensitivity in the UVA (above 320 nm) occurred to some degree in all groups.

  8. Action spectra and adaptation properties of carp photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Witkovsky, P; Nelson, J; Ripps, H

    1973-04-01

    The mass photoreceptor response of the isolated carp retina was studied after immersing the tissue in aspartate-Ringer solution. Two electro-retinogram components were isolated by differential depth recording: a fast cornea-negative wave, arising in the receptor layer, and a slow, cornea-negative wave arising at some level proximal to the photoreceptors. Only the fast component was investigated further. In complete dark adaptation, its action spectrum peaked near 540 nm and indicated input from both porphyropsin-containing rods (lambda(max) approximately 525 nm) and cones with longer wavelength sensitivity. Under photopic conditions a broad action spectrum, lambda(max) approximately 580 nm was seen. In the presence of chromatic backgrounds, the photopic curve could be fractionated into three components whose action spectra agreed reasonably well with the spectral characteristics of blue, green, and red cone pigments of the goldfish. In parallel studies, the carp rod pigment was studied in situ by transmission densitometry. The reduction in optical density after a full bleach averaged 0.28 at its lambda(max) 525 nm. In the isolated retina no regeneration of rod pigment occurred within 2 h after bleaching. The bleaching power of background fields used in adaptation experiments was determined directly. Both rods and cones generated increment threshold functions with slopes of +1 on log-log coordinates over a 3-4 log range of background intensities. Background fields which bleached less than 0.5% rod pigment nevertheless diminished photoreceptor sensitivity. The degree and rate of recovery of receptor sensitivity after exposure to a background field was a function of the total flux (I x t) of the field. Rod saturation, i.e. the abolition of rod voltages, occurred after approximately 12% of rod pigment was bleached. In light-adapted retinas bathed in normal Ringer solution, a small test flash elicited a larger response in the presence of an annular background field than

  9. Comparative ultraviolet action spectra (254-320 nm) of five wild-type eukaryotic microorganisms and Escherichia coli

    SciTech Connect

    Calkins, J.; Wheeler, J.S.; Keller, C.I.; Colley, E.; Hazle, J.D.

    1988-05-01

    The action spectra of five eukaryotic organisms and the prokaryote, Escherichia coli, were examined over the wavelength range, 254-320 nm. Both the repair competent and three repair defective strains (E. coli, Caenorhabditis elegans, Saccharomyces) were examined. Tetrahymena pyriformis action spectra were performed with and without the excision repair inhibitor caffeine present. Others have observed that lethality, mutation, and the production of pyrimidine dimers show much the same wavelength dependence as DNA absorption. The results presented here demonstrate several action spectra which deviate from the DNA absorption spectra. Ultraviolet sensitization ratios (repair competent/repair defective) were also examined and were shown to change over the wavelength range. These findings suggest that DNA may not be the only important chromophore leading to cell death in the uv wavelength range studied. Since uv-B is of major importance in solar uv damage, these findings may also yield important implications for solar uv studies.

  10. Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: Fluence rate-response curves and action spectra.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R; Kadota, A; Watanabe, M; Furuya, M

    1991-07-01

    We determined the action spectra of the photophobic responses as well as the phototactic response in Dunaliella salina (Volvocales) using both single cells and populations. The action spectra of the photophobic responses have maxima at 510 nm, the spectrum for phototaxis has a maximum at 450-460 nm. These action spectra are not compatible with the hypothesis that flavoproteins are the photoreceptor pigments, and we suggest that carotenoproteins or rhodopsins act as the photoreceptor pigments. We also conclude that the phototactic response in Dunaliella is an elementary response, quite independent of the step-up and step-down photophobic responses. We also determined the action spectra of the photoaccumulation response in populations of cells adapted to two different salt conditions. Both action spectra have a peak a 490 nm. The photoaccumulation response may be a complex response composed of the phototactic and photophobic responses. Blue or blue-green light does not elicit a photokinetic response in Dunaliella. PMID:24194242

  11. Phytochrome Intermediates and Action Spectra for Light Perception by Dry Seeds 1

    PubMed Central

    Bartley, Michael R.; Frankland, Barry

    1984-01-01

    It has previously been demonstrated that far-red irradiation of dry Lactuca sativa L. seeds results in inhibition of subsequent germination. Although red has no effect on dry seeds, a red irradiation following a farred irradiation reverses the effect of far-red. This phenomenon is most noticeable in seeds with artificially raised levels of phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. Qualitatively similar results have been found for the seeds of Plantago major L., Sinapis arvensis L., and Bromus sterilis L. Action spectra studies on Plantago seeds show that the action peaks for promotion and inhibition of germination of hydrated seeds are at 660 and 730 nanometers, respectively. The action spectrum for inhibition of subsequent germination following irradiation of dry seeds is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to that for hydrated seeds, with an action peak at 730 nanometers, indicating absorption by phytochrome in the far-red absorbing form. However, the action spectrum for the reversal of this far-red effect on dry seeds has a broad peak at 680 nanometers and subsidiary peaks at 650 and 600 nanometers. It is proposed that this effect is due to light absorption by the phytochrome intermediate complex meta-Fa, and that the action spectrum reflects the in vivo absorption properties of this intermediate. PMID:16663467

  12. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  13. Composite spectra Paper 14: HR 1129, a long-period binary showing evidence of circumbinary material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, R. E. M.; Griffin, R. F.; Stickland, D. J.

    2006-12-01

    HR 1129 is a 4.8-mag star in the constellation Camelopardus, strangely (in view of its brightness) lacking a constellation designation. It has long been known to exhibit a composite spectrum consisting of a late-type primary and an early-type secondary. The radial velocity of the primary is easily measured, and was announced as variable nearly 100 years ago. A preliminary orbit with a period of 6150 d was given for it by one of the present authors in 1990; our new value is 6124 +/- 3 d. The system has been resolved by speckle interferometry, but has not been measured systematically by that technique. The spectrum of the primary is found to be very similar to that of α Aqr (G2Ib), although the parallax shows HR 1129 to be somewhat less luminous. The secondary spectrum has been isolated by subtraction and has proved to be that of a B7 star that is somewhat above the main sequence and may itself already be a giant. We present a comprehensive discussion of the spectra of both stars, and deduce that the system is considerably reddened: E(B - V) ~ 0.30, AV ~ 0.9 mag. By incorporating 25 measurements of the radial velocity of the secondary, we calculate a double-lined orbit solution which gives the mass ratio for the components as 1.109 +/- 0.022; we determine individual masses of 4.8-5.2 Msolar (primary) and 4.3-4.7 Msolar (secondary). The orbit is viewed at an inclination of ~ 87°, but there are no eclipses. However, around the phases of conjunction the MgII doublet near λ2800 Å, as seen in IUE spectra, exhibits evidence of two circumstellar absorption systems, which we interpret as a wind from the cool giant and a static shell around it. Substantial 100-μm emission recorded by IRAS points to the presence of warm circumbinary dust enveloping the system, and is likely to have originated in the stellar wind.

  14. Photomovement in Dunaliella salina: fluence rate-response curves and action spectra.

    PubMed

    Wayne, R; Kadota, A; Watanabe, M; Furuya, M

    1991-01-01

    We determined the action spectra of the photophobic responses as well as the phototactic response in Dunaliella salina (Volvocales) using both single cells and populations. The action spectra of the photophobic responses have maxima at 510 nm, the spectrum for phototaxis has a maximum at 450-460 nm. These action spectra are not compatible with the hypothesis that flavo-proteins are the photoreceptor pigments, and we suggest that carotenoproteins or rhodopsins act as the photoreceptor pigments. We also conclude that the phototactic response in Dunaliella is an elementary response, quite independent of the step-up and step-down photophobic responses. We also determined the action spectra of the photoaccumulation response in populations of cells adapted to two different salt conditions. Both action spectra have a peak at 490 nm. The photoaccumulation response may be a complex response composed of the phototactic and photophobic responses. Blue or blue-green light does not elicit a photokinetic response in Dunaliella. PMID:11538118

  15. Robots Show Us How to Teach Them: Feedback from Robots Shapes Tutoring Behavior during Action Learning

    PubMed Central

    Vollmer, Anna-Lisa; Mühlig, Manuel; Steil, Jochen J.; Pitsch, Karola; Fritsch, Jannik; Rohlfing, Katharina J.; Wrede, Britta

    2014-01-01

    Robot learning by imitation requires the detection of a tutor's action demonstration and its relevant parts. Current approaches implicitly assume a unidirectional transfer of knowledge from tutor to learner. The presented work challenges this predominant assumption based on an extensive user study with an autonomously interacting robot. We show that by providing feedback, a robot learner influences the human tutor's movement demonstrations in the process of action learning. We argue that the robot's feedback strongly shapes how tutors signal what is relevant to an action and thus advocate a paradigm shift in robot action learning research toward truly interactive systems learning in and benefiting from interaction. PMID:24646510

  16. Action spectra for validation of pathogen disinfection in medium-pressure ultraviolet (UV) systems.

    PubMed

    Beck, Sara E; Wright, Harold B; Hargy, Thomas M; Larason, Thomas C; Linden, Karl G

    2015-03-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) reactors used for disinfecting water and wastewater must be validated and monitored over time. The validation process requires understanding the photochemical properties of the pathogens of concern and the challenge microorganisms used to represent them. Specifically for polychromatic UV systems, the organisms' dose responses to UV light and their sensitivity across the UV spectrum must be known. This research measured the UV spectral sensitivity, called action spectra, of Cryptosporidium parvum, and MS2, T1UV, Q Beta, T7, and T7m Coliphages, as well as Bacillus pumilus spores. A tunable laser from the National Institute of Standards and Technology was used to isolate single UV wavelengths at 10 nm intervals between 210 and 290 nm. Above 240 nm, all bacteria and viruses tested exhibited a relative peak sensitivity between 260 and 270 nm. Of the coliphage, MS2 exhibited the highest relative sensitivity below 240 nm, relative to its sensitivity at 254 nm, followed by Q Beta, T1UV, T7m and T7 coliphage. B. pumilus spores were more sensitive to UV light at 220 nm than any of the coliphage. These spectra are required for calculating action spectra correction factors for medium pressure UV system validation, for matching appropriate challenge microorganisms to pathogens, and for improving UV dose monitoring. Additionally, understanding the dose response of these organisms at multiple wavelengths can improve polychromatic UV dose calculations and enable prediction of pathogen inactivation from wavelength-specific disinfection technologies such as UV light emitting diodes (LEDs). PMID:25506761

  17. Network Analysis Shows Novel Molecular Mechanisms of Action for Copper-Based Chemotherapy

    PubMed Central

    Espinal-Enríquez, Jesús; Hernández-Lemus, Enrique; Mejía, Carmen; Ruiz-Azuara, Lena

    2016-01-01

    The understanding of the mechanisms associated with the action of chemotherapeutic agents is fundamental to assess and account for possible side-effects of such treatments. Casiopeínas have demonstrated a cytotoxic effect by activation of pro-apoptotic processes in malignant cells. Such processes have been proved to activate the apoptotic intrinsic route, as well as cell cycle arrest. Despite this knowledge, the whole mechanism of action of Casiopeínas is yet to be completely understood. In this work we implement a systems biology approach based on two pathway analysis tools (Over-Representation Analysis and Causal Network Analysis) to observe changes in some hallmarks of cancer, induced by this copper-based chemotherapeutic agent in HeLa cell lines. We find that the metabolism of metal ions is exacerbated, as well as cell division processes being globally diminished. We also show that cellular migration and proliferation events are decreased. Moreover, the molecular mechanisms of liver protection are increased in the cell cultures under the actions of Casiopeínas, unlike the case in many other cytotoxic drugs. We argue that this chemotherapeutic agent may be promising, given its protective hepatic function, concomitant with its cytotoxic participation in the onset of apoptotic processes in malignant cells. PMID:26793116

  18. Photoconduction action spectra of regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiopene):TiO2 diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    deSouza, C. E. Z.; Ibaldo, A. P.; Coutinho, D. J.; Valaski, R.; Oliveira, O. N.; Faria, R. M.

    2012-03-01

    The development of polymer-based photovoltaic devices brings the promise of low-cost and lightweight solar energy conversion systems. This technology requires new materials and device architectures with enhanced efficiency and lifetime, which depends on the understanding of charge-transport mechanisms. Organic films combined with electronegative nanoparticles may form systems with efficient dissociation of the photogenerated excitons, thus increasing the number of carriers to be collected by the electrodes. In this paper we investigate the steady-state photoconductive action spectra of devices formed by a bilayer of regio-regular poly(3-hexylthiophene) (RRP3HT) and TiO2 sandwiched between ITO and aluminum electrodes (ITO/TiO2:RRP3HT/Al). Photocurrents were measured for distinct bias voltages with illumination from either side of the device. Heterojunction structures were prepared by spin coating a RRP3HT film on an already deposited TiO2 layer on ITO. Symbatic and antibatic curves were obtained and a model for photocurrent action spectra was able to fit the symbatic responses. The quantum yield increased with the electric field, indicating that exciton dissociation is a field-assisted process as in an Onsager mechanism. Furthermore, the quantum yield was significantly higher when illumination was carried out through the ITO electrode onto which the TiO2 layer was deposited, as the highly electronegative TiO2 nanoparticles were efficient in exciton dissociation.

  19. Structure, spectra and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid studied by density functional theory, Raman spectroscopic and nuclear magnetic resonance techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Gurpreet; Mohanty, B. P.; Saini, G. S. S.

    2016-02-01

    Structure, vibrational and nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and antioxidant action of ascorbic acid towards hydroxyl radicals have been studied computationally and in vitro by ultraviolet-visible, nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectroscopic techniques. Time dependant density functional theory calculations have been employed to specify various electronic transitions in ultraviolet-visible spectra. Observed chemical shifts and vibrational bands in nuclear magnetic resonance and vibrational spectra, respectively have been assigned with the help of calculations. Changes in the structure of ascorbic acid in aqueous phase have been examined computationally and experimentally by recording Raman spectra in aqueous medium. Theoretical calculations of the interaction between ascorbic acid molecule and hydroxyl radical predicted the formation of dehydroascorbic acid as first product, which has been confirmed by comparing its simulated spectra with the corresponding spectra of ascorbic acid in presence of hydrogen peroxide.

  20. How action selection can be embodied: intracranial gamma band recording shows response competition during the Eriksen flankers test

    PubMed Central

    Caruana, Fausto; Uithol, Sebo; Cantalupo, Gaetano; Sartori, Ivana; Lo Russo, Giorgio; Avanzini, Pietro

    2014-01-01

    Recent findings in monkeys suggest that action selection is based on a competition between various action options that are automatically planned by the motor system. Here we discuss data from intracranial EEG recordings in human premotor cortex (PMC) during a bimanual version of the Eriksen flankers test that suggest that the same principles apply to human action decisions. Recording sites in the dorsal PMC show an early but undifferentiated activation, a delayed response that depends on the experimental conditions and, finally, a movement related activation during action execution. Additionally, we found that the medial part of the PMC show a significant increase in response for ipsilateral trials, suggesting a role in inhibiting the wrong response. The ventral PMC seems to be involved in action execution, rather than action selection. Together these findings suggest that the human PMC is part of a network that specifies, selects, and executes actions. PMID:25206328

  1. Close correspondence between the action spectra for the blue light responses of the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts, and the spectra for blue light-dependent stomatal opening and coleoptile phototropism

    SciTech Connect

    Quinones, M.A.; Lu, Zhenmin; Zeiger, E.

    1996-03-05

    Fluorescence spectroscopy was used to characterize blue light responses from chloroplasts of adaxial guard cells from Pima cotton (Gossypium barbadense) and coleoptile tips from corn (Zea mays). The chloroplast response to blue light was quantified by measurements of the blue light-induced enhancement of a red light-stimulated quenching of chlorophyll a fluorescence. In adaxial (upper) guard cells, low fluence rates of blue light applied under saturating fluence rates of red light enhanced the red light-stimulated fluorescence quenching by up to 50%. In contrast, added blue light did not alter the red light-stimulated quenching from abaxial (lower) guard cells. This response pattern paralleled the blue light sensitivity of stomatal opening in the two leaf surfaces. An action spectrum for the blue light-induced enhancement of the red light-stimulated quenching showed a major peak at 450 nm and two minor peaks at 420 and 470 nm. This spectrum matched closely an action spectrum for blue light-stimulated stomatal opening. Coleoptile chloroplasts also showed an enhancement by blue light of red light-stimulated quenching. The action spectrum of this response, showing a major peak at 450 nm, a minor peak at 470 nm, and a shoulder at 430 nm, closely matched an action spectrum for blue light-stimulated coleoptile phototropism. Both action spectra match the absorption spectrum of zeaxanthin, a chloroplastic carotenoid recently implicated in blue light photoreception of both guard cells and coleoptiles. The remarkable similarity between the action spectra for the blue light responses of guard cells and coleoptile chloroplasts and the spectra for blue light-stimulated stomatal opening and phototropism, coupled to the recently reported evidence on a role of zeaxanthin in blue light photoreception, indicates that the guard cell and coleoptile chloroplasts specialize in sensory transduction. 28 refs. 4 figs.

  2. Fathers Show Modifications of Infant-Directed Action Similar to that of Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutherford, M. D.; Przednowek, Malgorzata

    2012-01-01

    Mothers' actions are more enthusiastic, simple, and repetitive when demonstrating novel object properties to their infants than to adults, a behavioral modification called "infant-directed action" by Brand and colleagues (2002). The current study tested whether fathers also tailor their behavior when interacting with infants and whether this…

  3. Comparison of the action spectra and relative DNA absorbance spectra of microorganisms: information important for the determination of germicidal fluence (UV dose) in an ultraviolet disinfection of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ren Zhuo; Craik, Stephen A; Bolton, James R

    2009-12-01

    The action spectra of Bacillus subtilis spores (ATCC6633) and Salmonella typhimurium LT2 were characterized using physical radiometry for irradiance measurements and a multiple target model to interpret the inactivation kinetics. The observed action spectrum of B. subtilis spores deviated significantly from the relative absorbance spectrum of the DNA purified from the spores, but matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of decoated spores. The action spectrum of B. subtilis spores determined in this study was statistically different from those reported in previous studies. On the other hand, the action spectrum of S. typhimurium bacteria matched quite well with the relative absorbance spectrum of DNA extracted from vegetative cells, except in the region below 240nm. It is concluded that the common use of the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as a surrogate for the germicidal action spectrum can result in systematic errors when evaluating the performance of a polychromatic UV light reactors using bioassays. For example, if the weighted germicidal fluence (UV dose) calculated using the relative DNA absorbance spectrum as the germicidal weighting factor is found to be 40mJcm(-2) for a medium pressure lamp UV reactor, that calculated using the relative action spectrum of B. subtilis spores, as determined in this study, would be 66mJcm(-2). PMID:19762061

  4. Photosynthesis: Action Spectra for Leaves in Normal and Low Oxygen 1

    PubMed Central

    Bulley, N. R.; Nelson, C. D.; Tregunna, E. B.

    1969-01-01

    The action spectrum of apparent photosynthesis for attached radish (Raphanus sativus L. var. Early Scarlet Globe) and corn (Zea mays L. var. Pride V.) leaves was measured at 300 μl/l CO2 and both 21% and 2% O2. The spectra were measured at light intensities where apparent photosynthesis was proportional to intensity. For radish, a high compensation point plant, oxygen had an inhibiting effect on photosynthesis at all wavelengths from 402 to 694 mμ. If a constant rate of photosynthesis at 21% O2 for the different wavelengths was chosen, then the percent increase in net CO2 fixation at 2% O2 was constant. For corn, a low compensation point plant, no inhibitory effect of oxygen concentration from 2% to 21% O2 was found over the visible spectrum. The CO2 compensation point for light intensities greater than the light compensation point was found to be constant and independent of wavelength for both radish and corn leaves. For radish, the lowering of the oxygen concentration from 21% to 2% at these intensities was found to reduce the CO2 compensation point by the same amount for the wavelengths studied. PMID:16657120

  5. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases and show antiglaucoma action in vivo.

    PubMed

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2012-02-23

    A series of dithiocarbamates were prepared by reaction of primary/secondary amines with carbon disulfide in the presence of bases. These compounds were tested for the inhibition of four human (h) isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase, CA (EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX, and XII, involved in pathologies such as glaucoma (CA II and XII) or cancer (CA IX). Several low nanomolar inhibitors targeting these CAs were detected. The X-ray crystal structure of the hCA II adduct with morpholine dithiocarbamate evidenced the inhibition mechanism of these compounds, which coordinate to the metal ion through a sulfur atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding function. Some dithiocarbamates showed an effective intraocular pressure lowering activity in an animal model of glucoma. PMID:22276570

  6. Dithiocarbamates strongly inhibit carbonic anhydrases and show antiglaucoma action in vivo#

    PubMed Central

    Carta, Fabrizio; Aggarwal, Mayank; Maresca, Alfonso; Scozzafava, Andrea; McKenna, Robert; Masini, Emanuela; Supuran, Claudiu T.

    2012-01-01

    A series of dithiocarbamates was prepared by reaction of primary/secondary amines with carbon disulfide in the presence of bases. These compounds were tested for the inhibition of 4 human (h) isoforms of the zinc enzyme carbonic anhydrase, CA (EC 4.2.1.1), hCA I, II, IX and XII, involved in pathologies such as glaucoma (CA II and XII) or cancer (CA IX). Several low nanomolar inhibitors targeting these CAs were detected. X-ray crystal structure of hCA II adduct with morpholine dithiocarbamate evidenced the inhibition mechanism of these compounds, which coordinate to the metal ion through a sulfur atom from the dithiocarbamate zinc-binding function. Some dithiocarbamates showed effective intraocular pressure lowering activity in an animal model of glucoma. PMID:22276570

  7. Ipomoea aquatica extract shows protective action against thioacetamide-induced hepatotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Alkiyumi, Salim Said; Abdullah, Mahmood Ameen; Alrashdi, Ahmed Salim; Salama, Suzy Munir; Abdelwahab, Siddig Ibrahim; Hadi, A Hamid A

    2012-01-01

    In the Indian system of traditional medicine (Ayurveda) it is recommended to consume Ipomoea aquatica to mitigate disorders like jaundice. In this study, the protective effects of ethanol extract of I. aquatica against liver damage were evaluated in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced chronic hepatotoxicity in rats. There was no sign of toxicity in the acute toxicity study, in which Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were orally fed with I. aquatica (250 and 500 mg/kg) for two months along with administration of TAA (i.p injection 200 mg/kg three times a week for two months). The results showed that the treatment of I. aquatica significantly lowered the TAA-induced serum levels of hepatic enzyme markers (ALP, ALT, AST, protein, albumin, bilirubin and prothrombin time). The hepatic content of activities and expressions SOD and CAT that were reduced by TAA were brought back to control levels by the plant extract supplement. Meanwhile, the rise in MDA level in the TAA receiving groups also were significantly reduced by I. aquatica treatment. Histopathology of hepatic tissues by H&E and Masson trichrome stains displayed that I. aquatica has reduced the incidence of liver lesions, including hepatic cells cloudy swelling, infiltration, hepatic necrosis, and fibrous connective tissue proliferation induced by TAA in rats. Therefore, the results of this study show that the protective effect of I. aquatica in TAA-induced liver damage might be contributed to its modulation on detoxification enzymes and its antioxidant and free radical scavenger effects. Moreover, it confirms a scientific basis for the traditional use of I. aquatica for the treatment of liver disorders. PMID:22617138

  8. Dermcidin-Derived Peptides Show a Different Mode of Action than the Cathelicidin LL-37 against Staphylococcus aureus▿

    PubMed Central

    Senyürek, Ilknur; Paulmann, Maren; Sinnberg, Tobias; Kalbacher, Hubert; Deeg, Martin; Gutsmann, Thomas; Hermes, Marina; Kohler, Thomas; Götz, Fritz; Wolz, Christiane; Peschel, Andreas; Schittek, Birgit

    2009-01-01

    Dermcidin (DCD) is an antimicrobial peptide which is constitutively expressed in eccrine sweat glands. By postsecretory proteolytic processing in sweat, the DCD protein gives rise to anionic and cationic DCD peptides with a broad spectrum of antimicrobial activity. Many antimicrobial peptides induce membrane permeabilization as part of their killing mechanism, which is accompanied by a loss of the bacterial membrane potential. In this study we show that there is a time-dependent bactericidal activity of anionic and cationic DCD-derived peptides which is followed by bacterial membrane depolarization. However, DCD-derived peptides do not induce pore formation in the membranes of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria. This is in contrast to the mode of action of the cathelicidin LL-37. Interestingly, LL-37 as well as DCD-derived peptides inhibit bacterial macromolecular synthesis, especially RNA and protein synthesis, without binding to microbial DNA or RNA. Binding studies with components of the cell envelope of gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria and with model membranes indicated that DCD-derived peptides bind to the bacterial envelope but show only a weak binding to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) from gram-negative bacteria or to peptidoglycan, lipoteichoic acid, and wall teichoic acid, isolated from Staphylococcus aureus. In contrast, LL-37 binds strongly in a dose-dependent fashion to these components. Altogether, these data indicate that the mode of action of DCD-derived peptides is different from that of the cathelicidin LL-37 and that components of the bacterial cell envelope play a role in the antimicrobial activity of DCD. PMID:19364862

  9. Muscle-specific androgen receptor deletion shows limited actions in myoblasts but not in myofibers in different muscles in vivo.

    PubMed

    Rana, Kesha; Chiu, Maria W S; Russell, Patricia K; Skinner, Jarrod P; Lee, Nicole K L; Fam, Barbara C; Zajac, Jeffrey D; MacLean, Helen E

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the direct muscle cell-mediated actions of androgens by comparing two different mouse lines. The cre-loxP system was used to delete the DNA-binding activity of the androgen receptor (AR) in mature myofibers (MCK mAR(ΔZF2)) in one model and the DNA-binding activity of the AR in both proliferating myoblasts and myofibers (α-actin mAR(ΔZF2)) in another model. We found that hind-limb muscle mass was normal in MCK mAR(ΔZF2) mice and that relative mass of only some hind-limb muscles was reduced in α-actin mAR(ΔZF2) mice. This suggests that myoblasts and myofibers are not the major cellular targets mediating the anabolic actions of androgens on male muscle during growth and development. Levator ani muscle mass was decreased in both mouse lines, demonstrating that there is a myofiber-specific effect in this unique androgen-dependent muscle. We found that the pattern of expression of genes including c-myc, Fzd4 and Igf2 is associated with androgen-dependent changes in muscle mass; therefore, these genes are likely to be mediators of anabolic actions of androgens. Further research is required to identify the major targets of androgen actions in muscle, which are likely to include indirect actions via other tissues. PMID:27402875

  10. Mode of action and variability in efficacy of plant essential oils showing toxicity against the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae.

    PubMed

    George, D R; Smith, T J; Shiel, R S; Sparagano, O A E; Guy, J H

    2009-05-12

    This paper describes a series of experiments to examine the mode of action and toxicity of three plant essential oils (thyme, manuka and pennyroyal) to the poultry red mite, Dermanyssus gallinae (De Geer), a serious ectoparasitic pest of laying hens. All three oils were found to be toxic to D. gallinae in laboratory tests with LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values below 0.05, 0.20 and 0.30mg/cm(3), respectively, suggesting that these products may make for effective acaricides against this pest. Further experiments demonstrated that when mites were exposed to only the vapour phase of the essential oil without contact with the oil itself, mortality was consistently higher in closed arenas than in arenas open to the surrounding environment, or in control arenas. This suggests that all three essential oils were toxic to D. gallinae by fumigant action. In addition, in an experiment where mites were allowed contact with the essential oil in either open or closed arenas, mortality was always reduced in the open arenas where this was comparable to control mortality for thyme and pennyroyal essential oil treatments. This supports the findings of the previous experiment and also suggests that, with the possible exception of manuka, the selected essential oils were not toxic to D. gallinae on contact. Statistical comparisons were made between the toxicity of the selected essential oils to D. gallinae in the current work and in a previous study conducted in the same laboratory. The results demonstrated considerable variation in LC(50), LC(90) and LC(99) values. Since both the essential oils and the mites were obtained from identical sources in the two studies, it is hypothesized that this variation resulted from the use of different 'batches' of essential oil, which could have varied in chemistry and hence acaricidal activity. PMID:19233565

  11. Sulfonamides incorporating heteropolycyclic scaffolds show potent inhibitory action against carbonic anhydrase isoforms I, II, IX and XII.

    PubMed

    Barresi, Elisabetta; Salerno, Silvia; Marini, Anna Maria; Taliani, Sabrina; La Motta, Concettina; Simorini, Francesca; Da Settimo, Federico; Vullo, Daniela; Supuran, Claudiu T

    2016-02-15

    Three series of polycyclic compounds possessing either primary sulfonamide or carboxylic acid moieties as zinc-binding groups were investigated as inhibitors of four physiologically relevant CA isoforms, the cytosolic hCA I and II, as well as the transmembrane hCA IX and XII. Most of the new sulfonamides reported here showed excellent inhibitory effects against isoforms hCA II, IX and XII, but no highly isoform-selective inhibition profiles. On the other hand, the carboxylates selectively inhibited hCA IX (KIs ranging between 40.8 and 92.7nM) without inhibiting significantly the other isoforms. Sulfonamides/carboxylates incorporating polycyclic ring systems such as benzothiopyranopyrimidine, pyridothiopyranopyrimidine or dihydrobenzothiopyrano[4,3-c]pyrazole may be considered as interesting candidates for exploring the design of isoform-selective CAIs with various pharmacologic applications. PMID:26796953

  12. Direct and inverse cascades of energy, momentum and wave action in spectra of wind-driven waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Badulin, S. I.; Pushkarev, A. N.; Resio, D.; Zakharov, V. E.

    2003-04-01

    The time-dependent, spatially uniform Hasselmann's kinetic equation for surface gravity waves in presence of wind forcing and white-capping dissipation is studied numerically. We use conventional parameterizations of wind wave input (Snyder et al. 1981; Plant 1982; Hsiao &Shemdin 1983; Donelan, Pierson 1987) that are consistent with weakly nonlinear scaling. We assume that strong dissipation due to white-capping is essential for short waves only (with frequencies above 1Hz) belonging to the spectral tail and can be neglected near the spectral peak. We compare our numerical results with the predictions of the theory of weak turbulence and found a very good coincidence. It is shown that asymptotic behavior of wave spectra is in perfect agreement with stationary solutions of the Hasselmann equation -- Kolmogorov's solutions for direct (Zakharov & Filonenko 1966) and inverse (Zakharov &Zaslavskii 1982) cascades. This asymptotic behavior appears at rather early stages of wind wave evolution (physical time of order of few hours in our experiments); A strong tendency of solutions to self-similar behavior of duration limited solutions is found for rather wide range of initial conditions and external forcing; Good quantitative coincidence with recapitulative experimental data for duration limited wind wave growth (Young 1999, p.111) and for fetch-limited (JONSWAP) spectra parameterized by wave age C_p/Uwind is found. The findings here are quite robust and hopefully will be applied to the practical problems. Present wave prediction models are based on fairly crude parameterizations of the nonlinear energy transfers. In large part due to inaccuracies in these parameterizations, these models have had to rely on empirical fitting of general growth equation as a basis for constraining additional source-sink terms in the detailed balance equations. Results from this study could be used to reformulate a complete energy balance equation for wave generation, propagation and decay

  13. Action spectra of photosystems II and I and quantum yield of photosynthesis in leaves in State 1.

    PubMed

    Laisk, Agu; Oja, Vello; Eichelmann, Hillar; Dall'Osto, Luca

    2014-02-01

    The spectral global quantum yield (YII, electrons/photons absorbed) of photosystem II (PSII) was measured in sunflower leaves in State 1 using monochromatic light. The global quantum yield of PSI (YI) was measured using low-intensity monochromatic light flashes and the associated transmittance change at 810nm. The 810-nm signal change was calibrated based on the number of electrons generated by PSII during the flash (4·O2 evolution) which arrived at the PSI donor side after a delay of 2ms. The intrinsic quantum yield of PSI (yI, electrons per photon absorbed by PSI) was measured at 712nm, where photon absorption by PSII was small. The results were used to resolve the individual spectra of the excitation partitioning coefficients between PSI (aI) and PSII (aII) in leaves. For comparison, pigment-protein complexes for PSII and PSI were isolated, separated by sucrose density ultracentrifugation, and their optical density was measured. A good correlation was obtained for the spectral excitation partitioning coefficients measured by these different methods. The intrinsic yield of PSI was high (yI=0.88), but it absorbed only about 1/3 of quanta; consequently, about 2/3 of quanta were absorbed by PSII, but processed with the low intrinsic yield yII=0.63. In PSII, the quantum yield of charge separation was 0.89 as detected by variable fluorescence Fv/Fm, but 29% of separated charges recombined (Laisk A, Eichelmann H and Oja V, Photosynth. Res. 113, 145-155). At wavelengths less than 580nm about 30% of excitation is absorbed by pigments poorly connected to either photosystem, most likely carotenoids bound in pigment-protein complexes. PMID:24333386

  14. The Effects of Propofol on Local Field Potential Spectra, Action Potential Firing Rate, and Their Temporal Relationship in Humans and Felines

    PubMed Central

    Hanrahan, Sara J.; Greger, Bradley; Parker, Rebecca A.; Ogura, Takahiro; Obara, Shinju; Egan, Talmage D.; House, Paul A.

    2013-01-01

    Propofol is an intravenous sedative hypnotic, which, acting as a GABAA agonist, results in neocortical inhibition. While propofol has been well studied at the molecular and clinical level, less is known about the effects of propofol at the level of individual neurons and local neocortical networks. We used Utah Electrode Arrays (UEAs) to investigate the effects of propofol anesthesia on action potentials (APs) and local field potentials (LFPs). UEAs were implanted into the neocortex of two humans and three felines. The two human patients and one feline received propofol by bolus injection, while the other two felines received target-controlled infusions. We examined the changes in LFP power spectra and AP firing at different levels of anesthesia. Increased propofol concentration correlated with decreased high-frequency power in LFP spectra and decreased AP firing rates, and the generation of large-amplitude spike-like LFP activity; however, the temporal relationship between APs and LFPs remained relatively consistent at all levels of propofol. The probability that an AP would fire at this local minimum of the LFP increased with propofol administration. The propofol-induced suppression of neocortical network activity allowed LFPs to be dominated by low-frequency spike-like activity, and correlated with sedation and unconsciousness. As the low-frequency spike-like activity increased and the AP–LFP relationship became more predictable firing rate encoding capacity is impaired. This suggests a mechanism for decreased information processing in the neocortex that accounts for propofol-induced unconsciousness. PMID:23576977

  15. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action.

    PubMed

    Currie, Richard A; Peffer, Richard C; Goetz, Amber K; Omiecinski, Curtis J; Goodman, Jay I

    2014-07-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  16. Phenobarbital and propiconazole toxicogenomic profiles in mice show major similarities consistent with the key role that constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) activation plays in their mode of action

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Richard A.; Peffer, Richard C.; Goetz, Amber K.; Omiecinski, Curtis J.; Goodman, Jay I.

    2014-01-01

    Toxicogenomics (TGx) is employed frequently to investigate underlying molecular mechanisms of the compound of interest and, thus, has become an aid to mode of action determination. However, the results and interpretation of a TGx dataset are influenced by the experimental design and methods of analysis employed. This article describes an evaluation and reanalysis, by two independent laboratories, of previously published TGx mouse liver microarray data for a triazole fungicide, propiconazole (PPZ), and the anticonvulsant drug phenobarbital (PB). Propiconazole produced an increase incidence of liver tumors in male CD-1 mice only at a dose that exceeded the maximum tolerated dose (2500 ppm). Firstly, we illustrate how experimental design differences between two in vivo studies with PPZ and PB may impact the comparisons of TGx results. Secondly, we demonstrate that different researchers using different pathway analysis tools can come to different conclusions on specific mechanistic pathways, even when using the same datasets. Finally, despite these differences the results across three different analyses also show a striking degree of similarity observed for PPZ and PB treated livers when the expression data are viewed as major signaling pathways and cell processes affected. Additional studies described here show that the postulated key event of hepatocellular proliferation was observed in CD-1 mice for both PPZ and PB, and that PPZ is also a potent activator of the mouse CAR nuclear receptor. Thus, with regard to the events which are hallmarks of CAR-induced effects that are key events in the mode of action (MOA) of mouse liver carcinogenesis with PB, PPZ-induced tumors can be viewed as being promoted by a similar PB-like CAR-dependent MOA. PMID:24675475

  17. A major phospholipase A2 from Daboia russelii russelii venom shows potent anticoagulant action via thrombin inhibition and binding with plasma phospholipids.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Ashis K

    2014-04-01

    This is the first report on antithrombin effects of a phospholipase A2 (RVAPLA2) purified from venom of Daboia russelii russelii. The N-terminal sequence as well as in-gel tryptic digested peptides of RVAPLA2 showed significant homology with PLA2s from Russell's viper venom. RVAPLA2 demonstrated highest specific activity in hydrolyzing phosphatidylcholine (1.8 × 10(6) U/mg) with Km and Vmax values of 0.61 mM and 132.3 μmol/min, respectively. RVAPLA2 exerted dose-dependent catalytic and strong anticoagulant activities; however, studies indicated dissociation of its catalytic and anticoagulant sites. The anticoagulant action of RVAPLA2 was partially contributed by catalytic hydrolysis of plasma phospholipids. RVAPLA2 showed strong anticoagulant effect via thrombin inhibition with a Ki value of 380 nM as well as by binding to pro-coagulant phospholipids of plasma. In ex-vivo conditions, RVAPLA2 (1.0 μM) was non-hemolytic and non-cytotoxic to mammalian cells. It did not inhibit the collagen-induced aggregation of platelets. RVAPLA2 at a dose of 5 mg/kg was not lethal to mice after 48 h of injection. It demonstrated in vivo anticoagulant activity possibly due to targeting thrombin and binding with plasma phospholipids. PMID:24333043

  18. An Amphipathic Undecapeptide with All d-Amino Acids Shows Promising Activity against Colistin-Resistant Strains of Acinetobacter baumannii and a Dual Mode of Action.

    PubMed

    Oddo, Alberto; Thomsen, Thomas T; Kjelstrup, Susanne; Gorey, Ciara; Franzyk, Henrik; Frimodt-Møller, Niels; Løbner-Olesen, Anders; Hansen, Paul R

    2016-01-01

    Multiple strains of Acinetobacter baumannii have developed multidrug resistance (MDR), leaving colistin as the only effective treatment. The cecropin-α-melittin hybrid BP100 (KKLFKKILKYL-NH2) and its analogs have previously shown activity against a wide array of plant and human pathogens. In this study, we investigated the in vitro antibacterial activities of 18 BP100 analogs (four known and 14 new) against the MDR A. baumannii strain ATCC BAA-1605, as well as against a number of other clinically relevant human pathogens. Selected peptides were further evaluated against strains of A. baumannii that acquired resistance to colistin due to mutations of the lpxC, lpxD, pmrA, and pmrB genes. The novel analogue BP214 showed antimicrobial activity at 1 to 2 μM and a hemolytic 50% effective concentration (EC50) of >150 μM. The lower activity of its enantiomer suggests a dual, specific and nonspecific mode of action. Interestingly, colistin behaved antagonistically to BP214 when pmrAB and lpxC mutants were challenged. PMID:26574005

  19. Extracts from Vatica diospyroides type SS fruit show low dose activity against MDA-MB-468 breast cancer cell-line via apoptotic action.

    PubMed

    Srisawat, Theera; Sukpondma, Yaowapa; Chimplee, Siriphon; Kanokwiroon, Kanyanatt; Tedasen, Aman; Graidist, Potchanapond

    2014-01-01

    Very strong antiproliferative action of V. diospyroides type SS fruit extracts (IC50 range of 1.60-17.45 µg/mL) in MDA-MB-468 cell-line was observed in an MTT assay. After dosing of an extract concentration at half IC50 to cell line for 24 to 72 hours, treated cells were subjected to Annexin V-FITC/PI binding assay, followed by FACS and western blot analyses. Significant apoptotic death was observed with all extract treatments and both exposure times. Dosing with acetone extract of pericarp and cotyledon induced the highest apoptotic populations (33 and 32%, resp.), with the lowest populations of viable cells (65 and 67%, resp.). During 24 to 72 hours of dosing with methanolic extract of pericarp, the populations of viable and early apoptotic cells decreased significantly from 72.40 to 71.32% and from 12.00 to 6.36%, respectively, while the late apoptotic and nonviable cell populations continuously increased from 15.30 to 19.18% and from 0.30 to 3.14%, respectively. The expression of Bax increased within 12-48 hours of dosing, confirming apoptosis induced by time-dependent responses. The mutant p53 of MDA-MB-468 cells was expressed. Our results indicate that apoptosis and time-dependent therapeutic actions contribute to the cytotoxic effects of V. diospyroides type SS fruit on MDA-MB-468 cell. PMID:25302299

  20. Novel dual agonist peptide analogues derived from dogfish glucagon show promising in vitro insulin releasing actions and antihyperglycaemic activity in mice.

    PubMed

    O'Harte, F P M; Ng, M T; Lynch, A M; Conlon, J M; Flatt, P R

    2016-08-15

    The antidiabetic potential of thirteen novel dogfish glucagon derived analogues were assessed in vitro and in acute in vivo studies. Stable peptide analogues enhanced insulin secretion from BRIN-BD11 β-cells (p < 0.001) and reduced acute glycaemic responses following intraperitoneal glucose (25 nmol/kg) in healthy NIH Swiss mice (p < 0.05-p<0.001). The in vitro insulinotropic actions of [S2a]dogfish glucagon, [S2a]dogfish glucagon-exendin-4(31-39) and [S2a]dogfish glucagon-Lys(30)-γ-glutamyl-PAL, were blocked (p < 0.05-p<0.001) by the specific GLP-1 and glucagon receptor antagonists, exendin-4(9-39) and (desHis(1)Pro(4)Glu(9))glucagon amide but not by (Pro(3))GIP, indicating lack of GIP receptor involvement. These analogues dose-dependently stimulated cAMP production in GLP-1 and glucagon (p < 0.05-p<0.001) but not GIP-receptor transfected cells. They improved acute glycaemic and insulinotropic responses in high-fat fed diabetic mice and in wild-type C57BL/6J and GIPR-KO mice (p < 0.05-p<0.001), but not GLP-1R-KO mice, confirming action on GLP-1 but not GIP receptors. Overall, dogfish glucagon analogues have potential for diabetes therapy, exerting beneficial metabolic effects via GLP-1 and glucagon receptors. PMID:27179756

  1. "The Show"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gehring, John

    2004-01-01

    For the past 16 years, the blue-collar city of Huntington, West Virginia, has rolled out the red carpet to welcome young wrestlers and their families as old friends. They have come to town chasing the same dream for a spot in what many of them call "The Show". For three days, under the lights of an arena packed with 5,000 fans, the state's best…

  2. Changes in the IR internal reflection and absorption spectra of AK 60/40 polyamide films after the action of a glow discharge plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lunin, V. V.; Rode, S. V.; Samoilovich, V. G.

    2008-12-01

    The modification of surface layers of AK 60/40 polyamide under the action of a gas discharge plasma was studied. Measurements were performed by infrared internal reflection spectroscopy. The results were analyzed to establish possible mechanisms of the interaction of a plasma with the polymer and structural changes in the polymer.

  3. Storm Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    These images, taken with the LEISA infrared camera on the New Horizons Ralph instrument, show fine details in Jupiter's turbulent atmosphere using light that can only be seen using infrared sensors. These are 'false color' pictures made by assigning infrared wavelengths to the colors red, green and blue. LEISA (Linear Etalon Imaging Spectral Array) takes images across 250 IR wavelengths in the range from 1.25 to 2.5 microns, allowing scientists to obtain an infrared spectrum at every location on Jupiter. A micron is one millionth of a meter.

    These pictures were taken at 05:58 UT on February 27, 2007, from a distance of 2.9 million kilometers (1.6 million miles). They are centered at 8 degrees south, 32 degrees east in Jupiter 'System III' coordinates. The large oval-shaped feature is the well-known Great Red Spot. The resolution of each pixel in these images is about 175 kilometers (110 miles); Jupiter's diameter is approximately 145,000 kilometers (97,000 miles).

    The image on the left is an altitude map made by assigning the color red to 1.60 microns, green to 1.89 microns and blue to 2.04 microns. Because Jupiter's atmosphere absorbs light strongly at 2.04 microns, only clouds at very high altitude will reflect light at this wavelength. Light at 1.89 microns can go deeper in the atmosphere and light at 1.6 microns can go deeper still. In this map, bluish colors indicate high clouds and reddish colors indicate lower clouds. This picture shows, for example, that the Great Red Spot extends far up into the atmosphere.

    In the image at right, red equals 1.28 microns, green equals 1.30 microns and blue equals 1.36 microns, a range of wavelengths that similarly probes different altitudes in the atmosphere. This choice of wavelengths highlights Jupiter's high-altitude south polar hood of haze. The edge of Jupiter's disk at the bottom of the panel appears slightly non-circular because the left-hand portion is the true edge of the disk, while the right

  4. Moving in on the Action: An Experimental Comparison of Fluorescence Excitation and Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wellman, Sydney M J; Jockusch, Rebecca A

    2015-06-18

    Photodissociation action spectroscopy is often used as a proxy for measuring gas-phase absorption spectra of ions in a mass spectrometer. Although the potential discrepancy between linear optical and photodissociation spectra is generally acknowledged, direct experimental comparisons are lacking. In this work, we use a quadrupole ion trap that has been modified to enable both photodissociation and laser-induced fluorescence to assess how closely the visible photodissociation action spectrum of a fluorescent dye reflects its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Our results show the photodissociation action spectrum of gaseous rhodamine 110 is both substantially narrower and slightly red-shifted (∼120 cm(-1)) compared to its fluorescence excitation spectrum. Power dependence measurements reveal that the photodissociation of rhodamine 110 requires, on average, the absorption of three photons whereas fluorescence is a single-photon process. These differing power dependences are the key to interpreting the differences in the measured spectra. The experimental results provide much-needed quantification and insight into the differences between action spectra and linear optical spectra, and emphasize the utility of fluorescence excitation spectra to provide a more reliable benchmark for comparison with theory. PMID:26020810

  5. Haptically Guided Grasping. fMRI Shows Right-Hemisphere Parietal Stimulus Encoding, and Bilateral Dorso-Ventral Parietal Gradients of Object- and Action-Related Processing during Grasp Execution

    PubMed Central

    Marangon, Mattia; Kubiak, Agnieszka; Króliczak, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    The neural bases of haptically-guided grasp planning and execution are largely unknown, especially for stimuli having no visual representations. Therefore, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to monitor brain activity during haptic exploration of novel 3D complex objects, subsequent grasp planning, and the execution of the pre-planned grasps. Haptic object exploration, involving extraction of shape, orientation, and length of the to-be-grasped targets, was associated with the fronto-parietal, temporo-occipital, and insular cortex activity. Yet, only the anterior divisions of the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) of the right hemisphere were significantly more engaged in exploration of complex objects (vs. simple control disks). None of these regions were re-recruited during the planning phase. Even more surprisingly, the left-hemisphere intraparietal, temporal, and occipital areas that were significantly invoked for grasp planning did not show sensitivity to object features. Finally, grasp execution, involving the re-recruitment of the critical right-hemisphere PPC clusters, was also significantly associated with two kinds of bilateral parieto-frontal processes. The first represents transformations of grasp-relevant target features and is linked to the dorso-dorsal (lateral and medial) parieto-frontal networks. The second monitors grasp kinematics and belongs to the ventro-dorsal networks. Indeed, signal modulations associated with these distinct functions follow dorso-ventral gradients, with left aIPS showing significant sensitivity to both target features and the characteristics of the required grasp. Thus, our results from the haptic domain are consistent with the notion that the parietal processing for action guidance reflects primarily transformations from object-related to effector-related coding, and these mechanisms are rather independent of sensory input modality. PMID:26779002

  6. Action spectrum for photocarcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    de Gruijl, F R

    1995-01-01

    The wavelength dependence of the carcinogenicity of ultraviolet (UV) radiation needs to be known in order to assess the carcinogenic risks of various UV sources, most notably the different solar UV spectra at ground level under depleting stratospheric ozone. This wavelength dependence cannot be extracted from human data (e.g., from epidemiology); it can, however, be directly obtained from animal experiments. Precise information on the wavelength dependence, the so-called action spectrum, was not available until recently: erythemal or mutagenic action spectra have been used as substitutes. However, experimental data on skin tumors induced in hairless mice (Skh:HR1) with various polychromatic sources have been building up. Our group has found that none of the substitute action spectra yield a statistically acceptable description of our data, and we have, therefore, derived a new action spectrum, dubbed the SCUP action spectrum (SCUP stands for Skin Cancer Utrecht-Philadelphia, because the action spectrum also fits experimental data from the former Skin and Cancer Hospital in Philadelphia). The SCUP action spectrum has a maximum at 293 nm, and in the UVA region above 340 nm the relative carcinogenicity per J/m2 drops to about 10(-4) of this maximum. The effects of an ozone depletion on solar UV doses weighted with these different action spectra are compared: the erythemal and SCUP weighted dose come out as least sensitive with a 1.3% and 1.4% increase, respectively, for every 1% decrease in ozone. PMID:7597292

  7. Barnacle Bill Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    These IMP spectra show the characteristics of the rock surface measured by the Alpha Proton X-Ray Spectrometer (blue), the soil trapped in pits on the rock surface (red), and the deposit of bright drift on the top of the rock. The area measured by the APXS has the properties expected for nearly unweathered igneous rock, and the soil trapped in the pits is intermediate to the unweathered rock and the highly weathered drift material.

  8. Action Spectroscopy and Dissociation Energy of Ammonia Trimer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heid, Cornelia G.; Case, Amanda S.; Western, Colin M.; Crim, F. Fleming

    2012-06-01

    We have investigated the energy dependence for the vibrational predissociation of ammonia trimer, (NH_3)_3 → (NH_3)_2 + NH_3, using infrared-action spectroscopy. The action spectra come from detecting specific rovibrational states of the monomer fragment via (2+1) resonance enhanced multiphoton excitation (REMPI) while scanning the IR excitation laser over the NH stretch transitions of the trimer as well as the dimer. The relative intensities of the dimer and trimer features in the action spectra depend on the amount of energy available for breaking the hydrogen bonds in the clusters. For example, the action spectra of ammonia fragments with large amounts of internal energy (v_2=3) show almost no trimer contribution since there is not enough energy available to break two bonds in the cyclic trimer. The action spectra for fragments with low internal energies (v_2=1), on the other hand, exhibit a substantial trimer component as more energy remains available to dissociate the cluster. Using the threshold at which the trimer feature becomes apparent in our spectra as an upper limit (Edissmax = hνvib-Eint(NH_3)), we determine the dissociation energy of ammonia trimer to be in the range between 1700-1800 cm-1. This range agrees well with theoretical predictions.

  9. Multispectral processing without spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drew, Mark S.; Finlayson, Graham D.

    2003-07-01

    It is often the case that multiplications of whole spectra, component by component, must be carried out, for example when light reflects from or is transmitted through materials. This leads to particularly taxing calculations, especially in spectrally based ray tracing or radiosity in graphics, making a full-spectrum method prohibitively expensive. Nevertheless, using full spectra is attractive because of the many important phenomena that can be modeled only by using all the physics at hand. We apply to the task of spectral multiplication a method previously used in modeling RGB-based light propagation. We show that we can often multiply spectra without carrying out spectral multiplication. In previous work J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 , 1553 (1994) we developed a method called spectral sharpening, which took camera RGBs to a special sharp basis that was designed to render illuminant change simple to model. Specifically, in the new basis, one can effectively model illuminant change by using a diagonal matrix rather than the 33 linear transform that results from a three-component finite-dimensional model G. Healey and D. Slater, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11 , 3003 (1994). We apply this idea of sharpening to the set of principal components vectors derived from a representative set of spectra that might reasonably be encountered in a given application. With respect to the sharp spectral basis, we show that spectral multiplications can be modeled as the multiplication of the basis coefficients. These new product coefficients applied to the sharp basis serve to accurately reconstruct the spectral product. Although the method is quite general, we show how to use spectral modeling by taking advantage of metameric surfaces, ones that match under one light but not another, for tasks such as volume rendering. The use of metamers allows a user to pick out or merge different volume structures in real time simply by changing the lighting. 2003 Optical Society of America

  10. Multispectral processing without spectra.

    PubMed

    Drew, Mark S; Finlayson, Graham D

    2003-07-01

    It is often the case that multiplications of whole spectra, component by component, must be carried out,for example when light reflects from or is transmitted through materials. This leads to particularly taxing calculations, especially in spectrally based ray tracing or radiosity in graphics, making a full-spectrum method prohibitively expensive. Nevertheless, using full spectra is attractive because of the many important phenomena that can be modeled only by using all the physics at hand. We apply to the task of spectral multiplication a method previously used in modeling RGB-based light propagation. We show that we can often multiply spectra without carrying out spectral multiplication. In previous work [J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 1553 (1994)] we developed a method called spectral sharpening, which took camera RGBs to a special sharp basis that was designed to render illuminant change simple to model. Specifically, in the new basis, one can effectively model illuminant change by using a diagonal matrix rather than the 3 x 3 linear transform that results from a three-component finite-dimensional model [G. Healey and D. Slater, J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 11, 3003 (1994)]. We apply this idea of sharpening to the set of principal components vectors derived from a representative set of spectra that might reasonably be encountered in a given application. With respect to the sharp spectral basis, we show that spectral multiplications can be modeled as the multiplication of the basis coefficients. These new product coefficients applied to the sharp basis serve to accurately reconstruct the spectral product. Although the method is quite general, we show how to use spectral modeling by taking advantage of metameric surfaces, ones that match under one light but not another, for tasks such as volume rendering. The use of metamers allows a user to pick out or merge different volume structures in real time simply by changing the lighting. PMID:12868625

  11. Magic Carpet Shows Its Colors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The upper left image in this display is from the panoramic camera on the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit, showing the 'Magic Carpet' region near the rover at Gusev Crater, Mars, on Sol 7, the seventh martian day of its journey (Jan. 10, 2004). The lower image, also from the panoramic camera, is a monochrome (single filter) image of a rock in the 'Magic Carpet' area. Note that colored portions of the rock correlate with extracted spectra shown in the plot to the side. Four different types of materials are shown: the rock itself, the soil in front of the rock, some brighter soil on top of the rock, and some dust that has collected in small recesses on the rock face ('spots'). Each color on the spectra matches a line on the graph, showing how the panoramic camera's different colored filters are used to broadly assess the varying mineral compositions of martian rocks and soils.

  12. Show Your Exemption Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Vitter, David [R-LA

    2013-10-31

    10/31/2013 Read twice and referred to the Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  13. Night Spectra Quest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, Stephen

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Night Spectra Quest, a pocket-sized chart that identifies in color the spectra of all the common night lights and has an integrally mounted, holographic diffraction grating to look through. (JRH)

  14. The Great Cometary Show

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2007-01-01

    its high spatial and spectral resolution, it was possible to zoom into the very heart of this very massive star. In this innermost region, the observations are dominated by the extremely dense stellar wind that totally obscures the underlying central star. The AMBER observations show that this dense stellar wind is not spherically symmetric, but exhibits a clearly elongated structure. Overall, the AMBER observations confirm that the extremely high mass loss of Eta Carinae's massive central star is non-spherical and much stronger along the poles than in the equatorial plane. This is in agreement with theoretical models that predict such an enhanced polar mass-loss in the case of rapidly rotating stars. ESO PR Photo 06c/07 ESO PR Photo 06c/07 RS Ophiuchi in Outburst Several papers from this special feature focus on the later stages in a star's life. One looks at the binary system Gamma 2 Velorum, which contains the closest example of a star known as a Wolf-Rayet. A single AMBER observation allowed the astronomers to separate the spectra of the two components, offering new insights in the modeling of Wolf-Rayet stars, but made it also possible to measure the separation between the two stars. This led to a new determination of the distance of the system, showing that previous estimates were incorrect. The observations also revealed information on the region where the winds from the two stars collide. The famous binary system RS Ophiuchi, an example of a recurrent nova, was observed just 5 days after it was discovered to be in outburst on 12 February 2006, an event that has been expected for 21 years. AMBER was able to detect the extension of the expanding nova emission. These observations show a complex geometry and kinematics, far from the simple interpretation of a spherical fireball in extension. AMBER has detected a high velocity jet probably perpendicular to the orbital plane of the binary system, and allowed a precise and careful study of the wind and the shockwave

  15. Two functionally distinct cholecystokinin receptors show different modes of action on Ca2+ mobilization and phospholipid hydrolysis in isolated rat pancreatic acini. Studies using a new cholecystokinin analog, JMV-180.

    PubMed

    Matozaki, T; Göke, B; Tsunoda, Y; Rodriguez, M; Martinez, J; Williams, J A

    1990-04-15

    A new hepatapeptide cholecystokinin (CCK) analog, JMV-180 (Boc-Tyr(SO3-)-Nle-Gly-Trp-Nle-Asp-2-phenylethylester), acts as an agonist at high affinity CCK receptors on rat pancreatic acini to stimulate amylase release but unlike cholecystokinin octapeptide (CCK8) does not act on low affinity CCK receptors to inhibit amylase release (Galas, M. D., Lignon, M. F., Rodriguez, M., Mendre, C., Fulcrand, P., Laur, J., and Martinez, J. (1988) Am. J. Physiol. 254, G176-G188). To investigate the biochemical mechanisms initiated by CCK acting on each class of CCK receptor, the effects of JMV-180 and CCK8 on amylase release, Ca2+ mobilization, and phospholipid hydrolysis were studied in isolated rat pancreatic acini. When acini were loaded with the intracellular Ca2+ chelator BAPTA, amylase release stimulated by both JMV-180 and CCK8 was reduced. Measurement of 45Ca2+ efflux and cytosolic free calcium concentration ([Ca2+]i) by the fluorescence of fura-2-loaded acini in a stirred cuvette showed that JMV-180 induced a concentration-dependent increase but with a maximal response only two-thirds that induced by CCK8. When [Ca2+]i of individual fura-2-loaded acinar cells was measured by microspectrofluorometry, all concentrations of JMV-180 (1 nM-10 microM) induced repetitive transient [Ca2+]i spikes (Ca2+ oscillations). By contrast, stimulation with a high concentration of CCK8 (1 nM) caused a large increase in [CA2+]i followed by a small sustained elevation of [Ca2+]i. The measurement of inositol trisphosphate (IP3) production by both [3H]inositol labeling and 1,4,5-IP3 radioreceptor assay showed that JMV-180 had only minimal effects at 10 microM in contrast to the large increase induced by high concentrations of CCK8 (more than 1 nM). JMV-180 blocked the effect of a high concentration of CCK8 on both [Ca2+]i and 1,4,5-IP3 productions but did not affect the response to carbamylcholine. JMV-180 caused a delayed monophasic stimulation of 1,2-diacylglycerol (DAG) sustained to 60 min

  16. AGNs with composite spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veron, P.; Goncalves, A. C.; Veron-Cetty, M.-P.

    1997-03-01

    The use of the Baldwin et al. (1981PASP...93....5B) or Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987ApJS...63..295V) diagnostic diagrams allows the unambiguous classification of the nuclear emission line regions of most galaxies into one of three categories: nuclear HII regions or starbursts, Seyfert 2 galaxies and Liners. However, a small fraction of them have a "transition" spectrum. We present spectral observations of 15 "transition" objects at high-dispersion (66Å/mm) around the Hα, [NII]λλ6548,6584 and/or Hβ, [OIII]λλ4959,5007 emission lines. We show that most of these spectra are composite, due to the simultaneous presence on the slit of a Seyfert nucleus and a HII region. Seyfert 2s and Liners seem to occupy relatively small and distinct volumes in the three-dimensional space λ5007/Hβ, λ6584/Hα, λ6300/Hα.

  17. Spectra of Baroclinic Inertia-Gravity Wave Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glazman, Roman E.

    1996-01-01

    Baroclinic inertia-gravity (IG) waves form a persistent background of thermocline depth and sea surface height oscillations. They also contribute to the kinetic energy of horizontal motions in the subsurface layer. Measured by the ratio of water particle velocity to wave phase speed, the wave nonlinearity may be rather high. Given a continuous supply of energy from external sources, nonlinear wave-wave interactions among IG waves would result in inertial cascades of energy, momentum, and wave action. Based on a recently developed theory of wave turbulence in scale-dependent systems, these cascades are investigated and IG wave spectra are derived for an arbitrary degree of wave nonlinearity. Comparisons with satellite-altimetry-based spectra of surface height variations and with energy spectra of horizontal velocity fluctuations show good agreement. The well-known spectral peak at the inertial frequency is thus explained as a result of the inverse cascade. Finally, we discuss a possibility of inferring the internal Rossby radius of deformation and other dynamical properties of the upper thermocline from the spectra of SSH (sea surface height) variations based on altimeter measurements.

  18. Putting Action in Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lozano, Sandra C.; Hard, Bridgette Martin; Tversky, Barbara

    2007-01-01

    Embodied approaches to cognition propose that our own actions influence our understanding of the world. Do other people's actions also have this influence? The present studies show that perceiving another person's actions changes the way people think about objects in a scene. In Study 1, participants viewed a photograph and answered a question…

  19. Photographic spectra of fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borovička, J.

    2016-01-01

    Two methods of spectroscopy of meteors using image intensified video cameras and classical photographic film cameras are compared. Video cameras provide large number of low resolution spectra of meteors of normal brightness, which can be used for statistical studies. Large format film cameras have been used through the history and provide high resolution spectra, which can be used to derive temperature, density and absolute abundances of various elements in the radiating plasma. The sensitivity of films is, however, low and only spectra of bright meteors (fireballs) can be studied. Examples of photographic fireball spectra are provided.

  20. Crack spectra analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Tiernan, M.

    1980-09-01

    Crack spectra derived from velocity data have been shown to exhibit systematics which reflect microstructural and textural differences between samples (Warren and Tiernan, 1980). Further research into both properties and information content of crack spectra have yielded the following: Spectral features are reproducible even at low pressures; certain observed spectral features may correspond to non-in-situ crack populations created during sample retrieval; the functional form of a crack spectra may be diagnostic of the sample's grain texture; hysteresis is observed in crack spectra between up and down pressure runs - it may be due to friction between the faces of closed crack populations.

  1. Television Quiz Show Simulation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Jonnie Lynn

    2007-01-01

    This article explores the simulation of four television quiz shows for students in China studying English as a foreign language (EFL). It discusses the adaptation and implementation of television quiz shows and how the students reacted to them.

  2. 78 FR 35658 - Spectra Energy Corp., Application for a New or Amended Presidential Permit

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF STATE Spectra... State. ACTION: Notice of Receipt of Spectra Energy Corp., Application for a New or Amended Presidential... Spectra Energy Corp (``Spectra Energy'') notice that it has acquired the entities that own...

  3. The Wordpath Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderton, Alice

    The Intertribal Wordpath Society is a nonprofit educational corporation formed to promote the teaching, status, awareness, and use of Oklahoma Indian languages. The Society produces "Wordpath," a weekly 30-minute public access television show about Oklahoma Indian languages and the people who are teaching and preserving them. The show aims to…

  4. Infrared spectra of thyroid tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Skornyakov, I. V.; Butra, V. A.

    2010-07-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study thyroid tumor tissues removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, the spectra of proteins in the region of C=O vibrations are different from the spectra of these substances in benign tumors and in tissues outside the pathological focus at a distance >1 cm from the margin of the tumor. The differences in the spectra are due to changes in the supermolecular structure of the proteins, resulting from rearrangement of the system of hydrogen bonds. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathologies.

  5. A Holographic Road Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirkpatrick, Larry D.; Rugheimer, Mac

    1979-01-01

    Describes the viewing sessions and the holograms of a holographic road show. The traveling exhibits, believed to stimulate interest in physics, include a wide variety of holograms and demonstrate several physical principles. (GA)

  6. Choosing Actions

    PubMed Central

    Rosenbaum, David A.; Chapman, Kate M.; Coelho, Chase J.; Gong, Lanyun; Studenka, Breanna E.

    2013-01-01

    Actions that are chosen have properties that distinguish them from actions that are not. Of the nearly infinite possible actions that can achieve any given task, many of the unchosen actions are irrelevant, incorrect, or inappropriate. Others are relevant, correct, or appropriate but are disfavored for other reasons. Our research focuses on the question of what distinguishes actions that are chosen from actions that are possible but are not. We review studies that use simple preference methods to identify factors that contribute to action choices, especially for object-manipulation tasks. We can determine which factors are especially important through simple behavioral experiments. PMID:23761769

  7. Interpreting Chromosome Aberration Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, Dan; Reeder, Christopher; Loucas, Bradford; Hlatky, Lynn; Chen, Allen; Cornforth, Michael; Sachs, Rainer

    2007-01-01

    Ionizing radiation can damage cells by breaking both strands of DNA in multiple locations, essentially cutting chromosomes into pieces. The cell has enzymatic mechanisms to repair such breaks; however, these mechanisms are imperfect and, in an exchange process, may produce a large-scale rearrangement of the genome, called a chromosome aberration. Chromosome aberrations are important in killing cells, during carcinogenesis, in characterizing repair/misrepair pathways, in retrospective radiation biodosimetry, and in a number of other ways. DNA staining techniques such as mFISH ( multicolor fluorescent in situ hybridization) provide a means for analyzing aberration spectra by examining observed final patterns. Unfortunately, an mFISH observed final pattern often does not uniquely determine the underlying exchange process. Further, resolution limitations in the painting protocol sometimes lead to apparently incomplete final patterns. We here describe an algorithm for systematically finding exchange processes consistent with any observed final pattern. This algorithm uses aberration multigraphs, a mathematical formalism that links the various aspects of aberration formation. By applying a measure to the space of consistent multigraphs, we will show how to generate model-specific distributions of aberration processes from mFISH experimental data. The approach is implemented by software freely available over the internet. As a sample application, we apply these algorithms to an aberration data set, obtaining a distribution of exchange cycle sizes, which serves to measure aberration complexity. Estimating complexity, in turn, helps indicate how damaging the aberrations are and may facilitate identification of radiation type in retrospective biodosimetry.

  8. Show What You Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eccleston, Jeff

    2007-01-01

    Big things come in small packages. This saying came to the mind of the author after he created a simple math review activity for his fourth grade students. Though simple, it has proven to be extremely advantageous in reinforcing math concepts. He uses this activity, which he calls "Show What You Know," often. This activity provides the perfect…

  9. The Ozone Show.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mathieu, Aaron

    2000-01-01

    Uses a talk show activity for a final assessment tool for students to debate about the ozone hole. Students are assessed on five areas: (1) cooperative learning; (2) the written component; (3) content; (4) self-evaluation; and (5) peer evaluation. (SAH)

  10. Honored Teacher Shows Commitment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratte, Kathy

    1987-01-01

    Part of the acceptance speech of the 1985 National Council for the Social Studies Teacher of the Year, this article describes the censorship experience of this honored social studies teacher. The incident involved the showing of a videotape version of the feature film entitled "The Seduction of Joe Tynan." (JDH)

  11. Talk Show Science.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Mitzi Ruth

    1992-01-01

    Proposes having students perform skits in which they play the roles of the science concepts they are trying to understand. Provides the dialog for a skit in which hot and cold gas molecules are interviewed on a talk show to study how these properties affect wind, rain, and other weather phenomena. (MDH)

  12. Stage a Water Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frasier, Debra

    2008-01-01

    In the author's book titled "The Incredible Water Show," the characters from "Miss Alaineus: A Vocabulary Disaster" used an ocean of information to stage an inventive performance about the water cycle. In this article, the author relates how she turned the story into hands-on science teaching for real-life fifth-grade students. The author also…

  13. Showing What They Know

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cech, Scott J.

    2008-01-01

    Having students show their skills in three dimensions, known as performance-based assessment, dates back at least to Socrates. Individual schools such as Barrington High School--located just outside of Providence--have been requiring students to actively demonstrate their knowledge for years. The Rhode Island's high school graduating class became…

  14. Intentional Action and Action Slips.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heckhausen, Heinz; Beckmann, Jurgen

    1990-01-01

    An explanation of action slips is offered that examines controlled actions in the context of an intentional behavior theory. Actions are considered guided by mentally represented intentions, subdivided into goal intentions and contingent instrumental intentions. Action slips are categorized according to problem areas in the enactment of goal…

  15. Thermodynamic analysis of spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mitchell, G. E.; Shriner, J. F. Jr.

    2008-04-04

    Although random matrix theory had its initial application to neutron resonances, there is a relative scarcity of suitable nuclear data. The primary reason for this is the sensitivity of the standard measures used to evaluate spectra--the spectra must be essential pure (no state with a different symmetry) and complete (no states missing). Additional measures that are less sensitive to these experimental limitations are of significant value. The standard measure for long range order is the {delta}{sub 3} statistic. In the original paper that introduced this statistic, Dyson and Mehta also attempted to evaluate spectra with thermodynamic variables obtained from the circular orthogonal ensemble. We consider the thermodynamic 'internal energy' and evaluate its sensitivity to experimental limitations such as missing and spurious levels. Monte Carlo simulations suggest that the internal energy is less sensitive to mistakes than is {delta}{sub 3}, and thus the internal energy can serve as a addition to the tool kit for evaluating experimental spectra.

  16. Taking in a Show.

    PubMed

    Boden, Timothy W

    2016-01-01

    Many medical practices have cut back on education and staff development expenses, especially those costs associated with conventions and conferences. But there are hard-to-value returns on your investment in these live events--beyond the obvious benefits of acquired knowledge and skills. Major vendors still exhibit their services and wares at many events, and the exhibit hall is a treasure-house of information and resources for the savvy physician or administrator. Make and stick to a purposeful plan to exploit the trade show. You can compare products, gain new insights and ideas, and even negotiate better deals with representatives anxious to realize returns on their exhibition investments. PMID:27249887

  17. Not a "reality" show.

    PubMed

    Wrong, Terence; Baumgart, Erica

    2013-01-01

    The authors of the preceding articles raise legitimate questions about patient and staff rights and the unintended consequences of allowing ABC News to film inside teaching hospitals. We explain why we regard their fears as baseless and not supported by what we heard from individuals portrayed in the filming, our decade-long experience making medical documentaries, and the full un-aired context of the scenes shown in the broadcast. The authors don't and can't know what conversations we had, what documents we reviewed, and what protections we put in place in each televised scene. Finally, we hope to correct several misleading examples cited by the authors as well as their offhand mischaracterization of our program as a "reality" show. PMID:23631336

  18. Cloud Processing of CCN Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, J. G.; Noble, S. R., Jr.

    2014-12-01

    Cloud processing often makes bimodal aerosol spectra from which size at minimal concentration infers cloud effective supersaturation (Seff) (Hoppel et al. 1986). Particle hygroscopicity (κ) converts this Hoppel minimum to critical S, Sc. Only lower Sc particles that produce cloud droplets are physically (coalescence) or chemically (gas-to-particle conversion) processed, which increases soluble content so that upon evaporation, these CCN have even lower Sc whereas the unactivated CCN do not change size or Sc. This results in the size gap at Seff. DRI CCN spectrometers have revealed bimodality in 6 projects for which Seff can be obtained without κ. However in 2 projects, MASE and ICE-T, simultaneous DMA measurements also provided κ by transposing DMA sizes to Sc; the κ that makes the DMA spectra agree with simultaneous CCN spectra (Fig). There was DMA-CCN agreement for 227 MASE and 50 ICE-T measurements. Since unlike Fig. a mean κ of the processed modes was greater than mean κ of the unprocessed modes, chemical processing was indicated; since most κ were lower than ammonium sulfate κ (0.61) chemical processing should move processed κ closer to 0.61. Chemical processing was also indicated in MASE by greater sulfate and nitrate concentrations for bimodal spectra and greater sulfur dioxide and ozone concentrations for monomodal spectra. MASE above cloud measurements showed higher κ and less bimodality than below cloud measurements, this is consistent with the higher above cloud NCCN, that κ is lower in pollution and for these less cloud interacted samples. Interspersed bimodal and monomodal CCN spectra under the ubiquitous MASE stratus suggested less than well-mixed boundary layers. Somewhat surprisingly there was more bimodality for the cumulus ICE-T clouds than the MASE stratus. ICE-T indicated more physical than chemical cloud processing. Cloud-processing of CCN spectra is as important as CCN sources; it alters Seff, cloud droplet concentrations, mean

  19. Environmental Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lott, Jesse; Allen, Rodney F.

    This booklet, a general guide to citizen eco-action, discusses a plan of action on community environmental problems. It offers factors to be considered in any community eco-action situation, but it is not a rigid set of rules. An overview identifies seven key ideas of environmental issues, including the universal participation of all humans in the…

  20. Public medical shows.

    PubMed

    Walusinski, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In the second half of the 19th century, Jean-Martin Charcot (1825-1893) became famous for the quality of his teaching and his innovative neurological discoveries, bringing many French and foreign students to Paris. A hunger for recognition, together with progressive and anticlerical ideals, led Charcot to invite writers, journalists, and politicians to his lessons, during which he presented the results of his work on hysteria. These events became public performances, for which physicians and patients were transformed into actors. Major newspapers ran accounts of these consultations, more like theatrical shows in some respects. The resultant enthusiasm prompted other physicians in Paris and throughout France to try and imitate them. We will compare the form and substance of Charcot's lessons with those given by Jules-Bernard Luys (1828-1897), Victor Dumontpallier (1826-1899), Ambroise-Auguste Liébault (1823-1904), Hippolyte Bernheim (1840-1919), Joseph Grasset (1849-1918), and Albert Pitres (1848-1928). We will also note their impact on contemporary cinema and theatre. PMID:25273491

  1. Optical Spectra of Triggered Lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, T. D.; Biagi, C. J.; Hill, J. D.; Jordan, D. M.; Uman, M. A.; Christian, H. J., Jr.

    2009-12-01

    In August 2009, the first optical spectra of triggered lightning flashes were acquired. Data from two triggered lightning flashes were obtained at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing in north-central Florida. The spectrometer that was used has an average dispersion of 260 Å/mm resulting in an average resolution of 5 Å when mated to a Photron (SA1.1) high-speed camera. The spectra captured with this system had a free spectral range of 3800-8000 Å. The spectra were captured at 300,000 frames per second. The spectrometer's vertical field of view was 3 m at an altitude 50 m above the launch tower, intended to view the middle of the triggering wire. Preliminary results show that the copper spectrum dominated the earliest part of the flash and copper lines persisted during the total lifetime of the detectable spectrum. Animations over the lifetime of the stroke from the initial wire illumination to multiple return strokes show the evolution of the spectrum. In addition, coordinated high speed channel base current, electric field and imagery measurements of the exploding wire, downward leaders, and return strokes were recorded. Quantitative analysis of the spectral evolution will be discussed in the context of the overall flash development.

  2. Excitation Spectra and Brightness Optimization of Two-Photon Excited Probes

    PubMed Central

    Mütze, Jörg; Iyer, Vijay; Macklin, John J.; Colonell, Jennifer; Karsh, Bill; Petrášek, Zdeněk; Schwille, Petra; Looger, Loren L.; Lavis, Luke D.; Harris, Timothy D.

    2012-01-01

    Two-photon probe excitation data are commonly presented as absorption cross section or molecular brightness (the detected fluorescence rate per molecule). We report two-photon molecular brightness spectra for a diverse set of organic and genetically encoded probes with an automated spectroscopic system based on fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. The two-photon action cross section can be extracted from molecular brightness measurements at low excitation intensities, while peak molecular brightness (the maximum molecular brightness with increasing excitation intensity) is measured at higher intensities at which probe photophysical effects become significant. The spectral shape of these two parameters was similar across all dye families tested. Peak molecular brightness spectra, which can be obtained rapidly and with reduced experimental complexity, can thus serve as a first-order approximation to cross-section spectra in determining optimal wavelengths for two-photon excitation, while providing additional information pertaining to probe photostability. The data shown should assist in probe choice and experimental design for multiphoton microscopy studies. Further, we show that, by the addition of a passive pulse splitter, nonlinear bleaching can be reduced—resulting in an enhancement of the fluorescence signal in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy by a factor of two. This increase in fluorescence signal, together with the observed resemblance of action cross section and peak brightness spectra, suggests higher-order photobleaching pathways for two-photon excitation. PMID:22385865

  3. Atomic Spectra Database (ASD)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology Data Gateway

    SRD 78 NIST Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) (Web, free access)   This database provides access and search capability for NIST critically evaluated data on atomic energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities that are reasonably up-to-date. The NIST Atomic Spectroscopy Data Center has carried out these critical compilations.

  4. SCALING PROPERTIES OF THE TRANSVERSE MASS SPECTRA.

    SciTech Connect

    SCHAFFNER-BIELICH,J.; KHARZEEV,D.; MCLERRAN,L.; VENUGOPALAN,R.

    2002-01-13

    Motivated from the formation of an initial state of gluon-saturated matter, we discuss scaling relations for the transverse mass spectra at BNL's Relativistic Heavy-Ion Collider (RHIC). We show on linear plots, that the transverse mass spectra for various hadrons can be described by an universal function in m{sub t}. The transverse mass spectra for different centralities can be rescaled into each other. Finally, we demonstrate that m{sub t}-scaling is also present in proton-antiproton collider data and compare it to m{sub t}-scaling at RHIC.

  5. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions

    PubMed Central

    Ferri, S.; Pauwels, K.; Rizzolatti, G.; Orban, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors “stimulus type” (action, static control, and dynamic control), “stereopsis” (present, absent) and “viewpoint” (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  6. Stereoscopically Observing Manipulative Actions.

    PubMed

    Ferri, S; Pauwels, K; Rizzolatti, G; Orban, G A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the contribution of stereopsis to the processing of observed manipulative actions. To this end, we first combined the factors "stimulus type" (action, static control, and dynamic control), "stereopsis" (present, absent) and "viewpoint" (frontal, lateral) into a single design. Four sites in premotor, retro-insular (2) and parietal cortex operated specifically when actions were viewed stereoscopically and frontally. A second experiment clarified that the stereo-action-specific regions were driven by actions moving out of the frontoparallel plane, an effect amplified by frontal viewing in premotor cortex. Analysis of single voxels and their discriminatory power showed that the representation of action in the stereo-action-specific areas was more accurate when stereopsis was active. Further analyses showed that the 4 stereo-action-specific sites form a closed network converging onto the premotor node, which connects to parietal and occipitotemporal regions outside the network. Several of the specific sites are known to process vestibular signals, suggesting that the network combines observed actions in peripersonal space with gravitational signals. These findings have wider implications for the function of premotor cortex and the role of stereopsis in human behavior. PMID:27252350

  7. Prediction of earthquake response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Joyner, W.B.; Boore, David M.

    1982-01-01

    We have developed empirical equations for predicting earthquake response spectra in terms of magnitude, distance, and site conditions, using a two-stage regression method similar to the one we used previously for peak horizontal acceleration and velocity. We analyzed horizontal pseudo-velocity response at 5 percent damping for 64 records of 12 shallow earthquakes in Western North America, including the recent Coyote Lake and Imperial Valley, California, earthquakes. We developed predictive equations for 12 different periods between 0.1 and 4.0 s, both for the larger of two horizontal components and for the random horizontal component. The resulting spectra show amplification at soil sites compared to rock sites for periods greater than or equal to 0.3 s, with maximum amplification exceeding a factor of 2 at 2.0 s. For periods less than 0.3 s there is slight deamplification at the soil sites. These results are generally consistent with those of several earlier studies. A particularly significant aspect of the predicted spectra is the change of shape with magnitude (confirming earlier results by McGuire and by Irifunac and Anderson). This result indicates that the conventional practice of scaling a constant spectral shape by peak acceleration will not give accurate answers. The Newmark and Hall method of spectral scaling, using both peak acceleration and peak velocity, largely avoids this error. Comparison of our spectra with the Nuclear Regulatory Commission's Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum anchored at the same value at 0.1 s shows that the Regulatory Guide 1.60 spectrum is exceeded at soil sites for a magnitude of 7.5 at all distances for periods greater than about 0.5 s. Comparison of our spectra for soil sites with the corresponding ATC-3 curve of lateral design force coefficient for the highest seismic zone indicates that the ATC-3 curve is exceeded within about 7 km of a magnitude 6.5 earthquake and within about 15 km of a magnitude 7.5 event. The amount by

  8. Dynamic radio spectra from two fireballs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obenberger, K. S.; Taylor, G. B.; Lin, C. S.; Dowell, J.; Schinzel, F. K.; Stovall, K.

    2015-11-01

    We present dynamic spectra from the Long Wavelength Array telescope of two large meteors (fireballs) observed to emit between 37 and 54 MHz. These spectra show the first ever recorded broadband measurements of this newly discovered VHF emission. The spectra show that the emission is smooth and steep, getting very bright at lower frequencies. We suggest that this signal is possibly emission of Langmuir waves and that these waves could be excited by a bump-on-tail instability within the trail. The spectra of one fireball display broadband temporal frequency sweeps. We suggest that these sweeps are evidence of individual expanding clumps of emitting plasma. While some of these proposed clumps may have formed at the very beginning of the fireball event, others must have formed seconds after the initial event.

  9. Action Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    These four papers were presented at a symposium on action learning moderated by Lex Dilworth at the 1996 conference of the Academy of Human Resource Development. "Developing an Infrastructure for Individual and Organizational Change: Transfer of Learning from an Action Reflection Learning (ARL) Program" (ARL Inquiry) reports findings from a study…

  10. Stars and their Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaler, James B.

    1997-03-01

    This unique and informative text describes how stars are classified according to their spectral qualities and temperature. James Kaler explains the alphabet of stellar astronomy, running from cool M stars to hot O stars, and tells the story of their evolution. Before embarking on a voyage of cosmic discovery, the author discusses the fundamental properties of stars, their atomic structure and the formation of spectra. Then, Kaler considers each star type individually and explores its spectra in detail. A review of unusual, hard-to-classify stars, and a discussion of data related to the birth, life and death of stars round out the text. This book is an important resource for all amateur astronomers and students of astronomy. Professionals will find it a refreshing read as well.

  11. Parmeterization of spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornish, C. R.

    1983-01-01

    Following reception and analog to digital conversion (A/D) conversion, atmospheric radar backscatter echoes need to be processed so as to obtain desired information about atmospheric processes and to eliminate or minimize contaminating contributions from other sources. Various signal processing techniques have been implemented at mesosphere-stratosphere-troposphere (MST) radar facilities to estimate parameters of interest from received spectra. Such estimation techniques need to be both accurate and sufficiently efficient to be within the capabilities of the particular data-processing system. The various techniques used to parameterize the spectra of received signals are reviewed herein. Noise estimation, electromagnetic interference, data smoothing, correlation, and the Doppler effect are among the specific points addressed.

  12. THE SPITZER ATLAS OF STELLAR SPECTRA (SASS)

    SciTech Connect

    Ardila, David R.; Van Dyk, Schuyler D.; Makowiecki, Wojciech; Stauffer, John; Rho, Jeonghee; Fajardo-Acosta, Sergio; Hoard, D. W.; Wachter, Stefanie; Song, Inseok

    2010-12-15

    We present the Spitzer Atlas of Stellar Spectra, which includes 159 stellar spectra (5-32 {mu}m; R {approx} 100) taken with the Infrared Spectrograph on the Spitzer Space Telescope. This Atlas gathers representative spectra of a broad section of the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram, intended to serve as a general stellar spectral reference in the mid-infrared. It includes stars from all luminosity classes, as well as Wolf-Rayet (WR) objects. Furthermore, it includes some objects of intrinsic interest, such as blue stragglers and certain pulsating variables. All of the spectra have been uniformly reduced, and all are available online. For dwarfs and giants, the spectra of early-type objects are relatively featureless, characterized by the presence of hydrogen lines in A spectral types. Besides these, the most noticeable photospheric features correspond to water vapor and silicon monoxide in late-type objects and methane and ammonia features at the latest spectral types. Most supergiant spectra in the Atlas present evidence of circumstellar gas and/or dust. The sample includes five M supergiant spectra, which show strong dust excesses and in some cases polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon features. Sequences of WR stars present the well-known pattern of lines of He I and He II, as well as forbidden lines of ionized metals. The characteristic flat-top shape of the [Ne III] line is evident even at these low spectral resolutions. Several Luminous Blue Variables and other transition stars are present in the Atlas and show very diverse spectra, dominated by circumstellar gas and dust features. We show that the [8]-[24] Spitzer colors (IRAC and MIPS) are poor predictors of spectral type for most luminosity classes.

  13. Study on Raman spectra of synthetic celluloses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Changjun; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-02-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of aliphatic polyamide fiber and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The results show that Raman peaks beyond 1200 cm-1 appear for aliphatic polyamide fiber processed by sodium hydroxide, while the Raman peaks beyond 1000 cm-1 disappear for aliphatic polyamide fiber processed by sulfuric acid. Raman peaks beyond 1750 cm-1 decrease for polyethylene terephthalate processed by sodium hydroxide, while Raman peaks beyond 1000 cm-1 disappear, except weak peaks around 3000 cm-1 , for polyethylene terephthalate processed by sulfuric acid. The variations of the Raman spectra are primarily related to the changes of chemical bonds and molecular structures.

  14. Investigation of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Changjun; Tong, Na; Song, Lixin; Zhang, Guoqing

    2015-08-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1750 cm-1, while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1750 cm-1 and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated.

  15. [Spectra of dark green jade from Myanmar].

    PubMed

    Mao, Jian; Chai, Lin-Tao; Guo, Shou-Guo; Fan, Jian-Liang; Bao, Feng

    2013-05-01

    Chemical compositions and spectral characteristics of one type of dark green jades assumed from omphacite jadeite from Myanmar jadeite mining area were studied by X-ray powder diffraction(XRD), X-ray fluorescence spectra(XRF), Raman spectra(RM) and UV-Vis Spectroscopy, etc. Based on testing by XRD and XRF, it was shown that it belongs to iron-enriched plagioclase, including albite and anorthite. The compositions range is between Ab0.731 An0.264 Or0.004 and Ab0.693 An0.303 Or0.004. Raman spectra of samples, albite jade and anorthite were collected and analyzed. Additionally, the distributions of Si, Al in the crystal structure were also discussed. UV-Vis spectra showed that dark green hue of this mineral is associated with d--d electronic transition of Fe3+ and Cr3+. PMID:23905358

  16. 32 CFR 552.78 - “Show cause” hearing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ....78 “Show cause” hearing. Before suspending the solicitation privilege, the company and the agent will have a chance to show cause why the action should not be taken. “Show cause” is an opportunity for...

  17. Conscious Vision in Action.

    PubMed

    Briscoe, Robert; Schwenkler, John

    2015-09-01

    It is natural to assume that the fine-grained and highly accurate spatial information present in visual experience is often used to guide our bodily actions. Yet this assumption has been challenged by proponents of the Two Visual Systems Hypothesis (TVSH), according to which visuomotor programming is the responsibility of a "zombie" processing stream whose sources of bottom-up spatial information are entirely non-conscious (Clark, 2007, 2009; Goodale & Milner, 1992, 2004a; Milner & Goodale, 1995/2006, 2008). In many formulations of TVSH, the role of conscious vision in action is limited to "recognizing objects, selecting targets for action, and determining what kinds of action, broadly speaking, to perform" (Clark, 2007, p. 570). Our aim in this study is to show that the available evidence not only fails to support this dichotomous view but actually reveals a significant role for conscious vision in motor programming, especially for actions that require deliberate attention. PMID:25845648

  18. Einstein spectra of quasars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkes, Belinda J.

    1988-01-01

    The results of the initial stage of the CfA survey of quasar energy distributions are reviewed. Einstein imaging proportional counter spectra of 33 quasars have been studied by fitting a single power law slope and absorption by an equivalent column density of neutral hydrogen. Comparison with the higher energy HEAO-A2 data leads to a two-component model for the X-ray spectrum. The X-ray column density is systematically lower than the 21-cm measured Galactic column density along the same line of sight.

  19. Action perception predicts action performance

    PubMed Central

    Bailey, Heather R.; Kurby, Christopher A.; Giovannetti, Tania; Zacks, Jeffrey M.

    2013-01-01

    Everyday action impairments often are observed in demented older adults, and they are common potential barriers to functional independence. We evaluated whether the ability to segment and efficiently encode activities is related to the ability to execute activities. Further, we evaluated whether brain regions important for segmentation also were important for action performance. Cognitively healthy older adults and those with very mild or mild dementia of the Alzheimer's type watched and segmented movies of everyday activities and then completed the Naturalistic Action Test. Structural MRI was used to measure volume in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), medial temporal lobes (MTL), posterior cortex, and anterior cingulate cortex (ACC). Dementia status and the ability to segment everyday activities strongly predicted naturalistic action performance, and MTL volume largely accounted for this relationship. In addition, the current results supported the Omission-Commission Model: Different cognitive and neurological mechanisms predicted different types of action error. Segmentation, dementia severity, and MTL volume predicted everyday omission errors, DLPFC volume predicted commission errors, and ACC volume predicted action additions. These findings suggest that event segmentation may be critical for effective action production, and that the segmentation and production of activities may recruit the same event representation system. PMID:23851113

  20. Incongruent Imagery Interferes with Action Initiation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramsey, Richard; Cumming, Jennifer; Eastough, Daniel; Edwards, Martin G.

    2010-01-01

    It has been suggested that representing an action through observation and imagery share neural processes with action execution. In support of this view, motor-priming research has shown that observing an action can influence action initiation. However, there is little motor-priming research showing that imagining an action can modulate action…

  1. Theoretical Studies of Molecular Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McKay, Christopher (Technical Monitor); Freedman, Richard S.

    2002-01-01

    This summary describes the research activities of the principal investigator during the reporting period. The research includes spectroscopy, management of molecular databases, and generation of spectral line profiles and opacity data. The spectroscopy research includes oxygen broadening of nitric oxide (NO), analysis of CO2 spectra, analysis of HNO3 spectra, and analysis of CO spectra.

  2. Continuum Fitting HST QSO Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytler, David; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Principal Component Analysis (PCA) method which we are using to fit and describe QSO spectra relies upon the fact that QSO continuum are generally very smooth and simple except for emission and absorption lines. To see this we need high signal-to-noise (S/N) spectra of QSOs at low redshift which have relatively few absorption lines in the Lyman-a forest. We need a large number of such spectra to use as the basis set for the PCA analysis which will find the set of principal component spectra which describe the QSO family as a whole. We have found that too few HST spectra have the required S/N and hence we need to supplement them with ground based spectra of QSOs at higher redshift. We have many such spectra and we have been working to make them suitable for this analysis. We have concentrated on this topic since 12/15/01.

  3. Action, human.

    PubMed

    Russo, M T

    2010-01-01

    The term "human action" designates the intentional and deliberate movement that is proper and exclusive to mankind. Human action is a unified structure: knowledge, intention or volition, deliberation, decision or choice of means and execution. The integration between these dimensions appears as a task that demands strength of will to achieve the synthesis of self-possession and self-control that enables full personal realisation. Recently, the debate about the dynamism of human action has been enriched by the contribution of neurosciences. Thanks to techniques of neuroimaging, neurosciences have expanded the field of investigation to the nature of volition, to the role of the brain in decision-making processes and to the notion of freedom and responsibility. PMID:20393686

  4. Interstellar Electron Density Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambert, Hendrick Clark

    This study concerns the investigation of the form of the wavenumber spectrum of the Galactic electron density fluctuations through an examination of the scattering of the radio pulses emitted by pulsars as they propagate through the diffuse ionized interstellar gas. A widely used model for the electron density spectrum is based on the simple power-law: Pne(q)∝ q-β, where β = 11/3 is usually assumed, corresponding to Kolmogorov's turbulence spectrum. The simple Kolmogorov model provides satisfactory agreement for observations along many lines of sight; however, major inconsistencies remain. The inconsistencies suggest that an increase in the ratio of the power between the high (10-8[ m]-1≤ q<=10-7[ m]-1) and low (10-13[ m]-1≤ q<=10-12[ m]-1) wavenumbers is needed. This enhancement in the ratio can in turn be achieved by either including an inner scale, corresponding to a dissipation scale for the turbulent cascade, in the Kolmogorov spectrum or by considering steeper spectra. Spectra with spectral exponents β > 4 have been in general rejected based on observations of pulsar refractive scintillations. The special case of β = 4 has been given little attention and is analyzed in detail. Physically, this 'β = 4' model corresponds to the random distribution, both in location and orientation, of discrete objects with relatively sharp boundaries across the line of sight. An outer scale is included in the model to account for the average size of such objects. We compare the predictions of the inner-scale and β = 4 models both with published observations and observations we made as part of this investigation. We conclude that the form of the wavenumber spectrum is dependent on the line of sight. We propose a composite spectrum featuring a uniform background turbulence in presence of randomly distributed discrete objects, as modeled by the β = model.

  5. The action spectrum for vitamin D3: initial skin reaction and prolonged exposure.

    PubMed

    van Dijk, Arjan; den Outer, Peter; van Kranen, Henk; Slaper, Harry

    2016-07-01

    Vitamin D3 photosynthesis in the skin is formulated as a set of reaction equations, including side-reactions to lumisterol, tachysterol and toxisterols, and the accompanying reverse reactions, isomerisation of previtamin D3 to vitamin D3 and photodegradation of vitamin D3. The solution of this set is given for the stationary irradiance spectrum. The effective action spectrum for the instantaneous vitamin D3 production changes shape as a function of exposure, and therefore, no single action spectrum can be used. We assessed the action spectrum for unexposed skin and for skin that has been exposed to 7.5 Standard Erythemal Doses (SED). We constructed two new estimates: (1) the RIVM action spectrum, based on absorption spectra, quantum yields and skin transmission spectra, and (2) the modified QUT action spectrum, which is adjusted for self-absorption and skin transmission. For previously unexposed skin, the modified QUT action spectrum gives a qualitatively similar, but larger estimate than the RIVM action spectrum. We have not been able to solve the lack of quantitative agreement between the vitamin D production estimates from the three action spectrum estimates (RIVM, modified QUT and CIE). All new action spectra have stronger emphasis on the short wavelengths than the CIE action spectrum. We showed that, for wavelengths larger than 300 nm, the bandwidth that was used in the experiment that formed the basis of the CIE action spectrum, gives a red-shift of about 1 nm. Generally, with the formation of previtamin D3, the return reaction to provitamin D3 limits the production of vitamin D3. After some exposure, the new action spectrum has negative values for the longer wavelengths in the UVB. For the RIVM action spectrum, this happens after 7.5 SED, for the modified QUT action spectrum already after 1.25 SED, and after 7.5 SED the net production rate is largely cancelled. Thus prolonged exposure of previously unexposed skin saturates vitamin D3 formation. For maximum

  6. [Characteristics of Raman Spectra of Polyethylene Terephthalate].

    PubMed

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Chang-jun; Song, Li-xun; Zhang, Chong-hui; Zhang, Guo-qing; Zhang, Yi-xin

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The morphology structures were observed under different conditions using Atomic Force Microscope. The results show that the spectral intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is higher than that untreated between 200-1 750 cm(-1), while the intensity of PET treated with sodium hydroxide is lower than that untreated beyond 1 750 cm(-1) and the fluorescence background of Raman spectra is decreased. The spectral intensity of PET treated with sulfuric acid is remarkably reduced than that untreated, and the intensity of PET treated with copper sulphate is much higher than that untreated. The research results obtained by Atomic Force Microscopy show that the variations of the Raman spectra of PET fibers are closely related to. the chemical bonds and molecular structures of PET fibers. The surface of the PET treated with sodium hydroxide is rougher than that untreated, the surface roughness of the PET treated with sulfuric acid is reduced as compared to that untreated, while the surface roughness of the PET treated with copper sulphate is increased. The results obtained by Raman spectroscopy are consistent with those by Atomic Force Microscopy, indicating that the combination of Raman spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy is expected to be a promising characterization technology for polymer characteristics. PMID:27228752

  7. Graviton spectra in string cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Galluccio, Massimo; Litterio, Marco; Occhionero, Franco

    1996-08-01

    We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an ω³ increase and initiates an ω⁻⁷ decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre-Big Bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post-Big Bang). We evaluate both analytically and numerically the frequency and the intensity of the peak and we show that they may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak is at variance with ordinarily monotonic (either increasing or decreasing) graviton spectra of canonical cosmologies; its detection would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology.

  8. Angels in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stylianou, Xanthippi Cynthia

    2009-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the importance of the placement of action lines to show the direction of movement. The author shows some visuals of angels and discusses in details the texture of the wings, the hair and the clothing.

  9. Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milton-Brkich, Katie Lynn; Shumbera, Kristen; Beran, Becky

    2010-01-01

    Defined as "any systemic inquiry conducted by teachers... for the purpose of gathering information about how their particular schools operate, how they teach, and how their students learn" (Mertler, 2009), "action research" is empowering and professional research done by teachers to inform and improves their own practices. Although there are many…

  10. Spectra of hot stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hillier, D. John

    2015-08-01

    Non-LTE modeling is essential for interpreting the spectra of O stars and their decendents, and much progress has been made. The major uncertainty associated with analyzing photospheric spectra of O stars arises from issues related to microturbulence and macroturbulence. Many supergiants, for example, have microturbulent velocities that approach the sound speed, while macroturbulent velocities are often several times the sound speed. The cause of this turbulence is unknown, but may be related to pulsation, an underlying convection zone associated with the Fe opacity bump, or feedback from the stellar wind. Determining accurate abundances in O stars is hampered by the lack of lines belonging to low-z elements. Many species only have a few observable lines, and some of these are subject to complex non-LTE effects. A characteristic of massive stars is the existence of a stellar wind which is driven by radiation pressure. Radiation driving is inherently unstable, and this leads to winds with an inhomogeneous structure. Major issues that are still unresolved include: How are winds driven through the sonic point? What is the nature of the inhomogeneities, and how do the properties of these inhomogeneities change with density and velocity? How important is spatial porosity, and porosity in velocity space? What is the structure of the shocks, and in what stars do the shocks fail to cool? With Wolf-Rayet (W-R) stars the major uncertainty arises because the classic spectroscopic radius (i.e., the location where τ = 2/3) often refers to a location in the wind — not necessarily the stellar radius associated with stellar evolution models. Derived radii are typically several times those predicted by stellar evolution calculations, although for strong-lined W-R stars it is possible to construct models that are consistent with evolution calculations. The driving of the winds in these stars is strongly coupled to the closeness of the stars to the Eddington limit and to their

  11. Discrimination of phytoplankton classes using characteristic spectra of 3D fluorescence spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qian-Qian; Lei, Shu-He; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Chen-Jian

    2006-02-01

    The discrimination of phytoplankton classes using the characteristic fluorescence spectra extracted from three-dimensional fluorescence spectra was investigated. Single species cultures of 11 phytoplankton species, representing 5 major phytoplankton divisions, were used. The 3D fluorescence spectra of the cultures grown at different temperatures (20 and 15 °C) and illumination intensities (140, 80 and 30 μM m -2 s -1) were measured and their feature extraction methods were explored. Ordering Rayleigh and Raman scattering data as zero, the obtained excitation-emission matrices were processed by both singular value decomposition (SVD) and trilinear decomposition methods. The resulting first principal component can be regarded as the characteristic spectrum of the original 3D fluorescence spectrum. The analysis shows that such characteristic spectra have a discriminatory capability. At different temperatures, the characteristic spectra of Isochrysis galbana, Platymonas helgolanidica and Skeletonema costatuma have high degrees of similarity to their own species samples, while the spectra similarities of Alexandrium tamarense, Prorocentrum dentatum, Pseudo-nitzschia pungens, Chaetoceros curvisetus, Ch. Debilis, Ch. Didymus and Synechococcus sp. are not as significant as the other three species. C. curvisetus, Ch. Debilis and Ch. Didymus, belonging to genus Chaetoceros, have identical spectra and cannot be discriminated at all. Regarding all six diatom species as one class, the average discriminant error rate is below 9%. It is worth mentioning that the diatom class can be distinguished from A. tamarense and P. dentatum, which belong to Dinophyta.

  12. Delving into Egocentric Actions

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yin; Ye, Zhefan; Rehg, James M.

    2016-01-01

    We address the challenging problem of recognizing the camera wearer's actions from videos captured by an egocentric camera. Egocentric videos encode a rich set of signals regarding the camera wearer, including head movement, hand pose and gaze information. We propose to utilize these mid-level egocentric cues for egocentric action recognition. We present a novel set of egocentric features and show how they can be combined with motion and object features. The result is a compact representation with superior performance. In addition, we provide the first systematic evaluation of motion, object and egocentric cues in egocentric action recognition. Our benchmark leads to several surprising findings. These findings uncover the best practices for egocentric actions, with a significant performance boost over all previous state-of-the-art methods on three publicly available datasets. PMID:26973427

  13. EEG Power Spectra of Adolescent Poor Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ackerman, Peggy T.; McPherson, W. Brian; Oglesby, D. Michael; Dykman, Roscoe A.

    1998-01-01

    Electroencephalographic power spectra were studied in two poor-reading adolescent groups (n=38), dysphonetic and phonetic. Significant Group x Hemisphere effects were found in the alpha and beta bands, with the phonetic group showing right greater than left asymmetry. Results suggest more circumscribed and mature processing in the phonetically…

  14. Sequencing BPS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gukov, Sergei; Nawata, Satoshi; Saberi, Ingmar; Stošić, Marko; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2016-03-01

    This paper provides both a detailed study of color-dependence of link homologies, as realized in physics as certain spaces of BPS states, and a broad study of the behavior of BPS states in general. We consider how the spectrum of BPS states varies as continuous parameters of a theory are perturbed. This question can be posed in a wide variety of physical contexts, and we answer it by proposing that the relationship between unperturbed and perturbed BPS spectra is described by a spectral sequence. These general considerations unify previous applications of spectral sequence techniques to physics, and explain from a physical standpoint the appearance of many spectral sequences relating various link homology theories to one another. We also study structural properties of colored HOMFLY homology for links and evaluate Poincaré polynomials in numerous examples. Among these structural properties is a novel "sliding" property, which can be explained by using (refined) modular S-matrix. This leads to the identification of modular transformations in Chern-Simons theory and 3d {N}=2 theory via the 3d/3d correspondence. Lastly, we introduce the notion of associated varieties as classical limits of recursion relations of colored superpolynomials of links, and study their properties.

  15. EXPLORING THE MORPHOLOGY OF RAVE STELLAR SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Matijevic, G.; Zwitter, T.; Bienayme, O.; Siebert, A.; Bland-Hawthorn, J.; Boeche, C.; Grebel, E. K.; Freeman, K. C.; Gibson, B. K.; Gilmore, G.; Helmi, A.; Munari, U.; Navarro, J.; Parker, Q. A.; Reid, W.; Seabroke, G.; Siviero, A.; Steinmetz, M.; Williams, M.; Watson, F. G.; and others

    2012-06-01

    The RAdial Velocity Experiment (RAVE) is a medium-resolution (R {approx} 7500) spectroscopic survey of the Milky Way that has already obtained over half a million stellar spectra. They present a randomly selected magnitude-limited sample, so it is important to use a reliable and automated classification scheme that identifies normal single stars and discovers different types of peculiar stars. To this end, we present a morphological classification of {approx}350, 000 RAVE survey stellar spectra using locally linear embedding, a dimensionality reduction method that enables representing the complex spectral morphology in a low-dimensional projected space while still preserving the properties of the local neighborhoods of spectra. We find that the majority of all spectra in the database ({approx} 90%-95%) belong to normal single stars, but there is also a significant population of several types of peculiars. Among them, the most populated groups are those of various types of spectroscopic binary and chromospherically active stars. Both of them include several thousands of spectra. Particularly the latter group offers significant further investigation opportunities since activity of stars is a known proxy of stellar ages. Applying the same classification procedure to the sample of normal single stars alone shows that the shape of the projected manifold in two-dimensional space correlates with stellar temperature, surface gravity, and metallicity.

  16. Cloud supersaturations from CCN spectra Hoppel minima

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hudson, James G.; Noble, Stephen; Tabor, Samantha

    2015-04-01

    High-resolution cloud condensation nucleus (CCN) spectral measurements in two aircraft field projects, Marine Stratus/Stratocumulus Experiment (MASE) and Ice in Clouds Experiment-Tropical (ICE-T), often showed bimodality that had previously been observed in submicrometer aerosol size distributions obtained by differential mobility analyzers. However, a great deal of spectral shape variability from very bimodal to very monomodal was observed in close proximity. Cloud supersaturation (S) estimates based on critical S, Sc, at minimal CCN concentrations between two modes (Hoppel minima) were ascertained for 63% of 325 measured spectra. These cloud S were lower than effective S (Seff) determined by comparing ambient CCN spectra with nearby cloud droplet concentrations (Nc). Averages for the polluted MASE stratus were 0.15 and 0.23% and for the cumulus clouds of ICE-T 0.44 and 1.03%. This cloud S disagreement between the two methods might in part be due to the fact that Hoppel minima include the effects of cloud processing, which push CCN spectra toward lower S. Furthermore, there is less cloud processing by the smaller cloud droplets, which might be related to smaller droplets evaporating more readily. Significantly lower concentrations within the more bimodal spectra compared with the monomodal spectra indicated active physical processes: Brownian capture of interstitial CCN and droplet coalescence. Chemical cloud processing also contributed to bimodality, especially in MASE.

  17. Fast Inversion of Solar Ca II Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-01

    We present a fast (Lt1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ~ -3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = -6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  18. Ultraviolet spectra and chromospheres of R stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eaton, J. A.; Johnson, H. R.; Obrien, G. T.; Baumert, J. H.

    1985-01-01

    Long-wavelength IUE spectra of 13 normal R stars and two hydrogen-deficient R0 supergiants were obtained. Early R stars are noted to have line spectra and levels of flux in the ultraviolet characteristic of G5-K2 III stars, whereas late R stars were observed to have colors and line spectra similar to late K and M stars, but with greatly enhanced strength of low-lying multiplets of neutral metals. Hydrogen-deficient carbon stars show readily apparent differences from the normal early R stars, reflecting their luminosity and somewhat higher temperatures. The lines of neutral metals in these stars are weakened, while those of ionized metals are strengthened.

  19. Synthetic spectra: a tool for correlation spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B.; Butler, Michael A.; Ricco, Anthony J. Senturia, Stephen D.

    1997-05-01

    We show that computer-generated diffractive optical elements can be used to synthesize the infrared spectra of important compounds, and we describe a modified phase-retrieval algorithm useful for the design of elements of this type. In particular, we present the results of calculations of diffractive elements that are capable of synthesizing portions of the infrared spectra of gaseous hydrogen fluoride (HF) and trichloroethylene (TCE). Further, we propose a new type of correlation spectrometer that uses these diffractive elements rather than reference cells for the production of reference spectra. Storage of a large number of diffractive elements, each producing a synthetic spectrum corresponding to a different target compound, in compact-disk-like format will allow a spectrometer of this type to rapidly determine the composition of unknown samples. Other advantages of the proposed correlation spectrometer are also discussed. {copyright} 1997 Optical Society of America

  20. FAST INVERSION OF SOLAR Ca II SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Beck, C.; Choudhary, D. P.; Rezaei, R.; Louis, R. E.

    2015-01-10

    We present a fast (<<1 s per profile) inversion code for solar Ca II lines. The code uses an archive of spectra that are synthesized prior to the inversion under the assumption of local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE). We show that it can be successfully applied to spectrograph data or more sparsely sampled spectra from two-dimensional spectrometers. From a comparison to a non-LTE inversion of the same set of spectra, we derive a first-order non-LTE correction to the temperature stratifications derived in the LTE approach. The correction factor is close to unity up to log τ ∼ –3 and increases to values of 2.5 and 4 at log τ = –6 in the quiet Sun and the umbra, respectively.

  1. Red spectra from white and blue noise

    PubMed Central

    Balmforth, N. J.; Provenzale, A.; Spiegel, E. A.; Martens, M.; Tresser, C.; Wu, C. W.

    1999-01-01

    The value of maps of the interval in modelling population dynamics has recently been called into question because temporal variations from such maps have blue or white power spectra, whereas many observations of real populations show time-series with red spectra. One way to deal with this discrepancy is to introduce chaotic or stochastic fluctuations in the parameters of the map. This leads to on–off intermittency and can markedly redden the spectrum produced by a model that does not by itself have a red spectrum. The parameter fluctuations need not themselves have a red spectrum in order to achieve this effect. Because the power spectrum is not invariant under a change of variable, another way to redden the spectrum is by a suitable transformation of the variables used. The question this poses is whether spectra are the best means of characterizing a fluctuating variable.

  2. Citizen's actions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1975-01-01

    The role played by individual citizens as consumers of energy was examined, with emphasis on studying ways in which their action could result in energy conservation. It was shown that there are ways that energy can be conserved in this way, with citizens acting either individually or in groups. The potential savings are significant, but the actual savings may be quite small. The citizens need to be motivated to save and to believe in a conservation ethic; developing such an ethic is difficult, and perhaps not responsive to the shotgun approach now being attempted. The true course of action may be to synthesize new societal structures that provide the maximum evolution of culture within the limitation of scarce energy resources.

  3. Actionable Nuggets

    PubMed Central

    McColl, Mary Ann; Aiken, Alice; Smith, Karen; McColl, Alexander; Green, Michael; Godwin, Marshall; Birtwhistle, Richard; Norman, Kathleen; Brankston, Gabrielle; Schaub, Michael

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Objective To present the results of a pilot study of an innovative methodology for translating best evidence about spinal cord injury (SCI) for family practice. Design Review of Canadian and international peer-reviewed literature to develop SCI Actionable Nuggets, and a mixed qualitative-quantitative evaluation to determine Nuggets’ effect on physician knowledge of and attitudes toward patients with SCI, as well as practice accessibility. Setting Ontario, Newfoundland, and Australia. Participants Forty-nine primary care physicians. Methods Twenty Actionable Nuggets (pertaining to key health issues associated with long-term SCI) were developed. Nugget postcards were mailed weekly for 20 weeks to participating physicians. Prior knowledge of SCI was self-rated by participants; they also completed an online posttest to assess the information they gained from the Nugget postcards. Participants’ opinions about practice accessibility and accommodations for patients with SCI, as well as the acceptability and usefulness of Nuggets, were assessed in interviews. Main findings With Actionable Nuggets, participants’ knowledge of the health needs of patients with SCI improved, as knowledge increased from a self-rating of fair (58%) to very good (75%) based on posttest quiz results. The mean overall score for accessibility and accommodations in physicians’ practices was 72%. Participants’ awareness of the need for screening and disease prevention among this population also increased. The usefulness and acceptability of SCI Nugget postcards were rated as excellent. Conclusion Actionable Nuggets are a knowledge translation tool designed to provide family physicians with concise, practical information about the most prevalent and pressing primary care needs of patients with SCI. This evidence-based resource has been shown to be an excellent fit with information consumption processes in primary care. They were updated and adapted for distribution by the Canadian

  4. Androgen action.

    PubMed

    Werner, Ralf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin

    2014-01-01

    Androgens are important for male sex development and physiology. Their actions are mediated by the androgen receptor (AR), a ligand-dependent nuclear transcription factor. The activity of the AR is controlled at multiple stages due to ligand binding and induced structural changes assisted by the foldosome, compartmentalization, recruitment of coregulators, posttranslational modifications and chromatin remodeling, leading to subsequent transcription of androgen-responsive target genes. Beside these short-term androgen actions, there is phenomenological and experimental evidence of long-term androgen programming in mammals and in the human during sensitive programming time windows, both pre- and postnatally. At the molecular level, research into androgen insensitivity syndrome has unmasked androgen programming at the transcriptome level, in genital fibroblasts and peripheral blood mononuclear cells, and at the epigenome level. Androgens are crucial for male sex development and physiology during embryogenesis, at puberty and in adult life. Testosterone and its more potent metabolite, dihydrotestosterone, which is converted from testosterone within the target cell by 5α-reductase II, are the main androgens involved in male sex differentiation. Androgen action is mediated by a single AR. The AR belongs to the nuclear receptor 3 group C, composed of the glucocorticoid receptor (NR3C1), mineralocorticoid receptor (NR3C2), progesterone receptor (NR3C3) and AR (NR3C4), and acts as a ligand-dependent transcription factor. PMID:25247642

  5. VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW SHOWING WEST ELEVATION, EAST SIDE OF MEYER AVENUE. SHOWS 499-501, MUNOZ HOUSE (AZ-73-37) ON FAR RIGHT - Antonio Bustamente House, 485-489 South Meyer Avenue & 186 West Kennedy Street, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  6. 15. Detail showing lower chord pinconnected to vertical member, showing ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. Detail showing lower chord pin-connected to vertical member, showing floor beam riveted to extension of vertical member below pin-connection, and showing brackets supporting cantilevered sidewalk. View to southwest. - Selby Avenue Bridge, Spanning Short Line Railways track at Selby Avenue between Hamline & Snelling Avenues, Saint Paul, Ramsey County, MN

  7. Learning to take actions

    SciTech Connect

    Khardon, R.

    1996-12-31

    We formalize a model for supervised learning of action strategies in dynamic stochastic domains, and show that pac-learning results on Occam algorithms hold in this model as well. We then identify a particularly useful bias for action strategies based on production rule systems. We show that a subset of production rule systems, including rules in predicate calculus style, small hidden state, and unobserved support predicates, is properly learnable. The bias we introduce enables the learning algorithm to invent the recursive support predicates which are used in the action strategy, and to reconstruct the internal state of the strategy. It is also shown that hierarchical strategies are learnable if a helpful teacher is available, but that otherwise the problem is computationally hard.

  8. Catalogue of representative meteor spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojáček, V.; Borovička, J.; Koten, P.; Spurný, P.; Štork, R.

    2016-01-01

    We present a library of low-resolution meteor spectra that includes sporadic meteors, members of minor meteor showers, and major meteor showers. These meteors are in the magnitude range from +2 to ‑3, corresponding to meteoroid sizes from 1 mm to10 mm. This catalogue is available online at the CDS for those interested in video meteor spectra.

  9. Projecting Spectra for Classroom Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Philip

    1991-01-01

    Describes an inexpensive spectrum projector that makes high-dispersion, high-efficiency diffraction gratings using a holographic process. Discusses classroom applications such as transmission spectra, absorption spectra, reflection characteristics of materials, color mixing, florescence and phosphorescence, and break up spectral colors. (MDH)

  10. Silicon Carbide: The Problem with Laboratory Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Speck, A. K.; Hofmeister, A. M.; Barlow, M. J.

    2000-03-01

    The interpretation of astronomical observations of infrared (IR) silicon carbide (SiC) features in the spectra of carbon stars have revealed discrepancies between the work of astronomers and that of meteoriticists. The silicon carbide observed around carbon stars has been attributed to one type of SiC (α) while meteoritic samples believed to have formed around such stars are of another type of SiC (β). The key to solving this problem has been to understand the sources of laboratory data used by astronomers in order to interpret the IR spectra. Through comparison of thin film IR absorption spectra and spectra taken using finely ground samples dispersed in potassium bromide (KBr) pellets we show that the previously invoked ``KBr matrix-correction'' is unnecessary for powder dispersions obtained from very fine grain sizes of SiC. Comparison of our data and previous measurements show that dust around carbon stars is β-SiC, consistent with laboratory studies of presolar grains in meteorites. The implications of these findings affect twenty years of work. The IR spectroscopic laboratory data used by astronomers to identify dust species in space must be carefully scrutinized to ensure that the KBr correction is not responsible for further misattributions of minerals in astronomical dust features.

  11. Neutron Spectra and H*(10) in a 15 MV Linac

    SciTech Connect

    Benites, J.; Vega-Carrillo, H. R.; Hernandez-Davila, V. M.; Rivera, T.; Carrillo, A.; Mondragon, R.

    2010-12-07

    Neutron spectra and the ambient dose equivalent were calculated inside the bunker of a 15 MV Varian linac model CLINAC iX. Calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods. Neutron spectra in the vicinity of isocentre show the presence of evaporation and knock-on neutrons produced by the source term, while epithermal and thermal neutron remain constant regardless the distance respect to isocentre, due to room return. Along the maze neutron spectra becomes softer as the detector moves along the maze. The ambient dose equivalent is decreased but do not follow the 1/r{sup 2} rule due to changes in the neutron spectra.

  12. Action Learning: Avoiding Conflict or Enabling Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corley, Aileen; Thorne, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Action learning is based on the premise that action and learning are inextricably entwined and it is this potential, to enable action, which has contributed to the growth of action learning within education and management development programmes. However has this growth in action learning lead to an evolution or a dilution of Revan's classical…

  13. Simulation of dielectric spectra of erythrocytes with various shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asami, Koji

    2009-07-01

    Dielectric spectra of erythrocyte suspensions were numerically simulated over a frequency range from 1 kHz to 100 MHz to study the effects of erythrocyte shape on the dielectric spectra. First, a biconcave-discoid model for normal erythrocytes or discocytes was compared with an equivalent oblate spheroid model. The two models showed similar dielectric spectra to each other, suggesting that the oblate spheroid model can be approximately used for discocytes. Second, dielectric spectra were simulated for discocytes deformed by osmotic cell swelling. The deformation resulted in the increase in relaxation intensity and the sharpening of spectrum shape. Finally, dielectric spectra were simulated for echinocytes, stomatocytes and sickle cells that are induced by chemical agents and diseases. The dielectric spectra of echinocytes and stomatocytes were similar to each other, being distinguishable from that of discocytes and quite different from that of sickle cells.

  14. Radial Distribution of Electron Spectra from High-Energy Ions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cucinotta, Francis A.; Katz, Robert; Wilson, John W.

    1998-01-01

    The average track model describes the response of physical and biological systems using radial dose distribution as the key physical descriptor. We report on an extension of this model to describe the average distribution of electron spectra as a function of radial distance from an ion. We present calculations of these spectra for ions of identical linear energy transfer (LET), but dissimilar charge and velocity to evaluate the differences in electron spectra from these ions. To illustrate the usefulness of the radial electron spectra for describing effects that are not described by electron dose, we consider the evaluation of the indirect events in microdosimetric distributions for ions. We show that folding our average electron spectra model with experimentally determined frequency distributions for photons or electrons provides a good representation of radial event spectra from high-energy ions in 0.5-2 micrometer sites.

  15. Atomic lines in infrared spectra for ultracool dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyubchik, Y.; Jones, H. R. A.; Pavlenko, Y. V.; Viti, S.; Pickering, J. C.; Blackwell-Whitehead, R.

    2004-03-01

    We provide a set of atomic lines which are suitable for the description of ultracool dwarf spectra from 10 000 to 25 000 Å. This atomic linelist was made using both synthetic spectra calculations and existing atlases of infrared spectra of Arcturus and Sunspot umbra. We present plots which show the comparison of synthetic spectra and observed Arcturus and Sunspot umbral spectra for all atomic lines likely to be observable in high resolution infrared spectra. Figure 1 is only available in electronic form at http://www.edpsciences.org Tables 1 and 2 are only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/cgi-bin/qcat?J/A+A/416/655

  16. 28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    28. MAP SHOWING LOCATION OF ARVFS FACILITY AS BUILT. SHOWS LINCOLN BOULEVARD, BIG LOST RIVER, AND NAVAL REACTORS FACILITY. F.C. TORKELSON DRAWING NUMBER 842-ARVFS-101-2. DATED OCTOBER 12, 1965. INEL INDEX CODE NUMBER: 075 0101 851 151969. - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Advanced Reentry Vehicle Fusing System, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  17. 8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. Detail showing concrete abutment, showing substructure of bridge, specifically west side of arch and substructure. - Presumpscot Falls Bridge, Spanning Presumptscot River at Allen Avenue extension, 0.75 mile west of U.S. Interstate 95, Falmouth, Cumberland County, ME

  18. The minimalist grammar of action

    PubMed Central

    Pastra, Katerina; Aloimonos, Yiannis

    2012-01-01

    Language and action have been found to share a common neural basis and in particular a common ‘syntax’, an analogous hierarchical and compositional organization. While language structure analysis has led to the formulation of different grammatical formalisms and associated discriminative or generative computational models, the structure of action is still elusive and so are the related computational models. However, structuring action has important implications on action learning and generalization, in both human cognition research and computation. In this study, we present a biologically inspired generative grammar of action, which employs the structure-building operations and principles of Chomsky's Minimalist Programme as a reference model. In this grammar, action terminals combine hierarchically into temporal sequences of actions of increasing complexity; the actions are bound with the involved tools and affected objects and are governed by certain goals. We show, how the tool role and the affected-object role of an entity within an action drives the derivation of the action syntax in this grammar and controls recursion, merge and move, the latter being mechanisms that manifest themselves not only in human language, but in human action too. PMID:22106430

  19. Relevance of Light Spectra to Growth of the Rearing Tiger Puffer Takifugu rubripes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Hur, Sang-Woo; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don

    2016-01-01

    In fish, light (photoperiod, intensity and spectra) is main regulator in many physiological actions includinggrowth. We investigate the effect of light spectra on the somatic growth and growth-related gene expression in the rearing tiger puffer. Fish was reared under different light spectra (blue, green and red) for 8 weeks. Fish body weight and total length were promoted when reared under green light condition than red light condition. Expression of somatostatins (ss1 and ss2) in brain were showed higher expression under red light condition than green light condition. The ss3 mRNA was observed only higher expression in blue light condition. Expression of growth hormone (gh) in pituitary was detected no different levels between experimental groups. However, the fish of green light condition group was showed more high weight gain and feed efficiency than other light condition groups. Our present results suggest that somatic growth of tiger puffer is induced under green light condition because of inhibiting ss mRNA expression in brain by effect of green wavelength. PMID:27294208

  20. Relevance of Light Spectra to Growth of the Rearing Tiger Puffer Takifugu rubripes.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byeong-Hoon; Hur, Sung-Pyo; Hur, Sang-Woo; Lee, Chi-Hoon; Lee, Young-Don

    2016-03-01

    In fish, light (photoperiod, intensity and spectra) is main regulator in many physiological actions includinggrowth. We investigate the effect of light spectra on the somatic growth and growth-related gene expression in the rearing tiger puffer. Fish was reared under different light spectra (blue, green and red) for 8 weeks. Fish body weight and total length were promoted when reared under green light condition than red light condition. Expression of somatostatins (ss1 and ss2) in brain were showed higher expression under red light condition than green light condition. The ss3 mRNA was observed only higher expression in blue light condition. Expression of growth hormone (gh) in pituitary was detected no different levels between experimental groups. However, the fish of green light condition group was showed more high weight gain and feed efficiency than other light condition groups. Our present results suggest that somatic growth of tiger puffer is induced under green light condition because of inhibiting ss mRNA expression in brain by effect of green wavelength. PMID:27294208

  1. Planning a Successful Tech Show

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nikirk, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Tech shows are a great way to introduce prospective students, parents, and local business and industry to a technology and engineering or career and technical education program. In addition to showcasing instructional programs, a tech show allows students to demonstrate their professionalism and skills, practice public presentations, and interact…

  2. Hey Teacher, Your Personality's Showing!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulsen, James R.

    1977-01-01

    A study of 30 fourth, fifth, and sixth grade teachers and 300 of their students showed that a teacher's age, sex, and years of experience did not relate to students' mathematics achievement, but that more effective teachers showed greater "freedom from defensive behavior" than did less effective teachers. (DT)

  3. What Do Blood Tests Show?

    MedlinePlus

    ... shows the ranges for blood glucose levels after 8 to 12 hours of fasting (not eating). It shows the normal range and the abnormal ranges that are a sign of prediabetes or diabetes. Plasma Glucose Results (mg/dL)* Diagnosis 70 to 99 ...

  4. Microdosimetric spectra measurements of JANUS neutrons

    SciTech Connect

    Marshall, I.R.; Williamson, F.S.

    1985-01-01

    Neutron radiation from the JANUS reactor at Argonne National Laboratory is being used with increasing frequency for major biological experiments. The fast neutron spectrum has a Kerma-weighted mean energy of 0.8 MeV and low gamma-ray contamination. In 1984 the JANUS fission converter plate of highly enriched uranium was replaced by one made of low-enriched uranium. We recorded microdosimetric spectra at several different positions in the high-flux irradiation room of JANUS before the change of the converter plate. Each set of measurements consisted of spectra taken at three different site diameters (0.5, 1.0, and 5.0 ..mu..m) and in both ''attenuator up'' and ''attenuator down'' configurations. At two conventional dosimetry reference positions, two sets of measurements were recorded. At three biological reference positions, measurements simulating several biological irradiation conditions, were taken. The dose rate at each position was estimated and compared with dose rates obtained previously by conventional dosimetry. Comparison of the different measurements showed no major change in spectra as a function of position or irradiation condition. First results from similar sets of measurements recorded after the installment of the new converter plate indicate no major change in the spectra. 11 refs., 4 figs., 5 tabs.

  5. Temporal Evolution of Solar Energetic Particle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doran, Donald J.; Dalla, Silvia

    2016-08-01

    During solar flares and coronal mass ejections, Solar Energetic Particles (SEPs) may be released into the interplanetary medium and near-Earth locations. The energy spectra of SEP events at 1 AU are typically averaged over the entire event or studied in a few snapshots. In this article we analyze the time evolution of the energy spectra of four large selected SEP events using a large number of snapshots. We use a multi-spacecraft and multi-instrument approach for the observations, obtained over a wide SEP energy range. We find large differences in the spectra at the beginning of the events as measured by different instruments. We show that over time, a wave-like structure is observed traveling through the spectra from the highest energies to the lowest energies, creating an "arch" shape that then straightens into a power law later in the event, after times on the order of 10 hours. We discuss the processes that determine SEP intensities and their role in shaping the spectral time evolution.

  6. First Infrared Predissociation Spectra of He-TAGGED Protonated Primary Alcohols at 4 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoffels, Alexander; Redlich, Britta; Oomens, J.; Asvany, Oskar; Brünken, Sandra; Jusko, Pavol; Thorwirth, Sven; Schlemmer, Stephan

    2015-06-01

    Cryogenic multipole ion traps have become popular devices in the development of sensitive action-spectroscopic techniques. The low ion temperature leads to enhanced spectral resolution, and less congested spectra. In the early 2000s, a 22-pole ion trap was coupled to the Free-Electron Laser for Infrared eXperiments (FELIX), yielding infrared Laser Induced Reaction (LIR) spectra of the molecular ions C_2H_2+ and CH_5+. This pioneering work showed the great opportunities combining cold mass-selected molecular ions with widely tunable broadband IR radiation. In the past year a cryogenic (T>3.9 K) 22-pole ion trap designed and built in Cologne (FELion) has been successfully coupled to FELIX, which in its current configuration provides continuously tunable infrared radiation from 3 μm to 150 μm, hence allowing to probe characteristic vibrational spectra in the so-called "fingerprint region" with a sufficient spectral energy density also allowing for multiple photon processes (IR-MPD). Here we present the first infrared predissociation spectra of He-tagged protonated methanol and ethanol (MeOH_2+/EtOH_2+) stored at 4 K. These vibrational spectra were recorded with both a commercial OPO and FELIX, covering a total spectral range from 3700 wn to 550 wn at a spectral resolution of a few wn. The H-O-H stretching and bending modes clearly distinguish the protonated alcohols from their neutral analoga. For EtOH_2+, also IR-MPD spectra of the bare ion could be recorded. The symmetric and antisymmetric H-O-H stretching bands at around 3 μm show no significant shift within the given spectral resolution in comparison to those recorded with He predissociation, indicating a rather small perturbation caused by the attached He. The vibrational bands were assigned using quantum-chemical calculations on different levels of theory. The computed frequencies correspond favorably to the experimental spectra. Subsequent high resolution measurements could lead to a better structural

  7. Energy spectra in elasto-inertial turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valente, P. C.; da Silva, C. B.; Pinho, F. T.

    2016-07-01

    Direct numerical simulations of statistically steady homogeneous isotropic turbulence in viscoelastic fluids described by the FENE-P model are presented. Emphasis is given to large polymer relaxation times compared to the eddy turnover time, which is a regime recently termed elasto-inertial turbulence. In this regime the polymers are ineffective in dissipating kinetic energy but they play a lead role in transferring kinetic energy to the small solvent scales which turns out to be concomitant with the depletion of the usual non-linear energy cascade. However, we show that the non-linear interactions are still highly active, but they lead to no net downscale energy transfer because the forward and reversed energy cascades are nearly balanced. Finally, we show that the tendency for a steeper elasto-inertial power-law spectra is reversed for large polymer relaxation times and the spectra tend towards the usual k-5/3 functional form.

  8. Spectra ID of recent SN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Challis, Peter

    2013-12-01

    P. Challis, Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA), on behalf of the CfA Supernova Group, report spectra (range 320-860 nm) of various SN obtained during Dec. 24-27 UT by P. Challis, S. Gottilla (MMTO.org), and E. Marin (MMTO.org) with the MMT 6.5-m telescope (+ Blue Channel). Cross-correlation with a library of supernova spectra using the "Supernova Identification" code (SNID; Blondin and Tonry 2007, Ap.J.

  9. Estimators of bottom reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estep, L.; Holloway, J.

    1992-01-01

    Estimators of in situ bottom spectral reflectance are calculated from multi-station optical field data gathered with standard instrumentation from different sites. These spectra are then compared to reflectance spectra measured in the laboratory of the bottom sediments collected in the field for the stations at these different sites. The relative fit of the estimated spectral curves to those measured in the laboratory was measured. The most accurate absolute estimation was provided by the single scattering irradiance model.

  10. Satellite Movie Shows Erika Dissipate

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of visible and infrared imagery from NOAA's GOES-West satellite from Aug. 27 to 29 shows Tropical Storm Erika move through the Eastern Caribbean Sea and dissipate near eastern Cuba. ...

  11. Integrating CHAT and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wells, Gordon

    2011-01-01

    The question as to how action research (AR) is related to cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT) is not answerable in categorical terms. Both CHAT and AR have been variously interpreted and much depends on the individual biographies of those who pronounce on their relationship. The aim of this paper is to show how action research, conducted…

  12. Philosophy, Methodology and Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, Wilfred

    2006-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to examine the role of methodology in action research. It begins by showing how, as a form of inquiry concerned with the development of practice, action research is nothing other than a modern 20th century manifestation of the pre-modern tradition of practical philosophy. It then draws in Gadamer's powerful vindication of…

  13. Reanalysis of Tyrannosaurus rex Mass Spectra.

    PubMed

    Bern, Marshall; Phinney, Brett S; Goldberg, David

    2009-09-01

    Asara et al. reported the detection of collagen peptides in a 68-million-year-old Tyrannosaurus rex bone by shotgun proteomics. This finding has been called into question as a possible statistical artifact. We reanalyze Asara et al.'s tandem mass spectra using a different search engine and different statistical tools. Our reanalysis shows a sample containing common laboratory contaminants, soil bacteria, and bird-like hemoglobin and collagen. PMID:19603827

  14. Orbital phase dependent IUE spectra of the nova like binary II Arietis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guinan, E. F.; Sion, E. M.

    1981-01-01

    Nine low dispersion IUE spectra of the nova like binary TT Ari over its 3h17m orbital period were obtained. Four short wave spectra and five long wave spectra exhibit marked changes in line strength and continuum shape with orbital phase. The short wave spectra show the presence in absorption of C III, Lyman alpha, SiIII, NV, SiIV, CIV, HeII, AlIII, and NIV. The CIV shows a P Cygni profile on two of the spectra. Implications of these spectra for the nature of nova like variables are discussed.

  15. National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Dan Jimenez Sheri Raborn, CPA; Tom Baker

    2008-03-31

    National Orange Show Photovoltaic Demonstration created a 400KW Photovoltaic self-generation plant at the National Orange Show Events Center (NOS). The NOS owns a 120-acre state fairground where it operates an events center and produces an annual citrus fair known as the Orange Show. The NOS governing board wanted to employ cost-saving programs for annual energy expenses. It is hoped the Photovoltaic program will result in overall savings for the NOS, help reduce the State's energy demands as relating to electrical power consumption, improve quality of life within the affected grid area as well as increase the energy efficiency of buildings at our venue. In addition, the potential to reduce operational expenses would have a tremendous effect on the ability of the NOS to service its community.

  16. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products.

    PubMed

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G M; de Oliveira, Luiz F C

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle (Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a nu1 band at ca. 1520 cm(-1), in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a nu1 band at 1537 cm(-1) which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carbon-carbon double bonds. A correlation between nu1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm(-1)) of the nu1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit nu1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm(-1), respectively. On the basis of the correlation between nu1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm(-1) and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm(-1), which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form. PMID:12909134

  17. Improved predictions of reactor antineutrino spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Fallot, M.; Letourneau, A.; Cormon, S.; Fechner, M.; Giot, L.; Lasserre, T.; Martino, J.; Mention, G.; Porta, A.; Yermia, F.

    2011-05-01

    Precise predictions of the antineutrino spectra emitted by nuclear reactors is a key ingredient in measurements of reactor neutrino oscillations as well as in recent applications to the surveillance of power plants in the context of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. We report new calculations including the latest information from nuclear databases and a detailed error budget. The first part of this work is the so-called ab initio approach where the total antineutrino spectrum is built from the sum of all β branches of all fission products predicted by an evolution code. Systematic effects and missing information in nuclear databases lead to final relative uncertainties in the 10-20% range. A prediction of the antineutrino spectrum associated with the fission of U238 is given based on this ab initio method. For the dominant isotopes we developed a more accurate approach combining information from nuclear databases and reference electron spectra associated with the fission of U235, Pu239, and Pu241, measured at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in the 1980s. We show how the anchor point of the measured total β spectra can be used to suppress the uncertainty in nuclear databases while taking advantage of all the information they contain. We provide new reference antineutrino spectra for U235, Pu239, and Pu241 isotopes in the 2-8 MeV range. While the shapes of the spectra and their uncertainties are comparable to those of the previous analysis of the ILL data, the normalization is shifted by about +3% on average. In the perspective of the reanalysis of past experiments and direct use of these results by upcoming oscillation experiments, we discuss the various sources of errors and their correlations as well as the corrections induced by off-equilibrium effects.

  18. Raman spectra of carotenoids in natural products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withnall, Robert; Chowdhry, Babur Z.; Silver, Jack; Edwards, Howell G. M.; de Oliveira, Luiz F. C.

    2003-08-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of naturally occurring carotenoids have been obtained from nautilus, periwinkle ( Littorina littorea) and clam shells under 514.5 nm excitation and these spectra are compared with the resonance Raman spectra obtained in situ from tomatoes, carrots, red peppers and saffron. The tomatoes, carrots and red peppers gave rise to resonance Raman spectra exhibiting a ν1 band at ca. 1520 cm -1, in keeping with its assignment to carotenoids with ca. nine conjugated carboncarbon double bonds in their main chains, whereas the resonance Raman spectrum of saffron showed a ν1 band at 1537 cm -1 which can be assigned to crocetin, having seven conjugated carboncarbon double bonds. A correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length has been used to interpret the data obtained from the shells, and the wavenumber position (1522 cm -1) of the ν1 band of the carotenoid in the orange clam shell suggests that it contains nine conjugated double bonds in the main chain. However, the black periwinkle and nautilus shells exhibit ν1 bands at 1504 and 1496 cm -1, respectively. On the basis of the correlation between ν1 wavenumber location and effective conjugated chain length, this indicates that they contain carotenoids with longer conjugated chains, the former having ca. 11 double bonds and the latter ca. 13 or even more. Raman spectra of the nautilus, periwinkle and clam shells also exhibited a strong band at 1085 cm -1 and a doublet with components at 701 and 705 cm -1, which can be assigned to biogenic calcium carbonate in the aragonite crystallographic form.

  19. Improved predictions of reactor antineutrino spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Th. A.; Lhuillier, D.; Letourneau, A.

    2011-05-15

    Precise predictions of the antineutrino spectra emitted by nuclear reactors is a key ingredient in measurements of reactor neutrino oscillations as well as in recent applications to the surveillance of power plants in the context of nonproliferation of nuclear weapons. We report new calculations including the latest information from nuclear databases and a detailed error budget. The first part of this work is the so-called ab initio approach where the total antineutrino spectrum is built from the sum of all {beta} branches of all fission products predicted by an evolution code. Systematic effects and missing information in nuclear databases lead to final relative uncertainties in the 10-20% range. A prediction of the antineutrino spectrum associated with the fission of {sup 238}U is given based on this ab initio method. For the dominant isotopes we developed a more accurate approach combining information from nuclear databases and reference electron spectra associated with the fission of {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu, measured at Institut Laue-Langevin (ILL) in the 1980s. We show how the anchor point of the measured total {beta} spectra can be used to suppress the uncertainty in nuclear databases while taking advantage of all the information they contain. We provide new reference antineutrino spectra for {sup 235}U, {sup 239}Pu, and {sup 241}Pu isotopes in the 2-8 MeV range. While the shapes of the spectra and their uncertainties are comparable to those of the previous analysis of the ILL data, the normalization is shifted by about +3% on average. In the perspective of the reanalysis of past experiments and direct use of these results by upcoming oscillation experiments, we discuss the various sources of errors and their correlations as well as the corrections induced by off-equilibrium effects.

  20. [Variations of IR-spectra of three coating materials before and after spraying on urea fertilizer].

    PubMed

    Liu, Xing-bin; Chen, Li-jun; Wu, Zhi-jie; Zhang, Guang-na

    2009-09-01

    Coated fertilizer is a hot spot in the domain of fertilizer research. Related researches mainly focused on the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling the nutrient release from coated fertilizers, but less information is available on the structural variation of the coating materials before and after spraying on fertilizers, which is the key to whether we can directly use coating materials to extrapolate its mechanisms in controlling coated fertilizers' nutrient release. With polylactic acid (PLA), poly (butynelenes succinate) (PBS), and polycarbonate (PC) as test materials, the variations of their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer were determined, which was aimed to supply theoretical basis for further studying the action mechanisms of coating materials in controlling coated fertilizers nutrient release. The results showed that PLA and PC had less variation in their IR spectra before and after spraying on urea fertilizer, while PBS acted in reverse, suggesting that the former two coating materials could be directly used for studying the patterns of nutrient release from coated fertilizers. PMID:19950629

  1. Creating Slide Show Book Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Harriet G.; Stuhlmann, Janice M.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the use of "Kid Pix 2" software by fourth grade students to develop slide-show book reports. Highlights include collaboration with education majors from Louisiana State University, changes in attitudes of the education major students and elementary students, and problems with navigation and disk space. (LRW)

  2. Producing Talent and Variety Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Szabo, Chuck

    1995-01-01

    Identifies key aspects of producing talent shows and outlines helpful hints for avoiding pitfalls and ensuring a smooth production. Presents suggestions concerning publicity, scheduling, and support personnel. Describes types of acts along with special needs and problems specific to each act. Includes a list of resources. (MJP)

  3. FTIR Spectra of Possible End Products of Martian Surface Weathering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxe, L. P.

    2008-03-01

    Comparative analysis of IR spectra shows that martian weathering can lead to separating destruction of surface rocks. The semi-cosmic martian weathering results in amorphous silica dust and open unique ferry aluminum/ferry silicate martian rocks.

  4. 25 CFR 141.56 - Show cause procedures.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause procedures. 141.56 Section 141.56 Indians... NAVAJO, HOPI AND ZUNI RESERVATIONS Enforcement Powers, Procedures and Remedies § 141.56 Show cause... from the date of receipt of notice in which to show cause why the contemplated remedial action...

  5. Optimal construction of theoretical spectra for MS/MS spectra identification

    SciTech Connect

    Fridman, Tamah; Protopopescu, Vladimir A; Hurst, Gregory {Greg} B; Borziak, Andrei; Gorin, Andrey A

    2005-01-01

    We derive the optimal number of peaks (defined as the minimum number that provides the required efficiency of spectra identification) in the theoretical spectra as a function of: (i) the experimental accuracy, , of the measured ratio m/z; (ii) experimental spectrum density; (iii) size of the database; (iv) number of peaks in the theoretical spectra; and (v) types of ions that the peaks represent. We show that if theoretical spectra are constructed including b and y ions alone, then for =0.5, which is typical for high throughput data, peptide chains of 8 amino acids or longer can be identified based on the positions of peaks alone, at a rate of false identification below 1%. To discriminate between shorter peptides, additional (e.g., intensity-inferred) information is necessary. We derive the dependence of the probability of false identification on the number of peaks in the theoretical spectra and on the types of ions that the peaks represent. Our results suggest that the class of mass spectrum identification problems for which more elaborate development of fragmentation rules (such as intensity model, etc.) is required, can be reduced to the problems that involve homologous peptides.

  6. Stratospheric Tracer Spectra.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haynes, P. H.; Vanneste, J.

    2004-01-01

    The combined effects of advection and diffusion on the equilibrium spatial structure of a tracer whose spatial variation is maintained by a large-scale forcing are considered. Motivated by the lower stratosphere, the flow is taken to be large-scale, time-dependent, and purely horizontal but varying in the vertical, with the vertical shear much larger than horizontal velocity gradients. As a result, the ratio α between horizontal and vertical tracer scales is large. (For the lower stratospheric surf zone α has been shown to be about 250.) The diffusion parameterizes the mixing effects of small-scale processes.The three space dimensions and the large range between the forcing scale and the diffusive scale mean that direct numerical simulation would be prohibitively expensive for this problem. Instead, an ensemble approach is used that takes advantage of the separation between the large scale of the flow and the small scale of the tracer distribution. This approach, which has previously been used in theoretical investigations of two-dimensional flows, provides an efficient technique to derive statistical properties of the tracer distributions such as horizontal-wavenumber spectrum.First, the authors consider random-strain models in which the velocity gradient experienced by a fluid parcel is modeled by a random process. The results show the expected k-1 Batchelor spectrum at large scales, with a deviation from this form at a scale that is larger by a factor α than the diffusive scale found in the absence of vertical shear. This effect may be crudely captured by replacing the diffusivity κ by an “=uivalent diffusivity” α2κ, but the diffusive dissipation is then substantially overestimated, and the spectrum at large k is too steep. This may be attributed to the failure of the equivalent diffusivity to capture the variability of the vertical shear.The technique is then applied to lower-stratospheric velocity fields. For realistic values of the diffusivity κ

  7. The composite load spectra project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newell, J. F.; Ho, H.; Kurth, R. E.

    1990-01-01

    Probabilistic methods and generic load models capable of simulating the load spectra that are induced in space propulsion system components are being developed. Four engine component types (the transfer ducts, the turbine blades, the liquid oxygen posts and the turbopump oxidizer discharge duct) were selected as representative hardware examples. The composite load spectra that simulate the probabilistic loads for these components are typically used as the input loads for a probabilistic structural analysis. The knowledge-based system approach used for the composite load spectra project provides an ideal environment for incremental development. The intelligent database paradigm employed in developing the expert system provides a smooth coupling between the numerical processing and the symbolic (information) processing. Large volumes of engine load information and engineering data are stored in database format and managed by a database management system. Numerical procedures for probabilistic load simulation and database management functions are controlled by rule modules. Rules were hard-wired as decision trees into rule modules to perform process control tasks. There are modules to retrieve load information and models. There are modules to select loads and models to carry out quick load calculations or make an input file for full duty-cycle time dependent load simulation. The composite load spectra load expert system implemented today is capable of performing intelligent rocket engine load spectra simulation. Further development of the expert system will provide tutorial capability for users to learn from it.

  8. A Metadata Action Language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golden, Keith; Clancy, Dan (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The data management problem comprises data processing and data tracking. Data processing is the creation of new data based on existing data sources. Data tracking consists of storing metadata descriptions of available data. This paper addresses the data management problem by casting it as an AI planning problem. Actions are data-processing commands, plans are dataflow programs and goals are metadata descriptions of desired data products. Data manipulation is simply plan generation and execution, and a key component of data tracking is inferring the effects of an observed plan. We introduce a new action language for data management domains, called ADILM. We discuss the connection between data processing and information integration and show how a language for the latter must be modified to support the former. The paper also discusses information gathering within a data-processing framework, and show how ADILM metadata expressions are a generalization of Local Completeness.

  9. Haloes Seen In UVIS Reflectance Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esposito, Larry W.; Bradley, E.; Colwell, J.; Sremcevic, M.

    2012-10-01

    UVIS SOI reflectance spectra show bright ‘haloes’ around the locations of some of the strongest resonances in Saturn’s A ring (Esposito etal 2005). UV spectra constrain the size and composition of the icy ring particles (Bradley etal 2010, 2012). We investigate the Janus 4:3, 5:3, 6:5 and Mimas 5:3 inner Lindblad resonances as well as at the Mimas 5:3 vertical resonance (bending wave location). Models of ring particle regolith evolution (Elliott and Esposito 2010) indicate the deeper regolith is made of older and purer ice. The strong resonances cause streamline crowding (Lewis and Stewart 2005) which damps the interparticle velocity, allowing temporary clumps to grow, which in turn increase the velocity, eroding the clumps and releasing smaller particles and regolith (see the predator-prey model of Esposito etal 2012). This cyclic behavior, driven by the resonant perturbation from the moon, can yield collision velocities greater than 1m/sec, sufficient to erode the aggregates (Blum 2006), exposing older, purer materials. Thus, the radial location of the strongest resonances can be where we find both large aggregates and disrupted fragments, in a balance maintained by the periodic moon forcing. If this stirring exposes older, and purer ice, the velocity threshold for eroding the aggregates can explain why only the strongest Lindblad resonances show haloes. UVIS spectra can determine the relative contributions of particle size and purity at these locations, for comparison to estimates from the regolith evolution models.

  10. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335

  11. Neutron Spectra in a 15 MV LINAC

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, H. R.; Chu, Wei-Han; Tung, Chuan-Jong; Lan, Jen-Hong

    2010-12-07

    Neutron spectra were calculated inside the treatment hall of a 15 MV LINAC, calculations were carried out using Monte Carlo methods. With a Bonner sphere spectrometer with pairs of thermoluminiscent dosimeters the neutron spectrum at 100 cm from the isocenter was measured and compared with the calculated spectrum. All the spectra in the treatment hall show the presence of evaporation and knock-on neutrons; also the room-return due to the hall features is shown. In the maze the large contribution are due to epithermal and thermal neutrons. A good agreement between the calculated and measured spectrum at 100 cm was noticed, from this comparison the differences are attributed to the water content in the concrete of the hall.

  12. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L.

    2015-07-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells.

  13. Creating semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra.

    PubMed

    Kim, Soo Jin; Fan, Pengyu; Kang, Ju-Hyung; Brongersma, Mark L

    2015-01-01

    The optical properties of semiconductors are typically considered intrinsic and fixed. Here we leverage the rapid developments in the field of optical metamaterials to create ultrathin semiconductor metafilms with designer absorption spectra. We show how such metafilms can be constructed by placing one or more types of high-index semiconductor antennas into a dense array with subwavelength spacings. It is argued that the large absorption cross-section of semiconductor antennas and their weak near-field coupling open a unique opportunity to create strongly absorbing metafilms whose spectral absorption properties directly reflect those of the individual antennas. Using experiments and simulations, we demonstrate that near-unity absorption at one or more target wavelengths of interest can be achieved in a sub-50-nm-thick metafilm using judiciously sized and spaced Ge nanobeams. The ability to create semiconductor metafilms with custom absorption spectra opens up new design strategies for planar optoelectronic devices and solar cells. PMID:26184335

  14. Automated analysis of slitless spectra - Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beauchemin, M.; Borra, E. F.; Levesque, S.

    1991-09-01

    The stellar spectral classification that can be achieved with very low-dispersion spectroscopy is examined. Several methods are applied to slitless spectra taken from the automated grens plates analysis project undertaken at Laval University. It is suggested that an accuracy in B - V of about 0.1 mag at B approximating 19 for stars bluer than B - V below 0.8 mag or better for redder stars can be obtained by probing the continuum. Results from DDO-like photometry show that grens data behave similarly to the Gunn and Stryker library of standard stars for many indices. Results of multivariate analysis are coherent with the stellar spectral classification and provide a powerful and objective means of cataloging spectra of the same spectral shape.

  15. Recovery of fluctuation spectrum evolution from tomographic shear spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Bonometto, Silvio A.; Mezzetti, Marino E-mail: mezzetti@oats.inaf.it

    2013-05-01

    Forthcoming large angle surveys are planned to obtain high precision tomographic shear data. In principle, they will allow us to recover the spectra of matter density fluctuation, at various redshift, through the inversion of the expressions yielding shear spectra from fluctuation spectra. This was discussed in previous work, where SVD techniques for matrix inversion were also shown to be the optimal tool to this aim. Here we show the significant improvements obtainable by using a 7 bin tomography, as allowed by future Euclid data, and discuss error propagation from shear to fluctuation spectra. We find that the technique is a promising tool, namely for the analysis of baryon physics through high–l shear spectra and to test the consistency between expansion rate and fluctuation growth.

  16. Observations of silicate reststrahlen bands in lunar infrared spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Potter, A. E., Jr.; Morgan, T. H.

    1982-01-01

    Thermal emission spectra of three lunar sites (Apollo 11, Descartes Formation, and Tycho central peak) are measured in the 8-14 micron spectral range. Transmission and instrument effects are accounted for by forming ratios of the Descartes and Tycho spectra to the Apollo 11 spectrum. The ratio spectra are compared with ratios of published laboratory spectra of returned lunar samples and also with ratio spectra calculated using the Aronson-Emslie (1975) model. The comparisons show pyroxene bands in the Descartes ratio spectrum and plagioclase bands in the Tycho ratio spectrum. The Tycho spectrum is found to be consistent with the existence of fine plagioclase dust (approximately 1 micron) at the rock surface and a higher-than-usual sodium content of the plagioclase.

  17. Analysis of photometric spectra of 17 meteors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millman, P. M.

    1982-01-01

    The initial phase of the photometry which involved 17 meteor spectra consisting of eight Geminid spectra, six Orionid spectra and three Eta Aquarid spectra is discussed. Among these 17 spectra it is found that the Geminid spectra are of the best quality and are used for the identification of the atomic lines and molecular bands that normally appear on video tape spectra. The data from the Geminid records are used for developing calibration techniques in photometry. The Orionid and Eta Aquarid spectra are chosen for early analysis because of the current interest in all physical and chemical data relating to Comet Halley.

  18. Atoms in Action

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    This movie produced with Berkeley Lab's TEAM 0.5 microscope shows the growth of a hole and the atomic edge reconstruction in a graphene sheet. An electron beam focused to a spot on the sheet blows out the exposed carbon atoms to make the hole. The carbon atoms then reposition themselves to find a stable configuration. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/press-releases/2009/03/26/atoms-in-action/

  19. ENVITEC shows off air technologies

    SciTech Connect

    McIlvaine, R.W.

    1995-08-01

    The ENVITEC International Trade Fair for Environmental Protection and Waste Management Technologies, held in June in Duesseldorf, Germany, is the largest air pollution exhibition in the world and may be the largest environmental technology show overall. Visitors saw thousands of environmental solutions from 1,318 companies representing 29 countries and occupying roughly 43,000 square meters of exhibit space. Many innovations were displayed under the category, ``thermal treatment of air pollutants.`` New technologies include the following: regenerative thermal oxidizers; wet systems for removing pollutants; biological scrubbers;electrostatic precipitators; selective adsorption systems; activated-coke adsorbers; optimization of scrubber systems; and air pollution monitors.

  20. Photon spectra from WIMP annihilation

    SciTech Connect

    Cembranos, J. A. R.; Cruz-Dombriz, A. de la; Dobado, A.; Maroto, A. L.; Lineros, R. A.

    2011-04-15

    If the present dark matter in the Universe annihilates into standard model particles, it must contribute to the fluxes of cosmic rays that are detected on the Earth and, in particular, to the observed gamma-ray fluxes. The magnitude of such a contribution depends on the particular dark matter candidate, but certain features of the produced photon spectra may be analyzed in a rather model-independent fashion. In this work we provide the complete photon spectra coming from WIMP annihilation into standard model particle-antiparticle pairs obtained by extensive Monte Carlo simulations. We present results for each individual annihilation channel and provide analytical fitting formulas for the different spectra for a wide range of WIMP masses.

  1. QUALITATIVE INTERPRETATION OF GALAXY SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Sanchez Almeida, J.; Morales-Luis, A. B.; Terlevich, R.; Terlevich, E.; Cid Fernandes, R. E-mail: abml@iac.es E-mail: eterlevi@inaoep.mx

    2012-09-10

    We describe a simple step-by-step guide to qualitative interpretation of galaxy spectra. Rather than an alternative to existing automated tools, it is put forward as an instrument for quick-look analysis and for gaining physical insight when interpreting the outputs provided by automated tools. Though the recipe is for general application, it was developed for understanding the nature of the Automatic Spectroscopic K-means-based (ASK) template spectra. They resulted from the classification of all the galaxy spectra in the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7, thus being a comprehensive representation of the galaxy spectra in the local universe. Using the recipe, we give a description of the properties of the gas and the stars that characterize the ASK classes, from those corresponding to passively evolving galaxies, to H II galaxies undergoing a galaxy-wide starburst. The qualitative analysis is found to be in excellent agreement with quantitative analyses of the same spectra. We compare the mean ages of the stellar populations with those inferred using the code STARLIGHT. We also examine the estimated gas-phase metallicity with the metallicities obtained using electron-temperature-based methods. A number of byproducts follow from the analysis. There is a tight correlation between the age of the stellar population and the metallicity of the gas, which is stronger than the correlations between galaxy mass and stellar age, and galaxy mass and gas metallicity. The galaxy spectra are known to follow a one-dimensional sequence, and we identify the luminosity-weighted mean stellar age as the affine parameter that describes the sequence. All ASK classes happen to have a significant fraction of old stars, although spectrum-wise they are outshined by the youngest populations. Old stars are metal-rich or metal-poor depending on whether they reside in passive galaxies or in star-forming galaxies.

  2. Bodily action penetrates affective perception

    PubMed Central

    Rigutti, Sara; Gerbino, Walter

    2016-01-01

    Fantoni & Gerbino (2014) showed that subtle postural shifts associated with reaching can have a strong hedonic impact and affect how actors experience facial expressions of emotion. Using a novel Motor Action Mood Induction Procedure (MAMIP), they found consistent congruency effects in participants who performed a facial emotion identification task after a sequence of visually-guided reaches: a face perceived as neutral in a baseline condition appeared slightly happy after comfortable actions and slightly angry after uncomfortable actions. However, skeptics about the penetrability of perception (Zeimbekis & Raftopoulos, 2015) would consider such evidence insufficient to demonstrate that observer’s internal states induced by action comfort/discomfort affect perception in a top-down fashion. The action-modulated mood might have produced a back-end memory effect capable of affecting post-perceptual and decision processing, but not front-end perception. Here, we present evidence that performing a facial emotion detection (not identification) task after MAMIP exhibits systematic mood-congruent sensitivity changes, rather than response bias changes attributable to cognitive set shifts; i.e., we show that observer’s internal states induced by bodily action can modulate affective perception. The detection threshold for happiness was lower after fifty comfortable than uncomfortable reaches; while the detection threshold for anger was lower after fifty uncomfortable than comfortable reaches. Action valence induced an overall sensitivity improvement in detecting subtle variations of congruent facial expressions (happiness after positive comfortable actions, anger after negative uncomfortable actions), in the absence of significant response bias shifts. Notably, both comfortable and uncomfortable reaches impact sensitivity in an approximately symmetric way relative to a baseline inaction condition. All of these constitute compelling evidence of a genuine top-down effect on

  3. AVIRIS spectra of California wetlands

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Michael F.; Ustin, Susan L.; Klemas, Vytautas

    1988-01-01

    Spectral data gathered by the AVIRIS from wetlands in the Suisun Bay area of California on 13 October 1987 were analyzed. Spectra representing stands of numerous vegetation types (including Sesuvium verrucosum, Scirpus acutus and Scirpus californicus, Xanthium strumarium, Cynadon dactylon, and Distichlis spicata) and soil were isolated. Despite some defects in the data, it was possible to detect vegetation features such as differences in the location of the chlorophyll red absorption maximum. Also, differences in cover type spectra were evident in other spectral regions. It was not possible to determine if the observed features represent noise, variability in canopy architecture, or chemical constituents of leaves.

  4. Infrared transmission spectra of Sea of Fertility regolith

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Akhmanova, M. V.; Karyakin, A. V.; Tartasov, L. S.

    1974-01-01

    Transmission spectra in the 2-25 micrometer region were obtained for samples of lunar regolith returned by the Luna 16 automatic station. A comparison of the Luna 16, Apollo 11, and Apollo 12 samples showed that the infrared transmission spectra of regolith samples from the mare regions are similar and characteristic of basic basaltic rocks. The absorption bands show up in the vibration region of the SiO4 groups. No water and OH groups were found in the samples based on the spectrum. Spectra of regolith samples calcined at 1000C showed changes that can be interpreted as changes in the spectra of irradiated crystals (especially distinctly for the Luna 16 samples).

  5. ShowMe3D

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from themore » displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.« less

  6. ShowMe3D

    SciTech Connect

    Sinclair, Michael B

    2012-01-05

    ShowMe3D is a data visualization graphical user interface specifically designed for use with hyperspectral image obtained from the Hyperspectral Confocal Microscope. The program allows the user to select and display any single image from a three dimensional hyperspectral image stack. By moving a slider control, the user can easily move between images of the stack. The user can zoom into any region of the image. The user can select any pixel or region from the displayed image and display the fluorescence spectrum associated with that pixel or region. The user can define up to 3 spectral filters to apply to the hyperspectral image and view the image as it would appear from a filter-based confocal microscope. The user can also obtain statistics such as intensity average and variance from selected regions.

  7. The role of action prediction and inhibitory control for joint action coordination in toddlers.

    PubMed

    Meyer, M; Bekkering, H; Haartsen, R; Stapel, J C; Hunnius, S

    2015-11-01

    From early in life, young children eagerly engage in social interactions. Yet, they still have difficulties in performing well-coordinated joint actions with others. Adult literature suggests that two processes are important for smooth joint action coordination: action prediction and inhibitory control. The aim of the current study was to disentangle the potential role of these processes in the early development of joint action coordination. Using a simple turn-taking game, we assessed 2½-year-old toddlers' joint action coordination, focusing on timing variability and turn-taking accuracy. In two additional tasks, we examined their action prediction capabilities with an eye-tracking paradigm and examined their inhibitory control capabilities with a classic executive functioning task (gift delay task). We found that individual differences in action prediction and inhibitory action control were distinctly related to the two aspects of joint action coordination. Toddlers who showed more precision in their action predictions were less variable in their action timing during the joint play. Furthermore, toddlers who showed more inhibitory control in an individual context were more accurate in their turn-taking performance during the joint action. On the other hand, no relation between timing variability and inhibitory control or between turn-taking accuracy and action prediction was found. The current results highlight the distinct role of action prediction and inhibitory action control for the quality of joint action coordination in toddlers. Underlying neurocognitive mechanisms and implications for processes involved in joint action coordination in general are discussed. PMID:26150055

  8. Pea Plants Show Risk Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Dener, Efrat; Kacelnik, Alex; Shemesh, Hagai

    2016-07-11

    Sensitivity to variability in resources has been documented in humans, primates, birds, and social insects, but the fit between empirical results and the predictions of risk sensitivity theory (RST), which aims to explain this sensitivity in adaptive terms, is weak [1]. RST predicts that agents should switch between risk proneness and risk aversion depending on state and circumstances, especially according to the richness of the least variable option [2]. Unrealistic assumptions about agents' information processing mechanisms and poor knowledge of the extent to which variability imposes specific selection in nature are strong candidates to explain the gap between theory and data. RST's rationale also applies to plants, where it has not hitherto been tested. Given the differences between animals' and plants' information processing mechanisms, such tests should help unravel the conflicts between theory and data. Measuring root growth allocation by split-root pea plants, we show that they favor variability when mean nutrient levels are low and the opposite when they are high, supporting the most widespread RST prediction. However, the combination of non-linear effects of nitrogen availability at local and systemic levels may explain some of these effects as a consequence of mechanisms not necessarily evolved to cope with variance [3, 4]. This resembles animal examples in which properties of perception and learning cause risk sensitivity even though they are not risk adaptations [5]. PMID:27374342

  9. Casimir experiments showing saturation effects

    SciTech Connect

    Sernelius, Bo E.

    2009-10-15

    We address several different Casimir experiments where theory and experiment disagree. First out is the classical Casimir force measurement between two metal half spaces; here both in the form of the torsion pendulum experiment by Lamoreaux and in the form of the Casimir pressure measurement between a gold sphere and a gold plate as performed by Decca et al.; theory predicts a large negative thermal correction, absent in the high precision experiments. The third experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between a metal plate and a laser irradiated semiconductor membrane as performed by Chen et al.; the change in force with laser intensity is larger than predicted by theory. The fourth experiment is the measurement of the Casimir force between an atom and a wall in the form of the measurement by Obrecht et al. of the change in oscillation frequency of a {sup 87}Rb Bose-Einstein condensate trapped to a fused silica wall; the change is smaller than predicted by theory. We show that saturation effects can explain the discrepancies between theory and experiment observed in all these cases.

  10. Holography in action

    SciTech Connect

    Kolekar, Sanved; Padmanabhan, T.

    2010-07-15

    The Einstein-Hilbert action and its natural generalizations to higher dimensions (like the Lanczos-Lovelock action) have certain peculiar features. All of them can be separated into a bulk and a surface term, with a specific (''holographic'') relationship between the two, so that either term can be used to extract information about the other. Further, the surface term leads to entropy of the horizons on shell. It has been argued in the past that these features are impossible to understand in the conventional approach but find a natural explanation if we consider gravity as an emergent phenomenon. We provide further support for this point of view in this paper. We describe an alternative decomposition of the Einstein-Hilbert action and the Lanczos-Lovelock action into a new pair of surface and bulk terms, such that the surface term becomes the Wald entropy on a horizon and the bulk term is the energy density (which is the Arnowitt-Deser-Misner Hamiltonian density for Einstein gravity). We show that this new pair also obeys a holographic relationship, and we give a thermodynamic interpretation of this relation in this context. Since the bulk and surface terms, in this decomposition, are related to the energy and entropy, the holographic condition can be thought of as analogous to inverting the expression for entropy given as a function of energy S=S(E,V) to obtain the energy E=E(S,V) in terms of the entropy in a normal thermodynamic system. Thus the holographic nature of the action allows us to relate the descriptions of the same system in terms of two different thermodynamic potentials. Some further possible generalizations and implications are discussed.

  11. Classical Trajectories and Quantum Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mielnik, Bogdan; Reyes, Marco A.

    1996-01-01

    A classical model of the Schrodinger's wave packet is considered. The problem of finding the energy levels corresponds to a classical manipulation game. It leads to an approximate but non-perturbative method of finding the eigenvalues, exploring the bifurcations of classical trajectories. The role of squeezing turns out decisive in the generation of the discrete spectra.

  12. Action selection and action value in frontal-striatal circuits

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Moonsang; Lee, Eunjeong; Averbeck, Bruno B.

    2012-01-01

    Summary The role that frontal-striatal circuits play in normal behavior remains unclear. Two of the leading hypotheses suggest that these circuits are important for action selection or reinforcement learning. To examine these hypotheses we carried out an experiment in which monkeys had to select actions in two different task conditions. In the first (random) condition actions were selected on the basis of perceptual inference. In the second (fixed) condition the animals used reinforcement from previous trials to select actions. Examination of neural activity showed that the representation of the selected action was stronger in lateral prefrontal cortex (lPFC), and occurred earlier in the lPFC than it did in the dorsal striatum (dSTR). In contrast to this, the representation of action values, in both the random and fixed conditions was stronger in the dSTR. Thus, the dSTR contains an enriched representation of action value, but it followed frontal cortex in action selection. PMID:22681697

  13. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements.

    PubMed

    Sobrino, José A; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jiménez-Muñoz, Juan C; Hook, Simon J; Baldridge, Alice; Ibañez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 microm with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer. PMID:19571921

  14. Soil emissivity and reflectance spectra measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Sobrino, Jose A.; Mattar, Cristian; Pardo, Pablo; Jimenez-Munoz, Juan C.; Hook, Simon J.; Baldridge, Alice; Ibanez, Rafael

    2009-07-01

    We present an analysis of the laboratory reflectance and emissivity spectra of 11 soil samples collected on different field campaigns carried out over a diverse suite of test sites in Europe, North Africa, and South America from 2002 to 2008. Hemispherical reflectance spectra were measured from 2.0 to 14 {mu}m with a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, and x-ray diffraction analysis (XRD) was used to determine the mineralogical phases of the soil samples. Emissivity spectra were obtained from the hemispherical reflectance measurements using Kirchhoff's law and compared with in situ radiance measurements obtained with a CIMEL Electronique CE312-2 thermal radiometer and converted to emissivity using the Advanced Spaceborne Thermal Emission and Reflection Radiometer (ASTER) temperature and emissivity separation algorithm. The CIMEL has five narrow bands at approximately the same positions as the ASTER. Results show a root mean square error typically below 0.015 between laboratory emissivity measurements and emissivity measurements derived from the field radiometer.

  15. Island shadows in wave directional spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pawka, S. S.

    1983-03-01

    Shadows of individual islands are observed in directional spectra sampled with a high resolution linear array at Torrey Pines Beach, California. A detailed investigation of the spectra indicates that the Channel Islands restrict the wave energy density to certain narrow directional sectors. A deep spectral trough, associated with San Clemente Island, is a predominant feature in the well resolved spectra (wave frequencies ˜0.06-0.15 Hz). Negligible values of energy density in the center of this directional `gap' were consistently observed in the range 0.082-0.114 Hz. Measurable but low gap energy density values are seen in the high and low frequency regimes. Generation of high frequency waves (f≥0.13 Hz) by local winds generally smears the island windowing effects and even creates a spectral peak in a directional sector which is blocked from deep ocean exposure. Several estimation techniques are used in the directional spectrum analysis. These include the Maximum Likelihood Method (MLM) and two methods developed in this work. The two new techniques show significant improvement over the MLM in the definition of gaps in the spectrum. Although none of these methods is considered an `Optimal' estimator for general use, each displays some superior merit in particular directional spectrum estimation problems.

  16. The Take Action Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boudreau, Sue

    2010-01-01

    The Take Action Project (TAP) was created to help middle school students take informed and effective action on science-related issues. The seven steps of TAP ask students to (1) choose a science-related problem of interest to them, (2) research their problem, (3) select an action to take on the problem, (4) plan that action, (5) take action, (6)…

  17. 16 CFR 5.57 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Practice. 16 CFR 4.7. ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 5.57 Section 5.57... CONDUCT Disciplinary Actions Concerning Postemployment Conflict of Interest § 5.57 Order to show cause....

  18. 10 CFR 110.62 - Order to show cause.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Order to show cause. 110.62 Section 110.62 Energy NUCLEAR... Enforcement § 110.62 Order to show cause. (a) In response to an alleged violation, described in § 110.60, the... cause: (1) Stating the alleged violation and proposed enforcement action; and (2) Informing the...

  19. 18 CFR 808.15 - Show cause proceeding.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Show cause proceeding... HEARINGS AND ENFORCEMENT ACTIONS Compliance and Enforcement § 808.15 Show cause proceeding. (a) The... cause why a penalty should not be assessed in accordance with the provisions of this chapter and...

  20. Nebular spectra of pair-instability supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jerkstrand, A.; Smartt, S. J.; Heger, A.

    2016-01-01

    If very massive stars (M ≳ 100 M⊙) can form and avoid too strong mass-loss during their evolution, they are predicted to explode as pair-instability supernovae (PISNe). One critical test for candidate events is whether their nucleosynthesis yields and internal ejecta structure, being revealed through nebular-phase spectra at t ≳ 1 yr, match those of model predictions. Here, we compute theoretical spectra based on model PISN ejecta at 1-3 yr post-explosion to allow quantitative comparison with observations. The high column densities of PISNe lead to complete gamma-ray trapping for t ≳ 2 yr which, combined with fulfilled conditions of steady state, leads to bolometric supernova luminosities matching the 56Co decay. Most of the gamma-rays are absorbed by the deep-lying iron and silicon/sulphur layers. The ionization balance shows a predominantly neutral gas state, which leads to emission lines of Fe I, Si I, and S I. For low-mass PISNe, the metal core expands slowly enough to produce a forest of distinct lines, whereas high-mass PISNe expand faster and produce more featureless spectra. Line blocking is complete below ˜5000 Å for several years, and the model spectra are red. The strongest line is typically [Ca II] λλ7291, 7323, one of few lines from ionized species. We compare our models with proposed PISN candidates SN 2007bi and PTF12dam, finding discrepancies for several key observables and thus no support for a PISN interpretation. We discuss distinct spectral features predicted by the models, and the possibility of detecting pair-instability explosions among non-superluminous supernovae.

  1. Copper(II) phthalocyanine: Electronic and vibrational tunneling spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Hipps, K.W. )

    1989-08-10

    Inelastic electron tunneling spectra (IETS) obtained from Al-AlO{sub x}-CuPc-M junctions (M = Pb or Tl) are presented and compared with previous reports. Improved experimental methods allow them to report the entire spectrum in the region below 16,000 cm{sup {minus}1} in both bias directions. In contrast to previous studies, they will show that (a) tunneling spectra are very dependent upon the AlO{sub x}/CuPc and CuPc/M imbedded interfaces, (b) spectra contain both temperature-dependent and temperature-independent features, and (c) certain electronic and the vibrational features depend on junction bias.

  2. The analysis of spectra of novae taken near maximum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stryker, L. L.; Hestand, J.; Starrfield, S.; Wehrse, R.; Hauschildt, P.; Spies, W.; Baschek, B.; Shaviv, G.

    1988-01-01

    A project to analyze ultraviolet spectra of novae obtained at or near maximum optical light is presented. These spectra are characterized by a relatively cool continuum with superimposed permitted emission lines from ions such as Fe II, Mg II, and Si II. Spectra obtained late in the outburst show only emission lines from highly ionized species and in many cases these are forbidden lines. The ultraviolet data will be used with calculations of spherical, expanding, stellar atmospheres for novae to determine elemental abundances by spectral line synthesis. This method is extremely sensitive to the abundances and completely independent of the nebular analyses usually used to obtain novae abundances.

  3. Mimas Showing False Colors #1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    False color images of Saturn's moon, Mimas, reveal variation in either the composition or texture across its surface.

    During its approach to Mimas on Aug. 2, 2005, the Cassini spacecraft narrow-angle camera obtained multi-spectral views of the moon from a range of 228,000 kilometers (142,500 miles).

    The image at the left is a narrow angle clear-filter image, which was separately processed to enhance the contrast in brightness and sharpness of visible features. The image at the right is a color composite of narrow-angle ultraviolet, green, infrared and clear filter images, which have been specially processed to accentuate subtle changes in the spectral properties of Mimas' surface materials. To create this view, three color images (ultraviolet, green and infrared) were combined into a single black and white picture that isolates and maps regional color differences. This 'color map' was then superimposed over the clear-filter image at the left.

    The combination of color map and brightness image shows how the color differences across the Mimas surface materials are tied to geological features. Shades of blue and violet in the image at the right are used to identify surface materials that are bluer in color and have a weaker infrared brightness than average Mimas materials, which are represented by green.

    Herschel crater, a 140-kilometer-wide (88-mile) impact feature with a prominent central peak, is visible in the upper right of each image. The unusual bluer materials are seen to broadly surround Herschel crater. However, the bluer material is not uniformly distributed in and around the crater. Instead, it appears to be concentrated on the outside of the crater and more to the west than to the north or south. The origin of the color differences is not yet understood. It may represent ejecta material that was excavated from inside Mimas when the Herschel impact occurred. The bluer color of these materials may be caused by subtle differences in

  4. Effects of Forsterite Grain Shape on Infrared Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Suto, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 μm. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 μm bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 μm bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150°C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200°C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 μm, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  5. EFFECTS OF FORSTERITE GRAIN SHAPE ON INFRARED SPECTRA

    SciTech Connect

    Koike, C.; Imai, Y.; Chihara, H.; Murata, K.; Tsuchiyama, A.; Suto, H.; Tachibana, S.; Ohara, S.

    2010-02-01

    The Infrared Space Observatory (ISO) detected several sharp infrared features around young stars, comets, and evolved stars. These sharp features were identified as Mg-rich crystalline silicates of forsterite and enstatite by comparison with spectra from laboratory data. However, certain infrared emission bands in the observed spectra cannot be identified because they appear at slightly shorter wavelengths than the peaks in forsterite laboratory spectra, where the shapes of forsterite particles are irregular. To solve this problem, we measured infrared spectra of forsterite grains of various shapes (irregular, plate-like with no sharp edges, elliptical, cauliflower, and spherical) in the infrared spectral region between 5 and 100 mum. The spectra depend on particle shape. The spectra of the 11, 19, 23, and 33 mum bands, in particular, are extremely sensitive to particle shape, whereas some peaks such as the 11.9, 49, and 69 mum bands remained almost unchanged despite different particle shapes. This becomes most evident from the spectra of near-spherical particles produced by annealing an originally amorphous silicate sample at temperature from 600 to 1150 deg. C. The spectra of these samples differ strongly from those of other ones, showing peaks at much shorter wavelengths. At a higher annealing temperature of 1200 deg. C, the particle shapes changed drastically from spherical to irregular and the spectra became similar to those of forsterite particles with irregular shapes. Based on ISO data and other observational data, the spectra of outflow sources and disk sources may correspond to differences in forsterite shape, and further some unidentified peaks, such as those at 32.8 or 32.5 mum, may be due to spherical or spherical-like forsterite.

  6. NIST Databases on Atomic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reader, J.; Wiese, W. L.; Martin, W. C.; Musgrove, A.; Fuhr, J. R.

    2002-11-01

    The NIST atomic and molecular spectroscopic databases now available on the World Wide Web through the NIST Physics Laboratory homepage include Atomic Spectra Database, Ground Levels and Ionization Energies for the Neutral Atoms, Spectrum of Platinum Lamp for Ultraviolet Spectrograph Calibration, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Transition Probabilities, Bibliographic Database on Atomic Spectral Line Broadening, and Electron-Impact Ionization Cross Section Database. The Atomic Spectra Database (ASD) [1] offers evaluated data on energy levels, wavelengths, and transition probabilities for atoms and atomic ions. Data are given for some 950 spectra and 70,000 energy levels. About 91,000 spectral lines are included, with transition probabilities for about half of these. Additional data resulting from our ongoing critical compilations will be included in successive new versions of ASD. We plan to include, for example, our recently published data for some 16,000 transitions covering most ions of the iron-group elements, as well as Cu, Kr, and Mo [2]. Our compilations benefit greatly from experimental and theoretical atomic-data research being carried out in the NIST Atomic Physics Division. A new compilation covering spectra of the rare gases in all stages of ionization, for example, revealed a need for improved data in the infrared. We have thus measured these needed data with our high-resolution Fourier transform spectrometer [3]. An upcoming new database will give wavelengths and intensities for the stronger lines of all neutral and singly-ionized atoms, along with energy levels and transition probabilities for the persistent lines [4]. A critical compilation of the transition probabilities of Ba I and Ba II [5] has been completed and several other compilations of atomic transition probabilities are nearing completion. These include data for all spectra of Na, Mg, Al, and Si [6]. Newly compiled data for selected ions of Ne, Mg, Si and S, will form the basis for a new

  7. Photogeneration Action Spectroscopy of Neutral and Charged Excitations in Films of a Ladder-Type Poly(Para-Phenylene)

    SciTech Connect

    Wohlgenannt, M.; Vardeny, Z.V.; Graupner, W.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Graupner, W.; Leising, G.

    1999-04-01

    The photogeneration quantum efficiency action spectra of long-lived neutral and charged excitations in films of a ladder-type poly(para-phenylene) were measured. We found that both triplet and polaron action spectra show, in addition to a step function increase at the optical gap, a monotonic rise at higher energies. For triplets this rise is explained by singlet exciton fission into triplet pairs from which the triplet exciton energy in the gap was obtained; this energy was also confirmed by measuring the weak phosphorescence band. For polarons the photogeneration increase at high energies is modeled by a novel hot electron interchain tunneling process. {copyright} {ital 1999} {ital The American Physical Society}

  8. The development of action planning in a joint action context.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Markus

    2016-07-01

    The ability to act jointly with another person is a fundamental requirement for participation in social life. The current study examines the development of action planning in a joint action context. In 4 experiments, 3-, 5-, and 7-year-old children as well as a group of adults (n = 196) interacted with another person to operate a novel apparatus. Their task was to hand the experimenter a tool with which she could activate 1 of 2 different effects on the apparatus. The elicitation of each effect required participants to grasp and insert the tool in a particular orientation. We assessed whether participants planned their grasping and reaching action in such a way that it enabled the partner to efficiently handle the tool, that is, anticipating the final end state of the joint activity. We found that 3-year-old children did not adjust their behavior to accommodate the other's action and that they did not increase their performance over multiple trials. Five- and 7-year-old children initially showed a tendency to plan their action in an egocentric manner (i.e., showed a form of egocentrism), but improved their joint action performance over time. Adult participants demonstrated joint action planning from the beginning. Interestingly, 3- and 5-year-old children were able to plan their grasp efficiently when acting alone on the apparatus. Yet, having first-hand experience with the task before acting with a partner did not facilitate performance in the joint action task for younger children. Overall, the study informs current approaches on the psychological basis and ontogenetic origins of joint action in childhood. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:27337512

  9. Rogue wave spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation.

    PubMed

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we analyze the rogue wave spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). We compare our findings with their nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) analogs and show that the spectra of the individual rogue waves significantly differ from their NLSE analogs. A remarkable difference is the one-sided development of the triangular spectrum before the rogue wave becomes evident in time. Also we show that increasing the skewness of the rogue wave results in increased asymmetry in the triangular Fourier spectra. Additionally, the triangular spectra of the rogue waves of the KEE begin to develop at earlier stages of their development compared to their NLSE analogs, especially for larger skew angles. This feature may be used to enhance the early warning times of the rogue waves. However, we show that in a chaotic wave field with many spectral components the triangular spectra remain as the main attribute as a universal feature of the typical wave fields produced through modulation instability and characteristic features of the KEE's analytical rogue wave spectra may be suppressed in a realistic chaotic wave field. PMID:27415263

  10. Rogue wave spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bayındır, Cihan

    2016-06-01

    In this paper we analyze the rogue wave spectra of the Kundu-Eckhaus equation (KEE). We compare our findings with their nonlinear Schrödinger equation (NLSE) analogs and show that the spectra of the individual rogue waves significantly differ from their NLSE analogs. A remarkable difference is the one-sided development of the triangular spectrum before the rogue wave becomes evident in time. Also we show that increasing the skewness of the rogue wave results in increased asymmetry in the triangular Fourier spectra. Additionally, the triangular spectra of the rogue waves of the KEE begin to develop at earlier stages of their development compared to their NLSE analogs, especially for larger skew angles. This feature may be used to enhance the early warning times of the rogue waves. However, we show that in a chaotic wave field with many spectral components the triangular spectra remain as the main attribute as a universal feature of the typical wave fields produced through modulation instability and characteristic features of the KEE's analytical rogue wave spectra may be suppressed in a realistic chaotic wave field.

  11. Hierarchical analysis of molecular spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, M.J.

    1996-03-01

    A novel representation of molecular spectra in terms of hierarchical trees has proven to be an important aid for the study of many significant problems in gas-phase chemical dynamics. Trees are generated from molecular spectra by monitoring the changes that occur in a spectrum as resolution is changed in a continuous manner. A tree defines a genealogy among all lines of a spectrum. This allows for a detailed understanding of the assignment of features of a spectrum that may be difficult to obtain any other way as well as an understanding of intramolecular energy transfer time scales, mechanisms, and pathways. The methodology has been applied to several problems: transition state spectroscopy, intramolecular energy transfer in highly excited molecules, high-resolution overtone spectroscopy, and the nature of the classical-quantum correspondence when there is classical chaos (``quantum chaos``).

  12. Catalogue of representative meteor spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vojáček, V.; Borovička, J.; Koten, P.; Spurný, P.; Štork, R.

    2015-08-01

    Aims: We present a library of low-resolution meteor spectra that includes sporadic meteors, members of minor meteor showers, and major meteor showers. These meteors are in the magnitude range from +2 to -3, corresponding to meteoroid sizes from 1 mm to 10 mm. Methods: Parallel double-station video observations allowed us to compute heliocentric orbits for all meteors. Most observations were performed during the periods of activity of major meteor showers in the years between 2006 and 2012. Spectra are classified according to relative intensities of the low-temperature emission lines of Mg, Na, and Fe. Results: Shower meteors were found to be of normal composition, except for Southern δ Aquariids and some members of the Geminid shower, neither of which have Na in the meteor spectra. Variations in Na content are typical for the Geminid shower. Three populations of Na-free mereoroids were identified. The first population are iron meteorites, which have an asteroidal-chondritic origin, but one meteoroid with low perihelion (0.11 AU) was found among the iron meteorites. The second population were Sun-approaching meteoroids in which sodium is depleted by thermal desorption. The third population were Na-free meteoroids of cometary origin. Long exposure to cosmic rays on the surface of comets in the Oort cloud and disintegration of this crust might be the origin of this population of meteoroids. Spectra (Figs. 17-30) are only, Tables 4-6 are also available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/580/A67

  13. Accelerated Fitting of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ting, Yuan-Sen; Conroy, Charlie; Rix, Hans-Walter

    2016-07-01

    Stellar spectra are often modeled and fitted by interpolating within a rectilinear grid of synthetic spectra to derive the stars’ labels: stellar parameters and elemental abundances. However, the number of synthetic spectra needed for a rectilinear grid grows exponentially with the label space dimensions, precluding the simultaneous and self-consistent fitting of more than a few elemental abundances. Shortcuts such as fitting subsets of labels separately can introduce unknown systematics and do not produce correct error covariances in the derived labels. In this paper we present a new approach—Convex Hull Adaptive Tessellation (chat)—which includes several new ideas for inexpensively generating a sufficient stellar synthetic library, using linear algebra and the concept of an adaptive, data-driven grid. A convex hull approximates the region where the data lie in the label space. A variety of tests with mock data sets demonstrate that chat can reduce the number of required synthetic model calculations by three orders of magnitude in an eight-dimensional label space. The reduction will be even larger for higher dimensional label spaces. In chat the computational effort increases only linearly with the number of labels that are fit simultaneously. Around each of these grid points in the label space an approximate synthetic spectrum can be generated through linear expansion using a set of “gradient spectra” that represent flux derivatives at every wavelength point with respect to all labels. These techniques provide new opportunities to fit the full stellar spectra from large surveys with 15–30 labels simultaneously.

  14. Vibrational spectra of fluorohafnate glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bendow, Bernard; Drexhage, Martin G.; Banerjee, Pranab K.; Goltman, John; Mitra, Shashanka S.; Moynihan, Cornelius T.

    1981-02-01

    We report the first detailed measurements of fundamental vibrational spectra in fluorohafnate glass. The Raman spectrum is dominated by a single relatively broad peak in the vicinity of 570-590 cm -1 attributed to Hf-F stretching modes, while the infrared spectrum displays two prominent broad peaks. The location of the high frequency peaks is shown to be consistent with the observed position of the infrared absorption edge.

  15. Electronic spectra of 7-azaindole/ammonia clusters and their photochemical reactivity

    SciTech Connect

    Koizumi, Yuna; Norihiro, Tsuji; Ishiuchi, Shun-ichi; Fujii, Masaaki; Jouvet, Christophe; Dedonder-Lardeux, Claude

    2008-09-14

    The S{sub 1}-S{sub 0} electronic spectra of 7-azaindole-(NH{sub 3}){sub n} clusters (n=1-3) were measured by mass-selected two-color resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization spectroscopy. The laser-induced fluorescence spectrum obtained by monitoring the UV fluorescence shows well-structured vibrational bands for the monomer and 7-azaindole-(NH{sub 3}){sub 1,2} clusters, while no signals appear for the 7-azaindole-(NH{sub 3}){sub 3} cluster. The action spectrum obtained by monitoring visible emission shows no signal for all species, which suggests little reactivity for excited-state proton/hydrogen transfer. From the observed and calculated IR spectra, the geometry of 7-azaindole-(NH{sub 3}){sub 1,2} was concluded to be a hydrogen-bonded bridge form, which is similar to the photochemically reactive 7-hydroxyquinoline-(NH{sub 3}){sub 3} cluster. The difference in the photochemical reactivity is discussed on the basis of excited-state quantum chemical calculations.

  16. [Redshift estimation of galaxy spectra based on similarity measure].

    PubMed

    Liu, Rong; Qiao, Xue-Jun; Duan, Fu-Qing

    2008-01-01

    Automated spectra analysis is desirable and necessary for efficiency of large sky surveys such as SDSS (Sloan digital sky survey), 2DF (2 degree fields) and LAMOST (large sky area multi-object spectroscopic telescope). In the present paper, we present a method for redshift estimation of galaxy spectra based on similarity measure. Firstly, we extract the spectral lines of the observed spectrum using the feature constrains of spectral lines; secondly, the authors determine the redshift candidates of the observed spectrum by spectral line features; then, the similarity between the observed spectrum and the template spectra shifted by each redshift candidate is measured; finally, the candidate of the highest similarity is chosen as the estimated redshift. PCA (principal component analysis) is used to build the static galaxy template spectra. The authors perform PCA for the four template spectra E, S0, Sa and Sb of the normal galaxy and the seven template spectra Sc, Sb1, Sb2, Sb3, Sb4, Sb5 and Sb6 of the starburst galaxy respectively, where the eleven template spectra are presented by Kinney & Calzetti et al. Two eigen-spectra are produced with the variance contribution rate of 99%. The authors choose the two eigen-spectra as the galaxy templates. The similarity measure proposed, which is similar to the evidence accumulation, is defined as the weighted sum of several similarity evidences. It can reduce the influence caused by some error matching. The authors divide the observed spectrum and the template spectrum respectively into several parts, and measure the correlations of the corresponding parts of them, which is chosen as the similarity evidences in the proposed similarity measure. The principle of setting the weights is that the higher the correlation, the higher the corresponding weight. The proposed approach is compared with the method based on spectral line matching and the traditional cross correlation technique by experiments, the results show that the

  17. Equation of state of strongly interacting matter: spectra for thermal particles and intensity correlation of thermal photons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De, Somnath; Srivastava, Dinesh K.; Chatterjee, Rupa

    2010-11-01

    We find that an equation of state for hot hadronic matter consisting of all baryons having M < 2 GeV and all mesons having M < 1.5 GeV, along with Hagedorn resonances in thermal and chemical equilibrium, matches rather smoothly with the lattice equation of state (p4 action, Nτ = 8) for T up to ≈200 MeV, when corrected for the finite volume of hadrons. Next we construct two equations of state for strongly interacting matter; one, HHL, in which the above is matched to the lattice equation of state at T = 165 MeV and the other, HHB, where we match it to a bag model equation of state with critical temperature Tc = 165 MeV. We compare particle spectra, thermal photon spectra and histories of evolution of the quark-gluon plasma produced in the central collision of gold (lead) nuclei at RHIC (LHC) energies, considering ideal hydrodynamical expansion of the system. The particle and thermal photon spectra are seen to differ only marginally for the two equations of state. The history of evolution shows differences in the evolution of temperature and radial velocity, as one might expect. We calculate intensity interferometry of thermal photons and find it to be quite distinct for the two equations of state, especially for the outward correlation. The longitudinal correlation also shows a dependence on the equation of state, though, to a smaller extent.

  18. Following the mechanisms of bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Bernatová, Silvie; Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Serý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Jákl, Petr; Siler, Martin; Krzyžánek, Vladislav; Zemánek, Pavel; Holá, Veronika; Dvořáčková, Milada; Růžička, Filip

    2013-01-01

    Antibiotics cure infections by influencing bacterial growth or viability. Antibiotics can be divided to two groups on the basis of their effect on microbial cells through two main mechanisms, which are either bactericidal or bacteriostatic. Bactericidal antibiotics kill the bacteria and bacteriostatic antibiotics suppress the growth of bacteria (keep them in the stationary phase of growth). One of many factors to predict a favorable clinical outcome of the potential action of antimicrobial chemicals may be provided using in vitro bactericidal/bacteriostatic data (e.g., minimum inhibitory concentrations-MICs). Consequently, MICs are used in clinical situations mainly to confirm resistance, and to determine the in vitro activities of new antimicrobials. We report on the combination of data obtained from MICs with information on microorganisms' "fingerprint" (e.g., DNA/RNA, and proteins) provided by Raman spectroscopy. Thus, we could follow mechanisms of the bacteriostatic versus bactericidal action simply by detecting the Raman bands corresponding to DNA. The Raman spectra of Staphylococcus epidermidis treated with clindamycin (a bacteriostatic agent) indeed show little effect on DNA which is in contrast with the action of ciprofloxacin (a bactericidal agent), where the Raman spectra show a decrease in strength of the signal assigned to DNA, suggesting DNA fragmentation. PMID:24284484

  19. Chemical decomposition by normalization of millimeter-wave spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Gopalan, K.; Gopalsami, N.

    1996-10-01

    The sharp, distinct absorption spectra of chemicals at low pressures in the mm wave range become broadened at high pressures, so that detecting and quantifying different chemicals at high pressures become difficult. This paper proposes a method of decomposition based on the low pressure spectra. Normalized low pressure spectral amplitudes are used as features to train a neural network. The network is tested using the peak spectra obtained for an unknown plume of chemicals at high pressure. Initial tests conducted on simulated and experimental spectra of selected chemicals show that the decomposition results of the proposed method are dependent on the dominance of the chemicals in the mixture - a characteristic common to conventional methods of decomposition.

  20. Mammography X-Ray Spectra Simulated with Monte Carlo

    SciTech Connect

    Vega-Carrillo, H. R.; Gonzalez, J. Ramirez; Manzanares-Acuna, E.; Hernandez-Davila, V. M.; Villasana, R. Hernandez; Mercado, G. A.

    2008-08-11

    Monte Carlo calculations have been carried out to obtain the x-ray spectra of various target-filter combinations for a mammography unit. Mammography is widely used to diagnose breast cancer. Further to Mo target with Mo filter combination, Rh/Rh, Mo/Rh, Mo/Al, Rh/Al, and W/Rh are also utilized. In this work Monte Carlo calculations, using MCNP 4C code, were carried out to estimate the x-ray spectra produced when a beam of 28 keV electrons did collide with Mo, Rh and W targets. Resulting x-ray spectra show characteristic x-rays and continuous bremsstrahlung. Spectra were also calculated including filters.

  1. Power spectra at radio frequency of lightning return stroke waveforms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lanzerotti, L. J.; Thomson, D. J.; Maclennan, C. G.; Rinnert, K.; Krider, E. P.

    1989-01-01

    The power spectra of the wideband (10 Hz to 100 kHz) magnetic field signals in a number of lightning return strokes (primarily first return strokes) measured during a lightning storm which occurred in Lindau, West Germany in August, 1984 have been calculated. The RF magnetic field data were obtained with the engineering unit of the Galileo Jupiter Probe lightning experiment. The spectra of the magnetic field data definitely show fine structure, with two or three distinct peaks appearing in the spectra of many of the waveforms. An enhancement of power at frequencies of about 60-70 kHz is often seen in the spectra of the waveform time segments preceding and following the rise-to-peak amplitude of the return stroke.

  2. CLASSIFICATION OF STELLAR SPECTRA WITH LOCAL LINEAR EMBEDDING

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, Scott F.; Connolly, Andrew; Vanderplas, Jake; Schneider, Jeff; Xiong Liang

    2011-12-15

    We investigate the use of dimensionality reduction techniques for the classification of stellar spectra selected from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. Using local linear embedding (LLE), a technique that preserves the local (and possibly nonlinear) structure within high-dimensional data sets, we show that the majority of stellar spectra can be represented as a one-dimensional sequence within a three-dimensional space. The position along this sequence is highly correlated with spectral temperature. Deviations from this 'stellar locus' are indicative of spectra with strong emission lines (including misclassified galaxies) or broad absorption lines (e.g., carbon stars). Based on this analysis, we propose a hierarchical classification scheme using LLE that progressively identifies and classifies stellar spectra in a manner that requires no feature extraction and that can reproduce the classic MK classifications to an accuracy of one type.

  3. High-resolution studies of atmospheric IR emission spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Murcray, F. H.; Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    Atmospheric emission spectra obtained with two different spectrometer systems are presented. The first system (the BOMEM Michelson interferometer) is designed for emission work. Spectra were obtained under adverse conditions in the Antarctic, and are still of good absolute accuracy. The second system (a modified Bruker Instruments IFS120 very high spectral resolution interferometer) demonstrates the sensitivity that can be achieved even at higher spectral resolution. This system shows that mid-IR atmospheric emission spectra can be obtained with a good SNR in a reasonable length of time at a relatively high resolution. A properly designed high resolution system should achieve high accuracy, sensitivity, and resolution, thereby permitting measurements of many atmospheric constituents when solar spectra cannot be obtained.

  4. Conscious vision for action versus unconscious vision for action?

    PubMed

    Brogaard, Berit

    2011-08-01

    David Milner and Melvyn Goodale's dissociation hypothesis is commonly taken to state that there are two functionally specialized cortical streams of visual processing originating in striate (V1) cortex: a dorsal, action-related "unconscious" stream and a ventral, perception-related "conscious" stream. As Milner and Goodale acknowledge, findings from blindsight studies suggest a more sophisticated picture that replaces the distinction between unconscious vision for action and conscious vision for perception with a tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. The combination excluded by the tripartite division is the possibility of conscious vision for action. But are there good grounds for concluding that there is no conscious vision for action? There is now overwhelming evidence that illusions and perceived size can have a significant effect on action (Bruno & Franz, 2009; Dassonville & Bala, 2004; Franz & Gegenfurtner, 2008; McIntosh & Lashley, 2008). There is also suggestive evidence that any sophisticated visual behavior requires collaboration between the two visual streams at every stage of the process (Schenk & McIntosh, 2010). I nonetheless want to make a case for the tripartite division between unconscious vision for action, conscious vision for perception, and unconscious vision for perception. My aim here is not to refute the evidence showing that conscious vision can affect action but rather to argue (a) that we cannot gain cognitive access to action-guiding dorsal stream representations, and (b) that these representations do not correlate with phenomenal consciousness. This vindicates the semi-conservative view that the dissociation hypothesis is best understood as a tripartite division. PMID:21790744

  5. Action Learning at Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mumford, Alan, Ed.

    This book contains 34 papers examining the theory, process, and outcomes of action learning at work. The following papers are included: "An Introduction to the Text" (Alan Mumford); "The Learning Equation" (Reg Revans); "Action Learning as a Vehicle for Learning" (Alan Mumford); "Placing Action Learning and Action Research in Context" (Cliff…

  6. Action Research Facilitator's Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caro-Bruce, Cathy

    This handbook is a roadmap for action research facilitators to help groups as they work through the research process. It offers quotations, handouts, strategies, resources, and insights from actual experiences. The sections of the handbook follow the action research cycle, focusing on: "What is Action Research?"; "What is the Action Research…

  7. Attention, biological motion, and action recognition.

    PubMed

    Thompson, James; Parasuraman, Raja

    2012-01-01

    Interacting with others in the environment requires that we perceive and recognize their movements and actions. Neuroimaging and neuropsychological studies have indicated that a number of brain regions, particularly the superior temporal sulcus, are involved in a number of processes essential for action recognition, including the processing of biological motion and processing the intentions of actions. We review the behavioral and neuroimaging evidence suggesting that while some aspects of action recognition might be rapid and effective, they are not necessarily automatic. Attention is particularly important when visual information about actions is degraded or ambiguous, or if competing information is present. We present evidence indicating that neural responses associated with the processing of biological motion are strongly modulated by attention. In addition, behavioral and neuroimaging evidence shows that drawing inferences from the actions of others is attentionally demanding. The role of attention in action observation has implications for everyday social interactions and workplace applications that depend on observing, understanding and interpreting actions. PMID:21640836

  8. Seasonal Variations of Stratospheric Age Spectra in GEOSCCM

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Li, Feng; Waugh, Darryn; Douglass, Anne R.; Newman, Paul A.; Pawson, Steven; Stolarski, Richard S.; Strahan, Susan E.; Nielsen, J. Eric

    2011-01-01

    There are many pathways for an air parcel to travel from the troposphere to the stratosphere, each of which takes different time. The distribution of all the possible transient times, i.e. the stratospheric age spectrum, contains important information on transport characteristics. However, it is computationally very expensive to compute seasonally varying age spectra, and previous studies have focused mainly on the annual mean properties of the age spectra. To date our knowledge of the seasonality of the stratospheric age spectra is very limited. In this study we investigate the seasonal variations of the stratospheric age spectra in the Goddard Earth Observing System Chemistry Climate Model (GEOSCCM). We introduce a method to significantly reduce the computational cost for calculating seasonally dependent age spectra. Our simulations show that stratospheric age spectra in GEOSCCM have strong seasonal cycles and the seasonal cycles change with latitude and height. In the lower stratosphere extratropics, the average transit times and the most probable transit times in the winter/early spring spectra are more than twice as old as those in the summer/early fall spectra. But the seasonal cycle in the subtropical lower stratosphere is nearly out of phase with that in the extratropics. In the middle and upper stratosphere, significant seasonal variations occur in the sUbtropics. The spectral shapes also show dramatic seasonal change, especially at high latitudes. These seasonal variations reflect the seasonal evolution of the slow Brewer-Dobson circulation (with timescale of years) and the fast isentropic mixing (with timescale of days to months).

  9. DUO: Spectra of diatomic molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yurchenko, Sergei N.; Lodi, Lorenzo; Tennyson, Jonathan; Stolyarov, Andrey V.

    2016-05-01

    Duo computes rotational, rovibrational and rovibronic spectra of diatomic molecules. The software, written in Fortran 2003, solves the Schrödinger equation for the motion of the nuclei for the simple case of uncoupled, isolated electronic states and also for the general case of an arbitrary number and type of couplings between electronic states. Possible couplings include spin–orbit, angular momenta, spin-rotational and spin–spin. Introducing the relevant couplings using so-called Born–Oppenheimer breakdown curves can correct non-adiabatic effects.

  10. Satellite spectra of heliumlike nickel

    SciTech Connect

    Hsuan, H.; Bitter, M.; Hill, K.W.; von Goeler, S. Grek, B.; Johnson, D.; Johnson, L.C.; Sesnic, S.; Bhalla, C.P.; Karim, K.R.

    1987-02-01

    Spectra of heliumlike nickel, NiXXVII, have been observed from Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) plasmas with a high resolution crystal spectrometer. The experimental arrangement permits simultaneous observation of the heliumlike resonance line, the intercombination and forbidden lines, and all the associated satellites due to transitions 1s/sup 2/nl - 1s2l'nl'' with N greater than or equal to 2. Relative wavelengths and line intensities can thus be determined very accurately. The observed spectral data are in good agreement with results from the present Hartree-Fock-Slater atomic model calculations and predictions from the Z-expansion method.

  11. Identified hadron spectra from PHOBOS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veres, Gábor I.; PHOBOS Collaboration; Back, B. B.; Baker, M. D.; Ballintijn, M.; Barton, D. S.; Becker, B.; Betts, R. R.; Bickley, A. A.; Bindel, R.; Busza, W.; Carroll, A.; Decowski, M. P.; García, E.; Gburek, T.; George, N.; Gulbrandsen, K.; Gushue, S.; Halliwell, C.; Hamblen, J.; Harrington, A. S.; Henderson, C.; Hofman, D. J.; Hollis, R. S.; Holynski, R.; Holzman, B.; Iordanova, A.; Johnson, E.; Kane, J. L.; Khan, N.; Kulinich, P.; Kuo, C. M.; Lee, J. W.; Lin, W. T.; Manly, S.; Mignerey, A. C.; Nouicer, R.; Olszewski, A.; Pak, R.; Park, I. C.; Pernegger, H.; Reed, C.; Roland, C.; Roland, G.; Sagerer, J.; Sarin, P.; Sedykh, I.; Skulski, W.; Smith, C. E.; Steinberg, P.; Stephans, G. S. F.; Sukhanov, A.; Tonjes, M. B.; Trzupek, A.; Vale, C.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G. J.; Verdier, R.; Wolfs, F. L. H.; Wosiek, B.; Wozniak, K.; Wyslouch, B.; Zhang, J.

    2004-08-01

    Transverse momentum spectra of pions, kaons and protons, as well as antiparticle to particle ratios near mid-rapidity from d+Au collisions at \\sqrt{s_{{\\rm NN}}} = 200\\,{\\rm GeV} have been measured by the PHOBOS experiment at RHIC. The transverse momentum range of particle identification was extended to beyond 3 GeV/c using the TOF detector and a new trigger system. The pseudorapidity dependence of the nuclear modification factor for charged hadrons in d+Au collisions is presented.

  12. Planetary spectra for anisotropic scattering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chamberlain, J. W.

    1975-01-01

    Some of the effects on planetary spectra that would be produced by departures from isotropic scattering are examined. The phase function is the simplest departure to handle analytically and the only phase function, other than the isotropic one, that can be incorporated into a Chandrasekhar first approximation. This approach has the advantage of illustrating trends resulting from anisotropies while retaining the simplicity that yields physical insight. An algebraic solution to the two sets of anisotropic H functions is developed in the appendix. It is readily adaptable to progammable desk calculators and gives emergent intensities accurate to 0.3 percent, which is sufficient even for spectroscopic analysis.

  13. Effect of Temperature on Jet Velocity Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bridges, James E.; Wernet, Mark P.

    2007-01-01

    Statistical jet noise prediction codes that accurately predict spectral directivity for both cold and hot jets are highly sought both in industry and academia. Their formulation, whether based upon manipulations of the Navier-Stokes equations or upon heuristic arguments, require substantial experimental observation of jet turbulence statistics. Unfortunately, the statistics of most interest involve the space-time correlation of flow quantities, especially velocity. Until the last 10 years, all turbulence statistics were made with single-point probes, such as hotwires or laser Doppler anemometry. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) brought many new insights with its ability to measure velocity fields over large regions of jets simultaneously; however, it could not measure velocity at rates higher than a few fields per second, making it unsuitable for obtaining temporal spectra and correlations. The development of time-resolved PIV, herein called TR-PIV, has removed this limitation, enabling measurement of velocity fields at high resolution in both space and time. In this paper, ground-breaking results from the application of TR-PIV to single-flow hot jets are used to explore the impact of heat on turbulent statistics of interest to jet noise models. First, a brief summary of validation studies is reported, undertaken to show that the new technique produces the same trusted results as hotwire at cold, low-speed jets. Second, velocity spectra from cold and hot jets are compared to see the effect of heat on the spectra. It is seen that heated jets possess 10 percent more turbulence intensity compared to the unheated jets with the same velocity. The spectral shapes, when normalized using Strouhal scaling, are insensitive to temperature if the stream-wise location is normalized relative to the potential core length. Similarly, second order velocity correlations, of interest in modeling of jet noise sources, are also insensitive to temperature as well.

  14. Supernova spectra below strong circumstellar interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leloudas, G.; Hsiao, E. Y.; Johansson, J.; Maeda, K.; Moriya, T. J.; Nordin, J.; Petrushevska, T.; Silverman, J. M.; Sollerman, J.; Stritzinger, M. D.; Taddia, F.; Xu, D.

    2015-02-01

    We construct spectra of supernovae (SNe) interacting strongly with a circumstellar medium (CSM) by adding SN templates, a black-body continuum, and an emission-line spectrum. In a Monte Carlo simulation we vary a large number of parameters, such as the SN type, brightness and phase, the strength of the CSM interaction, the extinction, and the signal to noise ratio (S/N) of the observed spectrum. We generate more than 800 spectra, distribute them to ten different human classifiers, and study how the different simulation parameters affect the appearance of the spectra and their classification. The SNe IIn showing some structure over the continuum were characterized as "SNe IInS" to allow for a better quantification. We demonstrate that the flux ratio of the underlying SN to the continuum fV is the single most important parameter determining whether a spectrum can be classified correctly. Other parameters, such as extinction, S/N, and the width and strength of the emission lines, do not play a significant role. Thermonuclear SNe get progressively classified as Ia-CSM, IInS, and IIn as fV decreases. The transition between Ia-CSM and IInS occurs at fV ~ 0.2-0.3. It is therefore possible to determine that SNe Ia-CSM are found at the (un-extincted) magnitude range -19.5 >M> -21.6, in very good agreement with observations, and that the faintest SN IIn that can hide a SN Ia has M = -20.1. The literature sample of SNe Ia-CSM shows an association with 91T-like SNe Ia. Our experiment does not support that this association can be attributed to a luminosity bias (91T-like being brighter than normal events). We therefore conclude that this association has real physical origins and we propose that 91T-like explosions result from single degenerate progenitors that are responsible for the CSM. Despite the spectroscopic similarities between SNe Ibc and SNe Ia, the number of misclassifications between these types was very small in our simulation and mostly at low S/N. Combined with

  15. First dynamic spectra of stellar microwave flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bastian, T. S.; Bookbinder, J. A.

    1987-01-01

    The VLA has been used in the spectral-line mode at 1.4 GHz to obtain the first dynamic spectra of stellar sources other than the sun. Two very intense, highly circularly polarized, microwave outbursts were observed on the dMe flare star UV Cet, in addition to a slowly varying, unpolarized component. One outburst was purely left circularly polarized and showed no variations as a function of frequency across the 41 MHz band, whereas the other was as much as 70 percent right-circularly polarized and showed distinct variations with frequency. Although the slowly varying emission is probably due to incoherent gyrosynchrotron emission, the two flaring events are the result of coherent mechanisms. The coherent emission is interpreted in terms of plasma radiation and the cyclotron maser instability.

  16. Spectra of Particulate Backscattering in Natural Waters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Howard, R.; Lewis, Marlon R.; McLean, Scott D.; Twardowski, Michael S.; Freeman, Scott A.; Voss, Kenneth J.; Boynton, Chris G.

    2009-01-01

    Hyperspectral profiles of downwelling irradiance and upwelling radiance in natural waters (oligotrophic and mesotrophic) are combined with inverse radiative transfer to obtain high resolution spectra of the absorption coefficient (a) and the backscattering coefficient (bb) of the water and its constituents. The absorption coefficient at the mesotrophic station clearly shows spectral absorption features attributable to several phytoplankton pigments (Chlorophyll a, b, c, and Carotenoids). The backscattering shows only weak spectral features and can be well represented by a power-law variation with wavelength (lambda): b(sub b) approx. Lambda(sup -n), where n is a constant between 0.4 and 1.0. However, the weak spectral features in b(sub b), suggest that it is depressed in spectral regions of strong particle absorption. The applicability of the present inverse radiative transfer algorithm, which omits the influence of Raman scattering, is limited to lambda < 490 nm in oligotrophic waters and lambda < 575 nm in mesotrophic waters.

  17. Gun Show Loophole Closing Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. McCarthy, Carolyn [D-NY-4

    2013-01-03

    01/25/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Crime, Terrorism, Homeland Security, And Investigations. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  18. Neuroprotective Actions of Neurosteroids

    PubMed Central

    Borowicz, Kinga K.; Piskorska, Barbara; Banach, Monika; Czuczwar, Stanislaw J.

    2011-01-01

    Neurosteroids were initially defined as steroid hormones locally synthesized within the nervous tissue. Subsequently, they were described as steroid hormone derivatives that devoid hormonal action but still affect neuronal excitability through modulation of ionotropic receptors. Neurosteroids are further subdivided into natural (produced in the brain) and synthetic. Some authors distinguish between hormonal and regular neurosteroids in the group of natural ones. The latter group, including hormone metabolites like allopregnanolone or tetrahydrodeoxycorticosterone, is devoid of hormonal activity. Both hormones and their derivatives share, however, most of the physiological functions. It is usually very difficult to distinguish the effects of hormones and their metabolites. All these substances may influence seizure phenomena and exhibit neuroprotective effects. Neuroprotection offered by steroid hormones may be realized in both genomic and non-genomic mechanisms and involve regulation of the pro- and anti-apoptotic factors expression, intracellular signaling pathways, neurotransmission, oxidative, and inflammatory processes. Since regular neurosteroids show no affinity for steroid receptors, they may act only in a non-genomic mode. Multiple studies have been conducted so far to show efficacy of neurosteroids in the treatment of the central and peripheral nervous system injury, ischemia, neurodegenerative diseases, or seizures. In this review we focused primarily on neurosteroid mechanisms of action and their role in the process of neurodegeneration. Most of the data refers to results obtained in experimental studies. However, it should be realized that knowledge about neuroactive steroids remains still incomplete and requires confirmation in clinical conditions. PMID:22649375

  19. The role of action effects in 12-month-olds' action control: a comparison of televised model and live model.

    PubMed

    Klein, Annette M; Hauf, Petra; Aschersleben, Gisa

    2006-12-01

    The present study investigated differences in infant imitation after watching a televised model and a live model and addressed the issue of whether action effects influence infants' action control in both cases. In a 2x2 design, 12-month-old infants observed a live or a televised model performing a three-step action sequence, in which either the 2nd or the 3rd action step was combined with an acoustical action effect. We assumed that infants would use the observed action-effect relations for their own action control in the test phase afterwards. Even though results exhibited differences in the absolute amount of imitation between the two demonstration groups, both groups showed similar result patterns regarding the action effect manipulation: infants imitated the action step that was followed by a salient action effect more often and mostly as the first target action, emphasizing the important role of action effects in infants' action control. PMID:17138306

  20. Inferences about Action Engage Action Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lawrence J.; Lev-Ari, Shiri; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2008-01-01

    Verbal descriptions of actions activate compatible motor responses [Glenberg, A. M., & Kaschak, M. P. (2002). Grounding language in action. "Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 9", 558-565]. Previous studies have found that the motor processes for manual rotation are engaged in a direction-specific manner when a verb disambiguates the direction of…

  1. Numerical Tests of the Improved Fermilab Action

    SciTech Connect

    Detar, C.; Kronfeld, A.S.; Oktay, M.B.

    2010-11-01

    Recently, the Fermilab heavy-quark action was extended to include dimension-six and -seven operators in order to reduce the discretization errors. In this talk, we present results of the first numerical simulations with this action (the OK action), where we study the masses of the quarkonium and heavy-light systems. We calculate combinations of masses designed to test improvement and compare results obtained with the OK action to their counterparts obtained with the clover action. Our preliminary results show a clear improvement.

  2. Analysis on the spectra and synchronous radiated electric field observation of cloud-to-ground lightning discharge plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Cen Jianyong; Yuan Ping; Qu Haiyan; Zhang Tinglong

    2011-11-15

    According to the spectra of cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning discharge plasma captured by a slit-less spectrograph and the information of synchronous radiated electric field, the temperatures, the total intensity of spectra, the peak value of current and its action integral of discharge plasma channel have been calculated. Furthermore, the correlativity of these parameters has been analyzed for the first time. The results indicate that the total intensity of spectra has a positive correlation to the discharge current in different strokes of one CG lightning, and the temperature of discharge plasma is direct proportion to the action integral in the first return strokes of different lightning.

  3. Star Shows It Has The Right Stuff

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-01-01

    Astronomers have used an observation by NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to make the best case yet that a star can be engulfed by its companion star and survive. This discovery will help astronomers better understand how closely coupled stars, and perhaps even stars and planets, evolve when one of the stars expands enormously in its red giant phase. The binary star system known as V471 Tauri comprises a white dwarf star (the primary) in a close orbit -- one thirtieth of the distance between Mercury and the Sun -- with a normal Sun-like star (the secondary). Chandra's data showed that the hot upper atmosphere of the secondary star has a deficit of carbon atoms relative to nitrogen atoms. "This deficit of carbon atoms is the first clear observational evidence that the normal star was engulfed by its companion in the past," according to Jeremy Drake of the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory in Cambridge, MA, who coauthored an article on V471 in The Astrophysical Journal Letters with Marek Sarna of the N. Copernicus Astronomical Center in Poland. The white dwarf star was once a star several times as massive as the Sun. Nuclear fusion reactions in the core of such a star convert carbon into nitrogen over a period of about a billion years. When the fuel in the core of the star is exhausted, the core collapses, triggering more energetic nuclear reactions that cause the star to expand and transform into a red giant before eventually collapsing to become a white dwarf. The carbon-poor material in the core of the red giant is mixed with outer part of the star, so its atmosphere shows a deficit of carbon, as compared with Sun-like stars. The X-ray spectra of a red giant star (top panel) and a Sun-like star (bottom panel) show the large difference in the peaks due to carbon atoms in the two stars. Theoretical calculations indicate that a red giant in a binary system can completely envelop its companion star and dramatically affect its evolution. During this common envelope

  4. Energy spectra and LET spectra of protons behind shielding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Katz, Sari; Barak, Joseph

    2014-08-01

    With the advent of devices sensitive to SEU due to direct ionization by protons, it became important to know the flux and energies of protons behind aluminum shielding or within satellites. We present new analytically derived expressions for the energy distribution of incident protons, after passing the shielding, and of secondary protons emitted within the shielding. The results are compared with those of the MULASSIS code. In some cases, like a satellite in a GCR orbit, the contribution of the secondary protons to SEU might be the dominant one. Proton energy-distributions behind shielding are proportional, at low energy values, to inverse proton-LET in aluminum. Their calculated LET-spectra in silicon can be used for evaluating SEU-rate in space. The analytic expressions presented here can be useful in calculating the influence of shielding on other incident ions and secondary ions.

  5. 1/ fα spectra in elementary cellular automata and fractal signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nagler, Jan; Claussen, Jens Christian

    2005-06-01

    We systematically compute the power spectra of the one-dimensional elementary cellular automata introduced by Wolfram. On the one hand our analysis reveals that one automaton displays 1/f spectra though considered as trivial, and on the other hand that various automata classified as chaotic or complex display no 1/f spectra. We model the results generalizing the recently investigated Sierpinski signal to a class of fractal signals that are tailored to produce 1/fα spectra. From the widespread occurrence of (elementary) cellular automata patterns in chemistry, physics, and computer sciences, there are various candidates to show spectra similar to our results.

  6. Cluster analysis on mass spectra of biogenic secondary organic aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spindler, C.; Kiendler-Scharr, A.; Kleist, E.; Mensah, A.; Mentel, T.; Tillmann, R.; Wildt, J.

    2009-04-01

    Biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOA) are of high importance in the atmosphere. The formation of SOA from the volatile organic compound (VOC) emissions of selected trees was investigated in the JPAC (Jülich Plant Aerosol Chamber) facility. The VOC (mainly monoterpenes) were transferred into a reaction chamber where vapors were photo-chemically oxidized and formed BSOA. The aerosol was characterized by aerosol mass spectrometry (Aerodyne Quadrupol-AMS). Inside the AMS, flash-vaporization of the aerosol particles and electron impact ionization of the evaporated molecules cause a high fragmentation of the organic compounds. Here, we present a classification of the aerosol mass spectra via cluster analysis. Average mass spectra are produced by combination of related single mass spectra to so-called clusters. The mass spectra were similar due to the similarity of the precursor substances. However, we can show that there are differences in the BSOA mass spectra of different tree species. Furthermore we can distinguish the influence of the precursor chemistry and chemical aging. BSOA formed from plants exposed to stress can be distinguished from BSOA formed under non stressed conditions. Significance and limitations of the clustering method for very similar mass spectra will be demonstrated and discussed.

  7. LSD-based analysis of high-resolution stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsymbal, V.; Tkachenko, A.; Van, Reeth T.

    2014-11-01

    We present a generalization of the method of least-squares deconvolution (LSD), a powerful tool for extracting high S/N average line profiles from stellar spectra. The generalization of the method is effected by extending it towards the multiprofile LSD and by introducing the possibility to correct the line strengths from the initial mask. We illustrate the new approach by two examples: (a) the detection of astroseismic signatures from low S/N spectra of single stars, and (b) disentangling spectra of multiple stellar objects. The analysis is applied to spectra obtained with 2-m class telescopes in the course of spectroscopic ground-based support for space missions such as CoRoT and Kepler. Usually, rather high S/N is required, so smaller telescopes can only compete successfully with more advanced ones when one can apply a technique that enables a remarkable increase in the S/N of the spectra which they observe. Since the LSD profiles have a potential for reconstruction what is common in all the spectral profiles, it should have a particular practical application to faint stars observed with 2-m class telescopes and whose spectra show remarkable LPVs.

  8. Thermal emission spectra from individual suspended carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zuwei; Bushmaker, Adam; Aykol, Mehmet; Cronin, Stephen B

    2011-06-28

    We study the thermal emission spectra of individual suspended carbon nanotubes induced by electrical heating. Semiconducting and metallic devices exhibit different spectra, based on their distinctive band structures. These spectra are compared with the ideal blackbody emission spectrum. In the visible wavelength range, the thermal emission spectra of semiconducting devices agree well with Planck's law, while the spectra of metallic devices show an additional peak between 1.5 and 1.9 eV. In the near-infrared wavelength range, the semiconducting nanotubes exhibit a peak around 1 eV. These additional peaks are attributed to the E11M and E22SC transitions that are thermally driven under these high applied bias voltages. These peaks show a strong polarization dependence, while the blackbody tail is unpolarized, which provides further evidence for electron-hole recombination in thermal emission. For semiconducting devices, the temperature of the nanotube is fit to Planck's law and compared with the temperatures obtained from the G band and 2D band Raman downshifts, as well as the anti-Stokes/Stokes intensity ratio. For devices showing thermal non-equilibrium, the electron temperature agrees well with G+ downshift but deviates from G_ downshift. PMID:21545117

  9. SEC Vidicon spectra of Geminid meteors, 1972

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Millman, P. M.; Clifton, K. S.

    1975-01-01

    The SEC Vidicon, a low light level closed circuit television system, was used to obtain 137 spectrographic records of meteors at Mt. Hopkins, Arizona, during the Geminid meteor shower in December 1972. Seven of the best Geminid meteor spectra are studied here in detail. The near infrared, out to wavelengths near 9000 A, is recorded for the first time for Geminids. The spectra, in general, exhibit the elements previously found in photographic records of this shower but show a surprising frequency of occurrence of the forbidden green line of O I at 5577 A. This line is normally absent from meteors moving as slowly as the Geminids (36 km/sec) and its presence in these records may be due to the added sensitivity available with the SEC Vidicon. The average green line duration in Geminid meteors with a luminosity near zero absolute visual magnitude is 0.73 sec at a mean height of 95 km, 11 km lower than the green line peak in Perseid meteors of the same luminosity.

  10. Discriminating Dysarthria Type From Envelope Modulation Spectra

    PubMed Central

    Liss, Julie M.; LeGendre, Sue; Lotto, Andrew J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Previous research demonstrated the ability of temporally based rhythm metrics to distinguish among dysarthrias with different prosodic deficit profiles (J. M. Liss et al., 2009). The authors examined whether comparable results could be obtained by an automated analysis of speech envelope modulation spectra (EMS), which quantifies the rhythmicity of speech within specified frequency bands. Method EMS was conducted on sentences produced by 43 speakers with 1 of 4 types of dysarthria and healthy controls. The EMS consisted of the spectra of the slow-rate (up to 10 Hz) amplitude modulations of the full signal and 7 octave bands ranging in center frequency from 125 to 8000 Hz. Six variables were calculated for each band relating to peak frequency and amplitude and relative energy above, below, and in the region of 4 Hz. Discriminant function analyses (DFA) determined which sets of predictor variables best discriminated between and among groups. Results Each of 6 DFAs identified 2–6 of the 48 predictor variables. These variables achieved 84%–100% classification accuracy for group membership. Conclusions Dysarthrias can be characterized by quantifiable temporal patterns in acoustic output. Because EMS analysis is automated and requires no editing or linguistic assumptions, it shows promise as a clinical and research tool. PMID:20643800

  11. Millimeter wave absorption spectra of biological samples

    SciTech Connect

    Gandhi, O.P.; Hagmann, M.J.; Hill, D.W.; Partlow, L.M.; Bush, L.

    1980-01-01

    A solid-state computer-controlled system has been used to make swept-frequency measurements of absorption of biological specimens from 26.5 to 90.0 GHz. A wide range of samples was used, including solutions of DNA and RNA, and suspensions of BHK-21/C13 cells, Candida albicans, C krusei, and Escherichia coli. Sharp spectra reported by other workers were not observed. The strong absorbance of water (10--30 dB/mm) caused the absorbance of all aqueous preparations that we examined to have a water-like dependence on frequency. Reduction of incident power (to below 1.0 microW), elimination of modulation, and control of temperature to assure cell viability were not found to significantly alter the water-dominated absorbance. Frozen samples of BHK-21/C13 cells tested at dry ice and liquid nitrogen temperatures were found to have average insertion loss reduced to 0.2 dB/cm but still showed no reproducible peaks that could be attributed to absorption spectra. It is concluded that the special resonances reported by others are likely to be in error.

  12. Serial FBG sensor network allowing overlapping spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbenseth, S.; Lochmann, S.; Ahrens, A.; Rehm, B.

    2016-05-01

    For structure or material monitoring low impact serial fiber Bragg grating (FBG) networks have attracted increasing research interest. Common sensor networks using wavelength division multiplexing (WDM) for FBG interrogation are limited in their efficiency by the spectral width of their light source, the FBG tuning range and the spectral guard bands. Overlapping spectra are strictly forbidden in this case. Applying time division multiplexing (TDM) or active resonator schemes may overcome these restrictions. However, they introduce other substantial disadvantages like signal roundtrip dependency or sophisticated control of active resonating structures. Code division multiplexing (CDM) as a means of FBG interrogation by simple autocorrelation of appropriate codes has been shown to be superior in this respect. However, it came at the cost of a second spectrometer introducing additional equalization efforts. We demonstrate a new serial FBG sensor network utilizing CDM signal processing for efficient sensor interrogation without the need of a second spectrometer and additional state of polarization (SOP) controlling components. It allows overlapping spectra even when all sensing FBGs are positioned at the same centre wavelength and it shows a high degree of insensitivity to SOP. Sequence inversed keyed (SIK) serial signal processing utilizing quasi-orthogonal balanced codes ensures simple and quick sensor interrogation with high signal-to-interference/noise ratio.

  13. Spectra of clinical CT scanners using a portable Compton spectrometer

    SciTech Connect

    Duisterwinkel, H. A.; Abbema, J. K. van; Kawachimaru, R.; Paganini, L.; Graaf, E. R. van der; Brandenburg, S.; Goethem, M. J. van

    2015-04-15

    Purpose: Spectral information of the output of x-ray tubes in (dual source) computer tomography (CT) scanners can be used to improve the conversion of CT numbers to proton stopping power and can be used to advantage in CT scanner quality assurance. The purpose of this study is to design, validate, and apply a compact portable Compton spectrometer that was constructed to accurately measure x-ray spectra of CT scanners. Methods: In the design of the Compton spectrometer, the shielding materials were carefully chosen and positioned to reduce background by x-ray fluorescence from the materials used. The spectrum of Compton scattered x-rays alters from the original source spectrum due to various physical processes. Reconstruction of the original x-ray spectrum from the Compton scattered spectrum is based on Monte Carlo simulations of the processes involved. This reconstruction is validated by comparing directly and indirectly measured spectra of a mobile x-ray tube. The Compton spectrometer is assessed in a clinical setting by measuring x-ray spectra at various tube voltages of three different medical CT scanner x-ray tubes. Results: The directly and indirectly measured spectra are in good agreement (their ratio being 0.99) thereby validating the reconstruction method. The measured spectra of the medical CT scanners are consistent with theoretical spectra and spectra obtained from the x-ray tube manufacturer. Conclusions: A Compton spectrometer has been successfully designed, constructed, validated, and applied in the measurement of x-ray spectra of CT scanners. These measurements show that our compact Compton spectrometer can be rapidly set-up using the alignment lasers of the CT scanner, thereby enabling its use in commissioning, troubleshooting, and, e.g., annual performance check-ups of CT scanners.

  14. Automatic Classification of Subdwarf Spectra using a Neural Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, C.; Jeffery, C. S.; Drilling, J. S.

    2004-06-01

    We apply a multilayer feed-forward back propagation artificial neural network to a sample of 380 subdwarf spectra classified by Drilling et al. (Drilling, J.S., Moehler, S., Jeffery, C.S., Heber, U., and Napiwotzki, R.: in press in: R. Gray (ed.), Probing the Personalities of Stars and Galaxies), showing that it is possible to use this technique on large sets of spectra and obtain classifications in good agreement with the standard. We briefly investigate the impact of training set size, showing that large training sets do not necessarily perform significantly better than small sets.

  15. Submillimeter Spectra of Low Temperature Gases and Mixtures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wishnow, E. H.; Gush, H. P.; Halpern, M.; Ozier, I.

    2002-01-01

    Submillimeter absorption spectra of nitrogen, nitrogen-argon mixtures, and methane have been measured using temperatures and pressures near to those found in the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. The experiments show the spectral signature of dimers which will likely appear in far-infrared spectra of Titan that will be obtained by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The recent CIRS spectrum of Jupiter shows far-infrared spectral lines of methane and the corresponding lines are observed in the laboratory. We are extending this work to lower frequencies using a new differential Michelson interferometer that operates over the frequency region 3-30 1/cm..

  16. Submillimeter Spectra of Low Temperature Gases and Mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Wishnow, E H; Gush, H P; Halpern M; Ozier, I

    2002-09-19

    Submillimeter absorption spectra of nitrogen, nitrogen-argon mixtures, and methane have been measured using temperatures and pressures near to those found in the atmospheres of Titan and Saturn. The experiments show the spectral signature of dimers which will likely appear in far-infrared spectra of Titan that will be obtained by the Composite Infrared Spectrometer (CIRS) onboard the Cassini spacecraft. The recent CIRS spectrum of Jupiter shows far-infrared spectral lines of methane and the corresponding lines are observed in the laboratory. We are extending this work to lower frequencies using a new differential Michelson interferometer that operates over the frequency region 3-30 cm{sup -1}.

  17. Circadian-effect engineering of solid-state lighting spectra for beneficial and tunable lighting.

    PubMed

    Dai, Qi; Shan, Qifeng; Lam, Hien; Hao, Luoxi; Lin, Yi; Cui, Zhe

    2016-09-01

    Optimization of solid-state lighting spectra is performed to achieve beneficial and tunable circadian effects. First, the minimum spectral circadian action factor (CAF) of 2700 K white light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is studied for applications where biologically active illumination is undesirable. It is found that white-LEDs based on (i) RGB chips, (ii) blue & red chips plus green phosphor, and (iii) blue chip plus green & red phosphors are the corresponding minimum-CAF solutions at color-rendering index (CRI) requirements of 80, 90, and 95, respectively. Second, maximum CAF tunability of LED clusters is studied for dynamic daylighting applications. A dichromatic phosphor-converted blue-centered LED, a dichromatic phosphor-converted green-centered LED, and a monochromatic red LED are grouped to obtain white spectra between 2700 K and 6500 K. A maximum CAF tunability of 3.25 times is achieved with CRI above 90 and luminous efficacy of radiation of 313 - 373 lm/W. We show that our approaches have advantages over previously reported solutions on system simplicity, minimum achievable CAF value, CAF tunability range, and light source efficacy. PMID:27607613

  18. Maps of precipitating electron spectra characterized by Maxwellian and kappa distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McIntosh, R. C.; Anderson, P. C.

    2014-12-01

    Maps of characterized auroral electron spectra, developed using 8 years of particle spectrometer data from the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) suite of polar-orbiting spacecraft are presented. The electron spectra, which were sampled from both hemispheres, are categorized as either diffuse or accelerated. Diffuse spectra were best-fit with Maxwellian or kappa distributions, and accelerated spectra were identified as displaying characteristics of either monoenergetic or broadband acceleration. A total of 30 million spectra were characterized, with 47.05% being best-fit with Maxwellian distributions, 31.37% being best-fit with kappa distributions, 12.20% as monoenergetic, and 9.38% as broadband. The spectra from both hemispheres were then binned in MLAT-MLT using a bin size of (MLAT, MLT) = (1°, 0.25 h), for the ranges of 50° ≤ MLAT < 90° and 0000 ≤ MLT < 2400, and further separated into seven levels of Kp. Within each MLAT-MLT-Kp bin, the fraction of the bin total number of accelerated and best-fit spectra corresponding to each spectral type was calculated. Consideration of the global distribution of these fractions showed the following results. For Kp< 2, diffuse electron spectra were predominantly best-fit by Maxwellian distributions. With increasing Kp, more of the diffuse spectra were best-fit by kappa distributions, especially within 0000 < MLT < 0600. For Kp< 2, monoenergetic spectra occurred throughout the oval at MLAT > 70° and broadband spectra occurred within 75° < MLAT < 80° and the local time regions of 0600 < MLT < 1000 and 1300 < MLT < 1500. For Kp≥ 2, coverage of accelerated spectra varied with Kp. For low levels of Kp, accelerated spectra, primarily monoenergetic spectra, predominated above 70°. With increasing activity, broadband spectra covered more of the daytime MLT sectors, while diffuse spectra (Maxwellian and Lorentzian) became increasingly frequent on the nightside due to the poleward expansion of the diffuse

  19. Ultraviolet Spectra of Two Magnetic White Dwarfs and Ultraviolet Spectra of Subluminous Objects Found in the Kiso Schmidt Survey and Ultraviolet Absorptions in the Spectra of DA White Dwarfds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wegner, Gary A.

    1988-01-01

    Research under NASA Grant NAG5-287 has carried out a number of projects in conjunction with the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) satellite. These include: (1) studies of the UV spectra of DA white dwarfs which show quasi-molecular bands of H2 and H2(+); (2) the peculiar star HR6560; (3) the UV spectra of two magnetic white dwarfs that also show the quasi-molecular features; (4) investigations of the UV spectra of subluminous stars, primarily identified from visual wavelength spectroscopy in the Kiso survey of UV excess stars, some of which show interesting metal lines in their UV spectra; and (5) completion of studies of UV spectra of DB stars. The main result of this research has been to further knowledge of the structure and compositions of subluminous stars which helps cast light on their formation and evolution.

  20. Objects tell us what action we can expect: dissociating brain areas for retrieval and exploitation of action knowledge during action observation in fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Schubotz, Ricarda I.; Wurm, Moritz F.; Wittmann, Marco K.; von Cramon, D. Yves

    2014-01-01

    Objects are reminiscent of actions often performed with them: knife and apple remind us on peeling the apple or cutting it. Mnemonic representations of object-related actions (action codes) evoked by the sight of an object may constrain and hence facilitate recognition of unrolling actions. The present fMRI study investigated if and how action codes influence brain activation during action observation. The average number of action codes (NAC) of 51 sets of objects was rated by a group of n = 24 participants. In an fMRI study, different volunteers were asked to recognize actions performed with the same objects presented in short videos. To disentangle areas reflecting the storage of action codes from those exploiting them, we showed object-compatible and object-incompatible (pantomime) actions. Areas storing action codes were considered to positively co-vary with NAC in both object-compatible and object-incompatible action; due to its role in tool-related tasks, we here hypothesized left anterior inferior parietal cortex (aIPL). In contrast, areas exploiting action codes were expected to show this correlation only in object-compatible but not incompatible action, as only object-compatible actions match one of the active action codes. For this interaction, we hypothesized ventrolateral premotor cortex (PMv) to join aIPL due to its role in biasing competition in IPL. We found left anterior intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and left posterior middle temporal gyrus (pMTG) to co-vary with NAC. In addition to these areas, action codes increased activity in object-compatible action in bilateral PMv, right IPS, and lateral occipital cortex (LO). Findings suggest that during action observation, the brain derives possible actions from perceived objects, and uses this information to shape action recognition. In particular, the number of expectable actions quantifies the activity level at PMv, IPL, and pMTG, but only PMv reflects their biased competition while observed action unfolds

  1. Online Action Monitoring and Memory for Self-Performed Actions in Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grainger, Catherine; Williams, David M.; Lind, Sophie E.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored whether individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) experience difficulties with action monitoring. Two experimental tasks examined whether adults with ASD are able to monitor their own actions online, and whether they also show a typical enactment effects in memory (enhanced memory for actions they have performed compared…

  2. Representing the consequences of intentionally inhibited actions.

    PubMed

    Haggard, Patrick; Poonian, Simmy; Walsh, Eamonn

    2009-08-25

    The experience of planning an action but then changing our minds and cancelling the action at the last instant is a common one. Here, we instructed participants to prepare voluntary (keypress) actions and sometimes intentionally inhibit them at the last possible moment. Participants could freely choose between left and right hand actions. Keypresses produced either a congruent (80% probability) or an incongruent (20% probability) tone after a short delay. If no voluntary action was made within a defined response window, one of the tones was nevertheless presented a short time later. At the end of the trial, participants judged the time of tone onset. We used an established marker to measure the experience of control, namely the intentional binding of the tone backwards in time towards the action that caused it. Results showed that voluntary actions produced the expected temporal binding of tones back towards the preceding action. In contrast, we found an opposite trend towards repulsion of the tone in intentional inhibition trials. When people intentionally inhibit a planned action, their experience of a subsequent event that was associated with the action is severely affected. Our results suggest that intentional inhibition is a specific cognitive process that strongly influences action prediction and action experience. PMID:19524558

  3. Spectra of small Koronis family members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas, C.; Rivkin, A.; Trilling, D.; Moskovitz, N.

    2014-07-01

    The space-weathering process and its implications for the relationships between S- and Q-type asteroids and ordinary chondrite meteorites are long-standing problems in asteroid science. Although the visible and near-infrared spectra of S- and Q-type objects qualitatively show the same absorption features and quantitatively show evidence of the same minerals, the S types display increased spectral slopes and muted absorption features compared to the Q types. This spectral mismatch is consistent with the effects of the space weathering process. Binzel et al. provided the missing link between Q- and S-type bodies in near-Earth space by showing a reddening of spectral slope in objects from 0.1 to 5 km that corresponded to the transition from Q- to S-type spectra. This result implied that size, and therefore age, is related to the relationship between Q- and S-type. The existence of Q-type objects in the main belt was not confirmed until Mothe-Diniz and Nesvorny (2008) found them in young S-type clusters. To investigate the trend from Q to S in the main belt, we examined space weathering within the old main-belt Koronis family using a spectrophotometric survey (Rivkin et al. 2011, Thomas et al. 2011). Rivkin et al. (2011) identified several potential Q-type objects within the Koronis family. Our Q-type candidates were identified using broad-band spectrophotometry and could not be taxonomically classified on that basis alone. We obtained follow-up visible and near-infrared spectral observations of our potential Q-type objects, (26970) Elias, (45610) 2000 DJ_{48}, and (37411) 2001 XF_{152}, using Gemini and Magellan. We will present the results of these spectral follow-up observations. Observations of (26970) Elias demonstrate that the object is more consistent with the average Q-type spectrum than the average S-type spectrum.

  4. Spectra from pair-equilibrium plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zdziarski, A. A.

    1984-01-01

    A numerical model of relativistic nonmagnetized plasma with uniform temperature and electron density distributions is considered, and spectra from plasma in pair equilibrium are studied. A range of dimensionless temperature (T) greater than about 0.2 is considered. The spectra from low pair density plasmas in pair equilibrium vary from un-Comptonized bremsstrahlung spectra at Thomson cross section tau(N) much less than one to Comptonized bremsstrahlung spectra with tau(N) over one. For high pair density plasmas the spectra are flat for T greater than about one, and have broad intensity peaks at energy roughly equal to 3T for T less than one. In the latter region the total luminosity is approximately twice the annihilation luminosity. All spectra are flat in the X-ray region, in contradiction to observed AGN spectra. For dimensionless luminosity greater than about 100, the cooling time becomes shorter than the Thomson time.

  5. Energy spectra in bubbly turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luther, Stefan; van den Berg, Thomas H.; Rensen, Judith; Lohse, Detlef

    2004-11-01

    The energy spectrum of single phase turbulent flow - apart from intermittency corrections - has been known since Kolomogorov 1941, E(k) ∝ k-5/3. How do bubbles modify this spectrum? To answer this question, we inject micro bubbles (radius 100 μm) in fully turbulent flow (Re_λ=200) up to volume concentrations of 0.3 %. Energy spectra and velocity structure functions are measured with hot-film anemometry. Under our experimental conditions, we find an enhancement of energy on small scales confirming numerical predictions by Mazzitelli, Lohse, and Toschi [Phys. Fluids 15, L5 (2003)]. They propose a mechanism in which bubbles are clustering most likely in downflow regions. This clustering is a lift force effect suppressing large vortical structures, while enhancing energy input on small scales.

  6. Reflectance spectra of primitive chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trigo-Rodríguez, J. M.; Moyano-Cambero, C. E.; Llorca, J.

    2013-05-01

    We are studying a wide sample of pristine carbonaceous chondrites from the NASA Antarctic collection in order to get clues on the physico-chemical processes occurred in the parent bodies of these meteorites. We are obtaining laboratory reflectance spectra of different groups of carbonaceous chondrites, but here we focus in CM and CI chondrites. We discuss the main spectral features that can be used to identify primitive carbonaceous asteroids by remote sensing techniques. Two different spectrometers were used covering the entire 0.3 to 30 μm electromagnetic window. Only a handful of Near Earth Objects (NEOs) exhibit bands or features clearly associated with aqueous alteration. Among them are the target asteroids of Osiris Rex and Marco Polo-R missions.

  7. Optimal Extraction of Echelle Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piskunov, Nikolai

    The extraction of the echelle spectra registered with a CCD detector represents a big challenge because of three reasons: (1) the pixel sampling is often close or worse then optimal, (2) spectral orders are curved and tilted with respect to the CCD rows (or columns) and (3) every pixel contains additional noise coming from various sources as illustrated in Figure 1. The main goal of an optimal extraction is to recover as much of the science signal while minimizing the contribution of the noise. Here we present the Slit Function Decomposition algorithm which replaces the summation in a sliding window with a reconstruction of the slit illumination profile. The reconstruction is formulated as an inverse problem solved by iterations and it is robust against most of the systematic problems including cosmic rays and cosmetic defects.

  8. Graviton Spectra in String Cosmology

    SciTech Connect

    Galluccio, M.; Occhionero, F.; Litterio, M.

    1997-08-01

    We propose to uncover the signature of a stringy era in the primordial Universe by searching for a prominent peak in the relic graviton spectrum. This feature, which in our specific model terminates an {omega}{sup 3} increase and initiates an {omega}{sup {minus}7} decrease, is induced during the so far overlooked bounce of the scale factor between the collapsing deflationary era (or pre{endash}big bang) and the expanding inflationary era (or post{endash}big bang). The frequency and the intensity of the peak may likely fall in the realm of the new generation of interferometric detectors. The existence of a peak, at variance with ordinarily monotonic graviton spectra, would therefore offer strong support to string cosmology. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}

  9. Line Coupling in Atmospheric Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tipping, R. H.

    1996-01-01

    The theoretical modeling of atmospheric spectra is important for a number of different applications: for instance, in the determination of minor atmospheric constituents such as ozone, carbon dioxide, CFC's etc.; in monitoring the temperature profile for climate studies; and in measuring the incoming and outgoing radiation to input into global climate models. In order to accomplish the above mentioned goal, one needs to know the spectral parameters characterizing the individual spectral lines (frequency, width, strength, and shape) as well as the physical parameters of the atmosphere (temperature, abundances, and pressure). When all these parameters are known, it is usually assumed that the resultant spectra and concomitant absorption coefficient can then be calculated by a superposition of individual profiles of appropriate frequency, strength and shape. However, this is not true if the lines are 'coupled'. Line coupling is a subtle effect that takes place when lines of a particular molecule overlap in frequency. In this case when the initial states and the final states of two transitions are connected by collisions, there is a quantum interference resulting in perturbed shapes. In general, this results in the narrowing of Q-branches (those in which the rotational quantum number does not change), and vibration-rotational R- and P branches (those in which the rotational quantum number changes by +/- 1), and in the spectral region beyond band heads (regions where the spectral lines pile up due to centrifugal distortion). Because these features and spectral regions are often those of interest in the determination of the abundances and pressure-temperature profiles, one must take this effect into account in atmospheric models.

  10. Measurements of LET spectra and comparison to models.

    PubMed

    Wiegel, B; Heinrich, W; Benton, E V; Frank, A

    1992-01-01

    We present measurements of LET spectra for near earth orbits with various inclinations and altitudes. A comparison with calculated LET spectra shows that the contribution from direct ionizing galactic cosmic rays is well described by the models. An additional contribution to the spectra originates from stopping protons and from nuclear interactions of particles with material. In the case of an interaction a large amount of energy is deposited in a small volume by target recoils or target fragments. These events will be called short range (SR) events. For a low inclination orbit radiation belt protons are the main source of these events while galactic protons become more important when increasing the inclination to near polar orbits. We show that the contribution of SR events for orbits with low altitude (324 km) and 57 degrees inclination is comparable to that for an orbit with 28 degrees inclination at a high altitude (510 km). PMID:11537028

  11. A simple model for strong ground motions and response spectra

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Safak, Erdal; Mueller, Charles; Boatwright, John

    1988-01-01

    A simple model for the description of strong ground motions is introduced. The model shows that response spectra can be estimated by using only four parameters of the ground motion, the RMS acceleration, effective duration and two corner frequencies that characterize the effective frequency band of the motion. The model is windowed band-limited white noise, and is developed by studying the properties of two functions, cumulative squared acceleration in the time domain, and cumulative squared amplitude spectrum in the frequency domain. Applying the methods of random vibration theory, the model leads to a simple analytical expression for the response spectra. The accuracy of the model is checked by using the ground motion recordings from the aftershock sequences of two different earthquakes and simulated accelerograms. The results show that the model gives a satisfactory estimate of the response spectra.

  12. Show Me What You Know: Pre-Service City Teachers and Social Justice in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquez-Zenkov, Kristien; Corrigan, Diane; Brockett, Christina; Lehrian, Sarah

    2008-01-01

    Few current definitions and assessments of teacher "quality" have considered the social justice-oriented characteristics the authors consider most important in their work with future city teachers. This paper describes the masters licensure program with which the authors are involved, the portfolio assessment system this program utilizes to…

  13. Stratospheric ozone loss, ultraviolet effects and action spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coohill, Thomas P.

    The major effect of stratospheric ozone loss will be an increase in the amount of ultraviolet radiation reaching the ground. This increase will be entirely contained within the UV-B (290-320nm). How this will impact life on Earth will be determined by the UV-B photobiology of exposed organisms, including humans. One of the analytical methods useful in estimating these effects is Action Spectroscopy (biological effect as a function of wavelength). Carefully constructed action spectra will allow us to partially predict the increase in bio-effect due to additional UV exposure. What effect this has on the organism and the system in which the organism resides is of paramount importance. Suitable action spectra already exist for human skin cancer, human cell mutation and killing, and for one immune response. Comprehensive and widely applicable action spectra for terrestrial and aquatic plant responses are being generated but are not yet suitable for extensive analysis. There is little data available for animals, other than those experiments completed in the laboratory as model systems for human studies. Some polychromatic action spectra have proven useful in determining the possible impact of ozone loss on biological systems. The pitfalls and limits of this approach will be addressed.

  14. Vibrationally high-resolved electronic spectra of MCl2 (M=C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and photoelectron spectra of MCl2(.).

    PubMed

    Ran, Yibin; Pang, Min; Shen, Wei; Li, Ming; He, Rongxing

    2016-10-01

    We systematically studied the vibrational-resolved electronic spectra of group IV dichlorides using the Franck-Condon approximation combined with the Duschinsky and Herzberg-Teller effects in harmonic and anharmonic frameworks (only the simulation of absorption spectra includes the anharmonicity). Calculated results showed that the band shapes of simulated spectra are in accordance with those of the corresponding experimental or theoretical ones. We found that the symmetric bend mode in progression of absorption is the most active one, whereas the main contributor in photoelectron spectra is the symmetric stretching mode. Moreover, the Duschinsky and anharmonic effects exert weak influence on the absorption spectra, except for PbCl2 molecule. The theoretical insights presented in this work are significant in understanding the photophysical properties of MCl2 (M=C, Si, Ge, Sn, Pb) and studying the Herzberg-Teller and the anharmonic effects on the absorption spectra of new dichlorides of this main group. PMID:27280730

  15. The mid-infrared transmission spectra of Antarctic ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    The mid-IR (4000-450/cm; 2.5-22.2 microns) transmission spectra of seven Antarctic ureilites and 10 Antarctic H-5 ordinary chondrites are presented. The ureilite spectra show a number of absorption bands, the strongest of which is a wide, complex feature centered near 1000/cm (10 microns) due to Si-O stretching vibrations in silicates. The profiles and positions of the substructure in this feature indicate that Mg-rich olivines and pyroxenes are the main silicates responsible. The relative abundances of these two minerals, as inferred from the spectra, show substantial variation from meteorite to meteorite, but generally indicate olivine is the most abundant (olivine:pyroxene = 60:40 to 95:5). Both the predominance of olivine and the variable olivine-to-pyroxene ratio are consistent with the known composition and heterogeneity of ureilites. The H-5 ordinary chondrites spanned a range of weathering classes and were used to provide a means of addressing the extent to which the ureilite spectra may have been altered by weathering processes. It was found that, while weathering of these meteorites produces some weak bands due to the formation of small amounts of carbonates and hydrates, the profile of the main silicate feature has been little affected by Antarctic exposure in the meteorites studied here. The mid-IR ureilite spectra provide an additional means of testing potential asteroidal parent bodies for the ureilites.

  16. Use of thin ionization calorimeters for measurements of cosmic ray energy spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, W. V.; Ormes, J. S.; Schmidt, W. K. H.

    1976-01-01

    The reliability of performing measurements of cosmic ray energy spectra with a thin ionization calorimeter was investigated. Monte Carlo simulations were used to determine whether energy response fluctuations would cause measured spectra to be different from the primary spectra. First, Gaussian distributions were assumed for the calorimeter energy resolutions. The second method employed a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of cascades from an isotropic flux of protons. The results show that as long as the energy resolution does not change significantly with energy, the spectral indices can be reliably determined even for sigma sub e/e = 50%. However, if the energy resolution is strongly energy dependent, the measured spectra do not reproduce the true spectra. Energy resolutions greatly improving with energy result in measured spectra that are too steep, while resolutions getting much worse with energy cause the measured spectra to be too flat.

  17. Action spectrum for phototherapy of psoriasis

    SciTech Connect

    Parrish, J.A.; Jaenicke, K.F.

    1981-05-01

    Using a monochromator the action spectrum for ultraviolet phototherapy of psoriasis was determined for radiation between 254 and 313 nm and compared to the action spectrum for erythema of uninvolved adjacent skin. Daily exposures of different doses of 254, 280, 290, 296, 300, 304 and 313 nm radiation were observed. Wavelengths of 254, 280, 290 nm were erythemogenic but not therapeutic even at 10 to 50 times the minimal erythema dose. At the other wavelengths studied, the 2 action spectra were similar. In general, fixed daily doses cleared at lower cumulative dose than did incrementally increased daily doses. The small number of suberythemogenic exposure doses required suggests that monochromatic radiation may have advantages over broadband sources.

  18. Optical absorption spectra of dications of carotenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Jeevarajan, J.A.; Wei, C.C.; Jeevarajan, A.S.; Kispert, L.D.

    1996-04-04

    Quantitative optical absorption spectra of the cation radicals and the dications of canthaxanthin (I), {beta}carotene (II), 7`-cyano-7`-ethoxycarbonyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (III), and 7`,7`-dimethyl-7`-apo-{beta}-carotene (IV) in dichloromethane solution are reported. Exclusive formation of dications occurs when the carotenoids are oxidized with ferric chloride. Addition of neutral carotenoid to the dications results in equilibrium formation of cation radicals. Oxidation with iodine in dichloromethane affords only cation radicals; electrochemical oxidation under suitable conditions yields both dications and cation radicals. Values of the optical parameters depend on the nature of the oxidative medium. The oscillator strengths calculated for gas phase cation radicals and dications of I-IV using the INDO/S method show the same trend as the experimental values. 31 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  19. Conservation Action Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Rifle Association, Washington, DC.

    Conservation problems are identified, with some suggestions for action. General areas covered are: Wildlife Conservation, Soil Conservation, Clean Water, Air Pollution Action, and Outdoor Recreation Action. Appendices list private organizations or agencies concerned with natural resource use and/or management, congressional committees considering…

  20. Action in Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    von Hofsten, Claes

    2007-01-01

    It is argued that cognitive development has to be understood in the functional perspective provided by actions. Actions reflect all aspects of cognitive development including the motives of the child, the problems to be solved, and the constraints and possibilities of the child's body and sensorimotor system. Actions are directed into the future…

  1. Planning as Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Gonzalez, Carmen Beatriz; Hernandez, Teresa; Kusch, Jim; Ryan, Charly

    2004-01-01

    Planning contains so much more than the written plan. Early in 2000, an invitation came from the Collaborative Action Research Network (CARN), to people experienced in action research who might want to help plan and present an action research event for elementary school science teachers in Venezuela, South America, in Autumn 2000. This article…

  2. Participatory Action Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Martha Lentz

    1993-01-01

    Describes aspects of participatory action research and considers advantages of using participatory action research in research by disabilities and rehabilitation researchers. Notes that participatory action research can be built into any rehabilitation research design but that it rests upon the recognition of persons with disabilities as integral…

  3. Stellar parametrization from Gaia RVS spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Recio-Blanco, A.; de Laverny, P.; Allende Prieto, C.; Fustes, D.; Manteiga, M.; Arcay, B.; Bijaoui, A.; Dafonte, C.; Ordenovic, C.; Ordoñez Blanco, D.

    2016-01-01

    found for A-type stars, while the log(g) derivation is more accurate (errors of 0.07 and 0.12 dex at GRVS = 12.6 and 13.4, respectively). For the faintest stars, with GRVS≳ 13-14, a Teff input from the spectrophotometric-derived parameters will allow the final GSP-Spec parametrization to be improved. Conclusions: The reported results, while neglecting possible mismatches between synthetic and real spectra, show that the contribution of the RVS-based stellar parameters will be unique in the brighter part of the Gaia survey, which allows for crucial age estimations and accurate chemical abundances. This will constitute a unique and precious sample, providing many pieces of the Milky Way history puzzle with unprecedented precision and statistical relevance.

  4. Impulsive action: emotional impulses and their control

    PubMed Central

    Frijda, Nico H.; Ridderinkhof, K. Richard; Rietveld, Erik

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a novel theoretical view on impulsive action, integrating thus far separate perspectives on non-reflective action, motivation, emotion regulation, and impulse control. We frame impulsive action in terms of directedness of the individual organism toward, away, or against other givens – toward future states and away from one’s present state. First, appraisal of a perceived or thought-of event or object on occasion, rapidly and without premonition or conscious deliberation, triggers a motive to modify one’s relation to that event or object. Situational specifics of the event as perceived and appraised motivate and guide selection of readiness for a particular kind of purposive action. Second, perception of complex situations can give rise to multiple appraisals, multiple motives, and multiple simultaneous changes in action readiness. Multiple states of action readiness may interact in generating action, by reinforcing or attenuating each other, thereby yielding impulse control. We show how emotion control can itself result from a motive state or state of action readiness. Our view links impulsive action mechanistically to states of action readiness, which is the central feature of what distinguishes one kind of emotion from another. It thus provides a novel theoretical perspective to the somewhat fragmented literature on impulsive action. PMID:24917835

  5. Understanding affirmative action.

    PubMed

    Crosby, Faye J; Iyer, Aarti; Sincharoen, Sirinda

    2006-01-01

    Affirmative action is a controversial and often poorly understood policy. It is also a policy that has been widely studied by social scientists. In this review, we outline how affirmative action operates in employment and education settings and consider the major points of controversy. In addition, we detail the contributions of psychologists and other social scientists in helping to demonstrate why affirmative action is needed; how it can have unintended negative consequences; and how affirmative action programs can be most successful. We also review how psychologists have examined variations in people's attitudes toward affirmative action, in part as a means for testing different theories of social behavior. PMID:16318608

  6. Blind extraction of exoplanetary spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morello, Giuseppe; Waldmann, Ingo P.; Tinetti, Giovanna

    2016-06-01

    In the last decade, remote sensing spectroscopy enabled characterization of the atmospheres of extrasolar planets. Transmission and emission spectra of tens of transiting exoplanets have been measured with multiple instruments aboard Spitzer and Hubble Space Telescopes as well as ground-based facilities, revealing the presence of atomic, ionic and molecular species in their atmospheres, and constraining their temperature and pressure profiles.Early analyses were somehow heuristic both in measuring the spectra and in their interpretation, leading to some controversies in the literature.A photometric precision of 0.01% is necessary to detect the atmospheric spectral modulations. Current observatories, except Kepler, were not designed to achieve this precision. Data reduction is necessary to minimize the effect of instrument systematics in order to achieve the target precision. In the past, parametric models have extensively been used by most teams to remove correlated noise with the aid of auxiliary information of the instrument, the so-called optical state vectors (OSVs). Such OSVs can include inter- and intra-pixel position of the star or its spectrum, instrument temperatures and inclinations, and/or other parameters. In some cases, different parameterizations led to discrepant results.We recommend the use of blind non-parametric data detrending techniques to overcome those issues. In particular, we adopt Independent Component Analysis (ICA), i.e. a blind source separation (BSS) technique to disentangle the multiple instrument systematics and astrophysical signals in transit/eclipse light curves. ICA does not require a model for the systematics, and for this reason, it can be applied to any instrument with little changes, if any. ICA-based algorithms have been applied to Spitzer/IRAC and synthetic observations in photometry (Morello et al. 2014, 2015, 2016; Morello 2015) and to Hubble/NICMOS and Spitzer/IRS in spectroscopy (Waldmann 2012, 2014, Waldmann et al. 2013

  7. Non-linear power spectra in the synchronous gauge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hwang, Jai-chan; Noh, Hyerim; Jeong, Donghui; Gong, Jinn-Ouk; Biern, Sang Gyu

    2015-05-01

    We study the non-linear corrections to the matter and velocity power spectra in the synchronous gauge (SG). For the leading correction to the non-linear power spectra, we consider the perturbations up to third order in a zero-pressure fluid in a flat cosmological background. Although the equations in the SG happen to coincide with those in the comoving gauge (CG) to linear order, they differ from second order. In particular, the second order hydrodynamic equations in the SG are apparently in the Lagrangian form, whereas those in the CG are in the Eulerian form. The non-linear power spectra naively presented in the original SG show rather pathological behavior quite different from the result of the Newtonian theory even on sub-horizon scales. We show that the pathology in the nonlinear power spectra is due to the absence of the convective terms in, thus the Lagrangian nature of, the SG. We show that there are many different ways of introducing the corrective convective terms in the SG equations. However, the convective terms (Eulerian modification) can be introduced only through gauge transformations to other gauges which should be the same as the CG to the second order. In our previous works we have shown that the density and velocity perturbation equations in the CG exactly coincide with the Newtonian equations to the second order, and the pure general relativistic correction terms starting to appear from the third order are substantially suppressed compared with the relativistic/Newtonian terms in the power spectra. As a result, we conclude that the SG per se is an inappropriate coordinate choice in handling the non-linear matter and velocity power spectra of the large-scale structure where observations meet with theories.

  8. Actions, Action Sequences and Habits: Evidence That Goal-Directed and Habitual Action Control Are Hierarchically Organized

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2013-01-01

    Behavioral evidence suggests that instrumental conditioning is governed by two forms of action control: a goal-directed and a habit learning process. Model-based reinforcement learning (RL) has been argued to underlie the goal-directed process; however, the way in which it interacts with habits and the structure of the habitual process has remained unclear. According to a flat architecture, the habitual process corresponds to model-free RL, and its interaction with the goal-directed process is coordinated by an external arbitration mechanism. Alternatively, the interaction between these systems has recently been argued to be hierarchical, such that the formation of action sequences underlies habit learning and a goal-directed process selects between goal-directed actions and habitual sequences of actions to reach the goal. Here we used a two-stage decision-making task to test predictions from these accounts. The hierarchical account predicts that, because they are tied to each other as an action sequence, selecting a habitual action in the first stage will be followed by a habitual action in the second stage, whereas the flat account predicts that the statuses of the first and second stage actions are independent of each other. We found, based on subjects' choices and reaction times, that human subjects combined single actions to build action sequences and that the formation of such action sequences was sufficient to explain habitual actions. Furthermore, based on Bayesian model comparison, a family of hierarchical RL models, assuming a hierarchical interaction between habit and goal-directed processes, provided a better fit of the subjects' behavior than a family of flat models. Although these findings do not rule out all possible model-free accounts of instrumental conditioning, they do show such accounts are not necessary to explain habitual actions and provide a new basis for understanding how goal-directed and habitual action control interact. PMID:24339762

  9. Laser Spectra and efficiencies of pyrazolo derivatives of coumarins

    SciTech Connect

    Padhye, M.R.; Varadarajan, T.S.; Deshpande, A.V.

    1985-09-01

    Of the new laser dyes of coumarin series reported earlier, pyrazolo derivatives have been further studied. The paper reports their laser spectra and efficiencies in various solvents compared to a standard coumarin laser dye C/sub 515/. One of the derivatives shows comparable output under optimum concentration conditions as compared to the standard.

  10. Eight-position substitution effects on laser action of the 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl pyrromethene-BF2 complexes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Feng; Zeng, Heping; Sun, Zhenrong; Yuan, Yizhong; Yao, Zuguang; Xu, Zhizhan

    2001-12-01

    We measured laser-action properties of some novel eight-position substituted 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl pyrromethene-BF2 complexes in a Littman-type cavity pumped by the second harmonic of a Q-switched Nd:YAG laser. The substitution effects were investigated by comparing the spectroscopic and laser-action properties of various eight-position substituted complexes, such as absorption, excitation, and fluorescence emission, and triplet-triplet absorption spectra, dye-laser wavelength-tuning spectra, and output-pulse energy versus the pump-laser energy. The results showed that 1,3,5,7-tetramethyl-2,6-diethyl pyrromethene-BF2 complexes with phenyl, p-methoxyphenyl, and p-fluorophenyl substituted at the eight-position outperformed the commercially available benchmark laser dye Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) in fluorescence quantum yields, laser efficiency, and laser wavelength-tuning range.

  11. Dual spectra well logging system

    SciTech Connect

    Nussbaum, T.W.

    1982-09-07

    A dual spectra well logging system includes a well logging tool which is adapted to pass through a bore hole in an earth formation. The well logging tool includes at least two sensors which sense at least one condition of the earth formation and provides corresponding pulse signals. A circuit connected to the sensors provides a combined pulse signal wherein the pulses of the pulse signal from one sensor has one polarity and the pulses of the pulse signal from the other sensor has pulses of an opposite polarity. A circuit applies the combined pulse signal to a well logging cable which conducts the combined pulse signal to the surface of the earth formation. Surface apparatus includes a network connected to the cable which provides control signals in accordance with the polarity of the pulses in the combined pulse signal. A network connected to the cable inverts the combined pulse signal and provides a combined pulse signal and an inverted combined pulse signal. A first switching network receiving the combined pulse signal passes the pulses derived from the pulses of the one polarity in acccordance with the control signals to provide a first pulse signal while a second switching network receiving the inverted combined pulse signal passes the pulses derived from the pulses of the opposite polarity in accordance with the control signals to provide a second pulse signal. An output network processes the two pulse signals to provide an indication of the earth's condition in accordance with the processed pulse signals.

  12. Infrared spectra of protostellar collapse

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollenbach, David J.; Ceccarelli, Cecilia; Neufeld, David A.; Tielens, Alexander G. G. M.

    1995-01-01

    Theoretical models of the formation of low mass stars by cloud collapse predict that OI(63 micrometers) and IR rotational lines of CO and H2O dominate the cooling in the freefalling region 10-1000 AU from the protostar. The freefalling gas supersonically hits the protoplanetary disk orbiting the protostar, forming an accretion shock with strong IR emission in rotational lines of H2O and OH, and OI(63 microns). The accretion shock spectra and line profiles depend on the mass flux through the shock and the typical distance r-bar at which the freefalling gas strikes the disk. The line widths are of order the Keplerian speed, or approx. 10(r-bar/10AU)(exp -0.5) km/s, for the accretion shock lines, and less for the lines from the infalling gas. Measurements of the IR line fluxes and profiles from the freefalling gas and the accretion shock diagnoses how a protostar and disk are formed and requires high sensitivity and high spectral and spatial resolving power. SOFIA will be the optimum observatory for many of these lines, although ISO will contribute and the KAO may make a few pioneering detections.

  13. Interpretation of Nitroindolinospirobenzothiopyran Vibrational Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gladkov, L. L.; Khamchukov, Yu. D.; Lyubimov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    The structures of four possible stereoisomers of the closed form of photochromic nitroindolinospirobenzothiopyran (NISTP) {1',3'-dihydro-1',3',3'-trimethyl-6-nitrospiro[2H-1-benzothiopyran-2,2'-(2H)-indoline]} were determined by the DFT method. The geometry of the most stable isomer was defined. Nitro-substitution changes mainly the lengths of bonds formed by S and N with spiro-atom Cs. According to the calculations, the CsS bond changes most and lengthens by 0.019 Å. It is shown that the S atom has large displacement amplitudes in normal modes assigned to Raman lines at 230, 285, 360, and 575 cm-1 and weak IR bands at 467 and 577 cm-1. Oscillations involving the nitro group are very active in Raman and IR spectra. Their frequencies are slightly lower than similar frequencies of nitrobenzene and nitroindolinospirobenzopyran, indicating a higher degree of vibrational coupling of the NO2 group with the NISTP molecular skeleton.

  14. Reflectance spectra of subarctic lichens

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Petzold, Donald E.; Goward, Samuel N.

    1988-01-01

    Lichens constitute a major portion of the ground cover of high latitude environments, but little has been reported concerning their in situ solar spectral reflectance properties. Knowledge of these properties is important for the interpretation of remotely sensed observations from high latitude regions, as well as in studies of high latitude ecology and energy balance climatology. The spectral reflectance of common boreal vascular plants is similar to that of vascular plants of the midlatitudes. The dominant lichens, in contrast, display variable reflectance patterns in visible wavelengths. The relative reflectance peak at 0.55 microns, common to green vegetation, is absent or indistinct in spectra of pervasive boreal forest and tundra lichens, despite the presence of chlorophyll in the inner algal cells. Lichens of the dominant genus, Cladina, display strong absorption of ultraviolet energy and short-wavelength blue light relative to their absorption in other visible wavelengths. Since the Cladinae dominate both the surface vegetation in open woodlands of the boreal forest and the low arctic tundra, their unusual spectral reflectance patterns will enable accurate monitoring of the boreal forest-tundra ecotone and detection of its vigor and movement in the future.

  15. Overcoming Degeneracies in Exoplanet Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benneke, Björn

    2015-08-01

    Spectroscopic observations of exoplanets can provide invaluable insights into the planets’ compositions, their formation and evolution histories, and even their habitability. Obtaining exoplanet spectra is observationally challenging; however, and we are generally limited to relatively low signal-to-noise, low spectral resolution, disk-integrated observations , often with relatively narrow wavelength coverage. This low data situation results in strong correlations and degeneracies between the different planet and atmospheric parameters of interest. In this talk, I will present a conceptual picture of how vital information about the planet is encoded in its observable spectrum. I will then give an overview about the wide range of correlations and degeneracies relevant to today’s exoplanet observations. Finally, I will demonstrate how some degeneracies can be overcome and improved constraints can be obtained by including prior knowledge of atmospheric chemistry and physics in the retrieval. I present a new atmospheric retrieval framework, SCARLET, that combines observational data and our prior (limited) knowledge of atmospheric processes in a statistical robust Bayesian framework. New results for hot Jupiters will be presented.

  16. The time between intention and action affects the experience of action

    PubMed Central

    Vinding, Mikkel C.; Jensen, Mads; Overgaard, Morten

    2015-01-01

    We present a study investigating how the delay between the intention to act and the following action, influenced the experience of action. In experiments investigating sense of agency and experience of action, the contrast is most often between voluntary and involuntary actions. It is rarely asked whether different types of intentions influence the experience of action differently. To investigate this we distinguished between proximal intentions (i.e., intentions for immediate actions) and delayed intentions (i.e., intentions with a temporal delay between intention and action). The distinction was implemented in an intentional binding paradigm, by varying the delay between the time where participants formed the intention to act and the time at which they performed the action. The results showed that delayed intentions were followed by a stronger binding effect for the tone following the action compared to proximal intentions. The actions were reported to have occurred earlier for delayed intentions than for proximal intentions. This effect was independent of the binding effect usually found in intentional binding experiments. This suggests that two perceptual shifts occurred in the contrast between delayed intentions and proximal intentions: The first being the binding effect, the second a general shift in the perceived time of action. Neither the stronger binding effect for tone, nor the earlier reports of action, differed across delays for delayed intentions. The results imply that delayed intentions and proximal intentions have a different impact on the experience of action. PMID:26150783

  17. Consistent cosmic microwave background spectra from quantum depletion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casadio, Roberto; Kühnel, Florian; Orlandi, Alessio

    2015-09-01

    Following a new quantum cosmological model proposed by Dvali and Gomez, we quantitatively investigate possible modifications to the Hubble parameter and following corrections to the cosmic microwave background spectrum. In this model, scalar and tensor perturbations are generated by the quantum depletion of the background inflaton and graviton condensate respectively. We show how the inflaton mass affects the power spectra and the tensor-to-scalar ratio. Masses approaching the Planck scale would lead to strong deviations, while standard spectra are recovered for an inflaton mass much smaller than the Planck mass.

  18. X-ray spectra of supernova remnants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szymkowiak, A. E.

    1985-01-01

    X-ray spectra were obtained from fields in three supernova remnants with the solid state spectrometer of the HEAO 2 satellite. These spectra, which contain lines from K-shell transitions of several abundant elements with atomic numbers between 10 and 22, were compared with various models, including some of spectra that would be produced by adiabatic phase remnants when the time-dependence of the ionization is considered.

  19. Infrared spectra of natural and synthetic malachites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuiskii, A. V.; Zorina, M. L.

    2013-09-01

    IR absorption and reflection spectra of dark and light samples of natural and synthetic malachite over 400-4000 cm-1 are studied for the purpose of improving the synthesis technique and in order to distinguish between natural malachite and malachite grown from ammonia solutions. Nitrogen was not detected in the IR spectra or in microprobe analyses of the synthetic material. The differences found in the IR spectra were insignificant and cannot be regarded as distinctive indicators of these materials.

  20. Spectral classification with the International Ultraviolet Explorer: An atlas of B-type spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rountree, Janet; Sonneborn, George

    1993-01-01

    New criteria for the spectral classification of B stars in the ultraviolet show that photospheric absorption lines in the 1200-1900A wavelength region can be used to classify the spectra of B-type dwarfs, subgiants, and giants on a 2-D system consistent with the optical MK system. This atlas illustrates a large number of such spectra at the scale used for classification. These spectra provide a dense matrix of standard stars, and also show the effects of rapid stellar rotation and stellar winds on the spectra and their classification. The observational material consists of high-dispersion spectra from the International Ultraviolet Explorer archives, resampled to a resolution of 0.25 A, uniformly normalized, and plotted at 10 A/cm. The atlas should be useful for the classification of other IUE high-dispersion spectra, especially for stars that have not been observed in the optical.

  1. Diurnal CO variations in the Venus mesosphere from CO microwave spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clancy, R. T.; Muhleman, D. O.

    1985-01-01

    Microwave spectra of CO in the Venus mesosphere were measured and analyzed in order to provide mixing profiles. The results indicate that there is a significant dependence of the observed spectra on the phase of Venus. This dependence is tied to a diurnal variation in the vertical profile of CO mixing ratios with the local solar zenith angle. Spectra of the nightside hemisphere are characterized by very little absorption in the wings of the spectra, yet very deep absorption in the line center. Dayside spectra exhibit considerably greater absorption in the line wings and less absorption in the line center. Solutions for the CO mixing profile derived from spectra show that the nightside atmosphere contains two to four times the CO abundance above about 95 km relative to the dayside atmosphere above 95 km. Conversely, the dayside atmosphere between 80 and 90 km shows two to four times the CO abundance for the same altitude region in the nightside atmosphere.

  2. ALIEN: A nebular spectra analysis software

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, R.; Vazquez, R.

    2000-11-01

    A new C-coded software, designed to analyze nebular spectra, is presented. T his software is able to read the fluxes of the most important ions directly from IRAF's output file (splot.log). Spectra can be dereddened using the Balmer lines ratio and the Seaton's extinction law. Electron temperature and density, as well as ionic abundances by number are estimated by means of numeric calculations based on the five-level atom model. The dereddened spectra and the table containing the ionic abundances can be saved in a LaTex formatted file. This software has been initially designed to work with a low dispersion spectra.

  3. Fluorescence spectra decomposition by asymmetric functions: Laurdan spectrum revisited.

    PubMed

    Bacalum, Mihaela; Zorilă, Bogdan; Radu, Mihai

    2013-09-15

    Due to their asymmetric nature, complex fluorescence spectra of molecules can be analyzed much better by log-normal distributions than by Gaussian ones. So far, the log-normal function has been used for deconvolution of emission spectra of different fluorescent molecules, such as Tryptophan and Prodan, but to our knowledge it is far less used for Laurdan (2-dimethylamino-6-lauroylnaphthalene). In this article, we present the decomposition of Laurdan emission spectra in large unilamellar vesicles using a procedure that relies on the log-normal asymmetric function. The procedure was calibrated using Laurdan spectra in homogeneous solutions of various solvents. Comparing our results with the ones obtained from a Gaussian fit, we show that (i) the position of the elementary peaks (~440 and 490 nm) is preserved in a large range of temperatures that include the main phase transition of lipid bilayer and (ii) the bilayer hydration, as reported by Laurdan, increases approximately 8 times from the gel phase to the liquid crystalline one, a result that fits with other reports, providing a more realistic description. In addition, we propose a new parameter to globally evaluate Laurdan emission spectra with the prospect of acquiring a larger range of values than the classical "generalized polarization". PMID:23747535

  4. Comparative Modelling of the Spectra of Cool Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lebzelter, T.; Heiter, U.; Abia, C.; Eriksson, K.; Ireland, M.; Neilson, H.; Nowotny, W; Maldonado, J; Merle, T.; Peterson, R.; Plez, B.; Short, C. I.; Wahlgren, G. M.; Worley, C.; Aringer, B.; Bladh, S.; de Laverny, P.; Goswami, A.; Mora, A.; Norris, R. P.; Recio-Blanco, A.; Scholz, M.; Thevenin, F.; Tsuji, T.; Kordopatis, G.

    2012-01-01

    Our ability to extract information from the spectra of stars depends on reliable models of stellar atmospheres and appropriate techniques for spectral synthesis. Various model codes and strategies for the analysis of stellar spectra are available today. Aims. We aim to compare the results of deriving stellar parameters using different atmosphere models and different analysis strategies. The focus is set on high-resolution spectroscopy of cool giant stars. Methods. Spectra representing four cool giant stars were made available to various groups and individuals working in the area of spectral synthesis, asking them to derive stellar parameters from the data provided. The results were discussed at a workshop in Vienna in 2010. Most of the major codes currently used in the astronomical community for analyses of stellar spectra were included in this experiment. Results. We present the results from the different groups, as well as an additional experiment comparing the synthetic spectra produced by various codes for a given set of stellar parameters. Similarities and differences of the results are discussed. Conclusions. Several valid approaches to analyze a given spectrum of a star result in quite a wide range of solutions. The main causes for the differences in parameters derived by different groups seem to lie in the physical input data and in the details of the analysis method. This clearly shows how far from a definitive abundance analysis we still are.

  5. Interpretation of the IR spectra of alkali borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Chekhovskii, V.G.

    1985-11-01

    This paper describes methods of interpretation of the IR spectra of alkali borate glasses. In view of the difficulties which are encountered in a strict interpretation of the IR spectra of crystalline oxygen-containing compounds with complex anions, semiempirical methods of interpretation are commonly used. The existence of glasses of groups with an atomic (ionic) arrangement close to that in the crystalline compounds makes it possible to a certain extent to use the spectra of crystalline compounds in the interpretation of the IR spectra of glasses. The alkali borate glass systems were chosen for this study because the information on their structure is the most detailed by comparison with other borate glasses. IR spectrospcopy showed that the spectral regions in which fundamental asymmetrical stretching vibrations in BO/sub 3/ and BO/sub 4/ polyhedra occur, in most cases, are fairly clearly defined independently of the combined or separate presence of these polyhedra. It is proposed that the bands in the IR spectra of sodium and lithium borate glasses be assigned to vibrations mostly localized on specific fragments of polyborate groups present in the glasses. The data from IR spectroscopy confirms that tetraborate groups are present in lithium borate glasses.

  6. Quantum optimal control of photoelectron spectra and angular distributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goetz, R. Esteban; Karamatskou, Antonia; Santra, Robin; Koch, Christiane P.

    2016-01-01

    Photoelectron spectra and photoelectron angular distributions obtained in photoionization reveal important information on, e.g., charge transfer or hole coherence in the parent ion. Here we show that optimal control of the underlying quantum dynamics can be used to enhance desired features in the photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. To this end, we combine Krotov's method for optimal control theory with the time-dependent configuration interaction singles formalism and a splitting approach to calculate photoelectron spectra and angular distributions. The optimization target can account for specific desired properties in the photoelectron angular distribution alone, in the photoelectron spectrum, or in both. We demonstrate the method for hydrogen and then apply it to argon under strong XUV radiation, maximizing the difference of emission into the upper and lower hemispheres, in order to realize directed electron emission in the XUV regime.

  7. An atlas of ultraviolet spectra of star-forming galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Calzetti, D.; Panagia, N.; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1993-01-01

    A systematic study is presented of the UV spectra of star-forming galaxies of different morphological type and activity class using a sample drawn from a uniformly reduced IUE data set. The spectra for a wide variety of galaxies, including normal spiral, LINER, starburst, blue compact, blue compact dwarf, and Seyfert 2 galaxies, are presented in the form of spectral energy distributions to demonstrate the overall characteristics according to morphology and activity class and in the form of absolute flux distributions to better show the absorption and emission features of individual objects. The data support the picture based on UV spectra of the Orbiting Astronomical Observatory and of the Astronautical Netherlands Satellite that spiral galaxies of later Hubble class have more flux at the shortest UV wavelengths than do spiral galaxies of earlier Hubble class.

  8. High-latitude irregularity spectra deduced from scintillation measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Wernik, A.W.; Gola, M.; Liu, C.H.; Franke, S.J. Illinois Univ., Urbana )

    1990-10-01

    High-latitude scintillation data show that the strength and spectral index of intensity scintillation are dependent on the propagation geometry. It is shown here that anisotropic irregularity spectra, with different indices along and across the magnetic field, lead to geometrical effects similar to those observed. In general, the spectrum along the magnetic field is steeper than that across the field, and the difference is more pronounced for nighttime conditions. Spectral anisotropy can be interpreted as a size-dependent irregularity anisotropy. It is found that large-scale irregularities in the daytime and nighttime ionosphere are almost isotropic, while small-scale irregularities are anisotropic and considerably more so at night than during the day. It is shown that anisotropic irregularity spectra could account for the observed scintillation and in situ temporal spectra with frequency-dependent slope. 26 refs.

  9. Properties of artificial networks evolved to contend with natural spectra.

    PubMed

    Morgenstern, Yaniv; Rostami, Mohammad; Purves, Dale

    2014-07-22

    Understanding why spectra that are physically the same appear different in different contexts (color contrast), whereas spectra that are physically different appear similar (color constancy) presents a major challenge in vision research. Here, we show that the responses of biologically inspired neural networks evolved on the basis of accumulated experience with spectral stimuli automatically generate contrast and constancy. The results imply that these phenomena are signatures of a strategy that biological vision uses to circumvent the inverse optics problem as it pertains to light spectra, and that double-opponent neurons in early-level vision evolve to serve this purpose. This strategy provides a way of understanding the peculiar relationship between the objective world and subjective color experience, as well as rationalizing the relevant visual circuitry without invoking feature detection or image representation. PMID:25024184

  10. An analysis of scattered light in low dispersion IUE spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Basri, G.; Clarke, J. T.; Haisch, B. M.

    1985-01-01

    A detailed numerical simulation of light scattering from the low-resolution grating in the short wavelength spectrograph of the IUE Observatory was developed, in order to quantitatively analyze the effects of scattering on both continuum and line emission spectra. It is found that: (1) the redistribution of light by grating scattering did not appreciably alter either the shape or the absolute flux level of continuum spectra for A-F stars; (2) late-type stellar continua showed a tendency to flatten when observed in scattered light toward the shorter wavelengths; and (3) the effect of grating scattering on emission lines is to decrease measured line intensities by an increasing percentage toward the shorter wavelengths. The spectra obtained from scattering experiments for solar-type and late type stars are reproduced in graphic form.

  11. Properties of artificial networks evolved to contend with natural spectra

    PubMed Central

    Morgenstern, Yaniv; Rostami, Mohammad; Purves, Dale

    2014-01-01

    Understanding why spectra that are physically the same appear different in different contexts (color contrast), whereas spectra that are physically different appear similar (color constancy) presents a major challenge in vision research. Here, we show that the responses of biologically inspired neural networks evolved on the basis of accumulated experience with spectral stimuli automatically generate contrast and constancy. The results imply that these phenomena are signatures of a strategy that biological vision uses to circumvent the inverse optics problem as it pertains to light spectra, and that double-opponent neurons in early-level vision evolve to serve this purpose. This strategy provides a way of understanding the peculiar relationship between the objective world and subjective color experience, as well as rationalizing the relevant visual circuitry without invoking feature detection or image representation. PMID:25024184

  12. Universality of vibrational spectra of globular proteins.

    PubMed

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that the density of modes of the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal, i.e. regardless of the protein in question, it closely follows one universal curve. The present study, including 135 proteins analyzed with a full atomic empirical potential (CHARMM22) and using the full complement of all atoms Cartesian degrees of freedom, goes far beyond previous claims of universality, confirming that universality holds even in the frequency range that is well above 100 cm(-1) (300-4000 cm(-1)), where peaks and turns in the density of states are faithfully reproduced from one protein to the next. We also characterize fluctuations of the spectral density from the average, paving the way to a meaningful discussion of rare, unusual spectra and the structural reasons for the deviations in such 'outlier' proteins. Since the method used for the derivation of the vibrational modes (potential energy formulation, set of degrees of freedom employed, etc) has a dramatic effect on the spectral density, another significant implication of our findings is that the universality can provide an exquisite tool for assessing and improving the quality of potential functions and the quality of various models used for NMA computations. Finally, we show that the input configuration also affects the density of modes, thus emphasizing the importance of simplified potential energy formulations that are minimized at the outset. In summary, our findings call for a serious two-way dialogue between theory and experiment: experimental spectra of proteins could now guide the fine tuning of theoretical empirical potentials, and the various features and peaks observed in theoretical studies--being universal, and hence now rising in importance--would hopefully spur experimental confirmation. PMID:26907186

  13. Detecting the Baryons in Matter Power Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Christopher J.; Nichol, Robert C.; Chen, Xuelei

    2002-11-01

    We examine power spectra from the Abell/ACO rich cluster survey and the Two-Degree Field Galaxy Redshift Survey (2dFGRS) for observational evidence of features produced by the baryons. A nonnegligible baryon fraction produces relatively sharp oscillatory features at specific wavenumbers in the matter power spectrum. However, the mere existence of baryons will also produce a global suppression of the power spectrum. We look for both of these features using the false discovery rate statistic. We show that the window effects on the Abell/ACO power spectrum are minimal, which has allowed for the discovery of discrete oscillatory features in the power spectrum. On the other hand, there are no statistically significant oscillatory features in the 2dFGRS power spectrum, which is expected from the survey's broad window function. After accounting for window effects we apply a scale-independent bias to the 2dFGRS power spectrum, PAbell(k)=b2P2dF(k) and b=3.2. We find that the overall shapes of the Abell/ACO and the biased 2dFGRS power spectra are entirely consistent over the range 0.02<=k<=0.15h Mpc-1. We examine the range of Ωmatter and baryon fraction, for which these surveys could detect significant suppression in power. The reported baryon fractions for both the Abell/ACO and 2dFGRS surveys are high enough to cause a detectable suppression in power (after accounting for errors, windows, and k-space sampling). Using the same technique, we also examine, given the best-fit baryon density obtained from big bang nucleosynthesis, whether it is possible to detect additional suppression due to dark matter-baryon interaction. We find that the limit on dark matter cross section/mass derived from these surveys is the same as those ruled out in a recent study by Chen, Hannestad, & Scherrer.

  14. Universality of vibrational spectra of globular proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Na, Hyuntae; Song, Guang; ben-Avraham, Daniel

    2016-02-01

    It is shown that the density of modes of the vibrational spectrum of globular proteins is universal, i.e. regardless of the protein in question, it closely follows one universal curve. The present study, including 135 proteins analyzed with a full atomic empirical potential (CHARMM22) and using the full complement of all atoms Cartesian degrees of freedom, goes far beyond previous claims of universality, confirming that universality holds even in the frequency range that is well above 100 cm-1 (300-4000 cm-1), where peaks and turns in the density of states are faithfully reproduced from one protein to the next. We also characterize fluctuations of the spectral density from the average, paving the way to a meaningful discussion of rare, unusual spectra and the structural reasons for the deviations in such ‘outlier’ proteins. Since the method used for the derivation of the vibrational modes (potential energy formulation, set of degrees of freedom employed, etc) has a dramatic effect on the spectral density, another significant implication of our findings is that the universality can provide an exquisite tool for assessing and improving the quality of potential functions and the quality of various models used for NMA computations. Finally, we show that the input configuration also affects the density of modes, thus emphasizing the importance of simplified potential energy formulations that are minimized at the outset. In summary, our findings call for a serious two-way dialogue between theory and experiment: experimental spectra of proteins could now guide the fine tuning of theoretical empirical potentials, and the various features and peaks observed in theoretical studies—being universal, and hence now rising in importance—would hopefully spur experimental confirmation.

  15. Prediction of electroencephalographic spectra from neurophysiology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, P. A.; Rennie, C. J.; Wright, J. J.; Bahramali, H.; Gordon, E.; Rowe, D. L.

    2001-02-01

    A recent neurophysical model of propagation of electrical waves in the cortex is extended to include a physiologically motivated subcortical feedback loop via the thalamus. The electroencephalographic spectrum when the system is driven by white noise is then calculated analytically in terms of physiological parameters, including the effects of filtering of signals by the cerebrospinal fluid, skull, and scalp. The spectral power at low frequencies is found to vary as f-1 when awake and f-3 when asleep, with a breakpoint to a steeper power-law tail at frequencies above about 20 Hz in both cases; the f-1 range concurs with recent magnetoencephalographic observations of such a regime. Parameter sensitivities are explored, enabling a model with fewer free parameters to be proposed, and showing that spectra predicted for physiologically reasonable parameter values strongly resemble those observed in the laboratory. Alpha and beta peaks seen near 10 Hz and twice that frequency, respectively, in the relaxed wakeful state are generated via subcortical feedback in this model, thereby leading to predictions of their frequencies in terms of physiological parameters, and of correlations in their occurrence. Subcortical feedback is also predicted to be responsible for production of anticorrelated peaks in deep sleep states that correspond to the occurrence of theta rhythm at around half the alpha frequency and sleep spindles at 3/2 times the alpha frequency. An additional positively correlated waking peak near three times the alpha frequency is also predicted and tentatively observed, as are two new types of sleep spindle near 5/2 and 7/2 times the alpha frequency, and anticorrelated with alpha. These results provide a theoretical basis for the conventional division of EEG spectra into frequency bands, but imply that the exact bounds of these bands depend on the individual. Three types of potential instability are found: one at zero frequency, another in the theta band at around

  16. HF Accelerated Electron Fluxes, Spectra, and Ionization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Herbert C.; Jensen, Joseph B.

    2015-10-01

    Wave particle interactions, an essential aspect of laboratory, terrestrial, and astrophysical plasmas, have been studied for decades by transmitting high power HF radio waves into Earth's weakly ionized space plasma, to use it as a laboratory without walls. Application to HF electron acceleration remains an active area of research (Gurevich in Usp Fizicheskikh Nauk 177(11):1145-1177, 2007) today. HF electron acceleration studies began when plasma line observations proved (Carlson et al. in J Atmos Terr Phys 44:1089-1100, 1982) that high power HF radio wave-excited processes accelerated electrons not to ~eV, but instead to -100 times thermal energy (10 s of eV), as a consequence of inelastic collision effects on electron transport. Gurevich et al (J Atmos Terr Phys 47:1057-1070, 1985) quantified the theory of this transport effect. Merging experiment with theory in plasma physics and aeronomy, enabled prediction (Carlson in Adv Space Res 13:1015-1024, 1993) of creating artificial ionospheres once ~GW HF effective radiated power could be achieved. Eventual confirmation of this prediction (Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 36:L18107, 2009; Pedersen et al. in Geophys Res Lett 37:L02106, 2010; Blagoveshchenskaya et al. in Ann Geophys 27:131-145, 2009) sparked renewed interest in optical inversion to estimate electron spectra in terrestrial (Hysell et al. in J Geophys Res Space Phys 119:2038-2045, 2014) and planetary (Simon et al. in Ann Geophys 29:187-195, 2011) atmospheres. Here we present our unpublished optical data, which combined with our modeling, lead to conclusions that should meaningfully improve future estimates of the spectrum of HF accelerated electron fluxes. Photometric imaging data can significantly improve detection of emissions near ionization threshold, and confirm depth of penetration of accelerated electrons many km below the excitation altitude. Comparing observed to modeled emission altitude shows future experiments need electron density profiles

  17. Incorporating Spectra Into Periodic Timing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connors, Alanna; Hong, J.; Protopapas, P.; Kashyap, V.

    2011-09-01

    The Chandra surveys have resulted in a wealth of data on low-luminosity X-ray sources (Lx 1030-34 erg/s) of Galactic scales beyond the local solar neighborhood. Many of these are compact binaries, in particular, cataclysmic variables, often identified by their periodic X-ray variability and spectra. Hong et al. (2009, 2011) have used energy quantiles (Hong, Schlegel & Grindlay, 2004) as a fast, robust indicator of spectral hardness and absorption of the X-ray sources. Energy quantiles also enable a simple but effective illustration of spectral changes with phase in these periodic systems: e.g. absorption by the accreting material is understood to drive the periodic light-curves. An interesting question is how to best make use of the information encapsulated in the periodic change in energy spectrum, along with the periodic change in intensity, especially for cases of ambiguous period determination? And, how to do it computationally efficiently? A first approach is to do the period search in intensity, as is standard; and then use a criterion of spectral variation to verify possible periods. Huijse, Zegers & Protopapas (2011) recently demonstrated a powerful period estimation technique using information potential and correntropy embedded in the light curve. Similar quantities based on energies (or energy quantiles) of X-ray photons can serve as criteria of spectral variation. A different approach treats the spectrum variations and intensity variations completely independently, searching through period-space in each, and then combining the results. A more general method would include both at the same time, looking for statistically significant variations above what is expected for a constant (in intensity and spectrum).

  18. Raman spectra of organic (myo-inositol hexakis phosphate) and inorganic P sepctra show pH dependence

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding phosphorous fate and transport is in part limited by technical difficulties and/or access to expensive equipment associated with differentiating ortho-phosphate (P) from organic phosphate in complex environmental samples. Myo-inositol hexakis phosphate (IHP) is the most prevalent form...

  19. Action spectrum of photoinhibition in leaves of wild type and npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Sarvikas, Päivi; Hakala, Marja; Pätsikkä, Eija; Tyystjärvi, Taina; Tyystjärvi, Esa

    2006-03-01

    Photoinhibition is light-induced inactivation of PSII. Hypotheses about the photoreceptor(s) of photoinhibition include the Chl antenna of PSII, manganese of the oxygen-evolving complex (OEC), uncoupled Chl and iron-sulfur centres. We measured the action spectrum of photoinhibition in vivo from wild-type Arabidopsis thaliana L. and from the npq1-2 and npq4-1 mutants defective in non-photochemical quenching (NPQ) of excitations of the PSII antenna. The in vivo action spectrum was found to resemble closely the in vitro action spectra published for photoinhibition. We compared the action spectrum with absorbance spectra of model compounds of the OEC complex and other potential photoreceptors of photoinhibition. The comparison suggests that both manganese and Chl function as photoreceptors in photoinhibition. In accordance with the function of two types of photoreceptors in photoinhibition, NPQ was found to offer only partial protection against photoinhibition at visible wavelengths. The low protective efficiency of NPQ supports the conclusion that the Chl antenna of PSII is not the only photoreceptor of photoinhibition. Comparison of the action spectrum of photoinhibition with the emission spectrum of sunlight shows that the UV part of sunlight is responsible for the major part of photoinhibition under natural conditions. PMID:16415063

  20. Use of an improved radiation amplification factor to estimate the effect of total ozone changes on action spectrum weighted irradiances and an instrument response function

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-12-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone Ω, U(Ω/200)-RAF, where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 nm) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  1. Use of an Improved Radiation Amplification Factor to Estimate the Effect of Total Ozone Changes on Action Spectrum Weighted Irradiances and an Instrument Response Function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Herman, Jay R.

    2010-01-01

    Multiple scattering radiative transfer results are used to calculate action spectrum weighted irradiances and fractional irradiance changes in terms of a power law in ozone OMEGA, U(OMEGA/200)(sup -RAF), where the new radiation amplification factor (RAF) is just a function of solar zenith angle. Including Rayleigh scattering caused small differences in the estimated 30 year changes in action spectrum-weighted irradiances compared to estimates that neglect multiple scattering. The radiative transfer results are applied to several action spectra and to an instrument response function corresponding to the Solar Light 501 meter. The effect of changing ozone on two plant damage action spectra are shown for plants with high sensitivity to UVB (280-315 run) and those with lower sensitivity, showing that the probability for plant damage for the latter has increased since 1979, especially at middle to high latitudes in the Southern Hemisphere. Similarly, there has been an increase in rates of erythemal skin damage and pre-vitamin D3 production corresponding to measured ozone decreases. An example conversion function is derived to obtain erythemal irradiances and the UV index from measurements with the Solar Light 501 instrument response function. An analytic expressions is given to convert changes in erythemal irradiances to changes in CIE vitamin-D action spectrum weighted irradiances.

  2. Children's Actions when Experiencing Domestic Violence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overlien, Carolina; Hyden, Margareta

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this article is, by analysing children's discourses, to investigate their actions or absence of actions during a domestic violence episode. The empirical data are recorded group therapy sessions and individual interviews with children who have grown up experiencing their fathers' violence against their mothers. The analysis shows that…

  3. Perceiving Virtual Geographical Slant: Action Influences Perception

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Creem-Regehr, Sarah H.; Gooch, Amy A.; Sahm, Cynthia S.; Thompson, William B.

    2004-01-01

    In 4 experiments, the authors varied the extent and nature of participant movement in a virtual environment to examine the influence of action on estimates of geographical slant. Previous studies showed that people consciously overestimate hill slant but can still accurately guide an action toward the hill (D. R. Proffitt, M. Bhalla, R.…

  4. Negation in the brain: modulating action representations.

    PubMed

    Tettamanti, Marco; Manenti, Rosa; Della Rosa, Pasquale A; Falini, Andrea; Perani, Daniela; Cappa, Stefano F; Moro, Andrea

    2008-11-01

    Sentential negation is a universal syntactic feature of human languages that reverses the truth value expressed by a sentence. An intriguing question concerns what brain mechanisms underlie our ability to represent and understand the meaning of negative sentences. We approach this issue by investigating action-related language processing and the associated neural representations. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging we measured brain activity in 18 healthy subjects during passive listening of sentences characterized by a factorial combination of polarity (affirmative vs. negative) and concreteness (action-related vs. abstract). Negation deactivated cortical areas and the left pallidum. Compared to abstract sentences, action-related sentences activated the left-hemispheric action-representation system. Crucially, the polarity by concreteness interactions showed that the activity within the action-representation system was specifically reduced for negative action-related vs. affirmative action-related sentences (compared to abstract sentences). Accordingly, functional integration within this system as measured by Dynamic Causal Modeling was specifically weaker for negative action-related than for affirmative action-related sentences. This modulation of action representations indicates that sentential negation transiently reduces the access to mental representations of the negated information. PMID:18771737

  5. Playing Action Video Games Improves Visuomotor Control.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Chen, Rongrong; Chen, Jing

    2016-08-01

    Can playing action video games improve visuomotor control? If so, can these games be used in training people to perform daily visuomotor-control tasks, such as driving? We found that action gamers have better lane-keeping and visuomotor-control skills than do non-action gamers. We then trained non-action gamers with action or nonaction video games. After they played a driving or first-person-shooter video game for 5 or 10 hr, their visuomotor control improved significantly. In contrast, non-action gamers showed no such improvement after they played a nonaction video game. Our model-driven analysis revealed that although different action video games have different effects on the sensorimotor system underlying visuomotor control, action gaming in general improves the responsiveness of the sensorimotor system to input error signals. The findings support a causal link between action gaming (for as little as 5 hr) and enhancement in visuomotor control, and suggest that action video games can be beneficial training tools for driving. PMID:27485132

  6. The sharpness of gamma-ray burst prompt emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Hoi-Fung; van Eerten, Hendrik J.; Greiner, Jochen; Sari, Re'em; Narayana Bhat, P.; von Kienlin, Andreas; Paciesas, William S.; Preece, Robert D.

    2015-11-01

    Context. We study the sharpness of the time-resolved prompt emission spectra of gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) observed by the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) on board the Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope. Aims: We aim to obtain a measure of the curvature of time-resolved spectra that can be compared directly to theory. This tests the ability of models such as synchrotron emission to explain the peaks or breaks of GBM prompt emission spectra. Methods: We take the burst sample from the official Fermi GBM GRB time-resolved spectral catalog. We re-fit all spectra with a measured peak or break energy in the catalog best-fit models in various energy ranges, which cover the curvature around the spectral peak or break, resulting in a total of 1113 spectra being analyzed. We compute the sharpness angles under the peak or break of the triangle constructed under the model fit curves and compare them to the values obtained from various representative emission models: blackbody, single-electron synchrotron, synchrotron emission from a Maxwellian or power-law electron distribution. Results: We find that 35% of the time-resolved spectra are inconsistent with the single-electron synchrotron function, and 91% are inconsistent with the Maxwellian synchrotron function. The single temperature, single emission time, and location blackbody function is found to be sharper than all the spectra. No general evolutionary trend of the sharpness angle is observed, neither per burst nor for the whole population. It is found that the limiting case, a single temperature Maxwellian synchrotron function, can only contribute up to % of the peak flux. Conclusions: Our results show that even the sharpest but non-realistic case, the single-electron synchrotron function, cannot explain a large fraction of the observed GRB prompt spectra. Because any combination of physically possible synchrotron spectra added together will always further broaden the spectrum, emission mechanisms other than optically thin

  7. Dust Spectra from Above and Below

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Spectra of martian dust taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer are compared to that of the orbital Mars Global Surveyor's thermal emission spectrometer. The graph shows that the two instruments are in excellent agreement.

    Rover Senses Carbon Dioxide [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This graph, consisting of data acquired on Mars from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, shows the light, or spectral, signature of carbon dioxide. Carbon dioxide makes up the bulk of the thin martian atmosphere.

    Rover Senses Silicates [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This graph, consisting of data acquired on Mars by the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, shows the light, or spectral, signature of silicates - a group of minerals that form the majority of Earth's crust. Minerals called feldspars and zeolites are likely candidates responsible for this feature.

    Rover Senses Bound Water [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This graph, consisting of data acquired on Mars from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, shows the light, or spectral, signature of an as-of-yet unidentified mineral that contains bound water in its crystal structure. Minerals such as gypsum and zeolites are possible candidates.

    Rover Senses Carbonates [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Click on image for larger view

    This graph, consisting of data from the Mars Exploration Rover Spirit's mini-thermal emission spectrometer, shows the light, or spectral, signatures of carbonates - minerals common to Earth that form only in water. The detection of trace amounts of carbonates on Mars may be due to an interaction between the water vapor in the atmosphere and minerals on the surface.

  8. Doppler-shifting effects on frequency spectra of gravity waves observed near the summer mesopause at high latitude

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fritts, David C.; Wang, Ding-Yi

    1991-01-01

    Results are presented of radar observations of horizontal and vertical velocities near the summer mesopause at Poker Flat (Alaska), showing that the observed vertical velocity spectra were influenced strongly by Doppler-shifting effects. The horizontal velocity spectra, however, were relatively insensitive to horizontal wind speed. The observed spectra are compared with predicted spectra for various models of the intrinsic motion spectrum and degrees of Doppler shifting.

  9. Data on the characterization and anticancer action of iron(II) polypyridyl complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jingjing; Luo, Zuandi; Zhao, Zhennan; Xie, Lina; Zheng, Wenjie; Chen, Tianfeng

    2016-09-01

    This data article contains complementary figures and results related to the research article entitled, "Cellular localization of iron(II) polypyridyl complexes determines their anticancer action mechanisms" [1] (Chen et al., 2015). The characterization of Fe(II) complexes by ESI-MS, (1)H NMR, (13)C NMR spectroscopy, FT-IR spectra, UV-vis spectra was provided. Also,the data for the stability of Fe(II) complexes 1-5 in DMSO/Milli-Q water/ culture medium (without serum or phenol red) at 37 °C at different periods of time by UV-vis spectra and (1)H NMR was showed. At the same time, the anticancer efficacy, cellular distribution and ROS generation in MCF-7 cells of complexes are reported. In addition, we also show the cellular localization of complex 4, the relative fluorescence intensity of complex 1 and complex 3 pretreated with anti-TfR (2 μg/mL) in MCF-7 cells using flow cytometry. The compilation of this data provides an invaluable resource for the wider research community and the interpretation of these data could be found in the research article noted above. PMID:27453925

  10. Spectra of the Jovian ring and Amalthea

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neugebauer, G.; Becklin, E. E.; Jewitt, D. C.; Danielson, G. E.; Terrile, R. J.

    1981-01-01

    Measurements made between 0.887 and 2.4 microns demonstrate that the Jovian ring and Amalthea have similar reflection spectra. The spectra, in particular the ratio of the 0.9- to 2.2-micron reflectivities, are inconsistent with those expected from water, ammonia, or methane frosts, but are consistent with reflection from large rock bodies.

  11. Heavy primary spectra observed by RUNJOB

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apanasenko, A. V.; Beresovskaya, V. A.; Fujii, M.; Galkin, V. I.; Hareyama, M.; Ichimura, M.; Ito, S.; Kamioka, E.; Kitami, T.; Kobayashi, T.; Kopenkin, V. V.; Kuramata, S.; Kuriyama, T.; Lapshin, V. I.; Managadze, A. K.; Matsutani, H.; Mikami, H.; Misnikova, N. P.; Mukhamedshin, R. A.; Namiki, M.; Nanjo, H.; Nazarov, S. N.; Nikolsky, S. I.; Oe, T.; Ohta, S.; Osedlo, V. I.; Oshuev, D. S.; Publichenko, P. A.; Rakobolskaya, I. V.; Roganova, T. M.; Saito, M.; Sazhina, G. P.; Semba, H.; Shabanova, Yu. N.; Shibata, T.; Sugimoto, H.; Sveshnikova, L. G.; Takahashi, K.; Tsutiya, T.; Taran, V. M.; Yajima, N.; Yamagami, T.; Yamamoto, K.; Yashin, I. V.; Zamchalova, E. A.; Zatsepin, G. T.; Zayarnaya, I. S.

    2001-08-01

    RUssian Nippon JOint Balloon (RUNJOB) has been observing the primary spectra of cosmic ray nuclei since 1995. Data from 6 out of 10 succesful flights will be used to report the spectra of heavy primaries up to iron nucleus with the energy range more than 1014 eV/particle. The details of analysis like charge and energy determinations will be also given.

  12. (abstract) Spectra of Comet Hale-Bopp

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hanner, M. S.; Hayward, T. L.; Lynch, D. K.; Russell, R. W.

    1996-01-01

    The spectra of Hale-Bopp were acquired in mid-1996 at R > 3.5 AU. Strong silicate emission is present in all the spectra. The shape of the feature is very similar to that seen in comet P/Halley. This is the first time that a strong silicate feature has been detected in a comet beyond 2 AU.

  13. COMPUTER INTERPRETATION OF POLLUTANT MASS SPECTRA

    EPA Science Inventory

    The objective of this research was to improve systems for computer examination of the mass spectra of unknown pollutants. For this we have developed a new probability based matching (PBM) system for the retrieval of mass spectra from a large data base, and have substantially impr...

  14. Are judgments for action verbs and point-light human actions equivalent?

    PubMed

    Bidet-Ildei, Christel; Toussaint, Lucette

    2015-02-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine whether the ability to judge action words and the ability to judge human actions share common mechanisms. With this purpose in mind, we proposed both a lexical and an action decision task to twenty-four healthy participants. For both tasks, the participants had to judge whether the stimulus that was presented (a letter string or a point-light sequence) was valid or not (i.e. a word vs. a pseudo-word, an action vs. a pseudo-action). The data analysis showed that the action decision task has common characteristics with the lexical decision task. As for verbal material, judgements of pseudo-actions were slower than judgements for actions. Moreover, we demonstrated that the ability to judge an action verb was positively correlated with the ability to judge a point-light human action, whereas no significant correlation appeared between nouns and point-light judgements abilities. This dissociation supports the argument that the judgement of action words and the judgement of human actions share a common but specific basis through the involvement of motor representations. PMID:25238900

  15. Habits as action sequences: hierarchical action control and changes in outcome value

    PubMed Central

    Dezfouli, Amir; Lingawi, Nura W.; Balleine, Bernard W.

    2014-01-01

    Goal-directed action involves making high-level choices that are implemented using previously acquired action sequences to attain desired goals. Such a hierarchical schema is necessary for goal-directed actions to be scalable to real-life situations, but results in decision-making that is less flexible than when action sequences are unfolded and the decision-maker deliberates step-by-step over the outcome of each individual action. In particular, from this perspective, the offline revaluation of any outcomes that fall within action sequence boundaries will be invisible to the high-level planner resulting in decisions that are insensitive to such changes. Here, within the context of a two-stage decision-making task, we demonstrate that this property can explain the emergence of habits. Next, we show how this hierarchical account explains the insensitivity of over-trained actions to changes in outcome value. Finally, we provide new data that show that, under extended extinction conditions, habitual behaviour can revert to goal-directed control, presumably as a consequence of decomposing action sequences into single actions. This hierarchical view suggests that the development of action sequences and the insensitivity of actions to changes in outcome value are essentially two sides of the same coin, explaining why these two aspects of automatic behaviour involve a shared neural structure. PMID:25267824

  16. Embracing causality in specifying the indeterminate effects of actions

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, F.

    1996-12-31

    This paper makes the following two contributions to formal theories of actions: Showing that a causal minimization framework can be used effectively to specify the effects of indeterminate actions; and showing that for certain classes of such actions, regression, an effective computational mechanism, can be used to reason about them.

  17. High-resolution Visible Spectra of Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Chae Kyung; Kim, S.

    2006-09-01

    We have obtained high-resolution (R 30,000) spectra of Titan between 4,000 and 10,000 A on Feb. 23, 2005 (UT) using an optical echelle spectrograph (BOES) on the 1.8-m telescope at Bohyunsan Observatory, Korea. The raw Titan spectra contain telluric and solar absorption/emission lines. We used Kitt Peak solar atlases to remove the solar lines effectively. We also constructed synthetic spectra for the atmosphere of Titan including haze layers and utilizing laboratory spectra of CH4 available in literature. Preliminary results on the identifications of weak CH4 lines and on the derived opacities of the haze layers will be presented. Since the observations were carried out near the activities of Cassini observations of Titan, these high-resolution visible spectra are complementary to Cassini/VIMS imagery.

  18. Dolphin shows and interaction programs: benefits for conservation education?

    PubMed

    Miller, L J; Zeigler-Hill, V; Mellen, J; Koeppel, J; Greer, T; Kuczaj, S

    2013-01-01

    Dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs are two types of education programs within zoological institutions used to educate visitors about dolphins and the marine environment. The current study examined the short- and long-term effects of these programs on visitors' conservation-related knowledge, attitude, and behavior. Participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs demonstrated a significant short-term increase in knowledge, attitudes, and behavioral intentions. Three months following the experience, participants of both dolphin shows and interaction programs retained the knowledge learned during their experience and reported engaging in more conservation-related behaviors. Additionally, the number of dolphin shows attended in the past was a significant predictor of recent conservation-related behavior suggesting that repetition of these types of experiences may be important in inspiring people to conservation action. These results suggest that both dolphin shows and dolphin interaction programs can be an important part of a conservation education program for visitors of zoological facilities. PMID:22622768

  19. Seeing Through the Clouds: Thermal Emission and Reflected Light Spectra of Super-Earths with Flat Transmission Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morley, Caroline; Fortney, Jonathan J.; Marley, Mark; Zahnle, Kevin; Line, Michael R.; Kempton, Eliza M.-R.; Lewis, Nikole K.; Cahoy, Kerri

    2015-12-01

    Vast resources have been dedicated to characterizing the handful of planets with radii between Earth’s and Neptune’s that are accessible to current telescopes. Observations of their transmission spectra have been inconclusive and do not constrain their atmospheric compositions. Of the planets smaller than Neptune studied to date, all have radii in the near-infrared consistent with being constant in wavelength, likely showing that these small planets are consistently enshrouded in thick hazes and clouds. We explore the types of clouds and hazes that can completely obscure transmission spectra and find that very thick, lofted clouds of salts or sulfides in high metallicity (1000× solar) atmospheres create featureless transmission spectra in the near-infrared. Photochemical hazes with a range of particle sizes also create featureless transmission spectra at lower metallicities.We present a path forward for understanding this class of small planets: by understanding the thermal emission and reflectivity of small planets, we can break the degeneracies and better constrain the atmospheric compositions. Cloudy thermal emission spectra have muted features more like blackbodies, and hazy thermal emission spectra have emission features caused by an inversion layer at altitudes where the haze forms. Analysis of reflected light from warm (~400-800 K) planets can distinguish cloudy planets, which have moderate albedos (Ag=0.05-0.20), from hazy planets, which are very dark (Ag=0.0-0.03). Reflected light spectra of cold planets (~200 K) accessible to a space-based visible light coronagraph may be the key to understanding small planets: they will have high albedos and large molecular features that actually allow them to be more easily characterized than the warmer transiting planets. We suggest a number of complementary observations to characterize super Earths, including transmission spectra of hot (~1000 K) targets, thermal emission spectra of warm targets using the James

  20. Development of site-specific earthquake response spectra for eastern US sites

    SciTech Connect

    Beavers, J.E.; Brock, W.R.; Hunt, R.J.; Shaffer, K.E.

    1993-08-01

    Site-specific earthquake, uniform-hazard response spectra have been defined for the Department of Energy Oak Ridge, Tennessee, and Portsmouth, Ohio, sites for use in evaluating existing facilities and designing new facilities. The site-specific response spectra were defined from probabilistic and deterministic seismic hazard studies following the requirements in DOE-STD-1024-92, ``Guidelines for Probabilistic Seismic Hazard Curves at DOE Sites.` For these two sites, the results show that site-specific uniform-hazard response spectra are slightly higher in the high-frequency range and considerably lower in the low-frequency range compared with response spectra defined for these sites in the past.

  1. Simulations of Two-dimensional Infrared and Stimulated Resonance Raman Spectra of Photoactive Yellow Protein

    PubMed Central

    Preketes, Nicholas K; Biggs, Jason D; Ren, Hao; Andricioaei, Ioan; Mukamel, Shaul

    2012-01-01

    We present simulations of one and two-dimensional infrared (2DIR) and stimulated resonance Raman (SRR) spectra of the dark state (pG) and early red-shifted intermediate (pR) of photoactive yellow protein (PYP). Shifts in the amide I and Glu46 COOH stretching bands distinguish between pG and pR in the IR absorption and 2DIR spectra. The one-dimensional SRR spectra are similar to the spontaneous RR spectra. The two-dimensional SRR spectra show large changes in cross peaks involving the C=O stretch of the two species and are more sensitive to the chromophore structure than 2DIR spectra. PMID:24244064

  2. Estimations of model parameters for gravity wave spectra observed by MST radar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scheffler, A. O.; Liu, C. H.; Franke, S. J.

    1989-01-01

    The general theory of MST radar observations of gravity wave spectra is developed. This effort extends the previous results to include anisotropy and Doppler effects for the spectra, as well as the consequences for the multibeam configuration. The relationships between the observed one- or two-dimensional spectra for the line-of-sight velocity in the gravity wave spectra are derived. Expressions for cross spectra, as well as covariances between velocities observed on different beams, are computed. Using these results, studies are carried out to show how model parameters for gravity wave spectra can be estimated from the observed quantities. Model parameters include the variance, power law indices, anisotropy parameters, Doppler parameters, mean scale sizes, etc. Cases with different numbers of beams are investigated.

  3. An ultraviolet atlas of quasar and blazar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinney, A. L.; Bohlin, R. C.; Blades, J. C.; York, D. G.

    1991-01-01

    An atlas is presented which provides a uniformly extracted and calibrated set of over 1000 UV spectra of the highest possible SNR for quasars and blazars observed with the IUE. The spectra show that quasars and blazars vary more in the UV than in the optical, and show increasing variability toward shorter wavelengths. The low-redshift quasars have Ly-alpha emission lines dominated by strong, narrow components, while high-redshift quasars seem to lack such narrow components. Absorption by gas in the Galaxy is ubiquitous in strong interstellar lines of C II, O I, Si II, Mg II, and Fe II. Of special note is the detection of Fe II and Mg II absorption due to gas associated with NGC3067 in the quasar 3C 232. Over 20 percent of the combined quasar and Seyfert 1 sample show either associated absorption or absorption just shortward of the emission redshift.

  4. Climatic Spectra of Extreme Sea States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boukhanovsky, A.; Lopatoukhin, L.; Sas'kov, K.

    Climatic variability of sea waves is described in the terms of statistical ensemble of directional spectra, dependent from spatial coordinates (x,y) and time t. The major probabilistic characteristics of the ensemble are the climatic spectra, i.e. spectra ap- propriate to certain wavemaking conditions with certain probability. Traditionally the definition of climatic wave spectra is based on a buoy measurements in a point. How- ever such data are restricted, and are unsuitable for estimation of climatic spectra of extreme waves with return period up to 100 years or longer. Hindcasting of statistical ensemble of spectra by mean of some numerical model allows to expand the informa- tion base significantly. In this report the approach to analysis and synthesis of climatic spectra, corresponding to extreme sea states, is proposed. The Barents sea is consid- ered as an example. A set of 43800 directional spectra of wind sea and swell (1970- 1999, every 6 hours) for any of 565 points of regular grid 0.50x1.50 are calculated. Numerical wave model Wave Watch III for computation on the parallel supercomputer Parsytec CC/20 was used. The NCEP/NCAR reanalysis wind fields were used as input data. Statistical analysis of computed spectra allows to separate a set of genetic types appropriate to various stable sea states. For each of types the system of parameters as discriminant variables are proposed. Probabilistic values of these parameters allows to approximate the probabilistic characteristic of all the spectra ensemble in terms of non-random function of random arguments. It allows to synthesize the results of the analysis in terms of multiscale stochastic model of spectral wave climate, with tak- ing into account the temporal nonstationary and spatial inhomogeneity of wave fields. The Monte-Carlo approach is employed for stochastic simulation. Stochastic simu- lation proves the extrapolation procedure for climatic spectra of rare (extreme) sea states. Specific climatic wave

  5. Action Learning in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquardt, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Action learning was introduced into China less than 20 years ago, but has rapidly become a valuable tool for organizations seeking to solve problems, develop their leaders, and become learning organizations. This article provides an historical overview of action learning in China, its cultural underpinnings, and five case studies. It concludes…

  6. Who Needs Affirmative Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ginger, Ann Fagan

    1979-01-01

    Affirmative action and reverse discrimination are discussed. Facts that were omitted from the court record on the Bakke case are examined. The need for encouraging minority students and women to continue to press for school admission and for lawyers to continue to press affirmative action suits is stressed. (MC)

  7. Affirmative Action in Israel.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lerner, Natan

    This paper examines issues of equality, discrimination, affirmative action, and preferential treatment in Israel. An introduction provides a broad outline of topics addressed in the paper: the status of the Jewish sector, with treatment of Jewish immigrants to serve as an example of affirmative action; the policies of the state in relation to the…

  8. Community-Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell, Sarah; Mattern, Mark; Telin, Mike

    2007-01-01

    This paper describes and analyzes an undergraduate course entitled Public Interest Research in which students learn research methods by conducting research on behalf of one or more community organizations. Students' work is conceived of as community action learning, a combination of participatory action research and service learning, emphasizing…

  9. Social Action Art Therapy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Deborah

    2005-01-01

    This paper explores intersections among art, action, and community. It describes sociopolitical aspects of the author's art therapy work with survivors of repressive regimes living in Brazil, China, and Denmark and considers ways that unique historical and social processes influenced her conceptualization and practice of social action art therapy.

  10. Training for Nonviolent Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Theodore W.; Shivers, Lynne

    The theory and practice of nonviolent action training as it exists to date are reviewed in this pamphlet. A response to a renewal of interest in alternative forms of social action, the pamphlet results specifically from an international seminar of experienced organizers and trainers held at Preston Patrick, Westmorland, England, June 27 - July 2,…

  11. Renormalized action improvements

    SciTech Connect

    Zachos, C.

    1984-01-01

    Finite lattice spacing artifacts are suppressed on the renormalized actions. The renormalized action trajectories of SU(N) lattice gauge theories are considered from the standpoint of the Migdal-Kadanoff approximation. The minor renormalized trajectories which involve representations invariant under the center are discussed and quantified. 17 references.

  12. Action Research and Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foreman-Peck, Lorraine; Murray, Jane

    2008-01-01

    This article examines the relationship between action research and policy and the kind of confidence teachers, policy makers and other potential users may have in such research. Many published teacher action research accounts are criticised on the grounds that they do not fully meet the conventional standards for reporting social scientific…

  13. Affirmative Action Report, 1992.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nevada Univ. and Community Coll. System, Reno. Office of the Chancellor.

    All campuses and units of the University and Community College System of Nevada annually submit data to the Chancellor's Office on affirmative action. This report provides tables of affirmative action data for students enrolled during fall 1992 and professional and classified staff employed during 1992. First, student data is provided on gender…

  14. Handbook for Ecology Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eber, Ronald

    This handbook has been compiled to aid concerned individuals and ecology groups more adequately define their goals, initiate good programs, and take effective action. It examines the ways a group of working individuals can become involved in action programs for ecological change. Part 1 deals with organization, preliminary organizing, structuring,…

  15. ACTION. Annual Report 1974.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ACTION, Washington, DC.

    In this report are described projects and activities undertaken by ACTION's volunteer programs in 1974. After an introduction that notes accomplishments of the past year, a review of domestic operations discusses such programs as VISTA, University Year for ACTION, National Student Volunteer Program, Foster Grandparent Program, and others according…

  16. Identification of isolated NO lines in balloon-borne infrared solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murcray, F. J.; Goldman, A.; Murcray, D. G.; Cook, G. R.; Van Allen, J. W.; Blatherwick, R. D.

    1980-01-01

    Ballon-borne infrared solar spectra at about 0.02/cm resolution show a number of atmospheric NO lines isolated from other atmospheric and solar lines in the 1830-1930/cm region. Typical spectra are presented and NO total column values are derived.

  17. 34 CFR 668.83 - Emergency action.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... limitation, suspension, or termination proceeding under this part or under 34 CFR part 600 against the... or revocation by the show-cause official, does not bar subsequent emergency action on a ground...

  18. Following the Action in Action Learning: Towards Ethnomethodological Studies of (Critical) Action Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fox, Steve

    2009-01-01

    Action learning is a pedagogical practice that helps participants learn by talking about their workplace action with fellow participants ("comrades in adversity") in their action learning set. This paper raises questions about the action in action learning, such as: how do members of an action learning set learn from and through each other? How do…

  19. Use of mutation spectra analysis software.

    PubMed

    Rogozin, I; Kondrashov, F; Glazko, G

    2001-02-01

    The study and comparison of mutation(al) spectra is an important problem in molecular biology, because these spectra often reflect on important features of mutations and their fixation. Such features include the interaction of DNA with various mutagens, the function of repair/replication enzymes, and properties of target proteins. It is known that mutability varies significantly along nucleotide sequences, such that mutations often concentrate at certain positions, called "hotspots," in a sequence. In this paper, we discuss in detail two approaches for mutation spectra analysis: the comparison of mutation spectra with a HG-PUBL program, (FTP: sunsite.unc.edu/pub/academic/biology/dna-mutations/hyperg) and hotspot prediction with the CLUSTERM program (www.itba.mi.cnr.it/webmutation; ftp.bionet.nsc.ru/pub/biology/dbms/clusterm.zip). Several other approaches for mutational spectra analysis, such as the analysis of a target protein structure, hotspot context revealing, multiple spectra comparisons, as well as a number of mutation databases are briefly described. Mutation spectra in the lacI gene of E. coli and the human p53 gene are used for illustration of various difficulties of such analysis. PMID:11180592

  20. About efficiency of identification of materials using spectrum dynamics of medium response under the action of THz radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trofimov, Vyacheslav A.; Varentsova, Svetlana A.

    2009-05-01

    A method, suggested by us earlier for identification of materials with close spectra in terahertz range of frequencies and based on the analysis of medium response spectral lines dynamics, is verified experimentally. The temporal dynamics of spectral lines allows to determine relaxation time of rotational transitions as well. A question about measurement time, that is sufficient for determining of material response characteristic time, is discussed. To demonstrate the efficiency of proposed method, we treat the response of soap and chocolate under the action of terahertz pulse with a few cycles. Our investigation shows that it is possible to identify these materials with high probability.

  1. Electronic spectra of semiconductor nanocrystals

    SciTech Connect

    Alivisatos, A.P.

    1993-12-31

    Semiconductor nanocrystals smaller than the bulk exciton show substantial quantum confinement effects. Recent experiments including Stark effect, resonance Raman, valence band photoemission, and near edge X-ray adsorption will be used to put together a picture of the nanocrystal electronic states.

  2. Near-infrared spectra of ferrous mineral mixtures and methods for their identification in planetary surface spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horgan, Briony H. N.; Cloutis, Edward A.; Mann, Paul; Bell, James F.

    2014-05-01

    Iron-bearing minerals are a major component of planetary surfaces, and many can be identified by their characteristic absorption bands in the near-infrared (NIR). Here we present laboratory NIR spectra of a wide range of common Fe-bearing minerals (e.g., olivines, pyroxenes), glasses, and mineral/glass mixtures. We then use this suite of spectra to evaluate the effects of mixtures on mineral detection methods, including olivine and pyroxene spectral indices developed for the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. We find that although these indices can be compromised by minerals with atypical compositions, mineral mixtures, and the presence of other ferrous minerals, these issues can generally be mitigated by visual inspection of the spectra. However, a special case occurs when the mineral or mixture in question is spectrally indistinguishable from a more common mineral. In particular, we show that spectra of high-calcium pyroxene mixed with Fe-bearing glass can be virtually indistinguishable from common Fe-bearing olivine compositions. This effect, combined with the fact that Fe-bearing glass is generally much more difficult to detect than other ferrous minerals, may be causing glass occurrences on planetary surfaces to be underreported. In support of this hypothesis, we use Mars Express OMEGA observations to show that previous olivine detections in the north polar sand sea on Mars are actually more consistent with local mixing of glass and pyroxene. To address these issues, we present an alternative ferrous mineral identification method based on the position and shape of the 1 and 2 μm iron absorption bands, which are sensitive to mineralogy, composition, and mineral mixtures in planetary surface spectra, including glass and mixtures with glass. Using Chandrayaan-1 Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) observations of Aristarchus Crater on the Moon, we show that these band parameters can reveal subtle spectral

  3. Numbers in Action

    PubMed Central

    Rugani, Rosa; Sartori, Luisa

    2016-01-01

    Humans show a remarkable tendency to describe and think of numbers as being placed on a mental number line (MNL), with smaller numbers located on the left and larger ones on the right. Faster responses to small numbers are indeed performed on the left side of space, while responses to large numbers are facilitated on the right side of space (spatial-numerical association of response codes, SNARC effect). This phenomenon is considered the experimental demonstration of the MNL and has been extensively replicated throughout a variety of paradigms. Nevertheless, the majority of previous literature has mainly investigated this effect by means of response times and accuracy, whereas studies considering more subtle and automatic measures such as kinematic parameters are rare (e.g., in a reaching-to-grasp movement, the grip aperture is enlarged in responding to larger numbers than in responding to small numbers). In this brief review we suggest that numerical magnitude can also affect the what and how of action execution (i.e., temporal and spatial components of movement). This evidence could have large implications in the strongly debated issue concerning the effect of experience and culture on the orientation of MNL. PMID:27524965

  4. Pharmacogenetics of FSH action

    PubMed Central

    Laan, Maris; Grigorova, Marina; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose of the review To review the current knowledge of genetic variants in the two genes affecting the individual responsiveness to follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) action—the FSH beta-subunit (FSHB) and the FSH receptor (FSHR), as well as the pharmacogenetic ramifications of the findings. Recent findings Four common variants in FSHB/FSHR were shown to exhibit significant effect on FSH action: linked FSHR variants Thr307Ala and Asn680Ser determining common receptorisoforms, andgene expression affecting polymorphisms FSHR –29G/A and FSHB–211G/T. In women, the FSHR Thr307Ala/Asn680Ser polymorphisms show consistent predictive value for estimating the most optimal rFSH dosage in controlled ovarian hyperstimulation(COH).The same variants exhibit a potential for the pharmacogenetic assessment of the treatment ofPCOS. The FSHR–29G/A variant was also shown to contribute to ovarian response to COH. Pilot studies have suggestedthe FSHB–211TT-homozygous oligozoospermicmen with genetically determined low concentration of FSH, as potentially the best responders to FSH treatment; furthermore, modulation of this response by FSHR polymorphisms is possible. Summary Genetic variants in FSHB/FSHRexhibit a potential for pharmacogenetic applications in selecting appropriate treatment options (timing and dosage) in male and female conditions requiring or benefitting from FSH therapy. PMID:22499219

  5. Less chalk more action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitriceski Andelkovic, Bojana; Jovic, Sladjana

    2016-04-01

    Less chalk more action Education should not be a mechanical system that operates according to the principles of the orders and implementation. Education should respect the basic laws of the develop and progress. Curiosity is the engine of achievement and children spontaneously and happily learn only if they get interested, if teacher wake up and stimulate their creativity and individuality. We would like to present classes that are realized as thematic teaching with several subjects involved: chemistry, geography, math, art and biology. Classes were organized for students at age from 10 to 13 years, every month during autumn and winter 2015. Better students identified themselves as teachers and presented peer education .Teachers were monitoring the process of teaching and help to develop links between younger and older students, where older students were educators to younger students. Also one student with special needs was involved in this activities and was supported by other students during the workshops The benefit from this project will be represented with evaluation marks. Evaluation table shows that group of ten students(age 10 to13 years) which are selected in October as children with lack of motivation for learning, got better marks, at the end of January , then they had it in the beginning of the semester.

  6. Analysis of atmospheric spectra for trace gases

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rinsland, Curtis P.; Seals, Robert K., Jr.; Smith, Mary Ann H.; Goldman, Aaron; Murcray, David G.; Murcray, Frank J.

    1990-01-01

    The objective is the comprehensive analysis of high resolution atmospheric spectra recorded in the middle-infrared region to obtain simultaneous measurements of coupled parameters (gas concentrations of key trace constituents, total column amounts, pressure, and temperature) in the stratosphere and upper troposphere. Solar absorption spectra recorded at 0.002 and 0.02 cm exp -1 resolutions with the University of Denver group's balloon-borne, aircraft borne, and ground-based interferometers and 0.005 to 0.01 cm exp -1 resolution solar spectra from Kitt Peak are used in the analyses.

  7. Negative Ion Photoelectron Spectra of Halomethyl Anions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogelhuber, Kristen M.; Wren, Scott W.; McCoy, Anne B.; Ervin, Kent M.; Lineberger, W. Carl

    2009-06-01

    Halomethyl anions undergo a significant geometry change upon electron photodetachment, resulting in multiple extended vibrational progressions in the photoelectron spectra. The normal mode analysis that successfully models photoelectron spectra when geometry changes are modest is unable to reproduce the experimental data using physically reasonable parameters. A three-dimensional anharmonic coupled-mode analysis was employed to accurately reproduce the observed vibrational structure. We present the 364 nm negative ion photoelectron spectra of the halomethyl anions CHX_2^- and CDX_2^- (X = Cl, Br, I) and report electron affinities, vibrational frequencies, and geometries.

  8. Planning my actions to accommodate yours: joint action development during early childhood.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Marlene; van der Wel, Robrecht P R D; Hunnius, Sabine

    2016-05-01

    The planning and adjusting of one's actions in relation to an action partner is fundamental to smooth joint action. During their first years of life, children gradually become more engaged in joint actions. Here, we investigated whether and at what age children take their partner into account in their action plans to accommodate the other's actions. We focused on children's proactive planning (without prior experience) and flexible adjustment of action plans over time. In a behavioural study, we tested 96 children from four age groups (2½, 3, 3½ and 5 years) in a joint cup-stacking task. Children passed cups to their partner who had only one hand available (alternating over time) to build a tower. Children's response choices were assessed (i.e. passing the cup on the free or occupied side to their partner). The study yielded two major findings. At all ages, children proactively planned their actions in a way that accommodated their partner's actions. However, only by 3½ years did children start to flexibly integrate their partner into their action plans. Even at age 5, children only showed minimal adjustments to their action partner. Candidate processes underlying these developmental changes (e.g. inhibitory control, cognitive flexibility, perspective taking) are discussed. PMID:27069048

  9. Absorption spectra of irradiated XRCT radiochromic film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Butson, Martin J.; Cheung, Tsang; Yu, Peter K. N.

    2006-06-01

    Gafchromic XRCT radiochromic film is a self-developing high sensitivity radiochromic film product which can be used for assessment of delivered radiation doses which could match applications such as computed tomography (CT) dosimetry. The film automatically changes colour upon irradiation changing from a yellow to green/brown colour. The absorption spectra of Gafchromic XRCT radiochromic film as measured with reflectance spectrophotometry have been investigated to analyse the dosimetry characteristics of the film. Results show two main absorption peaks produced from irradiation located at 636 nm and 585 nm. This is similar to EBT Gafchromic film. A high level of sensitivity is found for this film with a 1 cGy applied dose producing an approximate net optical density change of 0.3 at 636 nm. This high sensitivity combined with its relatively energy independent nature around the 100 kVp to 150 kVp x-ray energy range provides a unique enhancement in dosimetric measurement capabilities over currently available dosimetry films for CT applications.

  10. Estimating Shock Spectra: Extensions beyond GEVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Igusa, Takeru; Maahs, Gordon L.

    2008-01-01

    Shock response spectra (SRS) are the standard description of some vibration environments on spacecraft for equipment qualification. For shock events produced by pyrotechnic devices, SRS can have significant frequency content as high as 10 kHz. It is difficult to construct and analyze finite element models that can resolve dynamic behavior at such high frequencies. GEVS provides simple, empirically based methods for approximating the SRS for a wide variety of shock events. It begins with a base SRS according to the type of pyrotechnic device, and then provides attenuation relations to adjust this SRS according to distance from the shock source, the type of structural frame and the properties of any structural joints between the source and equipment. In our paper we extend GEVS to include more detailed information about the spacecraft structure. To retain the general framework of GEVS, we begin with a base SRS and adjust this SRS using attenuation relations. We use modal and traveling wave concepts to derive the attenuation relations for simple canonical structures. Then we show how these concepts can be used to analyze more complex structures using finite element mode shapes to explicitly calculate the attenuation factors. Since the low- to mid-frequency finite element modal information is extrapolated to obtain the low- to high-frequency attenuation relations, the resulting attenuated SRS is formulated as an upper bound rather than as mean predicted values. We illustrate the extended GEVS approach by analyzing the impact response of composite tubes and the shock response of the STEREO spacecraft.

  11. Research on fluorescence spectra of cancer blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Kunxiang; He, Wenliang; Zhao, Wenyan; Liu, Ying

    2007-11-01

    The fluorescence spectral characteristic of tumor blood was studied by laser-induced fluorescence technology, and compared with the fluorescence spectra of the same type healthy mice blood, the differences between them are distinct. When the whole blood solutions were induced by 407nm laser, they radiate fluorescence band from 420nm to 750 nm, which spectral peak located at 620nm. In high concentration solutions (blood concentration is higher than 4%), the fluorescence intensity are lower than normal blood, but in those low concentration solutions (blood concentration is lower than 2%) the fluorescence intensity of the tumor blood are higher than the normal ones. It is analyzed that the change of the fluorescence characteristic between the tumor blood and the normal is caused by the concentration difference of the tumor identification-porphyrin. The experimental results showed that the obvious difference of the fluorescence spectral characteristic between the forepart tumor and normal blood can offer some value assistance to clinical diagnosis on cancer.

  12. Complex permeability spectra of permendur composite materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kasagi, Teruhiro; Tsutaoka, Takanori; Hatakeyama, Kenichi

    2010-01-01

    Complex permeability μ* and permittivity epsilon* spectra of permendur (Co50Fe50) composite materials have been studied in the microwave frequency range considering the application to the left-handed meta-materials and EMC devices. High surface electrical resistance of the permendur particles was achieved by the heat-treatment in order to suppress the eddy current effect in the high particle content composites. For the 82.6 vol.% composite, the μ' is 11 and less than 1 at 100 MHz and 6 GHz, respectively; the μ'' shows the two peaks around 700 MHz and 3GHz due to the domain wall and gyromagnetic spin resonance. On the other hand, the epsilon' is almost constant value of 28 and the epsilon'' is almost zero in the frequency range from 100 MHz to 6 GHz. The calculated reflection loss of a single-layer electromagnetic wave absorber (EM absorber) designed by using permendur composites indicates less than -20 dB around the matching frequency of 1 GHz.

  13. Similarity of actions depends on the functionality of previously observed actions.

    PubMed

    Naber, Marnix; Eijgermans, Wessel; Herman, Anne-Sophie; Bergman, Annemiek; Hommel, Bernhard

    2016-05-01

    People have a tendency to imitate the behavior of others, sometimes even automatically. And yet, evidence suggests that many of our actions are controlled, mediated by current goals and careful considerations. Here, we investigated whether the observation and evaluation of previous actions of another person modulates the similarity of actions between people in present trials. We manipulated the functionality of a confederate's actions and the interactive context in 2 behavioral tasks, which consisted of games that participants played against a confederate or a virtual computer opponent. To measure effects of working memory load on imitation rates, participants additionally performed an easy or difficult auditory n-back task in parallel to the tasks. We show that participants occasionally produced rather bizarre and dysfunctional behavior when the confederate had done so as well. Even more importantly, results from both tasks show that participants most likely copied dysfunctional behavior in the present trial when the confederate performed functional actions in the previous trial. Thus, the positive evaluation of action consequences in previous trials increases the probability of similarity between the participant's and confederate's actions in present trials despite a chance to copy improper actions. Furthermore, we found a trend of increased action similarities when participants were under high working memory load in Experiment 1 but not in Experiment 2. These results suggest that copying an observed action is an efficient and effortless behavioral and social strategy to achieve similar goals as others, though with an increased risk of maladaptive behavior. PMID:26618624

  14. Ultraviolet Synthetic Spectra for Three Lambda Bootis Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Kwang-Ping; Neff, James E.; Gray, Richard O.; Corbally, Christopher J.; Johnson, Dustin; Tarbell, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Lambda Boo-type stars are a group of late B to early F-type Population I dwarfs that show mild to extreme deficiencies of iron-peak elements (up to 2 dex), but their C, N, O, and S abundances are near solar. We show that the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) spectra (1280-3200 A) of Lambda Bootis, 29 Cygni (a "confirmed" Lambda Boo star), and Vega (a "mild" Lambda Boo star) can be fit remarkably well by single-temperature synthetic spectra. We computed the full resolution synthetic ultraviolet (UV) spectrum covering the IUE wavelength range using Gray's Stellar Spectral Synthesis Program SPECTRUM. To improve the synthetic spectra, we generated a grid of LTE atmosphere models with the appropriate stellar parameters using ATLAS9 and the existing Castelli and Kurucz 2004 models. One of the improvements of their opacity distribution functions (ODFs) is the addition to the line blanketing near 1400 A and 1600 A by the quasi-molecular absorptions of atomic hydrogen undergoing collisions with protons and other neutral hydrogen atoms. New-ODF fluxes reproduce the ultraviolet observations of Lambda Boo stars in a more realistic way than previous computations. We also constructed our own UV line list for the relevant set of absorption features. Modeling the UV line spectra of Lambda Boo stars allows us to confirm their published surface abundances, including CNO and the iron group elements. It also provides further insight into their photospheric conditions (e.g., Teff, log g, [M/H], micro turbulent velocity, etc.). About 40 percent of the published Lambda Boo candidates have existing IUE spectra. We plan to follow this pilot study and perform UV spectral synthesis for all of them.

  15. The Mid-Infrared Transmission Spectra of Antarctic Ureilites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sandford, Scott A.

    1993-01-01

    The mid-infrared (4000-450 1/cm; 2.5-22.2 micron) transmission spectra of seven Antarctic ureilites and 10 Antarctic H-5 ordinary chondrites are presented. The ureilite spectra show a number of absorption bands, the strongest of which is a wide, complex feature centered near 1000 1/cm (10 micron) due to Si-O stretching vibrations in silicates. The profiles and positions of the substructure in this feature indicate that Mg-rich olivines and pyroxenes are the main silicates responsible. The relative abundances of these two minerals, as inferred from the spectra, show substantial variation from meteorite to meteorite, but generally indicate olivine is the most abundant (olivine:pyroxene = 60:40 to 95:5). Both the predominance of olivine and the variable olivine-to-pyroxene ratio are consistent with the known composition and heterogeneity of ureilites. The H-5 ordinary chondrites spanned a range of weathering classes and were used to provide a means of addressing the extent to which the ureilite spectra may have been altered by weathering processes. It was found that, while weathering of these meteorites produces some weak bands due to the formation of small amounts of carbonates and hydrates, the profile of the main silicate feature has been little affected by Antarctic exposure in the meteorites studied here. The mid-infrared ureilite spectra provide an additional means of testing potential asteroidal parent bodies for the ureilites. At present, the best candidates include the subset of S-type asteroids having low albedos and weak absorption features in the near infrared.

  16. Flow angle dependent photoacoustic Doppler power spectra under intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Yu; Zhao, Hongcai; Fang, Hui; Zhao, Youquan; Yuan, Xiaocong

    2016-02-01

    Photoacoustic Doppler (PAD) power spectra showing an evident Doppler shift represent the major characteristics of the continuous wave-excited or burst wave-excited versions of PAD flow measurements. In this paper, the flow angle dependences of the PAD power spectra are investigated using an experiment setup that was established based on intensity-modulated continuous wave laser excitation. The setup has an overall configuration that is similar to a previously reported configuration, but is more sophisticated in that it accurately aligns the laser illumination with the ultrasound detection process, and in that it picks up the correct sample position. In the analysis of the power spectra data, we find that the background power spectra can be extracted by combining the output signals from the two channels of the lock-in amplifier, which is very useful for identification of the PAD power spectra. The power spectra are presented and analyzed in opposite flow directions, at different flow speeds, and at different flow angles. The power spectra at a 90° flow angle show the unique properties of symmetrical shapes due to PAD broadening. For the other flow angles, the smoothed power spectra clearly show a flow angle cosine relationship.

  17. Conscious Control over Action

    PubMed Central

    Shepherd, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    The extensive involvement of nonconscious processes in human behaviour has led some to suggest that consciousness is much less important for the control of action than we might think. In this article I push against this trend, developing an understanding of conscious control that is sensitive to our best models of overt (that is, bodily) action control. Further, I assess the cogency of various zombie challenges—challenges that seek to demote the importance of conscious control for human agency. I argue that though nonconscious contributions to action control are evidently robust, these challenges are overblown. PMID:26113753

  18. Corrective Action Glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-07-01

    The glossary of technical terms was prepared to facilitate the use of the Corrective Action Plan (CAP) issued by OSWER on November 14, 1986. The CAP presents model scopes of work for all phases of a corrective action program, including the RCRA Facility Investigation (RFI), Corrective Measures Study (CMS), Corrective Measures Implementation (CMI), and interim measures. The Corrective Action Glossary includes brief definitions of the technical terms used in the CAP and explains how they are used. In addition, expected ranges (where applicable) are provided. Parameters or terms not discussed in the CAP, but commonly associated with site investigations or remediations are also included.

  19. Polarized Raman spectra and intensities of aliphatic amino acids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Himmler, Hans J.; Eysel, Hans H.

    1989-01-01

    Raman spectra of aliphatic α- L-amino acids, glycine, alanine, and valine were re-investigated both in aqueous solution and deuterium oxide solution. The spectra were taken of the zwitterionic and of the completely deprotonated form of the amino acids. Spectra of leucine and isoleucine were studied in water at the isoelectric point. Spectra were recorded both with parallel and perpendicular polarization and the isotropic and anisotropic scattering components were isolated. The integrated intensities of CH stretch, CC stretch and carboxylate bend vibrations are discussed. Linear relations between the number of CC and CH bonds and the total scattered intensity in the appropriate spectral regions are observed. The sum over the carboxylate modes shows characteristic intensities for the first three members of the aliphatic amino acids. An increase of isotropic scattering of ϱ co 2 near 510 cm -1 with increasing chain length of the amino acid (or with increasing concentration) is interpreted as the result of micelle formation.

  20. Novel retrieval of volcanic SO 2 abundance from ultraviolet spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salerno, G. G.; Burton, M. R.; Oppenheimer, C.; Caltabiano, T.; Tsanev, V. I.; Bruno, N.

    2009-03-01

    The recent development of fixed networks of scanning ultraviolet spectrometers for automatic determination of volcanic SO 2 fluxes has created tremendous opportunities for monitoring volcanoes but has brought new challenges in processing (and interpreting) the copious data flow they produce. A particular difficulty in standard implantation of differential optical absorption (DOAS) methods is the requirement for a clear-sky (plume-free) background spectrum. Our experience after four years of measurements with two UV scanner networks on Etna and Stromboli shows that wide plumes are frequently observed, precluding simple selection of clear-sky spectra. We have therefore developed a retrieval approach based on simulation of the background spectrum. We describe the method here and tune it empirically by collecting clear, zenith sky spectra using calibration cells containing known amounts of SO 2. We then test the performance of this optimised retrieval using clear-sky spectra collected with the same calibration cells but for variable scan angles, time of day, and season (through the course of 1 year), finding acceptable results (~ 12% error) for SO 2 column amounts. We further illustrate the analytical approach using spectra recorded at Mt. Etna during its July 2006 eruption. We demonstrate the reliability of the method for tracking volcano dynamics on different time scales, and suggest it is widely suited to automated SO 2-plume monitoring.

  1. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-05-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  2. Automated Classification of a Large Database of Stellar Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gulati, R. K.; Gupta, R.; Gothoskar, P.; Khobragade, S.

    Artificial Neural Network (ANN) is a versatile tool which has been used both in academic research and industrial applications. In astronomy, this technique has been used for a variety of applications, such as telescope adaptive optics, classifying galaxies, and separating stars from galaxies. The classification of a large database of stellar spectra, which would be a Herculean task for human classifiers if done visually, is an ideal problem for the ANN technique, which can handle such problems without manual intervention. Recently, increased computational power, combined with improvement in the ANN techniques, has provided an efficient way to perform automatic classification. We have implemented ANN to classify stellar spectra from large spectral databases. We present here the Multilayer Back Propagation Network (MBPN), which is used to classify stellar spectra obtained in the optical and ultraviolet regions. The performance of MBPN shows that the ANN is capable of classifying ultraviolet stellar spectra to an accuracy of about one spectral subclass for most of the cases. The scope of this technique is expected to be expanded with the availability of large homogeneous digitized stellar spectral databases.

  3. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments.

    PubMed

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters. Graphical Abstract ᅟ. PMID:27206510

  4. Theoretical calculation of spectra of dibutyl phthalate and dioctyl phthalate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Du, Jian-Bin; Tang, Yan-Lin; Long, Zheng-Wen; Hu, Shuang-Hui; Li, Tao

    2014-05-01

    Dibutyl phthalate DBP and dioctyl phthalate DOP are the main components of the plasticizers. In order to investigate their molecular structure, chemical bond and spectrum, the geometrical parameters of the ground state and infrared (IR) spectrum are calculated using the density functional theory B3LYP method at the level of 6-311++G( d, p). On this basis, the first twenty-six excited states and the UV-Vis absorption spectra of DBP and DOP are studied using the time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) in the same fundamental group and compared with the ultraviolet absorption peak of the molecules measured with UNICO UV-Vis spectrophotometer. The two kinds of molecular spectra are then classified and compared with that in reference. The results show that the strong absorption of IR spectra of DOP and DBP are produced by C-H bending in-plane vibration and C=O telescopic vibration producing. The most absorption of UV-Vis absorption spectra appears in the end absorption belt from n to σ* transition, and the stronger absorption in the E belt of benzene electronic transition from π to π*. There are blue shift for DOP end absorption belt from n to σ* transition and red shift for DOP E absorption belt from π to π* transition relative to that of DBP. This calculation results are better in accord with the spectral data measured by UNICO ultraviolet and visible spectrophotometer.

  5. Molecular dynamics in cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra deconvolution

    SciTech Connect

    Bossis, Fabrizio; Palese, Luigi L.

    2011-01-07

    Research highlights: {yields} Cytochrome c oxidase molecular dynamics serve to predict Moessbauer lineshape widths. {yields} Half height widths are used in modeling of Lorentzian doublets. {yields} Such spectral deconvolutions are useful in detecting the enzyme intermediates. -- Abstract: In this work low temperature molecular dynamics simulations of cytochrome c oxidase are used to predict an experimentally observable, namely Moessbauer spectra width. Predicted lineshapes are used to model Lorentzian doublets, with which published cytochrome c oxidase Moessbauer spectra were simulated. Molecular dynamics imposed constraints to spectral lineshapes permit to obtain useful information, like the presence of multiple chemical species in the binuclear center of cytochrome c oxidase. Moreover, a benchmark of quality for molecular dynamic simulations can be obtained. Despite the overwhelming importance of dynamics in electron-proton transfer systems, limited work has been devoted to unravel how much realistic are molecular dynamics simulations results. In this work, molecular dynamics based predictions are found to be in good agreement with published experimental spectra, showing that we can confidently rely on actual simulations. Molecular dynamics based deconvolution of Moessbauer spectra will lead to a renewed interest for application of this approach in bioenergetics.

  6. Independent component analysis classification of laser induced breakdown spectroscopy spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forni, Olivier; Maurice, Sylvestre; Gasnault, Olivier; Wiens, Roger C.; Cousin, Agnès; Clegg, Samuel M.; Sirven, Jean-Baptiste; Lasue, Jérémie

    2013-08-01

    The ChemCam instrument on board Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover uses the laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) technique to remotely analyze Martian rocks. It retrieves spectra up to a distance of seven meters to quantify and to quantitatively analyze the sampled rocks. Like any field application, on-site measurements by LIBS are altered by diverse matrix effects which induce signal variations that are specific to the nature of the sample. Qualitative aspects remain to be studied, particularly LIBS sample identification to determine which samples are of interest for further analysis by ChemCam and other rover instruments. This can be performed with the help of different chemometric methods that model the spectra variance in order to identify a the rock from its spectrum. In this paper we test independent components analysis (ICA) rock classification by remote LIBS. We show that using measures of distance in ICA space, namely the Manhattan and the Mahalanobis distance, we can efficiently classify spectra of an unknown rock. The Mahalanobis distance gives overall better performances and is easier to manage than the Manhattan distance for which the determination of the cut-off distance is not easy. However these two techniques are complementary and their analytical performances will improve with time during MSL operations as the quantity of available Martian spectra will grow. The analysis accuracy and performances will benefit from a combination of the two approaches.

  7. Quantitative Comparison of Tandem Mass Spectra Obtained on Various Instruments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazsó, Fanni Laura; Ozohanics, Oliver; Schlosser, Gitta; Ludányi, Krisztina; Vékey, Károly; Drahos, László

    2016-08-01

    The similarity between two tandem mass spectra, which were measured on different instruments, was compared quantitatively using the similarity index (SI), defined as the dot product of the square root of peak intensities in the respective spectra. This function was found to be useful for comparing energy-dependent tandem mass spectra obtained on various instruments. Spectral comparisons show the similarity index in a 2D "heat map", indicating which collision energy combinations result in similar spectra, and how good this agreement is. The results and methodology can be used in the pharma industry to design experiments and equipment well suited for good reproducibility. We suggest that to get good long-term reproducibility, it is best to adjust the collision energy to yield a spectrum very similar to a reference spectrum. It is likely to yield better results than using the same tuning file, which, for example, does not take into account that contamination of the ion source due to extended use may influence instrument tuning. The methodology may be used to characterize energy dependence on various instrument types, to optimize instrumentation, and to study the influence or correlation between various experimental parameters.

  8. Calculation of ground vibration spectra from heavy military vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krylov, V. V.; Pickup, S.; McNuff, J.

    2010-07-01

    The demand for reliable autonomous systems capable to detect and identify heavy military vehicles becomes an important issue for UN peacekeeping forces in the current delicate political climate. A promising method of detection and identification is the one using the information extracted from ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, often termed as their seismic signatures. This paper presents the results of the theoretical investigation of ground vibration spectra generated by heavy military vehicles, such as tanks and armed personnel carriers. A simple quarter car model is considered to identify the resulting dynamic forces applied from a vehicle to the ground. Then the obtained analytical expressions for vehicle dynamic forces are used for calculations of generated ground vibrations, predominantly Rayleigh surface waves, using Green's function method. A comparison of the obtained theoretical results with the published experimental data shows that analytical techniques based on the simplified quarter car vehicle model are capable of producing ground vibration spectra of heavy military vehicles that reproduce basic properties of experimental spectra.

  9. On gamma-ray bursts spectra: A possible theoretical understanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chardonnet, Pascal; Filina, Anastasia; Popov, Mikhail; Chechetkin, Valery; Baranov, Andrey

    2015-12-01

    The study of spectra of gamma-ray burst is certainly a very promising part of the GRB studies. More and more data are available for GRBs and with time-sequence analysis it is possible also to propose a link with the other set of data represented by the light curves. Consequently, the explanation of the spectra requires both the local physical condition of the engine as well as the dynamic of the explosion process. In this view, we have analysed the GRB spectra with a specific model: black-body + thermal Bremsstrahlung. Our results show that this model is consistent with the observed GRB spectra. We can derive the temperature of the hot plasma needed to reproduce this spectrum consistent with the core of a very hot star ˜109 K. We have also found a correlation between the variation in time of this temperature and the variation of the spikes in luminosity of the light curves. This time profile each spike could be the correct fingerprint of the GRB physical process.Each spike, as a fingerprint, could keep the memory of the GRB physical process. If this model find a confirmation for other GRBs, this idea will ask us to open a new paradigm in GRB physics.

  10. Infrared Spectra of Protonated Aromatic Hydrocarbons and Their Neutral Counterparts in Solid {PARA}-HYDROGEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bahou, Mohammed; Wu, Yu-Jong; Lee, Yuan-Pern

    2014-06-01

    Protonated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (H+PAH) have been reported to have infrared (IR) bands at wavenumbers near those of unidentified infrared (UIR) emission bands from interstellar objects. However, recording IR spectra of H+PAH in laboratories is challenging. Two spectral methods have been employed previously to yield IR spectra of H+PAH. One employs IR multiphoton dissociation (IRMPD) of H+PAH, but the bands are broad and red-shifted. Another measures the single-photon IR photodissociation action spectrum of cold H+PAH tagged with a weakly bound ligand, such as Ar, but application of this method to large PAH is difficult. A new method for investigating IR spectra of H+PAH and their neutral counterparts was developed using electron bombardment during {p}-H2 matrix deposition. With this technique, we have recorded IR absorption spectra of protonated forms of benzene (C6H7+), naphthalene (1- and 2-C10H9+), pyrene (1-C16H11+), coronene (1-C24H13+), and their neutrals. The significant superiority of the spectra thus recorded to those with the Ar-tagging and IRMPD methods is demonstrated. The narrow widths of the lines enabled us to distinguish clearly between isomers 1-C10H9+ and 2-C10H9+; 2-C10H9+ was unstable and converted to 1-C10H9+ in less than 30 min. A survey of these experimental results shows that three major lines in the 7-9 μm region are red-shifted from 7.19, 7.45, and 8.13 μm of 1-C16H11+ to 7.37, 7.53, and 8.21 μm of 1-C24H13+, showing the direction towards the UIR bands near 7.6, 7.8, and 8.6 μm. In contrast, the line at 11.5 μm for 1-C16H11+ is blue-shifted to 11.4 μm for 1-C24H13+, showing the direction toward the UIR band near 11.2 μm. Other examples will be presented if time permits. O. Dopfer, PAHs and the Universe, 46, 103 (2011). A. M. Ricks, G. E. Douberly, M. A. Duncan, Astrophys. J., 702, 301 (2009). M. Bahou, Y.-J. Wu, Y.-P. Lee, J. Chem. Phys., 136, 154304 (2012) M. Bahou, Y.-J. Wu, Y.-P. Lee, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys., 15, 1907

  11. Cooperative Interaction Within RNA Virus Mutant Spectra.

    PubMed

    Shirogane, Yuta; Watanabe, Shumpei; Yanagi, Yusuke

    2016-01-01

    RNA viruses usually consist of mutant spectra because of high error rates of viral RNA polymerases. Growth competition occurs among different viral variants, and the fittest clones predominate under given conditions. Individual variants, however, may not be entirely independent of each other, and internal interactions within mutant spectra can occur. Examples of cooperative and interfering interactions that exert enhancing and suppressing effects on replication of the wild-type virus, respectively, have been described, but their underlying mechanisms have not been well defined. It was recently found that the cooperation between wild-type and variant measles virus genomes produces a new phenotype through the heterooligomer formation of a viral protein. This observation provides a molecular mechanism underlying cooperative interactions within mutant spectra. Careful attention to individual sequences, in addition to consensus sequences, may disclose further examples of internal interactions within mutant spectra. PMID:26162566

  12. Microwave spectra of some volatile organic compounds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, W. F.

    1975-01-01

    A computer-controlled microwave (MRR) spectrometer was used to catalog reference spectra for chemical analysis. Tables of absorption frequency, peak absorption intensity, and integrated intensity are included for 26 volatile organic compounds, all but one of which contain oxygen.

  13. Contribution to the study of turbulence spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dumas, R.

    1979-01-01

    An apparatus suitable for turbulence measurement between ranges of 1 to 5000 cps and from 6 to 16,000 cps was developed and is described. Turbulence spectra downstream of the grills were examined with reference to their general characteristics, their LF qualities, and the effects of periodic turbulence. Medium and HF are discussed. Turbulence spectra in the boundary layers are similarly examined, with reference to their fluctuations at right angles to the wall, and to lateral fluctuations. Turbulence spectra in a boundary layer with suction to the wall is discussed. Induced turbulence, and turbulence spectra at high Reynolds numbers. Calculations are presented relating to the effect of filtering on the value of the correlations in time and space.

  14. Ultraviolet Spectra of Globular Clusters in Andromeda

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, R. C.

    1999-05-01

    As part of a NASA-funded effort with Ben Dorman of Goddard Space Flight Center, I am engaged in calculating spectra from first principles of solar-type stars of a wide range of metallicity. This paper reports on an extension of this work funded by the Hubble Space Telescope archival program, the derivation of fundamental parameters for several globular clusters in Andromeda (M31). Properties of the underlying stellar population are derived by matching archival HST spectra with composite spectra constructed by weighted coaddition of the calculated spectra for stars of appropriate spectral types. Armed with these ab initio calculations, this work explores the degeneracy in age and metallicity in the ultraviolet, and the affect of unknowns such as the relative abundance of light elements versus iron and the possible presence of blue stragglers or blue horizontal branch stars.

  15. Comparing Ultraviolet Spectra Against Calculations: First Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peterson, Ruth C.

    2003-01-01

    The five-year goal of this effort is to calculate high fidelity mid-UV spectra for individual stars and stellar systems for a wide range of ages, abundances, and abundance ratios. In this first year, the emphasis was placed on revising the list of atomic line parameters used to calculate mid-UV spectra. First, new identifications of atomic lines and measurements of their transition probabilities were obtained for lines of the first and second ionization stages of iron-peak elements. Second, observed mid-UV and optical spectra for standard stars were re-analyzed and compared to new calculations, to refine the determination of transition probabilities and to estimate the identity of lines still missing from the laboratory lists. As evidenced by the figures, a dramatic improvement has resulted in the reproduction of the spectra of standard stars by the calculations.

  16. Synthesis and Spectra of Vanadium Complexes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ophardt, Charles E.; Stupgia, Sean

    1984-01-01

    Describes an experiment which illustrates simple synthetic techniques, redox principles in synthesis reactions, interpretation of visible spectra using Orgel diagrams, and the spectrochemical series. The experiment is suitable for the advanced undergraduate inorganic chemistry laboratory. (JN)

  17. Properties of Martian Hematite at Meridiani Planum by Simultaneous Fitting of Mars Mossbauer Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Agresti, D. G.; Fleischer, I.; Klingelhoefer, G.; Morris, R. V.

    2010-01-01

    temperature dependence of certain parameters. By examining different fitting models, we demonstrate an improved fit for martian hematite modeled with two sextets rather than as a single sextet, and show that outcrop and spherule hematite are distinct. For outcrop, the weaker sextet indicates a Morin transition typical of well-crystallized and chemically pure hematite, while most of the outcrop hematite remains in a weakly ferromagnetic state at all temperatures. For spherule spectra, both sextets are consistent with weakly ferromagnetic hematite with no Morin transition. For both hematites, there is evidence for a range of particle sizes.

  18. Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_158076.html Experimental Drug for Rheumatoid Arthritis Shows Promise Baricitinib helped patients who failed other ... HealthDay News) -- An experimental drug to treat rheumatoid arthritis showed promise in a new six-month trial. ...

  19. Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_159462.html Experimental Genital Herpes Drug Shows Promise Drug lowered viral activity, recurrence ... News) -- An experimental immune-boosting treatment for genital herpes shows promise, researchers report. The drug, called GEN- ...

  20. Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_159854.html Alzheimer's Gene May Show Effects in Childhood Brain scans reveal ... 2016 WEDNESDAY, July 13, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- A gene related to Alzheimer's disease may start to show ...

  1. Lamplighter groups, de Brujin graphs, spider-web graphs and their spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grigorchuk, R.; Leemann, P.-H.; Nagnibeda, T.

    2016-05-01

    We study the infinite family of spider-web graphs \\{{{ S }}k,N,M\\}, k≥slant 2, N≥slant 0 and M≥slant 1, initiated in the 50s in the context of network theory. It was later shown in physical literature that these graphs have remarkable percolation and spectral properties. We provide a mathematical explanation of these properties by putting the spider-web graphs in the context of group theory and algebraic graph theory. Namely, we realize them as tensor products of the well-known de Bruijn graphs \\{{{ B }}k,N\\} with cyclic graphs \\{{C}M\\} and show that these graphs are described by the action of the lamplighter group {{ L }}k={Z}/k{Z}\\wr {Z} on the infinite binary tree. Our main result is the identification of the infinite limit of \\{{{ S }}k,N,M\\}, as N,M\\to ∞ , with the Cayley graph of the lamplighter group {{ L }}k which, in turn, is one of the famous Diestel–Leader graphs {{DL}}k,k. As an application we compute the spectra of all spider-web graphs and show their convergence to the discrete spectral distribution associated with the Laplacian on the lamplighter group.

  2. Mental action simulation synchronizes action-observation circuits across individuals.

    PubMed

    Nummenmaa, Lauri; Smirnov, Dmitry; Lahnakoski, Juha M; Glerean, Enrico; Jääskeläinen, Iiro P; Sams, Mikko; Hari, Riitta

    2014-01-15

    A frontoparietal action-observation network (AON) has been proposed to support understanding others' actions and goals. We show that the AON "ticks together" in human subjects who are sharing a third person's feelings. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, 20 volunteers watched movies depicting boxing matches passively or while simulating a prespecified boxer's feelings. Instantaneous intersubject phase synchronization (ISPS) was computed to derive multisubject voxelwise similarity of hemodynamic activity and inter-area functional connectivity. During passive viewing, subjects' brain activity was synchronized in sensory projection and posterior temporal cortices. Simulation induced widespread increase of ISPS in the AON (premotor, posterior parietal, and superior temporal cortices), primary and secondary somatosensory cortices, and the dorsal attention circuits (frontal eye fields, intraparietal sulcus). Moreover, interconnectivity of these regions strengthened during simulation. We propose that sharing a third person's feelings synchronizes the observer's own brain mechanisms supporting sensations and motor planning, thereby likely promoting mutual understanding. PMID:24431433

  3. POLLUX: a database of synthetic stellar spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palacios, A.; Gebran, M.; Josselin, E.; Martins, F.; Plez, B.; Belmas, M.; Lèbre, A.

    2010-06-01

    Aims: Synthetic spectra are needed to determine fundamental stellar and wind parameters of all types of stars. They are also used for the construction of theoretical spectral libraries helpful for stellar population synthesis. Therefore, a database of theoretical spectra is required to allow rapid and quantitative comparisons to spectroscopic data. We provide such a database offering an unprecedented coverage of the entire Hertzsprung-Russell diagram. Methods: We present the POLLUX database of synthetic stellar spectra. For objects with Teff ≤ 6000 K, MARCS atmosphere models are computed and the program TURBOSPECTRUM provides the synthetic spectra. ATLAS12 models are computed for stars with 7000 K ≤ Teff ≤ 15 000 K. SYNSPEC gives the corresponding spectra. Finally, the code CMFGEN provides atmosphere models for the hottest stars (Teff > 25 000 K). Their spectra are computed with CMF_FLUX. Both high resolution (R > 150 000) optical spectra in the range 3000 to 12 000 Å and spectral energy distributions extending from the UV to near-IR ranges are presented. These spectra cover the HR diagram at solar metallicity. Results: We propose a wide variety of synthetic spectra for various types of stars in a format that is compliant with the Virtual Observatory standards. A user-friendly web interface allows an easy selection of spectra and data retrieval. Upcoming developments will include an extension to a large range of metallicities and to the near-IR high resolution spectra, as well as a better coverage of the HR diagram, with the inclusion of models for Wolf-Rayet stars and large datasets for cool stars. The POLLUX database is accessible at http://pollux.graal.univ-montp2.fr/ and through the Virtual Observatory. Copy of database is only available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb

  4. Energy spectra of ions from impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1991-01-01

    A study of the energy spectra of ions from impulsive solar flares in the 0.1 to 100 MeV region is reported with data from the combined observations of experiments on the ISEE 3 and IMP 8 spacecraft. Most of the events studied are dominated by He, and these He spectra show a persistent steepening or break above about 10 MeV resulting in an increase in the power-law spectral indices from about 2 to about 3.5 or more. One event, dominated by protons, shows a clear maximum in the spectrum near 1 MeV. If the rollover in the spectrum below 1 MeV is interpreted as a consequence of matter traversal in the solar atmosphere, then the source of the acceleration would lie only about 800 km above the photosphere, well below the corona. An alternative interpretation is that trapping in the acceleration region directly causes a peak in the spectrum.

  5. Infrared spectra of molybdenum-modified aluminum oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Chukin, G.D.; Sergienko, S.A.; Seleznev, Yu.L.; Malevich, V.I.; Radchenko, E.D.

    1988-03-01

    IR spectra were recorded and the acid centers were detected with anhydrous pyridine Py. The spectra from the hydroxyl cover on gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were assessed. Measurements on dehydroxylation and rehydroxylation of gamma-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ showed that the surface groups react with fluorine and chlorine anions, with sodium cations, and with neutral Py and NH/sub 3/; vacuum heat treatment removed hydroxyl from the coordination sphere of Al/sup 3 +/, which increased the intensity for the PyL bands after Py adsorption. Raman spectroscopy showed that MoO/sub 3/ is formed at the surface of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ starting at concentrations of 8-10 mass %, which is the level at which PyH/sup +/ bands appear on Py adsorption.

  6. [Preparation and spectra of the complexes of the first series transition metals with diphenic acid].

    PubMed

    Wu, Ai-zhi; Wang, Jian-jun; Ren, Yan-wei; Chen, Jing; Li, Jun; Zhang, Feng-xing

    2004-04-01

    The ligand diphenic acid has been synthesized and the corresponding complexes of transition metal Co, Ni and Mn with diphenic acid have been prepared and characterized by the elementary analysis, IR spectra and ultraviolet-visible spectra. The results of IR show that the vas and vs of -CO2- in the complexes are lower than those of ligand diphenic acid, which can be explained by the coordinating between metal and ligand. In addition, compared with the complex IR spectra, the IR spectra of ligand became complicated due to the ligand polymerization through hydrogen bond. The UV-Vis spectra show that the ligand has three absorption peaks at 288, 273 and 270 nm, respectively, and these are slightly shifted in the complexes. Because the metal d-d absorption is weak, only in Co(C14H8O4) x 2H2O there is a d-d absorption at 537 nm. PMID:15766146

  7. Positive partial transpose from spectra

    SciTech Connect

    Hildebrand, Roland

    2007-11-15

    In this paper we solve the following problem. Let H{sub nm} be a Hilbert space of dimension nm, and let A be a positive semidefinite self-adjoint linear operator on H{sub nm}. Under which conditions on the spectrum has A a positive partial transpose (is PPT) with respect to any partition H{sub n} x H{sub m} of the space H{sub nm} as a tensor product of an n-dimensional and an m-dimensional Hilbert space? We show that the necessary and sufficient conditions can be expressed as a set of linear matrix inequalities (LMIs) on the eigenvalues of A.

  8. Diffuse emission and pathological Seyfert spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Halpern, Jules P.

    1995-01-01

    In this annual ROSAT status report, the diffuse emission and spectra from Seyfert galaxies are examined. Three papers are presented and their contents include the soft x-ray properties and spectra of a binary millisecond pulsar, the PSPC and HRI observations of a Starburst/Seyfert 2 Galaxy, and an analysis of the possibility of x-ray luminous starbursts in the Einstein Medium Sensitivity Survey.

  9. Electron spectra derived from depth dose distributions.

    PubMed

    Faddegon, B A; Blevis, I

    2000-03-01

    The technique of extracting electron energy spectra from measured distributions of dose along the central axis of clinical electron beams is explored in detail. Clinical spectra measured with this simple spectroscopy tool are shown to be sufficient in accuracy and resolution for use in Monte Carlo treatment planning. A set of monoenergetic depth dose curves of appropriate energy spacing, precalculated with Monte Carlo for a simple beam model, are unfolded from the measured depth dose curve. The beam model is comprised of a point electron and photon source placed in vacuum with a source-to-surface distance of 100 cm. Systematic error introduced by this model affects the calculated depth dose curve by no more than 2%/2 mm. The component of the dose due to treatment head bremsstrahlung, subtracted prior to unfolding, is estimated from the thin-target Schiff spectrum within 0.3% of the maximum total dose (from electrons and photons) on the beam axis. Optimal unfolding parameters are chosen, based on physical principles. Unfolding is done with the public-domain code FERDO. Comparisons were made to previously published spectra measured with magnetic spectroscopy and to spectra we calculated with Monte Carlo treatment head simulation. The approach gives smooth spectra with an average resolution for the 27 beams studied of 16+/-3% of the mean peak energy. The mean peak energy of the magnetic spectrometer spectra was calculated within 2% for the AECL T20 scanning beam accelerators, 3% for the Philips SL25 scattering foil based machine. The number of low energy electrons in Monte Carlo spectra is estimated by unfolding with an accuracy of 2%, relative to the total number of electrons in the beam. Central axis depth dose curves calculated from unfolded spectra are within 0.5%/0.5 mm of measured and simulated depth dose curves, except near the practical range, where 1%/1 mm errors are evident. PMID:10757603

  10. New atlas of IR solar spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldman, A.; Blatherwick, R. D.; Murcray, F. H.; Vanallen, J. W.; Bradford, C. M.; Cook, G. R.; Murcray, D. G.

    1980-01-01

    Over 4500 absorption lines have been marked on the spectra and the corresponding line positions tabulated. The associated absorbing telluric or solar species for more than 90% of these lines have been identified and only a fraction of the unidentified lines have peak absorptions greater than a few percent. The high resolution and the low Sun spectra greatly enhance the sensitivity limits for identification of trace constituents.

  11. Trigonometric Polynomials For Estimation Of Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenhall, Charles A.

    1990-01-01

    Orthogonal sets of trigonometric polynomials used as suboptimal substitutes for discrete prolate-spheroidal "windows" of Thomson method of estimation of spectra. As used here, "windows" denotes weighting functions used in sampling time series to obtain their power spectra within specified frequency bands. Simplified windows designed to require less computation than do discrete prolate-spheroidal windows, albeit at price of some loss of accuracy.

  12. Cassini UVIS observations of Titan nightglow spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ajello, Joseph M.; West, Robert A.; Gustin, Jacques; Larsen, Kristopher; Stewart, A. Ian F.; Esposito, Larry W.; McClintock, William E.; Holsclaw, Gregory M.; Bradley, E. Todd

    2012-12-01

    In this paper we present the first nightside EUV and FUV airglow limb spectra of Titan showing molecular emissions. The Cassini Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph (UVIS) observed photon emissions of Titan's day and night limb-airglow and disk-airglow on multiple occasions, including during an eclipse observation. The 71 airglow observations analyzed in this paper show EUV (600-1150 Å) and FUV (1150-1900 Å) atomic multiplet lines and band emissions arising from either photoelectron induced fluorescence and solar photo-fragmentation of molecular nitrogen (N2) or excitation by magnetosphere plasma. The altitude of the peak UV emissions on the limb during daylight occurred inside the thermosphere at the altitude of the topside ionosphere (near 1000 km altitude). However, at night on the limb, a subset of emission features, much weaker in intensity, arise in the atmosphere with two different geometries. First, there is a twilight photoelectron-excited glow that persists with solar depression angle up to 25-30 degrees past the terminator, until the solar XUV shadow height passes the altitude of the topside ionosphere (1000-1200 km). The UV twilight glow spectrum is similar to the dayglow but weaker in intensity. Second, beyond 120° solar zenith angle, when the upper atmosphere of Titan is in total XUV darkness, there is indication of weak and sporadic nightside UV airglow emissions excited by magnetosphere plasma collisions with ambient thermosphere gas, with similar N2 excited features as above in the daylight or twilight glow over an extended altitude range.

  13. K-inflationary power spectra at second order

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, Jérôme; Vennin, Vincent; Ringeval, Christophe E-mail: christophe.ringeval@uclouvain.be

    2013-06-01

    Within the class of inflationary models, k-inflation represents the most general single field framework that can be associated with an effective quadratic action for the curvature perturbations and a varying speed of sound. The incoming flow of high-precision cosmological data, such as those from the Planck satellite and small scale Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) experiments, calls for greater accuracy in the inflationary predictions. In this work, we calculate for the first time the next-to-next-to-leading order scalar and tensor primordial power spectra in k-inflation needed in order to obtain robust constraints on the inflationary theory. The method used is the uniform approximation together with a second order expansion in the Hubble and sound flow functions. Our result is checked in various limits in which it reduces to already known situations.

  14. An Inverse Modeling Approach to Estimating Phytoplankton Pigment Concentrations from Phytoplankton Absorption Spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moisan, John R.; Moisan, Tiffany A. H.; Linkswiler, Matthew A.

    2011-01-01

    Phytoplankton absorption spectra and High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) pigment observations from the Eastern U.S. and global observations from NASA's SeaBASS archive are used in a linear inverse calculation to extract pigment-specific absorption spectra. Using these pigment-specific absorption spectra to reconstruct the phytoplankton absorption spectra results in high correlations at all visible wavelengths (r(sup 2) from 0.83 to 0.98), and linear regressions (slopes ranging from 0.8 to 1.1). Higher correlations (r(sup 2) from 0.75 to 1.00) are obtained in the visible portion of the spectra when the total phytoplankton absorption spectra are unpackaged by multiplying the entire spectra by a factor that sets the total absorption at 675 nm to that expected from absorption spectra reconstruction using measured pigment concentrations and laboratory-derived pigment-specific absorption spectra. The derived pigment-specific absorption spectra were further used with the total phytoplankton absorption spectra in a second linear inverse calculation to estimate the various phytoplankton HPLC pigments. A comparison between the estimated and measured pigment concentrations for the 18 pigment fields showed good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.5) for 7 pigments and very good correlations (r(sup 2) greater than 0.7) for chlorophyll a and fucoxanthin. Higher correlations result when the analysis is carried out at more local geographic scales. The ability to estimate phytoplankton pigments using pigment-specific absorption spectra is critical for using hyperspectral inverse models to retrieve phytoplankton pigment concentrations and other Inherent Optical Properties (IOPs) from passive remote sensing observations.

  15. Optical Spectra of Melanin Films Extracted from Rana esculenta L.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perna, G.; Gallone, A.; Capozzi, V.; Biagi, P. F.; Fratello, A.; Guida, G.; Zanna, P.; Argenzio, E.; Cicero, R.

    2005-01-01

    The melanin pigment extracted from the liver of Rana esculenta L. has been deposited as thin film on quartz substrate. The Raman spectra, as well as optical absorption and photoluminescence measurements have been investigated. The results show that the melanin can be described as a network of clusters having different size. The larger size clusters determine the absorption edge of the film and the smaller size ones are mainly involved in the radiative emission process.

  16. Infrared spectra of CO adsorbed at low temperatures on Ni

    SciTech Connect

    Levinson, H.J.; Tobin, R.G.; Richards, P.L.

    1982-09-01

    At low temperatures (1.5 to 40/sup 0/K), CO has been found to chemisorb into terminal, bridge, and three-fold sites on evaporated Ni films. The chemisorption takes place directly, rather than through a precursor state. At least two distinct terminal sites are occupied at high coverages. After the sample is warmed from 1.5 to 40/sup 0/K the infrared spectra change dramatically, showing substantial surface diffusion even at these low temperatures. 4 figures.

  17. Condensed-matter energetics from diatomic molecular spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kim, In H.; Jeanloz, Raymond; Jhung, Kyu S.

    1993-01-01

    Analyses of molecular spectra and compression data from crystals show that a single function successfully describes the dependence on interatomic separation of both the potential energy of diatomic molecules and the cohesive binding energy of condensed matter. The empirical finding that one function describes interatomic energies for such diverse forms of matter and over a wide range of conditions can be used to extend condensed-matter equations of state but warrants further theoretical study.

  18. Spectral function and photoemission spectra in antiferromagnetically correlated metals

    SciTech Connect

    Kampf, A.P.; Schrieffer, J.R. )

    1990-11-01

    Antiferromagnetic spin fluctuations in a two-dimensional metal, such as doped high-{Tc} superconductors, lead to a pseudogap in the electronic spectrum. In the spectral function weight is shifted from the single quasiparticle peak of the Fermi-liquid regime to the incoherent particle and hole backgrounds, which evolve into the upper and lower Mott-Hubbard bands of the antiferromagnetic insulator. Precursors of these split bands show up as shadow bands'' in angle-resolved photoemission spectra.

  19. Infrared absorption spectra of human malignant tumor tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skornyakov, I. V.; Tolstorozhev, G. B.; Butra, V. A.

    2008-05-01

    We used infrared spectroscopy methods to study the molecular structure of tissues from human organs removed during surgery. The IR spectra of the surgical material from breast, thyroid, and lung are compared with data from histological examination. We show that in malignant neoplasms, a change occurs in the hydrogen bonds of protein macromolecules found in the tissue of the studied organs. We identify the spectral signs of malignant pathology.

  20. Cosmic Ray Spectra in Nambu-Goldstone Dark Matter Models

    SciTech Connect

    Ibe, Masahiro; Murayama, Hitoshi; Shirai, Satoshi; Yanagida, Tsutomu T.; ,

    2010-06-11

    We discuss the cosmic ray spectra in annihilating/decaying Nambu-Goldstone dark matter models. The recent observed positron/electron excesses at PAMELA and Fermi experiments are well fitted by the dark matter with a mass of 3TeV for the annihilating model, while with a mass of 6TeV for the decaying model. We also show that the Nambu-Goldstone dark matter models predict a distinctive gamma-ray spectrum in a certain parameter space.

  1. Immunization Action Coalition

    MedlinePlus

    ... IAC | Contact | A-Z Index | Donate | Shop | SUBSCRIBE Immunization Action Coalition Handouts for Patients & Staff A-Z ... Index Supplies Checklist Administering Vaccines Temperature Logs Adult Vaccination Topics of Interest Documenting Vaccination Translations Parent Handouts ...

  2. Caregiver Action Network

    MedlinePlus

    ... main content Caregiver Action Network Toggle navigation Toolbox Forum Volunteers Donate About Us Join National Family Caregivers ... for caring for a loved one Family Caregiver Forum Share and talk with other caregivers Rare Disease ...

  3. Postpartum Depression Action Plan

    MedlinePlus

    MENU Return to Web version Postpartum Depression | Postpartum Depression Action Plan Patient __________________________ Physician/NP/PA __________________ Clinic ____________________________ Phone Number ____________________ Choose one area and add other areas as you begin to ...

  4. Affirmative Action's Contradictory Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heilman, Madeline E.

    1996-01-01

    Addresses affirmative action's success at creating a more equal workplace. Explores some potential psychological costs of this policy--costs that paradoxically may undermine its objectives--and their implications for achieving the goal of workplace equality. (GR)

  5. Scale invariance in the spectral action

    SciTech Connect

    Chamseddine, Ali H.; Connes, Alain

    2006-06-15

    The arbitrary mass scale in the spectral action for the Dirac operator is made dynamical by introducing a dilaton field. We evaluate all the low-energy terms in the spectral action and determine the dilaton couplings. These results are applied to the spectral action of the noncommutative space defined by the standard model. We show that the effective action for all matter couplings is scale invariant, except for the dilaton kinetic term and Einstein-Hilbert term. The resulting action is almost identical to the one proposed for making the standard model scale invariant as well as the model for extended inflation and has the same low-energy limit as the Randall-Sundrum model. Remarkably, all desirable features with correct signs for the relevant terms are obtained uniquely and without any fine tuning.

  6. Commitment to action. Population Action International.

    PubMed

    Squires, S

    1994-01-01

    The national chair of Population Action International (formerly the Population Crisis Committee), Robin Chandler Duke, is a crusader for women's reproductive rights. She was in Bangladesh in 1971 during its civil war. Soldiers would rape young Muslim women, and their families would reject them when they became pregnant. The head of the exiled government agreed to let physicians from IPPF perform abortions on these women, which allowed families to take them back. Opposition to the abortions arose, however. This experience in Bangladesh sparked Ms. Duke's interest in population control. Her years as the wife of a US diplomat granted her access to powerful people worldwide. Her predecessor, retired US Army General Bill Draper, called Ms. Duke from his death bed in 1974 to ask her to be national chair of PAI. She served as a delegate in various international meetings, e.g., the 1980 UNESCO meetings in Belgrade. Spain and Luxembourg honored her for her work of campaigning for women's reproductive rights. She believes that rapid population growth is the most significant problem in the world today. It exacerbates poverty, environmental destruction, and political instability. She believes that universal availability of high quality, voluntary family planning services, including safe abortion, is needed to save humanity from the vicious cycle. Since family planning, sex education, and abortion are the most personal and sensitive parts of people's lives, Population Action frames family planning in the context of basic health care. AIDS complicates the issue, because contraception is no longer limited to birth control. Even though the organization realizes that sexual abstinence is the best way to avoid AIDS, it tries to educate female teenagers not to let boys coerce them to have sex. If they do, have sex Population Action advocates condom use. Ms. Duke cites the family planning successes of Indonesia, Zimbabwe, and Thailand. PMID:12319083

  7. Galileons from Lovelock actions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Van Doorsselaere, Jos

    2011-04-15

    We demonstrate how, for an arbitrary number of dimensions, the Galileon actions and their covariant generalizations can be obtained through a standard Kaluza-Klein compactification of higher-dimensional Lovelock gravity. In this setup, the dilaton takes on the role of the Galileon. In addition, such compactifications uncover other more general Galilean actions, producing purely second-order equations in the weak-field limit, now both for the Galileon and the metric perturbations.

  8. Action Learning as Invigoration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chivers, Terence S.

    2011-01-01

    The present account of action learning describes its adoption for pragmatic reasons by the University of the Third Age (U3A). The reason for the existence of this movement is the education of retired people. The account seeks to explain why the action learning method spread from one local U3A to another and across it to other local U3As. The case…

  9. Cardiac action potential imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Qinghai; Lipp, Peter; Kaestner, Lars

    2013-06-01

    Action potentials in cardiac myocytes have durations in the order of magnitude of 100 milliseconds. In biomedical investigations the documentation of the occurrence of action potentials is often not sufficient, but a recording of the shape of an action potential allows a functional estimation of several molecular players. Therefore a temporal resolution of around 500 images per second is compulsory. In the past such measurements have been performed with photometric approaches limiting the measurement to one cell at a time. In contrast, imaging allows reading out several cells at a time with additional spatial information. Recent developments in camera technologies allow the acquisition with the required speed and sensitivity. We performed action potential imaging on isolated adult cardiomyocytes of guinea pigs utilizing the fluorescent membrane potential sensor di-8-ANEPPS and latest electron-multiplication CCD as well as scientific CMOS cameras of several manufacturers. Furthermore, we characterized the signal to noise ratio of action potential signals of varying sets of cameras, dye concentrations and objective lenses. We ensured that di-8-ANEPPS itself did not alter action potentials by avoiding concentrations above 5 μM. Based on these results we can conclude that imaging is a reliable method to read out action potentials. Compared to conventional current-clamp experiments, this optical approach allows a much higher throughput and due to its contact free concept leaving the cell to a much higher degree undisturbed. Action potential imaging based on isolated adult cardiomyocytes can be utilized in pharmacological cardiac safety screens bearing numerous advantages over approaches based on heterologous expression of hERG channels in cell lines.

  10. [Addictions and action systems].

    PubMed

    Loonis, E; Apter, M J

    2000-01-01

    Generalizing from some previous analyses of addiction, and introducing the concept of an action system which governs all actions which are focussed on what Brown (1988) calls "hedonic management", we argue that addictions of every kind involve an action system that displays high salience, low variety and low vicariance. Addictions also involve what Apter (1982) calls the "paratelic state". A study was carried out comparing 31 drug addicts with 29 control subjects in terms of action system variables. To measure these variables, we constructed a new instrument, the Activity-System Drawing Test, and also used the Telic Dominance Scale to measure frequency of paratelic states. Dysphoria was measured by means of the BATE (anxiety), IDA-13 (depression), SEI (self-esteem), and TAS-20 (alexithymia) instruments. Strongly significant differences were found between groups for both action system variables and dysphoria, and there were also strong correlations between both groups of variables. This supports the idea that addictions emerge from systemic properties of the action system. PMID:10858918

  11. THz spectra of cortisone and the related medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Shihua; Ge, Min; Liu, Guifeng; Song, Xiyu; Zhang, Peng; Wang, Wenfeng

    2009-07-01

    THz-TDS are used to study four kinds of drug: cortisone, hydrocortisone, prednisone and prednisolone. The THz spectra of them are obtained and analyzed from 0.2 - 1.6 THz. The experimental results shows the four samples have the different THz spectra. Cortisone has a peak at 1.5 THz and a broad absorption peak at 0.96 THz, while hydrocortisone has a weak absorption peak that lies at 1.27 THz. At the same time the prednisone has the stronger absorption peaks than the others, and its two peaks shows at 1.24 THz and 1.5 THz. Prednisolone has a weak broad peak at 1.43 THz. The results of the theoretical calculation were performed using Gaussian 03 software with Density Functional Theory at the basis set of 6-31+G (d, p). The theoretical vibrational frequencies are compared with the experimental results, and the deviations are discussed. The THz spectra of the medicine show THz technique may be help to distinguish some different chemical bond and functional group.

  12. Generalization of the Proca Action

    SciTech Connect

    Heisenberg, Lavinia

    2014-05-01

    We consider the Lagrangian of a vector field with derivative self-interactions with a priori arbitrary coefficients. Starting with a flat space-time we show that for a special choice of the coefficients of the self-interactions the ghost-like pathologies disappear. This constitutes the Galileon-type generalization of the Proca action with only three propagating physical degrees of freedom. The longitudinal mode of the vector field is associated to the usual Galileon interactions for a specific choice of the overall functions. In difference to a scalar Galileon theory, the generalized Proca field has more free parameters. We then extend this analysis to a curved background. The resulting theory is the Horndeski Proca action with second order equations of motion on curved space-times.

  13. Hungarian climate change action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Molnar, S.; Takacs, T.; Arpasi, M.; Farago, T.; Palvoelgyi, T.; Harnos, Z.; Lontay, Z.; Somogyi, Z.; Tajthy, T.

    1998-12-31

    In 1994--1996, within the framework of the US Country Studies Program, the Hungarian Country Study Team developed the national greenhouse gas emission inventory, and elaborated the mitigation options for the different sectors of the economy. In 1997, the development of a National Action Plan was begun as the continuation of this work. Results of the inventory study showed that greenhouse gas emissions decreased from the selected base level (i.e., from the yearly average emissions of 1985--1987) until 1994 by cca. 25%. However, this decrease was primarily caused by the deep economic recession. Therefore the policy makers have to face the problem of economic recovery without a relevant increase of greenhouse gas emissions in the near future. This is the main focus of the mitigation analysis and the National Action Plan.

  14. DETERMINING REFLECTANCE SPECTRA OF SURFACES AND CLOUDS ON EXOPLANETS

    SciTech Connect

    Cowan, Nicolas B.; Strait, Talia E.

    2013-03-01

    Planned missions will spatially resolve temperate terrestrial planets from their host star. Although reflected light from such a planet encodes information about its surface, it has not been shown how to establish surface characteristics of a planet without assuming known surfaces to begin with. We present a reanalysis of disk-integrated, time-resolved, multiband photometry of Earth obtained by the Deep Impact spacecraft as part of the EPOXI Mission of Opportunity. We extract reflectance spectra of clouds, ocean, and land without a priori knowledge of the numbers or colors of these surfaces. We show that the inverse problem of extracting surface spectra from such data is a novel and extreme instance of spectral unmixing, a well-studied problem in remote sensing. Principal component analysis is used to determine an appropriate number of model surfaces with which to interpret the data. Shrink-wrapping a simplex to the color excursions of the planet yields a conservative estimate of the planet's endmember spectra. The resulting surface maps are unphysical, however, requiring negative or larger-than-unity surface coverage at certain locations. Our ''rotational unmixing'' supersedes the endmember analysis by simultaneously solving for the surface spectra and their geographical distributions on the planet, under the assumption of diffuse reflection and known viewing geometry. We use a Markov Chain Monte Carlo to determine best-fit parameters and their uncertainties. The resulting albedo spectra are similar to clouds, ocean, and land seen through a Rayleigh-scattering atmosphere. This study suggests that future direct-imaging efforts could identify and map unknown surfaces and clouds on exoplanets.

  15. Can We Infer Ocean Dynamics from Altimeter Wavenumber Spectra?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Richman, James; Shriver, Jay; Arbic, Brian

    2012-01-01

    The wavenumber spectra of sea surface height (SSH) and kinetic energy (KE) have been used to infer the dynamics of the ocean. When quasi-geostrophic dynamics (QG) or surface quasi-geostrophic (SQG) turbulence dominate and an inertial subrange exists, a steep SSH wavenumber spectrum is expected with k-5 for QG turbulence and a flatter k-11/3 for SQG turbulence. However, inspection of the spectral slopes in the mesoscale band of 70 to 250 km shows that the altimeter wavenumber slopes typically are much flatter than the QG or SQG predictions over most of the ocean. Comparison of the altimeter wavenumber spectra with the spectra estimated from the output of an eddy resolving global ocean circulation model (the Hybrid Coordinate Ocean Model, HYCOM, at 1/25 resolution), which is forced by high frequency winds and includes the astronomical forcing of the sun and the moon, suggests that the flatter slopes of the altimeter may arise from three possible sources, the presence of internal waves, the lack of an inertial subrange in the 70 to 250 km band and noise or submesoscales at small scales. When the wavenumber spectra of SSH and KE are estimated near the internal tide generating regions, the resulting spectra are much flatter than the expectations of QG or SQG theory. If the height and velocity variability are separated into low frequency (periods greater than 2 days) and high frequency (periods less than a day), then a different pattern emerges with a relatively flat wavenumber spectrum at high frequency and a steeper wavenumber spectrum at low frequency. The stationary internal tides can be removed from the altimeter spectrum, which steepens the spectral slopes in the energetic internal wave regions. Away from generating regions where the internal waves

  16. Titan Reveals Transit Spectra of a Definitively Hazy World

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2014-11-01

    Hazes dramatically influence exoplanet observations by obscuring deeper atmospheric layers. This effect is especially pronounced in transit spectroscopy, which probes large pathlengths through an exoplanet atmosphere as it crosses the disk of its host star. While hazes are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra, it is difficult to make inferences from the observations because of the need to disentangle effects of noise, gas absorption, and haze extinction. Here, we turn to Titan, an extremely well studied world with a hazy atmosphere, to better understand how high altitude hazes can impact exoplanet transit observations. We use solar occultation observations from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) aboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. The data, which span 0.88-5 microns at a resolution of 12-18 nm, show strong methane absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases, including acetylene and carbon monoxide. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is neither flat nor has a pure Rayleigh slope, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous absorption features. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum, and demonstrate how high altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding our observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Overall, these new data challenge our understanding of how hazes influence exoplanet transit observations, and provide a means of testing proposed approaches for exoplanet characterization

  17. Transit Spectra of a Hazy World Revealed by Titan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Tyler D.; Maltagliati, Luca; Marley, Mark S.

    2015-01-01

    Hazes dramatically influence exoplanet observations by obscuring deeper atmospheric layers. This effect is especially pronounced in transit spectroscopy, which probes large pathlengths through an exoplanet atmosphere as it crosses the disk of its host star. While hazes are proposed to explain observed featureless transit spectra, it is difficult to make inferences from the observations because of the need to disentangle effects of noise, gas absorption, and haze extinction. Here, we turn to Titan, an extremely well studied world with a hazy atmosphere, to better understand how high altitude hazes can impact exoplanet transit observations. We use solar occultation observations from the Visual and Infrared Mapping Spectrometer (VIMS) aboard NASA's Cassini spacecraft to generate transit spectra. Our approach exploits symmetry between occultations and transits, producing transit radius spectra that inherently include the effects of haze multiple scattering, refraction, and gas absorption. The data, which span 0.88-5 microns at a resolution of 12-18 nm, show strong methane absorption features, and weaker features due to other gases, including acetylene and carbon monoxide. Unlike the usual assumption made when modeling and interpreting transit observations of potentially hazy worlds, the slope set by haze in our spectra is not flat, and creates a variation in transit height whose magnitude is comparable to those from the strongest gaseous absorption features. We use a simple model of haze extinction to explore how Titan's haze affects its transit spectrum, and demonstrate how high altitude hazes can severely limit the atmospheric depths probed by transit spectra, bounding our observations to pressures smaller than 0.1-10 mbar, depending on wavelength. Overall, these new data challenge our understanding of how hazes influence exoplanet transit observations, and provide a means of testing proposed approaches for exoplanet characterization. Additionally, our findings will

  18. Extending experiences of voluntary action by association.

    PubMed

    Khalighinejad, Nima; Haggard, Patrick

    2016-08-01

    "Sense of agency" refers to the experience that links one's voluntary actions to their external outcomes. It remains unclear whether this ubiquitous experience is hardwired, arising from specific signals within the brain's motor systems, or rather depends on associative learning, through repeated cooccurrence of voluntary movements and their outcomes. To distinguish these two models, we asked participants to trigger a tone by a voluntary keypress action. The voluntary action was always associated with an involuntary movement of the other hand. We then tested whether the combination of the involuntary movement and tone alone might now suffice to produce a sense of agency, even when the voluntary action was omitted. Sense of agency was measured using an implicit marker based on time perception, namely a shift in the perceived time of the outcome toward the action that caused it. Across two experiments, repeatedly pairing an involuntary movement with a voluntary action induced key temporal features of agency, with the outcome now perceived as shifted toward the involuntary movement. This shift required involuntary movements to have been previously associated with voluntary actions. We show that some key aspects of agency may be transferred from voluntary actions to involuntary movements. An internal volitional signal is required for the primary acquisition of agency but, with repeated association, the involuntary movement in itself comes to produce some key temporal features of agency over the subsequent outcome. This finding may explain how humans can develop an enduring sense of agency in nonnatural cases, like brain-machine interfaces. PMID:27436902

  19. Gravitational spectra from direct measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. A.; Colombo, O. L.

    1978-01-01

    A simple rapid method is described for determining the spectrum of a surface field from harmonic analysis of direct measurements along great circle arcs. The method is shown to give excellent overall trends to very high degree from even a few short arcs of satellite data. Three examples are taken with perfect measurements of satellite tracking over a planet made up of hundreds of point-masses using (1) altimetric heights from a low orbiting spacecraft, (2) velocity residuals between a low and a high satellite in circular orbits, and (3) range-rate data between a station at infinity and a satellite in highly eccentric orbit. In particular, the smoothed spectrum of the Earth's gravitational field is determined to about degree 400(50 km half wavelength) from 1 D x 1 D gravimetry and the equivalent of 11 revolutions of Geos 3 and Skylab altimetry. This measurement shows there is about 46 cm of geoid height remaining in the field beyond degree 180.

  20. Inverted spectra of SWCNT films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehman, John; Hurst, Katherine; Roberson, Lara; Nield, Kathryn; Hamlin, John

    2008-03-01

    Diffuse Reflectance for purified single wall carbon nanotube (SWCNT) films and its relation to absorptance in the wavelength range 0.6 μm to 2 μm are inverted when compared to absorptivity data in the literature. This surprising behavior has been corroborated by diffuse reflectance measurements and shows that the reflectance is a substantial part of the unique optical behavior. Typically, the absorptance is fairly assumed to be complementary to the transmittance, while the reflectivity is insignificant. Only in certain instances (see for example, Barnes, et. al[1], Wang, et. al[2]), is the small reflectance explicitly accounted for. In the present work, we present diffuse reflectance and specular absorptance at normal incidence of SWCNT films. [1] T. M. Barnes, J. van de Lagemaat, D. Levi,1 G. Rumbles, T. J. Coutts, C. L. Weeks, D. A. Britz, I. Levitsky, J. Peltola, P. Glatkowski, Phys. Rev. B 75, 235410 (2007). [2] F. Wang, M. Y. Sfeir, L. Huang, X. M. H. Huang, Wu, J. Kim, J. Hone, S. O'Brien, L. E. Brus, T. F. Heinz, PRL 96, 167401 (2006).

  1. Implicit agency in observed actions: evidence for N1 suppression of tones caused by self-made and observed actions.

    PubMed

    Poonian, Simandeep K; McFadyen, Jessica; Ogden, Jessica; Cunnington, Ross

    2015-04-01

    Every day we make attributions about how our actions and the actions of others cause consequences in the world around us. It is unknown whether we use the same implicit process in attributing causality when observing others' actions as we do when making our own. The aim of this research was to investigate the neural processes involved in the implicit sense of agency we form between actions and effects, for both our own actions and when watching others' actions. Using an interval estimation paradigm to elicit intentional binding in self-made and observed actions, we measured the EEG responses indicative of anticipatory processes before an action and the ERPs in response to the sensory consequence. We replicated our previous findings that we form a sense of implicit agency over our own and others' actions. Crucially, EEG results showed that tones caused by either self-made or observed actions both resulted in suppression of the N1 component of the sensory ERP, with no difference in suppression between consequences caused by observed actions compared with self-made actions. Furthermore, this N1 suppression was greatest for tones caused by observed goal-directed actions rather than non-action or non-goal-related visual events. This suggests that top-down processes act upon the neural responses to sensory events caused by goal-directed actions in the same way for events caused by the self or those made by other agents. PMID:25321488

  2. Simultaneous action execution and observation optimise grasping actions.

    PubMed

    Ménoret, Mathilde; Curie, Aurore; des Portes, Vincent; Nazir, Tatjana A; Paulignan, Yves

    2013-06-01

    Action observation and execution share overlapping neural resonating mechanisms. In the present study, we sought to examine the effect of the activation of this system during concurrent movement observation and execution in a prehension task, when no a priori information about the requirements of grasping action was available. Although it is known that simultaneous activation by observation and execution influences motor performance, the importance of the delays of these two events and the specific effect of movement observation itself (and not the prediction of the to-be-observed movement) on action performance are poorly known. Fine-grained kinematic analysis of both the transport and grasp components of the movement should provide knowledge about the influence of movement observation on the precision and the performance of the executed movement. The experiment involved two real participants who were asked to grasp a different side of a single object that was composed of a large and a small part. In the first experiment, we measured how the transport component and the grasp component were affected by movement observation. We tested whether this influence was greater if the observed movement occurred just before the onset of movement (200 ms) or well before the onset of movement (1 s). In a second experiment, to reproduce the previous experiment and to verify the specificity of the grasping movements, we also included a condition consisting of pointing towards the object. Both experiments showed two main results. A general facilitation of the transport component was found when observing a simultaneous action, independent of its congruency. Moreover, a specific facilitation of the grasp component was present during the observation of a congruent action when movement execution and observation were nearly synchronised. While the general facilitation may arise from a competition between the two participants as they reached for the object, the specific facilitation

  3. The action spectrum of Photosystem II photoinactivation in visible light.

    PubMed

    Zavafer, Alonso; Chow, Wah Soon; Cheah, Mun Hon

    2015-11-01

    Photosynthesis is always accompanied by light induced damage to the Photosystem II (PSII) which is compensated by its subsequent repair. Photoinhibition of PSII is a complex process, balancing between photoinactivation, protective and repair mechanisms. Current understanding of photoinactivation is limited with competing hypotheses where the photosensitiser is either photosynthetic pigments or the Mn4CaO5 cluster itself, with little consensus on the mechanisms and consequences of PSII photoinactivation. The mechanism of photoinactivation should be reflected in the action spectrum of PSII photoinactivation, but there is a great diversity of the action spectra reported thus far. The only consensus is that PSII photoinactivation is greatest in the UV region of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this review, the authors revisit the methods, technical constraints and the different action spectra of PSII photoinactivation reported to date and compare them against the diverse mechanisms proposed. Upon critical examination of the reported action spectra, a hybrid mechanism of photoinactivation, sensitised by both photosynthetic pigments and the Mn4CaO5 appears to be the most plausible rationalisation. PMID:26298696

  4. On the continuity of spectra for families of magnetic pseudodifferential operators

    SciTech Connect

    Athmouni, Nassim; Mantoiu, Marius; Purice, Radu

    2010-08-15

    For families of magnetic pseudodifferential operators defined by symbols and magnetic fields depending continuously on a real parameter {epsilon}, we show that the corresponding family of spectra also varies continuously with {epsilon}.

  5. FLUORESCENCE CHARACTERIZATION OF IHSS HUMIC SUBSTANCES: TOTAL LUMINESCENCE SPECTRA WITH ABSORBANCE CORRECTION. (R822251)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Total luminescence spectroscopy was applied to the fluorescence characterization of humic substances obtained from the International Humic Substances Society (IHSS). Results show that total luminescence spectra, represented as excitation-emission matrices (EEMs), may be used to d...

  6. No-Show Analysis. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalsbeek, William D.; And Others

    The National Assessment of Educational Progress; Second Science Assessment No-Show Study assessed the magnitude and causation of nonresponse biases. A No-Show is defined as an individual who was selected as a sample respondent but failed to be present for regular assessment of the 17-year-old group. The procedure whereby a sample of eligible…

  7. Effects of Talk Show Viewing on Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davis, Stacy; Mares, Marie-Louise

    1998-01-01

    Investigates the effects of talk-show viewing on high-school students' social-reality beliefs. Supports the hypothesis that viewers overestimate the frequency of deviant behaviors; does not find support for the hypothesis that viewers become desensitized to the suffering of others; and finds that talk-show viewing was positively related, among…

  8. Acculturation, Cultivation, and Daytime TV Talk Shows.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Hyung-Jin; Dominick, Joseph R.

    2003-01-01

    Explores the cultivation phenomenon among international college students in the United States by examining the connection between levels of acculturation, daytime TV talk show viewing, and beliefs about social reality. Finds that students who scored low on acculturation and watched a great deal of daytime talk shows had a more negative perception…

  9. The Physics of Equestrian Show Jumping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stinner, Art

    2014-01-01

    This article discusses the kinematics and dynamics of equestrian show jumping. For some time I have attended a series of show jumping events at Spruce Meadows, an international equestrian center near Calgary, Alberta, often referred to as the "Wimbledon of equestrian jumping." I have always had a desire to write an article such as this…

  10. The Language of Show Biz: A Dictionary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sergel, Sherman Louis, Ed.

    This dictionary of the language of show biz provides the layman with definitions and essays on terms and expressions often used in show business. The overall pattern of selection was intended to be more rather than less inclusive, though radio, television, and film terms were deliberately omitted. Lengthy explanations are sometimes used to express…

  11. Electronic and Vibrational Spectra of InP Quantum Dots Formed by Sequential Ion Implantation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hall, C.; Mu, R.; Tung, Y. S.; Ueda, A.; Henderson, D. O.; White, C. W.

    1997-01-01

    We have performed sequential ion implantation of indium and phosphorus into silica combined with controlled thermal annealing to fabricate InP quantum dots in a dielectric host. Electronic and vibrational spectra were measured for the as-implanted and annealed samples. The annealed samples show a peak in the infrared spectra near 320/cm which is attributed to a surface phonon mode and is in good agreement with the value calculated from Frolich's theory of surface phonon polaritons. The electronic spectra show the development of a band near 390 nm that is attributed to quantum confined InP.

  12. Ultraviolet Photodissociation Action Spectroscopy of Protonated Azabenzenes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Christopher S.; Blanksby, Stephen J.; Bieske, Evan; Reimers, Jeffrey R.; Trevitt, Adam J.

    2014-06-01

    Azabenzenes are derivatives of benzene containing between one and six nitrogen atoms. Protonated azabenzenes are the fundamental building blocks of many biomolecules, charge-transfer dyes, ionic liquids and fluorescent tags. However, despite their ubiquity, there exists limited spectroscopic data that reveals the structure, behaviour and stability of these systems in their excited states. For the case of pyridinium (C_5H_5N-H^+), the simplest azabenzene, the electronic spectroscopy is complicated by short excited state lifetimes, efficient non-radiative deactivation methods and limited fluorescence. Ultraviolet (UV) photodissociation (PD) action spectroscopy provides new insight into the spectroscopic details, excited state behaviour and photodissociation processes of a series of protonated azabenzenes including pyridinium, diazeniums and their substituted derivatives. The room-temperature UV PD action spectra, often exhibiting vibronic detail,^b will be presented alongside PD mass spectra and the kinetic data from structurally-diagnostic ion-molecule reaction kinetics. Analysis of the spectra, with the aid of quantum chemical calculations, reveal that many azabenzenes prefer a non-planar excited state geometry reminiscent of the structures encountered in 'channel 3'-like deactivation of aromatics. The normal modes active in this isomerization contribute largely to the spectroscopy of the N-pyridinium ion as they build upon totally-symmetric vibronic transitions leading to repeating sets of closely-spaced spectral features. Hansen, C.S. et al.; J. Am. Soc. Mass Spectrom. 24:932-940 (2013) Hansen, C.S. et al.; J. Phys. Chem. A 117:10839-10846 (2013)

  13. Human action recognition using integrated model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Yang; Lin, Yikun

    2013-07-01

    A novel action recognition framework based on integrated model is proposed in the paper. First, the covariance descriptor is utilized to extract features from video sequences, and then each class specific codebook is constructed and appended to the global codebook. A static model applying the template matching technique and a dynamic model employing the trigram model are learned to capture complementary information in an action. And lastly, an integrated model is used to estimate the confidence of the static and dynamic models and produces a reliable result. Comparative experiments show that our presented method achieves superior results over other state-of-the-art approaches. Keywords: human action recognition, covariance descriptor, integrated model

  14. The dual formulation of M5-brane action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Sheng-Lan; Vanichchapongjaroen, Pichet

    2016-06-01

    We construct a dual formulation, with respect to the conventional PST formalism, of the M5-brane action propagating in a generic 11d supergravity background. Constraint analysis is performed to further justify that our theory has the correct number of degrees of freedom. Comparison of this action with the existing M5-brane actions is carried out. We also show that a conventional D4-brane action is obtained upon double dimensional reduction.

  15. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2000-07-13

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x.

  16. Wong's equations and the small x effective action in QCD

    SciTech Connect

    Jalilian-Marian, Jamal; Jeon, Sangyong; Venugopalan, Raju

    2001-02-01

    We propose a new form for the small x effective action in QCD. This form of the effective action is motivated by Wong's equations for classical, colored particles in non-Abelian background fields. We show that the BFKL equation, which sums leading logarithms in x, is efficiently reproduced with this form of the action. We argue that this form of the action may be particularly useful in computing next-to-leading-order results in QCD at small x.

  17. Quantum confinement in metal nanofilms: Optical spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelinskii, Igor; Makarov, Vladimir I.

    2016-05-01

    We report optical absorption and photoluminescence spectra of Au, Fe, Co and Ni polycrystalline nanofilms in the UV-vis-NIR range, featuring discrete bands resulting from transverse quantum confinement. The film thickness ranged from 1.1 to 15.6 nm, depending on the material. The films were deposited on fused silica substrates by sputtering/thermo-evaporation, with Fe, Co and Ni protected by a SiO2 film deposited on top. The results are interpreted within the particle-in-a-box model, with the box width equal to the mass thickness of the nanofilm. The transverse-quantized energy levels and transition energies scale as the inverse square of the film thickness. The calculated values of the effective electron mass are 0.93 (Au), 0.027 (Fe), 0.21 (Co) and 0.16 (Ni), in units of mo - the mass of the free electron, being independent on the film thickness. The uncertainties in the effective mass values are ca. 2.5%, determined by the film thickness calibration. The second calculated model parameter, the quantum number n of the HOMO, was thickness-independent in Au (5.00) and Fe (6.00), and increased with the film thickness in Co (from 7 to 9) and Ni (from 7 to 11). The transitions observed in the absorbance all start at the level n and correspond to Δn=+1, +2, +3, etc. The photoluminescence bands exhibit large Stokes shifts, shifting to higher energies with the increased excitation energy. The photoluminescence quantum yields grow linearly with the excitation energy, showing evidence of multiple exciton generation. A prototype Fe-SnO2 nanofilm photovoltaic cell demonstrated at least 90% quantum yield of photoelectrons at 77 K.

  18. Measuring Transmission Spectra from the Ground

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jordan, Andres; Espinoza, Nestor; Eyheramendy, Susana

    2015-08-01

    Transmission spectroscopy allows study of the atmospheres of exoplanets without the need of spatially resolving them from their parent stars and is one of the most valuable follow-up possibilities offered by transiting systems. The measurement of a transmission spectrum, i.e. the apparent planetary size in units in the stellar radius as a function of wavelength, is conceptually simple, but the expected features that need to be discerned are on the order of one part in a thousand or less, and need to be extracted against a background of (potentially correlated) noise and systematic effects with amplitudes greatly exceeding that of the sought signal. In this talk I will describe how we have tackled the estimation of transmission spectra in a ground based survey we are carrying out with IMACS at Las Campanas Observatory, the Arizona-CfA-Catolica Exoplanet Spectroscopy Survey. Our treatment assumes an additive model consisting of the signal, common systematics and one of a set of stochastic processes with different memory characteristics for the noise. Common systematics are estimated from comparison stars using principal component analysis and the model parameter posterior distributions are estimated using MCMC. Model comparison is used to let the data select the model with the most appropriate noise component. I will illustrate the performance of our approach, and discuss possible avenues of improvement. I will also illustrate the importance of potential biases arising from our incomplete knowledge of stellar properties. In particular, I will show that limb darkening assumptions can limit the accuracy of our estimates of planetary radii above the achievable precisions in regimes currently being probed.

  19. Infrared Extinction Spectra of Mineral Dust Aerosol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kleiber, P.; Laskina, O.; Alexander, J. M.; Young, M.; Grassian, V. H.

    2012-12-01

    Mineral dust aerosol affects the atmosphere by absorbing and scattering radiation and plays an important role in the Earth's radiative budget. The effect of atmospheric dust on climate is studied by various remote sensing techniques that use measurements from narrow band IR channels of satellites to determine key atmospheric properties. Therefore, it is essential to take radiative effects of mineral dust aerosol into account to correctly process remote sensing data. As aerosols are transported through the atmosphere they undergo aging and heterogeneous chemistry. This leads to changes in their optical properties and their effects on climate. In this study we carried out spectral simulations using both Mie theory and solutions derived in the Rayleigh regime for authentic dust samples and several processed components of mineral dust. Simulations of the extinction based on Mie theory shows that it does not accurately reproduce the peak position and band shape of the prominent IR resonance features. Errors in the simulated peak position and the line shape associated with Mie theory can adversely affect determination of mineral composition based on IR satellite data. Analytic solutions for various shapes derived from Rayleigh theory offer a better fit to the major band features of the spectra, therefore the accuracy of modeling atmospheric dust properties can be improved by using these analytic solutions. It is also important to take aging of mineral dust into account. We investigated the effect of chemical processing on the optical properties. It was shown that interactions of components of mineral dust (calcite, quartz and kaolinite) with humic and organic acids cause a shift of the IR resonance bands of these minerals. It may indicate changes in shape of the particles as well as changes in hygroscopicity and, as the result, the water content in these samples. Therefore, care should be taken when modeling optical properties of aged mineral dust.

  20. AGNs with composite spectra. II. Additional data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonçalves, A. C.; Véron-Cetty, M.-P.; Véron, P.

    1999-03-01

    In a previous paper \\cite[(Véron et al. 1997)]{ver97} we presented medium resolution (3.4 Angstroms FWHM) spectroscopic observations of 15 ``transition objects'', selected for having an ambiguous location in the \\cite[Veilleux & Osterbrock (1987)]{vei87} diagnostic diagrams, and showed that most of them were in fact ``composite'', this being due to the simultaneous presence on the slit of both a Seyfert or Liner nucleus and a H Ii region. Here, we report new spectroscopic observations of 53 emission-line galaxies with a ``transition'' spectrum, bringing up to 61 the total number of observed objects in an unbiased sample of 88 ``transition objects''. Almost all of the observed galaxies have a ``composite" nature, confirming the finding that true ``transition'' spectra may not exist at all. By eliminating ``composite objects'' from the diagnostic diagrams, a clear separation between the different classes of nuclear emission-line regions (Seyfert 2s, Liners and H Ii regions) becomes apparent; by restricting the volume occupied by the different line-emitting regions in the 3-dimensional diagnostic diagrams, we are also restricting the range of possible physical parameters in these regions. There seems to be no continuity between Seyfert 2s and Liners, the two classes occupying distinct volumes in the 3-dimensional space defined by lambda 6300/Hα ii, lambda 6583/Hα , and lambda 6300/Hα . Based on observations collected at the Observatoire de Haute-Provence (CNRS), France, and Hubble Space Telescope (HST) data obtained from the Space Telescope European Coordinating Facility (ST-ECF) archive. Tables 5 and 6 are also available in electronic form at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsweb.u-strasbg.fr/Abstract.html

  1. Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Najman, M.

    2009-09-01

    Comparison of Weather Shows in Eastern Europe Television weather shows in Eastern Europe have in most cases in the high graphical standard. There is though a wast difference in duration and information content in the weather shows. There are few signs and regularities by which we can see the character of the weather show. The main differences are mainly caused by the income structure of the TV station. Either it is a fully privately funded TV relying on the TV commercials income. Or it is a public service TV station funded mainly by the national budget or fixed fee structure/tax. There are wast differences in duration and even a graphical presentation of the weather. Next important aspect is a supplier of the weather information and /or the processor. Shortly we can say, that when the TV show is produced by the national met office, the TV show consists of more scientific terms, synoptic maps, satellite imagery, etc. If the supplier is the private meteorological company, the weather show is more user-friendly, laical with less scientific terms. We are experiencing a massive shift in public weather knowledge and demand for information. In the past, weather shows consisted only of maps with weather icons. In todaýs world, even the laic weather shows consist partly of numerical weather model outputs - they are of course designed to be understandable and graphically attractive. Outputs of the numerical weather models used to be only a part of daily life of a professional meteorologist, today they are common part of life of regular people. Video samples are a part of this presentation.

  2. Background noise spectra of global seismic stations

    SciTech Connect

    Wada, M.M.; Claassen, J.P.

    1996-08-01

    Over an extended period of time station noise spectra were collected from various sources for use in estimating the detection and location performance of global networks of seismic stations. As the database of noise spectra enlarged and duplicate entries became available, an effort was mounted to more carefully select station noise spectra while discarding others. This report discusses the methodology and criteria by which the noise spectra were selected. It also identifies and illustrates the station noise spectra which survived the selection process and which currently contribute to the modeling efforts. The resulting catalog of noise statistics not only benefits those who model network performance but also those who wish to select stations on the basis of their noise level as may occur in designing networks or in selecting seismological data for analysis on the basis of station noise level. In view of the various ways by which station noise were estimated by the different contributors, it is advisable that future efforts which predict network performance have available station noise data and spectral estimation methods which are compatible with the statistics underlying seismic noise. This appropriately requires (1) averaging noise over seasonal and/or diurnal cycles, (2) averaging noise over time intervals comparable to those employed by actual detectors, and (3) using logarithmic measures of the noise.

  3. Cleaning HI Spectra Contaminated by GPS RFI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylvia, Kamin; Hallenbeck, Gregory L.; Undergraduate ALFALFA Team

    2016-01-01

    The NUDET systems aboard GPS satellites utilize radio waves to communicate information regarding surface nuclear events. The system tests appear in spectra as RFI (radio frequency interference) at 1381MHz, which contaminates observations of extragalactic HI (atomic hydrogen) signals at 50-150 Mpc. Test durations last roughly 20-120 seconds and can occur upwards of 30 times during a single night of observing. The disruption essentially renders the corresponding HI spectra useless.We present a method that automatically removes RFI in HI spectra caused by these tests. By capitalizing on the GPS system's short test durations and predictable frequency appearance we are able to devise a method of identifying times containing compromised data records. By reevaluating the remaining data, we are able to recover clean spectra while sacrificing little in terms of sensitivity to extragalactic signals. This method has been tested on 500+ spectra taken by the Undergraduate ALFALFA Team (UAT), in which it successfully identified and removed all sources of GPS RFI. It will also be used to eliminate RFI in the upcoming Arecibo Pisces-Perseus Supercluster Survey (APPSS).This work has been supported by NSF grant AST-1211005.

  4. Spectra from nuclear-excited plasmas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Young, R. J.; Weaver, W. R.

    1980-01-01

    The paper discusses the spectra taken from He-3(n,p)H-3 nuclear-induced plasmas under high thermal neutron flux, lasing conditions. Also, initial spectra are presented for U-235F6 generated plasmas. From an evaluation of these spectra, important atomic and molecular processes that occur in the plasma can be inferred. The spectra presented are the first to be generated by He-3 and U-235F6 nuclear reactions under high neutron flux, lasing conditions. The U-235(n,ff)FF reaction, which liberates 165 MeV of fission-fragment kinetic energy, creates plasmas that are of great interest, since at sufficiently high densities of U-235F6 the gas becomes self-critical; thus, there is no need for an external driving reactor (source of neutrons). The spectra from mixtures of He-3 and Ar, Xe, Kr, Ne, Cl2, F2 and N2 indicate little difference between high-pressure nuclear-induced plasmas and high-pressure electrically pulsed afterglow plasmas for noble-gas systems

  5. [Infrared and Raman spectra study on Tianhuang].

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun-gui; Chen, Tao

    2012-08-01

    The Tianhuang stones, from Shoushan in China, were studied by using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRD), infrared (IR) spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to obtain the spectra characterization. Wave numbers 3621, 3629 and 3631 cm(-1) in the IR spectra and 3626, 3627 and 3632 cm(-1) in the Raman spectra are the characteristic peaks of dickitic Tianhuang, nacritic Tianhuang and illitic Tianhuang, respectively. Raman spectra assigned to OH are in good agreement with the IR results at 3550 -3750 cm(-1). Dickitic Tianhuang includes ordered dickite and disordered dickite. Compared with ordered dickite, the band assigned to OH3 of disordered dickite shifts to low-frequency by 8 cm(-1) and the relative intensity becomes stronger. The disorder structure may relate to the high level of Fe. The IR absorption spectra of nacritic Tianhuang superimposes strong peaks of dickite, indicating that IR absorption bands of dickite are stronger than that of nacrite at 3550-3750 cm(-1). The main mineral composition of illitic Tianhuang is 2M(1), while illite Tianhuang contains a small amount of 1M. All these characters provide a theoretical basis for the scientific identification of Tianhuang. PMID:23156769

  6. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S.; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-01-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin.

  7. Inertial solvation in femtosecond 2D spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hybl, John; Albrecht Ferro, Allison; Farrow, Darcie; Jonas, David

    2001-03-01

    We have used 2D Fourier transform spectroscopy to investigate polar solvation. 2D spectroscopy can reveal molecular lineshapes beneath ensemble averaged spectra and freeze molecular motions to give an undistorted picture of the microscopic dynamics of polar solvation. The transition from "inhomogeneous" to "homogeneous" 2D spectra is governed by both vibrational relaxation and solvent motion. Therefore, the time dependence of the 2D spectrum directly reflects the total response of the solvent-solute system. IR144, a cyanine dye with a dipole moment change upon electronic excitation, was used to probe inertial solvation in methanol and propylene carbonate. Since the static Stokes' shift of IR144 in each of these solvents is similar, differences in the 2D spectra result from solvation dynamics. Initial results indicate that the larger propylene carbonate responds more slowly than methanol, but appear to be inconsistent with rotational estimates of the inertial response. To disentangle intra-molecular vibrations from solvent motion, the 2D spectra of IR144 will be compared to the time-dependent 2D spectra of the structurally related nonpolar cyanine dye HDITCP.

  8. H. N. Russell and Atomic Spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Devorkin, David

    2001-04-01

    “I would rather analyze spectra than do cross-word puzzles or do almost anything else” Henry Norris Russell wrote to William F. Meggers in 1927. Meggers, chief of the spectroscopy division at the NBS, had been surprised that an astrophysicist could be so keen about the analysis of complex spectra. But Russell was a new type of astrophysicist, one who made physics the core of his research. Spectra, for Russell, held the "master key" to knowledge about the universe, and of the atom. He was first attracted by the challenge of detecting and explaining anomalies, which he hoped would lead to new knowledge about the structure of matter. Then, influenced by physicists such as Meggers, he devoted himself to filling in the picture of the structure of atoms from their characteristic spectra as completely as possible. In this talk I will review how Russell worked with Meggers and became the nucleus of an ever-widening circle of spectroscopists devoted to the analysis of complex spectra.

  9. Disk-averaged synthetic spectra of Mars.

    PubMed

    Tinetti, Giovanna; Meadows, Victoria S; Crisp, David; Fong, William; Velusamy, Thangasamy; Snively, Heather

    2005-08-01

    The principal goal of the NASA Terrestrial Planet Finder (TPF) and European Space Agency's Darwin mission concepts is to directly detect and characterize extrasolar terrestrial (Earthsized) planets. This first generation of instruments is expected to provide disk-averaged spectra with modest spectral resolution and signal-to-noise. Here we use a spatially and spectrally resolved model of a Mars-like planet to study the detectability of a planet's surface and atmospheric properties from disk-averaged spectra. We explore the detectability as a function of spectral resolution and wavelength range, for both the proposed visible coronograph (TPFC) and mid-infrared interferometer (TPF-I/Darwin) architectures. At the core of our model is a spectrum-resolving (line-by-line) atmospheric/surface radiative transfer model. This model uses observational data as input to generate a database of spatially resolved synthetic spectra for a range of illumination conditions and viewing geometries. The model was validated against spectra recorded by the Mars Global Surveyor-Thermal Emission Spectrometer and the Mariner 9-Infrared Interferometer Spectrometer. Results presented here include disk-averaged synthetic spectra, light curves, and the spectral variability at visible and mid-infrared wavelengths for Mars as a function of viewing angle, illumination, and season. We also considered the differences in the spectral appearance of an increasingly ice-covered Mars, as a function of spectral resolution, signal-to-noise and integration time for both TPF-C and TPFI/ Darwin. PMID:16078866

  10. The energy spectra of solar energetic particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcguire, R. E.; Von Rosenvinge, T. T.

    1984-01-01

    A survey of recent results on the shapes and relative slopes of the spectra of various solar energetic particle populations is presented, with emphasis on the more extensive results currently available for protons, alphas and electrons. From previous work, it is found that proton spectra 0.8 to more than 400 MeV and alpha spectra 1.4 to 80 MeV/nucleon are best characterized, on average, by a functional form involving a Bessel function in momentum/nucleon. However, proton and alpha spectral slopes using this form are not equal, and there is significant variation from event to event. From other studies, electrons 0.02 to 20 MeV are also found to have curved spectra, but seem to be better fit with a double power law in energy. The spectral properties in both cases correlate with other measures of solar particle acceleration; e.g. gamma-ray line production, hard X-ray burst spectra and microwave fluxes.

  11. Classifying Facial Actions

    PubMed Central

    Donato, Gianluca; Bartlett, Marian Stewart; Hager, Joseph C.; Ekman, Paul; Sejnowski, Terrence J.

    2010-01-01

    The Facial Action Coding System (FACS) [23] is an objective method for quantifying facial movement in terms of component actions. This system is widely used in behavioral investigations of emotion, cognitive processes, and social interaction. The coding is presently performed by highly trained human experts. This paper explores and compares techniques for automatically recognizing facial actions in sequences of images. These techniques include analysis of facial motion through estimation of optical flow; holistic spatial analysis, such as principal component analysis, independent component analysis, local feature analysis, and linear discriminant analysis; and methods based on the outputs of local filters, such as Gabor wavelet representations and local principal components. Performance of these systems is compared to naive and expert human subjects. Best performances were obtained using the Gabor wavelet representation and the independent component representation, both of which achieved 96 percent accuracy for classifying 12 facial actions of the upper and lower face. The results provide converging evidence for the importance of using local filters, high spatial frequencies, and statistical independence for classifying facial actions. PMID:21188284

  12. ES H action plan

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-01-01

    This document contains planned actions to correct the deficiencies identified in the Pre-Tiger Team Self-Assessment (PTTSA), January 1991, of Sandia National Laboratories (SNL -- Albuquerque, New Mexico; Tonopah, Nevada; and Kauai, Hawaii). The Self-Assessment was conducted by a Self-Assessment Working Group consisting of 19 department managers, with support from Environment, Safety, and Health (ES H) professionals, from October through December 1990. Findings from other past audits, dating back to 1985, were reviewed and compared with the PTTSA findings to determine if additional findings, key findings, or root causes were warranted. The resulting ES H Action Plan and individual planned actions were prepared by the ES H Action Plan Project Group with assistance from the Program owners/authors during February and March 1991. The plan was reviewed by SNL Management in April 1991. This document serves as a planning instrument for the Laboratories to aid in the scoping and sizing of activities related to ES H compliance for the coming five years. It will be modified as required to ensure a workload/funding balance and to address the findings resulting from the Tiger Team assessment at SNL, Albuquerque. The process of producing this document has served well to prepare SNL, Albuquerque, for the coming task of producing the required post-Tiger Team action plan document. 8 tabs.

  13. Recent pollen spectra and zonal vegetation in the western USSR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, G. M.

    The relationship of modern pollen spectra to present-day vegetation is critical to the reconstruction of vegetation and climate from fossil pollen spectra. This study uses isopoll maps to illustrate the pollen-vegetation relationships in the Soviet Union west of 100°E and presents descriptive statistics for 544 modern samples of arboreal pollen and for 370 samples of herb pollen obtained from the Soviet palynological literature. Data are assembled from this large geographic region and presented in a standardized form on a scale which can be used to relate quantitative pollen data to zonal vegetation and climatic variables and to make comparisons with other regions. In order to show the relationship between pollen types and major ecotones in forested and non-forested areas, the pollen data are presented as percentages of a sum including both arboreal and non-arboreal pollen. Major pollen types which attain values of 10% or more in at least one vegetation zone include Betula (birch), Cyperaceae (sedges), Picea (spruce), Pinus (total pine), Pinus sibirica, Ericaceae (heath family), Gramineae (grasses), Artemisia (sage), and Chenopodiaceae (i.e., saltbush, Russian thistle, pigweed family). Samples from the tundra and forest-tundra have high values of Ericaceae (heath family), birch, alder, and sedge pollen. In the boreal forest, pine, spruce, and birch pollen predominate. In the mixed and deciduous forests, Tilia (linden), Quercus (oak), Ulmus (elm), and Corylus (hazel) pollen attain maximum values. In the forest-steppe and steppe zones, arboreal pollen decreases in importance and is replaced by non-arboreal pollen types. Pollen of Artemisia and Chenopodiaceae predominates in the semi-desert zones. In spite of variation in the pollen spectra arising from the use of different sediment types (soil, peat, and river sediments), and human disturbance of vegetation, the pollen spectra are clearly related to zonal vegetation. Pollen spectra from the western USSR show

  14. Energy spectra of ions from impulsive solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, D. V.; Richardson, I. G.; Wenzel, K.-P.

    1992-01-01

    A study of the energy spectra of ions from impulsive solar flares in the 0.1-100 MeV region is reported. Most of the events studied are dominated by He and these He spectra show a persistent steepening or break above about 10 MeV resulting in an increase in the power-law spectral indices from about 2 to about 3.5 or more. Spectra of H, He-3, O, and Fe have spectral indices that are consistent with a value of about 3.5 above about 2 MeV/amu. One event, dominated by protons, shows a clear maximum in the spectrum near 1 MeV. If the rollover in the spectrum below 1 MeV is interpreted as a consequence of matter traversal in the solar atmosphere, then the source of the acceleration would lie only about 800 km above the photosphere, well below the corona. Alternative interpretations are that trapping in the acceleration region directly causes a peak in the resulting ion spectrum or that low-energy particles encounter significant additional scattering during transport from the flare.

  15. Vertical Mining of SDSS Spectra - Constraining Dust Extinction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poznanski, Dovi; Prochaska, J. X.; Bloom, J. S.; Baron, D.

    2013-01-01

    Dust extinction is most likely the leading systematic uncertainty in current cosmological and astrophysical measurements. By both absorbing and reddening radiation, it impedes distance and color measurements, as well as biasing any method that relies on statistics of samples. In a recent publication, we took about a million spectra from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS), and used them in a novel way. Every object in SDSS is observed through the gas and dust in the Milky Way. While a single spectrum does not offer the signal to noise to recover this imprint, stacking many of them recovers the signature in absorption. We stacked thousands of spectra with a similar expected extinction (as derived from the maps of Schlegel et al. 1998). Our approach allowed us to beat down the ample noise and original signal from every source, recovering just the imprint of the Galaxy’s ISM with very high signal-to-noise. We showed that there is indeed a strong correlation between the sodium lines and extinction, and that high resolution spectra have the potential to leverage this correlation well. We will further show additional results using the methods.

  16. Automatic classification of spectra from the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cheeseman, Peter; Stutz, John; Self, Matthew; Taylor, William; Goebel, John; Volk, Kevin; Walker, Helen

    1989-01-01

    A new classification of Infrared spectra collected by the Infrared Astronomical Satellite (IRAS) is presented. The spectral classes were discovered automatically by a program called Auto Class 2. This program is a method for discovering (inducing) classes from a data base, utilizing a Bayesian probability approach. These classes can be used to give insight into the patterns that occur in the particular domain, in this case, infrared astronomical spectroscopy. The classified spectra are the entire Low Resolution Spectra (LRS) Atlas of 5,425 sources. There are seventy-seven classes in this classification and these in turn were meta-classified to produce nine meta-classes. The classification is presented as spectral plots, IRAS color-color plots, galactic distribution plots and class commentaries. Cross-reference tables, listing the sources by IRAS name and by Auto Class class, are also given. These classes show some of the well known classes, such as the black-body class, and silicate emission classes, but many other classes were unsuspected, while others show important subtle differences within the well known classes.

  17. Fluorescence spectra of benign and malignant prostate tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    AlSalhi, M. S.; Masilamani, V.; Atif, M.; Farhat, K.; Rabah, D.; Turki, M. R. Al

    2012-09-01

    In this study, fluorescence emission spectrum (FES), Stokes' shift spectrum (SSS), and reflectance spectrum (RS) of benign (N = 12) and malignant prostate tissues (N = 8) were investigated to discriminate the two types of tissues. The FES was done with the excitation at 325 nm only; SSS with Δλ = 70 and Δλ = 0, the latter being equivalent to reflectance spectra. Of the three modes of spectra, SSS with Δλ = 70 nm showed the best discrimination. There were four important bands, one at 280 nm (due to tryptophan); 320 nm (due to elastin & tryptophan); 355 and 385 (due to NADH) and 440 nm (due to flavin). From the relative intensities of these bands, three ratios were evaluated. Similarly another two ratios were obtained from reflectance spectra and one more from FES. Thus, there are 6 ratio parameters which represent the relative concentration of tryptophan, elastin, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH), and flavin. A statistical analysis showed that benign and malignant tissues could be classified with accuracy greater than 90%. This report is only for in vitro analysis; but employing optical fiber, this can be extended to in vivo analysis too, so that benign tumor could be distinguished without surgery.

  18. Sensitive, quantitative carbon-13 NMR spectra by mechanical sample translation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donovan, Kevin J.; Allen, Mary; Martin, Rachel W.; Shaka, A. J.

    2009-04-01

    Collecting a truly quantitative carbon-13 spectrum is a time-consuming chore. Very long relaxation delays, required between transients to allow the z-magnetization, M z, of the spin with the longestT1 to return to the equilibrium value, M0, must precede each transient. These long delays also reduce sensitivity, as fewer transients per unit time can be acquired. In addition, sometimes T1 is not known to within even a factor of two: a conservative guess for the relaxation delay then leads to very low sensitivity. We demonstrate a fresh method to bypass these problems and collect quantitative carbon-13 spectra by swapping the sample volume after each acquisition with a different portion where the magnetization is already equilibrated to M0. Loading larger sample volumes of 10-20 mL into an unusually long (1520 mm) 5 mm OD. NMR tube and vertically sliding the tube between acquisitions accomplishes the swap. The relaxation delay can then be skipped altogether. The spectra are thus both quantitative, and far more sensitive. We demonstrate the moving tube technique on two small molecules (thymol and butylhydroxytoluene) and show good carbon-13 quantification. The gain in sensitivity can be as much as 10-fold for slowly-relaxing 13C resonances. These experiments show that quantitative, sensitive carbon-13 spectra are possible whenever sufficient sample volumes are available. The method is applicable to any slow-relaxing nuclear spin species, such as 29Si, 15N and other low-γ nuclei.

  19. Infrared spectra of meteoritic SiC grains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, A. C.; Jäger, C.; Mutschke, H.; Braatz, A.; Clément, D.; Henning, Th.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Ott, U.

    1999-03-01

    We present here the first infrared spectra of meteoritic SiC grains. The mid-infrared transmission spectra of meteoritic SiC grains isolated from the Murchison meteorite were measured in the wavelength range 2.5-16.5 mu m, in order to make available the optical properties of presolar SiC grains. These grains are most likely stellar condensates with an origin predominately in carbon stars. Measurements were performed on two different extractions of presolar SiC from the Murchison meteorite. The two samples show very different spectral appearance due to different grain size distributions. The spectral feature of the smaller meteoritic SiC grains is a relatively broad absorption band found between the longitudinal and transverse lattice vibration modes around 11.3 mu m, supporting the current interpretation about the presence of SiC grains in carbon stars. In contrast to this, the spectral feature of the large (> 5 mu m) grains has an extinction minimum around 10 mu m. The obtained spectra are compared with commercially available SiC grains and the differences are discussed. This comparison shows that the crystal structure (e.g., beta -SiC versus alpha -SiC) of SiC grains plays a minor role on the optical signature of SiC grains compared to e.g. grain size.

  20. Spacecraft Image Mashup Shows Galactic Collision

    NASA Video Gallery

    This new composite image from the Chandra X-ray Observatory, the Hubble Space Telescope, and the Spitzer Space Telescope shows two colliding galaxies more than a 100 million years after they first ...

  1. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  2. TRMM Satellite Shows Heavy Rainfall in Cristina

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's TRMM satellite rainfall data was overlaid on an enhanced visible/infrared image from NOAA's GOES-East satellite showing cloud and rainfall extent. Green areas indicate rainfall at over 20 mm...

  3. GOES Satellite Data Shows Tornado Development

    NASA Video Gallery

    This animation of NOAA's GOES-East satellite data shows the development and movement of the weather system that spawned tornadoes affecting the southern and eastern U.S. states on April 27-29, 2014...

  4. Lightweight magnesium-lithium alloys show promise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. T.; Cataldo, C. E.

    1964-01-01

    Evaluation tests show that magnesium-lithium alloys are lighter and more ductile than other magnesium alloys. They are being used for packaging, housings, containers, where light weight is more important than strength.

  5. Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158704.html Portable Zika Test Shows Promise in Monkeys Easy-to-use ... News) -- A fast, inexpensive test that detects the Zika virus in monkeys might be useful for doctors ...

  6. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... nih.gov/medlineplus/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  7. Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_158765.html Malaria Vaccine Shows Promise in Small Study It protected more ... May 10, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- An experimental malaria vaccine protects a majority of adults against the mosquito- ...

  8. 47 CFR 90.505 - Showing required.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... MOBILE RADIO SERVICES Developmental Operation § 90.505 Showing required. (a) Except as provided in... radio art, or is investigating new unexplored concepts in radio transmission and communications; (4)...

  9. Toxic action/toxicity.

    PubMed

    Hathway, D E

    2000-02-01

    Some six or so physiological systems, essential to normal mammalian life, are involved in poisoning; an intoxication that causes severe injury to any one of them could be life threatening. Reversible chemical reactions showing Scatchard-type binding are exemplified by CO, CN- and cyclodiene neurotoxin insecticide intoxications, and by antigen-antibody complex formation. Haemoglobin (Hb) molecular biology accounts for the allosteric co-operativity and other characteristics of CO poisoning, CN- acts as a powerful cytochrome oxidase inhibitor, and antigen binding in a deep antibody cleft between two domains equipped with epitopes for antigen-binding groups explains hapten-specific immune reactions. Covalent chemical reactions with second-order (SN2) kinetics characterize Hg and Cd poisonings, the reactions of organophosphates and phosphonates with acetylcholinesterase and neurotoxic esterase and the reaction sequence whereby Paraquat accepts electrons and generates superoxide under aerobic conditions. Indirect carcinogens require cytochrome P450 activation to form DNA adducts in target-organ DNA and cause cancer, but a battery of detoxifying enzymes clustered with the P450 system must be overcome. Thus, S-metabolism competes ineffectively with target DNA for reactive vinyl chloride (VC) metabolites, epoxide hydrolase is important to the metabolism and carcinogenicity of alfatoxins and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (benzo[a]pyrene, etc.), and the non-toxic 2-naphthylhydroxylamine N-glucuronide acts as a transport form in 2-naphthylamine bladder cancer. VC liver-cancer pathogenesis is explicable in terms of the presence of the glutathione S-transferase detoxifying system in hepatocytes and its absence from the fibroblastic elements, and of the VC concentrations reaching the liver by different administrative routes. In VC carcinogenicity, chemical reactions give imidazo-cyclization products with nucleoside residues of target DNA, and in benzene leukaemia, Z

  10. Nonexistence results for relaxation spectra with compact support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Douglas, R. J.; Whittle Gruffudd, H. R.

    2016-03-01

    In this paper we consider the problem of recovering the (transformed) relaxation spectrum h from the (transformed) loss modulus g by inverting the integral equation g={{sech}}\\ast h, where \\ast denotes convolution, using Fourier transforms. We are particularly interested in establishing properties of h, having assumed that the Fourier transform of g has entire extension to the complex plane. In the setting of square integrable functions, we demonstrate that the Paley-Wiener theorem cannot be used to show the existence of non-trivial relaxation spectra with compact support. We prove a stronger result for tempered distributions: there are no non-trivial relaxation spectra with compact support. Finally we establish necessary and sufficient conditions for the relaxation spectrum h to be strictly positive definite.

  11. Galactic cosmic ray abundances and spectra behind defined shielding.

    PubMed

    Heinrich, W; Benton, E V; Wiegel, B; Zens, R; Rusch, G

    1994-10-01

    LET spectra have been measured for lunar missions and for several near Earth orbits ranging from 28 degrees to 83 degrees inclination. In some of the experiments the flux of GCR was determined separately from contributions caused by interactions in the detector material. Results of these experiments are compared to model calculations. The general agreement justifies the use of the model to calculate GCR fluxes. The magnitude of variations caused by solar modulation, geomagnetic shielding, and shielding by matter determined from calculated LET spectra is generally in agreement with experimental data. However, more detailed investigations show that there are some weak points in modeling solar modulation and shielding by material. These points are discussed in more detail. PMID:11540030

  12. Galactic cosmic ray abundances and spectra behind defined shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heinrich, W.; Benton, E. V.; Wiegel, B.; Zens, R.; Rusch, G.

    1994-01-01

    Linear Energy Transfer (LET) spectra have been measured for lunar missions and for several near Earth orbits ranging from 28 deg to 83 deg inclination. In some of the experiments the flux of Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) was determined separately from contributions caused by interactions in the detector material. Results of these experiments are compared to model calculations. The general agreement justifies the use of the model to calculate GCR fluxes. The magnitude of variations caused by solar modulation, geomagnetic shielding, and shielding by matter determined from calculated LET spectra is generally in agreement with experimental data. However, more detailed investigations show that there are some weak points in modeling solar modulation and shielding by material. These points are discussed in more detail.

  13. Computer simulation of channeling spectra with the cassis program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kling, A.; Soares, J. C.; Silva, M. F. Da

    The recently developed Monte Carlo program CASSIS for the simulation of channeling phenomena was upgraded in order to enable the generation of energy spectra for Rutherford backscattering in channeling conditions. The basic concepts of the module added are described and discussed. The feasibility of the program is demonstrated by comparing experimental and simulation results for simple bulk materials like diamond and silicon as well as for the trigonal lithium niobate lattice. For all three cases excellent agreement between experiment and calculation were obtained. Additionally spectra measured for a fully strained Si0.75Ge0.25 layers on silicon, which show interesting channeling effects, e.g. catastrophic dechanneling were successfully simulated.

  14. Analysis of TOF-SIMS spectra from fullerene compounds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, N.; Yamashita, Y.; Iida, S.; Sanada, N.; Kudo, M.

    2008-12-01

    We analyzed TOF-SIMS spectra obtained from three different size of fullerenes (C 60, C 70 and C 84) by using Ga +, Au + and Au 3+ primary ion beams and investigated the fragmentation patterns, the enhancement of secondary ion yields and the restraint of fragmentation by using cluster primary ion beams compared with monoatomic primary ion beams. In the TOS-SIMS spectra from C 70 and C 84, it was found that a fragment ion, identified as C 60+ ( m/ z = 720), showed a relatively high intensity compared with that of other fragment ions related to C 2 depletion. It was also found that the Au 3+ bombardment caused intensity enhancement of intact molecules (C 60+, C 70+ and C 84+) and restrained the fragmentation due to C 2 depletion.

  15. Detectability of minerals on desert alluvial fans using reflectance spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shipman, Hugh; Adams, John B.

    1987-01-01

    The visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of soil samples collected from desert alluvial and colluvial surfaces in the Cuprite mining district, Nevada, were analyzed. These surfaces are downslope from hydrothermally altered volcanic rocks that contain spectrally characteristic minerals such as alunite and kaolinite. Coarse fractions of the soils on the alluvial fans are mineralogically variable and express the upslope lithologies; fine fractions are remarkably similar mineralogically and spectrally in all samples because of dilution of local mineral components by regionally derived windblown dust. Theoretical models for spectral mixing and for particle-size effects were used to model the observed spectral variations. Diagnostic mineral absorption bands in the spectra of fan materials were enhanced by computationally removing the spectrum of the homogeneous fine-soil component. Results show that spectral mixing models are useful for analyzing data with high spectral resolution obtained by field and aircraft spectrometers.

  16. Variable interstellar lines in spectra of HD 73882

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galazutdinov, G.; Krełowski, J.; Beletsky, Y.; Valyavin, G.

    2013-11-01

    We report a detection of variability in interstellar absorption lines of Cai at 4227 Å and Fei at 3860 Å in very high signal-to-noise ratio (>1000) UVES and MIKE spectra of HD 73882 (NX Vel) carried out with the aid of 8-m telescope UT2 at Paranal and 6.5-m Magellan Telescope Clay at Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The spectra, acquired in 2006 January and 2012 January, respectively, clearly show that the intensity and profile shapes of the Cai and Fei lines had dramatically changed within the 6 year period. Other interstellar features, observed along the same line of sight, do not demonstrate strong changes. It is likely that a high velocity CaFe cloud obscured the star between the two observations.

  17. Temperature measurement of wood flame based on the double line method of atomic emission spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Xiaojian; Liu, Zhenhua; Sang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Aimed at the testing requirement of the transient high temperature in explosion field and the bore of barrel weapon, the temperature measurement system of double line of atomic emission spectrum was designed, the method of flame spectrum testing system were used for experimental analysis. The experimental study of wood burning spectra was done with flame spectrum testing system. The measured spectra contained atomic emission spectra of the elements K, Na, and the excitation ease of two kinds atomic emission spectra was analyzed. The temperature was calculated with two spectral lines of K I 766.5nm and 769.9nm. The results show that, compared with Na, the excitation temperature of K atomic emission spectra is lower. By double line method, the temperature of wood burning is 1040K, and error is 3.7%.

  18. Crustal geomagnetic field - Two-dimensional intermediate-wavelength spatial power spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcleod, M. G.

    1983-01-01

    Two-dimensional Fourier spatial power spectra of equivalent magnetization values are presented for a region that includes a large portion of the western United States. The magnetization values were determined by inversion of POGO satellite data, assuming a magnetic crust 40 km thick, and were located on an 11 x 10 array with 300 km grid spacing. The spectra appear to be in good agreement with values of the crustal geomagnetic field spatial power spectra given by McLeod and Coleman (1980) and with the crustal field model given by Serson and Hannaford (1957). The spectra show evidence of noise at low frequencies in the direction along the satellite orbital track (N-S). indicating that for this particular data set additional filtering would probably be desirable. These findings illustrate the value of two-dimensional spatial power spectra both for describing the geomagnetic field statistically and as a guide for diagnosing possible noise sources.

  19. Remote sensing of stream flow rates - Correlation of meander and discharge spectra

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lingenfelter, R. E.; Schubert, G.

    1973-01-01

    Results of a study of river meander patterns and discharges, in which attempt was made to correlate the discharge spectrum of a river with the river meander power spectrum determined from aerial and satellite imagery. Some significant characteristics of both the discharge and the meander spectra have been discovered. Discharge frequency spectra based on long-term records of daily streamflow are found to have an inverse power-law dependence on discharge. This is shown to reflect the short-term decay of individual floods which are found to have an inverse power-law dependence on time. Meander power spectra for a number of river reaches, digitized from aerial photography, also show significant structure, the power spectral density having an inverse power-law dependence on wave number over one or more portions of the spectrum with breaks in the spectra at characteristic wave numbers. A number of examples of typical discharge and meander spectra are shown.

  20. Raman and infrared spectra and theoretical calculations of dipicolinic acid, dinicotinic acid, and their dianions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McCann, Kathleen; Laane, Jaan

    2008-11-01

    The Raman and infrared spectra of dipicolinic acid (DPA) and dinicotinic acid (DNic) and their salts (CaDPA, Na 2DPA, and CaDNic) have been recorded and the spectra have been assigned. Ab initio and DFT calculations were carried out to predict the structures and vibrational spectra and were compared to the experimental results. Because of extensive intermolecular hydrogen bonding in the crystals of these molecules, the calculated structures and spectra for the individual molecules agree only moderately well with the experimental values. Theoretical calculations were also carried out for DPA dimers and DPA·2H 2O to better understand the intermolecular interactions. The spectra do show that DPA and its calcium salt, which are present in anthrax spores, can be distinguished from the very similar DNic and CaDNic.